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Sample records for acacia longifolia induce

  1. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...... and to the groups of amino acids and plant polymers were similar in both invaded areas and different in the non-invaded. The responses to tartaric acid, gallic acid, fumaric acid, Cistus litter, and Acacia litter were the same in long- and non-invaded areas, but different from recently invaded areas. The duration...... implications for nutrient cycling and ecosystem-level processes and for the invasibility of the system....

  2. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten;

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decreased >30%, ß-glucosaminidase activity (N mineralization index) >60% and potential nitrification >95%. Removal of plants and litter resulted in a >35% decrease in C and N content after four and half years. In recently invaded areas, ß-glucosaminidase activity and potential nitrification showed a marked...

  3. Short- and longterm impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten;

    2008-01-01

    Many coastal dune ecosystems in Portugal are invaded by the leguminous tree Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. This exotic species was first introduced over one hundred years ago in an effort to mitigate dune erosion and loss of coastal landscapes. However, since then A. longifolia has spread...... to new areas, displacing the native vegetation. These invaded ecosystems contrast with the native dune ecosystems that are typically dominated by herb and shrub communities. This study characterizes belowground changes to the native environment as a result of recent (20 y...

  4. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  5. Evaluation of Continuous VNIR-SWIR Spectra versus Narrowband Hyperspectral Indices to Discriminate the Invasive Acacia longifolia within a Mediterranean Dune Ecosystem

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    André Große-Stoltenberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral remote sensing is an effective tool to discriminate plant species, providing vast potential to trace plant invasions for ecological assessments. However, necessary baseline information for the use of remote sensing data is missing for many high-impact invaders. Furthermore, the identification of the suitable classification algorithms and spectral regions for successfully classifying species remains an open field of research. Here, we tested the separability of the invasive tree Acacia longifolia from adjacent exotic and native vegetation in a Natura 2000 protected Mediterranean dune ecosystem. We used continuous visible, near-infrared and short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR data as well as vegetation indices at the leaf and canopy level for classification, comparing five different classification algorithms. We were able to successfully distinguish A. longifolia from surrounding vegetation based on vegetation indices. At the leaf level, radial-basis function kernel Support Vector Machine (SVM and Random Forest (RF achieved both a high Sensitivity (SVM: 0.83, RF: 0.78 and a high Positive Predicted Value (PPV (0.86, 0.83. At the canopy level, RF was the classifier with an optimal balance of Sensitivity (0.75 and PPV (0.75. The most relevant vegetation indices were linked to the biochemical parameters chlorophyll, water, nitrogen, and cellulose as well as vegetation cover, which is in line with biochemical and ecophysiological properties reported for A. longifolia. Our results highlight the potential to use remote sensing as a tool for an early detection of A. longifolia in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems.

  6. Mentha longifolia protects against acetic-acid induced colitis in rats.

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    Murad, Hussam A S; Abdallah, Hossam M; Ali, Soad S

    2016-08-22

    Mentha longifolia L (Wild Mint or Habak) (ML) is used in traditional medicine in treatment of many gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to evaluate potential protecting effect of ML and its major constituent, eucalyptol, against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats, a model of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Rats were divided into ten groups (n=8) given orally for three days (mg/kg/day) the following: normal control, acetic acid-induced colitis (un-treated, positive control), vehicle (DMSO), sulfasalazine (500), ML extract (100, 500, 1000), and eucalyptol (100, 200, 400). After 24h-fasting, two ML of acetic acid (3%) was administered intrarectally. On the fifth day, serum and colonic biochemical markers, and histopathological changes were evaluated. Colitis significantly increased colonic myeloperoxidase activity and malonaldehyde level, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and malonaldehyde levels while significantly decreased colonic and serum glutathione levels. All treatments (except ML 100, ML 1000, and eucalyptol 100) significantly reversed these changes where eucalyptol (400) showed the highest activity in a dose-dependent manner. The colitis-induced histopathological changes were mild in sulfasalazine and eucalyptol 400 groups, moderate in ML 500 and eucalyptol 200 groups, and severe in ML 100, ML 1000, and eucalyptol 100 groups nearly similar to colitis-untreated rats. ML (in moderate doses) and eucalyptol (dose-dependently) exerted protective effects against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats possibly through antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties suggesting a potential benefit in treatments of IBD. To our knowledge this is the first report addressing this point. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence Of Acacia nilotica On Arsenic Induced Genotoxicity In Male and Female Mice

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    INAS S. Ghaly AND ZEINAB E. HANAFY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicine and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves on the genotoxicity of arsinic . Arsenic contamination in groundwater a global human health hazard .There is no effective remedial action of chronic arsenicsis. However, a well-nourished diet can modulate the onset of adverse health effects and delayed the effect of arsenic in drinking water. In the present work, genotoxic effects were induced by sodium arsenate through oral administration,and the protective effect of Acacia nilotica was studied. Chromosomal aberrations were more pronounced in sodium arsenate treated mice, while supplementation of Acacia nilotica with sodium arsenate reduced the incidence of the aberrations. The mean of DNA fragmentation induced by sodium arsenate was highly significant increase. However, the administration of Acacia nilotica significantly decreased DNA fragmentation induced by sodium arsenate. The mean number of sperms, were decreased significantly after treatment with sodium arsenate, while administration of Acacia nilotica increased the number of sperm in mice treated with sodium arsenate, and also decreased the percentage of sperm abnormalities induced by sodium arsenate. The outcome of study showed that Acacia nilotica has the efficiency to encounter the genotoxic effects induced by arsenic.

  8. Antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana pods extracts: in vitro and in vivo assays

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a worldwide public health issue, reaching epidemic condition in developing countries associated to chronic diseases. Oxidative damage is another side effect of obesity. Antioxidant activity from plant components regulates at some extent this imbalance. Main goal of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri (AS) and Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods extracts. Methods To evaluated antioxidant a...

  9. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

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    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  10. Natural and induced polyploidy in Acacia dealbata Link. and Acacia mangium Willd.

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    Blakesley, David; Allen, Annabel; Pellny, Till K; Roberts, Andy V

    2002-09-01

    Seeds were obtained from seven natural populations of Acacia dealbata, three natural populations of A. mangium and a seed orchard of A. mangium, representing the natural range of the two species. Polyploids were discovered in two of the seven populations of A. dealbata. The 2C DNA amount for diploid A. dealbata (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.74 pg, and for diploid A. mangium (2n = 2x = 26) was 1.30 pg. A naturally occurring tetraploid of A. dealbata (2n = 4x = 52) had a 2C DNA amount of 3.41 pg and a naturally occurring triploid genotype had a 2C DNA amount of 2.53 pg. The use of colchicine and oryzalin was investigated as a means of producing higher frequencies of tetraploids of both A. mangium and A. dealbata for incorporation into breeding programmes. Colchicine treatment gave tetraploid frequencies up to 29% for A. dealbata seedlings, and up to 18% for A. mangium seedlings. In contrast, no tetraploid A. mangium was detected following oryzalin treatment, and the low frequencies of tetraploids observed in A. dealbata could be attributed to their natural occurrence.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of Mentha longifolia in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: reduction of nitric oxide production through inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

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    Karimian, Parastoo; Kavoosi, Gholamreza; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Mentha longifolia is an aromatic plant used in flavoring and preserving foods and as an anti-inflammatory folk medicine remedy. The present study assessed the effects of M. longifolia extracts, including essential oil and crude methanol extract and its fractions (ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane), on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated J774A.1 cells using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on the cells were examined and non-cytotoxic concentrations (<0.2 mg/ml) were used to examine their effects on NO production and iNOS mRNA expression. Only the hexane fraction that contained high levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds at concentrations from 0.05-0.20 mg/ml significantly reduced NO production in LPS-stimulated cells (p < 0.001). Real-time PCR analysis indicated the ability of this fraction at the same concentrations to significantly decrease iNOS as well as TNFα mRNA expression in the cells (p < 0.001). All extracts were able to scavenge NO radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. At concentrations greater than 0.2 mg/ml, total radicals were 100% scavenged. In conclusion, M. longifolia possibly reduces NO secretion in macrophages by scavenging NO and inhibiting iNOS mRNA expression, and also decreases TNFα pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, thus showing its usefulness in the inflammatory disease process.

  12. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

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    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  13. Antidiarrheal activity and acute oral toxicity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin; Massoud Maham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae) is an annual herb that is used in the Iranian traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of M. longifolia on experimental diarrhea in a rat model. Materials and Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of essential oil of M. longifolia (20-80 mg/kg) was investigated against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats using loperamide as the standard reference drug. In acut...

  14. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  15. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

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    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  16. Chemical profile and antinociceptive efficacy of Rheedia longifolia leaf extract.

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    Santos, José A A; Calheiros, Andrea; Nascimento, Diogo D; Bérenger, Ana Luiza R; Amendoeira, Fábio C; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Figueiredo, Maria Raquel; Alves, Luiz A; Frutuoso, Valber da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Different species of the family Clusiaceae, including Rheedia longifolia, are used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. This family is largely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas of Brazil, but their chemical and pharmacological properties have been the subject of a few studies. In previous studies, we found that the aqueous extract from R. longifolia leaves presented important anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. We investigated the chemical profile of R. longifolia and characterized the pharmacological effect of different chemically identified fractions in pharmacological models of neurogenic and inflammatory nociception. The pharmacological tests showed that oral treatment with aqueous crude extract and fractions of methanol extract of R. longifolia leaf induced a significant antinociceptive effect using von Frey filaments. In addition, the most polar fractions presented antinociceptive activity in a neurogenic model of nociception (capsaicin model). The chromatographic analysis indicated the presence of bisflavonoids in the fractions obtained from the methanol extract. These results suggest that bisflavonoids found in methanol-extracted fractions are involved in the inhibition of inflammatory and neurogenic nociception. It is important that the R. longifolia aqueous extract treatment inhibited ulcer formation induced by indomethacin, suggesting an anti-ulcerogenic activity closely associated with its analgesic effect.

  17. Acacia Senegal gum exudate offers protection against cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Gado, Ali M; Daba, Mohammad H; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Abd-Allah, Adel R A

    2009-01-01

    Cylophosphamide (CYCL) is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate ,Gum Arabic (GA), for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p) with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days) through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO) bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA) and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA+CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL and/or the

  18. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

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    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  19. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

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    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  20. Antidiarrheal activity and acute oral toxicity of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae is an annual herb that is used in the Iranian traditional medicine for treating stomach and intestinal disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effect of M. longifolia on experimental diarrhea in a rat model. Materials and Methods: The antidiarrheal activity of essential oil of M. longifolia (20-80 mg/kg was investigated against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats using loperamide as the standard reference drug. In acute toxicity evaluation, rats were orally administrated with single dose of EOML at doses ranging from 10 to 1000 mg/kg. Results: EOML caused a significant (p

  1. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways

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    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H.; Salomon, Christine E.; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  2. Phytochemical Study of Swertia Longifolia

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    V Mozaffarian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swertia spp. (Gentianaceae grow widely in eastern and southern Asian countries such as Japan, China and India and are used as traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complains because of their bitter principles. Several studies have been carried out on hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective, mono amino oxidase inhibitory and antidepressant effects of these plants and it has been shown that xanthones and iridoids are responsible for their activities. Purpose of the study: In order to gain better knowledge of endemic plants of Flora Iranica, Swertia longifolia Boiss. growing in the northern parts of Iran, was subjected to phytochemical studies. Methods: Dried and milled aerial parts of the plant were extracted with petroleum ether and ethanol of which results of petroleum ether extract has been reported previously. For purification of ethanol extract, it was acidified with acetic acid and subsequently extracted with chloroform and then with n-butanol. The n-butanol extract was analyzed using different chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated components were established by means of spectroscopic techniques. Results: Four components including an iridoid glycoside (loganic acid, a secoiridoid glycoside (gentiopicroside, a secoiridoid dilactone (gentiolactone and a nucleoside (uridine were isolated from n-butanol extract of the plant. Major conclusion: Similar to other species of Swertia, iridoid and secoiridoid glycosides could be considered as major constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss.

  3. Bone Micro-CT Assessments in an Orchidectomised Rat Model Supplemented with Eurycoma longifolia

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    Rosmaliza Ramli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested that Eurycoma longifolia, a herbal plant, may have the potential to treat osteoporosis in elderly male. This study aimed to determine the effects of Eurycoma longifolia supplementation on the trabecular bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats (androgen-deficient osteoporosis model. Forty-eight-aged (10–12 months old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups of sham-operated (SHAM, orchidectomised control (ORX, orchidectomised + 7 mg/rat testosterone enanthate (TEN and orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 30 mg/kg (EL30, orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 60 mg/kg (EL60, orchidectomised + Eurycoma longifolia 90 mg/kg (EL90. Rats were euthanized following six weeks of treatment. The left femora were used to measure the trabecular bone microarchitecture using micro-CT. Orchidectomy significantly decreased connectivity density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number compared to the SHAM group. Testosterone replacement reversed all the orchidectomy-induced changes in the micro-CT parameters. EL at 30 and 60 mg/kg rat worsened the trabecular bone connectivity density and trabecular separation parameters of orchidectomised rats. EL at 90 mg/kg rat preserved the bone volume. High dose of EL (90 mg/kg may have potential in preserving the bone microarchitecture of orchidectomised rats, but lower doses may further worsen the osteoporotic changes.

  4. Protective Effect of Acacia nilotica (L. against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatocellular Damage in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential biological functions of A. nilotica have long been described in traditional system of medicine. However, the protective effect of A. nilotica on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is still unknown. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of A. nilotica against acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. The biochemical liver functional tests Alanine transaminase (ALT, Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, total protein, oxidative stress test (Lipid peroxidation, antioxidant parameter glutathione (GSH, and histopathological changes were examined. Our results show that the pretreatment with A. nilotica (250 mg/kg·bw orally revealed attenuation of serum activities of ALT, AST, ALP, liver weight, and total bilirubin levels that were enhanced by administration of acetaminophen. Further, pretreatment with extract elevated the total protein and GSH level and decreased the level of LPO. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by acetaminophen. The present study undoubtedly provides a proof that hepatoprotective action of A. nilotica extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress in acetaminophen-induced hepatic damage in rat model.

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous extract of Rheedia longifolia Planch & Triana

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    Valber da Silva Frutuoso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheedia longifolia Planch et Triana belongs to the Clusiaceae family. This plant is widely distributed in Brazil, but its chemical and pharmacological properties have not yet been studied. We report here that leaves aqueous extract of R. longifolia (LAE shows analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of this extract dose-dependently inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid in mice. The analgesic effect and the duration of action were similar to those observed with sodium diclofenac, a classical non-steroidal analgesic. In addition to the effect seen in the abdominal constriction model, LAE was also able to inhibit the hyperalgesia induced by lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria (LPS in rats. We also found that R. longifolia LAE inhibited an inflammatory reaction induced by LPS in the pleural cavity of mice. Acute toxicity was evaluated in mice treated with the extract for seven days with 50 mg/kg/day. Neither death, nor alterations in weight, blood leukocyte counts or hematocrit were noted. Our results suggest that aqueous extract from R. longifolia leaves has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity with minimal toxicity and are therefore endowed with a potential for pharmacological control of pain and inflammation.

  6. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Nefatti, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Leila, Chekir-Ghedira

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress.

  7. New oleanene triterpenoid saponins from Madhuca longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Arihara, S; Pal, B C; Roy, S K; Matsumura, E; Katayama, S

    2000-12-01

    Four new oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, madlongisides A-D (1-4), were isolated from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive NMR experiments and chemical methods. Also obtained in this investigation were the known compounds mimusopside A, Mi-saponins A, B, and C, and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl protobassic acid.

  8. Determination of antimutagenic properties of apigenin-7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia with yeast DEL assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Adiguzel, Ahmet; Bal, Tugba; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Dermirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2013-07-01

    Lamiaceae is an important plant family that has been investigated for its medicinal properties due to its large amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Flavonoids have been shown to have antioxidant and antimutagenic activities in different test systems, but their certain mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside, a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. ssp. longifolia. The possible antimutagenic potential of apigenin 7-O-rutinoside (A7R) was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) and acridine (AC) in a eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS112. The results showed that A7R has different inhibition rates against EMS and AC-induced mutagenicity. Thus, the properties of A7R are of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial for reducing the risk of reactive oxygen species-related diseases.

  9. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

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    Subramanion L. Jothy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats.

  10. Evaluation of the Genotoxic Potential against H2O2-Radical-Mediated DNA Damage and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Extract of Polyalthia longifolia Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothy, Subramanion L.; Chen, Yeng; Kanwar, Jagat R.; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been used in medicoculturally diverse countries around the world, where it is a part of a time-honoured tradition that is respected even today. Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract has been previously reported as an efficient antioxidant in vitro. Hence, the genotoxic effects of P. longifolia leaf were investigated by using plasmid relation, comet, and Allium cepa assay. In the presence of  ∙OH radicals, the DNA in supercoil was start nicked into open circular form, which is the product of the single-stranded cleavage of supercoil DNA and quantified as fragmented separate bands on agarose gel in plasmid relation assay. In the plasmid relation and comet assay, the P. longifolia leaf extract exhibited strong inhibitory effects against H2O2-mediated DNA damage. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed in the Allium cepa assay. The abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges, and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at the interphase. The results of Allium cepa assay confirmed that the methanol extracts of P. longifolia exerted no significant genotoxic or mitodepressive effects at 100 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that P. longifolia leaf extract has a beneficial effect against oxidative DNA damage. This experiment is the first report for the protective effect of P. longifolia on DNA damage-induced by hydroxyl radicals. Additionally in acute oral toxicity study, female rats were treated at 5000 mg/kg body weight of P. longifolia leaf extract and observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. P. longifolia leaf extract did not produce any treatment-related toxic effects in rats. PMID:23878610

  11. Neuropharmcological potential of methanolic extract and a triterpene isolated from Madhuca longifolia L leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganakal, Triveni S; Ahmed, Md Liyakhat; Swamy, Paramjyothi

    2012-12-01

    The methanolic extract of M. longifolia (MLME) and a compound a triterpene, derivative of madhucic acid (dMA) isolated from the leaves of M. longifolia, were investigated for their possible neuropharmacological activities in mice using phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, spontaneous motor activity, marble burying test and Eddy's hot plate method. LD50 for MLME and dMA were 100 and 10 mg/kg of body weight, respectively. Both MLME and dMA (10 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg oral route respectively) exhibited significant increase in phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, greater reduction in spontaneous motor activity and marble burying activity, confirming their sedative nature. Both MLME and dMA also exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity in experimental animals. The results suggest that both MLME and dMA have CNS depressant activity in mice.

  12. Australian blackwood acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samraj, P.; Chinnamani, S.

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  13. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokaberinejad Roshanak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  14. Cytotoxic withanolide constituents of Physalis longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaping; Samadi, Abbas K; Gallagher, Robert J; Araya, Juan J; Tong, Xiaoqin; Day, Victor W; Cohen, Mark S; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2011-12-27

    Fourteen new withanolides, 1-14, named withalongolides A-N, respectively, were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis longifolia together with eight known compounds (15-22). The structures of compounds 1-14 were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques and chemical methods. In addition, the structures of withanolides 1, 2, 3, and 6 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Using a MTS viability assay, eight withanolides (1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 15, 16, and 19) and four acetylated derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b) showed potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC₅₀ values in the range between 0.067 and 9.3 μM.

  15. Micropropagation of Madhuca longifolia (Koenig) MacBride var. latifolia Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, G R; Das, P

    1993-07-01

    Bud break and multiple shoots were induced in apical and axillary meristems derived from 10-d old seedlings of Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) singly or in combinatiobn with 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Excised shoots were rooted on half-strength MS with IBA (1.0 mg/l) after 18d of culture. Regenerated plantlets were acclimatized and successfully transferred to soil.

  16. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

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    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  17. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Jusoh; Farawahida Abu Zaharin; Nur Syazni Adam

    2013-01-01

    Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of secon...

  18. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  19. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FRUIT-SEEDS MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA (KOENIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirantan S Chakma

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out to study the antibacterial activity of the Madhuca longifolia(Koenig in gram positive and gram negative organism.. Antimicrobial activity of the acetone and aqueous extracts of M.longifolia were determined against various pathogenic bacteria. The extracts were tested against various bacteria like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginos, .E.coli by disk diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of both extracts were determined. It is concluded that acetone extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity. The study lends scientific support for it’s use in folk medicine.

  1. Mentha Longifolia Syrup in Secondary Amenorrhea: a Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshanak Mokaberinejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001. The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001. No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup.ConclusionIn conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  2. Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day) for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks), the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no) of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p < 0.001). The regularity of bleeding throughout the study was markedly better in the drug group compared with those given placebo (33.3% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.001). No notable complication or side effect was reported in relation to Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. PMID

  3. Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of α-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS.

  4. A review on safety and efficacy of products containing Longifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hafeez Ahmad Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (commonly called tongkat ali is a flowering plant in the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, and, to a lesser extent, Thailand, Vietnam and also Laos. The roots extract of E. longifolia, is a well-known traditional herbal medicine in Asia used for many purposes such as sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. It is very important to conserve this valuable medicinal plant for the health benefit of future generations. The purpose of this review article is to evaluate and summarize the existing literatures regarding the efficacy and safety of products which contain E. longifolia as its main ingredient. In summary, based on the literature evaluated in this review article, products which contain tongkat ali showed a clinical benefit on improving erectile dysfunction as well as a good safety profile. We recommend consumers to check the level of the bioactive compound “eurycomanone” as their guide before choosing any E. longifolia product.

  5. Chlorinated Iridoid Glucosides from Veronica longifolia and their Antioxidant Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Harput, U. Sebnem;

    2010-01-01

    From Veronica longifolia were isolated three chlorinated iridoid glucosides, namely asystasioside E (6) and its 6-O-esters 6a and 6b, named longifoliosides A and B, respectively. The structures of 6a and 6b were proved by analysis of their spectroscopic data and by conversion to the catalpol este...

  6. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  7. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular markers across ... belt were tested in comparison with samples of Acacia mellifera and Acacia leata. ... According to the cluster analysis two main clusters were obtained in which A.

  8. Dispersal and predation in alien Acacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, P M

    1990-06-01

    I investigated seed removal in the litter layer of alien Acacia stands at bimonthly intervals throughout one year. Both ants (dispersers) and rodents (predators) removed significant quantities of seeds and may compete for seeds in low density Acacia stands. Seed removal from depots was greatest prior to seed-fall (Sept.-Nov.) and lowest during seed-fall (Jan.-Mar.). As rodents may consume a large proportion of the annual seed production at low Acacia densities, I propose that ants have played a critical role in accumulating Acacia seed banks.

  9. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  10. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

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    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  11. Evaluation of the potency activity of aphrodisiac in Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Ikeda, S; Gan, E K

    2001-08-01

    The butanol, methanol, water and chloroform extracts of the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied using various tests of potency of treated male rats. The results showed that E. longifolia produced a dose-dependent, recurrent and significant increase in the episodes of penile reflexes as evidenced by increases in quick flips, long flips and erections of the treated male rats during the 30 min observation period. These results provide further evidence that E. longifolia increases the aphrodisiac potency activity in treated animals.

  12. Antimicrobial potentials of Mentha longifolia by disc diffusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakht, Jehan; Shaheen, Salma; Shafi, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted for the assessment of the antimicrobial activities of different solvents extracted samples from the aerial parts of Mentha longifolia against ten microbial species through the disc diffusion assay using two different concentrations of 1 and 2 mg disc1. All extracts from Mentha longifolia showed different ranges of antimicrobial activities. Butanol and ethyl acetate fractions showed inhibitory activities against all microbial species. Methanol fraction showed inhibitory effects against all the tested microbial species except Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi was also not controlled by methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracted samples. The most susceptible gram positive bacteria was Bacillus atropheus and Bacillus subtilis and were inhibited by all extracts and Staphylococus aureus was least susceptible among gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most susceptible gram negative bacterium and Salmonella typhi was highly resistant among the gram negative bacteria. Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumefaciene were susceptible to all fractions. All fractions showed antifungal activities against Candida albicans except water extracted samples.

  13. The chemistry, pharmacologic, and therapeutic applications of Polyalthia longifolia

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    K V Katkar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to lead a disease-free, healthy life. They play a vital role in preserving our health. India is one of the most medicoculturally diverse countries in the world, where the medicinal plant sector is part of a time-honored tradition that is respected even today. Medicinal plants are believed to be much safer and proved as elixir in the treatment of various ailments. In our country, more than 2000 medicinal plants are recognized. Polyalthia longifolia cv. pendula (Annonaceae is native to the drier regions of India and is locally known as "Ashoka" and is commonly cultivated in Pakistan and Sri Lanka. This plant is used as an antipyretic agent in indigenous systems of medicine. Pharmacologic studies on the bark and leaves of this plant show effective antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic function, antiulcer activity, hypoglycemic activity, and hypotensive effect. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacologic properties of P. longifolia in an attempt to provide a direction for further research.

  14. A taxonomic re-assessment of Ammocharis herrei and Cybistetes longifolia (Amaryllideae: Amaryllidaceae

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    D. A. Snijman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The infructescence of the poorly known Ammocharis herrei F.M. Leight. is similar to that which is diagnostic for Cybistetes longifolia (L. Milne-Redh. & Schweick. In the absence of distinct morphological differences A. herrei is placed into synonymy under C. longifolia. Plants of the amplified C.  longifolia have fewer, large seeds in Namaqualand and the Richtersveld and smaller, more numerous seeds in the Western Cape. This pattern is postulated to reflect divergent strategies of resource allocation in different habitats. It is suggested that the infructescence of C.  longifolia. a highly derived structure suited to tumbling, evolved from the unspecialised condition in Ammocharis as an adaptation to the high winds of southwestern Africa.

  15. A taxonomic re-assessment of Ammocharis herrei and Cybistetes longifolia (Amaryllideae: Amaryllidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The infructescence of the poorly known Ammocharis herrei F.M. Leight. is similar to that which is diagnostic for Cybistetes longifolia (L. Milne-Redh. & Schweick. In the absence of distinct morphological differences A. herrei is placed into synonymy under C. longifolia. Plants of the amplified C.  longifolia have fewer, large seeds in Namaqualand and the Richtersveld and smaller, more numerous seeds in the Western Cape. This pattern is postulated to reflect divergent strategies of resource allocation in different habitats. It is suggested that the infructescence of C.  longifolia. a highly derived structure suited to tumbling, evolved from the unspecialised condition in Ammocharis as an adaptation to the high winds of southwestern Africa.

  16. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia

    2016-11-01

    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  17. Isolation of a flavonoid, apigenin 7-O-glucoside, from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia and its genotoxic potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulluce, Medine; Orhan, Furkan; Yanmis, Derya; Arasoglu, Tulin; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Demirezer, Lutfiye Omur

    2015-09-01

    Mentha is a medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family, which is widely used in food, flavor, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. Recently, it has been found that the use of Mentha as a pharmaceutical source is based on its phytochemical constituents that have far been identified as tannins, saponins, phenolic acids and flavonoids. This study was designed to evaluate the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of apigenin 7-O-glucoside (A7G), a flavonoid isolated from Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson subspecies longifolia (ML). The possible antimutagenic potential of A7G was examined against mutagens ethyl methanesulfonate and acridine in an eukaryotic cell system Saccharomyces cerevisiae and sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535 and 9-aminoacridine in S. typhimurium TA1537. According to our findings, any concentrations of the A7G used did not show mutagenic activity but exerted strong antimutagenic activities at tested concentrations. The inhibition rates for the Ames test ranged from 27.2% (S. typhimurium TA1535: 0.4 μM/plate) to 91.1% (S. typhimurium TA1537: 0.2 μM/plate) and for the yeast deletion assay from 4% to 57.7%. This genotoxicological study suggests that a flavonoid from ML owing to antimutagenic properties is of great pharmacological importance and might be beneficial to industries producing food additives, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals products.

  18. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

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    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  19. Arabinogalactan Proteins from Baobab and Acacia Seeds Influence Innate Immunity of Human Keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Abderrakib; Despres, Julie; Benard, Magalie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, David; Rihouey, Christophe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité; Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure

    2016-10-13

    Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However little is currently known regarding their potential activity towards skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes. These data suggest that plant AGP, already known to control plant defensive processes, could also modulate skin innate immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Germination strategy of the East African savanna tree Acacia tortilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loth, P.E.; Boer, de W.F.; Heitkönig, I.M.A.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2005-01-01

    Germination of Acacia tortilis seeds strongly depends on micro-site conditions. In Lake Manyara National Park, Tanzania, Acacia tortilis occurs abundantly in recently abandoned arable fields and in elephant-mediated gaps in acacia woodland, but does not regenerate in grass swards or beneath

  1. Propiedades fisicoquímicas y funcionales de las gomas de acacia cochliacantha y acacia farnesiana.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibaja Hernández, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Acacia cochliacantha y Acacia farnesiana son recursos bióticos poco estudiados que presentan gomosis. El presente trabajo aporta conocimiento de las características fisicoquímicas, comportamiento reológico y capacidad de emulsión de las gomas de árboles de A. cochliacantha y A. farnesiana colectadas en la selva baja caducifolia de Morelos, México. Las gomas de Prosopis laevigata y Acacia senegal se usaron como referentes. Las plantas de A. cochliacantha crecen en suelos del tipo Leptosol rend...

  2. First Report of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Root Extract Causing Relaxation of Aortic Rings in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Although Eurycoma longifolia has been studied for erectile function, the blood pressure- (BP-) lowering effect has yet to be verified. Hence, this study aims at investigating the BP-lowering properties of the plant with a view to develop an antihypertensive agent that could also preserve erectile function. Ethanolic root extract was partitioned by hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The DCM fraction, found to be potent in relaxing phenylephrine- (PE-) precontracted rat aortic rings, was further purified by column chromatography. Subfraction DCM-II, being the most active in relaxing aortae, was studied for effects on the renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems in aortic rings. The effect of DCM-II on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also evaluated in vitro. Results showed that DCM-II reduced (p < 0.05) the contractions evoked by angiotensin I and angiotensin II (Ang II). In PE-precontracted rings treated with DCM-II, the Ang II-induced contraction was attenuated (p < 0.05) while bradykinin- (BK-) induced relaxation enhanced (p < 0.001). In vitro, DCM-II inhibited (p < 0.001) the activity of ACE. These data demonstrate that the vasodilatory effect of DCM-II appears to be mediated via inhibition of Ang II type 1 receptor and ACE as well as enhancement of Ang II type 2 receptor activation and BK activity.

  3. Host plant use by competing Acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanie Kautz; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Johannes Kroiss; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Sascha Eilmus; Erhard Strohm; Martin Heil

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavior...

  4. Use of acacia leaf (Acacia mangium as a protein source in beef rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saengkaew, B.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dry acacia (Acacia mangium leaf as protein source in beef ration was investigated using twelve nine month to two year old Brahman steers. Randomized complete block design with three blocks and four treatments was used for this study. Body weight of the Brahman steers was used as blocks while the percentage of dry acacia leaf in concentrate feed at 0, 10, 20 and 30 was used as treatment groups. The Brahman steers were fed for ninety days. The results revealed that average body weight gain, growth rate, and feed conversion ratio of Brahman steers receiving the concentrate feed with different levels of dry acacia leaf were not significantly different (P>0.05. The Brahman steers that received the percentage of dry acacia leaf in concentrate feed at 0, 10, 20 and 30 had average body weight gains of 95.28, 100.00, 82.89 and 93.32 kg/head while average growth rates were 1.06, 1.11, 0.92 and 1.04 kg/head/day, feed conversion ratios were 10.79, 10.01, 10.98 and 9.95, and the total feed cost/kg weight gain were 33.18, 32.11, 30.31 and 28.25 Baht, respectively. Thus, it is possible to use dry acacia leaf up to 30 percent in concentrate feed.

  5. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

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    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia, habitat preference, distribution pattern, root weight

  6. Maximizing seed germination in two Acacia species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akram Kiani Abari; Mohammad Hoseini Nasr; Mohammad Hodjati; Dariush Bayat; Morteza Radmehr

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of disturbed land,particularly in arid environment,is often hindered by low seedling establishment.Information on seed biology and germination cues of valuable species is lacking.We investigated seed germination of two Acacia species (Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne and Acacia oerfota (Forssk) schweinf),required for nitrogen fixation and rehabilitation of arid and semi-arid areas.(four pre-germination seed treatments were applied in order to find the best treatment in germinating acacia species.The medium was L2 and three replicates were used.Seeds pre-treated with sand paper and also with H2SO4 and then H2O2 had the highest germination percentage in both species.The lowest germination percentage resulted from soaking seeds in water for 48 h followed by soaking in H2SO4 for A.oerfota and from soaking in water for 24 h for A.tortilis.Because the use of sand paper is difficult and time consuming,we recommend pre-treatment of A.tortilis and A.oerfota seeds with H2SO4 and H2O2 before planting.Our study results are significant for conservation agencies with an interest in optimizing germination in arid zones for rehabilitation and reforestation.

  7. PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING OF ISOLATED COMPOUND FROM MADHUKA LONGIFOLIA SEEDS GIVES SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC EFFECT

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    Chirantan S. Chakma

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to assess the analgesic effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of isolated compound from M.longifolia seeds in rats and mice model. All three animal groups were administered the aq. and alc.ext of M.longifolia at a dose of 4 mg to 64 mg/kg body weight. The standard drug diclofenac 5 mg/kg b.w is used in three screening method. The paw licking time, tail withdrawal time and chemical writhings in mice both aq. and alc. extracts of M.longifolia prevents significant dose dependent anti-nociceptive effect. Diclofenac 5 mg/kg failed to alter significantly the antinociceptive effect of 16 to 32 mg of both extracts or the effect on chemical assay.

  8. Three New Clerodane Diterpenes from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula

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    Tung-Ho Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Three new clerodane diterpenes, (4→2-abeo-cleroda-2,13E-dien-2,14-dioic acid (1, (4→2-abeo-2,13-diformyl-cleroda-2,13E-dien-14-oic acid (2, and 16(R&S- methoxycleroda-4(18,13-dien-15,16-olide (3, were isolated from the unripe fruit of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula (Annonaceae together with five known compounds (4–8. The structures of all isolates were determined by spectroscopic analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the isolates was evaluated by testing their inhibitory effect on NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Among the isolated compounds, 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13-dien-15,16-olide (6 and 16-oxocleroda-3,13-dien-15-oic acid (7 showed promising NO inhibitory activity at 10 µg/mL, with 81.1% and 86.3%, inhibition, respectively.

  9. PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF WATER-ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MENTHA LONGIFOLIA L

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    O. A. Grebennikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents data about qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in water-ethanol extract of perspective clone of Mentha longifolia L. of NBE-NSC selection. Phenolic substances content in water-ethanol extract amounted to 3003.3 mg/100g. 13 components were determined in the extract. The extract contains caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid isomers, rosmarinic acid and glycosides of luteolin. Rosmarinic acid (50.2% prevails among phenolic substances of Mentha longifolia extract. The conclusion is that the use of this extract is possible to create products with high biological value

  10. Variabilidad fenotípica de un endemismo localizado en islas ecológicas: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia (Lentibulariaceae

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    García, M. B.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Variation in some floral traits of Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia, a chasmophilous endemism of central Pyrenees, is examined. The especies shows a considerable intra and interpoblational phenotypic variability for all traits studied (peduncle, spur and lower lip corolla length, and floral differences between populations are not associated with their geographical distances. Ecological and historical factors seems to be more important to understand their restricted distribution than genetic or reproductive ones.

    [es] En el presente trabajo se examina la variabilidad de algunos caracteres florales en un endemismo casmófito del Pirineo central: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia. La especie presenta una notable variabilidad fenotípica intra e interpoblacional para los tres caracteres examinados (longitud del pedúnculo, del espolón y del labio Inferior de la corola, y las diferencias entre poblaciones no están relacionadas con las distancias geográficas que las separan. Los factores ecológicos e históricos deben ser más responsables de su restringida distribución actual que los de tipo genético o reproductivo.
    [fr] Dans ce travail, nous étudions la variabilité de quelques caractères floraux d'une plante endémique rupicole des Pyrénées centrales: Pinguicula longifolia subsp. longifolia. Pour les trois caractères examinés (longueur du pédoncule floral, du éperon et du lèvre Inférieur de la corolle, cette espèce montre une variabilité phénotypique entre populations et dans chaque population; d'ailleurs, les différences entre les populations ne sont pas en rapport avec les distances géographiques qui les séparent. Les facteurs écologiques et historiques semblent mieux expliquer sa repart très restreinte que d'autres facteurs génétiques ou reproductifs.

  11. Contraste en la eficiencia defensiva de dos especies de hormigas del género Pseudomyrmex sobre plantas de Acacia cornigera (Parte III)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Galván, Ingrid R.; López Acosta, Juan Carlos; Rico-Gray, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    One of the most emblematic mutualistic interactions in the Neotropics is that between Acacia plants and Pseudomyrmex ants. In his first studies, D. H. JANZEN (1969) related the functional defensive system by the ants to allelopathic chemical agents, thus this system can be associated to induced defensive systems. Our study system, the interaction between Acacia cornigera and two Pseudomyrmex species (P. gracilis and P. ferrugineus), includes ant colonization patterns and plant behavior after ...

  12. In vitro effect of condensed tannin extract from acacia (Acacia mearnsii) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minho, Alessandro P; Bueno, Ives Cláudio Da S; Gennari, Solange Maria; Jackson, Frank; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of condensed tannin extract from acacia on the feeding of first-stage larvae (L1) of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. The experiment was developed such that the inhibition of feeding for each of the nematode species could be evaluated. L1 recovered from fecal samples from a donor with monospecific infection was incubated in several dilutions of acacia extract (AE). The LD50 was determined for the three species of nematodes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added to all dilutions of AE to inactivate the condensed tannins (CT) from acacia and to confirm their effects on L1. The impact of CT on larval feeding inhibition was detected for all the species of nematodes (H. contortus, T. colubriformis and T. circumcincta). There were differences between the aqueouswater control and CT treated groups (P nematodes studied could be used as an alternative means for controlling nematodes in sheep.

  13. Minor withanolides of Physalis longifolia: structure and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaping; Motiwala, Hashim; Samadi, Abbas; Day, Victor; Aubé, Jeffrey; Cohen, Mark; Kindscher, Kelly; Gollapudi, Rao; Timmermann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In our recent publication on bioactive guided isolation of compounds from Physalis longifolia (Solanaceae) novel anti-proliferative agents withalongolides A (4) and B (5), and their highly cytotoxic analogues, withalongolide A 4,19,27-triacetate (4a) and withalongolide B 4,19-diacetate (5a) were elucidated. In this study, the two lead compounds (4, 5) were re-isolated in gram quantities for the purpose of further analogue preparation and in vivo testing that would continue to probe structure-activity relationships. During this process, two additional withanolides, named withalongolides O (1) and P (2), were elucidated. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques with 1 being subsequently confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Utilizing a MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] viability assay, withalongolide O (1) and its 4,7-diaceatate (1a), both containing the functionalities of Δ(2)-1-oxo- in A ring, a 5β,6β-epoxy in B ring, and a lactone ring in the nine-carbon side chain, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (JMAR and MDA-1986), melanoma (B16F10 and SKMEL-28), and normal fetal lung fibroblast (MRC-5) cells with IC(50) values in the range between 0.15 and 2.95 µM. In addition, the previously reported α orientation of 7-acetate group in acnistins C and D should be revised to the β orientation on the basis of NMR data comparison.

  14. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-02

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible.

  15. Verschuivingen in het voorkomen van Veronica longifolia L., in het bijzonder in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of Veronica longifolia in the Netherlands is shifting in 3 respects: / its area tends to expand in southwestern direction; 2 the species is becoming rarer along the rivers from which it has been known of old and, on the other hand, is spreading along some little-used canals; 3 V. long

  16. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.

  17. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  18. Polygynous supercolonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, an inferior colony founder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, S; Pauls, S U; Ballhorn, D J; Lumbsch, H T; Heil, M

    2009-12-01

    In ant-plant protection mutualisms, plants provide nesting space and nutrition to defending ants. Several plant-ants are polygynous. Possessing more than one queen per colony can reduce nestmate relatedness and consequently the inclusive fitness of workers. Here, we investigated the colony structure of the obligate acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, which competes for nesting space with several congeneric and sympatric species. Pseudomyrmex peperi had a lower colony founding success than its congeners and thus, appears to be competitively inferior during the early stages of colony development. Aggression assays showed that P. peperi establishes distinct, but highly polygynous supercolonies, which can inhabit large clusters of host trees. Analysing queens, workers, males and virgin queens from two supercolonies with eight polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a maximum of three alleles per locus within a colony and, thus, high relatedness among nestmates. Colonies had probably been founded by one singly mated queen and supercolonies resulted from intranidal mating among colony-derived males and daughter queens. This strategy allows colonies to grow by budding and to occupy individual plant clusters for time spans that are longer than an individual queen's life. Ancestral states reconstruction indicated that polygyny represents the derived state within obligate acacia-ants. We suggest that the extreme polygyny of Pseudomyrmex peperi, which is achieved by intranidal mating and thereby maintains high nestmate relatedness, might play an important role for species coexistence in a dynamic and competitive habitat.

  19. A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT

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    Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

  20. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  1. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase soy broth

  2. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico.

  3. Comparison of total phenolic and antioxidant activity of different Mentha spicata and M. longifolia accessions

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    Mehrdad Abootalebian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated total phenolic and antioxidant activity of five Iranian mint accessions from two different species, Mentha spicata L. (Mzin1, Mzin3 and Mzin8 and M. longifolia L. (Mzin5 and Mzin6. The content of total phenolics (mg tannic acid equivalent per g dry weight of the sample differed from 50.1 in Mzin3 to 67.2 in Mzin6. The highest percent radical scavenging activity was observed with Mzin6 at all concentrations studied (50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm. Peroxide value of sunflower oil containing Mzin5 and Mzin6 was the lowest among the mint accessions and almost equivalent to that of butylated hydroxytoluene at 200 ppm concentration. In overall, M. longifolia was superior to M. spicata, as determined by two model systems, indicating its potential use as a natural source of dietary antioxidant.

  4. Analysis of Major Withanolides in Physalis longifolia Nutt. by HPLC-PDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Kindscher, Kelly; Gallagher, Robert J; Zhang, Huaping; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2015-08-01

    An analytical method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of three anti-proliferative withanolides [withalongolide A ( 1: ), withaferin A ( 2: ) and withalongolide B ( 3: )] present in the aboveground biomass of the long-leaf groundcherry, Physalis longifolia. This method was achieved by biomass extraction followed by chromatographic separation on C18 column eluted with a gradient acetonitrile-water mobile phase. Calibration curves produced satisfactory linear regression (r(2) > 0.9995) for each examined sample. The method was also validated for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and quantification. Such an approach is applicable for the rapid detection and quantitative assessment of withanolides in various P. longifolia accessions.

  5. Aphrodisiac evaluation in non-copulator male rats after chronic administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, H H; Ngai, T H

    2001-08-01

    The aphrodisiac effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (0.5 g/kg) was evaluated in noncopulator male rats using an electrical cage. Fractions of E. longifolia Jack decreased the hesitation time of noncopulator male rats, throughout the investigation period. Furthermore, it possessed a transient increase in the percentage of the male rats responding to the right choice, more than 50% of the male rats scored "right choice" after 3 weeks post-treatment and the effect became more prominent after 8 weeks post-treatment (only 40-50% of the control male rats responded to the right choice) using the electrical copulation cage. Hence, this study lends further support to the use of the plant by indigenous populations as a traditional medicine for its aphrodisiac property.

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of isolated constituents from the bark of Polyalthia longifolia

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    Bose Sankhadip

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Polyalthia longifolia is traditionally reputed to lower blood pressure, stimulate respiration and help in fever and skin diseases, diabetes, hypertension and vitiated conditions of vata and pitta. Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts of the bark of Polyalthia longifolia showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids and carbohydrates. An attempt has been made to isolate flavonoids and perform antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the same. We carried out DPPH radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, metal chelating activity and reducing power activity in antioxidant activity. In antimicrobial activity, we used six microorganisms, which included two Gram positive, two Gram negative bacteria and two fungi. Both the isolated flavonoids exhibited a concentration-dependant free radical scavenging capacity. Isolated compounds showed promising results against various micro-organisms in comparison with standard drugs (Penicillin, Gentamicin and Ketoconazol.

  7. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism) is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL), can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT....

  8. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation.

  9. Symbiotic and taxonomic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Salif; Willems, Anne; de Lajudie, Philippe; Roche, Philippe; Jeder, Habib; Quatrini, Paola; Neyra, Marc; Ferro, Myriam; Promé, Jean-Claude; Gillis, Monique; Boivin-Masson, Catherine; Lorquin, Jean

    2002-04-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana from various sites in the North and South of Sahara was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. On the basis of whole cell protein (SDS-PAGE) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, most of the strains were found to belong to the Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium genera where they may represent several different genospecies. Despite their chromosomal diversity, most A. tortilis Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium symbionts exhibited very similar symbiotic characters. Nodulation tests showed that the strains belong to the Acacia-Leucaena-Prosopis nodulation group, although mainly forming non-fixing nodules on species other than A. tortilis. Most of the strains tested responded similarly to flavonoid nod gene inducers, as estimated by using heterologous nodA-lacZ fusions. Thin layer chromatography analysis of the Nod factors synthesized by overproducing strains showed that most of the strains exhibited similar profiles. The structures of Nod factors produced by four different Sinorhizobium sp. strains were determined and found to be similar to other Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulating rhizobia of the Sinorhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Rhizobium branch. They are chitopentamers, N-methylated and N-acylated by common fatty acids at the terminal non reducing sugar. The molecules can also be 6-O sulfated at the reducing end and carbamoylated at the non reducing end. The phylogenetic analysis of available NodA sequences, including new sequences from A. tortilis strains, confirmed the clustering of the NodA sequences of members of the Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulation group.

  10. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. essential oil

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    Haris Nikšić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study describes the antimicrobial activity and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC of essential oil from Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. Aim of this study to investigate the quality, antimicrobial andantioxidant activity of wild species Mentha longifolia essential oil from Bosnia and Herzegovina.Methods: The chemical profi le of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 6bacterial strains. RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH.Results: The main constituents of the essential oil of M. longifoliae folium were oxygenated monoterpenes,piperitone oxide (63.58% and 1,8-cineole (12.03%. Essential oil exhibited very strong antibacterial activity.The most important antibacterial activity essential oil was expressed on Gram negative strains: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aerginosa and Salmonella enterica. subsp.enterica serotype ABONY. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a RSC. Investigated essential oil was able to reduce DPPH radicals into the neutral DPPHH form (IC50=10.5 μg/ml and this activity was dose –dependent.Conclusion: The study revealed signifi cant antimicrobial activity of the investigated essential oil. The examined oil exhibited high RSC, which was found to be in correlation to the content of mainly monoterpeneketones and aldehydes. These results indicate that essential oils could serve as safe antioxidant and antiseptic supplements in pharmaceuticals.

  11. Quantitative estimation of pulegone in Mentha longifolia growing in Saudi Arabia. Is it safe to use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2016-03-01

    Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit.

  12. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

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    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  13. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in...). Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  14. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  15. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  16. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  17. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kautz

    Full Text Available Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  18. Occurrence of antioxidant and radical scavenging proanthocyanidins from the Indian minor spice nagkesar (Mammea longifolia planch and triana syn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lingamallu Jagan Mohan; Yada, Hiroshi; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yoshida, Mitsuru

    2004-01-02

    Nagkesar (buds of Mammea longifolia) is extensively used in culinary preparations especially in spice blend in India. Previously thirteen compounds were identified from the medium polar fractions of methanol extract of buds of M. longifolia. In continuation of the study, the polar fraction of methanol extract exhibited stronger antioxidative and radical scavenging activities. An attempt was made to separate and identify the active compounds and found that those were proanthocyanidin oligomers with mean degree of polymerisation ranges from 2 to 10. This is the first report to indicate that Mammea buds contain antioxidant and radical scavenging procyanidin oligomers.

  19. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants.

  20. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  1. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Nor Nasriah; Osman, Rozita; Juahir, Hafizan; Saim, Norashikin

    2016-04-30

    E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB) and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL(-1) (r² = 0.997) with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules). Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA), and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.

  2. Development of Chromatographic Fingerprints of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali Roots Using Online Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography (SPE-LC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Nasriah Zaini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available E. longifolia is attracting interest due to its pharmacological properties and pro-vitality effects. In this study, an online SPE-LC approach using polystyrene divinyl benzene (PSDVB and C18 columns was developed in obtaining chromatographic fingerprints of E. longifolia. E. longifolia root samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE technique prior to online SPE-LC. The effects of mobile phase compositions and column switching time on the chromatographic fingerprint were optimized. Validation of the developed method was studied based on eurycomanone. Linearity was in the range of 5 to 50 µg∙mL−1 (r2 = 0.997 with 3.2% relative standard deviation of peak area. The developed method was used to analyze 14 E. longifolia root samples and 10 products (capsules. Selected chemometric techniques: cluster analysis (CA, discriminant analysis (DA, and principal component analysis (PCA were applied to the fingerprint datasets of 37 selected peaks to evaluate the ability of the chromatographic fingerprint in classifying quality of E. longifolia. Three groups were obtained using CA. DA yielded 100% correlation coefficient with 19 discriminant compounds. Using PCA, E. longifolia root samples were clearly discriminated from the products. This study showed that the developed online SPE-LC method was able to provide comprehensive evaluation of E. longifolia samples for quality control purposes.

  3. Characterisation and molecular association of Nigerian and Sudanese Acacia gum exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical and physicochemical characteristics of gum exudate samples harvested from mature trees of Acacia senegal at two specific locations in Nigeria have been investigated together with gum samples harvested from Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal originating from Sudan. The monosaccharide sugar ...

  4. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April... transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any...

  5. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  6. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to...

  7. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring...

  8. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush encroachm

  9. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush

  10. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains.

  11. DETERMINATION OF TANNIN PRODUCTION EQUATIONS OF ACACIA-NEGRA, Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was established with the objective to determine functions to estimate the production of tannin of Acacia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild in kilograms per tree and hectare. Thus dendrometrical information was collected in 32 experimental plots, stratified by the age of 3.5 up to 8.5 years, on good and poor sites with different spacings. Tannin content was measured on the basis of 64 trees, 32 trees with medium diameter and 32 trees with dominant height. The results obtained allow the following conclusions: a The production of tannin (PTA in kilograms per tree can be estimated in function of  diameter (d in cm, height (h and medium distance between the trees in meters after one of the following equations: ln PTA = - 6.0141145 + 2.43202867 . ln d + 1.0413106 . ln EM; ln PTA = - 5.853512 + 1.53029074 . ln d + 0.38185298 . ln (d²h b The production of tannin in kilograms per hectar (PT can be expressed in dependance of basal area (G in m2/ha and dominant height (ho in meters, and estimated with the equation: ln PT = 3.5222278 + 1.1417977 . ln G + 0.2031873 . ln ho

  12. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  13. Nitrogen dynamics in land cleared of alien vegetation (Acacia saligna) and impacts on groundwater at Riverlands Nature Reserve (Western Cape, South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available in the background map. The main outcome of the field measurements and model- ling exercise was that clearing alien Acacia species induces a fast release of nitrogen due to decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge. However, in the long run... Geological Survey Open-File Rep. 01-82, Denver, Colorado. ...

  14. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  15. De vluchtige olie van enkele chemotypen van mentha suaveolens EHRH. en van hybriden met mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, Hindrik

    1974-01-01

    De opvatting dat Mentha x piperita L. een bastaard zou zijn van Mentha spicata L. en Mentha aquatica L. werd nader besproken. Hierbij werd Mentha spicata beschouwd als een bastaard van Mentha longifolia (L.) HUDSON en Mentha suaveolens EHRH. ... Zie: Samenvatting.

  16. Cytogeography of essential oil chemotypes of Eremophila longifolia F. Muell (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Nicholas John; Jones, Graham Lloyd

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the widely distributed desert plant Eremophila longifolia has at least six geographically defined essential oil chemotypes. The focus of the present study is to extend and enhance information concerning known chemotypes and to investigate the involvement of cell nuclei ploidy in this variation. Forty field collected specimens of E. longifolia were taken from most of the mainland states of Australia then subjected to hydrodistillation to produce essential oils, which were then chemically characterised. Ploidy was determined using relative fluorescence of cell nuclei stained with propidium iodide, measured in a flow cytometer. Using principal component analysis (PCA), at least three essential oil chemotypes, in addition to the six already described, were identified in the present study. Previously described high yielding essential oil chemotypes were also characterised in terms of diploidy. For the first time diploid populations were identified in New South Wales, correlating with high yielding isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone chemotypes. Furthermore, the separate diploid population previously described from Western Australia was demonstrated to be the safrole/methyl eugenol type, which is restricted to a small geographic range in far north-west Western Australia (Murchison District). All other chemotypes were shown to be tetraploid, including apparently randomly emerging individuals, representative of chemotypes producing low yields of isomenthone/menthone and karahanaenone similar in composition to the high yielding diploid types.

  17. Solicitation of HPLC and HPTLC Techniques for Determination of Rutin from Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Gaurav Mahesh; Zine, Sandeep Prabhakar; Chaskar, Pratip Kashinath; Une, Hemant Devidas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polyalthia longifolia Thwaites is an important traditional plant in India. Rutin, an active constituent has been reported to possess good amount of pharmacological as well as therapeutic potential. Objective: The aim of the present study was to find out by analytical techniques how much percentage of rutin is present in the plant leaves’ ethanolic extract by analytical techniques. Materials and Methods: Shade dried leaves of Polyalthia longifolia were subjected to cold ethanolic extraction followed by monitoring the isolated rutin high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) after carrying out preliminary phytochemical screening. Results: Extraction yield was found to be 13.94% w/w. Phytochemical screening of the extract showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, diterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, tannins and phenolic compounds and mucilage. From the Rf value, the ethanolic extract was found to be having constituent identical to rutin. By HPTLC and HPLC the amount of rutin was found to be 11.60% w/w and 4.03% w/v, respectively. Conclusion: The active constituent isolated was found to be equal to rutin. PMID:25002804

  18. Chemical and morphological diversity in wild populations of Mentha longifolia in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Daniel; Nitzan, Nadav; Chaimovitsh, David; Eshel, Amram; Dudai, Nativ

    2012-03-01

    Populations of Mentha longifolia, an endangered species in Israel, were tested for essential oil composition and conservational ability. In 2002-2003, 25 wild populations country-wide were tested, indicating population divergence into two chemotypes. Chemotype A was characterized by high levels of menthone and pulegone, and chemotype B by high levels of piperitenone oxide and piperitone oxide. Chemotype A was more abundant (22 of 25 populations) than chemotype B (11 of 25 populations). However, a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded (P > 0.05). In spring 2003, seven of the 25 wild populations were resampled, propagated, and cultivated at the Newe Ya'ar campus. Then, in 2004, the propagated plants were tested for essential oil composition. The propagated plants maintained the essential oil composition as well as the chemotype-frequency distribution of the original wild population from which they were obtained. Since a chemotype/population interaction was not recorded, and the cultivated plants displayed the wild population essential oil composition, it can be concluded that i) the chemotype diversity is genetically based, and ii) the M. longifolia populations sampled can be horticulturally conserved.

  19. Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiya, C; Mukaratirwa, S; Thamsborg, S M

    2003-07-29

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17-22 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group. Animals in the AN, AK and HC groups were orally infected with a single dose of 3000 HC third stage larvae. The AN and AK groups had dried leaves of AN and AK, respectively, included in their basal diet at a rate of 40% dry matter (DM) while the HC and NHC groups had the basal diet throughout the experiment. All animals received a total feed allowance of 500 g DM per day and Katambora Rhodes grass hay ad libitum for roughage. Parameters measured included faecal egg counts and live weight. At the end of the experiment, three animals from each group were slaughtered and abomasal worm burdens were determined. A significant decrease in the faecal egg counts was recorded in animals in the AK group (P<0.05) relative to those in the AN and HC groups. The worm burdens were reduced by 34% in the AK group (P<0.05) and by 10% in the AN group (non-significant) relative to the infected control group. The study indicates that the difference in the effects of the two forages on HC infections may be related to type and concentration of tannins.

  20. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Gum Arabic producing agroforestry tree species in. Sudan. A. senegal .... Algadamblia 4, simmer 2, Simmer 1 and Nabg as sisters,. (Alphil 1, alphil 2 as .... RAPD markers could be used for differentiating Acacia senegal genotypes ... the result of genetic stability due to long overlapping generations, and a ...

  1. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Science and ... senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum ... ledge on the structure of genetic diversity of A. senegal in .... Sources of acacia seeds, locations in Sudan and soil types of.

  2. SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISMS OF FOUR CHLOROPLAST GENES IN FOUR ACACIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonius Y.P.B.C. Widyatmoko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequence polymorphisms among and within four Acacia species,  A. aulacocarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa, and A. mangium, were investigated using four chloroplast DNA genes (atpA, petA, rbcL, and rpoA. The phylogenetic relationship among these species is discussed in light of the results of the sequence information. No intraspecific sequence variation was found in the four genes of the four species, and a conservative rate of mutation of the chloroplast DNA genes was also confirmed in the Acacia species. In the atpA and petA of the four genes, all four species possessed identical sequences, and no sequence variation was found among the four Acacia species. In the rbcL and rpoA genes, however, sequence polymorphisms were revealed among these species. Acacia aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa shared an identical sequence, and A. auriculiformis and A. mangium also showed no sequence variation.  The fact that A. mangium and A. auriculiformis shared identical sequences as did A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa indicated that the two respective species were extremely closely related. Although a putative natural hybrid of A. aulacocarpa and A. auriculiformis has been reported, our results suggested that natural hybridization should be further verified using molecular markers.

  3. Antioxidant Activity and Volatile and Phenolic Profiles of Essential Oil and Different Extracts of Wild Mint (Mentha longifolia) from the Pakistani Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Tahseen; Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Naqvi, Syed Ali Raza; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil and three different extracts of wildly grown Mentha longifolia (M. longifolia) were studied. The essential oil from M. longifolia aerial parts was isolated by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger-type apparatus. The extracts were prepared with three solvents of different polarity (n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol) using Soxhlet extractor. Maximum extract yield was obtained with methanol (12.6 g/100 g) while the minimum with dichloromethane (3.50 g/100 g). The essential oil content was found to be 1.07 g/100 g. A total of 19 constituents were identified in the M. longifolia oil using GC/MS. The main components detected were piperitenone oxide, piperitenone, germacrene D, borneol, and β -caryophyllene. The total phenolics (TP) and total flavonoids (TF) contents of the methanol extract of M. longifolia were found to be significantly higher than dichloromethane and hexane extracts. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts exhibited excellent antioxidant activity as assessed by 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, bleaching β -carotene, and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation assays. The essential oil and hexane extract showed comparatively weaker antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The results of the study have validated the medicinal and antioxidant potential of M. longifolia essential oil and extracts.

  4. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  5. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant-acacia mutualism for enemy-free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-02-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant-acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant-acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services.

  6. Look before leaping: foraging selectivity of capuchin monkeys on acacia trees in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hilary; Fedigan, Linda M; Addicott, John F

    2008-02-01

    Acacia trees in Costa Rica have an obligate mutualism with three species of Pseudomyrmex ants, which vigorously defend their host tree from insect and mammalian herbivores. Depending on the size and species of ant colony, individual acacia trees may be differentially protected. For animals able to discern between weakly and highly aggressive ant colonies, costs of ant stings from less active colonies might be offset by nutritional value acquired from feeding on acacia fruit or ant larvae in swollen thorns. We examined foraging selectivity of capuchin monkeys on acacia trees in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We measured four characteristics of the acacia trees from which capuchins fed and of acacias immediately adjacent to those in which the monkeys fed: diameter at breast height (DBH), accessibility, species of closest tree and ant species present. We found that capuchins prefer to forage in acacias that are large and accessible. We also made two measurements of ant colony activity on each tree, one before and one after disturbing the ant colony. We found that the three species of mutualistic ants differ in baseline activity levels and that mutualistic ants are more active than non-mutualistic ant species found in acacia trees. We also found that capuchins foraged more frequently in trees colonized by non-mutualistic ants, but the explanatory value (r (2)) of this model was low. Furthermore, monkeys did not discriminate between acacias on the basis of baseline ant activity or the ant colony's response to disturbance. We conclude that these monkeys select acacia trees in which to forage based on characteristics of the trees rather than the ants. In addition, our study suggests that white-faced capuchins act as predators on the acacia ants but they probably benefit the dispersal and reproductive success of acacia trees. Capuchins may in fact function as an additional mutualistic partner for acacia trees via seed dispersal, but they must overcome the ants

  7. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  8. Antimutagenic and anticancer activity of Al Madinah Alhasawy mint (Mentha longifolia) leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Khalil; Abdelrazik, Mohamad; Alghaithy, Abdulaziz; Diab, Atef; El-Beshbishy, Hesham; Baghdadi, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    Mentha is one of the genera of Lamiaceae family. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimutagenic and anticancer activity of the water and methanolic extract of Alhasawy mint (Mentha longifolia), that grown in Madina Province, western region, Saudi Arabia using three different bioassays namely; Brine shrimp bioassay, Ames mutagenicity bioassay using 3 Hist-Salmonella typhimurium strains of different mutations (TA98, TA97 and TA100) and 2 reference mutagenic drugs nitrosopiperidine (NP) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-quinolidine (IQ) and Mammalian cell lines bioassays using 2 different cell lines HepG2 and Vero cell lines. The plant extract showed an efficient antimutagenic activity against the studied bioassays in a directly proportional effect with concentration.

  9. Biosynthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles using Maduca longifolia extract and their potential in infrared absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, A Mohammed; Girilal, M; Venkatesan, R; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2011-11-01

    Metal nanoparticles, in general, and gold nanoparticles, in particular, are very attractive because of their size- and shape-dependent properties. Biosynthesis of anisotropic gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Madhuca longifolia and their potential as IR blockers has been demonstrated. The tyrosine residue was identified as the active functional group for gold ion reduction. These gold nanoparticles were characterized by of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FTIR, TEM and HrTEM. The presence of proteins was identified by FTIR, SDS-PAGE, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. The micrograph revealed the formation of anisotropic gold nanoaprticles. The biologically synthesized gold nanotriangles can be easily coated in the glass windows which are highly efficient in absorbing IR radiations.

  10. Isolation and identification of antimicrobial compound from Mentha longifolia L. leaves grown wild in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bayati Firas A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mentha longifolia L. (Lamiaceae leaves have been traditionally implemented in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation by the indigenous people of Iraq, although the compounds responsible for the medicinal properties have not been identified. In the present study, an antimicrobial compound was isolated and characterized, and its biological activity was assessed. Methods The compound was isolated and characterized from the extracted essential oil using different spectral techniques: TLC, FTIR spectra and HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of the compound was assessed using both disc diffusion and microdilution method in 96 multi-well microtiter plates. Results A known compound was isolated from the essential oil of the plant and was identified as (- menthol. The isolated compound was investigated for its antimicrobial activity against seven selected pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. Menthol at different concentrations (1:1, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 was active against all tested bacteria except for P. aeruginosa, and the highest inhibitory effect was observed against S. mutans (zone of inhibition: 25.3 mm using the disc diffusion method. Minimal inhibitory concentration MIC values ranged from 15.6–125.0 μg/ml, and the most promising results were observed against S. aureus and S. mutans (MIC 15.6 μg/ml while, S. faecalis, S. pyogenis and L. acidophilus ranked next (MIC 31.2 μg/ml. Furthermore, menthol achieved considerable antifungal activity against the yeast C. albicans (zone of inhibition range: 7.1–18.5 mm; MIC: 125.0. Conclusion The isolation of an antimicrobial compound from M. longifolia leaves validates the use of this plant in the treatment of minor sore throat and minor mouth or throat irritation.

  11. Anatomia da madeira de seis espécies exóticas do gênero Acacia Mill. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo Fernando dos Santos; Marchiori, José Newton Cardoso; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Siegloch,Anelise Marta

    2015-01-01

    As madeiras de Acacia acuminata A. Gray, Acacia cambagei R.T. Baker, Acacia harpophylla F. Muell. Ex Benth., Acacia koa A. Gray, Acacia rhodoxylon Maiden e Acacia richii A. Gray são anatomicamente descritas e ilustradas com fotomicrografias. Todas as seis espécies apresentam os seguintes caracteres de ampla ocorrência em Fabaceae: porosidade difusa; placas de perfuração simples; elementos vasculares com  pontoações ornamentadas; parênquima paratraqueal; raios homogêneos; e fibras libriformes ...

  12. Anatomia da madeira de seis espécies exóticas do gênero Acacia Mill. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo Fernando dos Santos; Marchiori, José Newton Cardoso; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Siegloch, Anelise Marta

    2015-01-01

    As madeiras de Acacia acuminata A. Gray, Acacia cambagei R.T. Baker, Acacia harpophylla F. Muell. Ex Benth., Acacia koa A. Gray, Acacia rhodoxylon Maiden e Acacia richii A. Gray são anatomicamente descritas e ilustradas com fotomicrografias. Todas as seis espécies apresentam os seguintes caracteres de ampla ocorrência em Fabaceae: porosidade difusa; placas de perfuração simples; elementos vasculares com  pontoações ornamentadas; parênquima paratraqueal; raios homogêneos; e fibras libriformes ...

  13. EXTRACTION AND ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDE MADLONGISIDE-A FROM BARK OF MADHUCA LONGIFOLIA AND ITS PHARMACOLOGICAL SCREENING

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    Chirantan S Chakma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to identified the presence of isolate compound madlongiside-A from bark parts of Madhuca longifolia by TLC, IR,NMR and chemical test. Further single compound can be screened in anti inflammatory and analgesic activity by rat model. As such no pharmacological activity can be done previously and the result shown that the identified isolated compound have dose dependent activity.

  14. Decreased expression of alpha-2-HS glycoprotein in the sera of rats treated with Eurycoma longifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng eChen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized Eurycoma longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to controls. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes.

  15. Identification of the essential oils composition from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. growing wild in Isfahan province, Iran

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    REZA ABEDI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia L., commonly known as wild mint, belongs to family Lamiaceae. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia L. grown wild (Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan, and Falavarjan in Isfahan province (Central Iran. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In the aerial parts of the plant were identified 26, 30, 22 and 25 compounds for Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan and Falavarjan ecotypes, respectively. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial parts of M. longifolia in Shahreza province were piperitenone oxide (26.71%, 1,8-cineole (20.72%, α-pinene (14.28%, pulegone (7.81%, sabinene (7.06% and trans-caryophyllene (4.23%. The main compositions in Chadegan province were piperitenone oxide (29.13%, 1,8-cineole (28.84%, sabinene (9.05%, pulegone (8.97% and α-pinene (6.31%. The main compositions in Isfahan province were pulegone (44.75%, 1,8-cineole (13.82%, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, 1-methyl (8.49%, isopulegone (8.07% and menthone (4.37%. In Falavarjan province the constituents were pulegone (33.39%, 1,8-cineole (29.79%, sabinene (11.23% and isopulegone (7.28%.

  16. Nutrient management of contrasting Acacia mangium genotypes and weed management strategies in South Sumatra, Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendham, D. S; Hardiyanto, E. B; Wicaksono, A; Nurudin, M

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, we explored the response of Acacia mangium plantations in South Sumatra, Indonesia, to fertiliser and their requirement for fertiliser, focusing on phosphorus (P) at establishment...

  17. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

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    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  18. A leaf phosphorus assay for seedlings of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J S; Simpson, R J; Sands, R

    1992-10-01

    Concentrations of extractable and total phosphorus in leaves, stem, root and nodules of 12-week-old seedlings of two provenances of Acacia mangium Willd. were analyzed to identify the fraction of phosphorus and the plant part most suitable for predicting the phosphorus nutritional status of the seedlings.For both provenances, concentrations of extractable phosphorus were more sensitive to changes in soil phosphorus status and varied less among different plant parts than concentrations of total phosphorus. Concentrations of extractable phosphorus in the youngest fully expanded leaf (Leaf 3 from the apex) and the next two older leaves correlated closely with seedling dry mass and may be used to assess the phosphorus nutritional status of Acacia mangium seedlings.

  19. Fractionation of acacia honey affects its antioxidant potential in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Aliyu; Oyeronke A Odunola; Ahsana D Farooq; Ahmed M Mesaik; Muhammad I Choudhary; Ochuko L Erukainure; Shahida Perveen; Almas Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of fractionation of acacia honey on its antioxidant potential in contrast with the pure honey from whole blood, brain and liver in vitro. Methods: Honey was partitioned into three fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous). Their immuno-modulatory effect on whole blood was assayed using Luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique. Their antioxidant activities on rat brain and hepatic tissues which covers for catalase, SOD activities and lipid peroxidation. Results: Fractions of the honey enhanced the production of radicals with no significant (P>0.05) antioxidant activity on whole blood where as pure honey does. Pure honey significantly (P0.05) effects on lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Fractionation of acacia honey negatively affects its antioxidant potential thereby making it a radical generating agent in contrast with the unfractionated.

  20. Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Cui Li; Li Xin Yang; Hong Qing Wang; Ruo Yun Chen

    2011-01-01

    From the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu, two new phenolic compounds (3R,4R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxycy-clohexanone (1) and (4R)-5-(l-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-3-oxoburyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (2) were obtained. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Free-radical scavenging activities of them were evaluated.

  1. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    .... Identity Acacia is the dried gummy exudate from the stems and branches of trees of various species of the... acacia bear any health and/or nutrient content claims on the label or in labeling, such claims must be...

  2. How do small browsers respond to resource changes? Dietary response of the Cape grysbok to clearing alien Acacias

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham I. H. Kerley; Marietjie Landman; Stephanie de Beer

    2010-01-01

    .... Australian Acacia sp.). We predicted that the removal of alien Acacias would cause a broadening of the diet, and the consumption of previously avoided species, despite the selectivity imposed by their small body size...

  3. Pemberian Ekstrak Metanol Akar Pasak Bumi Mempertahankan Bobot Badan Induk Mencit Selama Menyusui (ADMINISTRATION OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA EXTRACTS STABILIZED THE BODY WEIGHT OF LACTATING MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiah Ganda Putri Panjaitan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim is to study the effect of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanol extract and its derivedfraction (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water on body weight of lactating mice. Thetreatment groups were administered 14 mg/20 g body weight of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanol extractand its derived fractions for 21 consecutive days. As a control are without treatment and placebo whichreceived aquadest at dose 0.056 ml/20 g body weight. The administration of E. longifolia Jack rootsmethanol extract showed the smallest change of body weight 29,63 g at the 3rd day and 29,31 g at the 21stday. Compared without treatment and placebo, oral administration of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanolextract and its derived fractions had no significant effects on body weight lactating mice at the 3rd and 21stdays in lactation period (p>0.05. It is concluded that the consumption of E. longifolia Jack. roots methanolextract and its derived fraction during lactation period not influence body weight of lactating mice.

  4. A review of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus and Pseudomyrmex goeldii species groups: acacia-ants and relatives (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S

    2017-02-06

    The Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group contains the Mesoamerican acacia-ants, an assemblage of species that inhabit and protect swollen-thorn acacias (Vachellia spp.). Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the existence of two generalist (dead twig-inhabiting) species that are embedded within the P. ferrugineus group. They are described here as P. evitus sp. nov. (occurring from Mexico to Costa Rica) and P. feralis sp. nov. (Guatemala). The morphological definition of the P. ferrugineus group is revised to incorporate additional variability in the worker and queen castes. The previous diagnosis of the males, based largely on features of the genitalia, requires little revision. Closely related to the P. ferrugineus group is a clade of five predominantly South American species, here designated and diagnosed as the P. goeldii group. The five species, P. goeldii (Forel), P. laevifrons Ward, P. micans sp. nov., P. obtusus sp. nov., and P. parvulus sp. nov., are characterized and illustrated. P. laevifrons and P. micans are closely related and difficult to distinguish, possibly reflecting incomplete isolation. Keys are provided for the identification of the species in both groups.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... denture adhesive. 872.3400 Section 872.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  6. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del. and Problematical in Baluran National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUFRI

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Del. is a thorny wattle native in India, Pakistan and much of Africa. This acacia is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa from Agypt and Mauritania to South Africa. In Africa and the Indian Subcontinent, Acacia nilotica is extensively used as browse, timber and fire-wood species. The bark and seeds are used as source of tannins. The species is olso used for medicinal purposes. Bark of Acacia nilotica has been used for treathing haemorrhages, colds, diarrhoea, tuberculosis and leprosy; while the roots have been used as an aphrodisiac and the flowers for treathing syphillis lessions. The invasion of Acacia nilotica has resulted in the reduction of savanna in Baluran National Park reaching about 50%. Pressure to the savanna has a great impact on the balance and preservation of whole ecosystem in Baluran.

  7. Phytoandrogenic properties of Eurycoma longifolia as natural alternative to testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Henkel, R

    2014-09-01

    The testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) is characterised by numerous symptoms, including low libido, increased fat mass, fatigue, erectile dysfunction or osteoporosis, and up to 80% of men will experience some kind of ageing males' symptoms. This is caused by the age-depending decline in serum testosterone levels with concentrations being about 40-50% lower in men older than 60 years compared with young men. This significant decline in testosterone levels is further closely linked with medical conditions such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes or hypertension. The conventional way of treating TDS is the testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), for which preparations are on the market. Apart from the beneficial effects of TRT, significant adverse side effects have been described, and prostate cancer (PCa) as absolute contraindication is debated. Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali; TA) is natural alternative to TRT and has been shown to restore serum testosterone levels, thus significantly improving sexual health. This includes significant positive effects on bone health and physical condition of patients. In addition, a significant antihyperglycaemic effect and cytotoxicity against PCas cells has been shown. Thus far, at therapeutic concentrations, no significant side effects of the treatment were obvious. Therefore, TA might be a safe alternative to TRT.

  8. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia on Testosterone Level and Bone Structure in an Aged Orchidectomised Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shukor Tajul Ariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone replacement is the choice of treatment in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. However, long-term use of testosterone is potentially carcinogenic. Eurycoma longifolia (EL has been reported to enhance testosterone level and prevent bone calcium loss but there is a paucity of research regarding its effect on the bone structural parameters. This study was conducted to explore the bone structural changes following EL treatment in normal and androgen-deficient osteoporosis rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 12 months were divided into normal control, normal rat supplemented with EL, sham-operated, orchidectomised-control, orchidectomised with testosterone replacement, and orchidectomised with EL supplementation groups. Testosterone serum was measured both before and after the completion of the treatment. After 6 weeks of the treatment, the femora were processed for bone histomorphometry. Testosterone replacement was able to raise the testosterone level and restore the bone volume of orchidectomised rats. EL supplementation failed to emulate both these testosterone actions. The inability of EL to do so may be related to the absence of testes in the androgen deficient osteoporosis model for EL to stimulate testosterone production.

  9. Size correlations among cambial initials and their derivatives in Polyalthia longifolia Thw.

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    D. D. Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The length and breadth of the cambial initials and their derivatives have been examined in Polyalthia longifolia, a tropical tree possessing non-storied cambium. Taking the average size of the initials and the elements originating from them, most of the sieve-tube elements have been found to be slightly shorter in length than the fusiform initials. On the other hand, a few of these are still shorter - almost half of the fusiform initials, due to transverse or somewhat oblique divisions in the sieve element mother cells. The vessel elements are slightly shorter but 5-6 times wider than the fusiform initials. The parenchyma strands, in phloem comprising cells storing starch or tannin (pps, in xylem accumulating starch only (ssps, are more or less equal to fusiform initials indicating that the xylem and phloem mother cells forming parenchyma cells have not undergone any major change except for transverse divisions. The individual vessel-associated parenchyma cells (v.a.p. cells are wider but much shorter in length as compared to the starch-storing parenchyma cells (s.s.p. cells indicating that more transverse divisions have occured in the strands of the former than those of the latter. Among all the cambial derivatives, the fibers exhibit maximum increase in length, due to intrusive growth. The ray parenchyma cells are slightly longer than the ray initials possibly due to the elongation of these initials during their transformation into vascular ray cells.

  10. Factors affecting the accumulation of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Rosli; M. Maziah; K. L. Chan; S. Sreeramanan

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to improve 9-methoxycanthin-6-one productivity (potential anti-tumour compound) from callus cultures of Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali). Several factors affecting 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in callus cultures such as different medium compositions and physical factors were investigated and analyzed. Results show that a higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (3.84 mg(g-1 DW (Dry Weight)) is obtained from callus cultured in 1/4 MS basal media. At fructose of 2% (w/v), the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (4.59 mg(g-1 DW) is promoted to gain the highest yield, compared to other carbon sources tested. The addition of 2.0-mg(L-1 dicamba also increases 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production (12.3 mg(g-1 DW). Higher production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one was obtained at pH 5.5 (1.53 mg(g-1 DW). Production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one (2.34 mg(g-1 DW) in callus cultures is also increased when the medium is added with 1(10-1 μM phenylalanine. This study suggests that the successful production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in vitro cultures has a potential in large-scale production using bioreactor technology.

  11. Larvicidal and mosquito repellent activities of Pine (Pinus longifolia, Family: Pinaceae oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Ansari, P.K. Mittal, R.K. Razdan & U. Sreehari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Various plant-based products are safe and biodegradable alternatives tosynthetic chemicals for use against mosquitoes. Oil of Pinus longifolia is traditionally used forprotection against mosquitoes in some rural areas but there is no documented report of its use againstmosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the activity of Pine oilagainst mosquitoes.Methods: The oil was procured from the market and its contents were chemically analysed. Larvicidalactivity of oil was tested in laboratory bioassays, while repellent action was studied during wholenight bait collections in field by direct application on the skin and after its impregnation on mats.Results: Results showed varying degree of larvicidal activity of Pine oil against mosquitoes with LC50values ranging between 82 and 112 ppm. The Pine oil had strong repellent action against mosquitoesas it provided 100% protection against Anopheles culicifacies for 11 h and 97% protection againstCulex quinquefasciatus for nine hours respectively. Electrically heated mats prepared from Pine oilprovided, 94 and 88% protection against An. culicifacies and Cx. quinquefasciatus for 10 and sevenhours respectively.Interpretaion & conclusion: Pine oil is effective against mosquito larvae at very higher doses whichare not of any practical utility. However, Pine oil showed strong repellent action against An. culicifacies(malaria vector and Cx. quinquefasciatus (pest mosquito. Thus its use could be popularised asmosquito repellent.

  12. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  13. In vitro antihyperlipidemic potential of triterpenes from stem bark of Protorhus longifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Rebamang A; Naidoo, Javan J; Nkomo, Fezile S; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Opoku, Andy R

    2014-12-01

    Two lanostane triterpenes, 3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oic acid (1) and methyl-3β-hydroxylanosta-9,24-dien-21-oate (2), were isolated from the stem bark of Protorhus longifolia. Their structures were deduced on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (NMR, HRMS, IR). This study investigated the in vitro anti-adipogenic activity of the two triterpenes. Their inhibitory activity was evaluated on selected lipid digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase). The inhibitory activity of the compounds on hormone-sensitive lipase and their ability to bind bile acids were also evaluated. The effect of the compounds on glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and on triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was investigated. The triterpenes effectively inhibited the activities of the enzymes with IC50 values ranging from 0.04 to 0.31 mg/mL. The compounds showed a high affinity for secondary bile acids. Both compounds stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 muscle cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Compound 1 significantly reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. It is apparent that these lanostane triterpenes enhance glucose uptake and suppress adipogenesis, which together with their inhibitory effects on lipid digestive enzymes suggests that they have antihyperlipidemic potential. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Phytochemical Properties of Mentha longifolia L. Essential Oil and its Antimicrobial Effects on Staphylococcus Aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mahmodi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Due to the side effects of chemical and synthetic preservatives, consumers have recently become more eager to use foods containing natural preservatives from plants, animals and microbial sources. In the present study, biochemical composition and antibacterial effects (MIC of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus have been evaluated. Methods: In this experimental study, the biochemical composition and antibacterial prosperities of this essential oil was determined by the Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS and micro dilution method respectively. The morphological and membrane changes of the bacterial cell under the effect of this essential oil were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA. Results: The chemical analysis of the essential oil by Gas chromatography/ mass spectrophotometer (GC/MS revealed the presence of 22 substances (95.30%, mainly including Pulegon (31.54%, 1,8 Cineol (15.89%, Menthoforan (11.8% and Cis- Isopulegon (9.74%. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oil determined under different temperature and pH values showed to be in the range of 75-1200 µg/ ml. Conclusion: The MIC results and membrane cell damage observed in the electron microscopy evaluation indicated that this essential oil have a high antibacterial activity. Therefore, this essential oil can be combined with other agents for the preservation of foods against pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms.

  15. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Choe, Kevin; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2016-03-10

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500-2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents' identification, determination, further development and most importantly, the

  16. Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali: Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed Ur Rehman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali, a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recovery, fever, increased energy, increased strength, leukemia, osteoporosis, stress, syphilis and glandular swelling. The roots are also used as an aphrodisiac, antibiotic, appetite stimulant and health supplement. The plant is reported to be rich in various classes of bioactive compounds such as quassinoids, canthin-6-one alkaloids, β-carboline alkaloids, triterpene tirucallane type, squalene derivatives and biphenyl neolignan, eurycolactone, laurycolactone, and eurycomalactone, and bioactive steroids. Among these phytoconstituents, quassinoids account for a major portion of the E. longifolia root phytochemicals. An acute toxicity study has found that the oral Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 of the alcoholic extract of E. longifolia in mice is between 1500–2000 mg/kg, while the oral LD50 of the aqueous extract form is more than 3000 mg/kg. Liver and renal function tests showed no adverse changes at normal daily dose and chronic use of E. longifolia. Based on established literature on health benefits of E. longifolia, it is important to focus attention on its more active constituents and the constituents’ identification, determination, further development and most

  17. In-vitro activity of saponins of bauhinia purpurea, madhuca longifolia, celastrus paniculatus and semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K S; Seshagiri, M

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  18. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

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    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  19. Effects of Medium Constituents on Growth and Canthinone Accumulation in Cell Suspension Cultures of Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    LUTHFI AZIZ MAHMUD SIREGAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various macronutrients, micronutrients and sucrose on growth and canthinone alkaloid production in cell suspension cultures of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack was investigated. The optimum macronutrients and micronutrients content for the high alkaloid production of E. longifolia Jack was different to that found in the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium. The highest amount of alkaloids, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one and 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, could be obtained from E. longifolia Jack cells cultured in modified MS liquid medium that containing macronutrients: 21.50 mM NH4NO3, 14.25 mM KNO3, 7.50 mM CaCl2•2H2O, 2.50 mM MgSO4•7H2O, 1.45 mM KH2PO4, while content of micronutrients was 0.233 mM FeNa-EDTA, 0.215 mM MnSO4•4H2O and without CuSO4•5H2O. Increased sucrose concentration to 4.00% (w/v in modified MS liquid medium could increase total of two-alkaloid. The modification of macronutrients and micronutrients concentration based the optimum production of biomass was obtained MSBs medium that producing high biomass but also increasing the production of 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one. The modification of macronutrients or macronutrients and micronutrients based the optimum total of two-alkaloid was obtained MSC and MSD medium that producing low fresh weight but producing the high 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one.

  20. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  1. A novel strain D5 isolated from Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Baoling; Lv, Chengqun; Zhao, Yili; Huang, Rong

    2012-01-01

    We isolated a novel strain D5 from nodules of Acacia confusa. Under strict sterile conditions the strain could successfully nodulate Acacia confusa, A. crassicarpa and A. mangium, with nitrogenase activity ranging from 18.90 to 19.86 nmol·g(-1)·min(-1). In the phylogenetic tree based on a complete 16S rRNA gene sequence, the sequence of strain D5 shared 99% homology with that of four species of genus Pseudomonas. The 685 bp nodA fragment amplified from strain D5 shared 95% homology with the nodA sequence of 9 species of genus Bradyrhizobium, with a genetic distance of 0.01682. The 740 bp nifH gene fragment was amplified from strain D5. This strain D5 nifH gene and Bradyrhizobium spp. formed a branch, showing 98% homology and a genetic distance of 0. The homology between this branch and the Bradyrhizobium spp. DG in another branch was 99%, with a genetic distance of 0.007906. These results indicate that this strain D5 is a new type of nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

  2. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

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    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  3. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor.

  4. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

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    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  5. The Inhibition of Lipase and Glucosidase Activities by Acacia Polyphenol

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    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. In an in vitro study, we measured the inhibitory activity of AP on lipase and glucosidase. In addition, we evaluated the effects of AP on absorption of orally administered olive oil, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch solution in mice. We found that AP concentration-dependently inhibited the activity of lipase, maltase and sucrase with an IC50 of 0.95, 0.22 and 0.60 mg ml−1, respectively. In ICR mice, olive oil was administered orally immediately after oral administration of AP solution, and plasma triglyceride concentration was measured. We found that AP significantly inhibited the rise in plasma triglyceride concentration after olive oil loading. AP also significantly inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after maltose and sucrose loading, and this effect was more potent against maltose. AP also inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after glucose loading and slightly inhibited it after starch loading. Our results suggest that AP inhibits lipase and glucosidase activities, which leads to a reduction in the intestinal absorption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  6. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, C. M.; Cangiano, M. A.; Alcaráz, L. E.; Sosa, A.; Escobar, F.; Sabini, C.; Sabini, L.; Laciar, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE) and ethanolic extract (EE) of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings. PMID:25530999

  7. Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: chemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities - a review Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae: química, usos tradicionais e medicinais e suas atividades farmacológicas - uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Singh Chauhan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, is a source of the ayurvedic drug, 'Kokilaaksha' and the Unani drug, Talimakhana. The seeds are acrid, bitter, aphrodisiac, tonic, sedative, used for diseases of the blood. The plant is known to possess antitumor, hypoglycemic, aphrodisiac, antibacterial, free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation, hepatoprotective and haematopoietic activity. It contains lupeol, stigmasterol, butelin, fatty acids, and alkaloids. The present review article is focused on phytochemical, pharmacological and other important aspects of Talimakhana.Asteracantha longifolia (L. Nees, Acanthaceae, é a fonte do medicamento ayurvédico "Kokilaaksha", e da droga Unani, Talimakhana. As sementes têm de sabor acre e amargas, são afrodisíacas, tônicas, calmantes, e usadas para doenças do sangue. A planta é conhecida por possuir propriedades antitumorais, hipoglicêmica, afrodisíaca, anti-bacteriana, na eliminação de radicais livres e peroxidação lipídica, atividade hepatoprotetora e hematopoiéticas. Ele contém lupeol, estigmasterol, butelina, ácidos graxos e alcaloides. Este trabalho apresenta estudos químicos, farmacológicos e outros aspectos importantes da Talimakhana.

  8. The effect of eurycoma longifolia jack on spermatogenesis in estrogen-treated rats

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    Norhazlina Abdul Wahab

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E2 (intramuscular dose of 500 μg/kg body weight, and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E2. After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts. RESULTS: The spermatogenic cell count in the E2-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E2-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05 and EL+E2-treated groups (p < 0.05. Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment.

  9. Cytotoxic activity of methanolic extract of Mentha longifolia and Ocimum basilicum against human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ali, Khalil H; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Alkhalaf, Moussa

    2013-12-01

    Labiatae family is represented in Saudi Arabia. The aim of the present study was to go insight to investigate the anticancer activity and antioxidative potentials of methanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML) and Ocimum basilicum L. (OB) that grown in Madina province, western region, Saudi Arabia. OB exhibited the greater phenolic contents as mg gallic acid equivalent/g weight (mg GAE/g) for a value of 105 +/- 5.5 mg GAE/g. On the other hand, ML produced 29 +/- 3.12 mg GAE/g. The standard antioxidant vitamin E used in this experiment elicited a value of total phenolic contents equal 22 +/- 2.2 mg GAE/g. The percentage scavenging activity of against diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 850 and 160% for OB and ML extracts, respectively. Vitamin E elicited% scavenging activity of against DPPH equal to 198%. Brine shrimp cytotoxic assay clearly indicated the cytotoxic effects of either ML or OB extract. The brine shrimp survival is inversely proportional to the concentration of either ML or OB extract used with LD50 191.23 and 235.50 ppm, respectively. Toxic effects on brine shrimps indicated the anticancer potential of ML or OB extract. The ML or OB extract was unable to produce pbluescript (pBS) plasmid DNA damage, while the plasmid DNA treated with EcoRI produced a single band as a result of DNA damage. Also, both ML and OB extract exhibited marked cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells at various concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 microg mL(-1)). The 160 and 320 microg mL(-1) showed more cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Based on results achieved, we can concluded that, OB and ML extracts have the potency to act as powerful antioxidants and protect against DNA damage and have cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell line.

  10. Composition and thermal characteristics of Madhuca longifolia seed fat and its solid and liquid fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikkar, J M N; Ghazali, H M; Long, K

    2010-01-01

    This study was to characterize the seed fat from Madhuca longifolia known as Mee fat and its solid and liquid fractions with the objective of distinguishing them. A sample of Mee fat was partitioned into solid and liquid fractions using acetone as the solvent medium. The isolated fractions were compared to the native Mee fat sample with respect to various physico-chemical parameters using standard chemical methods as well as instrumental techniques such as, gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Basic analyses indicated that there were wide variations between the native sample and its fractions with respect to iodine value (IV), and slip melting point (SMP). The cloud point (CP) of the liquid fraction was found to be 10.5 degrees C. Fatty acid compositional analyses showed that the proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) such as palmitic and stearic went up in the high-melting fraction (HMF) while in low-melting fraction (LMF) the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) such as oleic and lenoleic increased. According to the HPLC analyses, Mee fat had a tiacyl glycerol (TAG) sequence similar to that of palm oil. After fractionation, the solid and liquid fractions obtained were found to have TAG profiles very much different from the native sample. Thermal analyses by DSC showed that Mee fat had two-widely separated high and low melting thermal transitions, a feature which was beneficial for the effective separation of solid and liquid fractions. The thermal profiles displayed by the fractions were clearly distinguishable from that of the native sample.

  11. Clerodane type diterpene as a novel antifungal agent from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Asish K; Chand, Hemender R; John, Jyothis; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2015-04-13

    Bioactivity-guided chemical examination of methanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula led to the isolation of the active constituent, a diterpene 1 which was identified as 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide on the basis of its spectral data. Among the tested strains, diterpene 1 was found to exhibit antifungal activities having MIC90 values of 50.3, 100.6 and 201.2 μM against Candida albicans NCIM3557, Cryptococcus neoformans NCIM3542 (human pathogens) and Neurospora crassa NCIM870 (saprophyte), respectively. Initial, structure-activity-relationship (SAR) data generated by synthesizing some derivatives revealed that the double bond between C3-C4 and the free hydroxyl group at C16 are crucial for the antifungal activity of the diterpene 1. The mode of action of 1 in C. albicans is due to compromised cell membrane permeability and also probably due to disruption of cell wall structures. The red blood cell haemolysis of all the compounds (1-4) did not show any significant haemolysis and was found to be less than 15% for all the compounds when tested at highest concentration, i.e. 1200 μM. Interestingly, all the tested compounds inhibited Y-H transition in dimorphic C. albicans NCIM3557 at much lower concentration than their MIC90 values. Determination of ROS generation by diterpene 1 using DCFH-DA and DHR123 (dihydrorhodamine) staining of C. albicans NCIM3557 indicated production of intracellular ROS as a mechanism of antifungal activity.

  12. Regulatory roles of 24-epibrassinolide in tolerance of Acacia gerrardii Benth to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Allah, Elsayed Fathi; Alqarawi, A A; Hashem, Abeer; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2017-07-11

    This experiment aimed to investigate the role of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) against NaCl-induced salinity stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. NaCl (200 mM) imparted deleterious effects on the growth and chlorophyll contents of A. gerrardii, but foliar application of EBL (1.0 mg/l; each plant received 2.5 ml) mitigated the negative effect considerably. NaCl reduced chlorophyll content but this was significantly ameliorated by the application of EBL. EBL reduced significantly NaCl-induced oxidative stress hence protect membranes and also improved the relative water content significantly by 6.6% as compared with control. Nitrate reductase activity declined after NaCl treatment but EBL application sustained its activity under normal and stressed conditions. Exogenous application of EBL significantly improved the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway thereby protecting the photosynthetic electron transport chain and other metabolic processes in A. gerrardii from NaCl-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and fresh Mentha longifolia L.

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    Sunita Singh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and dried Mentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus niger (1884, Aspergillus flavus (2479, Fusarium monoliforme (1893, Fusarium graminearum (2088 and Penicillium viridicatum (2007 were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790, Staphylococcus aureus (3103 (Gram-positive, Escherichia coli (1672, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942 (Gram-negative were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results: Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities against Aspergillus and Fusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils of Mentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  14. A novel symbiotic nitrogen-fixing member of the Ochrobactrum clade isolated from root nodules of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngom, Amy; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Tsukahara, Junzo; Wakabayashi, Shiro; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Nuntagij, Achara; Kotepong, Somsak; Suzuki, Akihiro; Higashi, Shiro; Abe, Mikiko

    2004-02-01

    Ten strains of root nodule bacteria were isolated from the nodules of Acacia mangium grown in the Philippines and Thailand. Partial sequences (approx. 300 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene of each isolate were analyzed. The nucleotide sequences of strain DASA 35030 indicated high homology (>99%) with members of the genus Ochrobactrum in Brucellaceae, although the sequences of other isolates were homologous to those of two distinct genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. The strain DASA 35030 was strongly suggested to be a strain of Ochrobactrum by full length sequences of the 16S rRNA gene, fatty acids composition, G+C contents of the DNA, and other physiological characteristics. Strain DASA 35030 induced root nodules on A. mangium, A. albida and Paraserianthes falcataria. The nodules formed by strain DASA 35030 fixed nitrogen and the morphology of the nodules is the same as those of nodules formed by the other isolates. This is the first report that the strain of Ochrobactrum possesses complete symbiotic ability with Acacia.

  15. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose from Acacia mangium and its reinforcement potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmani, Latifah; Adnan, Sharmiza

    2017-04-01

    Acacia mangium, a fast growing tree is widely planted in Malaysia. Converting Acacia wood into nanocellulose could create new value added products for forest-based industry. Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from Acacia mangium wood pulp via 64wt% sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Prior to acid hydrolysis, Acacia mangium was subjected to pulping followed by bleaching in order to remove non-cellulosic fragments. Acid hydrolysis was carried out on bleached pulp to produce the needle-like NCC with 79% crystallinity and aspect ratio of 26. The resulting NCC was mixed with PVA as a reinforcement material. Incorporation of 2% NCC improved the tensile of the NCC-PVA film by 30%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. National-scale strategic approaches for managing introduced plants: insights from Australian acacias in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    van Wilgen, BW

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia species in South Africa (c. 70 species introduced, mostly > 150 years ago; some have commercial and other values; 14 species are invasive, causing substantial ecological and economic damage). The authors consider options for combining available...

  17. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation the author shares some of his MSc research findings to highlight the effects of Acacia mearnsii density and clearing on grazing provision and related resources....

  18. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  19. Acacia mangium: Growing and utilization. MPTS monograph series No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awang, K.; Taylor, D.

    1993-01-01

    With deforestation in the Asia-Pacific region progressing at the rate of 4.4 million ha per year, many countries have adopted plantation forestry using fast-growing species as a way to sustain the commercial supply of tree products and reduce pressure on natural forests. Acacia mangium (A. mangium) is playing a large role in this development, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, due to its versatility and its ability to recapture grasslands dominated by the noxious weed, Imperata cylindrica. This monograph consolidates information on A. mangium from published literature, unpublished reports and studies, and observations from those familiar with the species. Priorities for future research are included in each chapter and in the final summary.

  20. Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (Mexico) of Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Koeppen, C W; Hermes, M

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Oaxaca (Mexico, 10 km north-west of Puerto Escondido 15 degrees 55' N, 97 degrees 09' W) we were able to collect some microfungi living as parasites or saprophytes on Acacia species, some of them are causing attention for Oaxaca. Many belong to the Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) and Ascomycotina. On A. hindsii: Calonectria pseudopeziza (Desm.) Sacc., Hypoxylon truncatum (Schwein. Fr.) J.H. Miller, Epicoccum nigrum Link., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., M. Roussau & E. Bommer) S.J. Hughes and on A. cornigera: Phyllosticta acaciicola P. Henn., Taeniolella alta (Ehrenb. ex Pers.) S.J. Hughes, Cephaliophora tropica Thaxt., Diplodia mutila (Fr. Fr.) Mont., Pleospora herbarum (Pers. Fr.) Rabenh., Gliocladium roseum Bainier, Ulocladium atrum Preuss., and different others. All species collected are listed in text.

  1. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  2. Nodulation of Acacia Species by Fast- and Slow-Growing Tropical Strains of Rhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, B. L.; Dommergues, Y. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen Acacia species were classified into three groups according to effective nodulation response patterns with fast- and slow-growing tropical strains of Rhizobium. The first group nodulated effectively with slow-growing, cowpea-type Rhizobium strains; the second, with fast-growing Rhizobium strains; and the third, with both fast- and slow-growing Rhizobium strains. The Rhizobium requirements of the Acacia species of the second group were similar to those of Leucaena leucocephala.

  3. Inhibition of the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Media by Naturally Occurring Acacia Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvija Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution by naturally occurring Acacia Senegal has been studied in relation to the concentration of inhibitor and concentration of corrosive medium. It has been observed that the Acacia Senegal alcoholic extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid solution and the adsorption of the extract provides a good protection against mild steel corrosion.

  4. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  5. Effect of acacia honey on cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker-Woon, Choy; Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Hui, Chua Kien; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum

    2014-05-26

    Acacia honey is a natural product which has proven to have therapeutic effects on skin wound healing, but its potential healing effects in corneal wound healing have not been studied. This study aimed to explore the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on corneal keratocytes morphology, proliferative capacity, cell cycle, gene and protein analyses. Keratocytes from the corneal stroma of six New Zealand white rabbits were isolated and cultured until passage 1. The optimal dose of AH in the basal medium (FD) and medium containing serum (FDS) for keratocytes proliferation was identified using MTT assay. The morphological changes, gene and protein expressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), marker for quiescent keratocytes and vimentin, marker for fibroblasts were detected using q-RTPCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Flowcytometry was performed to evaluate the cell cycle analysis of corneal keratocytes. Cultured keratocytes supplemented with AH showed no morphological changes compared to control. Keratocytes cultured in FD and FDS media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed optimal proliferative potential compared with FD and FDS media, respectively. Gene expressions of ADLH and vimentin were increased in keratocytes cultured with AH enriched media. All proteins were expressed in keratocytes cultured in all media in accordance to the gene expression findings. No chromosomal changes were detected in keratocytes in AH enriched media. Corneal keratocytes cultured in media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed an increase in proliferative capacity while retaining their morphology, gene and protein expressions with normal cell cycle. The results of the present study show promising role of AH role in accelerating the initial stage of corneal wound healing.

  6. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  7. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia): a possible therapeutic candidate against Blastocystis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, Sonal; Kumar, Suresh; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2015-06-18

    In the local Malaysian context, herbal plants such as Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali), Orthosiphon stamineus (MisaiKucing), Ficus deltoidea (Mas Cotek), Zingiber officinale (Halia Bara) and Barringtonia racemosa (Putat) are known and widely used for its therapeutic properties. The first part of this study aims to screen for the anti-protozoal activity of these herbal plant extracts against Blastocystis sp. isolate subtype (ST) 3. Herbal extract with the highest efficacy was further fractionized into water and ethyl acetate fractions and tested against ST1, ST3 and ST5 Blastocystis sp. isolates. These isolates were also exposed to allopathic drugs, Metronidazole (MTZ), Tinidazole, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX), Ketoconazole and Nitazoxanide for comparison purpose. Blastocystis sp. isolates from human-derived stool samples were exposed to herbal extracts and allopathic drugs at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml and were incubated at 37 °C. Growth profile studies were carried out. After 72 h of treatment, the viability of Blastocystis sp. as a result of the effects of the drugs and herbal extracts were assessed. Based on the screening process, amongst all the extracts, Tongkat Ali exhibited the highest anti-protozoal activity at 1.0 mg/ml. Between the water and ethyl acetate fractions of Tongkat Ali, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited a slightly higher percentage of anti-protozoal activity at 1.0 mg/ml across subtypes, ST1 (94.9%), ST3 (95.1%) and ST5 (94.3%). When tested with allopathic drugs, at the same concentration, MTZ exhibited the highest anti-protozoal activity across subtypes, ST1 (95.8%), ST3 (93.4%) and ST5 (90.8%). This study is the first to describe the anti-protozoal properties of Tongkat Ali against Blastocystis sp. isolates. Ethyl acetate fraction of Tongkat Ali demonstrated the highest anti-protozoal activity against Blastocystis sp. isolates and showed a sizeable reduction in the cell count which was comparable with MTZ

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN BIOQUÍMICA Y PROPIEDADES VISCOELÁSTICAS DE GOMAS DE Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. y Acacia cochliacantha Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabañas García, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Las gomas son biopolímeros formados principalmente por carbohidratos y en una menor proporción por proteínas. Las proteínas de algunas gomas son del tipo arabinogalactano-proteínas (AGPs). Las características bioquímicas de éstos compuestos son las que definen las propiedades funcionales de las gomas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer algunas de las características bioquímicas y propiedades viscoelásticas de las gomas de Acacia farnesiana y Acacia cochliacantha, dos especies característ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of flower-specific transcripts in Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing Jun; Cao, Xiang Ling; Hong, Yan

    2005-02-01

    Acacia mangium Willd. is a legume tree species native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia and Australia. Many features of its flower development are common to other legume tree species. To identify genes involved in its floral development, we constructed a subtractive flower cDNA library against vegetative tissues. The 1123 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) represented 576 unique genes. Macroarray analysis further identified 147 of these genes as specific to the early, late or whole flowering process. Eight percent of these flower-specific genes encode MADS-domain-containing transcription factors and MYB proteins. Four percent encode other transcription factors and 10% encode regulatory proteins such as G proteins, kinases and phosphatases. Flower-specific transcripts for gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis and GA-induced proteins, as well as other stress- and pathogenesis-related genes (9%), implicate their involvement in A. mangium flower development. Eighteen percent of the flower-specific genes encode hypothetical proteins and 18% encode proteins of unknown functions. The RNA blot hybridization confirmed and detailed the expression patterns of selected genes. Functions of the A. mangium flower-specific genes are discussed based on comparison with their Arabidopsis homologues, most of which have been implicated in Arabidopsis floral development. Our work suggests general conservation of floral development in A. mangium and Arabidopsis. Further characterization of the conserved and different flower-specific genes will delineate the flowering process of this important legume tree species and facilitate genetic modification of its reproduction.

  10. Multi-layered gelatin/acacia microcapsules by complex coacervation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijichi, K.; Yoshizawa, H.; Uemura, Y.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-20

    Microencapsulation of biphenyl was carried out by varying the colloid concentration to investigate the microencapsulation of large oil droplets by the complex coacervation method. In dilute colloid solutions, the traditional model of the complex coacervation method is supported where coacervate droplets formed in the bulk solution adhere to oil droplets. However, in a solution of 3.0 wt% colloid, it was clarified that the microcapsule membrane was formed not by adhesion of the full-grown coacervate droplets, but by growth of small coacervate droplets adhering to oil droplets. Spherical gelatine/acacia microcapsules with thicker membrane were successfully prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation method. The affinity of coacervate droplets to a core material is found to be a dominant factor in microencapsulation in the complex coacervation method. The multi-layered microcapsules endured the release of encapsulated biphenyl, however the singlelayered microcapsules were ruptured within a short time in release experiments, and a serious initial burst was induced. The multi-layered microcapsules prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation can be applied as a dosage form in the controlled release of active agents. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Divergent investment strategies of Acacia myrmecophytes and the coexistence of mutualists and exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; González-Teuber, Marcia; Clement, Lars W; Kautz, Stefanie; Verhaagh, Manfred; Bueno, Juan Carlos Silva

    2009-10-27

    Ant-plant interactions represent a diversity of strategies, from exploitative to mutualistic, and how these strategies evolve is poorly understood. Here, we link physiological, ecological, and phylogenetic approaches to study the evolution and coexistence of strategies in the Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system. Host plant species represented 2 different strategies. High-reward hosts produced significantly more extrafloral nectar (EFN), food bodies, and nesting space than low-reward hosts, even when being inhabited by the same species of ant mutualist. High-reward hosts were more effectively defended against herbivores and exploited to a lower extent by nondefending ants than low-reward hosts. At the phenotypic level, secretion of EFN and ant activity were positively correlated and a mutualistic ant species induced nectar secretion, whereas a nondefending exploiter did not. All of these mechanisms contribute to the stable association of high-reward hosts with defending ant species. However, exploiter ants are less dependent on the host-derived rewards and can colonize considerable proportions of the low-reward hosts. Mapping these strategies onto phylogenetic trees demonstrated that the low-reward hosts represent the derived clade within a monophyletic group of obligate ant plants and that the observed exploiter ant species evolved their strategy without having a mutualistic ancestor. We conclude that both types of host strategies coexist because of variable net outcomes of different investment-payoff regimes and that the effects of exploiters on the outcome of mutualisms can, thus, increase the diversity within the taxa involved.

  12. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Young, Truman P

    2002-05-01

    Condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. We tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. We predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment with the lowest level of herbivory (total exclusion), (2) trees occupied by mutualist ants that protect the trees most aggressively would have lower levels of tannins, and (3) if chemical defense production is costly, there would be a trade-off between tannin concentrations, growth, and mechanical defenses. Mean tannin concentrations increased from total exclusion treatments to wildlife-only treatments to megaherbivore + antelope treatments. In 1997, condensed tannin concentrations were significantly lower in trees occupied by the ant Crematogaster nigriceps, the only ant species that actively removed axillary buds. Contrary to our prediction, trees occupied by ant species that protect the trees more aggressively against mammalian herbivores did not have lower overall levels of condensed tannins. There was no consistent evidence of a trade-off between tannin concentrations and growth rate, but there was a positive correlation between mean thorn length and mean tannin concentrations across species of ant inhabitants and across herbivore treatments in 1997. Contrary to our expectation, trees had higher tannin concentrations in the upper parts of the canopy where there is little herbivory by mammals.

  13. Soil nutritional status and biogeography influence rhizosphere microbial communities associated with the invasive tree Acacia dealbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamutando, Casper N; Vikram, Surendra; Kamgan-Nkuekam, Gilbert; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Greve, Michelle; Roux, Johannes J Le; Richardson, David M; Cowan, Don; Valverde, Angel

    2017-07-26

    Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil. Two bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and two fungal (Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes) classes were enriched in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soils. Changes in nutritional status, possibly induced by A. dealbata, primarily shaped rhizosphere soil communities. Despite a high degree of geographic variability in the diversity and composition of microbial communities, invasive A. dealbata populations shared a core of bacterial and fungal taxa, some of which are known to be involved in N and P cycling, while others are regarded as plant pathogens. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also showed that several functional genes related to plant growth promotion were overrepresented in the rhizospheres of A. dealbata. Overall, results suggest that rhizosphere microbes may contribute to the widespread success of this invader in novel environments.

  14. Eurycomanone and Eurycomanol from Eurycoma longifolia Jack as Regulators of Signaling Pathways Involved in Proliferation, Cell Death and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shéhérazade Hajjouli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycomanone and eurycomanol are two quassinoids from the roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack. The aim of this study was to assess the bioactivity of these compounds in Jurkat and K562 human leukemia cell models compared to peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Both eurycomanone and eurycomanol inhibited Jurkat and K562 cell viability and proliferation without affecting healthy cells. Interestingly, eurycomanone inhibited NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and upstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, but not eurycomanol. In conclusion, both quassinoids present differential toxicity towards leukemia cells, and the presence of the α,β-unsaturated ketone in eurycomanone could be prerequisite for the NF-κB inhibition.

  15. Inhibitive effects of some treatments on the browning rate during the in vitro culture of Acacia karroo Hayne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hong-lang; Janusz Zwolinski; Yin Wei-lun; Liu Yu-jun; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Acacia karroo Hayne is an arbor species widely distributed in South Africa with the characteristics of fast growth and drought resistance. The species was introduced to China recently. In vitro culture is an effective method to rapidly produce plants and a strategy to minimize somaclonal variation among regenerated plants. Browning, however, is a problem in establishing the in vitro culture system. The present study diminished the problem by selecting explants, using different browning inhibitors and chilling treatment. Results showed that the use of embryos as explants reduced the browning ratio to 46.7%, whilst stem segment explants were browned up to 56.7%. The adventitious buds were successfully induced in the modified tissue culture medium supplemented with 5.0 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. The proliferation coefficient of adventitious buds is 2.8.

  16. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  17. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  18. Molecular characterization of a cellulose synthase gene (AaxmCesA1) isolated from an Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Seok Yien Christina; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose is the major component of plant cell walls, providing mechanical strength to the structural framework of plants. In association with lignin, hemicellulose, protein and pectin, cellulose forms the strong yet flexible bio-composite tissue of wood. Wood formation is an essential biological process and is of significant importance to the cellulosic private sector industry. Cellulose synthase genes encode the catalytic subunits of a large protein complex responsible for the biogenesis of cellulose in higher plants. The hybrid Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium represents an important source of tree cellulose for forest-based product manufacturing, with enormous economic potential. In this work, we isolate the first cellulose synthase gene, designated AaxmCesA1, from this species. The isolated full-length AaxmCesA1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 1,064 amino acids. Sequence analyses revealed that AaxmCesA1 cDNA possesses the key motif characteristics of a CesA protein. AaxmCesA1 shares more than 75 % amino acid sequence identity with CesA proteins from other plant species. Subsequently, the full-length AaxmCesA1 gene of 7,389 bp with partial regulatory and 13 intron regions was also isolated. Relative gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR in different tissues of the Acacia hybrid, suggests the involvement of the AaxmCesA1 gene in primary cell wall synthesis of rapidly dividing young root cells. Similarity analyses using Blast algorithms also suggests a role in primary cell wall deposition in the Acacia hybrid. Southern analysis predicts that AaxmCesA1 is a member of a multigene family with at least two isoforms in the genome of the Acacia hybrid.

  19. Isolation and characterization of CCoAOMT in interspecific hybrid of Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium--a key gene in lignin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, S L; Ong, S S; Lee, H H; Zamri, Z; Kandasamy, K I; Choong, C Y; Wickneswari, R

    2014-09-05

    This study was directed at the understanding of the function of CCoAOMT isolated from Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium. Full length cDNA of the Acacia hybrid CCoAOMT (AhCCoAOMT) was 1024-bp long, containing 750-bp coding regions, with one major open reading frame of 249 amino acids. On the other hand, full length genomic sequence of the CCoAOMT (AhgflCCoAOMT) was 2548 bp long, containing three introns and four exons with a 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of 391 bp in length. The 5'UTR of the characterized CCoAOMT gene contains various regulatory elements. Southern analysis revealed that the Acacia hybrid has more than three copies of the CCoAOMT gene. Real-time PCR showed that this gene was expressed in root, inner bark, leaf, flower and seed pod of the Acacia hybrid. Downregulation of the homologous CCoAOMT gene in tobacco by antisense (AS) and intron-containing hairpin (IHP) constructs containing partial AhCCoAOMT led to reduction in lignin content. Expression of the CCoAOMT in AS line (pART-HAS78-03) and IHP line (pART-HIHP78-06) was reduced respectively by 37 and 75% compared to the control, resulting in a decrease in the estimated lignin content by 24 and 56%, respectively. AhCCoAOMT was found to have altered not only S and G units but also total lignin content, which is of economic value to the pulp industry. Subsequent polymorphism analysis of this gene across eight different genetic backgrounds each of A. mangium and A. auriculiformis revealed 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in A. auriculiformis CCoAOMT and 30 SNPs in A. mangium CCoAOMT.

  20. Pharmacognostic Screening, Phytochemical Evaluation and In- Vitro free radical Scavenging Activity of Acacia leucophloea Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deenanath Jhade; Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Praveen Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacognostic Screening and evaluate the in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of roots Acacia leucophloea. Methods: Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico-chemical evaluation of the roots of Acacia leucophloea was carried out to determine its macro-and microscopical characters and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using trinocular microscope. Microscopically, root showed cork, cortex, stellar region and calcium oxalate crystals. Petroleum ether, ethanol, aqueous extracts of Acacia leucophloea were prepared, with successive extraction in soxhlet apparatus. Each extract was selected to study the free radical scavenging activity by superoxide scavenging assay method. Results: It was found that aqueous extract contained carbohydrates, glycosides amino acids flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids; ethanolic extract contained glycosides amino acids flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids. Ethanolic extract of Acacia leucophloea shows maximam inhibition in superoxide scavenging model. Aqueous extract also showed almost similar activity compared to ethanolic extract), while Petroleum ether extract showed poor inhibition of superoxide scavenging activity. Conclusion: The present study on pharmacognostic standardization, physico and phytochemical evaluation of Acacia leucophloea root might be useful to supplement information about its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario lacking regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.

  1. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes.

  2. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  3. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  4. Photosynthesis and antioxidant enzymes of phyllodes of Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu; Ong

    2000-10-16

    Physiological processes are influenced by environmental factors and plant characteristics. The distribution of photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes of Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings was studied in relation to the in vivo photosystem II (PSII) function, photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX)) of phyllodes at different positions on seedlings. There was a vertical gradient in photosynthetic capacity of phyllodes along the shoot. Phyllode 1 (at the apex) showed negative carbon uptake at PPFD lower than 400 µmol m(-2) s(-1). High photosynthetic capacities, chlorophyll concentrations, DeltaF/F'(m), and q(P) were observed in phyllodes 4, 6 and 8. The high photosynthetic capacities of mature phyllodes could be attributed to the enhanced availability of CO(2) and the high efficiency of PSII in energy absorption and utilization. Total SOD and APX activities (on a dry weight basis) were highest at phyllode 1 and decreased as the phyllodes matured. The high photosynthetic capacity and low respiration loss in mature phyllodes could be important factors, responsible for the rapid establishment and fast growth of A. mangium in reforestation programs.

  5. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  6. Acacia honey accelerates in vitro corneal ulcer wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Ker-Woon, Choy; Hui, Chua Kien; Mohd Yusof, Yasmin Anum; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2016-07-29

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on the migration, differentiation and healing properties of the cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts. Stromal derived corneal fibroblasts from New Zealand White rabbit (n = 6) were isolated and cultured until passage 1. In vitro corneal ulcer was created using a 4 mm corneal trephine onto confluent cultures and treated with basal medium (FD), medium containing serum (FDS), with and without 0.025 % AH. Wound areas were recorded at day 0, 3 and 6 post wound creation. Genes and proteins associated with wound healing and differentiation such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen type I, lumican and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) were evaluated using qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Cells cultured with AH-enriched FDS media achieved complete wound closure at day 6 post wound creation. The cells cultured in AH-enriched FDS media increased the expression of vimentin, collagen type I and lumican genes and decreased the ALDH, α-SMA and MMP12 gene expressions. Protein expression of ALDH, vimentin and α-SMA were in accordance with the gene expression analyses. These results demonstrated AH accelerate corneal fibroblasts migration and differentiation of the in vitro corneal ulcer model while increasing the genes and proteins associated with stromal wound healing.

  7. Acute, reproductive toxicity and two-generation teratology studies of a standardized quassinoid-rich extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Bin-Seng; Das, Prashanta Kumar; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2014-07-01

    The roots of Eurycoma longifolia Jack are popularly sought as herbal medicinal supplements to improve libido and general health amongst the local ethnic population. The major quassinoids of E. longifolia improved spermatogenesis and fertility but toxicity studies have not been well documented. The reproductive toxicity, two generation of foetus teratology and the up-and-down acute toxicity were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats orally treated with quassinoid-rich E. longifolia extract (TAF273). The results showed that the median lethal dose (LD50 ) of TAF273 for female and male rats was 1293 and >2000 mg/kg, respectively. Fertility index and litter size of the TAF273 treated were significantly increased when compared with those of the non-treated animals. The TAF273-treated dams decreased in percentage of pre-implantation loss, post-implantation loss and late resorption. No toxic symptoms were observed on the TAF273-treated pregnant female rats and their foetuses were normal. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from reproductive toxicity and teratology studies of TAF273 in rats was 100 mg/kg body weight/day, being more than 10-fold lower than the LD50 value. Thus, any human dose derived from converting the rat doses of 100 mg/kg and below may be considered as safe for further clinical studies.

  8. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  9. The breeding systems of diploid and neoautotetraploid clones of Acacia mangium Willd. in a synthetic sympatric population in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, A R; Vuong, T D; Vaillancourt, R E; Harbard, J L; Harwood, C E; Nghiem, C Q; Thinh, H H

    2012-12-01

    Colchicine-induced neoautotetraploid genotypes of Acacia mangium were cloned and planted in mixture with a set of diploid clones in an orchard in southern Vietnam. Following good general flowering, open-pollinated seed was collected from trees of both cytotypes and microsatellite markers were used to determine the breeding system as characterised by the proportion of outcrosses in young seedling progeny. As predicted from the literature, the progeny of diploid clones were predominantly outcrossed (t(m) = 0.97). In contrast, the progeny of the tetraploid clones were almost entirely selfs (t(m) = 0.02; 3 of 161 seedlings assayed were tetraploid outcrosses and there were no triploids). Segregation at loci heterozygous in the tetraploid mothers followed expected ratios, indicating sexual reproduction rather than apomixis. Post-zygotic factors are primarily responsible for divergence of the breeding systems. Commonly, less than 1 % of Acacia flowers mature as a pod, and after mixed pollination, diploid outcrossed seed normally develops at the expense of selfs. Selfs of the tetraploid trees appear to express less genetic load and have a higher probability of maturing. However, this does not fully explain the observed deficiency of outcross tetraploid progeny. Presumably, there are cytogenetic reasons which remain to be investigated. In nature, selfing would increase the probability of establishment of neotetraploids irrespective of cytotype frequency in the population. Breeders need to review their open-pollinated breeding and seed production strategies. It remains to be seen whether this is an ephemeral problem, with strong fertility selection restoring potential for outcrossing over generations.

  10. The interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic bacteria enhances plant growth of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress

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    Abeer Hashem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance.Key words: AMF, endophyte, Acacia gerrardii, salinity, nutrition

  11. Cambios provocados en el suelo por la invasión de acacias australianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La invasión por acacias australianas altera profundamente tanto las características abióticas del suelo como la estructura de las comunidades microbianas edáficas, modificando los procesos y servicios de los ecosistemas invadidos. En general, las acacias invasoras conllevan un gran aumento del contenido de hojarasca, carbono y nitrógeno, así como modificaciones en los ciclos biogeoquímicos de estos elementos y una disminución de la disponibilidad hídrica en los ecosistemas invadidos. Producen también modificaciones en la diversidad funcional y genética de las comunidades de bacterias y hongos del suelo. Durante la invasión por algunas especies de acacias australianas se ha comprobado además que se produce una co-invasión de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno exóticas asociadas a las acacias. Estas bacterias exóticas pueden asociarse a leguminosas nativas que existen en el ecosistema invadido lo que conlleva una disrupción de la simbiosis entre leguminosas y rizobios nativos. Todos estos cambios en las propiedades abióticas y bióticas del suelo pueden tener consecuencias negativas para las especies vegetales nativas, reduciendo su crecimiento o impidiendo su establecimiento. Además, los cambios introducidos por las acacias refuerzan la invasión ya que favorecen la germinación, crecimiento y capacidad competidora de estas especies. Los estudios realizados sugieren que estos procesos de retroalimentación positivos entre las acacias y los suelos que invaden aumentan con el tiempo de invasión y dificultan la recuperación natural de los ecosistemas.

  12. Characterization and cloning of a stearoyl/oleoyl specific fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase from the seeds of Madhuca longifolia (latifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Santosh K; Bhattacharjee, Ashish; Jha, Jyoti K; Mondal, Ashis K; Maiti, Mrinal K; Basu, Asitava; Ghosh, Dolly; Ghosh, Sudhamoy; Sen, Soumitra K

    2007-12-01

    Deposition of oleate, stearate and palmitate at the later stages of seed development in Mahua (Madhuca longifolia (latifolia)), a tropical non-conventional oil seed plant, has been found to be the characteristic feature of the regulatory mechanism that produces the saturated fatty acid rich Mahua seed fat (commonly known as Mowrah fat). Although, the content of palmitate has been observed to be higher than that of stearate at the initial stages of seed development, it goes down when the stearate and oleate contents consistently rise till maturity. The present study was undertaken in order to identify the kind of acyl-ACP thioesterase(s) that drives the characteristic composition of signature fatty acids (oleate 37%, palmitate 25%, stearate 23%, linoleate 12.5%) in its seed oil at maturity. The relative Fat activities in the crude protein extracts of the matured seeds towards three thioester substrates (oleoyl-, stearoyl- and palmitoyl-ACP) have been found to be present in the following respective ratio 100:31:8. Upon further purification of the crude extract, the search revealed the presence of two partially purified thioesterases: a long-chain oleoyl preferring house-keeping LC-Fat and a novel stearoyl-oleoyl preferring SO-Fat. The characteristic accumulation of oleate and linoleate in the M. latifolia seed fat is believed to be primarily due to the thioesterase activity of the LC-Fat or MlFatA. On the other hand, the SO-Fat showed almost equal substrate specificity towards stearoyl- and oleoyl-ACP, when its activity towards palmitoyl-ACP compared to stearoyl-ACP was only about 12%. An RT-PCR based technique for cloning of a DNA fragment from the mRNA pool of the developing seed followed by nucleotide sequencing resulted in the identification of a FatB type of thioesterase gene (MlFatB). This gene was found to exist as a single copy in the mother plant genome. Ectopic expression of this MlFatB gene product in E. coli strain fadD88 further proved that it induced a

  13. Repellent effect of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) essential oils against the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Benelli, Giovanni; Leonardi, Michele; Afifi, Fatma U; Cervelli, Claudio; Profeti, Raffaele; Pistelli, Luisa; Canale, Angelo

    2012-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) has been one of the fastest spreading insects over the past 20 years. Its medical importance is due to the aggressive daytime human-biting behavior and the ability to vector many viruses, including dengue, LaCrosse, Eastern Equine encephalitis and West Nile viruses. In this research, the essential oils (EOs) extracted from fresh air dried leaves of Salvia dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea (Lamiaceae) were evaluated for their repellent activity against A. albopictus by using the human-bait technique. The EOs chemical composition was also investigated, and EOs were divided in three different profiles on the basis of their chemical composition: EO with large amount of monoterpenes from S. sclarea, EO rich in oxygenated sesquiterpenes from S. dorisiana, and S. longifolia EO characterized by similar percentages of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The efficacy protection from S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs, at dosages ranging from 0.004 to 0.4 μL cm(-2) of skin, was evaluated during 120 min of observation. Results indicated that S. dorisiana, S. longifolia, and S. sclarea EOs had a significant repellent activity (RD(50) =0.00035, 0.00049, and 0.00101 μL cm(-2), respectively), with differences in repellency rates, as a function of oil, dosage, and observation time. S. dorisiana was the most effective oil: at the two higher dosages, it gave almost complete protection (with a protective efficacy of 90.99% and 95.62%, respectively) for 90 min. The best protection time was achieved with S. dorisiana essential oil. It ranged from 9.2 to 92.4 min. Protection times of S. longifolia and S. sclarea oils ranged from 3.2 to 60 min, and from 3.6 to 64.2 min, respectively. Our findings clearly reveal that these EOs have a good repellent activity against A. albopictus, therefore they can be proposed to improve the efficacy of repellent formulations against the Asian tiger mosquito.

  14. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  15. Effet des contraintes hydrique et saline sur la germination de quelques acacias africains

    OpenAIRE

    Ndour, P.; Danthu, P.

    1998-01-01

    Notre étude a porté sur la germination de neuf espèces ouest africaines du genre #Acacia$ originaires de zones bioclimatiques contrastées (#Acacia albida$, #A. dudgeoni$, #A. ehrenbergiana$, #A. nilotica adansonii$, #A. nilotica tomentosa$, #A. raddiana$, #A. senegal$, #A. seyal$ et #A. sieberiana$) soumises à une contrainte saline ou hydrique simulée par apport, dans l'eau d'imbibition des graines, de chlorure de sodium (de 0 à 40 g/l, correspondant à une pression osmotique de 0 à -2,4 MPa),...

  16. Purification of anthocyanins from species of Banksia and Acacia using high-voltage paper electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenstorfer, Robert E; Morgan, Anne L; Hayasaka, Yoji; Sedgley, Margaret; Jones, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the isolation and rapid identification of anthocyanins from two floricultural crops based on the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis with bisulphite buffer. Using this method, anthocyanin pigments were successfully purified as their negatively charged bisulphite-addition compounds from crude extracts of plant tissue. In conjunction with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, the method enabled the anthocyanins from the flowers of two Banksia species and the leaves of two Acacia species to be identified. The Banksia flowers contained both cyanidin and peonidin-based pigments, while the Acacia leaves contained cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives.

  17. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

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    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  18. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

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    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae. En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos preparados con las raíces de ambas plantas. A estos extractos, se les determinó el rendimiento de sólidos solubles totales y se les realizó el análisis fitoquímico general. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó frente a 25 cultivos bacterianos, dos cepas de hongos filamentosos y 13 cepas de siete especies de levaduras del género Candida. En ambas plantas, los extractos etanólicos tuvieron mayor actividad que los acuosos. Los extractos etanólicos de estas especies vegetales afectaron el crecimiento de siete cepas bacterianas, lo cual correspondió al 28 % de los cultivos evaluados. Esta actividad fue bacteriostática y bactericida para los dos extractos, a los que se les determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitoria (CMI y Bactericida (CMB frente a los cultivos sensibles. Solo se detectó actividad antifúngica por el extracto de W. indica sobre la cepa de C. utilis. La acción sobre bacterias enteropatógenas in vitro valida el uso de estas plantas en medicina tradicional y reafirma la necesidad de estudios toxicológicos para asegurar la inocuidad de su uso.

  19. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and fluorescent pseudomonads on Acacia holosericea: isolation of mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) from a Soudano-Sahelian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founoune, Hassna; Duponnois, Robin; Meyer, Jean Marie; Thioulouse, Jean; Masse, Dominique; Chotte, Jean Luc; Neyra, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Abstract Acacia holosericea seedlings were planted in 1-l pots filled with a soil collected from an Australian Acacia plantation in Southern Senegal. After 6 months of culture, mycorrhizosphere soil, roots, galls induced by root-knot nematodes and Rhizobium nodules were sampled from each pot. The diversity of this bacterial group was characterized by siderotyping (pyoverdine IsoElectric Focusing (IEF) analysis) and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The effect of these isolates on the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between an Australian Acacia (A. holosericea) and Pisolithus sp. strain IR100 was studied. In the mycorrhizosphere soil, the population of fluorescent pseudomonads was represented by strains of two different siderovars (groups of bacterial strains presenting an identical pyoverdine-IEF pattern): siderovar 1 (74%) and siderovar 2 (26%). The siderotyping of the isolates around galls of the root-knot nematodes revealed three siderovars (40% from siderovar 1, 40% from siderovar 2 and about 15% from siderovar 3). RFLP of 16S rDNA divided the isolates into four different groups with MspI, two with HhaI and two with HaeIII endonucleases. The establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with A. holosericea was promoted by 14 bacterial strains isolated from the mycorrhizosphere soil, three isolates from the roots and four from the galls. Shoot biomass of A. holosericea seedlings was stimulated by eight bacterial isolates from soil, six isolates from galls and seven from roots. These mycorrhiza helper bacteria could have a great ecological importance in tropical areas through the reforestation programs.

  20. The impact of kleptoparasitic invasions on the evolution of gall-size in social and solitary Australian Acacia thrips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THOMAS WILLIAM CHAPMAN; KAREN LEAH FRANCIS-GEYER; MICHAEL PHILIP SCHWARZ

    2006-01-01

    Many species of gall-inducing Acacia thrips are attacked by kleptoparasitic thrips who enter the gall, destroy the occupants, and then use the gall for producing their own offspring. The hypothesis tested here is that pressure exerted by kleptoparasites (genus Koptothrips) not only provoked the evolution of soldiers in the gall-inducing clade, but have also influenced the evolution of gall size and morphology. Various size dimensions of invaded galls were compared to those of uninvaded galls using data from six gall-inducing species and their kleptoparasites. For the non-social gall-inducing species (K. ellobus and K.nicholsoni) invaded galls showed no significant size differences from galls that had not been invaded. For the four social gall-inducingspecies (K. habrus, K. intermedius, K. waterhousei and K. morrisi) invaded galls were significantly narrower and/or shorter than uninvaded galls. Galls of social species that had not been invaded and contained adult soldiers were significantly larger than galls where soldiers were still at a larval stage, suggesting that gall size is related to gall age in these species. An hypothesis is proposed that links the timing of invasion by kleptoparasites to size of the host gall: induction of a smaller gall by host founders will reduce the period of vulnerability to invasion (before soldiers become adults)for social thrips by allowing foundresses in these smaller galls to begin laying soldierdestined eggs relatively sooner.

  1. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: receptividade de estigmas Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: stigma receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl-Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a receptividade de estigmas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. em 20 árvores da Área de Produção de Sementes (APS da Fazenda Locatelli, da empresa SETA S.A., no município de Butiá (RS e comparar os períodos de receptividade de estigmas e de viabilidade polínica em diversas fases da abertura floral. Foi utilizado como método de colorimetria o reagente de Baker para indicar a receptividade e a viabilidade. As análises foram conduzidas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e a estatística χ2 foi utilizada para verificar a significância dos eventos estudados. Foi observada receptividade no início da abertura floral (71%, alcançando a total receptividade (100% em plena antese. A viabilidade polínica foi detectada no início da antese (77% e em total abertura floral (88%. Na fase de senescência foram observados estigmas receptivos (50% e políades viáveis (23%. Há sobreposição da fase de viabilidade masculina e de receptividade feminina, aumentando as chances de autopolinização. Na maioria das árvores analisadas (85% foi observada a total receptividade (100% nos estigmas amostrados. Em três árvores (15% observou-se uma média inferior a 95% de estigmas receptivos. Não foi observada diferença significativa pelo teste do χ2 na receptividade dos estigmas no germoplasma analisado, sugerindo que o genótipo não interfere diretamente para a receptividade dos estigmas.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stigma receptivity of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. in 20 trees of the Seed Production Area on the Fazenda Locatelli of the company SETA S.A., in the county of Butiá, state of Rio Grande do Sul, and to compare the periods of stigma receptivity and pollen viability at different stages of flower opening. The colorimetry method of the Baker reagent was used to determine receptivity and viability. The analyses were evaluated in a completely randomized design and the χ2 statistics were used to

  2. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  3. MODEL PENDUGAAN POTENSI PRODUKSI BENIH ACACIA MANGIUM PADA BERBAGAI BENTUK SUMBER BENIH

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    Yulianti Bramasto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis tanaman hutan yang banyak diminati untuk dijadikan bahan baku industri kehutanan, khususnya industri pulp dan paper adalah Acacia mangium, sehingga kebutuhan benih berkualitas jenis ini cukup tinggi. Untuk itu telah dibangun berbagai model sumber benih jenis Acacia mangium, khususnya oleh Balai Penelitian Teknologi Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan Bogor, diberbagai lokasi penanaman. Penanaman antara lain dilaksanakan di Kebun Benih Parungpanjang, Majalengka dan Gunung Kencana Banten. Bentuk sumber benih yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah: Tegakan Benih Provenan di Parungpanjang dan Tegakan Benih Uji Multilokasi di Gunung Kencana dan Majalengka. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model pendugaan potensi produksi benih Acacia mangium pada berbagai tipe sumber benih.Metode yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling dengan menggunakan analisis regresi. Pendugaan potensi produksi berdasarkan peubah bebas yaitu diameter, tinggi, lebar tajuk dan jumlah cabang sedangkan peubah tetap adalah berat benih bersih dan berat benih kotor.Berdasarkan hasil uji t semua peubah bebas yang digunakan tidak berbeda nyata. Nilai korelasi pada setiap model sumber benih berkisar antara 0,179-0,409. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan peubah tinggi, diameter, lebar tajuk dan jumlah cabang dalam menduga potensi produksi benih Acacia mangium di tegakan benih provenan Parung Panjang, tegakan uji multilokasi Majalengka dan Gunung Kencana adalah berkisar 17,9 - 40,9%.

  4. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

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    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  5. Biomass and nutrient mass of Acacia dealbata and Eucalyptus globulus bioenergy plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy J. Albaugh; Rafael A. Rubilar; Chris A. Maier; Eduardo A. Acuña; Rachel L. Cook

    2017-01-01

    We quantified biomass and nutrient accumulation of Acacia dealbata Link and Eucalyptus globulus Labill. planted at stem densities of 5000 and 15000 ha-1 in a bioenergy plantation in Chile. We tested the hypotheses that species and stocking will not affect biomass or nutrient accumulation. Species and...

  6. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  7. Early field performance of Acacia koa seedlings grown under subirrigation and overhead irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony S. Davis; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray [Fabaceae]) seedlings were grown with subirrigation and overhead irrigation systems in an effort to characterize post-nursery field performance. One year following outplanting, we found no differences in seedling height or survival, but root-collar diameter was significantly larger for subirrigated seedlings. This indicates that koa seedlings,...

  8. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region.

  9. A comparison Comparison between analgesic effects of aqueous ethanolic extract of mentha longifolia and morphine in male rats

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    Ezatollah Paknia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Long-term consumption of many drugs followed by reduction of their effectiveness has necessitated performing research on new analgesics .Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of mentha longifolia and morphine in mice using writhing and hot plate tests. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 male rats were divided into 7 equal groups. The groups included the control, three experimental groups receiving 400, 800, or 1600 mg/kg of mentha extract and three experimental groups which received 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg of morphine .In order to measure pain, the two acceptable tests, writhing and hot plate tests, were applied. Pain scores were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45 or 60 min after administration of algogenic stimulus. Results: It was found that in hot plate test, only the dose of 1600mg/kg of Mentha extract after 60 minutes was significantly able to exert an analgesic effect (P<0.05. In wrighting test, mentha extract at different doses significantly reduced the number and time of wrightes in the rats, comparable to morphine (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that all doses of mentha extract in wrighting test have analgesic effects which indicate chronic pain inhibition of mentha hydroalcholic extract.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity studies on Carissa congesta, Polyalthia longifolia, and Benincasa hispida extracts by Sulforhodamine B assay method

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    Gaurav Mahesh Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indian medicinal plants have contributed to the growth of world′s ethnopharmacological heritage. Roots of Carissa congesta (CC powder are mixed with horse urine, lime juice, and camphor and used as remedies for relieving itching conditions, Polyalthia longifolia (PL leaves are aromatic and used for decoration in festivals as sonamukhi and Benincasa hispida (BH seeds provide treatment for cough and vitiated conditions of pitta. Aims of the Study: In the current studies, crude petroleum ether extracts (BH and CC and ethanolic extract of (PL were screened for in vitro cytotoxicity activity using different cell lines. Settings and Design: In the experiment, human colon cancer HCT15, human breast cancer MCF7 and human leukemia MOLT4 cell lines were studied on the extracts. Materials and Methods: The method used was Sulforhodamine B (SRB assay method in which growth inhibition of 50% (GI 50 was analyzed by comparing it with standard drug Adriamycin (ADR (doxorubicin. Results: The CC and PL extracts showed equivalent activity to ADR (doxorubicin for human breast cancer cell line MCF7 and human leukemia cell line MOLT4 respectively. BH extract did not show satisfactory activity on selected cell lines. Conclusion: In the future, new cell lines may be screened in order to check the potency of CC, PL, and BH extracts.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Cholinesterase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Properties of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana and Its Secondary Metabolites

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    Abdulselam Ertaş

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds, the essential oil and fatty acid compositions of Mentha longifolia subsp. noeana with their biological activities. Ursolic acid (1, u vaol (2, stigmast-5-ene-3 b -yl formate (3, stigmast-5-en-3-one (4, b -sitosterol (5, bis(2-ethylhexyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate (6,hexacosyl (E-ferulate (7 and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxy flavone (8 were obtained from the aerial parts. The compounds (2-4, 6, 7 were isolated for the first time from a Mentha species. Palmitic acid (40.8% was the major component of the non-polar fraction obtained from the petroleum ether extract. Pulegone (32.3% was the main constituent of the essential oil which exhibited strong butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (77.36 ± 0.29%, moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The methanol extract showed 80% inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and the acetone extract possessed moderate DPPH free radical scavenging activity (60% inhibition at 100 m g/mL.

  12. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha longifolia L. Hudson, Dryed by Three Different Techniques

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    Dragana Stanisavljević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of drying the fresh herbal material influences the chemical content and the biological activities of their essential oils. The influence of the different drying methods of the herb Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracted essential oils has been analyzed in this study. Drying has been carried out in three ways: in the natural way, in the laboratory oven (45°C and in the absorptional low-temperature condensational drier (35°C. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has been estimated by FRAP and DPPH assays, while the antimicrobial activity has been estimated by the diffusible and micro-delusional method, testing on the nine types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The essential oil obtained from the herb dried in the natural way has shown the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest from the herb dried in the laboratory oven. Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis have shown the highest sensitivity on the three samples. The oil obtained from the herb dried in the absorptional low-temperature drier has shown the strongest antimicrobial effect.

  13. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Polyalthia longifolia Leaf Extract along with D-Sorbitol: Study of Antibacterial Activity

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    S. Kaviya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract as reducing and capping agent along with D-sorbitol used to increase the stability of the nanoparticles has been reported. The reaction is carried out at two different concentrations (10−3 M and 10−4 M of silver nitrate, and the effect of temperature on the synthesis of AgNPs is investigated by stirring at room temperature (25°C and at 60°C. The UV-visible spectra of NPs showed a blue shift with increasing temperature at both concentrations. FT-IR analysis shows that the biomoites played an important role in the reduction of Ag+ ions and the growth of AgNPs. TEM results were utilized for the determination of the size and morphology of nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles are found to be highly toxic against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Olifantinvloed op Acacia Nigrescens-bome in 'n gedeelte van die Punda Milia- Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

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    A. H Engelbrecht

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Olifantinvloed op groot Acacia nigrescens (knop- piesdoring borne in die Punda Milia-Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin, is in Desernber 1978 ondersoek. 'n Monster van 951 borne toon dat die voortbestaan van die boornpopulasie bedreig word. Elephant impact on Acacia nigrescens trees in a section of the Punda Milia-Sandveld of the Kruger National Park. An investigation of elephant impact on tall Acacia nigrescens trees in the Punda Milia- Sandveld of the Kruger National Park was conducted during December 1978. A sample of 951 trees showed that the tree population is endangered.

  15. Improving Acacia auriculiformis seedlings using microbial inoculant (Beneficial Microorganisms)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayezid M. Khan; M.K. Hossain; M.A.U. Mridha

    2014-01-01

    A microbial inoculant, known as effective microorganisms (EM), was applied to determine its efficacy on seed germination and seedling growth in the nursery of Acacia auriculiformis A Cunn. ex Benth. The seedlings were grown in a mixture of sandy soil and cow dung (3:1) and kept in polybags;EM was poured at different concentra-tions (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%). Seed germination rate and growth parameters of seedlings - shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, vigor, volume, and quality indices and stur-diness - were measured. The nodulation status influenced by EM was also observed, along with the measurement of pigment contents in leaves. The highest germination rate (72%) was observed in 2% EM solution while the lowest (55%) was found in control treatment. The highest shoot and root lengths (30.6 cm and 31.2 cm respectively) were recorded in 2%EM and were significantly (p <0.05) different from control. Both fresh and dry weights of shoots were maximum (8.66 g and 2.99 g respectively) in 2% EM, whereas both fresh and dry weights of root were maximum (2.56 g and 1.23 g respectively) in 5%EM solution. Although the highest vigor index, volume index, and sturdiness (4450, 628 and 67.5 respec-tively) were found in 2% EM, the highest quality index (0.455) was found in 5%EM solution. The nodule number was higher at a very low (0.5%) concentration of EM but it normally decreased with the increase of concentration. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and caro-tenoid were maximum (43.26 mg⋅L-1, 13.56 mg⋅L-1and 17.99 mg⋅L-1 respectively) in 2%EM. Therefore, low concentration of EM (up to 2%)can be recommended for getting maximum seed germination and seed-ling development of A. auriculiformis in the nursery.

  16. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

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    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  17. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict.

  18. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of a standardized quassinoids composition from Eurycoma longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

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    Kind Leng Tong

    Full Text Available Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40 containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Bacillus thermoamylovorans Strains Isolated from Milk and Acacia Gum, a Food Ingredient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krawczyk, Antonina O; Berendsen, Erwin M; Eijlander, Robyn T; de Jong, Anne; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Bacillus thermoamylovorans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can contaminate food products, leading to their spoilage. Here, we present the whole-genome sequences of four B. thermoamylovorans strains, isolated from milk and acacia gum.

  20. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

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    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  1. Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees Acacia and Prosopis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Leena A; Lindström, Kristina

    2003-10-01

    N2-fixing, drought tolerant and multipurpose Acacia and Prosopis species are appropriate trees for reforestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Acacia and Prosopis trees form N2-fixing nodules with a wide range of rhizobia, for example African acacias mainly with Sinorhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp., and Australian acacias with Bradyrhizobium sp. Although dry and hot seasons restrict formation of N2-fixing nodules on Acacia and Prosopis spp., fully grown trees and their symbiotic partners are well adapted to survive in harsh growth conditions. This review on one hand deals with major constraints of arid and semiarid soils, i.e. drought, salinity and high soil temperature, which affect growth of trees and rhizobia, and on the other hand with adaptation mechanisms by which both organisms survive through unfavourable periods. In addition, defects in infection and nodulation processes due to various abiotic and biotic constraints are reviewed. This knowledge is important when Acacia and Prosopis seedlings are used for forestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid tropics.

  2. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M L; Cannon, Charles H; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2011-07-05

    Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168) and one legume-specific family (miR2086). Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium, respectively, thus yielding useful markers for

  3. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

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    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  4. THE IN-VIVO EFFECTS OF PARTIALLY PURIFIED SUB-FRACTION (TAF2 OF THE CRUDE METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA ROOTS ON THE HAEMATOLOGICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOLOGY PARAMETERS

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    Narazah Mohd Yusoff et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia Jack has been widely used in traditional medicine for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and anticancer activities. As yet, no study has been done on biosafety of partially purified sub-fraction (TAF2 of the crude methanolic extract of E. longifolia roots. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effects of TAF2 on the haematological, biochemical and histology parameters in nude mice. Male nude mice were treated orally with TAF2 (200 mg/Kg/mouse every other day for 16 days. Untreated mice were used as controls. Blood samples were collected by intra-cardiac puncture and haematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by using animal blood counter and automated chemistry analyzer, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin stain (H&E was used to evaluate the histopathology changes. Blood cells morphology was assessed by Wright stain of the thin blood films. The results showed normal blood haematology and clinical chemistry. Histological examination of TAF2 treated vital organs (kidney, liver and spleen of mice showed no apparent change with the dose used. In conclusion, E. longifolia root methanolic extract is safe on short-term exposur.

  5. Comparative study of chemistry compositions and antimicrobial potentials of essential oils and oleoresins from dried and freshMentha longifolia L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunita Singh; Shiv Saran Das; Gurdip Singh; Marina Perotti; Carola Schuff; Csar Cataln

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the chemical compositions and antimicrobial potentials of the essential oils and oleoresins obtained from fresh and driedMentha longifolia L. Methods: Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer techniques were used to determine the profiling of the essential oils and oleoresins. In order to determine the antimicrobial efficacy of the volatile oil and oleoresins, the pathogenic fungusAspergillus niger (1884),Aspergillus flavus (2479),Fusarium monoliforme (1893),Fusarium graminearum (2088) andPenicillium viridicatum (2007) were undertaken whereas four pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis (1790),Staphylococcus aureus (3103) (Gram-positive),Escherichia coli (1672),Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1942) (Gram-negative) were selected for the present study. Food poisoned, inverted Petri plate, agar well diffusion and disk diffusion methods were employed for investigating antimicrobial potentials. Results:Piperitenone oxide, an oxygenated monoterpene, dominated the chemical compositions of essential oils and oleoresins whose compositions varied from 23.5%–87.8%. Both essential oils showed good antifungal activities againstAspergillus andFusarium species. The antibacterial investigations revealed that Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to the essential oils. Conclusions: Drying the fresh herbal materials influences the chemical contents and the biological activities of the essential oils and oleoresins. Such results indicate that essential oils ofMentha longifolia L. can be possible candidates for further investigations to isolate and characterize their active principles as possible new natural preservatives.

  6. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites.

  7. STUDIES ON DIURETIC AND LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Sumanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diuretic and laxative activity of aqueous extract of Acacia suma (Roxb. barks (Family: Fabaceae were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o. and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The aqueous extract (400 mg/kg has shown significant increase in the volume of urine, urinary concentration of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions. However 200mg/kg dose failed to do so. On the other hand the extract was found to produce significant laxative activity in dose dependant manner. Presence of different phytoconstituents in aqueous extract of Acacia suma may be responsible for the specific activities.

  8. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.C.; Wong, J.P.K.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, J.W.C.; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Inst. of Natural Resources and Waste Management

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a greenhouse study conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized ({lt} 53{mu}m) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seeding growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  9. Chemotaxonomic significance of flavonoids, coumarins and triterpenes of Augusta longifolia (Spreng. Rehder, Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae, with new insights about its systematic position within the family Significância quimiotaxômica de flavonoides, cumarinas e triterpenos de Augusta longifolia (Spreng. Rehder, Rubiaceae-Ixoroideae, com novos entendimentos sobre a posição sistemática dentro da família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Choze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augusta has traditionally been placed in the tribe Rondeletieae, subfamily Cinchonoideae. However, recent molecular phylogenies positioned it near to Wendlandia (Ixoroideae, but locate A. longifolia near to the clade Ixoroidinae II. The study of A. longifolia afforded two coumarins, five flavonoids, three triterpenoids and one benzoic acid derivative. These metabolites reinforce the separation of Augusta as a monospecific genus, and Lindenia as a genus of three species, closely related to Wendlandia.Augusta tem sido tradicionalmente colocada na tribo Rondeletieae, Cinchonoideae subfamília. No entanto, recentes filogenias moleculares posicionou-a perto de Wendlandia, porém localizando A. longifolia perto do clado Ixoroidinae II. O estudo de A. longifolia resultou em duas cumarinas, cinco flavonoides, três triterpenoides e um derivado do ácido benzóico. Estes metabolitos reforçam a separação da Augusta como um gênero monoespecífico, e Lindenia como um gênero de três espécies, intimamente relacionada com Wendlandia.

  10. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, M.; Jimenez-Aleman, G.; W Boland

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new part...

  11. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    OpenAIRE

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protect...

  12. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plants express numerous ‘pathogenesis-related’ (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extra-floral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EF...

  13. Isolation of Protoplasts from Various Tissues of Acacia mangium Cultured in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji; KOJIMA, Katsumi; SASAKI, Satohiko

    1993-01-01

    Various enzyme combinations were tested for protoplast isolation from compound leaves of in vitro cultured shoots of Acacia mangium. The combination of 1% Cellulase 'ONOZUKA'RS, 0.2% Pectolyase Y-23 and 2% Driselase was optimal to obtain a high yields of protoplasts. The protoplasts were also successfully isolated from compound leaves and cotyledons of young seedlings and callus, but not from phyllode.

  14. TEKNIK PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN DAN METODE PERKECAMBAHAN UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BENIH Acacia crassicarpa HASIL PEMULIAAN

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Megawati Megawati; Budi Leksono

    2013-01-01

    Acacia crassicarpa improved seed has a higher quality than unimproved seed. To maintain the viability, improved seeds are required as appropriate handling techniques. One of the important steps in seed handling is seed germination test. A. crassicarpa seed have dormancy and to break it needs spesific pretreatment. Germination test can be worked in the laboratory and greenhouse. The purpose of this research was to obtain pretreatment and germination method better to maintain the viability of A...

  15. Effects of Different Pretreatments to the Seed on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Acacia polyacantha

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    Edward Missanjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyacantha Willd. is a multipurpose tree species prioritised as one of the agroforestry tree species in Malawi. However, its use in agroforestry practices is limited by the low seedling growth and survival at the nursery stage. A study was conducted to evaluate the seedling growth and survival of Acacia polyacantha as affected by different pretreatments on the seeds at Malawi College of Forestry and Wildlife nursery, Malawi. Seeds were subjected to five presowing seed treatments methods, namely, immersion in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours, immersion in hot water (100°C for 5 minutes, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (0.3 M H2SO4 for 20 minutes, scarification by mechanically nicking using secateurs, and a control where seeds were sown without any treatment. The results indicate that presowing seed treatments have positive influence on the seedling growth and survival percentage. Nicked seeds exhibited the highest significant (P<0.001 performance for vegetative characteristics of height, root collar diameter, number of leaves, and survival percentage compared to other pretreatments. Therefore, it is suggested to use nicking as a pretreatment method on Acacia polyacantha seeds in order to enhance the speed and the amount of early seedling growth at the nursery stage.

  16. Studies on the Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solutions using Modified Acacia nilotica Leaf

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    Thilagavathy Palanisamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sustainable and biodegradable Acacia nilotica leaf (AN was chemically modified to remove Cu(II from aqueous solutions, which is considered a versatile approach to clean contaminated aquatic environments. Zinc chloride-modified Acacia nilotica leaf (ZAN was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and other physico-chemical parameters like pHZPC. The aim was to assess the efficiency and mechanism of adsorption on Acacia nilotica via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Harkin-Jura, and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill, kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters. To optimize the removal efficiency, parameters such as effect of initial concentration, effect of pH, dosage, initial concentration, and contact time were studied by batch and column methods. Desorption studies illustrated that about 73% of the metal ions could be removed using 0.2N HCl. The results of the present investigation indicated that ZAN has a high potential for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solutions, and the resultant data can serve as a base line for designing treatment plants on an industrial scale.

  17. Hydraulic conductance of Acacia phyllodes (foliage) is driven by primary nerve (vein) conductance and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Katy E; Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    We determined effects of venation traits on hydraulic conductance of phyllodes (foliage), using an array of Acacia s.str. species with diverse phyllode morphologies as the source of variation. Measurements were made on phyllodes from 44 species, grown in common gardens but originating from different positions along a precipitation gradient. K(phyllode) varied 18-fold and was positively correlated with primary nerve hydraulic conductance, and with primary nerve (vein) density but not with minor nerve density, in contrast with previous studies of true leaves in other dicotyledons. Phyllodes with higher primary nerve density also had greater mass per area (PMA) and larger bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) from their minor nerves. We suggest that higher primary nerve conductivity and density may decrease the distance travelled in the high-resistance extra-xylem pathways of the phyllode. Further, larger BSEs may increase the area available for dispersion of water from the xylem to the extra-xylem tissue. High PMA phyllodes were more common in acacias from areas receiving lower annual precipitation. Maximizing efficient water movement through phyllodes may be more important where rainfall is meagre and infrequent, explaining relationships between nerve patterns and the climates of origin in Australian phyllodinous Acacia.

  18. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

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    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  19. Pollen viability reduction as a potential cost of ant association for Acacia constricta (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D

    2000-05-01

    Field studies investigating the impact of ants on the reproduction of plants bearing extrafloral nectaries have traditionally focused on seed production, a component of female fitness. The purpose of this study was to test whether ants can affect the pollen viability, a component of male fitness, when they visit flowers of the shrub Acacia constricta. Acacia constricta inflorescences hand-pollinated with flowers over which Formica perpilosa ants had crawled set significantly fewer seed pods than inflorescences hand-pollinated by control flowers that had no contact with ants. Many ant species secrete antibiotic substances onto the integument that render pollen inviable, and these secretions are probably the mechanism for reduced pollen viability in this study. The ratio of seed pods produced by self-pollinated inflorescences to those produced by cross-pollinated inflorescences was 0.16, indicating that A. constricta is largely self-incompatible. Because F. perpilosa workers forage primarily on the acacia tree under which they nest, they are unlikely to serve as efficient vectors of outcrossing. Previous work showed that A. constricta shrubs with F. perpilosa ants produce approximately twice as many seeds as similarly sized plants not so associated. The results indicate that association with F. perpilosa could cause a reproductive trade-off for A. constricta: benefits to female function may be accompanied by costs to male function. Selection to discourage ant visitation to flowers may have affected the pollination biology of this and other ant-associated plant species.

  20. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community.

  1. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  2. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  3. Analysis and Comparison on Anatomic Features and Properties of 4 Acacia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junliang; PANG Yu

    2006-01-01

    The anatomic features and fiber morphology for 4 acacia species were investigated by the method of comparative analysis.Physical and mechanical properties such as air-dry density,dimension stability,MOR,MOE and toughness were also measured and compared.Results indicate that A.crassicarpa is of the greatest average fiber length and A.mangium is of the greatest average vessel length,which are 1 179.6 μmand 333.1 μm,respectively.Fiber morphology of all 4 acacia species accords with the requirement on pulping and paper-making,so the 4 acacia timbers can be used for pulpwood.A.cincinata is of the greatestair-dry density 721 kg/m3 and greatest basic density 617 kg/m3,however,A.mangium is of the best dimensional stability because of its smallest coefficient of shrinkage.With the highest value of every index,A.cincinata isof the best mechanical properties.

  4. Aromatic compounds degradation plays a role in colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana and Acacia caven by Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Thomas; Zúñiga, Ana; Kraiser, Tatiana; Dasencich, Paola; Donoso, Raúl; Pérez-Pantoja, Danilo; González, Bernardo

    2012-05-01

    Plant rhizosphere and internal tissues may constitute a relevant habitat for soil bacteria displaying high catabolic versatility towards xenobiotic aromatic compounds. Root exudates contain various molecules that are structurally related to aromatic xenobiotics and have been shown to stimulate bacterial degradation of aromatic pollutants in the rhizosphere. The ability to degrade specific aromatic components of root exudates could thus provide versatile catabolic bacteria with an advantage for rhizosphere colonization and growth. In this work, Cupriavidus pinatubonensis JMP134, a well-known aromatic compound degrader (including the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate, 2,4-D), was shown to stably colonize Arabidopsis thaliana and Acacia caven plants both at the rhizoplane and endorhizosphere levels and to use root exudates as a sole carbon and energy source. No deleterious effects were detected on these colonized plants. When a toxic concentration of 2,4-D was applied to colonized A. caven, a marked resistance was induced in the plant, showing that strain JMP134 was both metabolically active and potentially beneficial to its host. The role for the β-ketoadipate aromatic degradation pathway during plant root colonization by C. pinatubonensis JMP134 was investigated by gene inactivation. A C. pinatubonensis mutant derivative strain displayed a reduced ability to catabolise root exudates isolated from either plant host. In this mutant strain, a lower competence in the rhizosphere of A. caven was also shown, both in gnotobiotic in vitro cultures and in plant/soil microcosms.

  5. Podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium Heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. A observação dos sintomas iniciais em ferimentos de poda indica que a desrama artificial é um fator de predisposição. Estimativas realizadas em dois talhões comerciais constataram cerca de 8 e 39% de incidência da doença em árvores de três anos. Isolamentos a partir de árvores sintomáticas e testes de patogenicidade demonstram que Lasiodiplodia theobromae pode contribuir no processo de podridão. Este é o primeiro relato da podridão-do-lenho em A. mangium no Brasil, o que pode limitar sua exploração comercial.The objective of this work was to report the occurrence of heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, Brazil. Observations of symptoms initiating from pruning wounds indicated that the artificial pruning is a predisposing factor. A survey carried out in two commercial stands showed 8 and 39% of disease incidence in three-year-old trees. Isolations performed from symptomatic trees and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can incite the rot development. This is the first record of A. mangium heartrot in Brazil. The disease can restrict its commercial exploration.

  6. Persistent pods of the tree Acacia caven: a natural refuge for diverse insects including Bruchid beetles and the parasitoids Trichogrammatidae, Pteromalidae and Eulophidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rousse, D

    2006-01-01

    The persistent pods of the tree, Acacia caven that do not fall from the tree provide opportunities for the appearance of a diverse group of insects the following season. Such pods collected during the spring of 1999 in Chile were indehiscent with highly sclerified pod walls. In contrast, persistent pods collected in Uruguay after a wet winter and spring (2002) were partially dehiscent, inducing the deterioration of the woody pods, and consequently exposing the seeds. These persistent pods are a natural refuge for insect species, namely two bruchid beetles (Pseudopachymeria spinipes, Stator furcatus), one scolytidae (Dendroctonus sp), lepidopterous larvae, ant colonies (Camponotus sp), one species of oophagous parasitoid (Uscana espinae group senex), the gregarious larval-pupae parasitoid Monoksa dorsiplana (Pteromalidae) and two species of Horismenus spp. (Eulophidae). The patriline of M. dorsiplana is frequently formed by 1 son + 7 daughters.

  7. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  8. Comparative analysis of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samriti Faujdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC. Hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Hydroalcoholic extract of the bark at the dose of 50 mg/kg (6.10 ± 0.30 and leaves at a dose of 100 mg/kg (5.72 ± 0.39 after 45 min exhibited significant (P < 0.001 analgesic activity in hot plate test, which was comparable to Tramadol (6.11 ± 0.31 at a dose of 10 mg/kg. However, in acetic acid-induced writhing test, hydroalcoholic extract of both bark (90% and leaves (90.91% showed maximum protection from acetic acid at the dose of 100 mg/kg as compared to standard drug (50.91% at a dose of 5 mg/kg. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves at a dose of 400 mg/kg had significantly (74.68% inhibited the inflammation as comparable to indomethacin (82.8% after 3 h of induction of carrageenan. It is concluded that hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves have central analgesic and peripheral analgesic effects, respectively. Both hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves significantly reduced the paw oedema at a dose of 400 mg/kg and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity.

  9. Minerals disappearance rate of leaves of some acacia trees after digestion in goats’ rumen using nylon bags technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al shafei N. K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The browse plants, including acacia species, provide excellent forage with high nutritive value for ruminants especially in dry areas of Africa. In this study, some minerals (P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined in leaves of browse plants (Acacia albida, Acacia nubica, Acacia sieberiana, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus spina- christi collected from different areas of Sudan before and after digestion of the sample in goat’s rumen by using nylon bag technique. Nylon bags containing the samples were inserted through the rumen fistula into the goat’s rumen, and were incubated for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. After incubation periods, it was found that there were a high loss of minerals and this is attributed to the rumen digestion and solubility of minerals in rumen liquor. The results indicate that the time of incubation and the type of mineral likely had a significant effect on the loss of minerals in the rumen. It can be observed from these figures that the disappearance rates (slope of the curves vary across mineral types and species of acacia trees. Disappearance rates suggest that the rumen microorganisms have a significant role in the digestion of minerals and their disappearance rates are due to the solubility of minerals in the rumen liquor and the loss of minerals due to utilization of microorganisms to a certain amount for their maintenance.

  10. Pengaruh Suplementasi Acacia mangium Willd pada Pennisetum purpureum terhadap Karakteristik Fermentasi dan Produksi Gas Metana in Vitro

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    B. Santoso

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of Acacia mangium Willd supplementation to Pennisetum purpureum on fermentation characteristics, protozoal numbers, nutrients degradability and in vitro methane production. Treatments consisted of four composite substrates with P. purpureum and A. mangium Willd ratios at 100:0 (0%, 85:15 (15%, 70:30 (30%, and 55:45 (45%. Crude saponin and total tannin contents of A. mangium were 1.67% and 4.51%, respectively. Methane and gas productions decreased linearly (P<0.01 in response to acacia levels. Addition of A. mangium at 15%, 30% and 45% decreased CH4 production by 16.2%, 26.8% and 61.1%, respectively as compared to the control. There were linear decreases in total VFA and acetate concentrations (P<0.01, and propionate production (P<0.05 in response to increase in acacia addition. Total protozoal populations increased linearly (P<0.05 with added acacia. In vitro dry matter and organic matter degradabilities of substrate decreased linearly (P<0.01 with acacia addition. It is concluded that methane production is not essentially associated with protozoal population. A. mangium has a potential use for mitigation of enteric methane production.

  11. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Effect of canopy cover and canopy background variables on spectral profiles of savanna rangeland bush encroachment species based on selected Acacia species (mellifera, tortilis, karroo) and Dichrostachys cinerea at Mokopane, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Munyati, C

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available , background dry soil and grass on the spectral profiles of the common encroaching species Acacia karroo, Acacia mellifera, Acacia tortilis and Dichrostachys cinerea was analysed. A sample of healthy mature plants in prime, full leaf condition was utilised...

  13. Tree size as a factor influencing leaf emergence and leaf fall in Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum in the Kruger National Park

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    P. Novellie

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum saplings tended to retain leaves over the dry season, whereas the mature trees generally lost most of their leaves. In Acacia nigrescens the production of new leaves over the dry season was more commonly observed in saplings than in mature trees.

  14. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  15. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

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    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  16. DETERMINAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO DE CASCA EM ACÁCIA-NEGRA Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Yield bark determination for black wattle, Acacia mearnsii.

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    Gerson Luiz Mainardi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com acácia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild., e teve como objetivo a elaboração de tabelas de produção de casca verde, estimadas através de equações obtidas por modelagem da produção em função da idade, altura dominante e área basal, expressa pelo modelo genérico: log C = bo + b1ho2 + b2logG, sendo C = peso de casca verde por hectare; G = área basal por hectare; ho = altura dominante. Esta equação apresentou uma precisão, sendo que as variáveis independentes, altura dominante e área basal, explicaram 97,8% da variação da produção de casca verde por hectare.

  17. Elucidation of flavonoids from Carissa congesta, Polyalthia longifolia, and Benincasa hispida plant extracts by hyphenated technique of liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy

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    Gaurav M Doshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carissa congesta (CC, Polyalthia longifolia (PL, and Benincasa hispida (BH are economically important plants. Objective: Current research encompasses identification of quercetin and rutin and their analogues by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS from the selected plant species. Materials and Methods: Fresh roots, leaves, and seeds of CC, PL, and BH plants respectively were shade-dried followed by extraction and elucidation of rutin and quercetin by LC-MS. Results: Structural elucidation of CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids such as quercetin (m/z 301 and rutin (m/z 610 as the parent ions along with presence of close analogues such as quercetin-O-hexoside, Vicenin 2, quercetin-3-O-xyloside/arabinoside, and quercetin-3-O-glucoside were identified as fragments. Conclusions: Thus, CC, PL, and BH extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids belonging to the class of flavonols such as rutin and quercetin.

  18. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  19. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulu, Tao; Park, So-Young; Ibrahim, Rusli; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds.

  20. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure.

  1. Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Won Min; Sang Un Park; Yeon Sil Jang; Young-Ho Kim; Poong-Lyul Rhee; Seo Hyun Ko; Nami Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B.lactis)has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS:A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume,twice daily for 8 wk,either the composite yogurt or the control product.The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B.lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures.Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51,P =0.010,64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5,P < 0.001; respectively).In constipation-predominant IBS,improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8,P < 0.001).In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS,improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81,P =0.006).CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B.lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt.

  2. Silage Quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides Treated with Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Tannin of Acacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the silage quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides treated with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (FGE or combined with tannin of acacia. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. Treatments were (A king grass without additive as a control; (B king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE; (C king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/100 ml; (D king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/75 ml; (E king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/50 ml, and (F king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/25 ml. About 250 g of silage materials were ensiled in 400 ml bottle silos at room temperatures (approximately 28 °C for 30 days. Variables measured were characteristics of FGE, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and the significance differences among means were tested by the Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the number of lactic acid bacteria in FGE increased from 0.8 × 107 cfu/ml to 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml after 2 days anaerobic incubation. Concentration of lactic acid in silages with addition of FGE or combined with tannin of acacia (B, C, D, E, and F were higher (P<0.01 than that of silage A (control. Silages with addition of FGE combined with tannin of acacia (C, D, E, and F had lower pH value than that of silages A and B. Concentrations of NH3-N decreased with increasing concentration of tannin. Butyric acid concentration decreased in silages B, C, D, E, and F as compared to that in silage A. Addition of FGE combined with tannin prepared from acacia leaf improved fermentation quality of king grass silage.

  3. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) on grazing provision and livestock production in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Yapi1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 5363 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Yapi1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Assessing the impacts of Acacia... the ecological impacts of the invasive alien plant species, Acacia mearnsii, on the function and productivity of rangelands in South Africa and their ability to sustain livestock production. AIM The central aim of this research is to develop a deeper...

  4. PERBANDINGAN VIGORITAS BENIH Acacia mangium HASIL PEMULIAAN DAN YANG BELUM DIMULIAKAN

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    Naning Yuniarti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seeds with high vigour are seeds that can germinate normally in sub-optimum conditions and above normal in optimum condition. To predict the performance of seedlings after planting and the storability of seeds, it is necessary to test the seed vigour. This study aims to investigate the growth and storage vigour of Acacia mangium breeding and unbreeding seeds. The experiment design was arranged in completely randomized design with each treatment being replicated four times with 100 seeds. Results obtained showed that breeding seeds had better growth and storage vigour. 

  5. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

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    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  6. Incidences and severity of vascular wilt in Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maid, Mandy; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the incidences and severity of vascular wilt disease associated with dieback in stands of commercial Acacia mangium plantations. The study revealed that the prevalence of the symptoms is high between 50 to 60% in two plantations, where it is found scattered in the plots that were surveyed. The incidence of the disease in each plot is low between 0 to 6%. The disease symptoms were more often found where the symptom syndrome in a chronic (level 3) or critical state (level 4). This suggests that the causal pathogen has the ability to penetrate into the tissues of the plants and only display symptoms at the latest stage.

  7. Fire disturbance disrupts an acacia ant-plant mutualism in favor of a subordinate ant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Ryan L; Kimuyu, Duncan K; Ruiz Guajardo, Juan C; Veblen, Kari E; Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2017-05-01

    Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition. To determine if fire shifted ant occupancy from a competitive dominant to a subordinate ant species, we surveyed the acacia-ant community in 6-7 yr old burn sites and examined how the spatial scale of these burns influenced ant community responses. We then used two short-term fire experiments to explore possible mechanisms for the shifts in community patterns observed. Because survival of ant colonies is largely dependent on their ability to detect and escape an approaching fire, we first tested the evacuation response of all four ant species when exposed to smoke (fire signal). Then to better understand how fire and its interaction with large mammal herbivory affect the density of ants per tree, we quantified ant worker density in small prescribed burns within herbivore exclusion plots. We found clear evidence suggesting that fire disturbance favored the subordinate ant Crematogaster nigriceps more than the dominant and strong mutualist ant C. mimosae, whereby C. nigriceps (1) was the only species to occupy a greater proportion of trees in 6-7 yr old burn sites compared to unburned sites, (2) had higher burn/unburn tree ratios with increasing burn size, and (3) evacuated significantly faster than C. mimosae in the presence of smoke. Fire and herbivory had opposite effects on ant density per meter of branch for both C. nigriceps and C. mimosae, with fire

  8. Chemical Composition profile of Acacia Nilotica Seed Growing Wild in South of Iran

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    Karim Abbasian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acacia Nilotica is a pioneer species, relatively high in bioactive secondary compound and are important for a variety of functions is economically used as a source of tannins, gums, timber, fuel and fodder. Babul plant is therapeutic used as Anti-cancer, anti tumours, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, anti-oxidant, Natriuretic, Antispasmodial, Diuretic, Intestinal pains and diarrhea, Nerve stimulant, Cold, Congestion, Coughs, Dysenter, Fever, Hemorrhages, Leucorrhea, Ophthalmia and Sclerosis. The aim of this study was determination of proximate composition, mineral elements (Calcium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Selenium and Copper contents in this endemic Iranian seed.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria.

  10. Karakteristik Spektra Absorbansi NIR (Near Infra Red Spektroskopi Kayu Acacia mangium WILLD pada 3 Umur Berbeda

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    Lina Karlinasari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai pengujian nondestruktif metode near infrared (NIR spektroskopi di Indonesia masih sangat terbatas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan karakteristik spektra NIR spektroskopi (panjang gelombang 700 nm – 2500 nm kayu Acacia mangium dari 3 umur yaitu 5, 6, dan, 7 tahun. Kayu mangium diperoleh dari daerah Maribaya, Parung Panjang, Bogor. Sampel contoh uji spektra terdiri dari bentuk solid atau padatan dan bentuk serbuk kayu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan spektra absorban NIR sampel padatan kayu lebih tinggi dibandingkan bentuk sampel serbuk. Umur pohon untuk jenis kayu yang sama tidak memberikan informasi perbedaan pola spektra absorbansi NIR yang nyata untuk setiap lokasi panjang gelombangnya. Penelitian lebih lanjut dapat dilakukan untuk menentukan model pendugaan sifat kimia, fisis dan mekanis kayu menggunakan analisis statistik metode analisis multivariasi. Kata kunci: NIR spektroskopi, Acacia mangium, kayu solid, serbuk kayu    Characteristics of Absorbency Spectra of NIR (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy of Acacia mangium Willd Wood from Three Different Age Abstract Research on non-destructive test of near infrared (NIR spectroscopy method was still limited in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to determine near infrared (NIR spectroscopy (wavelength range within 780 nm -2500 nm characteristic of wood species of Acacia mangium. The samples were selected from three different ages e.g. 5 year, 6 years, and 7 years grown in Maribaya area of Parung Panjang Distric. The NIR testing samples used were solid wood and ground wood. This study resulted that there was visually no significant difference of absorbance spectra NIR patterns based on wood ages. NIR absorbance spectra had same trend for both solid and ground wood samples in a range of wavelength, although those were in different values. The NIR absorbance spectra values of solid wood samples seemed higher than ground wood samples. Further research is needed to

  11. Evolutionary change from induced to constitutive expression of an indirect plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Greiner, Sabine; Meimberg, Harald; Krüger, Ralf; Noyer, Jean-Louis; Heubl, Günther; Linsenmair, K Eduard; Boland, Wilhelm

    2004-07-08

    Induced plant resistance traits are expressed in response to attack and occur throughout the plant kingdom. Despite their general occurrence, the evolution of such resistances has rarely been investigated. Here we report that extrafloral nectar, a usually inducible trait, is constitutively secreted by Central American Acacia species that are obligately inhabited by ants. Extrafloral nectar is secreted as an indirect resistance, attracting ants that defend plants against herbivores. Leaf damage induces extrafloral nectar secretion in several plant species; among these are various Acacia species and other Fabaceae investigated here. In contrast, Acacia species obligately inhabited by symbiotic ants nourish these ants by secreting extrafloral nectar constitutively at high rates that are not affected by leaf damage. The phylogeny of the genus Acacia and closely related genera indicate that the inducibility of extrafloral nectar is the plesiomorphic or 'original' state, whereas the constitutive extrafloral nectar flow is derived within Acacia. A constitutive resistance trait has evolved from an inducible one, obviously in response to particular functional demands.

  12. The Interaction between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Endophytic Bacteria Enhances Plant Growth of Acacia gerrardii under Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz A.; Al-Huqail, Asma A.; Wirth, Stephan; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg, and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance. PMID:27486442

  13. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  14. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  15. The acacia ants revisited: convergent evolution and biogeographic context in an iconic ant/plant mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip S; Branstetter, Michael G

    2017-03-15

    Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses can enhance our understanding of multispecies interactions by placing the origin and evolution of such interactions in a temporal and geographical context. We use a phylogenomic approach-ultraconserved element sequence capture-to investigate the evolutionary history of an iconic multispecies mutualism: Neotropical acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group) and their associated Vachellia hostplants. In this system, the ants receive shelter and food from the host plant, and they aggressively defend the plant against herbivores and competing plants. We confirm the existence of two separate lineages of obligate acacia ants that convergently occupied Vachellia and evolved plant-protecting behaviour, from timid ancestors inhabiting dead twigs in rainforest. The more diverse of the two clades is inferred to have arisen in the Late Miocene in northern Mesoamerica, and subsequently expanded its range throughout much of Central America. The other lineage is estimated to have originated in southern Mesoamerica about 3 Myr later, apparently piggy-backing on the pre-existing mutualism. Initiation of the Pseudomyrmex/Vachellia interaction involved a shift in the ants from closed to open habitats, into an environment with more intense plant herbivory. Comparative studies of the two lineages of mutualists should provide insight into the essential features binding this mutualism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Coexistence and performance of diploid and polyploid Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene

    Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify the potent......Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify...... natural sites with different rainfall and salinity showed no simple geographical pattern in the frequency of polyploids. However, salinity was found to be positively correlated with frequency of polyploids. Analysis of population differentiation between cytotypes compared to genetic relationship among...... be effective. These results represent a good start-up for a future program of conservation, reforestation and restoration of A. senegal in the Sahel region....

  17. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K C; Wong, J P; Zhang, Z Q; Wong, J W; Wong, M H

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen (N(2))-fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized (<53 microm) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seedling growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Nodulation was inhibited in ameliorated lagoon ash but not in agricultural soil. High pH and electrical conductivity and elevated toxic metals may be important parameters that limit bacterial activity. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  18. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  19. Diversity of nitrogen fixing bacteria associated to the new Caledonian ubiquitous tree Acacia spirorbis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, C.; Ducousso, M.; Jourand, P.; Lebrun, M.; Klonowska, A.; Fritsch, E.; Juillot, F.; Acherar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The New Caledonian endemic tree species Acacia spirorbis is able to grow and to present invasive traits on a wide range of soils (e.g.: ultramafic, calcareous coral, siliceous, aluminium enriched) in a large range of pH. Acacia spirorbis is also adapted to poly-metallic toxicity, especially Ni, to an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio in strong favour of Mg and to poor N, P and K availability. The goal of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the influence of bacterial symbionts on A. spirorbis adaptation to different soil conditions. Firstly, bacterial symbiots were isolated from field collected nodules or nodules obtained by trapping method and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (recA, dnaK and glnII) and symbiotic genes (nodA and nifH). A strong preference of A. spirorbis for different species of Bradyrhizobium has been noted ; Rhizobium species has been isolated only from nodules collected from a plantation located out of its natural area of distribution. A selection of representative rhizobial strains isolated from diverse soils was tested to compare their symbiotic efficiency with A. spirorbis in nursery conditions. Results are presented in function of soils diversity and in perspective of A. spirorbis adaptation to extremely diverse and adverse soil conditions.

  20. El género Acacia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae en el estado de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a contribution to the knowledge of the genus Acacia in Oaxaca; a study based on herbarium specimens from more than 12 institutions. This includes 35 different species, of which 4 are endemic to the Rio Balsas Basin in Oaxaca State. Descriptions of the genus, species, identification keys and distribution maps are given. Some of the species are illustrated.Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento del género Acacia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, en el estado de Oaxaca (México, de donde se reconocen 35 especies, cuatro deellas endémicas de la cuenca alta del Rio Balsas. De todas se proporcionan descripciones morfológicas, habitat y distribución geográfica. Se hace un análisis crítico de las recolecciones depositadasen más de 12 herbarios, aclarando las identidades de algunos nombres y excluyendoalgunas especies citadas erróneamente. Se incluyen ilustraciones de siete especies y una clave para todas las especies incluidas.

  1. Growth and nitrogen acquisition strategies of Acacia senegal seedlings under exponential phosphorus additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, M E; Harmand, J M; Drevon, J J

    2011-05-15

    There remains conflicting evidence on the relationship between P supply and biological N(2)-fixation rates, particularly N(2)-fixing plant adaptive strategies under P limitation. This is important, as edaphic conditions inherent to many economically and ecologically important semi-arid leguminous tree species, such as Acacia senegal, are P deficient. Our research objective was to verify N acquisition strategies under phosphorus limitations using isotopic techniques. Acacia senegal var. senegal was cultivated in sand culture with three levels of exponentially supplied phosphorus [low (200 μmol of P seedling(-1) over 12 weeks), mid (400 μmol) and high (600 μmol)] to achieve steady-state nutrition over the growth period. Uniform additions of N were also supplied. Plant growth and nutrition were evaluated. Seedlings exhibited significantly greater total biomass under high P supply compared to low P supply. Both P and N content significantly increased with increasing P supply. Similarly, N derived from solution increased with elevated P availability. However, both the number of nodules and the N derived from atmosphere, determined by the (15)N natural abundance method, did not increase along the P gradient. Phosphorus stimulated growth and increased mineral N uptake from solution without affecting the amount of N derived from the atmosphere. We conclude that, under non-limiting N conditions, A. senegal N acquisition strategies change with P supply, with less reliance on N(2)-fixation when the rhizosphere achieves a sufficient N uptake zone.

  2. Mixing of acacia bark and palm shells to increase caloric value of palm shells white charcoal briquette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Edy Wibowo; Amirta, Rudianto; Budiarso, Edy; Arung, Enos Tangke

    2017-06-01

    Indonesia is greatly rich in biomass resources. Acacia bark waste utilization as a source of biomass is still very low, where as 10-20% of the potential of the wood. On the other hand waste palm shells have been partly utilized as boiler fuel oil plant as much as 62.4%, but the rest is still a waste pile or to the hardening of the estate path. This study aims to determine the effect of mixing an acacia bark with palm shells to increase the calorific value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes. The study was conducted by making white charcoal briquettes mixing 7% the acacia bark against of palm shells. As well as white charcoal briquettes control without any acacia bark. Then molds the briquettes in pyrolysis temperature at 600 ° C, 700 ° C and 800 ° C for pyrolysis time within 2 hours, 4 hours, and 6 hours. And the results of briquettes analysis in calorific value. The results showed that the caloric value of palm shell white charcoal briquettes increased from 29691.14 Kcal / kg to 31941.50 Kcal / kg.

  3. Lignin biodegradation and ligninolytic enzyme studies during biopulping of Acacia mangium wood chips by tropical white rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, C Y; Husaini, A; Hussain, H; Muid, S; Liew, K C; Roslan, H A

    2011-06-01

    White rot fungi are good lignin degraders and have the potential to be used in industry. In the present work, Phellinus sp., Daedalea sp., Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus coccineus were selected due to their relatively high ligninolytic enzyme activity, and grown on Acacia mangium wood chips under solid state fermentation. Results obtained showed that manganese peroxidase produced is far more compared to lignin peroxidase, suggesting that MnP might be the predominating enzymes causing lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips. Cellulase enzyme assays showed that no significant cellulase activity was detected in the enzyme preparation of T. versicolor and Phellinus sp. This low cellulolytic activity further suggests that these two white rot strains are of more interest in lignin degradation. The results on lignin losses showed 20-30% of lignin breakdown at 60 days of biodegradation. The highest lignin loss was found in Acacia mangium biotreated with T. versicolor after 60 days and recorded 26.9%, corresponding to the percentage of their wood weight loss recorded followed by P. coccineus. In general, lignin degradation was only significant from 20 days onwards. The overall percentage of lignin weight loss was within the range of 1.02-26.90% over the biodegradation periods. Microscopic observations conducted using scanning electron microscope showed that T. versicolor, P. coccineus, Daedalea sp. and Phellinus sp. had caused lignin degradation in Acacia mangium wood chips.

  4. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In

  5. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In th

  6. Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche, and human use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Diëz, P.; Langendoen, T.; Poorter, L.; Saldaña-Lopez, A.

    2011-01-01

    Australian Acacia species have been widely planted worldwide for different purposes. Some of them have spread and altered the native ecosystem functions to the extent of being considered economic and ecologic threats. Understanding factors that allow these species to become invasive is an important

  7. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN NERIUM OLEANDER AND ROBINIA PSEUDO ACACIA PLANTS IN TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghorbanli, Z. Bakand, G. Bakhshi khaniki, S. Bakand

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution effects on the activity of antioxidant enzymes were investigated on Nerium oleander and Robinia pseudo acacia in Tehran. Considering the information obtained from the Department of the Environment of Iran, Sorkh Hesar Park as well as South Azadi were selected as two sampling sites representing the unpolluted and polluted area respectively. A number of plant leave samples were collected from both sampling sites simultaneously. The activity of plant enzymes including peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase was investigated using spectrophotometric methods. A higher level of peroxidase and catalase enzymes were measured in both plant samples collected from polluted area. However, this higher level was only statistically significant for the activity of peroxidase enzyme in Robinia pseudo acacia plants compare of to the control group (p < 0.05. The lower level of ascorbate peroxidase was observed in Nerium oleander plant leaves collected from the contaminated sampling site (p < 0.05, but though, the activity of this enzyme in Robinia pseudo acacia did not change significantly. The overall plant injury symptoms found in this study demonstrated that both Nerium oleander and Robinia pseudo acacia have a potential to be considered as effective bioindicators to reflect the environmental air quality in polluted areas.

  8. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L. Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  9. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...

  10. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  11. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da entomofauna associada aos galhos e fustes roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman é importante para conhecermos seus possíveis inimigos naturais. Portanto, este trabalho teve como objetivo registrar os insetos associados aos galhos e fustes de Acacia mangium Willd. roletados por O. saga, em Coimbra-MG. Galhos e fustes roletados de A. mangium foram coletados de janeiro a abril de 2007. Este material foi vistoriado, armazenados em sacolas, feitas com tela plástica, e mantidos em sala com condições controladas (25,4±0,3°C e 66,7±1,4%. Constatou-se a presença de uma espécie, não determinada, de Scolytidae e a emergência de quatro espécies de Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus e Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. Isto posto, fica evidenciada a necessidade de estudos com o objetivo de verificar qual o comportamento destes insetos em relação ao serrador O. saga.Insects associated with branches of Acacia mangium Willd. girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: CerambycidaeAbstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of

  12. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  13. Comparative analysis of some essential amino acids and available lysine in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds using chemical methods and an amino acid analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Olumuyiwa S; Adewusi, Steve R A

    2013-01-01

    Methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, and available lysine were determined in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds and some cereals using chemical methods, and the results were compared to those obtained using an amino acid analyzer. Ba(OH)2 hydrolysis gave the best result of the three methods of hydrolysis (acid, base, and enzyme) tried. Oxidized methionine, cysteine, and tryptophan were not detected, but S-carboxyethylcysteine was estimated as cysteine by the chemical methods, thus overestimating cysteine's content in Acacia seeds. Tryptophan and methionine were higher in cereals than in Acacia seeds, while the level of cysteine and available lysine was higher in Acacia seeds than in cereals. These results agreed with values obtained using the amino acid analyzer and could therefore be used in low budget laboratories.

  14. Deposição e decomposição da serapilheira em povoamentos de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, Acacia mangium e Acacia holosericea com quatro anos de idade em planossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Andrade

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Algumas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas, associadas a bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio e a fungos micorrízicos, têm apresentado bom desenvolvimento em solos degradados. Visando avaliar a influência dessas espécies na recuperação da fertilidade do solo, mediu-se a quantidade de matéria seca e nutrientes no material formador da serapilheira, durante o ano de 1995, e na serapilheira acumulada na superfície do solo, em 1995 e 1996, e estimou-se sua velocidade de decomposição. Estudaram-se povoamentos homogêneos de Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (sabiá, Acacia mangium e Acacia holosericea, em espaçamento de 4 m²/planta, em Planossolo, no campo experimental da Embrapa Agrobiologia, município de Seropédica (RJ (22°49' S e 43°38' W, com altitude variando entre 18 e 33 m. A deposição média anual de material formador da serapilheira foi de 10 Mg ha-1, para o sabiá, e de 9 Mg ha-1, para as Acacias Em média, as folhas corresponderam a 64% do material formador da serapilheira produzido pelo sabiá e pela Acacia holosericea e 70% para Acacia mangium A parte mais rica em nutrientes do material formador da serapilheira foram as estruturas reprodutivas. A Acacia Mangium foi a espécie de maior capacidade de retranslocação interna de nutrientes, produzindo a serapilheira mais pobre em nutrientes e de menor velocidade de decomposição. A serapilheira produzida pelo sabiá foi a mais rica em nutrientes, com menor tempo de residência. As diferentes velocidades de decomposição da serapilheira dessas espécies podem ser utilizadas como estratégia para complementar necessidades nutricionais de culturas econômicas em sistemas agroflorestais e, ou, para auxiliar na recuperação de solos degradados.

  15. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  16. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin-Hong; Lee, Soon-Leong; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium x A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean+/- s.e. t(m) = 0.86+/-0.01). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%-70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%-37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  17. Modelling changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition in Acacia mangium Willd. seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Céline; Heuret, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise changes in leaf shape prior to phyllode acquisition along the axes of Acacia mangium seedlings. The study area was located in North Lampung (South Sumatra, Indonesia), where these trees belong to a naturally regenerated stand. A total of 173 seedlings, less than three months old, were described node by node. Leaf shape and leaf length were recorded and the way in which one leaf type succeeded another was modelled using a hidden semi-Markov chain composed of seven states. The phyllotactical pattern was studied using another sample of forty 6-month-old seedlings. The results indicate (i) the existence of successive zones characterised by one or a combination of leaf types, and (ii) that phyllode acquisition seems to be accompanied by a change in the phyllotactical pattern. The concepts of juvenility and heteroblasty, as well as potential applications for taxonomy are discussed.

  18. Comparison of antifungal and antioxidant activities of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Rie; Barry, Karen M; Mohammed, Caroline L; Mitsunaga, Tohru

    2005-04-01

    The effect of heartwood extracts from Acacia mangium (heartrot-susceptible) and A. auriculiformis (heartrot-resistant) was examined on the growth of wood rotting fungi with in vitro assays. A. auriculiformis heartwood extracts had higher antifungal activity than A. mangium. The compounds 3,4',7,8-tetrahydroxyflavanone and teracacidin (the most abundant flavonoids in both species) showed antifungal activity. A. auriculiformis contained higher levels of these flavonoids (3.5- and 43-fold higher, respectively) than A. mangium. This suggests that higher levels of these compounds may contribute to heartrot resistance. Furthermore, both flavonoids had strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and laccase inhibition. This suggests that the antifungal mechanism of these compounds may involve inhibition of fungal growth by quenching of free radicals produced by the extracellular fungal enzyme laccase.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Singh, Somit Kumar

    2011-04-01

    In a sol-gel process, gum acacia inspired silica xerogels have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate. Besides showing photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation, the hybrid xerogels were very efficient in capturing mercury(II) from synthetic solution. To synthesize the optimum sample (in terms of Hg(II) uptake), different ratios of H(2)O:TEOS:EtOH were taken at fixed GA and catalyst concentrations where 4:1:1 ratio was found to be most favorable. Calcination in air further enhanced the mercury binding capacity of this sample. Optimum sample (H4) was obtained on calcination of the gel at 600°C. The hybrids have been structurally characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. In a preliminary batch adsorption experiment, H4 was evaluated to be highly efficient in the removal Hg(II) from synthetic aqueous solution.

  20. SCREENING OF SECONDARY METABOLITES AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA CONCINNA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vergeese raja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary phytochemical study and in vitro antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of Acacia concinna having ethno medicinal uses were investigated. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of phenol, tannin, fat and fixed oil, flavanoids, saponin and quinone. The extracts were subjected for screening of in vitro antibacterial activity against various pathogens at the concentrations of 500 and 250 µg/ml by well diffusion assay method. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens and the chloroform extract showed comparative by better activity than the other extracts against S.pyogens and s. aureus. The activities of the extract were compared with standard antibiotics. These results indicate that A. concinna leaves possesses potential broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

  1. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  2. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  4. Free radical scavenging activity and reducing power of Acacia nilotica wood lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Sahu, Sudha; Jha, Harit; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath

    2014-06-01

    Nine different fractions of lignin extracted by alkali, hot water and organosolv methods from Acacia wood powder were assessed for antioxidants activity. Results indicated that methanolic lignin fraction had highest polyphenol content of 393.30±9.2μg/ml (GAE). The oraganosolv lignin with total phenols and phenolic hydroxyl group content exhibited significant antioxidant activity as compared to other lignin fractions. Antioxidant properties of acetone fractions revealed a high antiradical scavenging activity (extraction methods on functional groups of lignin fractions was confirmed by analytical methods and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Whereas the phenolic content showed strong correlation with reducing capacity, the antiradical activity was moderately correlated with phenolic content. A high phenolic hydroxyl groups content of organosolv lignin fractions provides evidence for the presence of active therapeutic antioxidant compounds for their testing as potential value added products for cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chin-Hong Ng; Soon-Leong Lee; Kevin Kit-Siong Ng; Norwati Muhammad; Wickneswari Ratnam

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean±s.e. $t_{m} = 0.86\\pm 0.01$). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%–70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%–37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (< 1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  6. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion.

  7. An industrialized technique for raising tissue culture plant of Acacia cincinnata%卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月娇

    2012-01-01

    通过对卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗技术研究的阐述,总结了卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗最优培养基配方为:诱导培养基为改良MS+ 6-BA 0.3 mg/L+ KT 0.5 mg/L+ NAA 0.3 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,继代增殖培养基为改良MS+ 6-BA 0.8 mg/L+ KT 0.3 mg/L+ NAA 0.6 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,生根培养基为1/2改良MS+ NAA 0.5 mg/L+蔗糖20 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,pH值为5.8.用此培养基配方进行卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗其诱导率可达70%,有效芽增殖倍数可达3倍以上,生根率可达95%以上.%A research on tissue culture technique of Acacia cincinnata was summarized and the optimal mediums were proposed in this paper. The medium of improved MS +6-BA 0. 3mg/L + KT 0. 5mg/L + NAA 0. 3mg/L + sucrose 30 g/L + carrageenan 8g/L was optimal for inducement, the medium of improved MS + 6-BA 0. 8mg/L + KT 0. 3mg/L + NAA 0. 6mg/L + sucrose 30 g/L + carrageenan 8 g/L was optimal for subculture. The medium of 1/2 improved MS + NAA 0. 5mg/L + sucrose 20 g/L + carrageenan 8 g/L was optimal for rooting, and the Ph was 5. 8. Using these mediums, the inducement rate of industrialized tissue culture of Acacia cincinnata could be up to 70% , effective bud multiplication was more than three times, the rooting rate was more than 95%.

  8. Le fils du Sahara et les gens de la pluie. Gestion paysanne et conservation des socioécosystèmes à acacia au Sud du Maroc.

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Julien

    2015-01-01

    In drylands, trees fulfil major ecological, socioeconomic and cultural functions to combat desertification. However, the dynamics of stands of Vachellia tortilis subsp. Raddiana – the most widespread acacia species in the Sahara – and the influence of agropastoral societies on those stands remain poorly understood. The aim of this research is to contribute to making good this gap in knowledge through an interdisciplinary study of acacia stands in Morocco, in an environment characterized by se...

  9. 马占相思优树组培快繁技术研究%Tissue Culture Technique of Acacia mangium Elite Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烈健; 陈祖旭; 张赛群; 梁日高

    2012-01-01

    Taking Acacia mangium elite trees as explants, the tissue culture technique system for dormant bud of 3-5 year-old elite trees was established. The system includes the germination-inducing of the dormant buds, the multiplying of shoots, the rooting of adventitious shoots, and the pre-treating and transplanting of seedlings. The medium MS + Sucrose 30 g · L-1 + BA 0.5 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.1 mg · L-1 was used for inducing the dormant buds; the medium MS + BA 1.0 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.05 mg · L-1 was used for multiplying; while the medium 1/2 MS + IBA 2.0 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg · L-1 was used for rooting. The results revealed that it was viable to producing field seedlings with micropropagation. Although the branches with dormant buds harbored many kinds of microbes and the adventitious shoots were not easy to root, 20% to 30% healthy germination could be yielded and the rooting rate of adventitious shoots could be higher than 85%. Pretreated with ABT powder ( rooting hormone) , both the rooting rate and survival rate of adventitious shoots were nearly 100%.

  10. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  11. Acthaside: a new chromone derivative from Acacia ataxacantha and its biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussa, Abdou Madjid O; Bourjot, Mélanie; Lagnika, Latifou; Vonthron-Sénécheau, Catherine; Sanni, Ambaliou

    2016-12-07

    Acacia ataxacantha (Fabaceae), used in traditional medicine grows in the South-West of Bénin. Ethyl acetate extract of the barks of this species was previously reported to display various bioactivities, including antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. In the present study, we investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of compound isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Acacia ataxacantha. Purification, isolation and structural identification of isolated compound were done using various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Antimicrobial activity was investigated using a two-fold serial microdilution method. The inhibitory potency of isolated compound was evaluated by kinetic experiments. The antioxidant activity was also determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The isolated compound was identified as 7-hydroxy-2-methyl-6-[β-galactopyranosyl-propyl]-4H-chromen-4-one. As far as we know, this compound, named "acthaside", reported for the first time, was active against all tested microorganisms with minimal inhibitory concentration ranging from 25 to 50 μg/ml. At 50 μl/ml, no growth was observed in almost all tested microbial after 24 h of exposure. The isolated compound had significant antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 3.61 ± 0.12 μg/ml compared to quercetin (IC50 1.04 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The present work demonstrates that the new chromen derivative isolated from A. ataxacantha may help treat bacterial and yeast infections. However, further studies are required to clarify the mechanism of action of this compound.

  12. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  13. Chemical composition and allelopathic potential of essential oils obtained from Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2015-04-01

    Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. (Fabaceae), synonym Acacia saligna (Labill.) H. L.Wendl., native to West Australia and naturalized in North Africa and South Europe, was introduced in Tunisia for rangeland rehabilitation, particularly in the semiarid zones. In addition, this evergreen tree represents a potential forage resource, particularly during periods of drought. A. cyanophylla is abundant in Tunisia and some other Mediterranean countries. The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different plant parts, viz., roots, stems, phyllodes, flowers, and pods (fully mature fruits without seeds), was characterized for the first time here. According to GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, the principal compound in the phyllode and flower oils was dodecanoic acid (4), representing 22.8 and 66.5% of the total oil, respectively. Phenylethyl salicylate (8; 34.9%), heptyl valerate (3; 17.3%), and nonadecane (36%) were the main compounds in the root, stem, and pod oils, respectively. The phyllode and flower oils were very similar, containing almost the same compounds. Nevertheless, the phyllode oil differed from the flower oil for its higher contents of hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (6), linalool (1), pentadecanal, α-terpineol, and benzyl benzoate (5) and its lower content of 4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into four groups, each characterized by its main constituents. Furthermore, the allelopathic activity of each oil was evaluated using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) as a plant model. The phyllode, flower, and pod oils exhibited a strong allelopathic activity against lettuce. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  15. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en el norte de Chile Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.A survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae was made in two coastal valleys from northern Chile: Azapa and Chaca. Eight species, distributed in eight genera and five families, were recorded in the areas. Species composition was the same for both localities. However, assemblage abundance and species abundance were different between the valleys.

  16. Effects of Mentha longifolia L. essential oil and nisin alone and in combination on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model and bacterial ultrastructural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajohi, Mohamad Reza; Tajik, Hossein; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Hadian, Mojtaba

    2011-02-01

    In the face of emerging new pathogens and ever-growing health-conscious customers, food preservation technology remains on the top agenda of food industry. This study was aimed at determining the effects of the essential oil of Mentha longifolia L., alone and in combination with nisin, on Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis at 8°C and 25°C in a food model (commercial barley soup) during 15 days. The essential oil alone at 8°C inhibited bacterial growth significantly compared with the control (p < 0.05). However, at 25°C, none of the concentrations of the essential oil alone showed inhibitory effect on bacterial growth. At 8°C, the combination effect of the essential oil and nisin on bacteria was noted at 0.25 μg mL(-1) for nisin and 0.05 μL mL(-1) for the essential oil (p < 0.05). The combination of nisin and the essential oil demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on the vegetative forms of bacteria at 25°C, although it was comparable to that of nisin alone at the same concentrations. Electron microscopy studies revealed a great deal of damage to B. cereus treated with a combination of nisin and the essential oil. However, the combination of nisin with the essential oil led to a complete destruction of cell wall and cytoplasm of vegetative cells of B. subtilis.

  17. Proximate nutrient analyses of four species of submerged aquatic vegetation consumed by Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) compared to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal-Willott, Jessica L; Harr, Kendal; Hayek, Lee-Ann C; Scott, Karen C; Gerlach, Trevor; Sirois, Paul; Reuter, Mike; Crewz, David W; Hill, Richard C

    2010-12-01

    Free-ranging Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) consume a variety of sea grasses and algae. This study compared the dry matter (DM) content, proximate nutrients (crude protein [CP], ether-extracted crude fat [EE], nonfiber carbohydrate [NFC], and ash), and the calculated digestible energy (DE) of sea grasses (Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme) collected in spring, summer, and winter, and an alga (Chara sp.) with those of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. longifolia). Neutral-detergent fiber (NDF), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin (L) measured after ash-extraction were also compared. Results of statistical tests (C = 0.01) revealed DM content was higher in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce (P = 0.0001), but NDF and ADF were up to threefold greater, EE (P = 0.00001) and CP (P = 0.00001) were 2-9 times less, and NFC (P = 0.0001) was 2-6 times lower in sea grass than in lettuce, on a DM basis. Chara was lower in NDF, ADF, L, EE, CP, and NFC relative to lettuce on a DM basis. Ash content (DM basis) was higher (P = 0.0001), and DE was 2-6 times lower in aquatic vegetation than in lettuce. Sea grass rhizomes had lower L and higher ash contents (DM basis) than sea grass leaves. Based on the nutrient analyses, romaine lettuce and sea grasses are not equivalent forages, which suggests that the current diet of captive Florida manatees should be reassessed.

  18. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P < 0.05) for the goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P < 0.01) in supplemented groups. The hot carcass weight was higher in the group supplemented with A. senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  19. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  20. Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Albizia spp. in comparison with microsymbionts of Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng Qin; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Yong Fa; Chen, Wen Xin

    2006-09-01

    This is the first systematic study of rhizobia associated with Albizia trees. The analyses of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and clustering of phenotypic characters grouped the 31 rhizobial strains isolated from Albizia into eight putative species within the genera Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium. Among these eight rhizobial species, five were unique to Albizia and the remaining three were shared with Acacia and Leucaena, two legume trees coexisting with Albizia in China. These results indicated that Albizia species nodulate with a wide range of rhizobial species and had preference of microsymbionts different from Acacia and Leucaena. The definition of four novel groups, Mesorhizobium sp., Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II and "R. giardinii", indicates that further studies with enlarged rhizobial population are necessary to better understand the diversity and to clarify the taxonomic relationships of Albizia-associated rhizobia.

  1. [Seasonal differences in the leaf hydraulic conductance of mature Acacia mangium in response to its leaf water use and photosynthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Sun, Gu-Chou; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this study, measurements were made on the leaf water potential (psi1), stomatal conductance (g(s)), transpiration rate, leaf area index, and sapwood area of mature Acacia mangium, aimed to understand the relationships of the leaf hydraulic conductance (K1) with the leaf water use and photosynthetic characteristics of the A. mangium in wet season (May) and dry season (November). The ratio of sapwood area to leaf area (A(sp)/A(cl)) of the larger trees with an average height of 20 m and a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 0.26 m was 8.5% higher than that of the smaller trees with an average height of 14.5 m and a DBH of 0.19 m, suggesting that the larger trees had a higher water flux in their leaf xylem, which facilitated the water use of canopy leaf. The analysis on the vulnerability curve of the xylem showed that when the K1 decreased by 50%, the psi1 in wet season and dry season was -1.41 and -1.55 MPa, respectively, and the vulnerability of the xylem cavitation was higher in dry season than in wet season. The K1 peak value in wet season and dry season was 5.5 and 4.5 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1) x MPa(-1), and the maximum transpiration rate (T(r max)) was 3.6 and 1.8 mmol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively. Both the K1 and T(r max), were obviously higher in wet season than in dry season. Within a day, the K1 and T(r), fluctuated many times, reflecting the reciprocated cycle of the xylem cavitation and refilling. The leaf stomatal closure occurred when the K1 declined over 50% or the psi1 reached -1.6 MPa. The g(s) would be maintained at a high level till the K1 declined over 50%. The correlation between the hydraulic conductance and photosynthetic rate was more significant in dry season than in wet season. The loss of leaf hydraulic conductance induced by seasonal change could be the causes of the decrease of T(r) and CO2 gas exchange.

  2. Effect of distance and depth on soil microbial biomass, N mineralization and genetic diversity of Rhizobia under Acacia senegal Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, D.; Faye, A.; Sall, S. N.; Diouf, D.

    2009-07-01

    The relations between plants and soil biota involve positive and negative feedbacks between soil organisms, their chemical environment, and plants. Then, the characterization of microbial community functioning and their diversity are important to understand these linkages. An experiment was conducted in a field system for two years (2005 and 2006) to investigate the effect of distance from tree stem on soil microbial biomass, N mineral content and the diversity of rhizobia associated to Acacia senegal. (Author)

  3. Acacia trees pattern distribution as an indicator for changes in flow spatial distributions in a hyper-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Ephrath, Jhonathan E.; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Maman, Shimrit; Blumberg, Dan G.

    2017-04-01

    Arid regions are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability of precipitation, resulting in high spatial and temporal variation of vegetation cover. Because of low rainfall, the acacia trees in southern Israel are usually restricted to ephemeral stream (Wadi) beds, which possess higher soil moisture content than the surrounding landscape. Spatial analyses of tree distribution at the drainage basin scale contributes to a better understanding of the geo-hydrologic regime because water is the main limiting factor in such areas. That is, the spatial distribution of trees and their characteristics within the Wadi may reflect the spatial variance of water availability within different segments of the Wadi. The main objective of this study was to use the spatial distribution of different parameters of acacia trees as an indicator of past and present hydrological regimes within different segments of the Wadi. Tree size distribution was used as an indicator of long-term (decades) geo-hydrologic spatial processes affecting the acacia population. The tree health (NDVI) distribution was used as an indicator of short-term (months to a few years) geo-hydrologic spatial processes, such as the paths of recent flashfloods events. The distribution of the trees in the Wadi (ephemeral river) was divided into three distinct categories: (1) large trees with high NDVI values, (2) large trees with low NDVI values and (3) small trees with medium NDVI values. Using the resulting classification, we divided the Wadi into three sections, each representing a unique combination of long- and short-term geo-hydrologic processes affecting the acacia trees. We suggest that the lack of spatial correlation between tree size and health status is a result of spatio-temporal changes in the water supply. Our main conclusion is that past and current alterations of the runoff path can be detected by the spatial analysis of trees in hyper-arid regions

  4. Anatomical study on the wood of Acacia mearnsii%黑荆树木材解剖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贻绵; 葛华荣

    1986-01-01

    @@ 黑荆树(Acacia mearnsii de Willd)为豆科含羞草亚科金合欢属植物.原产澳洲.我国从50年代初引进,70年代引入江西.它适应性强,速生,是经济价值高、用途广的树种.

  5. Insecticide activity of essential oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii against two stored product pests, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC(50) values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC(50) = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC(50) = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects.

  6. Initial Infection of Falcataria moluccana Leaves and Acacia mangium Phyllodes by Uromycladium tepperianum Fungi in a Laboratory Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sengon is a fast growing species that is cultivated widely in Indonesia. Lately, sengon is severely attacked by fungus Uromycladium tepperianum that causing gall rust disease. It is also known to attack various types of acacia. This study aims to determine the fungal infection process U. tepperianum on sengon leaves and the possibility of infection on Acacia mangium in the laboratory trial. Leave samples and fungal pathogen teliospores obtained from Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Several approach procedures conducted to achieve these objectives were: (1 identification of diseased trees, (2 collecting samples of diseased leaves, branches, twigs, and stems, and (3 artificial inoculation and investigating the infection process of U. tepperianum teliospores in the laboratory. The results showed that the process of infection in sengon started by teliospores germination and germ tube formation. Successive germ tube forming penetration pegs. In the plant tissue, the penetration peg formed hypha and further developed into intracellular and intercellular hyphae. The artificial inoculation on A. mangium leaf surface showed few spores can germinate. However, none of them managed to penetrate. Keywords: Uromycladium tepperianum, sengon, acacia, gall rust, infection DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.187

  7. Sodium alginate and gum acacia hydrogels of ZnO nanoparticles show wound healing effect on fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguvaran, R; Manuja, Balvinder K; Chopra, Meenu; Thakur, Rajesh; Anand, Taruna; Kalia, Anu; Manuja, Anju

    2017-03-01

    An ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications should possess antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties without any toxicity to the host cells while providing the maximum healing activity. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) possess antimicrobial activity and enhance wound healing, but the questions regarding their safety arise before application to the biological systems. We synthesized ZnONPs-loaded-sodium alginate-gum acacia hydrogels (SAGA-ZnONPs) by cross linking hydroxyl groups of the polymers sodium alginate and gum acacia with the aldehyde group of gluteradehyde. Here, we report the wound healing properties of sodium alginate/gum acacia/ZnONPs, circumventing the toxicity of ZnONPs simultaneously. We demonstrated the concentration-dependent zones of inhibition in treated cultures of Pseudomonas aerigunosa and Bacillus cereus and biocompatability on peripheral blood mononuclear/fibroblast cells. SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels showed a healing effect at a low concentration of ZnONPs using sheep fibroblast cells. Our findings suggest that high concentrations of ZnONPs were toxic to cells but SAGA-ZnONPs hydrogels significantly reduced the toxicity and preserved the beneficial antibacterial and healing effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  9. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  10. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  11. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut.

  12. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  13. A cell-type-specific defect in border cell formation in the Acacia mangium root cap developing an extraordinary sheath of sloughed-off cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Izuki; Tange, Takeshi; Osawa, Hiroki

    2011-08-01

    Root caps release border cells, which play central roles in microbe interaction and root protection against soil stresses. However, the number and connectivity of border cells differ widely among plant species. Better understanding of key border-cell phenotype across species will help define the total function of border cells and associated genes. The spatio-temporal detachment of border cells in the leguminous tree Acacia mangium was investigated by using light and fluorescent microscopy with fluorescein diacetate, and their number and structural connectivity compared with that in soybean (Glycine max). Border-like cells with a sheet structure peeled bilaterally from the lateral root cap of A. mangium. Hydroponic root elongation partially facilitated acropetal peeling of border-like cells, which accumulate as a sheath that covers the 0- to 4-mm tip within 1 week. Although root elongation under friction caused basipetal peeling, lateral root caps were minimally trimmed as compared with hydroponic roots. In the meantime, A. mangium columella caps simultaneously released single border cells with a number similar to those in soybean. These results suggest that cell type-specific inhibitory factors induce a distinct defective phenotype in single border-cell formation in A. mangium lateral root caps.

  14. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  15. Perdas de solo e água em plantio de Acacia mangium wild e savana em Roraima, norte da Amazônia Soil and water losses in Acacia mangium wild plantations and natural savanna in Roraima, northern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantios florestais de Acacia mangium constituem uma alternativa cada vez mais adotada em áreas de savanas do norte da Amazônia (Roraima e podem causar alterações significativas de características do solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar perdas de solo e de água por erosão, que ocorrem em escoamento superficial (run off em savana nativa e plantios de acácia na região Amazônica. Para isso, foram instaladas em duas fazendas, Santa Rita e Araçá, localizadas no município de Bonfim, na região da Serra da Lua, calhas coletoras de sedimentos, acopladas a caixas d'água, em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram determinadas a granulometria, a densidade aparente (Dap, a resistência à penetração (RP e a velocidade de infiltração (VIB, bem como parâmetros físicos relacionados a perdas de solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos: cobertura natural de savana (SV, plantio de Acacia mangium com um ano de idade (P1 e plantio de Acacia mangium com quatro anos de idade (P4, em três repetições. O experimento teve a duração de 12 meses (setembro de 2006 a agosto de 2007. Os resultados indicaram maiores perdas de solo e de água no plantio mais recente de acácia (P1, de savana nativa e do plantio com 4 anos (P4. Os resultados foram atribuídos à exposição do solo no período inicial de desenvolvimento da planta, ao selamento superficial e à coesão do solo. O pico de perdas de solo ocorreu nos meses de abril a agosto, sendo o tipo de cobertura vegetal o fator determinante para redução das perdas de solo e de água por erosão, sendo que as práticas de plantio no sentido do declive provavelmente agravaram as perdas de solo nos plantios de Acácia. Neste trabalho, a densidade do solo e o teor de matéria orgânica não representaram bons indicadores do tipo de manejo adotado na área.As an alternative land use of savanna areas in Roraima, commercial forest stands of

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity

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    Murugan K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kasi Murugan,1 Balakrishnan Senthilkumar,2,3 Duraisamy Senbagam,2 Saleh Al-Sohaibani11Department of Microbiology and Botany, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Health and Medical Science College, Haramaya University, Harar, EthiopiaAbstract: The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae. Visual observation, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17–29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737, Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272, Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657, and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475. This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using

  17. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT IN AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE BARK OF ACACIA NILOTICA

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    Mayank Tenguria et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del commonly known as babul, kikar or Indian gum Arabic tree, has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. Mostly it occurs as an isolated tree and rarely found in patches to a limited extent in forests and has been widely planted on farms throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The bark, root, gum, leaves and flowers have found use for skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, diabetes, eczema, wound healing, burning sensation and as an astringent, demulcent, anti-asthmatic. For present work the bark of well identified A. nilotica (L plant for the extraction of phytochemicals was done from the village Khargawali (Hoshangabad district. 20-20 grams of the fine powdered sample were subjected to soxhlet extraction with 200 ml distilled water and 40% methanol separately at 70oC and 50oC respectively, for 24 hours and concentrated. The percentage yield so obtained was 35 and 32.5% respectively. The extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides the results of which refers to data given in this article. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with suitable modification. When compared with the gallic acid standard curve the aqueous extract of 0.01 mg/ml dilution contains 0.323 mg/ml approx of total polyphenol content and that of the methanolic extract of the same concentration shows 0.422 mg/ml approx concentration of TPC. Thus from the present study it can be concluded that the aqueous and

  18. Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report Disposal and Reuse of Fleet and Industrial Supply Center, Oakland Vision 2000 Maritime Development. Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    wattle (Acacia longifolia), myoporum (Myoporum laetum), privet (Ligustrum texanum), Kapuka tree (Griselinia littoralis), India hawthorne (Raphiolepis...Project Review Mr. Rafeeg Naji African-American Development Oakland CA Association Ms. Karen Winters Allegro Neighborhood Group Oakland CA Mr. Nathaniel

  19. The use of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation wastewater for the production of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) in water recirculation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Wahyuningsih, Sri; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2016-05-01

    In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.

  20. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

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    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  1. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

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    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  2. Study on Fiber Morphology of Four Acacia Wood from Plantation%4种相思树种人工林木材纤维形态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清芸; 卞丽萍; 林金国

    2014-01-01

    Fiber morphology of four Acacia species wood from plantation were determined and analysed com⁃parative.The results indicated that Acacia melanoxy and Acacia Implexa wood had short-sized fiber,Acacia crassicapa and Acacia mangiun wood had medium-sized fiber.Moreover,the ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter for four Acacia species wood were all less than 1.The order of Acacia wood from plantation as a raw material for papermaking merits was A.melanoxy,A.Mangiun,A.Implexa and A.crassicapa.There was ex⁃tremely significant difference or significant difference in fiber length between different Acacia species wood. In addition,there weren’t significant differences in ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter between A.mela⁃noxy and A.implexa wood from plantation while there were extremely significant difference between others different Acacia species wood.There were extremely significant differences in every feature of fiber morpholo⁃gy between A.crassicapa and A.melanoxy,A.mangiun and A.melanoxy wood from plantation.%对4个相思树种人工林木材纤维形态特征进行测定和比较分析,结果表明:黑木相思和灰木相思的木材纤维属于短纤维,厚荚相思和马占相思的木材纤维属于中等纤维,4种相思木材壁腔比均小于1。相思树种人工林木材作为造纸原料的优劣顺序为:厚荚相思、马占相思、黑木相思和灰木相思。4个相思树种人工林木材纤维长度差异均达显著或极显著水平;黑木相思与灰木相思人工林木材纤维壁腔比差异不显著,其余相思树种差异极显著;厚荚相思与灰木相思、马占相思与灰木相思木材人工林木材纤维各形态特征均差异极显著。

  3. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and cytotoxicity activity of Acacia lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using Acacia lignin mediated silver nanoparticles (AGNPs). The synthesis of AGNPs was achieved at conditions optimized as, 3 ml of 0.02% lignin and 1mM silver nitrate incubated for 30 min at 80°C and pH 9. Initial screening of AGNPs was performed by measuring the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis confirmed the spherical shaped face centered cubic structure and 10-50 nm size of AGNPs. The infrared spectroscopy study further revealed that the active functional groups present in lignin were responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to metallic silver (Ag(0)). Lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles showed good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentrations of H2O2 (10(-1) to 10(-6)M). Further, the in vitrocytotoxicity activity of the lignin mediated AGNPs (5-500 μg/ml) demonstrated toxicity effects in MCF-7 and A375 cell lines. Thus, lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles based optical sensor for H2O2 could be potentially applied in the determination of reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals which further expands the importance of lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

  4. Response of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Ping ZHAO; Xingquan RAO; Ling MA; Xian CAI; Xiaoping ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Granier's probes were applied to measure the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the hilly lands in Heshan City, Guangdong, during the time period of October, 2003. The photosynthetically active radi-ation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) and temperature of air (T) above the forest canopy were recorded. The sap flow measurement was used in combination with morphological characteristics of tree and forest structure to calculate the whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc). Analyses on the rela-tionships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use, and on the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were conducted. The results showed that whole-tree transpiration correlated significantly and positively with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (p < 0.0001), with sapwood area (p < 0.0001), and with canopy size (p = 0.0007) logarithmically, but exponentially with tree height (p = 0.014). The analyses on the responses of canopy stomatal conductance showed that the maximum gc (gcmax) changed with PAR in a hyperbolic curve (p <0.0001) and with D in a logarithmic one (p < 0.0001). The results obtained with sap flow technique indicate its reliability and accuracy of the methods of estimation of whole-tree and stand transpirations and canopy stomatal conductance.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia arabica under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promita Datta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the individual and mixed mycorrhizal effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM isolates on growth and biochemical status of Acacia arabica under salinity stress gradients. Salt treatment provided in soil hampered legume growth and its biochemical status. But, mycorrhizal colonizations in plant root system reduced the extent of deleterious salt effect and also helped in plant growth enhancement. Additionally, mixed mycorrhizal association (Glomus mosseae + Glomus fasciculatum responded better towards osmolyte accumulation and in salt stress alleviation. Due to individual and mixed mycorrhizal colonizations in A. arabica; protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar acquisitions were found maximum at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m over corresponding non-mycorrhizal plant. However, mixed AM inoculation accumulated proline content and improved dry biomass to a higher magnitude at the highest soil salinity level. Mixed AM (G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum colonization improved maximum amount of total chlorophyll (20.94%, protein (19.72%, carbohydrate (23.83%, reducing sugar (17.60% at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m and dry biomass (20.35%, proline content (10.99% at salinity level of 8.26 dS/m when compared with non-mycorrhizal counterpart. Greater magnitude of AM root colonization was found in mixed AM treated plant and may be responsible for more improvement in growth and biochemical status and consequently mitigated adverse salt effect better.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

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    Yi-Ming Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2 to 17.31 (fraction F11. There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038, respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9 was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds.

  8. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  9. [Responses of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xingquan; Ma, Ling; Cai, Xi'an; Zeng, Xiaoping

    2006-07-01

    Employing Granierś probes, this paper measured the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the Heshan hilly lands of Guangdong Province, and recorded the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) , and air temperature (T) above the forest canopy. The whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc) were calculated, and the relationships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use as well as the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were analyzed. The results showed that the whole-tree transpiration had logarithmical positive correlations with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (P < 0.0001) , sapwood area (P < 0.0001) and canopy size (P = 0.0007), and an exponential positive correlation with tree height (P = 0. 014). The maximum gc (gc max) changed with PAR hyperbolically (P < 0.0001), and with D logarithmically (P < 0.0001). The sap flow measurement system used in this study was reliable and accurate in estimating the transpiration of whole-tree and stand and the canopy stomatal conductance, being an effective tool in studying the relationships between forest water use and environmental factors.

  10. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  11. The phosphorus requirement of N2 -fixing and urea-fed Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribet, J M; Drevon, J J

    1996-03-01

    The fast-growing leguminous tree Acacia mangium Willd, was grown for at least 22 wk in aerated solution culture either under N2 -fixing conditions or with 2 mmol urea per plant per wk. Inorganic phosphorus was supplied at between 1 and 100 μmol P(1) per plant per wk: the latter was determined to be the optimum P supply for growth. The external P requirement for growth and the efficiency of utilization of internal P were similar for both N sources. However, shoot growth and the concentrations of N and P in leaves were decreased by P deficiency to a slightly higher extent in N2 -fixing plants than in urea-fed plants. Even though P deficiency limited nodule growth more drastically than it did shoot growth, the fraction of P allocated to both nodules and nodule nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) increased with P deficiency. It is concluded that this increase in nitrogenase activity reflects a higher N requirement per unit nodule mass in P-deficient plants and that, once nodules are fully functional the efficiency of utilization of internal P in N2 -fixing A. mangium is high compared with that of other N2 -fixing legumes.

  12. Chemical composition and structural features of the macromolecular components of plantation Acacia mangium wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula C; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Pascoal Neto, Carlos

    2005-10-05

    The wood of Acacia mangium, a prominent fast-growing plantation species used in the pulp-and-paper industry and, so far, poorly investigated for its chemical structure, was submitted to a detailed characterization of its main macromolecular components. Lignin (28% wood weight) isolated by mild acidolysis and characterized by permanganate oxidation, 1H and 13C NMR, and GPC, showed a very low content of syringylpropane-derived units (S:G:H of 48:49:3), a high degree of condensation, a low content of beta-O-4 ( approximately 0.40-0.43 per C6) structures, and a Mw of 2230. Glucuronoxylan (14% wood weight) isolated by alkaline (KOH) or by dimethyl sulfoxide extraction was characterized by methylation analysis, 1H NMR, and GPC. About 10% of the xylopyranose (Xylp) units constituting the linear backbone were substituted at O-2 with 4-O-methylglucuronic acid residues. Almost half of the Xylp units (45%) were O-2 (18%), O-3 (24%) or O-2,3 (3%) acetylated. X-ray diffraction analysis of cellulose (46% wood weight), isolated according to the Kürschner-Hoffer method, showed a degree of crystallinity of 67.6%.

  13. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  14. Improving linkage analysis in outcrossed forest trees - an example from Acacia mangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, A.; Williams, R.; Whitaker, D.; Ling, S.; Speed, P.; Moran, F.

    2002-05-01

    Mapping in forest trees generally relies on outbred pedigrees in which genetic segregation is the result of meiotic recombination from both parents. The currently available mapping packages are not optimal for outcrossed pedigrees as they either cannot order phase-ambiguous data or only use pairwise information when ordering loci within linkage groups. A new package, OUTMAP, has been developed for mapping codominant loci in outcrossed trees. A comparison of maps produced using linkage data from two pedigrees of Acacia mangium Willd demonstrated that the marker orders produced using OUTMAP were consistently of higher likelihood than those produced by JOINMAP. In addition, the maps were produced more efficiently, without the need for recoding data or the detailed investigation of pairwise recombination fractions which was necessary to select the optimal marker order using JOINMAP. Distances between markers often varied from those calculated by JOINMAP, resulting in an increase in the estimated genome length. OUTMAP can be used with all segregation types to determine phase and to calculate the likelihood of alternative marker orders, with a choice of three optimisation methods.

  15. A COMPATIBLE ESTIMATION MODEL OF STEM VOLUME AND TAPER FOR Acacia mangium Willd. PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni Krisnawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the establishment of a compatible volume estimation model for Acacia mangium Willd on the basis of 279 felled sample trees collected from the A. mangium plantation stands in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The model comprises of a total volume model and a stem taper model, which is compatible in the sense of the total volume obtained by integration of the taper model being equal to that computed by the total volume model. Several well-known total volume functions were evaluated including constant form factor, combined variable, generalized combine variable, logarithmic, generalized logarithmic and Honer transformed variables. A logarithmic model was determined to be the best and was then used as the basis for deriving the taper model. Appropriate statistical procedures were used in model fitting to account for the problems of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation that are associated with the construction of volume and taper functions. The simultaneous fitting method of the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR improved the parameter estimates and goodness-of-fit statistics while ensuring numeric consistency among the component models and reducing the total squared error obtained by an independent fitting method. The developed model can be used to estimate total stem volume, merchantable volume to any merchantability diameter limit at any height, and (possibly height of any diameter based on only easily measurable parameters such as diameter at breast height and total tree height for the species analysed.

  16. [Effects of tree height on whole-tree water use of Acacia mangium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Quan; Cai, Xi-an; Zeng, Xiao-ping

    2009-01-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow of 14 sample trees in a 22-year old Acacia mangium forest in hilly land of South China was continuously measured in 2004. Environmental factors including the photosynthetically active radiation, air temperature, and air humidity above canopy and the water content in 0-30 cm soil layer were monitored simultaneously. Combining with the tree morphological features and sap flux density, the whole-tree transpiration, canopy stomatal conductance, and ratio of leaf area to sapwood area were calculated by simplified Whitehead and Jarvis equation, and the effects of tree height on these three parameters were analyzed. The results indicated that under sufficient soil water supply, the whole-tree transpiration increased in a quadratic polynomial way with tree height (P mangium trees had higher reference canopy stomatal conductance and higher sensitivity of canopy stomatal conductance to vapor pressure deficit, compared with the shorter ones. The ratio of leaf area to sapwood area was (1.837 +/- 0.048) m2 x cm(-2), and increased in power function with tree height. A. mangium had no obvious hydraulic limitation and

  17. DETECTION OF POLLEN FLOW IN THE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium USING DNA MARKER

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    Vivi Yuskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen pattern dispersal in seedling seed orchard (SSO is an essential part of a tree-improvement program. Two SSOs of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan and South Sumatra that represent similar resources in different environments were used in this study.  Genotypes of all trees and seeds from a subset of 10 mother trees in each orchard were determined for 12 microsatellite loci, and parentage analysis was carried out. The results shows that the pollen dispersal pattern in both SSOs decrease with distance from mother tree. Patterns of pollen dispersal, dispersal distance and cumulative frequency of pollen dispersal distance were similar in both SSOs. Random pollen dispersal were found in both SSOs. About 80% of all crosses were found within a 40-m distance range with the most frequent pollination distance between mother tree and male male parents was 0-10 m. No self-pollinated seed was detected. Application of all these aspects found in this study such as random pollen dispersal and the effective pollen dispersal distance can be useful for establishing seedling seed orchard, clonal seed orchard and in other tree improvement activities of A. mangium.

  18. Antiviral activity of Acacia nilotica against Hepatitis C Virus in liver infected cells

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    Javed Tariq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV belonging to the family Flaviviridae has infected 3% of the population worldwide and 6% of the population in Pakistan. The only recommended standard treatment is pegylated INF-α plus ribavirin. Due to less compatibility of the standard treatment, thirteen medicinal plants were collected from different areas of Pakistan on the basis of undocumented antiviral reports against different viral infections. Medicinal plants were air dried, extracted and screened out against HCV by infecting HCV inoculums of 3a genotype in liver cells. RT-PCR results demonstrate that acetonic and methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (AN showed more than 50% reduction at non toxic concentration. From the above results, it can be concluded that by selecting different molecular targets, specific structure-activity relationship can be achieved by doing mechanistic analysis. So, additional studies are required for the isolation and recognition of antiviral compound in AN to establish its importance as antiviral drug against HCV. For further research, we will scrutinize the synergistic effect of active antiviral compound in combination with standard PEG INF-α and ribavirin which may be helpful in exploring further gateways for antiviral therapy against HCV.

  19. First comparative phenetic studies of Argentinean species of Acacia (Fabaceae), using morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiva, Paola V; Saidman, Beatriz O; Vilardi, Juan C; Cialdella, Ana M

    2002-05-01

    Morphological and genetic diversity among Acacia aroma, A. macracantha, A. caven, and A. furcatispina were studied with morphometric, isozymal, and RAPD approaches. The analysis of seven isozyme systems revealed 21 loci, and RAPD analysis showed 34 loci. Most of these loci allowed us to differentiate the species, with the exception of A. aroma and A. macracantha, the two most similar species. The levels of genetic variability estimated by isozymes were higher than those obtained from RAPD analyses. Morphometric characters showed highly significant differences among the species, although A. aroma and A. macracantha are differentiated only by thorn length. The phenogram obtained from isozyme data is consistent with morphological data. The RAPD phenogram based on allelic frequencies showed agreement with morphological and isozymal approaches only at the intraspecific levels, while the RAPD phenogram based on Nei and Li's similarity measures agreed with the phenograms constructed from isozyme and morphological data. High similarities and high indirect gene flow were found between A. aroma and A. macracantha, results that call the relationship between them into question.

  20. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

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    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  1. Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, E Fleur; Wagner, Diane

    2006-05-01

    Many plant species attract ants onto their foliage with food rewards or nesting space. However, ants can interfere with plant reproduction when they visit flowers. This study tests whether Acacia constricta separates visiting ant species temporally or spatially from newly opened inflorescences and pollinators. The diurnal activity patterns of ants and A. constricta pollinators peaked at different times of day, and the activity of pollinators followed the daily dehiscence of A. constricta inflorescences. In addition to being largely temporally separated, ants rarely visited open inflorescences. A floral ant repellent contributes to the spatial separation of ants and inflorescences. In a field experiment, ants of four species were given equal access to inflorescences in different developmental stages. On average, the frequency with which ants made initial, antennal contact with the floral stages did not differ, but ants significantly avoided secondary contact with newly opened inflorescences relative to buds and old inflorescences, and old inflorescences relative to buds. Ants also avoided contact with pollen alone, indicating that pollen is at least one source of the repellent. The results suggest A. constricta has effectively resolved the potential conflict between visiting ants and plant reproduction.

  2. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Plants express numerous 'pathogenesis-related' (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EFN and bioassays demonstrated that they actively can inhibit the growth of fungi and other phytopathogens. Although the plants can, thus, express PR-proteins and secrete them into the nectar, the leaves of these plants exhibit reduced activities of chitinases as compared to non-myrmecophytic plants and their antimicrobial protection depends on the mutualistic ants. When we deprived plants of their resident ants we observed higher microbial loads in the leaves and even in the tissue of the nectaries, as compared to plants that were inhabited by ants. The indirect defence that is achieved through an ant-plant mutualism can protect plants also from infections. Future studies will have to investigate the chemical nature of this mechanism in order to understand why plants depend on ants for their antimicrobial defence.

  3. Analysis of miRNAs and their targets during adventitious shoot organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa.

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    Weina Liu

    Full Text Available Organogenesis is an important process for plant regeneration by tissue or cell mass differentiation to regenerate a complete plant. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an essential role in regulating plant development by mediating target genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, but the diversity of miRNAs and their potential roles in organogenesis of Acacia crassicarpa have rarely been investigated. In this study, approximately 10 million sequence reads were obtained from a small RNA library, from which 189 conserved miRNAs from 57 miRNA families, and 7 novel miRNAs from 5 families, were identified from A. crassicarpa organogenetic tissues. Target prediction for these miRNAs yielded 237 potentially unique genes, of which 207 received target Gene Ontology annotations. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis, one novel and 13 conserved miRNAs were selected to investigate their possible roles in A. crassicarpa organogenesis by qRT-PCR. The stage-specific expression patterns of the miRNAs provided information on their possible regulatory functions, including shoot bud formation, modulated function after transfer of the culture to light, and regulatory roles during induction of organogenesis. This study is the first to investigate miRNAs associated with A. crassicarpa organogenesis. The results provide a foundation for further characterization of miRNA expression profiles and roles in the regulation of diverse physiological pathways during adventitious shoot organogenesis of A. crassicarpa.

  4. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  5. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lotfi Ghribia; Hatem Ghouilaa; Amel Omrib; Malek Besbesb; Hichem Ben Janneta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods: Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A.cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1’-1’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay.Results:(67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect Conclusions: The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla.

  6. Culling phenotypically inferior trees in seed production area enhances seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sivakuma; B.Gurudevsingh; R.Anandalakshmi; R.R.Warrier; S.Sekaran; Mulualem Tigabu; P.C.Odén

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis after culling phenotypically inferior trees was studied in a 6-year old seed production area (SPA). A 5-ha plantation was identified, of which 2.3 ha was converted into SPA. The initial stocking, 1 612 trees·ha-1, was thinned down to 982 trees·ha-1 based on growth characteristics. The following fruiting season, seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees in culled and non-culled stands, and seed physical characters, germination and seedling traits were assessed. Seed weight,seed thickness and percentage germination increased by 32.1%, 4.43% and 22.37%, respectively in the culled stand compared to the non-culled stand. Culling also increased the speed of germination, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index. Heritability values were high for seed weight (0.974) and seed thickness (0.948) while medium values were observed for percentage germination (0.577) and total dry weight (0.534).Predicted genetic gain was 11.13% and 11.22% for seed weight and percentage germination, respectively. The actual gain was 32.1, 51.9 and 22.9% for seed weight, percentage germination and total dry matter,respectively. In conclusion, SPAs established by culling inferior trees could serve as sources of good quality seeds for reforestation programs until genetically improved seeds are made available.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

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    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  8. Stable isotope ratios and reforestation potential in Acacia koa populations on Hawai’i

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    Shaneka Lawson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes can be influenced by a multitude of factors including elevation, precipitation rate, season, and temperature. This work examined the variability in foliar stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotope ratios of koa (Acacia koa for 17 sites on Hawai’i Island delineated by elevation and precipitation gradients. Sites were identified and grouped with respect to mean annual precipitation (MAP, mean annual temperature (MAT and position along three elevation ranges. Analysis of the resultant δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios from multiple individuals at these sites indicated that certain sites showed a demonstrated correlation between carbon and/or nitrogen content, isotope ratios, precipitation, and elevation however many sites showed no correlation. We used publicly available temperature and moisture data to help eliminate confounding effects by climatic drivers and capture possible points of contention. At sites where the temperature, precipitation, and elevation data were not significantly different we compared stable isotope information to determine if additional variables could have contributed to the lack of more correlative data. Our results note several areas within the Waiakea Forest Reserve and Volcanoes National Park where, based on isotope results, reforestation efforts could be most successfully initiated.

  9. Biosorption studies on powder of stem of Acacia nilotica: Removal of arsenic from surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A., E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida F., E-mail: nidafatima6@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Sindh 76080 (Pakistan)

    2010-06-15

    In present study a biomass derived from the stem of Acacia nilotica has been investigated to remove As ions from surface water samples of different origins (lake, canal and river). The effects of various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption processes were systematically studied. Experimental data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. It was observed that As biosorption best fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model, indicated physico-chemical biosorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the endothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of biosorption process. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of As biosorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. The biomass of A. nilotica was found to be effective for the removal of As with 95% sorption efficiency at a concentration of <200 {mu}g/L of As solution, and thus uptake capacity is 50.8 mg As/g of biomass. The A. nilotica biomass could be used as a low-cost biosorbent for As ion removal.

  10. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  11. Nocturnal sap flow characteristics and stem water recharge of Acacia mangium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Quan WANG; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we studied the nocturnal stem water recharge of Acacia mangium. It is helpful to improve the precision of canopy transpiration estimation and canopy stomatal conductance, and to further understand the lag time of canopy transpiration to stem sap flow.In this study,the whole-tree sap flow in an A.mangium forest was measured by using Granier's thermal dissipation probe for over two years in the hilly land of South China. The environmental factors, including relative humidity (RH), precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR),and air temperature (Ta) were recorded simultaneously. The stem water recharge of A. Mangium was analyzed on both daily and monthly scales. Sap flux density was lower at night than during the day. The time range of nighttime sap flux density was longer in the dry season than in the wet season. The water recharging mainly occurred from sunset to midnight.No significant differences were observed among inter-annual nighttime water recharges. Nighttime water recharge had no significant correlation with environmen-tal factors, but was welt correlated with the diameter at breast height, tree height, and crown size. In the dry season the contribution of nighttime water recharge to total transpiration had significant correlations with daytime transpiration, total transpiration, VPD, PAR and Ta, while in the wet season it was significantly correlated with daily transpiration and total transpiration.

  12. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  13. Function and value of water conservation in different age classes of Acacia mangium plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bin; QIN Wuming; WU Qingbiao; DAI Jun; HUANG Yong; LIU Feng

    2007-01-01

    For this paper,we studied the water-holding capacity of canopy,vegetation layer under canopy and litter layer,the water-holding capacity and permeability of soil as well as their changes with growth of stands in Acacia mangium plantations of three different age classes(four-,seven-and 11-year-old).Results show that total waterholding above ground in the order of 11-year stand age(52.86 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(41.90 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(25.78 t/hm2),the increment tendency increased with stand age.Similar sequence also obtained on the water-holding capacity and permeation capacity of soil (0-=40cm).The total water-storage capacity both above ground and soil in four-year-old,seven-year-old and 11year-old of A.mangium plantations were 2,023.0,2,158.4 and 2,260.4 t/hm2,respectively,and the all value of water conservation were 1,372.70,1,474.42 and 1,549.91 yuan (RMB)/hm2,respectively.Therefore,A.mangium plantation had a good ability to modify soil structure and good water conservation function.

  14. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

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    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  15. Bioinspired synthesis of morphologically controlled SrCO{sub 3} superstructures by natural gum acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedhar, B.; Keerthi Devi, D. [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Hyderabad 500607 Andhra Pradesh (India); Satyavani, C. [Dept. of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University P. G. Centre, Nuzividu-521201, Andhra Pradesh (India); Dept. of Chemistry, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rambabu, C. [Dept. of Chemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University P. G. Centre, Nuzividu-521201, Andhra Pradesh (India); Basaveswara Rao, M.V. [Dept. of Chemistry, Krishna University, Machilipatnam-521001, Andhra Pradesh (India); Saratchandra Babu, M. [Dept. of Chemistry, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam-530045, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-05-15

    Crystallization of strontium carbonate is performed in aqueous solution using Gum Acacia (GA) as crystal growth modifier. A novel study of hierarchical assembly, specifically interacting inorganic and natural component without introduction of other additives was studied. SrCO{sub 3}structures exhibiting the morphologies of well defined nanocrystallites in the form of clusters of hexagonal rods, flower shaped, cross like, doughnut shaped and rice grain shaped are identified by optimizing the conditions and concentration of GA. In continuation, morphology was also examined for mixed metal carbonates (Sr-LaCO{sub 3}, Sr-TbCO{sub 3}). The results indicate that -OH, -COOH and -NH{sub 2} functional group moieties of GA play a remarkable role in inhibiting growth morphology of metal carbonates and mixed metal carbonates. Structural characterization of the synthesized materials was investigated by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled Mass (MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This synthesis method can be easily extended to a variety of inorganic nanoparticles, thereby enabling exact control over material properties. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  17. Investigation of Ethyl Acetate Extract/Fractions of Acacia nilotica willd. Ex Del as Potent Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajbir Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.

  18. [Regeneration of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations in Yuanmou dry and hot valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangming; Li, Kun; Zhang, Changshun

    2006-08-01

    An investigation on the seed yield, seed dispersal pattern, seed density, and the numbers of seedlings and saplings was conducted at the sampling sites of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations. The factors affecting the natural regeneration and tree adaptability of A. glauca and L. leucacephala were analyzed, and their regeneration status was evaluated by gray relational analysis. The results showed that the seed yield of A. glauca with the same age was 566 grains per tree, while that of L. leucacephala was 1 199 grains per tree. The mean seed yield of individual tree, whether A. glauca or L. leucacephala, was higher in mixed forest than in pure forest, and that of naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was between those of A. glauca and L. leucacephala plantations. With the increasing distance to mother tree, A. glauca had a smaller decrement of seed density than L. leucacephala. The seed dispersal distance of A. glauca was 110 m, while that of L. leucacephala was 90 m. The gray relational coefficient of A. glauca plantation, L. leucacephala plantation, and naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was 0.7269, 0.6000 and 0.6000, respectively, indicating that A. glauca plantation had a better regeneration status.

  19. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  20. Pharmacological assessment of the medicinal potential of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.: antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajuyigbe, Olufunmiso O; Afolayan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of microbial infections in South Africa without scientific validation of its bioactivity and toxicity. The antimicrobial activity of the crude acetone extract was evaluated by both agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while its cytotoxicity effect was assessed with brine shrimp lethality assay. The study showed that both bacterial and fungal isolates were highly inhibited by the crude extract. The MIC values for the gram-positive bacteria (78.1-312.5) μg/mL, gram-negative bacteria (39.1-625) μg/mL and fungal isolates (625-5000) μg/mL differ significantly. The bacteria were more susceptible than the fungal strains tested. The antibiosis determination showed that the extract was more (75%) bactericidal than bacteriostatic (25%) and more fungicidal (66.67%) than fungistatic (33.33%). The cytotoxic activity of the extract was observed between 31.25 μg/mL and 500 μg/mL and the LC(50) value (112.36 μg/mL) indicates that the extract was nontoxic in the brine shrimp lethality assay (LC(50) > 100 μg/mL). These results support the use of A. mearnsii in traditional medicine for treatment of microbial infections. The extract exhibiting significant broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and nontoxic effects has potential to yield active antimicrobial compounds.

  1. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents.

  2. Estimation of Acacia melanoxylon unbleached Kraft pulp brightness by NIR spectroscopy

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    António J. A. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The ability of NIR spectroscopy for predicting the ISO brightness was studied on unbleached Kraft pulps of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal. Materials and methods: The samples were Kraft pulped in standard identical conditions targeted to a kappa number of 15. A Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLSR model was developed for the ISO brightness prediction using 75 pulp samples with a variation range of 18.9 to 47.9 %. Main results: Very good correlations between NIR spectra and ISO brightness were obtained. Ten methods were used for PLS analysis (cross validation with 48 samples, and a test set validation was made with 27 samples. The 1stDer pre-processed spectra coupling two wavenumber ranges from 9404 to 7498 cm-1 and 4605 to 4243 cm-1 allowed the best model with a root mean square error of ISO brightness prediction of 0.5 % (RMSEP, a r2 of 99.5 % with a RPD of 14.7. Research highlights: According to AACC Method 39-00, the present model is sufficiently accurate to be used for process control (RPD ≥ 8

  3. Larvicidal activity of Acacia nilotica extracts and isolation of D-pinitol--a bioactive carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Rohini; Pawar, Pushpa V; Hebbalkar, Geeta D; Tungikar, Vijay B; Puranik, Vedavati G; Deshpande, Vishnu H; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2005-05-01

    A low-molecular-weight, sugar-like compound other than glucose, fructose, sucrose, or myo-inositol showing lipophilic nature was isolated from the EtOH extract of Acacia nilotica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectral methods. This alicyclic polyalcohol was found to be D-pinitol (= 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol; 1). The configuration of the compound was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The compound 1 is known from Soybean, Australian mangroves, Fagonia indica, Arachis hypogaea, etc., but we have isolated this compound for the first time from the aerial parts of A. nilotica. Very few references have been cited for compound 1 for its entomological activity, and there are no reports on mosquitoes. Therefore, the crude extracts of A. nilotica were tested for its biological activity against mosquito larvae. Acetone extract at 500-ppm concentration showed chronic toxicity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus IVth instar mosquito larvae. Such a biological activity has been observed for the first time for this plant. This study could be a stepping stone to a solution for destroying larval species as well as consumption of such a widely grown, problem weed, A. nilotica. This larvicidal agent, since it is derived from plant, is eco-friendly, cost effective, non-hazardous to non-target organisms and would be safe unlike commercially available insecticides.

  4. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  5. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay K. Udani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali, which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P<0.05 for all. Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  6. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  7. Impact of different wood chip species (oak, acacia and cherry on evolution of individual anthocyanins, chromatic characteristics and antioxidant capacity in model wine solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão António M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to investigate the impact of different oak (Q. alba, Q. robur and Q. pyrenaica, acacia and cherry wood chips on evolution of individual anthocyanin content, chromatic characteristics and antioxidant capacity by the use of model wine solutions. According to the results obtained, model wine solutions containing acacia and especially cherry wood extracts showed more evident changes of individual anthocyanin composition, especially due to the formation of large number of new direct condensation anthocyanins, than model wines with oak extracts. These results were accompanied also by a higher color degradation and a lower antioxidant potential of solutions containing the different wood chip extract species, compared with solutions containing only anthocyanin alone. This research contributes to a better knowledge about the color evolution of red wines when they are aging in contact with new alternative wood species, especially acacia and cherry.

  8. Glucanases and chitinases as causal agents in the protection of Acacia extrafloral nectar from infestation by phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Alvarez, Rosa M; Heil, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii x Nicotiana sanderae) contains "nectarins," proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function.

  9. Enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth, and reproduction in an African acacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Brody, Alison K

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how cooperative interactions evolve and persist remains a central challenge in biology. Many mutualisms are thought to be maintained by "partner fidelity feedback," in which each partner bases their investment on the benefits they receive. Yet, we know little about how benefits change as mutualists vary their investment, which is critical to understanding the balance between mutualism and antagonism in any given partnership. Using an obligate ant-plant mutualism, we manipulated the density of symbiotic acacia ants (Crematogaster mimosae) and examined how the costs and benefits to Acacia drepanolobium trees scaled with ant abundance. Benefits of ants to plants saturated with increasing ant abundance for protection from branch browsing by elephants and attack by branch galling midges, while varying linearly for protection from cerambycid beetles. In addition, the risk of catastrophic whole-tree herbivory by elephants was highest for trees with very low ant abundance. However, there was no relationship between ant abundance and herbivory by leaf-feeding invertebrates, nor by vertebrate browsers such as giraffe, steinbuck, and Grant's gazelle. Ant abundance did not significantly influence rates of branch growth on acacias, but there was a significant negative relationship between ant abundance and the number of fruits produced by host plants, suggesting that maintaining high-density ant colonies is costly. Because benefits to plants largely saturated with increasing colony size, while costs to plant reproduction increased, we suggest that ant colonies may achieve abundances that are higher than optimal for host plants. Our results highlight the conflicts of interest inherent in many mutualisms, and demonstrate the value of examining the shape of curves relating costs and benefits within these globally important interactions.

  10. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

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    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  11. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  12. Entomophthora leyteensis Villacarlos & Keller sp. nov. (Entomophthorales: Zygomycetes) infecting Tetraleurodes acaciae (Quaintance) (Insecta, Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a recently introduced whitefly on Gliricidia sepium (Jaq.) Walp. (Fabaceae) in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villacarlos, L T; Mejia, B S; Keller, S

    2003-05-01

    Entomophthora leyteensis Villacarlos & Keller sp. nov., a species of Entomophthorales infecting the whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae on Gliricidia sepium in the Philippines is described. Disease prevalence monitored weekly for 8 weeks indicated that the fungus could cause 8-31% infection within the whitefly population. Epizootics due to this fungus occurred in Inopacan, Leyte. Sampling live whitefly adults and dissecting them on glass slides for microscopic examination of fungal structures was found to give a better measure of prevalence than actual counts of infected insect cadavers. E. leyteensis is an important mortality factor for T. acaciae. Some speculations on the origin of the fungus are discussed here.

  13. Elephant impact on Sclerocarya Caffra trees in Acacia Nigrescens tropical plains Thornveld of the Kruger National Park

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    B.J Coetzee

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of elephant impact at various distances from roads was conducted in June 1978 for Sclerocarya caffra (marula tree populations in Acacia nigrescens Tropical Plains Thornveld in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Data from scar recovery indicate that widespread scarring of S. caffra trees by elephant commenced in 1973, coinciding with a wet cli- matic phase. Elephant impact, old and fresh and irrespective of kind, decreased with distance from roads. Substantially higher impact was also recorded along S. caffra population boundaries. The most recent impact on some populations was higher than expected from the established relationship between elephant impact and tree density.

  14. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  15. Estudio fitoquímico de la corteza de acacia farnesianautilizada tradicionalmente para el tratamiento de la malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Daza Bareño, Ada Zurima

    2014-01-01

    En Colombia se ha reportado el uso de decocciones de las hojas y la corteza de Acacia farnesiana para el tratamiento de fiebres y malaria. El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio fitoquímico de la corteza de esta especie colectada en dos épocas del año, época seca (junio) y de lluvia (octubre). Para tal fin se recolectó el material vegetal en Armero-Guayabal, Departamento Tolima (Colombia) y se realizó una caracterización fitoquímica del extracto etanólico obtenido por percolación ...

  16. 小海胆,新大陆——为Sogyumo Acacia Band暖场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladybird

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1492年哥伦布发现了新大陆,于是已经存在几生几世的美洲大陆摇身变成"新"的了--我是给自己这样一个牵强的借口来鼓励自己写写Sogyumo Acacia Band的.是的,他们的专辑在前两年就已经有人在听(正确的发行日期是2004年11月23日),于我却是新的聆听体验.

  17. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  18. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  19. DETEKSI BAKTERI PATOGEN TERBAWA BENIH AKOR (ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS A. CUNN. EX BENTH.

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    Tati Suharti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex  enth.. Intensive research of seed-borne pathogen of A. mangium and A. crassicarpa which have been established in industrial timber estate (HTI was undertaken in Indonesia, while plantings development of northern black wattle have recently been established in the 1990s. Very limited information available on northern black wattle diseases especially seed-borne diseases. The objectives of this study were to identify seed-borne pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle and the effects on seed germination. Methods for the isolation of bacteria were by seed soaking, seed griding, blotter test, growing-on test on paper and soil. Identification of bacteria by PCR used 63F/1387R primer. The results showed that seed-borne bacteria of northern black wattle were Paenochrobactrum sp., Ralstonia sp., Burkholderia cepacia complex, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetobacter sp., Alcaligenes faecalis, Salmonella bongori, Escherichia hermannii while pathogenic bacteria cause seedling leafspot were Micrococcus luteus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Burkholderia cepacia complex, A. faecalis, Acinetobater sp., P. stutzeri, S. bongori and Ralstonia sp. reduced seed germination and increased rotten seed, suggested that they were the pathogenic bacteria of northern black wattle seed. Ralstonia sp. significantly increased the percentage of rotten seed and decreased shoot length and root length. P. stutzeri and S. bongori significantly inhibited the root growth. Paenochrobactrum sp. and E. hermannii were assumed as pathogen with weak virulence due to seed germination, the percentage of rotten seed and vigour index were relatively similar to untreated seed.

  20. Nutritional value of Acacia amentacea and Parkinsonia texana grown in semiarid conditions

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    Tilo G. Domínguez-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the nutritional value of Parkinsonia texana and Acacia amentacea, two leguminosae species of the Tamaulipan scrubland, Northeastern Mexico, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the effects of season and browse species on chemical composition as nutritional variable to small ruminants; the second tested the effect of the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG on fermentation parameters. Foliage samples were collected from three sites. Data of chemical composition were analysed using analysis of variance for a bi-factorial arrangement, whereas the effect of PEG was analysed by a strip plot design. Results of chemical composition were affected by interacting factors season*species as individually they were significantly different (P<0.001. Addition of PEG affected (P<0.001 fermentation parameters. Significantly higher values of neutral detergent fibre (42%, condensed tannins (19%, purines (9 μmol, partitioning factor (PF (6.1 and gross energy losses (GEL=6.7% were found in A. amentacea, while P. texana gave higher crude protein (18%, in vitro true organic matter digestibility (82%, metabolisable energy (ME [2.1 Mcal/kg dry matter (DM], A (183 mL, c (0.07/h and L (0.86 h. Addition of PEG increased ME, and affected (P<0.001 fermentation parameters A and c, while purines and PF decreased. Results indicate that chemical composition and fermentation parameters vary according to seasons and species. PEG addition increases the fermentation parameters, which indicates that PEG counteracts the detrimental effects of secondary components of samples. Data suggest that using both species combined could supply necessary nutritional requirements to small ruminants in the Tamaulipan scrubland.

  1. Influence of mineral fertilization on edaphic fauna in Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn plantations

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    Liliana Parente Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and/or the accumulation of organic matter from plant residues can influence the composition of soil and litter community. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of P and K fertilization on total faunal and nematode faunal composition and richness in plant litter and soil for 360 days in an area reforested with Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn, located in the municipality of Conceição de Macabu in the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each treatment (fertilized and unfertilized plots, samples of litter and soil (to a depth of 5 cm were collected and transferred into a Berlese-Tüllgren funnels for the extraction of fauna. Mesofauna and macrofauna were quantified, and the major taxa identified. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution and identified according to feeding habits. Density (number of individuals m-2 of total fauna, microphages, social insects and saprophages varied significantly per treatment and sampling time in both litter and soil. The total number of individuals collected was 5,127, and the total number of nematodes 894. Phosphorus and potassium fertilization resulted in an increase in total fauna density and richness in the litter due to an increased abundance of social insects, saprophages and herbivores. In the soil, fertilization increased the saprophage and predator densities. Saprophages were the predominant taxa in the litter, while social insects (Formicidae prevailed in the soil. Litter nematode populations were favored by mineral fertilization. Bacteriophages were the predominant nematode group in both litter and soil.

  2. Acacia ferruginea inhibits inflammation by regulating inflammatory iNOS and COX-2.

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    Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a local defensive reaction of a host to cellular injury or infection. Prolonged inflammation can contribute to pathogenesis of many disorders. Identification of naturally occurring phytoconstituents that can suppress inflammatory mediators can lead to the discovery of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Acacia ferruginea is used traditionally to treat numerous ailments including hemorrhage, irritable bowel syndrome and leprosy. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of A. ferruginea extract against acute (carrageenan) and chronic (formaldehyde) inflammation in Balb/c mice. Pre-treatment with A. ferruginea extract (10 mg/kg BW) for 5 consecutive days via intraperitonial (IP) administration significantly inhibited subsequent induction of paw edema in both models; the effects were comparable to that of the standard drug indomethacin. The results also showed the A. ferruginea extract significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression (as measured in serum), diminished inflammation in - and neutrophil infiltration to - the paw tissues and led to a reduction in the number of COX-2(+) immunoreative cells (as evidenced by histologic and immunohistochemical analyses) in the paws relative to those in paws of mice that received the irritants only. Further, in vitro studies showed the extract could significantly scavenge free radicals generated as in DPPH and NO radical generating assays. Taken together, the results showed that A. ferruginea extract imparted potent anti-oxidant and -inflammatory effects, in part by maintaining oxidative homeostasis, inhibiting NO synthesis and suppressing iNOS and COX-2 expression and so could potentially be exploited as a potential plant-based medication against inflammatory disorders.

  3. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

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    Ahmed H. Arbab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL. Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s and its phytochemical as well as biological studies.

  4. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

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    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  5. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

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    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  6. Gibberellin is required for the formation of tension wood and stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings.

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    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Nakaba, Satoshi; Fukuhara, Shiori; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2012-09-01

    Angiosperm trees generally form tension wood on the upper sides of leaning stems. The formation of tension wood is an important response to gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin appears to be involved in the differentiation of secondary xylem, but it remains unclear whether gibberellin plays a key role in the formation of tension wood and plant gravitropism. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the effects of gibberellin and of inhibitors of the synthesis of gibberellin, namely paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P, on the formation of tension wood and negative stem gravitropism in Acacia mangium seedlings. Gibberellic acid (GA(3)), paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P were applied to seedlings via the soil in which they were growing. Distilled water was applied similarly as a control. Three days after such treatment, seedlings were tilted at an angle of 45° from the vertical, and samples of stems were collected for analysis 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months after tilting. The effects of treatments on the stem recovery degree (Rº) were analysed as an index of the negative gravitropism of seedlings, together the width of the region of tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems. It was found that GA(3) stimulated the negative gravitropism of tilted seedling stems of A. mangium, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P inhibited recovery to vertical growth. Moreover, GA(3) stimulated the formation of tension wood in tilted A. mangium seedlings, while paclobutrazole and uniconazole-P strongly suppressed the formation of tension wood, as assessed 2 weeks after tilting. The results suggest that gibberellin plays an important role at the initial stages of formation of tension wood and in stem gravitropism in A. mangium seedlings in response to a gravitational stimulus.

  7. Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., from the phyllosphere of Acacia caven in Argentina.

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    Rivas, Raúl; Abril, Adriana; Trujillo, Martha E; Velázquez, Encarna

    2004-11-01

    Two bacterial strains (FA1 and FA2(T)) were isolated from the phyllosphere of a leguminous tree, Acacia caven, in central Argentina. The strains were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and formed yellow-pigmented colonies on nutrient agar. The two-primer RAPD patterns of the two strains were identical, suggesting that they belong to the same species. The complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were obtained and comparisons demonstrated that they cluster phylogenetically with the species of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto. Strain FA2(T) was most closely related (97.6 %) to Sphingomonas adhaesiva. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to all other established Sphingomonas species ranged from 94.4 % (to Sphingomonas echinoides) to 97.6 % (to S. adhaesiva). Strains FA1 and FA2(T) were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Aesculin was hydrolysed, gelatin and urea were not. beta-Galactosidase was produced. From 51 compounds tested 21 were used as single sources of carbon. The major respiratory lipoquinone was ubiquinone-10. The predominant cellular fatty acids were 16 : 0, 18 : 1omega7c and 16 : 1omega7c (from summed feature 3). Hydroxy fatty acids 14 : 0 2-OH and 15 : 0 iso 2-OH were present as well (from summed feature 4). The polar lipids detected in strain FA2(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, sphingoglycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of strain FA2(T) was 61 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed 27.6 % relatedness between strain FA2(T) and S. adhaesiva DSM 7418(T). Based upon phenotypic and molecular evidence, a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas is proposed, Sphingomonas phyllosphaerae sp. nov., with strain FA2(T) (=LMG 21958(T)=CECT 5832(T)) as the type strain.

  8. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  9. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity.

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    Murugan, Kasi; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae). Visual observation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17-29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657), and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475). This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using traditional medicinal plant (A. leucophloea) barks to synthesize biocompatible antibacterial AgNPs could easily be scaled up for additional biomedical applications. These polydisperse AgNPs green-synthesized via A. leucophloea bark extract can readily be used in many applications not requiring high uniformity in particle size or shape.

  10. Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinna Linn. pod extract by topical microemulsion

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    Worrapan Poomanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and stability of Acacia concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Both physical appearance and biological activities of the extract-loaded microemulsion were determined in comparison with the extract solution. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of three oil types including tea seed oil, grape seed oil, and sesame oil, together with polysorbate 85 or the mixture of polysorbate 85 and sorbitan oleate as surfactants, and absolute ethanol as a co-surfactant were constructed to optimize the microemulsion area. The selected microemulsion was then characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and viscosity. Tea seed oil exhibited the highest microemulsion area in the phase diagram because it had the highest unsaturated fatty acid content. The microemulsion composed of tea seed oil (5%, polysorbate 85 (40%, ethanol (20%, and water (35% exhibited Newtonian flow behavior with the droplet size and polydispersity index of 68.03 ± 1.09 nm and 0.44 ± 0.04, respectively. After 4% w/w of the extract was incorporated into the microemulsion, larger droplets size was observed (239.77 ± 12.69 nm with a lower polydispersity index (0.37 ± 0.02. After storage in various conditions, both physical appearances and the stability of biological activity of the extract-loaded microemulsion were improved compared to the solution. Therefore, the A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for further development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications are also suggested.

  11. Use of gelatin-acacia coacervate containing benzocaine in topical formulations.

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    Ichwan, A M; Karimi, M; Dash, A K

    1999-08-01

    The in vitro release of a drug from topical formulations depends on the concentration of the drug in the formulation, the solubility of the drug in the base, the diffusion coefficient of the drug in the vehicle, and the partition coefficient of the drug between the vehicle, and the release medium. Incorporation of both complexing agents and cosolvents into such formulations has been used to enhance the in vitro release of a drug from topical formulations. In this investigation, a novel approach to enhance the in vitro release of benzocaine from different ointment formulations has been introduced. In this study, benzocaine was microencapsulated using gelatin-acacia complex coacervation technique. Various weight fractions of the coacervate, 5, 10, and 20% (w/w), were incorporated into both oleaginous and absorption bases. The in vitro release characteristics of benzocaine from the resulting ointments were studied using a modified USP Dissolution Apparatus 2. A plot of the cumulative amount of drug released (7-8%) per unit surface area versus (time)(1/2) was linear. Microscopic studies of the formulations revealed that the coacervates maintained their integrity in the formulation during the preparation and storage of the dosage form. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies indicated that the drug existed in the crystalline state in all formulations including those at a low drug load (0.5% w/w). DSC was also used to determine the solubility of the drug in the formulation. The rate and extent of drug release was higher in the absorption base as compared to the oleaginous base.

  12. Growth Responses of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria Seedlings on Different Soil Origin under Nursery Condition

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    Tirtha Ayu Paramitha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the growth responses of Acacia mangium (mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon seedlings growing on different soil origin under nursery condition. This study was started in September 2012 and terminated in March 2013.  The seedlings were grown from seeds sown in a plastic box filled with sterilized sands. One week after sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into polybags contained sterilized soils originated from secondary forest, Imperata cylindrica grassland and ex-coal mining. The number of all seedlings were 180 seedlings consisted of 3 different soils, 2 species of seedlings with 10 seedlings replicated 3 times. Assessment was conducted one week after transplanting, then subsequently monitored every 2 weeks, except dry weighing and counting nodules were performed at the end of the study. A completely randomized design was used in this study. The data was analyzed using Costat software. The study resulted that the different of soil origin influenced on all growth variables of mangium and sengon of 4.5 months old. The survival rate of seedlings, height and diameter increments, dry weight and root nodules were better in both species of seedlings growing on soil originated from secondary forest and Imperata grassland compared with the soil from ex-coal mining. But the survival rates of sengon seedlings were higher than that of mangium on these three soils. The highest dry weight of sengon seedlings was achieved on soil originated from secondary forest. In the present study, soil originated from secondary forest increased more in weight of shoot than root, so that the shoot-root ratio was unbalanced more than one. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that soil from secondary forest and Imperata grassland can be used as growing media for mangium and sengon seedlings in the nursery.

  13. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

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    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  14. Soil and plant changing after invasion: the case of Acacia dealbata in a Mediterranean ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Giuliani, Claudia; Fabiani, Arturo; Agnelli, Alessandro Elio; Pastorelli, Roberta; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Benesperi, Renato; Calamassi, Roberto; Foggi, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    Acacia dealbata Link (Fabaceae) is one of the most invasive species in the Mediterranean ecosystems of Europe, Africa and America, where it has been proved to exert strong effects on soil and plant communities. In Italy A. dealbata has been largely used for ornamental and forestry purpose and is nowadays spreading in several areas. The present study was addressed to evaluate the impacts on soil chemical properties, soil microbial communities and understory plant communities and to assess the relationships among these compartments after the invasion of A. dealbata in a typical Mediterranean shrubland. Towards these aims, a soil and vegetation sampling was performed in Elba Island where A. dealbata is invading the sclerophyllous native vegetation. Three levels of invasion status were differentiated according to the gradient from invaded, to transitional and non-invaded vegetation. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of soil chemical properties and microbial communities (i.e. bacterial and fungal communities) and above-ground understory plant communities were found. In particular, the invaded soils had lower pH values than both the non-invaded and transitional ones. High differences were detected for both the total N and the inorganic fraction (NH4(+) and NO3(-)) contents, which showed the ranking: invaded>transitional>non-invaded soils. TOC and C/N ratio showed respectively higher and lower values in invaded than in non-invaded soils. Total plant covers, species richness and diversity in both the non-invaded and transitional subplots were higher than those in the invaded ones. The contribution of the nitrophilous species was significantly different among the three invasion statuses, with a strong increase going from native to transitional and invaded subplots. All these data confirm that A. dealbata modifies several compartments of the invaded ecosystems, from soil chemical properties to soil and plant microbial communities determining strong changes in the

  15. New Pharmacophore from the Stem Bark Fractions of Acacia decurrens (Willd, an Invasive South Africa Tree

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    Bamidele Joseph Okoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance of Acacia decurrens, an invasive species, was exploited pharmacologically in this study. Phytochemical screening revealed important secondary metabolites. Importantly, the assay shows that ethyl acetate and methanol fractions are sources of phytochemicals compared to the hexane and chloroform fractions. A bioassay-guided in vitro assay of the extracts led to the eventual isolation of four bioactive compounds by column chromatography, identification, and characterisation with the aid of GCMS, UV-Vis, FTIR, and NMR. The antimicrobial screening by disc diffusion assay revealed 22.2%, 44.4%, 66.7%, and 77.8% microbial inhibition by 2-methyl-octahydro-indene-4-carboxylic acid (AD1, 6-methyldecahydro-1H-phenanthren-9-one (AD2, 8-hydroxytetradecahydro-chrysene-1-carb aldehyde (AD3, and 8,9-dihydroxy-7-(2-hydroxy-ethyl-9,9a-hexahydro-1H,3H-2-thia-5a-aza cyclopenta[b]anthracen-6-one (AD4, respectively. Compounds AD3 and AD4 are the most potent antibacterial compounds against Gram-positive bacteria with MIC 12.5–6.25 μg/ml. Antioxidant study of the compounds assayed with DPPH and ABTS•+ revealed that compound (AD4 is the most efficient DPPH radical scavenger with IC50 30.07 ± 0.31 and ABTS•+ scavenging activity of 4363.2 ± 452.4 μmol of TE/gDW. This provides scientific information on four pharmacophores with phyto-antioxidants and antimicrobial potential, despite the classification of A. decurrens as a Category 2 invasive plant by the National Water Act.

  16. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  17. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

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    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  18. Drought tolerance of Acacia karroo, a native tree species to South Africa,in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ying; Janusz Zwolinski; Yin Wei-lun; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Acacia karroo is an indigenous, strong drought-tolerant and widely planted tree in South Africa. In order to match the plant with its adaptation to forest sites in China, it is important to know the drought-tolerance of this species under Chinese forest site conditions. Our study was carried out in cinnamon soils in Beijing and with Platycladus orientalis, the most drought-tolerant tree in Beijing, as control. Physiological parameters of young plants of the trees were measured and divided into three groups in response to soil drying. The first group included root activity, ABA content in roots and peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves. Their values changed similarly to those of P. orientalis and dramatically increased to maximum values when the soil water content (SWC) decreased from its normal level of 20% to 7.6% where the three indices decreased dramatically when SWC was reduced further from 7.6%. The second group of parameters included the contents of proline, soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA). Their values showed greater variation than those of P. orientalis and significantly increased when SWC decreased from 20% in response to soil drying. However,the proline and soluble protein contents fluctuated in A. karroo at a lower level than those in P. orientalis. In contrast, the content of MDA in A. karroo was much higher than that in P. orientalis which almost did not increase in the drying soil. The third group of parameters consisted of soluble sugar, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These parameters showed greater diversity and fluctuations among the three varieties of A. karroo compared with the control in response to soil drying. These results suggest that A. karroo is characterized as a strong, drought tolerant species in most of physiological parameters but weaker than P.orientalis in membrane lipid antioxidation.

  19. TEKNIK PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN DAN METODE PERKECAMBAHAN UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BENIH Acacia crassicarpa HASIL PEMULIAAN

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    Naning Yuniarti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia crassicarpa improved seed has a higher quality than unimproved seed. To maintain the viability, improved seeds are required as appropriate handling techniques. One of the important steps in seed handling is seed germination test. A. crassicarpa seed have dormancy and to break it needs spesific pretreatment. Germination test can be worked in the laboratory and greenhouse. The purpose of this research was to obtain pretreatment and germination method better to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed. Pretreatment in resources were without treatment, soaking in hot water (100oC and followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 1 minute in hot water (100oC followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 6 minutes in hot water (100oC followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 30 minutes in H2SO4, torn of seedcoat, and torn of seedcoat and then soaking for 24 hours in cold water. Laboratory Germination method were top of paper (TP, between paper (BP, and pleated paper (PP test. Whereas growing media used in greenhouse were top soil, sand, a mixture of top soil and sand (1:1/v:v, and cocopeat. The results showed that to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed required the best pretreatment technique and germination methods were (1 in laboratory used combine between torn of seedcoat and top of paper. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 96 %, and (2 in greenhouse used combine between torn of seedcoat and cocopeat. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 88 %. 

  20. Curva Característica de Secagem da Madeira de Tectona grandis e Acacia mangium ao Ar Livre

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    Rafael Leite Braz

    Full Text Available A secagem natural é uma alternativa que pode ser empregada como pré-secagem ou secagem definitiva para diversas madeiras com baixo custo e condições simples de trabalho. O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o comportamento das curvas características de secagem ao ar livre de tábuas de Acacia mangium e Tectona grandis. Árvores de cada espécie com idade de 15 anos foram abatidas, com toras de aproximadamente 3 m. Essas foram desdobradas utilizando-se o sistema de cortes tangenciais para a obtenção das tábuas de 3,0 cm de espessura. Instalada a pilha de madeira para a secagem, a umidade inicial das amostras foi determinada e o acompanhamento foi realizado por meio de pesagens periódicas das amostras de controle. Observou-se que nas condições ambientais expostas, a madeira de Acacia mangium secou mais lentamente ao ar livre que a madeira de Tectona grandis. Recomenda-se a análise da curva de secagem para cada espécie separadamente.

  1. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  2. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology.

  3. Argentinean native wood species: Physical and mechanical characterization of some Prosopis species and Acacia aroma (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Pizzo, Benedetto; Brunetti, Michele; Macchioni, Nicola; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2009-03-01

    One of the problems in marketing the wood of Prosopis and Acacia is the lack of standardization of its qualities. The aim of this paper was to obtain a preliminary detection of some properties of the wood of four species of the genus Prosopis and one species from Acacia grown in Argentina. To accomplish this objective, the content of extractives and some physical and mechanical characteristics were analyzed. The density rho(12) of all the species indicates that these woods range from heavy to very heavy (>or=0.69g/cm(3)). The total volumetric shrinkage values are low, less than 10%, for all species. The parallel compression strength and the shear strength for all the species indicate a very resistant wood (>or=46.93MPa and >or=18.35MPa, respectively). Brinell hardness was higher than 5kg/mm(2) in all cases. The species with less content of extractives is P. ruscifolia (approximately 9% of anhydrous mass) whereas A. aroma was the one with the greatest content (approximately 25% of anhydrous mass in the heartwood).

  4. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  5. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

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    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  6. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from < 0.1 to 8.4 l day(-1) for acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  7. Interaction between ungulates and bruchid beetles and its effect on Acacia trees: modeling the costs and benefits of seed dispersal to plant demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Wiegand, Kerstin; Ward, David

    2011-09-01

    Integrative studies of plant-animal interactions that incorporate the multiple effects of interactions are important for discerning the importance of each factor within the population dynamics of a plant species. The low regeneration capacity of many Acacia species in arid savannas is a consequence of a combination of reduction in seed dispersal and high seed predation. Here we studied how ungulates (acting as both seed dispersers and herbivores) and bruchid beetles (post-dispersal seed predators) modulate the population dynamics of A. raddiana, a keystone species in the Middle East. We developed two simulation models of plant demography: the first included seed ingestion by ungulates and seed predation by bruchids, whereas the second model additionally incorporated herbivory by ungulates. We also included the interacting effects of seed removal and body mass, because larger ungulates destroy proportionally fewer seeds and enhance seed germination. Simulations showed that the negative effect of seed predation on acacia population size was compensated for by the positive effect of seed ingestion at 50 and 30% seed removal under scenarios with and without herbivory, respectively. Smaller ungulates (e.g., seeds than larger ungulates (e.g., >250 kg) to compensate for the negative effect of seed predation. Seedling proportion increased with seed removal in the model with herbivory. Managing and restoring acacia seed dispersers is key to conserving acacia populations, because low-to-medium seed removal could quickly restore their regeneration capacity.

  8. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

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    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  9. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

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    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

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    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  11. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  12. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  13. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  14. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

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    E O Ogbadoyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  15. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    Sunil Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 11113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be

  16. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  17. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Jitendra Kumar; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Kumar, Sanjay; Chandramoni; Kumar, Abhishek; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg), distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%) mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor) feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07) in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01) in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20.17% lower in T2 group

  18. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  19. Exclusive rewards in mutualisms: ant proteases and plant protease inhibitors create a lock-key system to protect Acacia food bodies from exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Svatos, Ales; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Heil, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Myrmecophytic Acacia species produce food bodies (FBs) to nourish ants of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group, with which they live in an obligate mutualism. We investigated how the FBs are protected from exploiting nonmutualists. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the FB proteomes and consecutive protein sequencing indicated the presence of several Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs extracted from Acacia FBs were biologically active, as they effectively reduced the trypsin-like and elastase-like proteolytic activity in the guts of seed-feeding beetles (Prostephanus truncatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus), which were used as nonadapted herbivores representing potential exploiters. By contrast, the legitimate mutualistic consumers maintained high proteolytic activity dominated by chymotrypsin 1, which was insensitive to the FB PIs. Larvae of an exploiter ant (Pseudomyrmex gracilis) taken from Acacia hosts exhibited lower overall proteolytic activity than the mutualists. The proteases of this exploiter exhibited mainly elastase-like and to a lower degree chymotrypsin 1-like activity. We conclude that the mutualist ants possess specifically those proteases that are least sensitive to the PIs in their specific food source, whereas the congeneric exploiter ant appears partly, but not completely, adapted to consume Acacia FBs. By contrast, any consumption of the FBs by nonadapted exploiters would effectively inhibit their digestive capacities. We suggest that the term 'exclusive rewards' can be used to describe situations similar to the one that has evolved in myrmecophytic Acacia species, which reward mutualists with FBs but safeguard the reward from exploitation by generalists by making the FBs difficult for the nonadapted consumer to use. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A comparison of anthropogenic and elephant disturbance on Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree populations in the Lowveld, South Africa

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    J. Botha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia xanthophloea (the ‘fever tree’ is a popular medicinal species that is traded widely in South Africa. Although it occurs throughout southern Africa, there is increasing pressure on its riverine and marshy habitats. This study compares the impact of harvesting on an A. xanthophloea population located on private land near Komatipoort, Mpumalanga, with two protected populations situated within the Kruger National Park. The densities of the harvested and protected populations were similar (84±8 trees/ha and 85±20 trees/ha, respectively. There were fluctuations in the quotients between frequencies of trees in successive diameter classes, which is common in savanna where high levels of fire, mega-herbivore and anthropogenic disturbance are experienced. The extent of stem damage (stripping of bark and breakage by elephants in the protected area was significantly higher than the extent of harvesting on private land, although the degree of damage was relatively low, with only 7 % of the populations having been damaged at rates >26 %. The degree of harvesting on private land was relatively low, with the majority of trees having been harvested at rates of less than 10 % of the stem below 2 m. Despite this, ringbarking had occurred (4 %. The basal diameters and heights were significantly lower in the protected population than in the harvested one, suggesting that over time elephant impact was the more severe disturbance. Acacia xanthophloea exhibited high resilience to disturbance, with all the elephant damaged trees and harvested individuals surviving. However, the mean bark thickness measured in local markets (6.3±1.4 mm was significantly lower than that measured in either the harvested (12.4±1.0 mm or the KNP (10.3±0.8 mm populations. As harvesters tend to select the largest individuals in a population to maximise their financial returns, this could mean that smaller individuals are being harvested, and/or bark is not being given

  1. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTESEN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAEDE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA. Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Acacia mangium (MimosaceaeForest Plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium estable-cidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colom-biano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor pro-porción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este es-tudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recupera-ción de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. Annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 Mg ha-1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%, followed by the reproduc-tive material (24% and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6% and other species leaves (1.5%. The highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized

  2. Basic wood density of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br related to sample tree height, tree and site; Densidad basica de la madera de Acacia melanoxylon R. Br en relacion con la altura de muestreo, el arbol y el sitio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igartua Dora, D. V.; Monteoliva, S.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the work was to assess basic wood density variations of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br according to sample tree height, tree, and site. Twenty trees were selected from four sites in Buenos Aires Province, Argentine. Wood density was determined over two disc samples at four tree height (base, breast height, 30% and 50% of total tree height). According to determined ages, some trees were divided into two groups according to age (26-32 years and 9-12 years) and data were analyzed with an analysis of variance according to mixed model where tree was the random effect. Trees represent 74 % of total random variance. Within tree, axial tendency of wood density was to decrease from the base toward breast height and then its value was stable to the top. This was consistent across all sites and age groups. Forest resource growing at Los Tuelches site presented the highest basic wood density. (Author) 40 refs.

  3. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  4. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet;

    2015-01-01

    sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production......Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...... on the breeding potential for improvement of gum yield and quality. For this purpose, we measured growth on 617 offspring from 60 open-pollinated trees after 18 years, and gum yield and quality based on two seasons, 18 and 19 years after establishment. Genotyping with eight microsatellite markers revealed...

  5. Microencapsulation of dodecyl acetate by complex coacervation of whey protein with acacia gum and its release behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tong Yu; Li Na Liu; Xiao Li Zhu; Xiang Zheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Complex coacervation of whey protein (WP) with acacia gum (AG) was carried out in water with the presence of dodecyl acetate (DA),a component of insect sex pheromones,in order to obtain microeapsules with DA as the core material and WP-AG coacervate as the wall materials.Through variations in wall/core ratios,concentrations of the wall materials in capsule preparations,DA encapsulation was optimized,which showed a high DA encapsulation was achieved when coacervation was conducted at pH 3.5 with wall/core mass ratio at 3 combined with concentration of wall materials at 1.0 wt%.Morphology and the structure of DA loaded microcapsules were examined by scanning electron microscope,which showed the microcapsules were of core/shell structure with DA encapsulated in the inner of the microcapsules.DA release was examined and the behavior of the release was discussed.

  6. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  7. Partition of nocturnal sap flow in Acacia mangium and its implication for estimating the whole-tree transpiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG; Quan WANG

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the partition of nocturnal sap flow into refilling of internal water storage and transpiration in Acacia mangium. Sap flow of trees was monitored continuously with Granier's sensors for estimating the whole-tree transpiration. Possible night transpiration and stomatal conductance at the leaf level in the canopy were measured with a LI-6400 photosynthesis measuring system. For nocturnal leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance were weak, nocturnal sap flow of mature A. mangium trees was mainly associated with water recharge in the trunk. No significant change in night water recharge of the trunk was found at both seasonal and inter-annual scales. Morphological features of trees including diameter at the breast height (DBH), tree height, and canopy size could explain variances of night water recharge. Furthermore, although the contribution of nocturnal sap flow to the total transpiration varied among seasons and DBH classes, the error caused by night water recharge on whole-tree transpiration was negligible.

  8. Decomposition of lignin and holocellulose on Acacia mangium leaves and twigs by six fungal isolates from nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djarwanto; Tachibana, S

    2010-06-15

    This research was conducted in the aim of preventing wild fire through reducing potential energy source to become in situ fertilizer. To prevent forest fires by reducing wood waste using lignocellulose-degrading fungi, six fungal isolates were tested for lignin and cellulose-degrading activity with Acacia mangium leaves and twigs over a period of 1 to 3 months. The fungi degraded 8.9-27.1% of the lignin and 14-31% of the holocellulose. The degradation rate varied depending on the fungal species. An increase in incubation time tended to decrease the amounts of holocellulose and lignin. However, the hot water soluble tended to increase following a longer incubation period. From the results obtained here, more time was needed to degrade lignin rather than other components in the sample.

  9. Taxonomic and symbiotic diversity of bacteria isolated from nodules of Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in arid soils of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fterich, A; Mahdhi, M; Lafuente, A; Pajuelo, E; Caviedes, M A; Rodriguez-Llorente, I D; Mars, M

    2012-06-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana nodules from various arid soils in Tunisia was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. The isolates were found to be phenotypically diverse. The majority of the isolates tolerated 3% NaCl and grew at 40 °C. Genetic characterization emphasized that most of the strains (42/50) belong to the genus Ensifer, particularly the species Ensifer meliloti, Ensifer garamanticus, and Ensifer numidicus. Symbiotic properties of isolates showed diversity in their capacity to nodulate their host plant and to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The most effective isolates were closely related to E. garamanticus. Nodulation tests showed that 3 strains belonging to Mesorhizobium genus failed to renodulate their host plant, which is surprising for symbiotic rhizobia. Furthermore, our results support the presence of non-nodulating endophytic bacteria belonging to the Acinetobacter genus in legume nodules.

  10. Evaluation of gentamicin and lidocaine release profile from gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-27

    In this manuscript an attempt has been made to incorporate both, antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into the gum acacia-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogel for wound dressing application. Drug release, gel strength, network parameter, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation properties of hydrogel have been evaluated. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. The release of these drugs occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile of the drugs was best fitted in first order kinetic model.

  11. Effect of Bruchid Beetles (Burchidius Arabicus Decelle Infestation on the Germination of Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.J. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bruchid beetle infestation on seed germination of Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne Mimosaceae under different incubation temperatures and degrees of scarification was studied under controlled conditions. Results indicate that seed germination was highest (96% in scarified seeds at 25-35°C incubation temperature, whereas, it was only 28% in intact seeds. Seeds infected by bruchid beetles with one or two holes did not germinate regardless of different incubation temperatures. X-ray results of A. tortilis seeds showed substantial consumption of endosperm and embryonic portions by the bruchid beetles resulting in one or two holes in the infected seeds curtailing seed germination. A unique method of identifying seed viability of A. tortilis by X-ray studies is reported. v

  12. ACACIA Project – Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as MonoEthanolAmine (MEA which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then, Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using demixing solvent, DMXTM, developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process.

  13. QUANTIFICATION OF ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS IN STAND OF Acacia mearnsii DE WILD., BATEMANS BAY PROVENANCE - AUSTRALIA

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., at 2.4 years after planting was quantified. The provenance was established in soils of low fertility, with high acidity, at Fazenda Menezes, District of Capão Comprido, County of Butiá/RS. Nine trees were selected to form a sample. The destructive sampling comprised the individualization of the compartments of the above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark, and wood, and the determination of the dry matter allocated in each of these compartments. The production of above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay was 36,1 Mg ha-1 with the following distribution: 20% in the leaves; 19,5% in the live branches; 2,8% in the dead branches; 11,8% in the bark and 45,9% in the wood.

  14. Understanding the stability of silver nanoparticles bio-fabricated using Acacia arabica (Babool gum) and its hostile effect on microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-05-01

    We report green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from Acacia arabica gum and its anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. UV-Vis spectral analysis of synthesized SNPs showed maximum peak at 462 nm initially and 435 nm after 24 h. Using Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of synthesised SNPs was found to be ˜35 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of SNPs. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag° was calculated using ICP-AES and was found to be 94%. By calculating flocculation parameter, we could see that these SNPs are extremely stable under the influence of very high NaCl concentration up to 4.16 M. These stable SNPs can be used in various industrial and medical applications.

  15. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAE DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA.

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    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium establecidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colombiano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor proporción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en suuso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este estudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recuperación de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.

  16. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the

  17. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  18. The effect of inoculation of an indigenous bacteria on the early growth of Acacia farnesiana in a degraded area

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    Eliane Ceccon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of native vegetation and fuelwood production are important environmental pending goals for Mexico, where years of wrong management practices resulted in ecosystemic degradation and fuelwood scarcity. In degraded areas, native rhizobial strains are often undetectable, therefore, the restoration of natural vegetation associated with an effective nodulation of the leguminous trees is mostly appropriate. Sinorhizobium americanum is a native nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of the native Acacia species in the region. Acacia farnesiana is a multipurpose leguminous shrub from Mexican seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF. In this study we analyzed the effect of inoculation with S. americanum on A. farnesiana growth in a greenhouse and in a very degraded area and compared with non-inoculated seedlings. In a greenhouse, we measured the biomass dry weight of different parts of the plant, using destructive sampling after 15, 20, 30, 45 and 120 days of growth. We also calculated the relative growth rate (RGR and the resources allocation (root/shoot weight ratio and root length/root dry weight of seedlings. In a degraded area we measured the seedling length and survival and calculated the RGR. In the greenhouse and in the degraded area, the inoculation positively affected the growth of seedlings. However in the greenhouse, the inoculation did not have effect on resource allocation patterns. Therefore, the inoculation with Sinorhizobium americanum could improve the A. farnesiana growth and the re-establishment of important plant-soil interactions in degraded areas, being a recommendable technique for land restoration and the improvement of fuelwood production.

  19. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

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    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  20. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

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    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  1. Multilocus sequence analyses reveal several unnamed Mesorhizobium genospecies nodulating Acacia species and Sesbania sesban trees in Southern regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Asa

    2011-05-01

    Leguminous trees play an important role in agroforestry in Ethiopia, but studies of their rhizobial symbionts are scarce. In earlier studies, we surveyed natural nodulation of native leguminous trees growing in different agro-ecological zones in Southern Ethiopia, isolated 400 rhizobia, and characterized them based on different phenotypic and genotypic methods. In the present study we characterized 18 strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from nodules of Acacia abyssinica, A. senegal, A. tortilis and Sesbania sesban. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene grouped the test strains into three distinct clades separated from all currently recognized Mesorhizobium species. Three divergent strains formed separate branches while the other 15 strains formed three distinct groups, genospecies I-III. Grouping of the isolates under study based on the house-keeping genes recA, gyrB, rpoB and gltA were consistent and in agreement with that of 16S rRNA. Similarly phylogenetic relationships based on the symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH were generally similar to those shown by the core genes, suggesting that these Acacia and Sesbania symbionts have a long history of separate evolution within Mesorhizobium. Cross inoculation experiments demonstrated a large variation in the ability of the test strains to elicit effective nodules. The Sesbania isolates, occupying a distinct clade in the nodC phylogenetic tree, formed effective nodules only with this host legume. The study strongly suggests that this collection of Mesorhizobium strains comprises several new species, and also indicates the role of the symbiotic genes in determining the host range of these bacteria.

  2. Chemical, Colour and Strength Changes of Eco-friendly Hot Oil Treatment on 15 Year-old Cultivated Acacia Hybrid

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    Razak Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, colour and strength properties of thermally modified cultivated 15-year-old Acacia hybrid were investigated. Logs of A. hybrid were harvested and cut at the bottom, middle and top sections. The wood later underwent hot oilthermal modification using palm oil at temperatures 180°C, 200°C and 220°C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Untreated wood was used as control. The hot oil thermal modification process caused some features changed in the chemical composition, colour appearances and strength properties of A. hybrid wood. Parameters such as temperatures and treatment time were closely monitored as they influence the chemical, colour and strength changes in the treated wood. Temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C, and treatment time of 1 hr, 2 hrs. and 3 hrs. were used in the study. The degradation in holocellulose, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents was recognized when acacia woods were exposed to oil thermally modified process. Holocellulose and celulose degraded with the increasing of treatment temperature and duration of heating exposure, while lignin showed the increment in content through this treatment. The colour changes in the sapwood and heartwood were measured using the Minolta Chroma-meter CR-310 and the results are presented according to the CIE L*a*b* colour co-ordinates system. The results show that temperature at certain treatment time enhanced and darkened the treated wood. The colour of the treated sapwood can be enhanced to match the colour of the natural A. hybrid heartwood. The strength properties of the oil heat treated A. hybrid wood decreases in values of both MOR and MOE throughout thetreatment process. The decreases in values were influenced by temperature and duration of the treatment.

  3. A preliminary assessment of the potential of using an acacia--biochar system for spent mine site rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Yang, Hong; Ho, Thian Yuan; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Jian; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Chengrong; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities result in extensive soil degradation by removing the top soil, disturbing soil structure and altering microbial communities. Rehabilitation of spent mine sites through revegetation thus requires proper soil amendments. In this study, a pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a jarrah biochar on the growth and nutrient status of a native legume, Acacia tetragonophylla, grown in a mixture of topsoil and mine rejects. Two biochar application rates (37 and 74 t ha(-1)) and two types of biochar, namely nutrient-enriched and non-enriched, were tested. We measured the soil pH and electrical conductivity, the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C and N isotope composition (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of soil and plants, the foliar phosphorus content and the growth and leaf biomass of the plants. Whilst no significant effect of biochar was observed on plant growth, biochar amendment affected soil properties and plant nutritional status. The highest rate of biochar application increased soil pH, C content and C/N ratio, and decreased soil δ(13)C. Biochar application also enhanced photosynthetic N use efficiency, as showed by the increase in foliar C/N ratio, and biological N fixation rates, as indicated by foliar δ(15)N. These positive effects were not observed when biochar was nutrient-enriched due to the associated increase in soil N. Revegetation of mine sites with acacia in combination with biochar amendment constitutes a plausible alternative to the wide use of N fertiliser through the supply of additional N to the system, even though other nutrients may be required in order to enhance plant early growth.

  4. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melissa M L; Cannon, Charles H; Wickneswari, Ratnam

    2012-12-24

    Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100%) compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%). Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50%) of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely related species, we converted most SNPs to successful

  5. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data

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    Wong Melissa ML

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. Results We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100% compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%. Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50% of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. Conclusion We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely

  6. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes.

  7. PIF4 Promotes Expression of LNG1 and LNG2 to Induce Thermomorphogenic Growth in Arabidopsis

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    Geonhee Hwang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis plants adapt to high ambient temperature by a suite of morphological changes including elongation of hypocotyls and petioles and leaf hyponastic growth. These morphological changes are collectively called thermomorphogenesis and are believed to increase leaf cooling capacity by enhancing transpiration efficiency, thereby increasing tolerance to heat stress. The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4 has been identified as a major regulator of thermomorphogenic growth. Here, we show that PIF4 promotes the expression of two homologous genes LONGIFOLIA1 (LNG1 and LONGIFOLIA2 (LNG2 that have been reported to regulate leaf morphology. ChIP-Seq analyses and ChIP assays showed that PIF4 directly binds to the promoters of both LNG1 and LNG2. The expression of LNG1 and LNG2 is induced by high temperature in wild type plants. However, the high temperature activation of LNG1 and LNG2 is compromised in the pif4 mutant, indicating that PIF4 directly regulates LNG1 and LNG2 expression in response to high ambient temperatures. We further show that the activities of LNGs support thermomorphogenic growth. The expression of auxin biosynthetic and responsive genes is decreased in the lng quadruple mutant, implying that LNGs promote thermomorphogenic growth by activating the auxin pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that LNG1 and LNG2 are directly regulated by PIF4 and are new components for the regulation of thermomorphogenesis.

  8. A STUDY OF THE BACTERICIDAL PROPERTY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS-ACACIA CATECHU AND FISCUS HISPIDA USED IN THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE IN MANIPUR

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    Lokhendro Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find out the bactericidal effect of extract of the Acacia catechu and Ficus hispida which are commonly used by the local quacks for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in the villages of the state of Manipur where the medical facilities are not available. METHODS: The plant barks are collected from different parts of Manipur during the period of March 2006 to February 2007, dried at room temperature; make powder in the grinder and soxhlated at low temperature to get the yield (extract. In case of Acacia catechu dried power form is available in the market. The powder is soxhlated to get the yield. These extracts are tested for the bactericidal effect in serial dilutions against the known strain of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the tubes are checked for the growth of the organisms and from the tubes sub cultures are made serially corresponding to the dilutions on to the Blood agar, Mac Conkey and Nutrient agar media, incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the dilution where the growth of the organisms does not occurred, are noted and tabulated. RESULT: The aqueous extract of Acacia catechu shows bactericidal effect up to the dilution of 1:8 whereas the aqueous extract of Ficus hispida shows no bactericidal effect even at higher concentration. CONCLUSION: These plants extract have been using for the treatment of ailments in the villages of the state of Manipur by the local quacks since time immemorial. In this study it has seen that Acacia catechu has the medicinal properties whereas Ficus hispida has no bactericidal property though the plant has other medicinal properties. It is therefore, necessary to do further studies to identify the ingredients present in this two plants for safe use and large scale production in the state.

  9. Seed handling practices: four fast-growing hardwoods for humid tropical plantations in the Eighties. [Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, E. deglupta, Gmelina arborea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, M.R.; Eusebio, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Research in Sabah in 1981/82 is reported on the phenology, harvesting, cleaning, testing and storage of the seed of Acacia mangium, Albizia falcataria, Eucalyptus deglupta and Gmelina arborea. Seed handling practices were standardized for all except G. arborea. In A. mangium, branch lopping was the preferred harvesting method, and variation was observed in the fruiting season and seed funicle type (probably due to introgression with A. auriculiformis).

  10. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

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    Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001 in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  11. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas,Héctor A.; Parra,Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.

  12. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  13. Atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos convertidos de savana para plantios de Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima. = Chemical attribuites and microbial activity in soils converted to savanna for plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. in Roraima, Brazil.

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    Moisés Mourão Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana tem sido empregada na avaliação de solos manejados, sendo um indicador importante na caracterização de solos alterados. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de plantios de Acacia mangium com diferentes idades sobre os atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos representativos da Savana do Estado de Roraima. Os plantios de A. mangium de três e cinco anos encontravam-se em áreas de LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e os de quatro e seis anos em ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico. As áreas próximas aos plantios com as mesmas condições de solos e com cobertura vegetal primária (savana natural constituiram as testemunhas. Foram amostrados os horizontes A e B sendo avaliados os atributos químicos dos solos e a atividade microbiana. A pobreza química e elevadasaturação por alumínio (%m dos solos estudados influenciaram significativamente nos menores valores de C-CO2 evoluído pela atividade microbiana. A maior atividade microbiana ocorreu em áreas plantadas independentemente do tipo de solo, em função das melhores condições químicas. Os maiores valores de C-CO2 evoluído correlacionaram-se melhor com os teores de carbono orgânico e matéria orgânica do solo. = Microbial activity has been used in the evaluation of soils, an important indicator in the characterization of alteredsoils. Therefore, this study has as aim to evaluate the effect of replacing natural vegetation to plantations of Acacia mangium onmicrobial activity in soils of savannas in Roraima state. The areas studied consisted of plantations of acacia with three and fiveyears in Yellow Latosol with four and six years in yellow Alfisols. Areas near the plantations with the same conditions of soiland vegetation (natural savanna were considered control. Were sampled the A and B horizons, corresponding depths 0-30 and 30-60 cm respectively, with three replications for a total of 36 experimental units. The results

  14. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

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    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbian