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Sample records for acacia koa seedlings

  1. A photographic guide to Acacia koa defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Betsy S. Porterfield

    2013-01-01

    Acacia koa (A. Gray), native to the Hawaiian Islands, has both cultural and economic significance. Koa wood is world-renowned for its extensive use in furniture, tone wood for musical instruments, and other items of cultural importance. Old-growth koa is decreasing in supply, yet dead and dying koa is still being harvested for manufacture of...

  2. Operational disease screening program for resistance to wilt in Acacia koa in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick Dudley; Robert James; Richard Sniezko; Phil Cannon; Aileen Yeh; Tyler Jones; Michael Kaufmann

    2012-01-01

    In Hawaii, koa (Acacia koa A. Gray) is a valuable tree species economically, ecologically, and culturally. With significant land use change and declines in sugarcane, pineapple, and cattle production, there is an opportunity and keen interest in utilizing native koa in reforestation and restoration efforts. However, moderate to high mortality rates...

  3. Impact of Hurricane Iniki on native Hawaiian Acacia koa forests: damage and two-year recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Harrington; James H. Fownes; Paul G. Scowcroft; Cheryl S. Vann

    1997-01-01

    Damage to Hawaiian Acacia koa forest by Hurricane Iniki was assessed by comparison with our previous measures of stand structure and leaf area index (LAI) at sites along a precipitation/elevation gradient on western Kauai. Reductions in LAI ranged from 29 to 80% and were correlated with pre-hurricane LAI and canopy height. The canopy damage...

  4. Applying landscape genomic tools to forest management and restoration of Hawaiian koa (Acacia koa) in a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugger, Paul F; Liang, Christina T; Sork, Victoria L; Hodgskiss, Paul; Wright, Jessica W

    2018-02-01

    Identifying and quantifying the importance of environmental variables in structuring population genetic variation can help inform management decisions for conservation, restoration, or reforestation purposes, in both current and future environmental conditions. Landscape genomics offers a powerful approach for understanding the environmental factors that currently associate with genetic variation, and given those associations, where populations may be most vulnerable under future environmental change. Here, we applied genotyping by sequencing to generate over 11,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 311 trees and then used nonlinear, multivariate environmental association methods to examine spatial genetic structure and its association with environmental variation in an ecologically and economically important tree species endemic to Hawaii, Acacia koa . Admixture and principal components analyses showed that trees from different islands are genetically distinct in general, with the exception of some genotypes that match other islands, likely as the result of recent translocations. Gradient forest and generalized dissimilarity models both revealed a strong association between genetic structure and mean annual rainfall. Utilizing a model for projected future climate on the island of Hawaii, we show that predicted changes in rainfall patterns may result in genetic offset, such that trees no longer may be genetically matched to their environment. These findings indicate that knowledge of current and future rainfall gradients can provide valuable information for the conservation of existing populations and also help refine seed transfer guidelines for reforestation or replanting of koa throughout the state.

  5. Assessment of Acacia koa forest health across environmental gradients in Hawai'i using fine resolution remote sensing and GIS.

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    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai'ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600-1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua'i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17-20 °C mean annual temperature and 750-1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai'i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species.

  6. Assessment of Acacia Koa Forest Health across Environmental Gradients in Hawai‘i Using Fine Resolution Remote Sensing and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rodolfo Martinez; Idol, Travis; Friday, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) forests are found across broad environmental gradients in the Hawai‘ian Islands. Previous studies have identified koa forest health problems and dieback at the plot level, but landscape level patterns remain unstudied. The availability of high-resolution satellite images from the new GeoEye1 satellite offers the opportunity to conduct landscape-level assessments of forest health. The goal of this study was to develop integrated remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) methodologies to characterize the health of koa forests and model the spatial distribution and variability of koa forest dieback patterns across an elevation range of 600–1,000 m asl in the island of Kaua‘i, which correspond to gradients of temperature and rainfall ranging from 17–20 °C mean annual temperature and 750–1,500 mm mean annual precipitation. GeoEye1 satellite imagery of koa stands was analyzed using supervised classification techniques based on the analysis of 0.5-m pixel multispectral bands. There was clear differentiation of native koa forest from areas dominated by introduced tree species and differentiation of healthy koa stands from those exhibiting dieback symptoms. The area ratio of healthy koa to koa dieback corresponded linearly to changes in temperature across the environmental gradient, with koa dieback at higher relative abundance in warmer areas. A landscape-scale map of healthy koa forest and dieback distribution demonstrated both the general trend with elevation and the small-scale heterogeneity that exists within particular elevations. The application of these classification techniques with fine spatial resolution imagery can improve the accuracy of koa forest inventory and mapping across the islands of Hawai‘i. Such findings should also improve ecological restoration, conservation and silviculture of this important native tree species. PMID:22163920

  7. An examination of the feasibility of using time-of-flight based non-destructive evaluation to assess the soundness of standing Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Eini. Lowell

    2011-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa) trees are native to the islands of Hawaii but occur nowhere else in the world. It is the most important timber species for the manufacture of wood products in Hawaii and one of the most valuable species worldwide. Most koa trees harvested today are standing dead or are already on the ground (relic logs). Lumber recovery in milling...

  8. Passive restoration augments active restoration in deforested landscapes: the role of root suckering adjacent to planted stands of Acacia koa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; Justin T. Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Active forest restoration in Hawaii’s Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge has produced a network of Acacia koa tree corridors and islands in deforested grasslands. Passive restoration by root suckering has potential to expand tree cover and close gaps between planted stands. This study documents rates of encroachment into grassland, clonal...

  9. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush

  10. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  11. Growth Responses of Acacia mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria Seedlings on Different Soil Origin under Nursery Condition

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    Tirtha Ayu Paramitha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the growth responses of Acacia mangium (mangium and Paraserianthes falcataria (sengon seedlings growing on different soil origin under nursery condition. This study was started in September 2012 and terminated in March 2013.  The seedlings were grown from seeds sown in a plastic box filled with sterilized sands. One week after sowing, the seedlings were transplanted into polybags contained sterilized soils originated from secondary forest, Imperata cylindrica grassland and ex-coal mining. The number of all seedlings were 180 seedlings consisted of 3 different soils, 2 species of seedlings with 10 seedlings replicated 3 times. Assessment was conducted one week after transplanting, then subsequently monitored every 2 weeks, except dry weighing and counting nodules were performed at the end of the study. A completely randomized design was used in this study. The data was analyzed using Costat software. The study resulted that the different of soil origin influenced on all growth variables of mangium and sengon of 4.5 months old. The survival rate of seedlings, height and diameter increments, dry weight and root nodules were better in both species of seedlings growing on soil originated from secondary forest and Imperata grassland compared with the soil from ex-coal mining. But the survival rates of sengon seedlings were higher than that of mangium on these three soils. The highest dry weight of sengon seedlings was achieved on soil originated from secondary forest. In the present study, soil originated from secondary forest increased more in weight of shoot than root, so that the shoot-root ratio was unbalanced more than one. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that soil from secondary forest and Imperata grassland can be used as growing media for mangium and sengon seedlings in the nursery.

  12. Seed size effects on the response of seedlings of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd to water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Atta, H.A.; Areef, I.M.; Ahmed, A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are characterized by unpredictable spells of drought and climate change. Saudi Arabia mostly falls within the arid zone and some few scattered areas fall in the semiarid zone mainly in the South Western region. Rainfall is sparse and with sporadic distribution. Drought is the most critical factor for restoration of the tree cover. Within a tree, seeds vary in size from large to small seeds. Although several researchers have studied the effect of within species variation in seed size on seedlings growth parameters, however there is a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of seed size on stress tolerance (Khurana and Singh 2000). We assumed that seedlings grown from different seed sizes from the same tree species may influence their response to water stress. Seeds of Acacia asak (Forssk.) Willd. were categorized into large, medium and small seeds on the basis of the seed weight. Seedlings from the three seed sizes were grown in potted soil and subjected to 5 levels of field water capacity (FC) (100, 75, 50, 25 and 15 percent) in the greenhouse. The Objective was to evaluate the response of seedling grown (from different seed sizes) to water stress and to understand the acclimation of seedlings to water stress. Water stress significantly reduced RWC, leaf area, and shoot length, fresh and dry weight. Significant correlations between growth parameters and water stress level were recorded. Seedlings from large seeds were heavier and comparatively less affected by drought compared to seedlings from smaller seeds. In all seedlings root length increased significantly and more biomass was allocated to roots than to shoots. However, at severe water stress (15 percent FC) no significant differences were reported between the three seedling categories. Therefore, raising of seedlings from large seeds is more appropriate for tree restoration programs under drought conditions. (author)

  13. Molecular genetic characterization of the koa-wilt pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum): Application of molecular genetic tools toward improving koa restoration in Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; Jane E. Stewart; Nicklos Dudley; John Dobbs; Tyler Jones; Phil G. Cannon; Robert L. James; Kas Dumroese; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2015-01-01

    Several forest diseases are causing serious threats to the native Hawaiian forest. Among them, koawilt disease (caused by Fusarium oxysporum) is damaging to native populations of koa (Acacia koa), and it also hinders koa restoration/reforestation. Because F. oxysporum likely represents a complex of species with distinct pathogenic activities, more detailed...

  14. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

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    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  15. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barragan Olga Angelica; Montero Robayo Diana Mercedes; Lagos Caballero Jesus Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  17. Poor stem form as a potential limitation to private investment in koa plantation forestry in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Scowcroft; James B. Friday; Janis Haraguchi; Travis Idol; Nicklos S. Dudley

    2010-01-01

    Providing economic incentives to landholders is an effective way of promoting sustainable forest management, conservation and restoration. In Hawaii, the main native hardwood species with commercial value is Acacia koa (koa), but lack of successful examples of koa plantation forestry hinders private investment. Financial models, which have been offered to encourage...

  18. DETECTION OF POLLEN FLOW IN THE SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD OF Acacia mangium USING DNA MARKER

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    Vivi Yuskianti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollen pattern dispersal in seedling seed orchard (SSO is an essential part of a tree-improvement program. Two SSOs of Acacia mangium in South Kalimantan and South Sumatra that represent similar resources in different environments were used in this study.  Genotypes of all trees and seeds from a subset of 10 mother trees in each orchard were determined for 12 microsatellite loci, and parentage analysis was carried out. The results shows that the pollen dispersal pattern in both SSOs decrease with distance from mother tree. Patterns of pollen dispersal, dispersal distance and cumulative frequency of pollen dispersal distance were similar in both SSOs. Random pollen dispersal were found in both SSOs. About 80% of all crosses were found within a 40-m distance range with the most frequent pollination distance between mother tree and male male parents was 0-10 m. No self-pollinated seed was detected. Application of all these aspects found in this study such as random pollen dispersal and the effective pollen dispersal distance can be useful for establishing seedling seed orchard, clonal seed orchard and in other tree improvement activities of A. mangium.

  19. Substrates of Mauritia flexuosa and wastewater from pig farming on growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium

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    Emanuel França Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sustainable alternatives should be adopted to minimise the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities. The use of wastewater as well as organic waste, from agricultural activities or found naturally, such as the decomposed stems of the Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa, can be a sustainable alternative in the production of seedlings for the reforestation of areas in the process of degradation or desertification, common in the State of Piauí, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate growth and quality in seedlings of Acacia mangium Willd grown in substrates with different proportions of decomposed stems of Mauritia flexuosa (DSB, and irrigated with wastewater from pig farming (WPF. The experimental design was completely randomised, arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to five proportions of DSB and soil (v/v,% - 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and two sources of irrigation water (well water and WPF, with four replications. At 100 days after sowing (DAS, the seedlings were collected to measure the variables related to growth, quality and nodulation. Height, root collar diameter, shoot dry weight, leaf area and nitrogen accumulation in the shoots were significantly influenced (p≤0.05 by the interaction between substrate and source of irrigation water. The WPF had no significant influence on the growth or quality of the Acacia mangium Willd seedlings. The best ratio between DSB substrate and soil was 46:54, considered the most suitable for seedling production in Acacia mangium Willd.

  20. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  1. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

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    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  2. Dynamics and ecological consequences of the 2013−2014 koa moth outbreak at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge.

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    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.; Paxton, Eben H.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Foote, David

    2014-01-01

    A massive outbreak of the koa moth (Geometridea: Scotorythra paludicola) defoliated more than a third of the koa (Acacia koa) forest on Hawai‘i Island during 2013−2014. This was the largest koa moth outbreak ever recorded and the first on the island since 1953. The outbreak spread to sites distributed widely around the island between 800−2,000 m elevation and in wet rainforest to dry woodland habitats. We monitored the outbreak at two windward forest sites (Laupāhoehoe and Saddle Road Kīpuka) and one leeward forest site (Kona), and we studied the dynamics of the outbreak and its impacts on the forest ecosystem at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, our higher elevation windward site. Study sites at Hakalau included two stands of koa that were planted (reforestation stands) in former cattle pastureland about 20 years earlier and two stands of koa that were dominated by ‘ōhi‘a (Metrosideros polymorpha) and that were naturally recovering from cattle grazing (forest stands). We observed one outbreak at Hakalau, multiple outbreaks at the two other windward sites, but no outbreak at the leeward site. Caterpillars at Hakalau reached peak estimated abundances of more than 250,000 per tree and 18,000,000 per hectare, and they removed between 64−93% of the koa canopy in managed forest stands. Defoliation was more extensive in naturally recovering forest, where ‘ōhi‘a dominated and koa was less abundant, compared to the planted stands, where koa density was high. Koa trees were still growing new foliage six months after being defoliated, and leaves were produced in greater proportion to phyllodes, especially by small koa (≤ 8 cm dbh) and by larger trees in forest stands, where light levels may have remained relatively low after defoliation due to the high cover of ‘ōhi‘a. Small branches of many trees apparently died, and canopy regrowth was absent or low in 9% of koa trees and seedlings, which indicates the likely level of mortality. Between 2

  3. Influence of restored koa in supporting bird communities

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    Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben H.; Yelenik, Stephanie G.

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation of Hawaiian forests has adversely impacted native wildlife, including forest birds, bats and arthropods. Restoration activities have included reforestation with the native koa (Acacia koa), a dominant canopy tree species that is easy to propagate, has high survivorship, and has fast growth rates. We review recent research describing the ecological benefits of koa restoration on wildlife colonization/use, plant dispersal, and native plant recruitment. In general, planting monotypic koa stands can provide forest habitats for species that need them but does not automatically lead to natural regeneration of a diverse forest species assemblage and may require additional restoration activities such as outplanting of other native plants and alien grass control to achieve more natural forest systems. Although early signs of forest and wildlife recovery have been encouraging, the goals of restoration for wildlife conservation versus commercial grade harvesting require different restoration methods.

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

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    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  5. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

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    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  6. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  7. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca; Accion de microorganismos eficientes sobre la actividad de intercambio cationico en plantulas de acacia (Acacia melanoxylon Burret) para la recuperacion de un suelo del municipio de Mondonedo, Cundinamarca.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Angelica, Diaz Barragan; Diana Mercedes, Montero Robayo; Jesus Alberto, Lagos Caballero

    2009-07-01

    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  8. Sintomas de deficiência nutricional em mudas de Acacia holosericea em resposta à omissão de macronutrientes Symptoms of nutritional deficiency in seedlings of Acacia holosericea submitted to absence of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiane Santi Sarcinelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia holosericea é uma espécie leguminosa arbórea bastante utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. O conhecimento dos sintomas de deficiência nutricional apresentados por esta espécie possibilita a identificação e a correção de deficiências em exemplares plantados em substratos degradados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a sintomatologia visual de carências de macronutrientes e avaliar a produção de biomassa e o acúmulo de nutrientes nas raízes e na parte aérea de mudas de Acacia holosericea, submetidas a diferentes soluções nutritivas com exclusão de macronutrientes. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete soluções nutritivas: 1 solução completa (SC; 2 SC -N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; e 7 SC -S. Os tratamentos -N e Mg foram os que mais afetaram a produção total de biomassa. O decréscimo de produção manifestou-se na seguinte ordem: -N = -Mg > -K > -S > -Ca > SC > -P. As plantas do tratamento -N formaram nódulos no sistema radicular, exibindo teores foliares de N maiores que as plantas do tratamento SC. Com exceção dos tratamentos SC e -P, todos os outros apresentaram sintomas de deficiência. A ausência de S alterou a disposição natural dos filódios novos da A. holosericea.Acacia holosericea is a leguminous species that has been extensively used in land reclamation programs. The knowledge of its nutritional symptoms allows the identification and correction of deficiencies in individuals planted in degraded substrates. The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of seedlings of A. holosericea submitted to different nutritional solutions with absence of macronutrients. The treatments consisted of seven nutritional solutions: 1 Complete solution (SC; 2 SC - N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; 7 SC -S. Treatments -N and -Mg were the ones that most affected biomass production. Decrease in biomass production occurred in the following order: -N = -Mg > -K > -S

  9. The effects of passage through the gut of goats and cattle, and the application of dung as a fertiliser on seedling establishment of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tjelele, TJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Seed pods of Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica have higher nutritive value than grasses and other browse plants during the dry season and form an important part of the diet of livestock. Seeds of Acacia may be destroyed during passage...

  10. Crecimiento y supervivencia de plántulas de cinco especies de Acacia (Fabaceae, que coexisten en bosques secos neotropicales de Argentina, en distintas condiciones de disponibilidad de luz y agua Seedlings growth and survival of five Acacia (Fabaceae species that coexists in neotropical semiarid forests of Argentina, under different light and water availability conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Venier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El establecimiento de la plántula es una de las etapas más riesgosas para las plantas, especialmente en zonas áridas y semiáridas donde la sequía y alta radiación solar influyen sobre su emergencia, desarrollo y supervivencia. Se evaluó en invernadero la supervivencia y variables de crecimiento en plántulas sometidas a estrés hídrico y a distintas condiciones de luz, en cinco especies de Acacia (A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii y A. praecox que coexisten en los bosques xerófilos de Córdoba, Argentina. Aunque se encontraron diferencias entre las especies (F=5.66, p=0.001, todas tuvieron altos porcentajes de supervivencia en las distintas condiciones de luz y agua, sugiriendo que serían tolerantes al estrés hídrico y podrían establecerse bajo luz o sombra. Si bien todas las especies mejoraron el crecimiento con luz y sin estrés hídrico, A. aroma, A. caven y A. atramentaria mostraron una tendencia hacia un mayor crecimiento en la mayoría de las variables consideradas (F=41.9, pSeedling establishment is one of the most risky stages of plants, especially in arid and semiarid regions, where low water availability and high solar radiation influence its emergence, development and survival. In seasonally dry xerophytic forests occurring in North-Western Córdoba, central Argentina, five neotropical species of Acacia co-exist: A. aroma, A. caven, A. atramentaria, A. gilliesii and A. praecox. With the aim to evaluate growth variables and survival of these five species seedlings, in response to water stress and different light availability conditions, a greenhouse experiment was undertaken from March to June of 2010. Although small differences were found between species (F=5.66, p=0.001, all of them showed high percentages of seedling survival in response to different light and water treatments, suggesting that seedlings would be tolerant to water stress and could be established both in light and shade. On the other hand

  11. Formulation of microbes inoculum: AMF, PSB and Rhizobium isolated of ex-coal mining site for Acacia crassicarpa Cunn. Ex-benth seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ENNY WIDYATI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoddier succeed land revegetation particularly caused by least adaptability of the seedlings planted on this site. To encourage their growth and survival rate it can be achieved by means do inoculation with the compatible functional microbes such as rhizobium, Psolubilizing bacteria (PSB and/or arbuscular-mycorrhiza fungy (AMF. This reserach is aimed to formulate the most compatible inoculant to support the growth of A. crassicarpa seedlings. Compatibility study is carried out in RCB design with 3 replications, each contain 5 seedlings. Height and biomass are accessed to measure the growth responses of the seedlings. The result showed that the best reponse is given by consortia that consist of the three kinds of these microbes. This increase the shoot biomass (137% compare to the control. The consortia also improved N 164%, P 335% and K 167% in the plant tissues. While pure AMF improved absorption of N plants 80%, P 383% and K 51% compare to the control. It is suggested that to prepare the A. crassicarpa seedlings is better inoculated by consortium of microbes or AMF as a sole inoculant.

  12. Conversion Efficiency of Photosynthetically Active Radiation Into Acacia mearnsii Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Eloy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this experiment was to determine the conversion efficiency of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation into biomass of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. seedlings. A forest species, plastic tubes (90 cm3, and 11 evaluation periods (up to 180 days after emergence were used in this study. The leaf area index (LAI, total dry biomass (BIO, global solar radiation (GSR, cumulative intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (PARic, and conversion efficiency of radiation (εb were determined using a pyranometer (LI200X, LICOR. The value of εb in BIO seedlings of Acacia mearnsii was 7.76 g MJ-1. LAI was directly related to the efficiency of PARic, and this influenced the development, production potential and accumulation of BIO. The value of GSR flow was 11.81 MJ m-2 day-1, while the value inside the greenhouse was 6.26 MJ m-2 day-1.

  13. Australian blackwood acacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samraj, P; Chinnamani, S

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  14. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  15. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and water and nutrient supply differently impact seedling performance of dry woodland species with different acquisition strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Gebrehiwot, K.; Bongers, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increase seedling survival and performance through enhancement of nutrient and water uptake under stress conditions. Acacia etbaica, A. senegal and Boswellia papyrifera dominate large areas in African drylands where both moisture and nutrients are

  17. Mekanisme Parasitisme Trichoderma Harzianum Terhadap Fusarium Oxysporum Pada Semai Acacia Mangium

    OpenAIRE

    Tasik, Susanti; Widyastuti, Siti Muslimah; Harjono

    2015-01-01

    Mechanism of parasitism of Trichoderma harzianum on Fusarium oxysporum on Acacia mangium seedlings. Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most important soil-borne fungi the causal agent of damping-off disease. Detailed information it needed to know how the pathogen can be inhibited by Trichoderma harzianum. The objective of this research was to investigate the inhibition mechanism of T. harzianum on F. oxysporum in vitro and in planta. Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) T. harzianum was used as bioc...

  18. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, Daniel; Santos, Cristiane Alcantara dos; Silva, Mylenne Calcciolari Pinheiro da; Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness an...

  19. Characterization of the chromosomal inversion associated with the Koa mutation in the mouse revealed the cause of skeletal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Hiroetsu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Koala (Koa is a dominant mutation in mice causing bushy muzzle and pinna, and is associated with a chromosomal inversion on the distal half of chromosome 15. To identify the gene responsible for the Koa phenotypes, we investigated phenotypes of Koa homozygous mice and determined the breakpoints of the inversion with a genetic method using recombination between two different chromosomal inversions. Results Skeletal preparation of Koa homozygotes showed marked deformity of the ribs and a wider skull with extended zygomatic arches, in addition to a general reduction in the lengths of long bones. They also had open eyelids at birth caused by a defect in the extension of eyelid anlagen during the embryonic stages. The proximal and distal breakpoints of the Koa inversion were determined to be 0.8-Mb distal to the Trsps1 gene and to 0.1-Mb distal to the Hoxc4 gene, respectively, as previously reported. The phenotypes of mice with the recombinant inverted chromosomes revealed the localization of the gene responsible the Koa phenotype in the vicinity of the proximal recombinant breakpoint. Expression of the Trsps1 gene in this region was significantly reduced in the Koa homozygous and heterozygous embryos. Conclusion While no gene was disrupted by the chromosomal inversion, an association between the Koa phenotype and the proximal recombinant breakpoint, phenotypic similarities with Trps1-deficient mice or human patients with TRSP1 mutations, and the reduced expression of the Trsps1 gene in Koa mice, indicated that the phenotypes of the Koa mice are caused by the altered expression of the Trps1 gene.

  20. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  1. Acacia Gender Learning and Capacity Strengthening | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will serve a dual purpose: to develop a process of learning and reflection on gender within IDRC's Acacia (Communities and the Information Society in Africa) program initiative; and to undertake an evaluation of Acacia's gender strategy. This will be accomplished in three phases. During the preparatory phase, ...

  2. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Assis Castro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000 km2 along all the coast. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10 had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48. We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth.

  3. Antifungal Activity from Leaves of Acacia Nilotica against Pythium Aphanidermatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Khan

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallic acid and methyl ester of gallic acid has been identified as antifungal compounds against the mycelial growth of Pythium aphanidermatum from acetone-water extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves. The growth of fungus was completely ceased by gallic acid and its methyl ester at 1000 ppm and 750 ppm, respectively. Antifungal properties of both compounds were found to be higher in combination than alone. The minimum inhibitory concentration for both compounds was 1000 ppm. No phytotoxic effect of the compounds was observed on watermelon seed germination. The growth of roots and shoots of watermelon seedlings was promoted by gallic acid but decreased with methyl ester of gallic acid. Nitrate reductase activity of the fungus was significantly inhibited by both compounds.

  4. Wood Quality of Acacia Hybrid and Second-Generation Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Jusoh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new tree variants, namely Acacia hybrid and second-generation Acacia mangium, have been introduced in plantation forests in Sarawak, Malaysia, and their wood qualities were examined. The mean basic density of Acacia hybrid was comparable with Acacia mangium. However basic density and strength properties of second-generation A. mangium were significantly lower compared to Acacia hybrid. The mean fibre length and fibre wall thickness in the hybrid were found to be greater than that of second-generation A. mangium. Fibre diameter and fibre lumen diameter of Acacia hybrid were smaller compared to second-generation A. mangium. Runkel and slenderness ratios of Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium fibres showed that they were suitable for pulp and paper production. Acacia hybrid was more resistant to Coptotermes curvignathus attack than second-generation A. mangium. A laboratory soil block test showed that Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium were moderately durable timbers. In summary, marked differences in wood properties and qualities were observed between Acacia hybrid and second-generation A. mangium.

  5. (acacia senegal) in jigawa state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    tapping and tapping methods.Forest products may be ... the management practices, the precise technique and ... The gum production potential of this species (Acacia senegal) is still ..... Manual on gum Arabic production Pp. 20-23. Wekesa, C ...

  6. Effects of fire and fire intensity on the germination and establishment of Acacia karroo, Acacia nilotica, Acacia luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somers Michael J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While fire has been used in some instances to control the increase of woody plants, it has also been reported that fire may cause an increase in certain fire-tolerant Acacia tree species. This study investigated germination of Acacia karroo, A. luederitzii and Dichrostachys cinerea, thought to be increasing in density, as well as the historically successful encroaching woody species, A. nilotica, in savanna grassland, Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa. A. karroo is thought to be replacing A. nilotica as the dominant microphyllous species in the park. We tested the hypothesis that observed increases in certain woody plants in a savanna were related to seed germination and seedling establishment. Germination is compared among species for burnt and unburnt seeds on burnt and unburnt plots at three different locations for both hot and cool fires. Results Acacia karroo showed higher germination (A. karroo 5.1%, A. nilotica 1.5% and A. luederitzii 5.0% levels and better establishment (A. karroo 4.9%, A. nilotica 0.4% and A. luederitzii 0.4%. Seeds of the shrub Dichrostachys cinerea did not germinate in the field after fire and it is thought that some other germination cue is needed. On average, burning of A. karroo, A. nilotica and A. luederitzii seeds did not affect germination. There was a significant difference in the germination of burnt seeds on burnt sites (4.5% and burnt seeds on unburnt plots (2.5%. Similarly, unburnt seeds on unburnt sites germinated better (4.9% than unburnt seeds on burnt sites (2.8%. Conclusion We conclude that a combination of factors may be responsible for the success of A. karroo and that fires may not be hot enough or may occur at the wrong time of year to control A. karroo establishment in HiP. Although germination and establishment of A. karroo was higher than for A. nilotica a competitive advantage after fire could not be shown.

  7. Genetic Diversity of Acacia mangium Seed Orchard in Wonogiri Indonesia Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVI YUSKIANTI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is important in tree improvement programs. To evaluate levels of genetic diversity of first generation Acacia mangium seedling seed orchard in Wonogiri, Central Java, Indonesia, three populations from each region of Papua New Guinea (PNG and Queensland, Australia (QLD were selected and analyzed using 25 microsatellite markers. Statistical analysis showed that PNG populations have higher number of detected alleles and level of genetic diversity than QLD populations. This study provides a basic information about the genetic background of the populations used in the development of an A. mangium seed orchard in Indonesia.

  8. Inducible defences in Acacia sieberiana in response to giraffe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The resultant browsing pressure has led to the evolution of both physical and chemical responses in Acacia trees. In an observational study, we investigated the physical and chemical defenses in Acacia sieberiana var. woodii in response to ...

  9. Mangrove endophyte promotes reforestation tree (Acacia polyphylla) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Renata Assis; Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel de; Lacava, Paulo Teixeira; Nave, André; Melo, Itamar Soares de; Azevedo, João Lucio de; Quecine, Maria Carolina

    Mangroves are ecosystems located in the transition zone between land and sea that serve as a potential source of biotechnological resources. Brazil's extensive coast contains one of the largest mangrove forests in the world (encompassing an area of 25,000km 2 along all the coast). Endophytic bacteria were isolated from the following three plant species: Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa and Avicennia nitida. A large number of these isolates, 115 in total, were evaluated for their ability to fix nitrogen and solubilize phosphorous. Bacteria that tested positive for both of these tests were examined further to determine their level of indole acetic acid production. Two strains with high indole acetic acid production were selected for use as inoculants for reforestation trees, and then the growth of the plants was evaluated under field conditions. The bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens (strain MCR1.10) had a low phosphorus solubilization index, while this index was higher in the other strain used, Enterobacter sp. (strain MCR1.48). We used the reforestation tree Acacia polyphylla. The results indicate that inoculation with the MCR1.48 endophyte increases Acacia polyphylla shoot dry mass, demonstrating that this strain effectively promotes the plant's growth and fitness, which can be used in the seedling production of this tree. Therefore, we successfully screened the biotechnological potential of endophyte isolates from mangrove, with a focus on plant growth promotion, and selected a strain able to provide limited nutrients and hormones for in plant growth. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Tannins of Three Common Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze and compare tannins of three common Acacia species of Sudan, since vegetable tannins are important in leather industry. Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal samples were collected from Sunt Forest in Khartoum State, while Acacia senegal samples were collected from the Debabat Forest in South Kordofan State. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with boiled deionized water. The amount of tannins present in these bulk samples was determined by Folin-Denis method for total phenolic materials, followed by precipitation with hide-powder. The difference between the amount of phenolic materials present before and after addition of hide-powder represents the amount of tannins present. The percentage of tannins in the leaves, bark, and mature and immature fruits of collections of individuals of Acacia species was estimated; mature and immature fruits of Acacia nilotica contain tannins (22.15% and 22.10%, resp.. The leaves of Acacia nilotica and Acacia seyal contain tannins (11.80% and 6.30%, resp.. The barks of Acacia seyal, Acacia nilotica, and Acacia senegal contain tannins (12.15%, 10.47%, and 3.49%, resp..

  11. Genetic improvement of tropical acacias: achievements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for genetic improvement in form traits and wood properties has also been demonstrated. Genetic improvement objectives must now give heavy weighting to improving disease resistance and tolerance. Ganoderma root rot and Ceratocystis stem wilt have destroyed large areas of acacia plantations in Indonesia ...

  12. In vitro propagation of Acacia hybrid through alginate-encapsulated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed collected from Acacia hybrid trees yields highly variable and poorly performing offspring and are not commonly used in regeneration. The present study described the incapsulation of Acacia hybrid shoots and axillary buds in the calcium alginate gel. The aim of the study was to evaluate the germination of the buds in ...

  13. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a topical application of a cream formulation containing extract of. Acacia nilotica bark extract on human cheek skin texture. Methods: A cream containing 3 % concentrated extract of Acacia nilotica bark was developed by entrapping the extract in the internal aqueous phase of the cream ...

  14. Investigation into nanocellulosics versus acacia reinforced acrylic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunqiao Pu; Jianguo Zhang; Thomas Elder; Yulin Deng; Paul Gatenholm; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    Three closely related cellulosic acrylic latex films were prepared employing acacia pulp fibers, cellulose whiskers and nonocellulose balls and their respective strength properties were determined. Cellulose whisker reinforced composites had enhanced strength properties compared to the acacia pulp and nanoball composites. AFM analysis indicated that the cellulose...

  15. Performance of Broilers Given Different Dietary Levels of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the seeds of a leguminous plant, Acacia sieberiana DC as an alternative source of dietary plant protein for broilers. Five experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20% Acacia sieberiana seeds (ASS) were formulated and fed to 5 groups of birds during starter (0 - 4 weeks), ...

  16. Phylogenic analysis in Acacia senegal using AFLP molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships in gum Arabic tree (Acacia senegal). Twenty eight samples of Acacia senegal collected from populations distributed throughout the Gum Arabic belt were tested in comparison with samples of ...

  17. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    that had maximum bactericidal activity against all the tested isolates, but showed < 30 % host cell cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The lysate of Acacia nilotica ... cytotoxic effects on human cells. EXPERIMENTAL. Plant material. Acacia nilotica Lam .... a detergent that permeabilizes eukaryotic cells and results in HBMEC damage.

  18. Acacia Prospectus 2006-2011 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Executive Summary. The Acacia Prospectus (2006-2011) represents the third generation of Acacia programming, which began in 1996. Much has changed with respect to ICTs and African development in that time. While Africa still has the lowest teledensity of any region on earth, it is now the fastest ...

  19. Variabilité journalière de la qualité physico-chimique du lac M'koa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    d'enrichissement en matières organique, azote et phosphore capables d'influer sur la teneur de saturation en oxygène dissous. La Figure 4 montre des lavandiers communément appelés "fanico" exerçant leur activité quotidienne au lac. Cette activité est source d'enrichissement des eaux du lac. M'koa en phosphore et ...

  20. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  1. Enhancement of Human Cheek Skin Texture by Acacia Nilotica Bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, Cream, Visioscan VC 98, Skin texture, Anti-aging. Tropical Journal of .... volunteer (A) before and (B) after application of extract cream for 3 months The .... Antioxidants and vitamins in Cosmetics. Clin. Dermatol. 2001 ...

  2. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to Hot Water Pre-Treatment in Maiduguri, ... of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. ... Germination response, pre-sowing treatment, gum Arabic, orthodox seeds.

  3. Fitness and its variation among populations of Acacia tortilis subsp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2008-07-23

    Jul 23, 2008 ... Habitat destruction and fragmentation has been an increasingly dominant process shaping landscapes over the last 100 - 150 years ..... not only to estimates for other tropical acacias but for plants in ..... pollinated prairie forb.

  4. Antibacterial activity of six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia nilotica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts (water, acetone and methanol) from six indigenous Indian plants: Acacia ... attention to traditional methods, looking for novel ... Five grams powder of each plant was equally divided into.

  5. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activities of Acacia nilotica Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Keywords: Acacia nilotica, ESBLs, MRSA, E. coli, Klebsiella, Antibacterial resistance, Cytotoxicity. Received: ... infectious diseases, is an age-long practice, especially ... used in a variety of infections. ... E. coli K1 [14] and MRSA [15] were used.

  6. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  7. Seletion of arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal fungi for efficient symbiosis with Acacia mangium willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Robles Angelini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium forms two kinds of mycorrhizal symbiosis, a arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMFs type and another with ectomycorrhizal fungi (fECTOs. The present study aimed to select different AMFs species and fECTOs isolates for effective symbiosis with A. mangium, which provide seedlings well colonized, nodulated and developed. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Embrapa Agrobiology, one for AMF species selection and another for fECTOs, using a randomized block design with five replicates. Treatments were species AMFs (Acaulospora laevis, Acaulospora morrowiae, Entrophospora colombiana, Entrophospora contigua, Gigaspora margarita, Glomus clarum, Scutellospora calospora, Scutellospora heterogama, Scutellospora gilmorei and Scutellospora pellucida or fECTOs isolated (UFSC Pt116; UFSC Pt24; UFSC Pt193; O 64–ITA6; UFSC Pt187 and O 40–ORS 7870. The AMFs species that promoted greater vegetative growth, mycorrhizal colonization and more effective symbioses were S. calospora, S. heterogama, S. gilmorei e A. morrowiae. The fECTOs not demonstrated effectiveness in promoting growth, but the isolate O64-ITA6 (Pisolithus tinctorius provided greater colonization. Seedlings of A. mangium have high responsiveness to inoculation with AMFs and depends on high root colonization, between 40 and 80%, to obtain relevant benefits from symbiose over nodule formation and growth.

  8. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  9. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  10. Plant Killing by Mutualistic Ants Increases the Density of Host Species Seedlings in the Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Some species of plant-mutualistic ants kill the vegetation growing in the vicinities of their host plant, creating an area of bare ground (clearing). The reduced competition in the clearing may facilitate the establishment of host species sprouts (clones and seedlings), which in turn benefits the ants with additional food and shelter (“sprout-establishment hypothesis”). To test this hypothesis, the density and origin of Acacia collinsii sprouts growing inside clearings and in the vicinities o...

  11. Morpho-physiological response of Acacia auriculiformis as influenced by seawater induced salinity stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, A.; Rahman, M.; Nihad, S.A.I.; Howlader, R.A.; Akand, M.H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: To evaluate the morpho-physiological changes of Acacia auriculiformis in response to seawater induced salinity stress along with its tolerance limit. Area of study: Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Bangladesh. Material and methods: Three saline treatments (4, 8, 12 dS m-1) were applied to six-month aged Acacia auriculiformis seedlings from January 2014 to June 2014 and the tap water was used as control treatment. To observe salinity effects, the following parameters were measured by using various established techniques: plant height and leaf number, plant biomass, shoot and root distribution as well as shoot and root density, water uptake capacity (WUC), water saturation deficit (WSD) and water retention capacity (WRC), exudation rate, and cell membrane stability. Main results: Diluted seawater caused a notable reduction in shoot and root distribution in addition to shoot and root density, though plant height, leaf number and plant biomass were found to be decreased to some extent compared to control plants. Water status of the plant also altered when plants were subjected to salinity stress. Nevertheless, membrane stability revealed good findings towards salinity tolerance. Research highlights: Considering the above facts, despite salinity exerts some negative effects on overall plant performance, interestingly the percent reduction value doesn’t exceed 50% as compared to control plants, and the plants were successful to tolerate salinity stress till the end of the experiment (150 days) through adopting some tolerance mechanisms. Abbreviations used: BSMRAU (Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University); RCBD (randomized complete block design); DATI (days after treatment imposition); RWC (relative water content); WUC (water uptake capacity); WSD (water saturation deficit); WRC (water retention capacity); FW (fresh weight); DW (dry weight); TW (turgid weight); ROS (reactive oxygen species). (Author)

  12. Eastern Redcedar Seedling Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Eastern redcedar tree seedling growth in response to various soil, nitrogen, and photosynthetic radiation characteristics. This dataset is associated with the...

  13. The birds of the alien Acacia thickets of the South-western Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 1876, the Cape Superintendent of Plantations began using the Australian Acacia cyanophylla and A. ... Strandveld; but 38 % of all nests recorded in the South-western Cape are in Acacia. S. senegalensis is .... of mixed exotic trees, often including some Acacia but also Eucalyptus, Pinus, Quercus,. Populus and other ...

  14. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR13-1-000] Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for Rate Approval pursuant to 284.123(b)(2) of the...

  15. Alkaline Pulping and Bleaching of Acacia auriculiformis Grown in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    JAHAN, M. Sarwar; SABINA, Rowshan; RUBAIYAT, Arjumand

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis were evaluated in terms of its suitability for papermaking. The fiber length (1.1 mm) of A. auriculiformis in this study was within the range of tropical hardwoods. The lignin content in A. auriculiformis was 19.4% and a-cellulose 44.1%, which was within the range of other acacias, but that of extractives was higher. Soda, soda-AQ, and kraft processes were studied in pulping. Screened pulp yield was increased w...

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal impacts on competitive interactions between Acacia etbaica and Boswellia papyrifera seedlings under drought stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birhane, E.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can have a substantial effect on the water and nutrient uptake by plants and the competition between plants in harsh environments where resource availability comes in pulses. In this study we focus on interspecific competition between Acaia etbaica and Boswellia

  17. Study of Volatile Components of Acacia farnesiana Willd . Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaefthimiou Evangelia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil and the absolute of five populations of Acacia farnesiana, cultivated in Greece, have been investigated. The saturated hydrocarbons tricosane, nonadecane and heneicosane, along with methyl salicylate, characterized the chemical analysis of the essential oils and the absolutes, while hexadecanoic acid and α -amyrine were important constituents of some absolutes.

  18. Sprout selection and performance of goats fed Acacia karroo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Casper Nyamukanza

    Goats are important browsers in the Eastern Cape Province, which keeps ... Acacia karroo Hayne (Fabaceae = Leguminosae) trees are abundant and able to ... savanna and consists of subtropical thicket vegetation dominated by deciduous woody shrubs shorter than ..... National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., USA.

  19. Evaluation of heavy metal uptake and translocation by Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... Acacia mangium as a phytoremediator of copper contaminated soil. Nik M. Majid, M. M. Islam*, Veronica Justin, Arifin Abdu and Parisa Ahmadpour. Department of ... The different levels of Cu were: T0 (control, soil), T1 (50 ppm Cu), T2 (100 ppm ..... aspects such as photosynthesis and respiration rate need.

  20. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TUOYO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... Full Length Research Paper. Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA. Rami S. Habeballa*, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali. Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Centre for Research, Khartoum, Sudan. P. O. Box.

  1. Characterization of tannin-based adhesives from Acacia mangium barks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Fatahiyah Mohamada; Pizzi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the performances of Acacia Mangium tannin-based tannin designed as adhesive in the particleboard production. The tannin was extracted from acacia mangium barks in differences medium extraction. Three difference medium, (1)Water (Control), (2)Na 2 SO 3 (4 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.4 %) and (3) Na 2 SO 3 (8 %) / Na 2 CO 3 (0.8 %) used, the (3) medium extraction produce then highest yield (25.8 %) follow the (2) medium extraction (21.6%) and the less yield (17.7%). To evaluate the mechanical performances of optimal Acacia mangium tannin-based adhesives, particleboard were produced using 3 differences hardener and mechanical properties (Internal bonding) were investigated. The performance of these panels is comparable to those of particle panels commercial. The results showed that particleboard panels bonded with parafomaldehid (0.392 Mpa) exhibited better mechanical properties, continue particleboard panel hardened with hexamine (0.367 MPa) and particleboard panel bonded with glyoxol-tannin based adhesives (0.244 MPa). This show the suitable harder for acacia mangium tannin are formaldehyde > hexamine > glyoxol. (author)

  2. Simulating browse production and response of Acacia karroo to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if it is possible to reduce stock in times of drought, this was shown to be of very little benefit. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; defoliation; drought; eastern cape; goats; growth; management; management strategy; model; number of camps; production; productivity; simulation model; south africa; ...

  3. Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology and Conservation of Acacia senegal in the Rangelands ofLuwero and Nakasongola Districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined ...

  5. Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agroforestry potential of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of luwero and Nakasongola districts. Jacob Godfrey Agea, Joseph Obua, Sara Namirembe, Mukadasi Buyinza, Daniel Waiswa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Analysis of dendrometric characteristics of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study gives an analysis of the dendrometric parameters of a middle Sahelian species (Acacia senegal) in semi-arid environment to get better knowledge of its behavior. The research lays the principle that the species behaves differently according to the ecogeographical stations. So, its characteristics change from one ...

  7. Increased gum arabic production after infestation of Acacia senegal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the beetle Agrilus nubeculosus and gum arabic production by Acacia senegal. Some trees were tapped and left open to facilitate infestation by A. nubeculosus and others were covered with wire mesh as control. Gum yield, physical and chemical properties of ...

  8. Allelopathic potential of Robinia pseudo-acacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Habib; Iqbal, Zahida; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2005-09-01

    Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (black locust) is a nonindigenous species currently invading the central part of Japanese grasslands. Several allelochemicals were identified and characterized from the leaf tissue. The growth of both radicle and hypocotyl in the tested species (barnyard grass, white clover, lettuce, and Chinese cabbage) was reduced when grown in soil mixed with the leaves of R. pseudo-acacia at various concentrations. Aqueous leaf extracts, when bioassayed, exhibited a significant suppression of radicle growth. Chromatographic separation of an ethanolic extract of R. pseudo-acacia leaves resulted in isolation of three compounds, identified as robinetin (1), myricetin (2), and quercetin (3) by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. All inhibited root and shoot growth of lettuce. Robinetin, found in a large amount, caused 50% suppression of the root and shoot growth of lettuce at 100 ppm. The presence of these bioactive substances in leaf tissue suggests a potential role for flavonoids in R. pseudo-acacia invasion in introduced habitats.

  9. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation by hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoot production of all plants defoliated by hand was no different to that of the undefoliated control plants and was considerably less than that of the plants defoliated by goats. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; browsing; clipping; defoliation; goats; growth stimulation; leaf growth; leaves; shoot growth; shoot ...

  10. Evaluation Support and Follow Up (Acacia) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The IDRC program initiative, Acacia (communities and the information society in Africa), seeks to integrate an evaluation process within its activities and those of its partners. This project aims to ... A new website and resource library will help improve developing country registration and information systems for vital events.

  11. The effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation and thermal preparation on consumer sensory scores of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goat breed. 18 castrated four-month-old Xhosa lop-eared kids were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm until slaughter. Sample ...

  12. Gum acacia coating with garlic and cinnamon as an alternate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madhumita

    The antibacterial activity of gum arabic coating with ... Key words: Gum acacia coating, garlic, cinnamon, antioxidant, antimicrobial, meat, ... cinnamaldehyde and eugenol inhibit production of an ... antioxidant activity because these two properties are ... temperatures .... activity of these spices but no report on its application.

  13. Soil nutrient ecology associated with Acacia sieberana at different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on a study conducted on three aspects of soil nutrient ecology in an Acacia sieberana savanna. Information was collected about the effects of a savanna tree species on soil fertility, and the influence of savanna trees on mycorrhizal abundance was investigated. Mycorrhizal dependence of the indigenous African ...

  14. Antipyretic and analgesic activities of aqueous extract of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the scientific basis for the use of Acacia nilotica root extract for treatment of fever and pain in traditional medical practice. Anti-Pyretic study was carried out using Brewerʼs yeast suspension to induce pyrexia. The hot plate, tail immersion and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were the ...

  15. Acacia plantations in Vietnam: Research and knowledge application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Greater efforts are required on surveillance of major diseases and tree breeding to improve disease resistance. Because acacia plantations deliver high economic benefits and there are opportunities for improving productivity, an R&D strategy focused on underpinning sustainable management and application would serve ...

  16. Intercropping Acacia mangium stimulates AMF colonization and soil phosphatase activity in Eucalyptus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bini

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF are very important to plant nutrition, mostly in terms of acquisition of P and micronutrients. While Acacia mangium is closely associated with AMF throughout the whole cycle, Eucalyptus grandis presents this symbiosis primarily at the seedling stage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of AMF in these two tree species in both pure and mixed plantations during the first 20 months after planting. We evaluated the abundance, richness and diversity of AMF spores, the rate of AMF mycorrhizal root colonization, enzymatic activity and soil and litter C, N and P. There was an increase in AMF root colonization of E. grandis when intercropped with A. mangium as well as an increase in the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the presence of leguminous trees. AMF colonization and phosphatase activities were both involved in improvements in P cycling and P nutrition in soil. In addition, P cycling was favored in the intercropped plantation, which showed negative correlation with litter C/N and C/P ratios and positive correlation with soil acid phosphatase activity and soil N and P concentrations. Intercropping A. mangium and E. grandis maximized AMF root colonization of E. grandis and phosphatase activity in the soil, both of which accelerate P cycling and forest performance.

  17. Cadmium tolerance and phytoremediation potential of acacia (Acacia nilotica L.) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Rahat; Abbas, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Akram, Muhammad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Hussain, Munawar; Ashraf, Farah

    2018-06-07

    In this study, we explored the effect of salinity on cadmium (Cd) tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Acacia nilotica. Two-month-old uniform plants of A. nilotica were grown in pots contaminated with various levels of Cd (0, 5, 10, and 15 mg kg -1 ), NaCl (0%, 0.5%, 1.0% (hereafter referred as salinity), and all possible combinations of Cd + salinity for a period of six months. Results showed that shoot and root growth, biomass, tissue water content and chlorophyll (chl a, chl b, and total chl a+b) contents decreased more in response to salinity and combination of Cd + salinity compared to Cd alone. Shoot and root K concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Cd levels, whereas Na and Cl concentrations were not affected significantly. Shoot and root Cd concentrations, bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) increased with increasing soil Cd and Cd + salinity levels. At low level of salinity (0.5%), shoot and root Cd uptake enhanced, while it decreased at high level of salinity (1.0%). Due to Cd tolerance, high shoot biomass and shoot Cd uptake, this tree species has some potential for phytoremediation of Cd from the metal contaminated saline and nonsaline soils.

  18. Carbon isotopes confirm the competitive advantages of Prosopis over Acacia erioloba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, I.; Woodborne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The landscape of the Kalahari Desert is changing as the indigenous Acacia erioloba E.Mey. is being replaced by the invasive Prosopis spp. Although both species are phreatophytic, the disproportionately large taproot of Prosopis enables it to survive extreme moisture stress. δ 13 C values were determined on annually resolved Prosopis and Acacia erioloba samples to investigate adaptation to changing edaphic conditions. The results confirm that the Acacia erioloba sample died during a period of water stress

  19. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfuração simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3-seriados e fibras libriformes separadas. A preseça de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na séire Vulgares Benth.,  que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  20. Methods for extraction and characterization of tannins from some acacia species of sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgailani, I.E.H.; Ishak, C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05), 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins. (author)

  1. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  2. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA DE Acacia nitidifolia Speg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae. Wood anatomy of Acacia mitidifolia Spreg. (Leguminosae Mimosoideae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visa o estudo anatômico da madeira de Acacia nitidifolia Speg. A estrutura anatômica apresenta porosidade difusa, elementos vasculares curtos, placas de perfurações simples, pontuações intervasculares ornamentadas e em arranjo alterno, parênquima axial paratraqueal vasicêntrico e marginal cristalífero, raios homogêneos comumente 2-3 seriados e fibras libriformes septadas. A presença de canais intercelulares axiais e de canais celulares na estrutura radial, tem grande importância taxonômica. Este último caráter era desconhecido para o gênero Acacia. A estrutura anatômica da madeira indica que a espécie em estudo pode ser classificada na série Vulgares Benth., que corresponde, em linhas gerais, ao sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.

  3. Kemampuan Ganoderma dan Trichoderma Mendekomposisi Serasah Acacia mangium (The Ability of Ganoderma and Trichoderma to Decompose Acacia mangium Litter)

    OpenAIRE

    SAMINGAN, Samingan

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition ability of fungi has an important role in forest floor ecosystem. The abilities of Ganoderma sp and Trichoderma sp to decompose Acacia mangium leaf litters at laboratory scale were observed. Litters from L and F layers in the field ca. 100 g were used as substrates in plastic bags. Each fungus was inoculating onto substrates and incubates at room temperature, then observed each month during six months. Weight losses (WL) of litter, lignin and cellulose contents during dec...

  4. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  5. Diversity and frequency of Acacia spp. in three regions in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bismillha

    2012-06-28

    Jun 28, 2012 ... effect of soil texture on the frequency of Acacia spp. ... structure. There were great differences between species in relation to diameter distribution. The study shows the scarcity of large diameter trees and also in some cases ... Key words: Acacia, diversity, soil texture, diameter at breast height (DBH) classes.

  6. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-000] Acacia Natural...

  7. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline filing of its Statement of Operating Conditions for the interruptible transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-16-002] Acacia Natural...

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LA REGENERACION DE Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon Y Ulex europaeus EN ÁREAS EN PROCESO DE RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA

    OpenAIRE

    SOLORZA BEJARANO, JAIRO HERNÁN

    2012-01-01

    Se evaluó la regeneración de Acacia decurrens, Acacia melanoxylon y Ulex europaeus, en una zona sujeta a un proceso de restauaración ecológica. En las áreas con presencia de individuos arboreos de Acacia decurrens y Acacia melanoxylon se presenta expresión del banco de semillas con formación periódica de la capa de hojarasca que detiene o desvía el proceso sucesional. En las áreas de claro se presenta regeneración de Ulex europaeus, ocupando rápidamente los espacios libres de vegetación. La p...

  9. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-01-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09

  10. GROWTH AND ROOTING SYSTEM OF ACACIA MANGIUM OBTAINED BY TISSUE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPRIYANTO

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980/1981, the government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Forestry has started to reforest logged-over, alang-alang, unproductive areas and to convert them to Forest Industry Plantation. The target is 300 000 ha per year. It means, 750 million seedlings should be provided per year (planting distance 2 m x 2 m. The tree species to be planted in forest industry plantation should have shorter life cycle (8 - 10 years, good stem-form, good rooting system, and should be fast growing. Acacia mangium has been selected as one of the important tree species for forest industry plantation due to its growth, quality of fiber wood (pulp and paper industry and rooting system (produce a lot of secondary root and nitrogen fixater (Soebardjo 1986. The reforestation of logged-over Dipterocarp forests in Malaysia with A. mangium has also been considered (Appanah and Weinland 1989. Generally, reforestation with A. mangium is done with seedlings obtained by seed germination. A. mangium produce a lot of seeds but its production is still limited by the season, while the conventional method of vegetative propagation through cuttings gave very low percentage of rooted-cuttings (1% (Umboh and Syamsul Yani 1989. The micropropagation of A. mangium through tissue culture is a promising method. The production of A. mangium plantlets through that method has been done at the Forest Genetic Laboratory, Tropical Forest Biology, SEAMEO BIOTROP (Situmorang 1988, Umboh 1988, Umboh et al. 1989, 1990. These rooted-plantlets (plantlings were first put in the green house (acclimatization before planting in the field. Field tests of some agricultural plants have been done but information on forest trees species is still lacking because the production of plantlings through tissue culture is still limited as there are still problems of their rooting. In fact, the progress of reproducing woody plants by tissue culture has been much slower than with herbaceous plants. The major

  11. Produção de mudas de acácia colonizadas com micorrizas e rizóbio em diferentes recipientes Production of acacia plants colonized with mycorrhizas and rhizobium in different recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes métodos na produção de mudas de Acacia mangium Willd, colonizadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e rizóbio. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 4x2 (controle, FMAs, rizóbio e FMAs + rizóbio x blocos prensados e tubetes de plástico, com seis repetições. Os blocos prensados foram confeccionados com substratos orgânicos (bagaço de cana + torta de filtro de usina açucareira e vermiculita, colocados em fôrma metálica de 60x40x20 cm e prensados a 10 kgf cm-2, a fim de proporcionar agregação do material. A inoculação do rizóbio foi realizada com estirpe selecionada para a espécie (Br 3609, Br 6009. A inoculação de FMAs foi feita no momento da confecção dos blocos. Mudas de Acacia mangium que receberam inóculo de FMAs + rizóbio e produzidas em blocos prensados apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca e conteúdo de N na parte aérea. O conteúdo de P na parte aérea é significativamente maior somente nas mudas infectadas com os FMAs, independentemente do tipo de recipiente.A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to evaluate different methods to produce Acacia mangium Willd plant seedlings, inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and rhizobium. A completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 4x2 (control, AMF, rhizobium and AMF + rhizobium x pressed blocks and plastic tubes, with six repetitions was used. The pressed blocks used to produce Acacia mangium plants were made with organic residue from sugarcane (sugarcane bagasse + filter cake and vermiculite. The inoculation with rhizobium was done with selected strain (Br 3609, Br 6009. The inoculation with AMF was done at the time when pressed blocks were made. Acacia mangium plants inoculated with both AMF + rhizobium led to a significant increase in dry matter yield and N content of shoot plants, only in

  12. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of Acacia and Santalum species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger

    compounds from plants still have a huge potential for investigation for medicinal properties as possible drug leads. Humans have a long history of using plant medicine in treatments and indigenous cultures are a remarkable source for immense knowledge about plants and the uses of them - knowledge that has...... often only exists amongst members of communities or groups of the land where it has arisen. In this PhD project the three Australian plant species Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth, Santalum spicatum (R.Br.) A.DC and Santalum lanceolatum R.Br were investigated for their bioactivity and chemistry...

  13. PROPAGACIÓN IN VITRO DE Acacia mangium Willd

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    LUZ ANGELA TORRES

    Full Text Available Acacia Acacia mangium Willd es una de las especies forestales más plantadas por la calidad de su madera y rápido crecimiento; sin embargo, los estudios de propagación clonal son pocos. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo desarrollar un protocolo de micropropagacion a partir de explantes con meristemos preexistentes. Los explantes consistieron de brotes de plantas de tres meses de edad mantenidas en invernadero. La desinfección se realizó con diferentes concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio y antibióticos, y fueron establecidos en medio MS con diferentes concentraciones (0; 0,44; 0,88 y 2,22 µM de BAP. Los brotes micropropagados fueron enraizados con diferentes dosis de ANA y AIB, finalmente los brotes, con o sin raíces, fueron transferidos a condiciones ex vitro para evaluar el porcentaje de supervivencia. Los datos mostraron que 1,0% NaOCl y cefalexina (2 mg L-1 permitieron obtener el mayor porcentaje de explantes libres de contaminación (67%. El mayor número promedio de brotes ocurrió con 2,22 µM de BAP y el mayor número promedio de raíces se observo al utilizar 2,69 µM de ANA. La adaptación de las plantas en condiciones ex vitro fue exitoso lográndose obtener un 87% de supervivencia

  14. Colloids removal from water resources using natural coagulant: Acacia auriculiformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M.; Roslan, A.; Kamarulzaman, M. F. H.; Erat, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    All waters, especially surface waters contain dissolved, suspended particles and/or inorganic matter, as well as several biological organisms, such as bacteria, algae or viruses. This material must be removed because it can affect the water quality that can cause turbidity and colour. The objective of this study is to develop water treatment process from Seri Alam (Johor, Malaysia) lake water resources by using natural coagulant Acacia auriculiformis pods through a jar test experiment. Jar test is designed to show the effectiveness of the water treatment. This process is a laboratory procedure that will simulate coagulation/flocculation with several parameters selected namely contact time, coagulant dosage and agitation speed. The most optimum percentage of colloids removal for each parameter is determined at 0.2 g, 90 min and 80 rpm. FESEM (Field-emission Scanning Electron Microscope) observed the small structures of final floc particles for optimum parameter in this study to show that the colloids coagulated the coagulant. All result showed that the Acacia auriculiformis pods can be a very efficient coagulant in removing colloids from water.

  15. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  16. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  17. Karakter Jamur Ceratocystis sp. Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Batang pada Acacia decurrens dan Status Penyakitnya di Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia decurrens merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman yang tumbuh mendominasi kawasan Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi (TNGM, pasca erupsi Gunung Merapi tahun 2010. Sekitar 80% tegakan A. decurrens di kawasan tersebut menunjukkan gejala busuk batang akibat infeksi jamur Ceratocystis sp. yang umumnya dipicu oleh luka gerekan kumbang dari kelompok ambrosia. Penelitian bertujuan untuk : (1 mendeskripsikan karakter morfologi jamur Ceratocystis sp., serta kemampuannya beradaptasi pada beberapa jenis tanaman hutan, (2 mengevaluasi status penyakit busuk batang oleh jamur Ceratocystis sp. Karakter morfologi dan kemampuan adaptasinya pada inang akasia, melina, jabon, sengon, dan jati dilakukan di Laboratorium Perlindungan dan Kesehatan Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan UGM. Survei untuk evaluasi status penyakit busuk batang dilakukan pada bulan Februari sampai Agustus 2014 di demplot restorasi pasca erupsi Merapi (luas 8,4 ha, dengan intensitas sampling 8%. Berdasarkan karakter morfologi, terdapat 2 isolat jamur Ceratocystis sp. yaitu asal lembah (L dan dari bukit (B dengan warna koloni krem, luas koloni 20-22 cm2 pada umur 14 hari, membentuk konidia menyerupai tong, dan silindris. Sifat lainnya yaitu memiliki kemampuan yang sama untuk tumbuh, mengkolonisasi, dan menginfeksi inang akasia, sengon, jabon, dan melina, tetapi tidak mampu tumbuh pada inang jati. Berdasarkan luas serangan, status penyakit busuk batang berkisar antara sangat umum sampai menyebar luas (luas serangan = 54-100%, dengan tingkat keparahan bekisar antara ringan sampai parah (intensitas penyakit = 15-67%. Kata kunci: Ceratocystis sp., Acacia decurrens, luas serangan, intensitas penyakit, Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi.   Characteristic of stem rot diseases caused by Ceratocystis sp. on Acacia decurrens and its status in Gunung Merapi National Park, Yogyakarta Abstract Mount Merapi National Park (TNGM has been dominated by Acacia decurrens after the eruption in 2010. Almost 80% of A

  18. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Barberis

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival. In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm² in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks

  19. A preliminary report on decay and canker of Acacia richii caused by Inonotus rickii in China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cui, B.K.; Zhao, C.L.; Vlasák, Josef; Dai, Y.C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2014), s. 82-84 ISSN 1437-4781 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : wood-decaying fungus * Inonotus rickii * Acacia richii Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.373, year: 2014

  20. Controlled dual release study of curcumin and a 4-aminoquinoline analog from gum acacia containing hydrogels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of gum acacia containing hydrogels as controlled dual-drug delivery systems for antiprotozoal agents was investigated. 4-Aminoquinoline analog and curcumin were selected as model drugs because they exhibit antiprotozoal activity...

  1. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  2. The Importance of Acacia Trees for Insectivorous Bats and Arthropods in the Arava Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Talya D.; Korine, Carmi; Holderied, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis) are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica) were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats. PMID:23441145

  3. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  4. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  5. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  6. Preparation and physicochemical properties of protein concentrate and isolate produced from Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Swailam, Hesham M; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2018-02-01

    The composition and physicochemical properties of defatted acacia flour (DFAF), acacia protein concentrate (APC) and acacia protein isolate (API) were evaluated. The results indicated that API had lower, ash and fat content, than DFAF and APC. Also, significant difference in protein content was noticed among DFAF, APC and API (37.5, 63.7 and 91.8%, respectively). Acacia protein concentrate and isolates were good sources of essential amino acids except cystine and methionine. The physicochemical and functional properties of acacia protein improved with the processing of acacia into protein concentrate and protein isolate. The results of scanning electron micrographs showed that DFAF had a compact structure; protein concentrate were, flaky, and porous type, and protein isolate had intact flakes morphology.

  7. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em estéril revegetado com Acacia mangium, após mineração de bauxita Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in substrate, after bauxite mining, vegetated with Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição das comunidades de FMAs em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium após a mineração de bauxita na região de Porto Trombetas, PA. Foram coletadas amostras de solo compostas nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium, que receberam inóculos de Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, com 1 e 5 anos de idade. Os solos foram revegetados sem a reposição do horizonte superficial orgânico. Os esporos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram extraídos e identificados através de suas características morfológicas. Analisou-se a densidade de esporos e de espécies em cada amostra, a densidade relativa e a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem, além do índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. Sob o plantio de mudas de A. mangium, a densidade de esporos de FMAs foi elevada e aumentou com a idade, enquanto o número de espécies não variou. Glomus clarum produz alta densidade de esporos na fase inicial do plantio e declina com o tempo, e Gigaspora margarita não esporula nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. A maioria das espécies de FMA não apresenta o mesmo padrão de esporulação nos períodos seco e chuvoso.The objective of this work was to monitor the establishment of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum in reclaimed areas after the bauxite mining in Porto Trombetas, PA, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy periods under one and five-year-old Acacia mangium trees grown from seedlings that had been inoculated with Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The exposed subsoil was managed without replacing the organic soil layer. FMA spores were extracted and identified through their morphologic characteristics. Spore density and frequency of each species were determined in each sampling The index of abundance and frequency (IAF were estimated for all samples. Under A. mangium the arbuscular

  8. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p < 0.05) similar to the effect observed with chlorpromazine (CPZ) (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; CPZ 1.0 mg/kg, 24.20 ± 3.40 p < 0.05). A dose-dependent significant decrease in immobility time was also observed in mice and this effect was comparable to its positive control (Imipramine). However, In light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p < 0.05) time on the light side of the light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  9. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  10. Study on tissue culture for Gelidium seedling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Lu-Qing; Luo, Qi-Jun; Fei, Zhi-Qing; Ma, Bin

    1996-06-01

    As seedling culture is a crucial factor for successful cultivation of Gelidium, the authors researched tissue culture technology for producing seedlings. The morphogeny and experimental ecology were observed and studied fully in 2 5 mm isolated tissue fragments. Regeneration, appearance of branching creepers and attaching structure and new erect seedlings production and development were studied. Fragments were sown on bamboo slice and vinylon rope. The seedlings were cultured 20 30 days indoor, then cultured in the sea, where the density of erect seedlings was 3 19 seedlings/cm2, growth rate was 3.84% day. The frond arising from seedlings directly was up to 10 cm per year. The ecological conditions for regenerated seedlings are similar to the natural ones. The regenerated seedlings are suitable for raft culture in various sea areas.

  11. Early Growth of Improved Acacia mangium at Different Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Nirsatmanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrating tree improvement into silvicultural practices is essential in forest plantation. Concerning this fact, Acacia mangium spacing trial planted using genetically improved seed was established in West Java. This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of ages and planting density on early growth of improved seed A. mangium in the spacing trial. Improved seed from 2 seed orchards (SSO-5 and SSO-20 and a control of unimproved seed from seed stand (SS-7 were tested together in spacing 3 × 3 m and 2 × 2 m. Height, diameter, stem volume, and stand volume were observed at 3 ages. The results showed that improved seed consistently outperformed to unimproved seed. Ages were highly significant for all traits, but the significant difference varied among traits and seed sources for planting density and the interactions. High density performed better growth than low density at first year, and they were varied in subsequent ages depending on traits and seed sources. Improved seed from less intensity selection orchard was less tolerance to high density than that from high intensity selection orchard, but the tolerance was reversed in low density. Improved seed A. mangium from different level of genetic selection has responded differently in behavior to the changes of planting density.

  12. Field grown Acacia Mangium: how intensive is root growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Rasidah Kadir; Azizol Abdul Kadir; Van Cleemput, O.; Zaharah Abdul Rahman

    1998-01-01

    Under rainfed conditions, root development of trees can be very unpredictable and variable, depending on the amount and distribution of rainfall received. This becomes more critical when the rainfall is seasonal and the soil has a high clay content. Our investigation dealt with the root development of Acacia mangium established as plantation forest on a soil with heavy clay texture in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Malaysia. The distribution of active roots was measured at 9- and 21- month-old plantations using the radioactive P injection method. Growth at different distances from the tree base and at different soil depths was studied. After nine months of field planting, we found that roots were mostly concentrated at the surface within 1000 mm distance from the tree base. At one year after the first measurement, roots were traced as far as 6400 mm away. A large part of these roots, however, were detected within 3700 mm distance in the upper 300 mm soil. At this stage, roots can still did not go deeper than 450 mm depth, probably due to the high clay content at lower depth and low pH. This rapid root growth indicates that below-ground competition can be very intense if this species is established as a mixed-species plantation

  13. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Transient behaviour and control of the ACACIA plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikstra, J.F.; Heek, A.I. van; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article deals with dynamic modelling and control of the ACACIA plant. A one-dimensional flow model describing the helium flow and the two-phase water flow is used through the whole plant, with different source terms in different pieces of equipment. A stage-by-stage model is produced for the radial compressor and axial turbine. Other models include the recuperator, water/helium heat exchangers, a natural convection evaporator, valves, etc. The models have been checked by comparison of the transient behavior with several other models, e.g. produced in RELAP. The dynamic behavior of this plant is analysed and a control structure is designed. First the requirements and options for a control system design are investigated. A number of possible control valve positions in the flowsheet are tested with transients in order to make an argued choice. The model is subsequently used to determine the optimal working conditions for different heat and power demands, these are used as set-points for the control system. Then the interaction between manipulated and controlled variables is mapped and based on this information a choice for coupling them in decentralised feedback control loops is made. This control structure is then tuned and tested. It can be concluded that both heat and power demand can be followed with acceptable performance over a wide range. (author)

  15. Controle de Acacia farnesiana e de Mimosa pteridofita em pastagem Control of Acacia farnesiana and of Mimosa pteridofita in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Carmona

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de estudar a eficácia agronômica e econômica de herbicidas para o controle de duas sérias plantas daninhas de pastagens: Acacia farnesiana e Mimosa pteridofita. Os produtos utilizados, por meio de pincelamento no toco, foram o óleo diesel, óleo lubrificante usado de trator, solução aquosa de 2,4-D + picloram e solução oleosa de 2,4-D + picloram. À exceção do óleo lubrificante, os herbicidas foram testados em dois tamanhos de planta daninha e duas alturas de corte. Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de controle e o vigor de brotação das plantas não-controladas. Concluiu-se que o corte das plantas só é eficiente no controle das duas espécies, quando realizado no nível do solo e seguido da aplicação de herbicida específico, como o 2,4-D + picloram. O óleo diesel também controla totalmente ambas as espécies, e com menores custos que o 2,4-D + picloram, porém apenas quando aplicado nas plantas mais jovens. Há incompatibilidade entre o óleo diesel e o 2,4-D + picloram no controle das duas espécies. O óleo lubrificante usado não apresenta nenhum efeito herbicida em plantas adultas destas espécies.An experiment was carried out to study the efficacy of herbicide treatments in controlling two serious pasture weeds: Acacia farnesiana and Mimosa pteridofita. The following herbicides were applied to the stump, after cutting: diesel oil, used engine lubricant oil, 2,4-D + picloram diluted in water or diesel oil and a control treatment without herbicide. All herbicide treatments were tested on two sizes of the plants and two heights of cutting, except the lubricant oil. The shrub control and sprouting vigor were evaluated in all treatments. The results showed that cutting of plants is effective only when it is carried out at the soil surface level and followed by a specific herbicide treatment, such as 2,4-D + picloram. Diesel oil controlled 100% of the younger plants of both species, at lower

  16. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

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    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  17. Effect of Rhizobium and Mycorhiza inoculation on the nursery growth of Acacia and Teline monspessulana; Efecto de la aplicacion de biofertilizantes en Acacia decurrens y Teline monspessulana en vivero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, G; Lozano de Yunda, A; Chaparro, H

    1999-12-01

    In an experiment accomplished in the tree nursery Tisquesusa located in Madrid (Cundinamarca) was evaluated the effect of the inoculation with strains selected of foreign and Indigenous rhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi am (Glomus folescutolum) on the growth, nitrogen fixation, and micorrization of Acacia (Acacia decurrens) and Retamo (Teline monspessulana) that they are used In soils recovery by the Corporacion Autonoma Regional de Cundinamarca CAR. The studied species presented positive response to the inoculation with rhizobium; the indigenous strain DQ6-09, isolated in Guatavita (Cundinamarca), presented the better results in Retamo and also in Acacia alone and in mixture with the foreign strain T1881. The inoculation with fungi AM increased the heights, dry weights, phosphorus content and percentage of micorrization in Acacia and Retamo. The double inoculation with fungi ma and rhizobium it did not increase the nitrogen fixing of Acacia while in Retamo was presented a positive effect with the strain DQ6-09.

  18. Seedling responses to water pulses in shrubs with contrasting histories of grassland encroachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R Woods

    Full Text Available Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has occurred worldwide, but it is unclear why some tree and shrub species have been markedly more successful than others. For example, Prosopis velutina has proliferated in many grasslands of the Sonoran Desert in North America over the past century, while other shrub species with similar growth form and life history, such as Acacia greggii, have not. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to assess whether differences in early seedling development could help explain why one species and not the other came to dominate many Sonoran Desert grasslands. We established eight watering treatments mimicking a range of natural precipitation patterns and harvested seedlings 16 or 17 days after germination. A. greggii had nearly 7 times more seed mass than P. velutina, but P. velutina emerged earlier (by 3.0±0.3 d and grew faster (by 8.7±0.5 mg d⁻¹. Shoot mass at harvest was higher in A. greggii (99±6 mg seedling⁻¹ than in P. velutina (74±2 mg seedling⁻¹, but there was no significant difference in root mass (54±3 and 49±2 mg seedling⁻¹, respectively. Taproot elongation was differentially sensitive to water supply: under the highest initial watering pulse, taproots were 52±19 mm longer in P. velutina than in A. greggii. Enhanced taproot elongation under favorable rainfall conditions could give nascent P. velutina seedlings growth and survivorship advantages by helping reduce competition with grasses and maintain contact with soil water during drought. Conversely, A. greggii's greater investment in mass per seed appeared to provide little return in early seedling growth. We suggest that such differences in recruitment traits and their sensitivities to environmental conditions may help explain ecological differences between species that are highly similar as adults and help identify pivotal drivers of shrub encroachment into grasslands.

  19. Ecological longevity of Polaskia chende (Cactaceae) seeds in the soil seed bank, seedling emergence and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez-Salanueva, C A; Orozco-Segovia, A; Canales-Martínez, M; Seal, C E; Pritchard, H W; Flores-Ortiz, C M

    2017-11-01

    Soil seed banks are essential elements of plant population dynamics, enabling species to maintain genetic variability, withstand periods of adversity and persist over time, including for cactus species. However knowledge of the soil seed bank in cacti is scanty. In this study, over a 5-year period we studied the seed bank dynamics, seedling emergence and nurse plant facilitation of Polaskia chende, an endemic columnar cactus of central Mexico. P. chende seeds were collected for a wild population in Puebla, Mexico. Freshly collected seeds were sown at 25 °C and 12-h photoperiod under white light, far-red light and darkness. The collected seeds were divided in two lots, the first was stored in the laboratory and the second was use to bury seeds in open areas and beneath a shrub canopy. Seeds were exhumed periodically over 5 years. At the same time seeds were sown in open areas and beneath shrub canopies; seedling emergence and survival were recorded over different periods of time for 5 years. The species forms long-term persistent soil seed banks. The timing of seedling emergence via germination in the field was regulated by interaction between light, temperature and soil moisture. Seeds entered secondary dormancy at specific times according to the expression of environmental factors, demonstrating irregular dormancy cycling. Seedling survival of P. chende was improved under Acacia constricta nurse plants. Finally, plant facilitation affected the soil seed bank dynamics as it promoted the formation of a soil seed bank, but not its persistence. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Potential production of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon seedlings viarescue seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Ferreira e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Translocation of rare populations is regarded as the last resort for the conservation of species whose habitat destruction is imminent. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two height classes and three leaf reduction intensities on growth and increases in height, stem diameter, survival, and new leaf production in seedlings of Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (peroba obtained via rescue seedlings in a remnant of tropical semi deciduous forest. We recovered 240 individuals that were divided into two height classes (Class I-5 to 15cm and Class II-20 to 35cm and subjected to three leaf reduction intensities (0%, 50%, and 100%, which were then transported to a shade house with 50% light reduction. Measurements of height, stem diameter, and new leaf production were collected 8 times at 0, 15, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, and 135 days, and survival rate was measured at day 135. The average survival rate was 82.9%; 77.5% for one Class I (5-15cm and 88.3% for Class II (20-35cm. Higher seedling growth was observed for the 0% leaf reduction treatment in both height classes. The leaves insertion were greater in the 100% cuts, with a decrease observed over time. It is advisable to restore A. cylindrocarpon seedlings in two height classes owing to the high survival rate, leaf appearance, and growth reported in the present study. The no-leaf reduction treatment (0% is the most viable alternative for the production of A. cylindrocarpon seedlings, via rescue seedlings.

  1. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M; Staehelin, C; McKey, D

    2000-12-01

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  2. Carbon Isotope discrimination in acacia auriculiformis - can it be used to select for higher water-use-efficiency in trees?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagu, K.D.; Woo, K.C.; Puangchit, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Determining the water-use-efficiency of trees in relation lo wood production is problematic due to the sheer size of the plant and the number of years taken to produce the wood. Indirect measures of water-use-efficiency, such as carbon isotope discrimination (Δ), are therefore attractive to tree breeders wishing to select for increased water-use-efficiency. To begin to evaluate the usefulness of Δ as a selection parameter for the tropical tree Acacia auriculiformis we addressed the following questions: 1. Within the tree canopy, how variable is Δ? 2. Is there any genotypic variation in Δ? and 3. Does water availability affect genotypic variation? To address these questions we sampled foliage from pot trials and field trials of A. auriculiformis ranging in age from 3 months lo 8 years in Australia and Thailand. In 16-18m high 8-year-old trees, canopy variation in Δ was large (P>0.01). Foliage Δ values increased down the tree from 22.0 %o at the top to 24.7 %o at the base. The decrease was rapid in the lop 3 m of the canopy thus considerable care must be taken to sampling foliage from the same position in the canopy. Genotype variations in Δ was observed in seedlings and 2 year-old trees (P>0.01) but not in 8 year-old trees (P=0.60). Where genotypic variation were observed the differences between the lowest and highest values were 2.2 - 3.6 %o. Reduced water availability decreased Δ values in both pot and field studies but not in a consistent way across seedlots. Thus it would appear that the Δ of trees grown under favourable conditions does not give an indication of the Δ value which will be obtained under water-limited conditions. This complicates the use of Δ as a screening method. We have clearly shown that genotype variation occurs in A. auriculiformis in both seedlings and young field-grown trees. Considerable care is required when sampling large trees, as variation in Δ within the tree can be as large as between genotypes. The challenge

  3. Delayed colonisation of Acacia by thrips and the timing of host-conservatism and behavioural specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeish, Michael J; Miller, Joseph T; Mound, Laurence A

    2013-09-09

    Repeated colonisation of novel host-plants is believed to be an essential component of the evolutionary success of phytophagous insects. The relative timing between the origin of an insect lineage and the plant clade they eat or reproduce on is important for understanding how host-range expansion can lead to resource specialisation and speciation. Path and stepping-stone sampling are used in a Bayesian approach to test divergence timing between the origin of Acacia and colonisation by thrips. The evolution of host-plant conservatism and ecological specialisation is discussed. Results indicated very strong support for a model describing the origin of the common ancestor of Acacia thrips subsequent to that of Acacia. A current estimate puts the origin of Acacia at approximately 6 million years before the common ancestor of Acacia thrips, and 15 million years before the origin of a gall-inducing clade. The evolution of host conservatism and resource specialisation resulted in a phylogenetically under-dispersed pattern of host-use by several thrips lineages. Thrips colonised a diversity of Acacia species over a protracted period as Australia experienced aridification. Host conservatism evolved on phenotypically and environmentally suitable host lineages. Ecological specialisation resulted from habitat selection and selection on thrips behavior that promoted primary and secondary host associations. These findings suggest that delayed and repeated colonisation is characterised by cycles of oligo- or poly-phagy. This results in a cumulation of lineages that each evolve host conservatism on different and potentially transient host-related traits, and facilitates both ecological and resource specialisation.

  4. Acacia shrubs respond positively to high severity wildfire: Implications for conservation and fuel hazard management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher E; Price, Owen F; Tasker, Elizabeth M; Denham, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    High severity wildfires pose threats to human assets, but are also perceived to impact vegetation communities because a small number of species may become dominant immediately after fire. However there are considerable gaps in our knowledge about species-specific responses of plants to different fire severities, and how this influences fuel hazard in the short and long-term. Here we conduct a floristic survey at sites before and two years after a wildfire of unprecedented size and severity in the Warrumbungle National Park (Australia) to explore relationships between post-fire growth of a fire responsive shrub genera (Acacia), total mid-story vegetation cover, fire severity and fuel hazard. We then survey 129 plots surrounding the park to assess relationships between mid-story vegetation cover and time-since-fire. Acacia species richness and cover were 2.3 and 4.3 times greater at plots after than before the fire. However the same common dominant species were present throughout the study. Mid-story vegetation cover was 1.5 times greater after than before the wildfire, and Acacia species contribution to mid-story cover increased from 10 to 40%. Acacia species richness was not affected by fire severity, however strong positive associations were observed between Acacia and total mid-story vegetation cover and severity. Our analysis of mid-story vegetation recovery showed that cover was similarly high between 2 and 30years post-fire, then decreased until 52years. Collectively, our results suggest that Acacia species are extremely resilient to high severity wildfire and drive short to mid-term increases in fuel hazard. Our results are discussed in relation to fire regime management from the twin perspectives of conserving biodiversity and mitigating human losses due to wildfire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seedling vigor and genetic variability for rice seed, seedling emergence and seedling traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.; Jafri, S.J.H.; Jamil, M.; Ijaz, M.

    1994-01-01

    Eleven local rice cultivars including Basmati 370 were evaluated for seedling vigor. Three groups of traits were evaluated viz; seed traits (Seed density, seed volume see weight, paddy length and grain length), seed emergence traits (emergence %, emergence index and emergence rate index), and seedling traits (fresh root length, dry root weight, emergence percentage, root length, dry root weight, seed weight and relative root weight were observed significant, respectively. Seed density, relative root weight, emergence rate index and root to shoot ratio were relatively more amenable to improvement. Relative expected genetic advance was the function of heritability and coefficient of phenotypic variability, latter being more important. (author)

  6. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  7. Modeling relaxation length and density of acacia mangium wood using gamma - ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamer A Tabet; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    Wood density measurement is related to the several factors that influence wood quality. In this paper, density, relaxation length and half-thickness value of eight ages, 3, 5, 7, 10, 11, 13 and 15 year-old of Acacia mangium wood were determined using gamma radiation from 137 Cs source. Results show that Acacia mangium tree of age 3 year has the highest relaxation length of 83.33 cm and least density of 0.43 gcm -3 , while the tree of age 15 year has the least Relaxation length of 28.56 cm and highest density of 0.76 gcm -3 . Results also show that the 3 year-old Acacia mangium wood has the highest half thickness value of 57.75 cm and 15 year-old tree has the least half thickness value of 19.85 cm. Two mathematical models have been developed for the prediction of density, variation with relaxation length and half-thickness value of different age of tree. A good agreement (greater than 85% in most cases) was observed between the measured values and predicted ones. Very good linear correlation was found between measured density and the age of tree (R2 = 0.824), and between estimated density and Acacia mangium tree age (R2 = 0.952). (Author)

  8. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamai, D.O.; Juma, P.O.

    1996-01-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from Acacia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    The results show that significant inter-species variation of the properties of the gum exudates from the two species exist, whereas only some parameters show significant intra-species variation. The specific optical rotations of the gum exudates have been found to vary from ---43.2o to ---52o for Acacia senegal var. senegal ...

  10. In vitro biological activity of tannins from Acacia and other tree fruits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate impact of tannins on in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters as well as relationships between concentration and in vitro biological activity of tannins present in tree fruits. Dry and mature fruits of known phenolic content harvested from Acacia nilotica, A. erubescens, A. erioloba, ...

  11. Early growth and survival of Acacia galpinii after planting in a semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foliage transparency was in excess of 80% for all age groups while crown dieback and stem damage was below 5%. A. galpinii was found to be suitable for dry-zone afforestation. Key Words: Indigenous tree planting; Acacia galpinii; Growth rate; Survival rate; Tree health. Southern African Forestry Journal Issue 202 2004: ...

  12. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  13. Aboveground biomass equations for 7-year-old Acacia mangium Willd in Botucatu, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo A. A. Veiga; Maria A. M. Brasil; Carlos M. Carvalho

    2000-01-01

    The biomass of steins, leaves, and branches was determined for 152 sample trees of Acacia mangium Willd were in a 7-year-old experimental plantation in Botucatu, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. After felling, dimensional measurements were taken from each tree. Cross sections were collected in 125 sample trees at ground level (0 percent), 25 percent, 50...

  14. Antioxidant capacities of extracts in relation to toasting oak and acacia wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Híc, P.; Soural, I.; Balík, J.; Kulichová, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 129-137 ISSN 1336-8672 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : oak * acacia * toasting wood * barrique extract * antioxidant capacity * weight loss Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.950, year: 2016

  15. Performance of Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances in soils low in phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyamai, D O; Juma, P O [Kenya Forestry Research Inst., Nairobi (Kenya). Agroforestry Research Programme

    1996-07-01

    Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Casuarina equisetifolia provenances were screened to determine their potential for adaptability under P limiting conditions as a strategy to exploit genotypic differences in terms of utilization and uptake efficiencies. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse at the Kenya Forestry Research Institute using soils taken from the field which are critically low in available P. The experimental treatments comprised of P application at 0 and 60 Kg P{sub 2}O{sub 5}/ha for 11 provenances of Acacia, 6 Prosopis and 4 Casuarina spp. Trait for adaptability to P deficiency was determined by measuring the growth performance, P uptake and utilization efficiencies at zero and moderate application of P. The results indicated considerable differences in the growth performance and phosphorus use efficiency (PUE). Acacia provenances showed the highest PUE compared with Prosopis and Casuarina spp although this was not reflected in the total dry matter yield. However, it was observed that P application resulted in an increase in shoot dry matter, height, root collar diameter and root dry matter in the case of Casuarina. Similarly, the highest total P uptake was obtained in Casuarina and Prosopis spp. The results further indicated that P application probably contributed to the reduction in root dry matter and root: shoot ratios of Acacia and Prosopis but not Casuarina spp. (author). 15 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pirmoradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0 and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60% were prepared, on the basis of a 32 full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis, crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests, mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis.Results: The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release.Conclusion: The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  17. Trial production of fuel pellet from Acacia mangium bark waste biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirta, R.; Anwar, T.; Sudrajat; Yuliansyah; Suwinarti, W.

    2018-04-01

    Fuel pellet is one of the innovation products that can be produced from various sources of biomass such as agricultural residues, forestry and also wood industries including wood bark. Herein this paper, the potential fuel pellet production using Acacia mangium bark that abundant wasted from chip mill industry was studied. Fuel pellet was produced using a modified animal feed pellet press machine equipped with rotating roller-cylinders. The international standards quality of fuel pellet such as ONORM (Austria), SS (Sweden), DIN (Germany), EN (European) and ITEBE (Italy) were used to evaluate the optimum composition of feedstock and additive used. Theresults showed the quality offuel pellet produced were good compared to commercial sawdust pellet. Mixed of Acacia bark (dust) with 10% of tapioca and 20% of glycerol (w/w) was increased the stable form of pellet and the highest heating value to reached 4,383 Kcal/kg (calorific value). Blending of Acacia bark with tapioca and glycerol was positively improved its physical, chemical and combustion properties to met the international standards requirement for export market. Based on this finding, production of fuel pellet from Acacia bark waste biomass was promising to be developed as an alternative substitution of fossil energy in the future.

  18. intra-species variation of the properties of gum exudates from acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    . 1997, 11, 493. 22. Food Chemicals Codex III. Acacia (Gum arabic), National Academy of Sciences,. Washington D.C.; 1981, p 7. 23. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 1993, 15, 269. 24. Mhinzi, G.S.; Mosha, D.M.S. J.Food Sci.

  19. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  20. The response of Acacia karroo plants to defoliation of the upper or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the canopy. Plants were very sensitive to defoliation in the early-flush phenophase. This probably masked the positive effects of the partial defoliations applied at this phenophase. Keywords: acacia karroo; browse production; defoliation; eastern cape; goats; growth stimulation; leaves; south africa; university of fort hare ...

  1. Preparation and evaluation of pellets using acacia and tragacanth by extrusion-spheronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, A; Abbaspour, M R; Pirmoradi, S

    2011-01-01

    Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated. Formulations containing different ratios of acacia and tragacanth (8:2, 9:1, and 10:0) and different drug concentrations (20%, 40%, and 60%) were prepared, on the basis of a 3(2) full factorial design. Pellet properties, such as aspect ratio, sphericity (image analysis), crushing strength and elastic modulus (mechanical tests), mean dissolution time, and dissolution profiles were evaluated. The effect of particular factors on responses was determined by linear regression analysis. The sphericity, drug release rate, and the mechanical properties of the pellets were affected by the amounts and types of the drugs, and the ratio of the gums. Acacia, relative to tragacanth, produced pellets with higher mechanical strength and a faster drug release rate. Addition of small amounts of tragacanth to ibuprofen formulations resulted in matrix pellets with slow drug release. The results showed that acacia and tragacanth can be used successfully as 2 natural binders in the pellet formulations.

  2. Pollination ecology of Acacia gerrardii Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae under extremely hot-dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Saad Alqarni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth. are acacias that are native to the arid and semiarid Africa and west Asia. We investigated the flowering biology, pod set and flower visitors of Talh and discussed the role of these visitors in pollen transfer. The Talh trees blossomed laterally on the nodes of one-year-old twigs. Each node produced 21 flower buds seasonally. Each flower bud opened to a flower head (FH of 60 florets. The bagged FHs podded significantly (p ⩽ 0.05 less than did the unbagged FHs. The FHs were visited by 31 insect species (25 genera, 16 families and 5 orders. The major taxa were honeybees, megachilids, butterflies, ants, beetles and thrips. Each of honeybees, megachilids and beetles showed a significant (p ⩽ 0.05 hourly pattern, while each of butterflies, ants and thrips had no hourly pattern (p > 0.05. Furthermore, some birds and mammals touched the Talh FHs. Talh trees evolved a mass flowering behavior to face pre- and post-flowering obstacles. Megachilids seemed to play the major effort of zoophily because of their relatively high numbers of individuals and species and their effective movement behavior on the FH surface. Nevertheless, honeybees and other insects and vertebrate taxa also contributed to the pollen transfer. These results greatly contribute to our understanding of the pollination ecology of acacias, especially Arabian acacias.

  3. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  4. STUDI PRODUKTIVITAS DAN RENDEMEN INDUSTRI PENGGERGAJIAN KAYU AKASIA DAUN LEBAR (Acacia mangium Willd DI KECAMATAN LANDASAN ULIN KOTA BANJARBARU KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah R Radam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The activity of sawmill have been long enough done by local society because very assistive and add production socialize, some of owner of bandsaw/sawmill also make this effort as effort remain to and there is also making it as effort peripheral.  Intention of this research is to know industrial and rendemen productivity of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd.  The method that being used is method of direct measurement and observation in industrial location of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood and method of direct interview and also record data that related to this research.  The analyse data is productivity calculation, rendemen and waste.  Productivity mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 6,38 m3/day or 0,0160 m3/hours. Rendemen mean of industrial sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 80,011%.  Mean of industrial disposal of sawmill of acacia wide leaf wood is equal to 19,99% (1,62 m3, this matter is caused by a quality wood of good Acacia (not many experiencing of handicap of wood.  From result of research suggested to conduct research of continuation hit influence of other factor to productivity and rendemen at acacia wide leaf wood sawmill like age, environmental work (arrange situation, and the worker education. Keyords :  productivity, rendemen, waste, sawmill, acacia wide leaf wood (Acacia mangium Willd

  5. A comparison of the stability of beverage cloud emulsions formulated with different gum acacia- and starch-based emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, S J; Reineccius, G A; Peppard, T L

    2010-06-01

    The performance of several hydrocolloids (3 gum acacias, 1 modified gum acacia, and 3 modified starches) in stabilizing beverage emulsions and corresponding model beverages was investigated employing different core materials, emulsifier usage levels, and storage temperatures. Concentrated emulsions were prepared using orange terpenes or Miglyol 812 (comprising medium-chain triglycerides, MCT) weighted 1:1 with ester gum, stored at 25 or 35 degrees C, and analyzed on days 0, 1, and 3. On day 3, model beverages were made from each emulsion, stored at both temperatures, and analyzed weekly for 4 wk. Stability of concentrated emulsions was assessed by measuring mean particle size and by visual observations of ringing; beverage stability was judged similarly and also by loss of turbidity. Particle size measurements showed concentrated emulsions containing gum acacia or modified gum acacia with either core material were stable over 3 d storage at both temperatures whereas those made with modified starches were not, destabilization being faster at 35 degrees C. Beverages based on orange terpenes, in contrast to Miglyol, yielded smaller mean particle sizes, both on manufacture and during storage, regardless of hydrocolloid used. Visual observations of ringing generally supported this finding. Modified gum acacia was evaluated at both recommended and higher usage levels, stability increasing in the latter case. In general, all gum acacia and modified gum acacia emulsifiers were superior in stability to those based on modified starches, at either temperature, for orange terpene-based beverages. In Miglyol-based beverages, similar results were seen, except 1 modified starch performed as well as the gum acacia products.

  6. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  7. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsbiranvand, Mohammad-Hosein; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Borsi, Seyed Hamid; Amini, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora. PMID:24949020

  8. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  9. EFFECT OF PLANTING MEDIA ON THE GROWTH OF Shorea pinanga Scheff. SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Prameswari

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoreapinanga Scheff.   is a major tropical plant species which has an important  economic  value not  only for timber,  but also as illipe nut  (called tengkawang  in local  name production.   This species   is suggested   for  land  rehabilitation    and  forest  conservation.    In rehabilitation   action, S. pi11a11ga is usually   planted   on the poor  and degraded  area.   Application   of  chemical  fertilizer and compost  is used to increase  the survival  and growth  of  the  seedlings.  Excessive chemical fertilizer  input  to soil, however,  may cause  negative  effect on  soil,  plant  and  environment. Conversely,  compost  may improve soil porosity, soil aggregate,  water absorption   and soil fertility. The objective  of  the study  was  to examine  effect  of  planting  media  on growth  of  S. pinanga  seedlings. Complete  randomized  design has been arranged with 5 treatments,  e.g. soil mixed with husk  (at the proportion   of  1:1, soil mixed with acacia compost  (1:1,   soil mixed with charcoal of  rice husk (1:1   and soil mixed with humic acid (1:1.    Another  treatment  was  soil alone  used as control.   The  result showed that  growth  of  both  stem  height   and  diameter,  and  index  of seedling  quality  were affected  significantly   by planting  media.    The mixture  of  soil and  acacia compost  (1 :1  was the best  planting media for the growth  of S. pinanga seedlings,  which resulted in the growth  of height  (24.19   cm and stem diameter  (0.246 cm.  Meanwhile, soil mixed with rice husk charcoal (1:1  gave the best result to the index of  seedling quality (ISQ = 1.34   and total dry weight (TOW=   15.93  g.

  10. Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedling recruitment of Colophospermum mopane on the Highveld of Zimbabwe: research note. ... Open areas with bare ground or sparse grass cover were favourable sites for seedling recruitment. Seedlings ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. Nitrogen fixation in Acacia auriculiformis and Albizia lebbeck and their contributions to crop-productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbaya, N.; Mwange, K.Nk.; Luyindula, N.

    1998-01-01

    Pot and field experiments assessed N 2 fixation by Albizia lebbeck and Acacia auriculiformis and contributions from prunings to yields of corn and hibiscus. Nitrogen fixation in these tree legumes was poor, with less than 50% N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) when grown in pots, but higher (>70%) in field conditions, after inoculation with compatible Bradyrhizobium strains. Prunings from A. lebbeck, as green manure improved growth of maize and hibiscus, inducing greater corn-kernel yields than did urea. Acacia auriculiformis prunings were similarly beneficial when mixed with leaves of A. lebbeck or L. leucocephala. Application of slow- and fast-nutrient-releasing leaves is required to maximize their contributions to crop productivity. (author)

  12. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balmeet Singh

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. PMID:26904639

  13. Neem Gum as a Binder in a Formulated Paracetamol Tablet with Reference to Acacia Gum BP

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing ...

  14. Impacts, efficacy and economics of Bushwacker Sc (Bromacil) In controlling Acacia invasion in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available on the upper horizon of the soil profile. Grasses are assumed to extract water from the top soil layer (0 - 15 cm) due to their shallow rooting characteristics, while trees and bushes derive their nutrients from the lower layers (Wiegand et al., 2006... and slower degradation rates than soils with a 10 year history of asparagus management and associated bromacil use. 6. The economic implications of bromacil application methods on rangelands encroached by Acacia karroo The encroachment of woody plants...

  15. Preparation and Evaluation of Pellets Using Acacia and Tragacanth by Extrusion-Spheronization

    OpenAIRE

    S. Pirmoradi; M R. Abbaspour; A. Akhgari

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study: Extrusion-spheronization is an established technique for the production of pellets for pharmaceutical applications. In this study, the feasibility and influence of the incorporation of acacia, by itself and in combination with tragacanth, on the ability of formulations containing 2 model of drugs (ibuprofen and theophylline) to form spherical pellets by extrusion-spheronization was investigated.Material and Methods: Formulations containing different ra...

  16. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii on grazing provision and livestock production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available with selective grazing Others: grass invaders, forbs and serge Bare: refers to bare ground RESULTS: Grass species composition and basal cover 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Uninvaded Cleared Light Dense Co ver (% ) A. mearnsii invasion status... Light Dense M o is tu re (% ) Acacia mearnsii invasion status P?0.05 CONCLUSIONS and RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusions ?High density invasions of A. mearnsii have negative effects on rangelands productivity ?Removal of A. mearnsii improves grazing...

  17. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  18. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey.

  19. Precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium in tissues of four Acacia species (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Honghua; Bleby, Timothy M; Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Kuo, John

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation of calcium in plants is common. There are abundant studies on the uptake and content of magnesium, strontium and barium, which have similar chemical properties to calcium, in comparison with those of calcium in plants, but studies on co-precipitation of these elements with calcium in plants are rare. In this study, we compared morphologies, distributional patterns, and elemental compositions of crystals in tissues of four Acacia species grown in the field as well as in the glasshouse. A comparison was also made of field-grown plants and glasshouse-grown plants, and of phyllodes of different ages for each species. Crystals of various morphologies and distributional patterns were observed in the four Acacia species studied. Magnesium, strontium and barium were precipitated together with calcium, mainly in phyllodes of the four Acacia species, and sometimes in branchlets and primary roots. These elements were most likely precipitated in forms of oxalate and sulfate in various tissues, including epidermis, mesophyll, parenchyma, sclerenchyma (fibre cells), pith, pith ray and cortex. In most cases, precipitation of calcium, magnesium, strontium and barium was biologically induced, and elements precipitated differed between soil types, plant species, and tissues within an individual plant; the precipitation was also related to tissue age. Formation of crystals containing these elements might play a role in regulating and detoxifying these elements in plants, and protecting the plants against herbivory.

  20. Ecophysiological and foliar nitrogen concentration responses of understorey Acacia spp. and Eucalyptus sp. to prescribed burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Rao, Xingquan; Lu, Ping; Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Blumfield, Timothy; Xie, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Eucalyptus spp. is a dominant tree genus in Australia and most Eucalyptus spp. are canopy dominant species. In Australian natural forests, Eucalyptus spp. commonly are associated with understorey legumes which play a crucial role for ecological restoration owing to their nitrogen (N) fixing ability for replenishing the soil N lost after frequent prescribed burning. This study aimed to explore to what extent physiological responses of these species differ 7 and 12 years after last fire. Two most common understorey Acacia spp., Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparrima, as well as one non-leguminous Eucalyptus resinifera, were studied due to their dominance in the forest. Both A. leiocalyx and A. disparrima showed higher carbon (C) assimilation capacity, maximum photosynthetic capacity, and moderate foliar C/N ratio compared with E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx showed various advantages compared to A. disparrima such as higher photosynthetic capacity, adaptation to wider light range and higher foliar total N (TNmass). A. leiocalyx also relied on N2-fixing ability for longer time compared to A. disparrima. The results suggested that the two Acacia spp. were more beneficial to C and N cycles for the post burning ecosystem than the non-N2-fixing species E. resinifera. A. leiocalyx had greater contribution to complementing soil N cycle long after burning compared to A. disparrima.

  1. Digestibility Nutrient Contents on Acacia Seyal, Balanities Aegyptiaca and Chloris Gayana Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiliti, J.K

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried to determine the nutrients and their digestibility in Acacia seyal and Balanities aegyptiaca legume browses and compared with Chloris gayana hay. Samples were taken from these two leguminous forages at Mogotio and Emining divisions of Koibatek district and fed to sheep in a change over design. The sheep were housed in individual pens and fitted with faecal collection bags. They were fed and faeces collected twice daily. An adaptation period of 14 days, Faecal collection of 7 days and changeover of 10 days were enforced. Nutrients analysed for during digestibility included DM, OM, CP, NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. The nutrients compositions were 651, 916, 112, 370, 339, 59 and 84; 665, 920, 152, 443, 341, 89 and 80, 845, 924, 68, 730, 463, 57, and 76 for DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, and ash in Acacia seal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay. The in vivio digestibility results were different (p<0.05) for all nutrients. The digestibilities of DM, OM, CP NDF, Hemicellulose and Cellulose in Acacia seyal, Balanities aegyptiaca and Chloris gayana hay were 54.7, 66.5, 32.8, 40.3, 51.7, and 82.7; 48.5, 58.9, 67.4, 36.9, 36.3, and 40.6 and 48.1, 50.4, 41.7, 53.7, 63.0 and 62.3% respectively. The two legume forages had nutrients that had higher digestibility than hay except for fibre

  2. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity of seedling responses to drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Drought is an important seedling mortality agent in dry and moist tropical forests, and more severe and frequent droughts are predicted in the future. The effect of drought on leaf gas exchange and seedling survival was tested in a dry-down experiment with four tree species from dry and moist

  4. Risk assessment, eradication, and biological control: global efforts to limit Australian acacia invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R.U.; Gairifo, Carla; Gibson, Michelle R.; Arianoutsou, Margarita; Bakar, Baki B.; Baret, Stephane; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; DiTomaso, Joseph M.; Dufour-Dror, Jean-Marc; Kueffer, Christoph; Kull, Christian A.; Hoffman, John H.; Impson, Fiona A.C.; Loope, Lloyd L.; Marchante, Elizabete; Harchante, Helia; Moore, Joslin L.; Murphy, Daniel J.; Tassin, Jacques; Witt, Arne; Zenni, Rafael D.; Richardson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Many Australian Acacia species have been planted around the world, some are highly valued, some are invasive, and some are both highly valued and invasive. We review global efforts to minimize the risk and limit the impact of invasions in this widely used plant group. Location Global. Methods Using information from literature sources, knowledge and experience of the authors, and the responses from a questionnaire sent to experts around the world, we reviewed: (1) a generalized life cycle of Australian acacias and how to control each life stage, (2) different management approaches and (3) what is required to help limit or prevent invasions. Results Relatively few Australian acacias have been introduced in large numbers, but all species with a long and extensive history of planting have become invasive somewhere. Australian acacias, as a group, have a high risk of becoming invasive and causing significant impacts as determined by existing assessment schemes. Moreover, in most situations, long-lived seed banks mean it is very difficult to control established infestations. Control has focused almost exclusively on widespread invaders, and eradication has rarely been attempted. Classical biological control is being used in South Africa with increasing success. Main conclusions A greater emphasis on pro-active rather than reactive management is required given the difficulties managing established invasions of Australian acacias. Adverse effects of proposed new introductions can be minimized by conducting detailed risk assessments in advance, planning for on-going monitoring and management, and ensuring resources are in place for long-term mitigation. Benign alternatives (e.g. sterile hybrids) could be developed to replace existing utilized taxa. Eradication should be set as a management goal more often to reduce the invasion debt. Introducing classical biological control agents that have a successful track-record in South Africa to other regions and identifying new

  5. Preparation of Microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13 Seed Coating Agents and Their Effects on the Growth of Cotton Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculation of the bacterial cells of microbial seed coating agents (SCAs into the environment may result in limited survival and colonization. Therefore, the application efficacy of an encapsulated microbial seed coating agent (ESCA was investigated on potted cotton plants; the agent was prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, sodium dodecyl sulfate, bentonite, and microencapsulated Bacillus subtilis SL-13. Scanning electron micrography revealed that the microcapsules were attached to ESCA membranes. The ESCA film was uniform, bubble-free, and easy to peel. The bacterial contents of seeds coated with each ESCA treatment reached 106 cfu/seed. Results indicated that the germination rate of cotton seeds treated with ESCA4 (1.0% (w/v sodium alginate, 4.0% polyvinyl alcohol, 1.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 0.6% acacia, 0.5% bentonite, and 10% (v/v microcapsules increased by 28.74%. Other growth factors of the cotton seedlings, such as plant height, root length, whole plant fresh weight, and whole plant dry weight, increased by 52.70%, 25.13%, 46.47%, and 33.21%, respectively. Further analysis demonstrated that the peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of cotton seedlings improved, whereas their malondialdehyde contents decreased. Therefore, the ESCA can efficiently improve seed germination, root length, and growth. The proposed ESCA exhibits great potential as an alternative to traditional SCA in future agricultural applications.

  6. Tree size as a factor influencing leaf emergence and leaf fall in Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum saplings tended to retain leaves over the dry season, whereas the mature trees generally lost most of their leaves. In Acacia nigrescens the production of new leaves over the dry season was more commonly observed in saplings than in mature trees.

  7. Synthesis of Pisolithus Ectomycorrhizae on Pecan Seedlings in Fumigated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald H. Marx

    1979-01-01

    Curtis variety of pecan (Carya illinoensis) seedlings were grown for 8 months in fumigated soil infested at sowing with mycelial inoculum of Pisolithus tinctorius. Pisolithus ectomycorrhizae were formed on all inoculated seedlings and significantly improved their growth over control seedlings. Inoculated and control seedlings also formed ectomycorrhizae with naturally...

  8. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  9. Evolution and ecology meet molecular genetics: adaptive phenotypic plasticity in two isolated Negev desert populations of Acacia raddiana at either end of a rainfall gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Shrestha, Madan K.; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The ecological, evolutionary and genetic bases of population differentiation in a variable environment are often related to the selection pressures that plants experience. We compared differences in several growth- and defence-related traits in two isolated populations of Acacia raddiana trees from sites at either end of an extreme environmental gradient in the Negev desert. Methods We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to determine the molecular differences between populations. We grew plants under two levels of water, three levels of nutrients and three levels of herbivory to test for phenotypic plasticity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity. Key Results The RAPD analyses showed that these populations are highly genetically differentiated. Phenotypic plasticity in various morphological traits in A. raddiana was related to patterns of population genetic differentiation between the two study sites. Although we did not test for maternal effects in these long-lived trees, significant genotype × environment (G × E) interactions in some of these traits indicated that such plasticity may be adaptive. Conclusions The main selection pressure in this desert environment, perhaps unsurprisingly, is water. Increased water availability resulted in greater growth in the southern population, which normally receives far less rain than the northern population. Even under the conditions that we defined as low water and/or nutrients, the performance of the seedlings from the southern population was significantly better, perhaps reflecting selection for these traits. Consistent with previous studies of this genus, there was no evidence of trade-offs between physical and chemical defences and plant growth parameters in this study. Rather, there appeared to be positive correlations between plant size and defence parameters. The great variation in several traits in both populations may result in a diverse potential for responding to selection pressures in

  10. Biologia reprodutiva de Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: visitantes florais Reproductive biology of Acacia mearnsii de wild. (Fabaceae IV: flower visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Maria Stiehl Alves

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para que as estratégias de melhoramento genético em espécies arbóreas tenham sucesso, o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva da espécie envolvida é indispensável. Um dos fatores críticos ao sucesso reprodutivo das espécies do gênero Acacia é a presença de vetores para a polinização. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar os visitantes florais em um plantio comercial de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. e quantificar as políades aderidas à superfície corporal dos insetos. As observações foram realizadas em uma torre localizada no plantio comercial durante o período de floração de 2002 e 2003. Os visitantes florais foram capturados no período diurno com o auxílio de rede entomológica e de um cesto aéreo instalado em um trator. No período noturno, os insetos foram capturados com o auxílio de armadilhas luminosas instaladas entre as copas florescidas. Foram observados insetos pertencentes às ordens Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera e Lepidoptera. Os besouros da espécie Macrodactylus suturalis foram considerados como dispersores do pólen de acácia-negra, pela alta frequência de indivíduos presentes no povoamento estudado e pela grande quantidade de políades aderidas no corpo dos insetos capturados (X=229,36 políades/inseto. As abelhas da espécie Apis mellifera, embora tenha sido quantificada uma grande quantidade de políades nos indivíduos capturados (X=448,50 políades/inseto, não foram observadas com frequência na área analisada. Uma das formas recomendadas para aumentar a frequência de abelhas e vespas nos plantios comerciais de acácia-negra é a manutenção de fontes de néctar e a introdução de caixas com abelhas A. mellifera.To ensure the success of the strategies of genetic improvement in tree species, knowledge of the reproductive biology of the species involved is essential. One of these critical factors in reproductive success of the genus Acacia is the presence of vectors to

  11. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Sosuke; Yazaki, Yoshikazu

    2018-04-05

    The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle) contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled "wattle tannin". Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for " Acacia species and their biological activities". An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica , even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31 P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The extracts from A. mearnsii

  12. Tannins from Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Bark: Tannin Determination and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosuke Ogawa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. (black wattle contains significant amounts of water-soluble components acalled “wattle tannin”. Following the discovery of its strong antioxidant activity, a wattle tannin dietary supplement has been developed and as part of developing new dietary supplements, a literature search was conducted using the SciFinder data base for “Acacia species and their biological activities”. An analysis of the references found indicated that the name of Acacia nilotica had been changed to Vachellia nilotica, even though the name of the genus Acacia originated from its original name. This review briefly describes why and how the name of A. nilotica changed. Tannin has been analyzed using the Stiasny method when the tannin is used to make adhesives and the hide-powder method is used when the tannin is to be used for leather tanning. A simple UV method is also able to be used to estimate the values for both adhesives and leather tanning applications. The tannin content in bark can also be estimated using NIR and NMR. Tannin content estimations using pyrolysis/GC, electrospray mass spectrometry and quantitative 31P-NMR analyses have also been described. Tannins consists mostly of polyflavanoids and all the compounds isolated have been updated. Antioxidant activities of the tannin relating to anti-tumor properties, the viability of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and also anti-hypertensive effects have been studied. The antioxidant activity of proanthocyanidins was found to be higher than that of flavan-3-ol monomers. A total of fourteen papers and two patents reported the antimicrobial activities of wattle tannin. Bacteria were more susceptible to the tannins than the fungal strains tested. Several bacteria were inhibited by the extract from A. mearnsii bark. The growth inhibition mechanisms of E. coli were investigated. An interaction between extracts from A. mearnsii bark and antibiotics has also been studied. The

  13. Climate trends in the wood anatomy of Acacia sensu stricto (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Nigel W M; Hailey, Luke; Clarke, Kerri L; Gasson, Peter E

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the structural diversity of the secondary xylem of 54 species of Acacia from four taxonomic sections collected across five climate regions along a 1200 km E-W transect from sub-tropical [approx. 1400 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP)] to arid (approx. 240 mm MAP) in New South Wales, Australia. Acacia sensu stricto ( s.s. ) is a critical group for understanding the effect of climate and phylogeny on the functional anatomy of wood. Wood samples were sectioned in transverse, tangential and radial planes for light microscopy and analysis. The wood usually has thick-walled vessels and fibres, paratracheal parenchyma and uniseriate and biseriate rays, occasionally up to four cells wide. The greater abundance of gelatinous fibres in arid and semi-arid species may have ecological significance. Prismatic crystals in chambered fibres and axial parenchyma increased in abundance in semi-arid and arid species. Whereas vessel diameter showed only a small decrease from the sub-tropical to the arid region, there was a significant 2-fold increase in vessel frequency and a consequent 3-fold decrease in the vulnerability index. Although the underlying phylogeny determines the qualitative wood structure, climate has a significant influence on the functional wood anatomy of Acacia s.s. , which is an ideal genus to study the effect of these factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  15. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth between storage ... for up to 1 year and the second group was used for un-stored germination test. ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, ...

  16. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...... and to the groups of amino acids and plant polymers were similar in both invaded areas and different in the non-invaded. The responses to tartaric acid, gallic acid, fumaric acid, Cistus litter, and Acacia litter were the same in long- and non-invaded areas, but different from recently invaded areas. The duration...

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY REGARDING THE QUANTITY OF ACACIA AND LIME HONEY HARVESTED IN 2008 IN VARIOUS TYPES OF BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA PĂTRUICĂ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The paperwork present the results of a comparative study regarding the production of acacia (Robinia pseudacacia and lime honey harvested in 2008 in flat, vertical and multi-frame hives. A total of 45 bee families (Apis mellifica carpatica, Banatica ecotipe, divided in three experimental groups, with 15 families on each hive, were examined for every type of hive. During the experiment there were tracked the number of honeycombs with larvae starting from 7th to 10th of April and from 1st to 5th of May, the acacia and lime honey yield.

  18. Line-scan inspection of conifer seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1993-05-01

    Almost two billion conifer seedlings are produced in the U.S. each year to support reforestation efforts. Seedlings are graded manually to improve viability after transplanting. Manual grading is labor-intensive and subject to human variability. Our previous research demonstrated the feasibility of automated tree seedling inspection with machine vision. Here we describe a system based on line-scan imaging, providing a three-fold increase in resolution and inspection rate. A key aspect of the system is automatic recognition of the seedling root collar. Root collar diameter, shoot height, and projected shoot and root areas are measured. Sturdiness ratio and shoot/root ratio are computed. Grade is determined by comparing measured features with pre-defined set points. Seedlings are automatically sorted. The precision of machine vision and manual measurements was determined in tests at a commercial forest nursery. Manual measurements of stem diameter, shoot height, and sturdiness ratio had standard deviations three times those of machine vision measurements. Projected shoot area was highly correlated (r2 equals 0.90) with shoot volume. Projected root area had good correlation (r2 equals 0.80) with root volume. Seedlings were inspected at rates as high as ten per second.

  19. Litterfall and nutrient dynamics in Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae) forest plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos Barliza, Jeiner; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 mg ha -1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%), followed by the reproductive material (24%) and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6%) and other species leaves (1.5%). the highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized previous Acacia mangium planting, did not show any significant effect on organic matter and nutrients returns. A. mangium leaf litter had a high N concentration and consequently, given the high leaf litter production values, it was found a high N return. By the opposite, leaf litter P content and P returns via litter fall were very low. The high values found for p retranslocation and P use efficiency indexes showed that P was the most limiting nutrient for the species. the high values of fine litter production and nutrient return via leaf litter indicate that A. mangium has a great capacity for degraded areas reclamation, as of the restoration of the biogeochemical cycles.

  20. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of the seeds of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embaby, Hassan E; Rayan, Ahmed M

    2016-06-01

    Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation as well as physicochemical and functional properties of seed flour of Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana were studied. The results indicated that seeds contained 5.30% moisture, 3.99% ash, 9.19% fat, 14.31% fiber, 27.21% protein and 45.30% carbohydrates. Potassium was the predominant element followed by calcium and then phosphorous. Phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor as antinutrients were detected. The amino acid profile compared well with FAO/WHO recommended pattern except for cystine/methionine, isoleucine, tyrosine/phenylalanine, lysine and threonine. Also, the first limiting amino acid was lysine. Fatty acid composition showed that linoleic acid was the major fatty acid, followed by palmitic, stearic, oleic and arachidic acids. The seed oil showed absorbance in the ultraviolet ranges, thus it can be used as a broad spectrum UV protectant. For physicochemical and functional properties, acacia seeds flour had excellent water holding index, swelling index, foaming capacity and foam stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Responses to water stress of gas exchange and metabolites in Eucalyptus and Acacia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles R; Aranda, Ismael; Cano, F Javier

    2011-10-01

    Studies of water stress commonly examine either gas exchange or leaf metabolites, and many fail to quantify the concentration of CO₂ in the chloroplasts (C(c)). We redress these limitations by quantifying C(c) from discrimination against ¹³CO₂ and using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for leaf metabolite profiling. Five Eucalyptus and two Acacia species from semi-arid to mesic habitats were subjected to a 2 month water stress treatment (Ψ(pre-dawn) = -1.7 to -2.3 MPa). Carbohydrates dominated the leaf metabolite profiles of species from dry areas, whereas organic acids dominated the metabolite profiles of species from wet areas. Water stress caused large decreases in photosynthesis and C(c), increases in 17-33 metabolites and decreases in 0-9 metabolites. In most species, fructose, glucose and sucrose made major contributions to osmotic adjustment. In Acacia, significant osmotic adjustment was also caused by increases in pinitol, pipecolic acid and trans-4-hydroxypipecolic acid. There were also increases in low-abundance metabolites (e.g. proline and erythritol), and metabolites that are indicative of stress-induced changes in metabolism [e.g. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, photorespiration, phenylpropanoid pathway]. The response of gas exchange to water stress and rewatering is rather consistent among species originating from mesic to semi-arid habitats, and the general response of metabolites to water stress is rather similar, although the specific metabolites involved may vary. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A green approach to prepare silver nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(acrylate) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Kumari, Mamta

    2015-09-01

    In this work, gum acacia (GA)/poly(sodium acrylate) semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (Semi-IPN) have been fabricated via free radical initiated aqueous polymerization of monomer sodium acrylate (SA) in the presence of dissolved Gum acacia (GA), using N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MB) as cross-linker and potassium persulphate (KPS) as initiator. The semi-IPNs, synthesized, were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The dynamic water uptake behavior of semi-IPNs was investigated and the data were interpreted by various kinetic models. The equilibrium swelling data were used to evaluate various network parameters. The semi-IPNs were used as template for the in situ preparation of silver nanoparticles using extract of Syzygium aromaticum (clove). The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Finally, the antibacterial activity of GA/poly(SA)/silver nanocomposites was tested against E. coli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Physico-mechanical properties of plywood bonded with ecological adhesives from Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhazi, Naima; Oumam, Mina; Sesbou, Abdessadek; Hannache, Hassan; Charrier-El Bouhtoury, Fatima

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this research was to develop ecological adhesives for bonding plywood panels using lignosulfonates, a common waste product of the wood pulp industry, and natural tannin extracted from Moroccan bark of Acacia mollissima using different process. Natural tannin and lignin were used in wood adhesives formulation to substitute resins based on phenol and formaldehyde. To achieve this, the lignosulfonates were glyoxalated to enhance their reactivity and the used tannins obtained by three different extraction methods were compared with commercial mimosa tannin. The proportion of Acacia mollissima tannins and lignosulfonates, the pressing time, the pressing temperature, and the pressure used were studied to improve mechanical properties, and bonding quality of plywood panel. The properties of plywood panels produced with these adhesives were tested in accordance with normative tests. Thus, the tensile strength, and the shear strength were measured. The results showed that the performance of the plywood panels made using biobased tannin adhesives was influenced by physical conditions such as pressure, press temperature as well as by chemical conditions, such as the tannin-lignin ratio. It exhibited excellent mechanical properties comparable to commercially available phenol-formaldehyde plywood adhesives. This study showed that biobased adhesives formulations presented good and higher mechanical performance and no formaldehyde emission. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy harvesting, conversion and storage II (ICOME 2016)", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  4. [Growth effect of eucalyptus-acacia mixed plantation in South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeng-Jiang; Xu, Da-Ping; Chen, Wen-Ping; Huang, Lie-Jian; Li, Shang-Jun; Chen, Yuan

    2009-10-01

    Eucalyptus U6 and Acacia crassicarpa were mixed planted with different ratios and modes to investigate the growth parameters of the two tree species. In the 2-3 years old mixed plantation, the wind-throw of A. crassicarpa decreased markedly with increasing ratio of Eucalyptus U6, the decrement being 26.14% when the Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa ratio was 3 : 1, but the survival rates of Eucalyptus U6 and A. crassicarpa had no significant difference under different planting modes. Mixed planting retarded the A. crassicarpa growth to some extent, with the DBH being 90% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. The mixed planting had little effects on the height growth of Eucalyptus U6, but promoted its DBH growth markedly, and the beneficial effect increased with increasing ratio of A. crassicarpa. In the 6 years old 1 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa plantation, the Eucalyptus U6 individuals with DBH > 15 cm occupied 32.1%; while in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, they only accounted for 5.83%. Mixed planting with 2 : 1 Eucalyptus U6/A. crassicarpa could obtain a maximum total biomass of 198.8 m3 x hm(-2), which was 118.8% of the total biomass in pure Eucalyptus U6 stand, or 169.9% of that in pure A. crassicarpa stand. Mixture of Eucalyptus with Acacia would be a good choice to produce Eucalyptus trees with larger DBH.

  5. Anatomical characters of the phyllode and stem of Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Duarte

    Full Text Available The Acacia genus has presented various secondary metabolites, such as tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and gums. Preparations from different species have been applied for diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory diseases in the traditional medicine and have demonstrated cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Acacia podalyriifolia A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Fabaceae is a small wood, indigenous to Australia and cultivated worldwide for its ornamental feature. This work aimed to characterize the anatomy of the phyllode and stem, in order to contribute to the species identification. The botanical material was fixed, sectioned and prepared according to usual light and scanning microtechniques. The epidermal cells, in surface view, are polygonal and coated with striate and thick cuticle, and filaments of epicuticular wax. Paracytic stomata and unicellular non-glandular trichomes are seen. Palisade and ground parenchymas, and minor collateral bundles with xylem directed alternately to upper and lower sides occur in the blade. The midrib shows two collateral bundles facing each other. The stem, in incipient secondary growth, exhibits epidermis, annular collenchyma, sclerenchymatic sheath and collateral vascular organization. Cells containing phenolic compounds and prisms of calcium oxalate are observed.

  6. Economics of mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica for fuel in Agra ravines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, R.; Puri, D.N.; Singh, J.P.; Sharma, K.

    1984-09-01

    Economic analysis of the mixed plantation of Acacia nilotica (60%), Prosopis juliflora (20%) and miscellaneous species (20%) in severe ravine lands along the bank of river Yamuna at Agra, was carried out. The benefit-cost ratios of the first 15 years rotation at 10% and 15% discount rates were worked out to be 1.81 and 1.09, respectively with internal rate of return (IRR) of 16.2%. Twenty percent of the area covered with Prosopis juliflora in the first rotation coppiced profusely and was retained. The remaining area was resown with Prosopis juliflora. The benefit-cost ratios of the second rotation of seven years (Prosopis juliflora - 78% and miscellaneous species - 22%) worked out to be 1.61 and 1.40 at 10% and 15% discount rates having IRR of 27%. Both the rotations gave a favourable benefit-cost ratio which establishes the economic feasibility of raising mixed plantation of Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica in ravine lands whose opportunity cost is very low.

  7. Economic assessment and comparison of acacia energy crop with annual traditional crops in Southern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasol, Carles M.; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier; Brun, Filippo; Mosso, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In several policy documents bioenergy is recognized as an important renewable energy source in Italy. The increase in energy prices represents an opportunity for lignocellulosic energy crops such as acacia and poplar. However, for Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF) to be adopted by farmers, these crops must be perceived to be at least as profitable as crops that normally compete with these plantations for land use. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the economic feasibility of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) as an energy crop in a low input production regime in Italy and, in particular, to consider its competitiveness with wheat. Our results show that neither SRC and SRF techniques using assumed production costs (EUR3820 and EUR5285 ha -1 yr -1 ) nor biomass productions are able to obtain a positive profit (-EUR184 and -EUR172 ha -1 yr -1 ) that can convince farmers to invest in biomass plantations on their land. The results demonstrate that wheat is a more economically secure option than SRC or SRF. The viability of local biomass production in Italy and Southern Europe depends on the active support of the governments; without them, biomass is not economically competitive for the farmers when compared to crops such as wheat. (author)

  8. Ectomycorrhizal Communities Associated with the Legume Acacia spirorbis Growing on Contrasted Edaphic Constraints in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houles, Anne; Vincent, Bryan; David, Magali; Ducousso, Marc; Galiana, Antoine; Juillot, Farid; Hannibal, Laure; Carriconde, Fabian; Fritsch, Emmanuel; Jourand, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to characterize the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) communities associated with Acacia spirorbis, a legume tree widely spread in New Caledonia that spontaneously grows on contrasted edaphic constraints, i.e. calcareous, ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils. Soil geochemical parameters and diversity of ECM communities were assessed in 12 sites representative of the three mains categories of soils. The ectomycorrhizal status of Acacia spirorbis was confirmed in all studied soils, with a fungal community dominated at 92% by Basidiomycota, mostly represented by/tomentella-thelephora (27.6%), /boletus (15.8%), /sebacina (10.5%), /russula-lactarius (10.5%) and /pisolithus-scleroderma (7.9%) lineages. The diversity and the proportion of the ECM lineages were similar for the ferralitic and volcano-sedimentary soils but significantly different for the calcareous soils. These differences in the distribution of the ECM communities were statistically correlated with pH, Ca, P and Al in the calcareous soils and with Co in the ferralitic soils. Altogether, these data suggest a high capacity of A. spirorbis to form ECM symbioses with a large spectrum of fungi regardless the soil categories with contrasted edaphic parameters.

  9. Biological activity and LC-MS/MS profiling of extracts from the Australian medicinal plant Acacia ligulata (Fabaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Simpson, Bradley S.; Ndi, Chi P.

    2018-01-01

    Acacia ligulata A.Cunn. ex Benth. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) is a native Australian plant used traditionally by Australian Aboriginal groups. This study was undertaken to investigate the bioactivity of A. ligulata extracts and to evaluate their chemical composition. Potential antibacterial, cytotoxic...

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii on milk production and prolactin release in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lompo, Z.; Heide, van der D.; Beek, van der E.M.; Swarts, J.J.M.; Mattheij, J.A.M.; Sawadogo, L.

    2004-01-01

    In view of the traditional belief that Acacia nilotica ssp adansonii (AN) can stimulate milk production in lactating women, experiments were performed to determine the effect of an aqueous extract of AN on milk production in rats. Female rats that received oral doses of aqueous extract of this plant

  11. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In

  12. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L. Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  13. A flavanone: 6, 7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethy I-4, methoxyflavone from the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens (sunt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Abdel Karim, M.; Abdalla, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    A flavanone 6,7-dihydroxy-3, 5-dimethyl-4-methoxyflavone was isolated from the alcoholic extractives of the pods of acacia nilotica var astringens and structure was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra.(Author)

  14. Amenability of Acacia and Eucalyptus Hardwood Pulps to Elemental Chlorine-Free Bleaching: Application and Efficacy of Microbial Xylanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avdhesh Kumar Gangwar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study outlines the results of a biobleaching study of acacia (A. mangium and eucalyptus (E. globulus hardwood kraft pulps with commercial xylanase (Optimase CX 72 L. The comparative study was carried out using an elemental chlorine-free (ECF bleaching sequence (D0EPD1D2 after the enzyme (X stage. The enzyme treatment resulted in improved optical properties with a reduction in bleach chemical consumption. At an equivalent bleach chemical consumption, a brightness gain of 2.1 and 1.7 units and a whiteness gain of 2.7 and 2.3 units were observed with xylanase treatment in acacia and eucalyptus pulps, respectively. In ECF bleaching using the D0EPD1D2 sequence, a final brightness was achieved to the extent of 90% ISO and 89% ISO for acacia and eucalyptus, respectively, at an equivalent charge of bleach chemicals. The post-color (PC number was also reduced by up to 45% for both hardwood pulps compared with the control. The bleachability of acacia was observed to be significantly higher than that of eucalyptus. In addition, a 17.0% and 23.0% reduction in chlorine dioxide and sodium hydroxide, respectively, were obtained for both hardwood pulps after xylanase pre-bleaching, thus indicating an environmentally friendly approach to the process.

  15. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  16. Pollination Biology and Spatio-Temporal Structuring of Some Major Acacia Species (Leguminosae) of the Arabian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adgaba, N.; Alghamidi, A.; Tadesse, Y.; Getachew, A.; Ansari, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Acacias are the dominant woody plant species distributed over the vast tracts of land throughout the Arabian Peninsula. However, information on spatio-temporal structuring and pollination biology of the species is not precisely available. To determine whether any variations exist among the Acacia species in their temporal distribution, their flowering period was determined through monitoring the commencing, peaking and ending of flowering of each species. Moreover, if any variations exist in release of floral rewards among the different co-existing and co-flowering species as mechanisms of partitioning of pollinators, to minimize competition for pollination, the progress of their anthesis over time was recorded by scoring polyads to anthers ratio at different hours of a day. In addition, the amount and dynamics of nectar sugar per inflorescence (N =225/species) was determined following flower nectar sugar washing technique. Types and frequencies of flower visitors and their preferences were determined by recording the visitors 6 times a day. The current study revealed that the Acacia species of the Arabian Peninsula are spatio-temporally structured: some species co-exist yet have different flowering seasons, whereas others co-exist, flowering concurrently yet exhibit a shift in their time of peak flowering and in the time at which the peak pollen is released during the day. This study demonstrates that all Acacia species examined secrete a considerable amount of nectar (2.24+-1.72 -10.02+-4.0mg/inflorescence) which serves as a floral reward for pollinators. Insects of the Order Hymenoptera are the most prevalent visitors to Acacia species in the region. The variations in spatio-temporal structuring of the Acaciaspecies could be due to their adaptation of reducing competition for pollinators and minimizing hetero-specific pollen transfer. (author)

  17. Mapping invasive alien Acacia dealbata Link using ASTER multispectral imagery: a case study in central-eastern of Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, F.; Alegria, C.; Artur, G.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: Acacia dealbata is an alien invasive species that is widely spread in Portugal. The main goal of this study was to produce an accurate and detailed map for this invasive species using ASTER multispectral imagery. Area of study: The central-eastern zone of Portugal was used as study area. This whole area is represented in an ASTER scene covering about 321.1 x 103 ha. Material and methods: ASTER imagery of two dates (flowering season and dry season) were classified by applying three supervised classifiers (Maximum Likelihood, Support Vector Machine and Artificial Neural Networks) to five different land cover classifications (from most generic to most detailed land cover categories). The spectral separability of the land cover categories was analyzed and the accuracy of the 30 produced maps compared. Main results: The highest classification accuracy for acacia mapping was obtained using the flowering season imagery, the Maximum Likelihood classifier and the most detailed land cover classification (overall accuracy of 86%; Kappa statistics of 85%; acacia class Kappa statistics of 100%). As a result, the area occupied by acacia was estimated to be approximated 24,770 ha (i.e. 8% of the study area). Research highlights: The methodology explored proved to be a cost-effective solution for acacia mapping in central-eastern of Portugal. The obtained map enables a more accurate and detailed identification of this species’ invaded areas due to its spatial resolution (minimum mapping unit of 0.02 ha) providing a substantial improvement comparably to the existent national land cover maps to support monitoring and control activities. (Author)

  18. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  19. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  20. Influence of Acacia trees on soil nutrient levels in arid lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boever, Maarten; Gabriels, Donald; Ouessar, Mohamed; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    The potential of scattered trees as keystone structures in restoring degraded environments is gaining importance. Scattered trees have strong influence on their abiotic environment, mainly causing changes in microclimate, water budget and soil properties. They often function as 'nursing trees', facilitating the recruitment of other plants. Acacia raddiana is such a keystone species which persists on the edge of the Sahara desert. The study was conducted in a forest-steppe ecosystem in central Tunisia where several reforestation campaigns with Acacia took place. To indentify the impact of those trees on soil nutrients, changes in nutrient levels under scattered trees of three age stages were examined for the upper soil layer (0-10 cm) at five microsites with increasing distance from the trunk. In addition, changes in soil nutrient levels with depth underneath and outside the canopy were determined for the 0-30 cm soil layer. Higher concentrations of organic matter (OM) were found along the gradient from underneath to outside the canopy for large trees compared to medium and small trees, especially at microsites close to the trunk. Levels of soluble K, electrical conductivity (EC), available P, OM, total C and N decreased whereas pH and levels of soluble Mg increased with increasing distance from tree. Levels of soluble Ca and Na remained unchanged along the gradient. At the microsite closest to the trunk a significant decrease in levels of soluble K, EC, OM, available P, total C and N, while a significant increase in pH was found with increasing depth. The concentration of other nutrients remained unchanged or declined not differently underneath compared to outside the canopy with increasing depth. Differences in nutrient levels were largely driven by greater inputs of organic matter under trees. Hence, Acacia trees can affect the productivity and reproduction of understory species with the latter in term an important source of organic matter. This positive feedback

  1. Effects of seed and seedling predation by small mammals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seed predation reduced seedling recruitment from seeds planted in March 1986 in mature fynbos, but ... Seed predation did not significantly reduce seedling recruitment from seed planted in July, August and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium ... chromium on seed germination and seedling growth- biomass in early ..... such critical regulatory mechanisms are likely to operate in seeds at ...

  3. IMPROVED METHODS OF OBTAINING PEPPER SEEDLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Uleanu

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1), M2 (V2), M3 (V3) and jiffy- pots (V4). The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1) to 17.4 cm (V4), whereas the root length varied...

  4. The fungi causin damping-off of carrot seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available When 136 samples of dying carrot seedlings from several fields were analyzed Alternaria rudicina proved to be the most common seedling pathogen (41%, followed by some Fusarium species (27%, mostly F. avenaceum.The less common seedling pathogens were Pythium spp. (13%, Phoma spp.(2,5% and Botrytis cinerea (1,4%. Some other fungi (Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Stemphylium botryosym and Ulocladium consortiale were found in less than 1% of seedlings examined.

  5. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  6. Containers of Attalea funifera fibers to produce eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vita Reis Mendonça

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of using biodegradable containers made of fiber waste of Attalea funifera Martius to produce seedling of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. The work was carried out in three stages: manufacture of piassava fiber containers, seedling production and field simulation. The experiment of seedling production was in completely randomized design, with two treatments (polyethylene tube and biodegradable container and 10 repetitions, with 64 seedlings per repetition. After 93 days, seedlings were evaluated based on quality variables. The simuation of initial growth of seedlings in the field consisted in planting seedlings in containers of 11L, in completely randomized design, with three treatments: seedlings produced in polyethylene tubes; seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, without removal of the container during planting; and seedlings produced in biodegradable containers, with removal of the container at planting, with ten repetitions, with one seedling by repetition. The biodegradable container withstood the production cycle and resulted in seedlings within acceptable standards quality. The use of biodegradable container, made of palm fibers, waived the removal of this vessel in the final planting.

  7. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  8. Cotyledon persistence and seedling growth in fluted Pumpkin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photosynthetic activity of exposed cotyledons of Telfairia occidentalis during seed germination and the growth of seedlings with removed or attached cotyledons were investigated. The experiment investigated how early cotyledon removal affects seedling growth. Seedlings from seeds germinated in light and those ...

  9. Tree seedling response to LED spectra: Implications for forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio Montagnoli; R. Kasten Dumroese; Mattia Terzaghi; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Nicoletta Fulgaro; Gabriella Stefania Scippa; Donato Chiatante

    2018-01-01

    We found that different spectra, provided by light-emitting diodes or a fluorescent lamp, caused different photomorphological responses depending on tree seedling type (coniferous or broad-leaved), species, seedling development stage, and seedling fraction (shoot or root). For two conifers (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) soon after germination (≤40 days), more...

  10. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  11. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decrease (>54% and >95%, respectively) after removal of both A. longifolia and litter. Our results suggest that after removal of an N2-fixing invasive tree that changes ecosystem-level processes, it takes several years before soil nutrients and processes return to pre-invasion levels, but this legacy...

  12. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafa, A F; Elamin, K H [Forestry Research Section, Wad Medani (Sudan); Salih, A A [Soil Science Section, Wad Medani (Sudan)

    1996-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Anti-free radical activities of kaempferol isolated from Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex. Del.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Sukhpreet; Kumar, Neeraj; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2008-12-01

    In the present study the polyphenolic compound has been isolated from methanol extract of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del. which has been identified as kaempferol (AN-5) by NMR and mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant potential of the AN-5 was demonstrated in several in vitro assays: measuring the proton radical scavenging activity (DPPH scavenging assay), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxyribose degradation assay), metal chelating activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was found that the effect of the compound AN-5 was strongly dose dependent up to the concentrations 1-50 microg/ml in DPPH assay and 1-100 microg/ml in deoxyribose degradation assay but did not show further change above the highest concentrations.

  14. Water use efficiency studies of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd provenances in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, A.F.; Elamin, K.H.; Salih, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in 1989 to screen Acacia senegal L. Willd provenances collected from within the natural gum belt for high water use efficiency. Thirteen provenances were tested for water use efficiency and consequently 6 out of them were selected for further screening. The selection was based on their performance in the preliminary screening. Both the preliminary and the detailed study revealed that provenances 7, 3 and 11 combine high dry matter production with high water use efficiency. Water use efficiency and dry matter production appears to be negatively correlated with root length density and root/shoot ratios. Provenances 7 which exhibited the highest water use efficiency and dry matter yield had the lowest root/shoot ratio and also a low root length density. Based on these studies provenance 7 can be considered a suitable candidate for introduction into gum-belt of Sudan through for rehabilitation of this region. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  15. Acacia saligna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... flow reduction through incremental water use (additional water use compared to ... Materials and methods. A one-year field ... within the boundaries planned for clearing by. WfW and free of human activities, except occa- sional cattle .... sity, porosity and soil water retention characteristics of undis- turbed soil ...

  16. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  17. The Spatial Suitable Habitat Model of Acacia decurrens in Mount Merbabu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Untoro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green wattle (Acacia decurrens is an invasive alien species (IAS found in the Mount Merbabu National Park (TNGMb. This study aim to obtain spatially studies on habitat suitability models of A. decurrens in TNGMb region. In fact, this species became as a high invasive and dominance in the TNGMb and contributes the negative impact to the ecosystem. In addition, the result of this study should be useful for controling activities of A. decurrens. Predictor variables in this research were (altitude, slope, rainfall, air temperature, distance from river, NDVI, NDMI, distance from hiking trail, and distance from burnt area. The survey was conducted with random sampling of presence or absence of A. decurrens by marking the coordinate point of location using GPS. Data analysis in this research was used binary logistic regression enter method. Binary logistic regression involves the data acquisition of the presence and absence of A. decurrens as the y variable, while the predictor variable map as the variable x. The type of spatial distribution of A. decurrens in the TNGMb was identified as clumped. The Nagelkerke R2 values obtained in the model was 39,2%, while 60,8% was explained by other variables were not used in the model. The results of the logistic regression model showed a high percentage of suitability of 64,29%, a medium suitability of 28,57%, and a low suitability of 7.14% then the Implications for controlling activities of A. decurrens in TNGMb could be prioritized in high suitability habitat. Keywords: Acacia decurrens, green wattle, invasive, spatial suitable habitat 

  18. Salt tolerance traits increase the invasive success of Acacia longifolia in Portuguese coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Maria Cristina; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria; Muscolo, Adele; Freitas, Helena

    2012-06-01

    Salt tolerance of two co-occurring legumes in coastal areas of Portugal, a native species--Ulex europaeus, and an invasive species--Acacia longifolia, was evaluated in relation to plant growth, ion content and antioxidant enzyme activities. Plants were submitted to four concentrations of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 200 mM) for three months, under controlled conditions. The results showed that NaCl affects the growth of both species in different ways. Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height and the dry weight in Acacia longifolia whereas in U. europaeus the effect was not significant. Under salt stress, the root:shoot ratio (W(R):W(S)) and root mass ratio (W(R):W(RS)) increased as a result of increasing salinity in A. longifolia but the same was not observed in U. europaeus. In addition, salt stress caused a significant accumulation of Na+, especially in U. europaeus, and a decrease in K+ content and K+/Na+ ratio. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were higher in A. longifolia compared to U. europaeus. In A. longifolia, catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2.) activities increased significantly, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) and peroxidase (POX, EC 1.11.1.7) activities remained unchanged in comparison with the control. In U. europaeus, NaCl concentration significantly reduced APX activity but did not significantly affect CAT, GR and POX activities. Our results suggest that the invasive species copes better with salinity stress in part due to a higher rates of CAT and GR activities and a higher K+/Na+ ratio, which may represent an additional advantage when competing with native species in co-occurring salty habitats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  20. Shelterbelt plantations in arid regions. [Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora, Cassia siamea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthana, K.D.; Mahander, S.; Mertia, R.S.; Arora, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    Three shelterbelts were planted on sandy soils at the Jodhpur Research Farm in 1973. Belts had 3 rows of trees each and spacing between and within rows was 3 m; they were laid out perpendicular to the wind direction. The length of each belt was 300 m and they were spaced 165 m apart centre to centre. The outside rows were made up of 33 plants each of (a) Acacia tortilis, (b) Prosopis juliflora (Israel variety) and (c) Cassia siamea planted on either side of the belts randomly in the paterns abc, bca and cab. The centre rows were planted with Azadirachta indica, Albizzia (Albizia) lebbek and Eucalyptus camaldulensis respectively in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd shelterbelts. The shelterbelts were easily established and grew well. Grain yield of bajra sown between the belts increased with distance from them reaching a maximum at 25 X belt height and then declining. Average yield between the belts was higher than in control plots. Consumptive water use and water use efficiencies were less near the 1st shelterbelt (leeward side) and increased away from it, again reaching maximum at 25 X belt height. Mean air temperature 1-2m above ground level was 0.1-0.2 degrees C higher on leeward than on windward sides of shelterbelts in the summer months, and 0-0.1 degrees higher in the monsoon months. Pan evaporation on the leeward side was reduced by 8% in the summer and 6% in the monsoon months. Belts of C. siamea and Acacia tortilis were more effective in reducing wind speed than those of P. juliflora (which grew least of all species).

  1. Pharmacognostic and Physicochemical evaluation of stem bark of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd., a folk plant of the Dimasa tribe of Assam.

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Terangpi; Ratan Basumatary; A K Tamuli; R Teron

    2013-01-01

    Bark of Acacia pennata is used in preparation of starter cakes among the Dimasa community of Assam state. The present study attempts to evaluate the pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters of Acacia pennata (L.) Willd. The transverse section of the stem revealed an epidermis externally subtended by trichomes, a crashed cortical region due to massive secondary growth and large stellate pith. The physico-chemical parameters were evaluated- loss on drying (7%), total ash content (9.3%),...

  2. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  3. Non-protein amino acids in Australian acacia seed: implications for food security and recommended processing methods to reduce djenkolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Berin A; Reddy, Priyanka; Boland, Martin P; Roessner, Ute; Yates, Peter

    2015-07-15

    Seed of Australian acacia species, Acacia colei, Acacia elecantha, Acacia torulosa, Acacia turmida and Acacia saligna, were analysed for the presence of toxic non-protein amino acids and the levels of essential amino acids. Amines were derivatised with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate before analysis using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QQQ-MS). Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with optimised transitions and collision energies for each analyte were employed. The known nephrotoxic compound djenkolic acid was found to be present at elevated levels in all species tested. The lowest levels were in A. colei (0.49% w/w) and the highest in A. saligna (1.85% w/w). Observed levels of djenkolic acid are comparable to measured and reported levels found in the djenkol bean. Subsequent testing of seed processing methods showed djenkolic acid levels can be significantly reduced by over 90% by dry roasting at 180 °C rendering the seed safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  5. Direct-seedling pines in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann

    1971-01-01

    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  6. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

    2002-01-01

    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  7. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  8. Unleached Prosopis litter inhibits germination but leached stimulates seedling growth of dry woodland species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, Gabriel M.; Poorter, Lourens; Bala, Pauline; Mohren, Godefridus M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Prosopis chilensis-Prosopis juliflora hybrid (hereinafter referred to as Prosopis species) invade riverine Acacia woodlands and replace indigenous Acacia tortilis through mechanism that are not yet well understood. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dense shade and allelopathic effects of

  9. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  10. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark G.; Ooi, Mark K. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. Methods The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972–2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. Key Results A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (<20 %). Prolonged exposure at higher humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33–55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Conclusions Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic

  11. Physiological and growth responses of two African species, Acacia karroo and Themeda triandra, to combined increases in CO2 and UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wand, S.J.E.; Midgley, G.F.; Musil, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    The interactive effects of increased carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration and ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation on Acacia karroo Hayne, a C 3 tree, and Themeda triandra Forsk., a C 4 grass, were investigated. We tested the hypothesis that A. karroo would show greater CO 2 -induced growth stimulation than T. triandra, which would partially explain current encroachment of A. karroo into C4 grasslands, but that increased UV-B could mitigate this advantage. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers in a greenhouse in ambient (360 μmol mol -1 ) and elevated (650 μmol mol-1) CO 2 , combined with ambient (1.56 to 8.66 kJ m -2 day -1 ) or increased (2.22 to 11.93 kJ m -2 day -1 ) biologically effective (weighted) UV-B irradiances. After 30 weeks, elevated CO 2 had no effect on biomass of A. karroo, despite increased net CO 2 assimilation rates. Interaction between UV-B and CO 2 on stomatal conductance was found, with conductances decreasing only where elevated CO 2 and UV-B were supplied separately. Increases in water use efficiencies, foliar starch concentrations, root nodule numbers and total nodule mass were measured in elevated CO 2 . Elevated UV-B caused only an increase in foliar carbon concentrations. In T. triandra, net CO 2 assimilation rates were unaffected in elevated CO 2 , but stomatal conductances and foliar nitrogen concentrations decreased, and water use efficiencies increased. Biomass of all vegetative fractions, particularly leaf sheaths, was increased in elevated CO 2 . and was accompanied by increased leaf blade lengths and individual leaf and leaf sheath masses. However, tiller numbers were reduced in elevated CO 2 . Significantly moderating effects of elevated UV-B were apparent only in individual masses of leaf blades and sheaths, and in total sheath and shoot biomass. The direct CO 2 -induced growth responses of the species therefore do not support the hypothesis of CO 2 -driven woody encroachment of C 4 grasslands. Rather, differential

  12. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset in the Fabaceae: a conceptual model and its ecological implications for the Australian wattle Acacia saligna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Mark G; Ooi, Mark K J

    2014-09-01

    Seed dormancy enhances fitness by preventing seeds from germinating when the probability of seedling survival and recruitment is low. The onset of physical dormancy is sensitive to humidity during ripening; however, the implications of this mechanism for seed bank dynamics have not been quantified. This study proposes a model that describes how humidity-regulated dormancy onset may control the accumulation of a dormant seed bank, and seed experiments are conducted to calibrate the model for an Australian Fabaceae, Acacia saligna. The model is used to investigate the impact of climate on seed dormancy and to forecast the ecological implications of human-induced climate change. The relationship between relative humidity and dormancy onset was quantified under laboratory conditions by exposing freshly matured non-dormant seeds to constant humidity levels for fixed durations. The model was field-calibrated by measuring the response of seeds exposed to naturally fluctuating humidity. The model was applied to 3-hourly records of humidity spanning the period 1972-2007 in order to estimate both temporal variability in dormancy and spatial variability attributable to climatic differences among populations. Climate change models were used to project future changes in dormancy onset. A sigmoidal relationship exists between dormancy and humidity under both laboratory and field conditions. Seeds ripened under field conditions became dormant following very short exposure to low humidity (humidity did not increase dormancy significantly. It is predicted that populations growing in a temperate climate produce 33-55 % fewer dormant seeds than those in a Mediterranean climate; however, dormancy in temperate populations is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. Humidity-regulated dormancy onset may explain observed variation in physical dormancy. The model offers a systematic approach to modelling this variation in population studies. Forecast changes in climate have

  13. Scavenging remazol brilliant blue R dye using microwave-assisted activated carbon from acacia sawdust: Equilibrium and kinetics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, M. F. M.; Aziz, H. A.; Ahmad, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    This work explores the feasibility of microwave-assisted acacia wood based activated carbon (AWAC) for remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) dye removal from synthetic wastewater. Acacia wood (AW) was impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and heated using microwave, resulting tremendously high fixed carbon content, surface area, total pore volume and adsorption capacity of 81.14%, 1045.56m2/g, 0.535cm3/g and 263.16mg/g respectively. Batch study conducted divulged an increasing trend in RBBR uptake when initial RBBR concentration and contact time were increased. pH study revealed that RBBR adsorption was best at acidic condition. Langmuir isotherm model fitted well the adsorption equilibrium data while the adsorption kinetic was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins from the Australian medicinal and food plant Acacia ligulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Diana Jæger; Ndi, Chi P.; Crocoll, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The Australian plant Acacia ligulata has a number of traditional food and medicinal uses by Australian Aboriginal people, although no bioactive compounds have previously been isolated from this species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the mature pods of A. ligulata led...... to the isolation of the two new echinocystic acid triterpenoid saponins, ligulatasides A (1) and B (2), which differ in the fine structure of their glycan substituents. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and saccharide linkage analysis. These are the first isolated...... compounds from A. ligulata and the first fully elucidated structures of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia sensu stricto having echinocystic acid reported as the aglycone. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against a human melanoma cancer cell line (SK-MEL28) and a diploid fibroblast...

  15. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aliyu; Sani Ibrahim; Hajiya M. Inuwa; Abdullahi B. Sallau; Olagunju Abbas; Idowu A. Aimola; Nathan Habila; Ndidi S. Uche

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups...

  16. Assessing the impacts of Acacia mearnsii (black wattle) on grazing provision and livestock production in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yapi, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ecosystems (Robles and Chapin, 1995). Invasive alien tree species and shrubs negatively affect ecosystems in various ways, and often result in a decline in benefits that people derive from the functioning of these systems ? or ecosystem services... the ecological impacts of the invasive alien plant species, Acacia mearnsii, on the function and productivity of rangelands in South Africa and their ability to sustain livestock production. AIM The central aim of this research is to develop a deeper...

  17. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  18. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  19. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  20. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wina, E.; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the presence of cassava flour, soaking improved average daily gain. Diets supplemented with water soaked Acacia leaves probably also need an energy supplement and cassava flour is one of the feed ingredients that is satisfactory. (author)

  1. Stable annual pattern of water use by Acacia tortilis in Sahelian Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Frederic C; Rocheteau, Alain; Diagne, Amadou L; Goudiaby, Venceslas; Granier, André; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Water use by mature trees of Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan var. raddiana growing in the northern Sahel was continuously recorded over 4 years. Water use was estimated from xylem sap flow measured by transient heat dissipation. Concurrently, cambial growth, canopy phenology, leaf water potential, climatic conditions and soil water availability (SWA) were monitored. In addition to the variation attributable to interannual variation in rainfall, SWA was increased by irrigation during one wet season. The wet season lasted from July to September, and annual rainfall ranged between 146 and 367 mm. The annual amount and pattern of tree water use were stable from year-to-year despite interannual and seasonal variations in SWA in the upper soil layers. Acacia tortilis transpired readily throughout the year, except for one month during the dry season when defoliation was at a maximum. Maximum water use of about 23 l (dm sapwood area)(-2) day(-1) was recorded at the end of the wet season. While trees retained foliage in the dry season, the decline in water use was modest at around 30%. Variation in predawn leaf water potential indicated that the trees were subject to soil water constraint. The rapid depletion of water in the uppermost soil layers after the wet season implies that there was extensive use of water from deep soil layers. The deep soil profile revealed (1) the existence of living roots at 25 m and (2) that the availability of soil water was low (-1.6 MPa) down to the water table at a depth of 31 m. However, transpiration was recorded at a predawn leaf water potential of -2.0 MPa, indicating that the trees used water from both intermediary soil layers and the water table. During the full canopy stage, mean values of whole-tree hydraulic conductance were similar in the wet and dry seasons. We propose that the stability of water use at the seasonal and annual scales resulted from a combination of features, including an extensive rooting

  2. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  3. IMPROVED METHODS OF OBTAINING PEPPER SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Uleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1, M2 (V2, M3 (V3 and jiffy- pots (V4. The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1 to 17.4 cm (V4, whereas the root length varied from 5.4 (V1 to 12.6 cm (V4. The number of leaves ranged from 7 (V2 to 12 (V4. The total volume was lowest for V2 (1.5 cm3 and highest for V4 (2.5 cm3, but the root volume was lowest for V2 (0.5 cm3 and highest for V1 (1 cm3. V2 also resulted in the smallest total seedling mass (1.6 g aerial part mass (1.1 g and root mass (0.5 g. Excepting the root volume V4 had the greatest values for the studied indicators.

  4. [Effect of ectomycorrhizae on the growth of Picea koraiensis seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui-Qing; Wu, Ke

    2005-12-01

    Basidioscarps of Agaricales in different Picea koraiensis forest plantations were collected during August-October, 2000. 36 isolaters of species of Agaricales were obtained by isolating and culturing to the basidioscarps. Through indoor inoculation test on seedlings of Picea koraiensis, 6 ectomycorrhizae fungi cultures were obtained from 36 isolaters. The inoculation results show that the period for ectomycorrhizae inoculation to 1-year seedlings of Picea koraiensis should be about 30 days after seedlings emerging, the suitable temperature for ectomycorrhizae forming is about 20 degrees C. 6 ectomycorrhizae strains all have growth-promoting effect to the seedlings of Picea koraiensis. The contents of chlorophyll a of the seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus, 031 and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The contents of chlorophyll b in the seedlings inoculated strains 009, 004, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly higher than other strains and control. The weights of seedlings which inoculated strains 009, 025, 031, Agaricus silvaticus and L15 were significantly different to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 19.23% and 23.08% more than control; The heights of the seedlings inoculated 6 strains all have significant difference to control, the weight of seedlings inoculated strains of Agaricus silvaticus and L15 are 17.83% and 16.37% more than control. The results of outdoor inoculation show that the seedlings inoculated Agaricus silvaticus grow best on height, 9.25% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the seedlings inoculated strain L15 grow best on collar diameter, 9.92% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the lateral root numbers of seedlings inoculated strain 009 is largest, 51.91% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the main roots of seedlings inoculated strain 009 are longest, 3.36% more than control after inoculated 70 days; the

  5. Effect of ethephon on hardening of Pachystroma longifolium seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after planting, tree seedlings face adverse environmental and biotic stresses that must be overcome to ensure survival and to yield a desirable growth. Hardening practices in the nursery may help improve seedling stress resistance through reduction of aboveground plant tissues and increased root volume and biomass. We conducted an assay to quantify changes in the morphogenesis following application of ethephon on seedlings of Pachystroma longifolium (Ness I. M. Johnst.during hardening. The results showed no effect of the ethephon treatments on the number of leaves but a reduction of up to 50% in seedling height increment, and an increase in stem diameter increment of up to 44% with the 600 mg L-1 ethephon treatment, which consequently altered seedling Dickson Quality Index. Our results indicate that ethephon may help to promote desired morphological changes that occur during seedling hardening in nurseries.

  6. Soil nutritional status and biogeography influence rhizosphere microbial communities associated with the invasive tree Acacia dealbata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamutando, Casper N; Vikram, Surendra; Kamgan-Nkuekam, Gilbert; Makhalanyane, Thulani P; Greve, Michelle; Roux, Johannes J Le; Richardson, David M; Cowan, Don; Valverde, Angel

    2017-07-26

    Invasiveness and the impacts of introduced plants are known to be mediated by plant-microbe interactions. Yet, the microbial communities associated with invasive plants are generally poorly understood. Here we report on the first comprehensive investigation of the bacterial and fungal communities inhabiting the rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil of a widespread invasive tree, Acacia dealbata. Amplicon sequencing data indicated that rhizospheric microbial communities differed significantly in structure and composition from those of the bulk soil. Two bacterial (Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria) and two fungal (Pezizomycetes and Agaricomycetes) classes were enriched in the rhizosphere compared with bulk soils. Changes in nutritional status, possibly induced by A. dealbata, primarily shaped rhizosphere soil communities. Despite a high degree of geographic variability in the diversity and composition of microbial communities, invasive A. dealbata populations shared a core of bacterial and fungal taxa, some of which are known to be involved in N and P cycling, while others are regarded as plant pathogens. Shotgun metagenomic analysis also showed that several functional genes related to plant growth promotion were overrepresented in the rhizospheres of A. dealbata. Overall, results suggest that rhizosphere microbes may contribute to the widespread success of this invader in novel environments.

  7. Performance of two honey bee subspecies during harsh weather and Acacia gerrardii nectar-rich flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed Awad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Both climatic factors and bee forage characteristics affect the population size and productivity of honey bee colonies. To our knowledge, no scientific investigation has as yet considered the potential effect of nectar-rich bee forage exposed to drastic subtropical weather conditions on the performance of honey bee colonies. This study investigated the performance of the honey bee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (Yemeni and Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann (Carniolan in weather that was hot and dry and in an environment of nectar-rich flora. The brood production, food storage, bee population and honey yield of Yemeni (native and Carniolan (imported colonies on Talh trees (Acacia gerrardii Benth., a nectar-rich, subtropical, and summer bee forage source in Central Arabia were evaluated. Owing to their structural and behavioral adaptations, the Yemeni bees constructed stronger (high population size colonies than the Carniolan bees. Although both groups yielded similar amounts of Talh honey, the Yemeni bees consumed their stored honey rapidly if not timely harvested. A. m. jemenitica has a higher performance than A. m. carnica during extremely hot-dry conditions and A. gerrardii nectar-rich flow.

  8. [Litter decomposition and nutrient release in Acacia mangium plantations established on degraded soils of Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos-Barliza, Jeiner; León Peláez, Juan Diego

    2011-03-01

    Several factors control the decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems such as humidity, temperature, quality of litter and microbial activity. We investigated the effects of rainfall and soil plowing prior to the establishment of Acacia mangium plantations, using the litterbag technique, during a six month period, in forests plantations in Bajo Cauca region, Colombia. The annual decomposition constants (k) of simple exponential model, oscillated between 1.24 and 1.80, meanwhile k1 y k2 decomposition constants of double exponential model were 0.88-1.81 and 0.58-7.01. At the end of the study, the mean residual dry matter (RDM) was 47% of the initial value for the three sites. We found a slow N, Ca and Mg release pattern from the A. mangium leaf litter, meanwhile, phosphorus (P) showed a dominant immobilization phase, suggesting its low availability in soils. Chemical leaf litter quality parameters (e.g. N and P concentrations, C/N, N/P ratios and phenols content) showed an important influence on decomposition rates. The results of this study indicated that rainfall plays an important role on the decomposition process, but not soil plowing.

  9. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  10. Biosorption studies on powder of stem of Acacia nilotica: Removal of arsenic from surface water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, Jameel A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Shah, Abdul Q.; Kandhro, Ghulam A.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida F.

    2010-01-01

    In present study a biomass derived from the stem of Acacia nilotica has been investigated to remove As ions from surface water samples of different origins (lake, canal and river). The effects of various parameters viz. pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption processes were systematically studied. Experimental data were modeled by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. It was observed that As biosorption best fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The mean sorption energy (E) calculated from D-R model, indicated physico-chemical biosorption. Study of thermodynamic parameters revealed the endothermic, spontaneous and feasible nature of biosorption process. The pseudo-second-order rate equation described better the kinetics of As biosorption with good correlation coefficients than pseudo-first-order equation. The biomass of A. nilotica was found to be effective for the removal of As with 95% sorption efficiency at a concentration of <200 μg/L of As solution, and thus uptake capacity is 50.8 mg As/g of biomass. The A. nilotica biomass could be used as a low-cost biosorbent for As ion removal.

  11. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25. Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Neem gum as a binder in a formulated paracetamol tablet with reference to Acacia gum BP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjimi, Abayomi Tolulope; Alebiowu, Gbenga

    2014-04-01

    This study determined the physical, compressional, and binding properties of neem gum (NMG) obtained from the trunk of Azadirachta indica (A Juss) in a paracetamol tablet formulation in comparison with official Acacia gum BP (ACA). The physical and flow properties were evaluated using density parameters: porosity, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, and flow rate. Compressional properties were analyzed using Heckel and Kawakita equations. The tensile strength, brittle fracture index, and crushing strength-friability/disintegration time ratio were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets while the drug release properties of the tablets were assessed using disintegration time and dissolution times. Tablet formulations containing NMG exhibited faster onset and higher amount of plastic deformation during compression than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower mechanical strength; however, the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate was lower when compared to those containing ACA. Inclusion of NMG improved the balance between binding and disintegration properties of paracetamol tablets produced than those containing ACA. Neem gum produced paracetamol tablets with lower disintegration and dissolution times than those containing ACA.

  13. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  14. PENGARUH UMUR BAHAN SETEK TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SETEK AKOR (Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Ex Benth

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    nurmawati siregar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Akor (Acacia auriculiformis termasuk salah satu jenis sumber energi biomassa mempunyai prospek yang baik untuk dikembangkan. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan untuk pengembangannya adalah ketersediaan bibit bermutu. Bibit bermutu dapat diperoleh dari perbanyakan generatif (biji dan vegetatif (setek. Melalui setek dapat diproduksi bibit bermutu dalam jumlah yang cukup, setiap waktu dan tidak tergantung dengan musim. Salah satu faktor yang menentukan keberhasilan perbanyakan vegetatif dengan setek adalah juvenilitas (umur bahan setek, oleh karena itu dilakukan penelitian pengaruh umur bahan setek. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK dengan perlakuan umur bahan setek yaitu umur 2,3,4 dan 5 bulan, ulangan tiga kali dan setiap unit perlakuan terdiri dari 45 setek. Respon pertumbuhan yang diamati meliputi: waktu tumbuh tunas setek, persentase tumbuh setek, panjang akar, jumlah akar, panjang tunas, berat kering akar, berat kering tunas, ratio tunas dengan akar dan analisis ratio C/N. Umur bahan setek berpengaruh nyata terhadap semua parameter yang diamati kecuali persen tumbuh setek. Bahan setek yang paling optimal digunakan untuk jenis akor adalah pada umur 3 - 4 bulan.

  15. Biodiversity of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Acacia gerrardii Benth in different habitats of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, A.; Huqail, A.A.; Alqarawi, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are the most influential and ubiquitous rhizosphere microbiome. AMF improve the soil characteristics and assist the symbiotic plants by improving plant absorption of soil nutrients particularly phosphorus. The biodiversity of native AMF highly influenced by soil nature and plant composition. The present investigation studied the enumeration and biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil and roots of Acacia gerrardii (Talh trees) grown natively in different habitats of Saudi Arabia (SA). Soil analysis were varied with locations nonetheless, there are no distinct correlations has been estimated among the root colonization with AMF, spores number of AMF and soil properties. Fifteen mycorrhizal fungal species belong to seven genus (Funneliformis; Glomus; Rhizophagus; Septoglomus; Acaulospora; Claroideoglomus; Archaeospora) and four families (Glomeraceae; Acaulosporaceae; Claroideoglomeraceae; Archaeosporaceae) were identified from forty soil samples collected from four different locations belong to Riyadh region (Rawdhat Khuraim, Houta Bani Tamim) and Holy Madina region (Ola city, Werqaan Mountain) in SA. The present investigation extends our knowledge on the biodiversity of AMF associated with rhizosphere soil of Talh trees (A.gerrardii) grown natively in different Saudi locations. (author)

  16. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

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    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  19. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  20. Pengaruh variasi ukuran biji terhadap perkecambahan Acacia fauntleroyi (maiden maiden and blakely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangadas Lumban Gaol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent are germination of A. fauntleroyi affected by seed size. Does pre-treatment improve germination? Under what temperature regime does most seed germinate? Three seed size classes (small, medium and largewere chosen. Seeds were pre-treatments either at ambient, 50 °C, 75 °C or 100 ° C and incubated at 15 ° C or 30 °C. Then, number of seed that germinate and speed of germination were measure. Five seeds representing each of small, medium and large seed sizes were also selected and the seed coat thickness measured. Seed size, pre-treatment temperature and incubation temperature all affected the number of seed that germinated. Pre-treatment temperature affected germination more than incubation temperature. Incubation temperature affected germination more than seed size. The interaction of seed size and pre-treatment temperature was stronger than that between seed size and incubation temperature. Small seeds produce less germination than medium or large seeds, however small seed germinated sooner. Seed coat thickness varied among seed sizes. Thinner seed coats occur in smaller than larger seeds. Acacia; Germination; Incubation; Pre-treatment; Seed size

  1. From Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar to Acacia monofloral honey: biochemical changes and variation of biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismondi, Angelo; De Rossi, Silvia; Canuti, Lorena; Novelli, Silvia; Di Marco, Gabriele; Fattorini, Laura; Canini, Antonella

    2018-02-10

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. nectar and its derivative monofloral honey were systematically compared in this study, to understand how much the starting solution reflected the final product, after re-elaboration by Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola. Subjected to dehydration in the hive, nectar changed in its water and sugar content when transformed into honey, as physicochemical and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses revealed. Spectrophotometric measurements and characterization by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection of 18 plant molecules demonstrated honey to be richer than nectar in secondary metabolites. For the first time, the hypothesis of the existence of a nectar redox cycle in R. pseudoacacia was reported, as previously described for Nicotiana sp., based on 1D-protein profiles, western blot analysis and detection of H 2 O 2 and ascorbate. The bioactivity of both matrices was also investigated. Antiradical in vitro tests showed that Acacia honey was more antioxidant than nectar, which was even able to induce oxidative stress directly in a eukaryotic cell system. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that nectar was bacteriostatic, due to H 2 O 2 activity, whereas honey was even bactericidal. All these data support the ecological role of nectar and honey in nature: protection of the gynoecium from pathogens and preservation from degradative processes, respectively. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. CATEGORIZATION OF GELAM, ACACIA AND TUALANG HONEY ODORPROFILE USING K-NEAREST NEIGHBORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdiyana Zahed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Honey authenticity refer to honey types is of great importance issue and interest in agriculture. In current research, several documents of specific types of honey have their own usage in medical field. However, it is quite challenging task to classify different types of honey by simply using our naked eye. This work demostrated a successful an electronic nose (E-nose application as an instrument for identifying odor profile pattern of three common honey in Malaysia (Gelam, Acacia and Tualang honey. The applied E-nose has produced signal for odor measurement in form of numeric resistance (Ω. The data reading have been pre-processed using normalization technique for standardized scale of unique features. Mean features is extracted and boxplot used as the statistical tool to present the data pattern according to three types of honey. Mean features that have been extracted were employed into K-Nearest Neighbors classifier as an input features and evaluated using several splitting ratio. Excellent results were obtained by showing 100% rate of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification from KNN using weigh (k=1, ratio 90:10 and Euclidean distance. The findings confirmed the ability of KNN classifier as intelligent classification to classify different honey types from E-nose calibration. Outperform of other classifier, KNN required less parameter optimization and achieved promising result.

  3. The Allelopathic Effect of the Exotic Tree Acacia saligna on the Germination of Wheat and Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts derived from leaves and stems of Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L.Wendl. upon two agricultural crops, wheat and canola. Seed germination (%, shoot and root elongation, fresh and dry weight, vigor index and phytotoxicity parameters were estimated. Leaf extract exhibits higher inhibitory effect than stem extract. Wheat seeds were more tolerant to the allelopathic action of A. saligna extracts than canola. Canola germination minimized to 8.33% at concentration 10% of leaf extract but the percent of germination was 60% in the case of stem extract. At 10% leaf extract, 76.67% of wheat seeds germinated; but at 10% stem extract, 93.33% of the seeds were germinated. The other growth parameters as shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight and vigor index also showed continued decrease with the increasing of allelopathic extract concentration. Leaf extract exhibits the stronger allelopathic effect. The phytotoxic effect was stronger on the germination of canola compared with wheat. It reached up to 91.76% inhibition at concentration 10%, but reached up only 23.33% in the case of wheat, respectively

  4. Polyphenols From Cutch Tree (Acacia catechu Willd.: Normalize In Vitro Oxidative Stress and Exerts Antiproliferative Activity

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    Rakesh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Oxidative stress, being the main cause of most of the human diseases, has always been the highlight of research worldwide. This stress can be overcome by administration of natural polyphenols. The Acacia catechu Willd. has many refrences available in Ayurveda as important disease curative plant. Its leaves are investigated for ameliorating oxidative stress in present work. Leaves of A. catechu were extracted with 80% methanol to get methanol extract (AME. It was assessed for antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, ferric ion reducing, superoxide scavenging and peroxyl radical scavenging assays. DNA protective activity was also investigated using plasmid nicking assay. Further, antiproliferative activity was determined using MTT assay in various human cancer cell lines. The quantification of polyphenols was done by UHPLC analysis. Results confirmed that polyphenols of A. catechu were successful in normalizing oxidative stress. AME was found to be most effective in scavenging ABTS radicals while least effective in scavenging ferric ions. UHPLC analysis showed abundance of ellagic acid, rutin and quercetin in AME. Further, AME showed maximum antiproliferative activity against Hep G2 cancer cells. It is concluded that the polyphenols from A. catechu effectively remediates oxidative stress and hence can be used in curing numerous dreadful diseases.

  5. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Bilck,Ana Paula; Olivato,Juliana Bonametti; Yamashita,Fabio; Souza,José Roberto Pinto de

    2014-01-01

    The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the deve...

  7. Longleaf pine bud development: influence of seedling nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Barnett; D. P. Jackson; R. K. Dumroese

    2010-01-01

    A subset of seedlings from a larger study (Jackson and others 2006, 2007) were selected and evaluated for two growing seasons to relate bud development, and root-collar diameter (RCD), and height growth with three nursery fertilization rates. We chose seedlings in the 0.5 (lowest), 2.0 (mid-range), and 4.0 (highest) mg of nitrogen per seedling treatments. Buds moved...

  8. Risk and pathway assessment for the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens that could affect Hawai'i's native forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg A. DeNitto; Philip Cannon; Andris Eglitis; Jessie A. Glaeser; Helen Maffei; Sheri. Smith

    2015-01-01

    The unmitigated risk potential of the introduction of exotic insects and pathogens to Hawai'i was evaluated for its impact on native plants, specifically Acacia koa, Cibotium spp., Dicranopteris linearis, Diospyros sandwicensis, Dodonaea viscosa, ...

  9. Factors affecting acorn production and germination and early growth of seedlings and seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    David F. Olson; Stephen G. Boyce

    1971-01-01

    Acorn production is extremely variable and unpredictable. Flowering is copious, but many climatic factors influence acorn development from initiation of flowers to acorn maturity. Acorns are consumed by birds, animals, insects, and microorganisms. The establishment of seedlings is more closely related to favorable site factors than to size of crops. A majority of oaks...

  10. Planting and care of fine hardwood seedlings: Nursery production of hardwood seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs

    2003-01-01

    Access to quality tree seedlings is an essential component of a successful hardwood reforestation project. Hardwood plantations may be established by sowing seed directly to a field site, but the success of direct seeding operations has been inconsistent for many species, which indicates that more research is needed before this practice can be recommended. For...

  11. Seed-vectored endophytic bacteria modulate development of rice seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; Kingsley, K; Irizarry, I; Bergen, M; Kharwar, R N; White, J F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the removal of indigenous bacteria from rice seeds on seedling growth and development. Here we report the presence of three indigenous endophytic bacteria in rice seeds that play important roles in modulating seedling development (shoot and root lengths, and formation of root hairs and secondary roots) and defence against pathogens. Seed-associated bacteria were removed using surface sterilization with NaOCl (bleach) followed by antibiotic treatment. When bacteria were absent, growth of seedlings in terms of root hair development and overall seedling size was less than that of seedlings that contained bacteria. Reactive oxygen staining of seedlings showed that endophytic bacteria became intracellular in root parenchyma cells and root hairs. Roots containing endophytic bacteria were seen to stain densely for reactive oxygen, while roots free of bacteria stained lightly for reactive oxygen. Bacteria were isolated and identified as Enterobacter asburiae (VWB1), Pantoea dispersa (VWB2) and Pseudomonas putida (VWB3) by 16S rDNA sequencing. Bacteria were found to produce indole acetic acid (auxins), inhibited the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum and solubilized phosphate. Reinoculation of bacteria onto seedlings derived from surface-disinfected rice and Bermuda grass seeds significantly restored seedling growth and development. Rice seeds harbour indigenous bacterial endophytes that greatly influence seedling growth and development, including root and shoot lengths, root hair formation and disease susceptibility of rice seedlings. This study shows that seeds of rice naturally harbour bacterial endophytes that play key roles in modulation of seedling development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Characterization of copper toxicity in letttuce seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherji, S; Gupta, B D

    1972-01-01

    Information on the effects of toxic concentration of cupric sulphate on the growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings is provided. Root growth is completely inhibited at 5 x 10/sup -2/ M and germination stops altogether at 10/sup -1/ M. The relative inhibition of root growth is stronger than that of hypocotyl growth. Various metabolites and hormones are partially capable of relieving copper inhibition. Catalase, peroxidase and IAA-oxidase activity shows increments directly proportional to the concentration of copper. It is obvious that growth is inversely proportional to enzyme activity. The increased level of these enzymes is probably due to an accelerated protein synthesis.

  13. Radiation effects on Brassica seeds and seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoli, Naresh; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-07-01

    Space radiation consists of high energy charged particles and affects biological systems, but because of its stochastic, non-directional nature is difficult to replicate on Earth. Radiation damages biological systems acutely at high doses or cumulatively at low doses through progressive changes in DNA organization. These damages lead to death or cause of mutations. While radiation biology typically focuses on mammalian or human systems, little is known as to how radiation affects plants. In addition, energetic ion beams are widely used to generate new mutants in plants considering their high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) as compared to gamma rays and X-rays. Understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on plant provides a basis for studying effects of radiation on biological systems and will help mitigate (space) radiation damage in plants. We exposed dry and imbibed Brassica rapa seeds and seedling roots to proton beams of varying qualities and compared the theoretical penetration range of different energy levels with observable growth response. We used 1, 2 and 3 MeV protons in air at the varying fluences to investigate the effect of direct irradiation on the seeds (1012 - 1015 ions/cm2) and seedlings (1013 ions/cm2). The range of protons in the tissue was calculated using Monte-Carlo based SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) software. The simulation and biological results indicate that ions did not penetrate the tissue of dry or hydrated seeds at all used ion energies. Therefore the entire energy was transferred to the treated tissue. Irradiated seeds were germinated vertically under dim light and roots growth was observed for two days after imbibition. The LD50 of the germination was about 2×1014 ions/cm2 and about 5×1014 ions/cm2 for imbibed and dry seeds, respectively. Since seedlings are most sensitive to gravity, the change in gravitropic behavior is a convenient means to assess radiation damage on physiological responses other than direct tissue

  14. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  15. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

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    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  16. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

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    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  17. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

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    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  18. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

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    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  19. Utilização Potencial do Lenho de Acacia melanoxylon: a Crescer em Povoamentos Puros ou Mistos com Pinus pinaster - pela Indústria Florestal Portuguesa

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, António; Teixeira, Andreia; Anjos, Ofélia; Simões, Rogério; Nunes, Lina; Machado, José S.; Tavares, Mário

    2007-01-01

    A Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (acácia-austrália ou austrália) cresce bem em Portugal, em povoamentos puros ou mistos com Pinus pinaster Aiton, ainda que apresente fortes constrangimentos ecológicos e legais. Apesar de algumas dificuldades, por exemplo na secagem, a madeira de austrália é usada em mobiliário e produtos manufacturados devido, principalmente, à sua textura e cor escura. Pode também ser usada para pasta, sendo plantada em muitos países com esse propósito juntamente com Acacia mangi...

  20. Spatial genetic structure within populations and management implications of the South American species Acacia aroma (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina; Bessega, Cecilia; Cialdella, Ana; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz; Vilardi, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The identification of factors that structure intraspecific diversity is of particular interest for biological conservation and restoration ecology. All rangelands in Argentina are currently experiencing some form of deterioration or desertification. Acacia aroma is a multipurpose species widely distributed throughout this country. In this study, we used the AFLP technique to study genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and fine-scale spatial genetic structure in 170 individuals belonging to 6 natural Argentinean populations. With 401 loci, the mean heterozygosity (HE = 0.2) and the mean percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL = 62.1%) coefficients indicated that the genetic variation is relatively high in A. aroma. The analysis with STRUCTURE showed that the number of clusters (K) was 3. With Geneland analysis, the number of clusters was K = 4, sharing the same grouping as STRUCTURE but dividing one population into two groups. When studying SGS, significant structure was detected in 3 of 6 populations. The neighbourhood size in these populations ranged from 15.2 to 64.3 individuals. The estimated gene dispersal distance depended on the effective population density and disturbance level and ranged from 45 to 864 m. The combined results suggest that a sampling strategy, which aims to maintain a considerable part of the variability contained in natural populations sampled here, would include at least 3 units defined by the clusters analyses that exhibit particular genetic properties. Moreover, the current SGS analysis suggests that within the wider management units/provinces, seed collection from A. aroma should target trees separated by a minimum distance of 50 m but preferably 150 m to reduce genetic relatedness among seeds from different trees.

  1. Stability and solubility improvement of Sompoi (Acacia concinna Linn. pod extract by topical microemulsion

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    Worrapan Poomanee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to enhance the solubility and stability of Acacia concinna extract by loading in a microemulsion for topical application. Both physical appearance and biological activities of the extract-loaded microemulsion were determined in comparison with the extract solution. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of three oil types including tea seed oil, grape seed oil, and sesame oil, together with polysorbate 85 or the mixture of polysorbate 85 and sorbitan oleate as surfactants, and absolute ethanol as a co-surfactant were constructed to optimize the microemulsion area. The selected microemulsion was then characterized for droplet size, polydispersity index, and viscosity. Tea seed oil exhibited the highest microemulsion area in the phase diagram because it had the highest unsaturated fatty acid content. The microemulsion composed of tea seed oil (5%, polysorbate 85 (40%, ethanol (20%, and water (35% exhibited Newtonian flow behavior with the droplet size and polydispersity index of 68.03 ± 1.09 nm and 0.44 ± 0.04, respectively. After 4% w/w of the extract was incorporated into the microemulsion, larger droplets size was observed (239.77 ± 12.69 nm with a lower polydispersity index (0.37 ± 0.02. After storage in various conditions, both physical appearances and the stability of biological activity of the extract-loaded microemulsion were improved compared to the solution. Therefore, the A. concinna loaded microemulsion may be a promising carrier for further development into a topical formulation and clinical trials for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications are also suggested.

  2. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

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    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  3. Investigation of the rumen microbial community responsible for degradation of a putative toxin in Acacia angustissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.M.C.; Blackall, L.L.; Mcsweeney, C.S.; Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    Acacia angustissima has been proposed as a protein supplement in countries where availability of high quality fodder for grazing animals is a problem due to extreme, dry climates. While A. angustissima thrives in harsh environments and provides valuable nutrients required by ruminants, it has also been found to contain anti-nutritive factors that currently preclude its widespread application. A number of non-protein amino acids have been identified in the leaves of A. angustissima and in the past these have been linked to toxicity in ruminants. The non-protein amino acid 4-n-acetyl-2,4-diaminobutyric acid (ADAB) had been determined to be the major non-protein amino acid in the leaves of A. angustissima. Thus, in this study, the aim was to identify microorganisms from the rumen environment capable of degrading ADAB. Using an ADAB-containing plant extract, a mixed enrichment culture was obtained that exhibited substantial ADAB-degrading ability. Attempts to isolate an ADAB-degrading micro-organism were carried out, but no isolates were able to degrade ADAB in pure culture. The mixed microbial community of the ADAB-degrading enrichment culture was further examined through the use of pure-culture-independent techniques. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was employed to investigate the diversity within this sample. In addition two bacterial 16S rDNA clone libraries were constructed in an attempt to further elucidate the members of the microbial population. The clone libraries were constructed from serial dilutions of the enrichment culture, a 10 -5 dilution where complete degradation of ADAB occurred, and a 10 -7 dilution where ADAB degradation did not occur. Through the comparison of these two libraries it was hypothesized that clones belonging to the Firmicutes phylum were involved in ADAB degradation. A FISH probe, ADAB1268, was then designed to target these clones and was applied to the enrichment cultures to investigate their relative abundance within the

  4. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  6. The effects of temperature and salinity on Acacia harpophylla (brigalow) (Mimosaceae) germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichman, S.M.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [Lincoln University, Lincoln (New Zealand). Division of Agriculture & Life Science

    2006-07-01

    Some coal mining companies in central Queensland have become interested in providing habitat for the endangered bridle nail-tailed wallaby that lives in brigalow vegetation. However, there is little known about establishment techniques for brigalow on mine sites and other disturbed ground; an understanding of brigalow biology and ecology is required to assist in the conservation of this threatened vegetation community and for re-creation of bridled nail-tail wallaby habitat in the post mining landscape. Brigalow is an unusual species of Acacia because it is not hard-seeded and germinates readily without the need to break seed-coat imposed dormancy. Germination trials were undertaken to test the ability of brigalow seed to germinate with a range of temperatures and salinity levels similar to those experienced in coal mine spoil. Optimum germination was found to occur at temperatures from 15 to 38{sup o}C and no germination was recorded at 45{sup o}C. Brigalow was very tolerant of high salt levels and germinated at percentages greater than 50% up to the highest salinity tested, 30 dS/m. Germination of greater than 90% occurred up to an electrical conductivity of 20 dS/m. The results indicate brigalow seed can be sown in summer when rains are most likely to occur; however, shading of the seed with extra soil or mulch may ensure the ground surface does not become too hot for germination. Because of its ability to germinate at high salinity levels, brigalow may be suitable for use in saline mine wastes which are common on sites to be rehabilitated after mining.

  7. Photosynthesis and sink activity of wasp-induced galls in Acacia pycnantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorchin, Netta; Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, John H

    2006-07-01

    Although insect galls are widely known to influence source-sink relationships in plants, the relationship between photosynthesis and gall activity has not been extensively studied. In this study we used 14CO2, photosynthesis, and respiration measurements to examine the capacity of bud galls induced by the wasp Trichilogaster signiventris (Pteromalidae) as carbon sinks in Acacia pycnantha. Galls of this species develop either in vegetative or reproductive buds, depending on the availability of tissues at different times of the year, and effectively eliminate seed production by the plant. Photosynthetic rates in phyllodes subtending clusters of galls were greater than rates in control phyllodes, a result we attributed to photosynthesis compensating for increased carbon demand by the galls. Contrary to previous studies, we found that photosynthesis within galls contributed substantially to the carbon budgets of the galls, particularly in large, mature galls, which exhibited lower specific respiration rates allowing for a net carbon gain in the light. To determine the sink capacity and competitive potential of galls, we measured the proportion of specific radioactivity in galls originating from either vegetative or reproductive buds and found no difference between them. The proportion of the total amount of phyllode-derived 14C accumulated in both clustered and solitary galls was less than that in fruits. Galls and fruits were predominantly reliant on subtending rather than on distant phyllodes for photosynthate. Solitary galls that developed in vegetative buds constituted considerably stronger sinks than galls in clusters on inflorescences where there was competition between galls or fruits for resources from the subtending phyllode. Wasps developing in solitary vegetative galls were correspondingly significantly larger than those from clustered galls. We conclude that, in the absence of inflorescence buds during summer and fall, the ability of the wasps to cause gall

  8. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

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    Ahmed H. Arbab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL. Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s and its phytochemical as well as biological studies.

  9. Polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark with anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzyme inhibitory activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jia; GRACE Mary H; ESPOSITO Debora; KOMARNYTSKY Slavko; WANG Fei; LILA Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the polyphenols isolated from Acacia mearnsii bark crude extract (B) and fractions (B1-B7) obtained by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) and evaluate their anti-inflammatory and carbolytic enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) inhibitory activities.Fractions B4,B5,B6,B7 (total phenolics 850.3,983.0,843.9,and 572.5 mg·g-1,respectively;proanthocyanidins 75.7,90.5,95.0,and 44.8 mg·g-1,respectively) showed significant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS),nitric oxide (NO) production,and expression of pro-inflammatory genes interleukin-lβ (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.All the extracts suppressed α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities,two primary enzymes responsible for carbohydrate digestion.A.mearnsii bark samples possessed significantly stronger inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 0.4-1.4 tg·mL-1) than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 141.8 μg·mL-1).B6 and B7 (IC5017.6 and 11.7 μg·mL-1,respectively) exhibited α-amylase inhibitory activity as efficacious as acarbose (IC50 15.4 μg·mL-1).Moreover,B extract,at 25 μg·mL-l,significantly decreased the non-mitochondrial oxidative burst that is often associated with inflammatory response in human monocytic macrophages.

  10. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elamin, K H; Mustafa, A F [Gezira Agricultural Research Centre, Wad Medani (Sudan). Forestry Research Section

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs.

  11. Effect of Acacia raddiana extracts on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis, the causal agent of Bayoud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine BOULENOUAR

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a medicinal plant from algerian Sahara (South-West of Algeria, Acacia raddiana has been used (leaves, bark to evaluate its extracts (reflux extraction with four solvents: methanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, hexane on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. albedinis (Foa. The Foa is the causal agent of the most dangerous disease of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.. The preliminary evaluation has been realized by agar diffusion technique and virulence test on potato tuber tissues. The extracts that present an inhibition or decrease the relative virulence (RV below 50% undergo phytochemical screening and direct bioautography. The bioautography has been used to localize the antifungal activity on the chromatogram and study the correlation with phytochemical screening data. Among eight extracts, five has been chosen for phytochemical screening and bioautography (2 leaves extracts and 3 bark extracts. Only six tests among 32 (22.58% present a detectable effect. The best effect is related to bark extract with ethyl acetate (inhibition diameter: 18mm, which is a moderate effect. Some extracts show an increase in RV. On the other hand, others decrease the RV. The best effect on RV is presented by hexanic extract of bark (RV=48%. The phytochemical screening highlighted the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins and alkaloids in the studied plant. The direct bioautography has demonstrated no detectable effect. According to realized analyses, we can conclude that this species contains bioactive substances on Foa but need more precise analyses. The reason is simple, in addition to synergy principle in the crude extracts; the quantity of these metabolites is low compared to the detection level.

  12. Phosphorus use efficiency of the gum arabi tree (Acacia senegal (L) Willd) in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elamin, K.H.; Mustafa, A.F.

    1996-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal L. Willd) provenances with high efficiency for phosphorus uptake and use. Thirteen provenances were collected from different habitats with the gum belt of the Sudan. A preliminary trial was conducted during the period 1989-1992 at the Gezira Agricultural Research Station in Wad Medani. This study revealed that there are clear genotypic differences in phosphorus use efficiency, nitrogen yield and dry matter production. All the provenances tested also exhibited a high ability for survival under the dry climatic conditions as prevailing in the gum belt of Sudan. Based on differences in phosphorus use efficiency observed in the preliminary study, 4 provenances were selected for a detailed study. Provenance 11 and 2 represented the highly efficient group, provenance 7 the moderately efficient group and provenance 13 the low efficient group. The detailed study revealed that provenance 11 is superior to all others in terms of biomass production as well as in phosphorus use efficiency. Although the ability to take up phosphorus was low, this was compensated by having a high root length density enabling the tree to take up a quantity of phosphorus similar to that taken up by other provenances. The high ability to convert the absorbed phosphorus into a greater quantity of dry matter made this provenance the best in phosphorus use efficiency. These results suggest that provenance 11 may be a suitable candidate to be introduced into the gum belt of Sudan in support of its rehabilitation programme. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Assessing nitrogen fixation in mixed- and single-species plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia mearnsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, David I; Schortemeyer, Marcus; Stock, William D; Bauhus, Jürgen; Khanna, Partap K; Cowie, Annette L

    2007-09-01

    Mixtures of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and Acacia mearnsii de Wildeman are twice as productive as E. globulus monocultures growing on the same site in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia, possibly because of increased nitrogen (N) availability owing to N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii. To investigate whether N(2) fixation by A. mearnsii could account for the mixed-species growth responses, we assessed N(2) fixation by the accretion method and the (15)N natural abundance method. Nitrogen gained by E. globulus and A. mearnsii mixtures and monocultures was calculated by the accretion method with plant and soil samples collected 10 years after plantation establishment. Nitrogen in biomass and soil confirmed that A. mearnsii influenced N dynamics. Assuming that the differences in soil, forest floor litter and biomass N of plots containing A. mearnsii compared with E. globulus monocultures were due to N(2) fixation, the 10-year annual mean rates of N(2) fixation were 38 and 86 kg ha(-1) year(-1) in 1:1 mixtures and A. mearnsii monocultures, respectively. Nitrogen fixation by A. mearnsii could not be quantified on the basis of the natural abundance of (15)N because such factors as mycorrhization type and fractionation of N isotopes during N cycling within the plant confounded the effect of the N source on the N isotopic signature of plants. This study shows that A. mearnsii fixed significant quantities of N(2) when mixed with E. globulus. A decline in delta(15)N values of E. globulus and A. mearnsii with time, from 2 to 10 years, is further evidence that N(2) was fixed and cycled through the stands. The increased aboveground biomass production of E. globulus trees in mixtures when compared with monocultures can be attributed to increases in N availability.

  14. Influence of mineral fertilization on edaphic fauna in Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Parente Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and/or the accumulation of organic matter from plant residues can influence the composition of soil and litter community. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of P and K fertilization on total faunal and nematode faunal composition and richness in plant litter and soil for 360 days in an area reforested with Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn, located in the municipality of Conceição de Macabu in the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each treatment (fertilized and unfertilized plots, samples of litter and soil (to a depth of 5 cm were collected and transferred into a Berlese-Tüllgren funnels for the extraction of fauna. Mesofauna and macrofauna were quantified, and the major taxa identified. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution and identified according to feeding habits. Density (number of individuals m-2 of total fauna, microphages, social insects and saprophages varied significantly per treatment and sampling time in both litter and soil. The total number of individuals collected was 5,127, and the total number of nematodes 894. Phosphorus and potassium fertilization resulted in an increase in total fauna density and richness in the litter due to an increased abundance of social insects, saprophages and herbivores. In the soil, fertilization increased the saprophage and predator densities. Saprophages were the predominant taxa in the litter, while social insects (Formicidae prevailed in the soil. Litter nematode populations were favored by mineral fertilization. Bacteriophages were the predominant nematode group in both litter and soil.

  15. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  16. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Gidske L; Krzywinski, Knut

    2007-06-15

    Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  17. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  18. Fungal Succession and Decomposition of Acacia mangium Leaf Litters in Health and Ganoderma Attacked Standings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMINGAN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litters of Acacia mangium play an important functional role in ecosystem, producing sources of nutrients and giving diversity of microorganisms. Understanding the variation in fungal populations in A. mangium forest is important due to the roles of fungi in regulating populations of other organisms and ecosystem processes. For these purposes, the tests were conducted under two years old of health standing (2S and Ganoderma attacked standing (2G using litterbag method. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. Litter weight loss and lignin, cellulose, C, N contents were measured each month during eight months of decomposition, as well as fungal community involved was observed. After eight months of decomposition, litter weight losses were low up to 34.61% (k = 0.7/year in 2S and 30.64% (k = 0.51/year in 2G, as well as lignin weight losses were low up to 20.05% in 2S and 13.87% in 2G. However, cellulose weight losses were 16.34% in 2S and 14.71% in 2G. In both standings, the numbers of fungal species were 21 and 20 respectively, while the total of fungal populations tends to increase after one month of decomposition and tend to decrease in the last three months. In the first and second months of decomposition fungal species were dominated by genera of Penicillium and Aspergillus and the last three months by Trichoderma, Phialophora, and Pythium.

  19. Gum acacia mitigates genetic damage in adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B H; Al Balushi, K; Al-Husseini, I; Mandel, P; Nemmar, A; Schupp, N; Ribeiro, D A

    2015-12-01

    Subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) exhibit oxidative genome damage, which may predispose to carcinogenesis, and Gum acacia (GumA) ameliorates this condition in humans and animals. We evaluated here renal DNA damage and urinary excretion of four nucleic acid oxidation adducts namely 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 8-oxoguanosine (8-oxoGuo) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanisone (8-OHdg) in rats with adenine (ADE)-induced CRF with and without GumA treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into four equal groups and treated for 4 weeks. The first group was given normal food and water (control). The second group was given normal food and GumA (15% w/v) in drinking water. The third group was fed powder diet containing adenine (ADE) (0·75% w/w in feed). The fourth group was fed like in the third group, plus GumA in drinking water (15%, w/v). ADE feeding induced CRF (as measured by several physiological, biochemical and histological indices) and also caused a significant genetic damage and significant decreases in urinary 8-oxo Gua and 8-oxoGuo, but not in the other nucleic acids. However, concomitant GumA treatment reduced the level of genetic damage in kidney cells as detected by Comet assay and significantly reversed the effect of adenine on urinary 8-oxoGuo. Treatment with GumA is able to mitigate genetic damage in renal tissues of rats with ADE-induced CRF. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  20. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  1. Sugar maple and yellow birch seedling growth after simulated browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick T. Metzger

    1977-01-01

    Simulating natural damage to leaders of forest-grown seedlings of yellow birch and sugar maple resulted in no loss of vigor but a loss in net height growth. Leader elongation depended upon seedling, shoot, and bud characteristics rather than on the extent of damage.

  2. Asymbiotic seed germination and in vitro seedling development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within two weeks of culture, spherules emerged out due to cracking of the seed coat. The spherules developed into protocorms with a leaf primordium at apical portion after 3 to 4 weeks and gradually produced complete seedlings. Strong and stout root system was induced in in vitro seedlings on transferring in half strength ...

  3. Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical water stress levels in Pinus patula seedlings and their relation to measures of seedling morphology. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... A pot trial was implemented to determine the effect of soil water stress following transplanting on shoot water potential and stomatal conductance of Pinus patula ...

  4. Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Mulching, Fertilizer, Seeding and Seedling Treatments on Plant Species Recovery in Kondoa Irangi Hills, Tanzania. ... There were high significant correlations of 0.85 and 0.87 between seedling recruitment and mortality in both sites, indicating that other factors, probably aridity, rather than prevailing site conditions ...

  5. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  6. (GPx) activity in young barley seedlings enriched with selenium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB_YOMI

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... E-mail: guzx@njau.edu.cn. Tel/Fax: +86. 25 84396293. have been used for animal feeds and beer malts. Recently, young barley seedlings have been used as food material for people in Asian countries such as China,. Japan, and Korea. Young barley seedlings are rich in dietary fiber, chlorophyll, carotene ...

  7. Seedling characters at different temperatures in pearl millet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of six temperatures ranging from 20 to 45°C on the germination and seedling length of six grain pearl millet genotypes (KS, AM, HG, EC, ZZ and D) was determined. There was significant variation in germination and seedling length across temperatures and among genotypes. As a result, significant temperature ...

  8. The growth of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) seedlings under varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought and soil fertility are the major factors that influence seedling survival and growth in arid areas, thus it is of paramount importance to establish optimum water requirements for ... Two weeks old seedlings in polythene bag (2kg) containing the standard potting mixture as growing media were used for the experiments.

  9. Seedling growth of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seedling growth performance of Adenanthera pavonina L. in polluted soils of different railway tracks viz. Karachi Cantt. Station, Malir Halt, Malir 15, Landhi Junction and University Campus (control) was studied under in pots under natural field conditions. The results showed that the root, shoot and seedling size, number ...

  10. Response of fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the impact of drought and heavy metal in fenugreek was critically monitored. Fenugreek seedlings were exposed to 1- bar polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (osmotic stress) and 10 ppm solution of HgCl2 (heavy metal). Within 3 days of seedling growth, mercury exposure induced relatively high ...

  11. Analysis on Factors Affecting Seedling Establishment in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju LUO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Elongations of coleoptile and mesocotyl are related directly to rice seedling establishment in soil and height of plant is related to lodging in rice production. Twelve typical rice cultivars with different lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl (long, medium and short were selected by screening the lengths of coleoptile and mesocotyl in 1500 accessions. The seedling establishments of these typical cultivars were compared under the combinations of different sowing depths and flooding durations, and two semi-dwarf varieties (G140, Zhong 96–21 with good seedling establishments and optimum mesocotyl lengths were found. The length of mesocotyl was completely fitted negative binomial distribution and the length of coleoptile was nearly fitted lognormal distribution. Analysis of the relationships among mesocotyl, coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration, and their interactions to seedling establishment percentage showed that there existed significant relations among mesocotyl, coleoptile, mesocotyl × coleoptile, seeding depth, flooding duration and mesocotyl × sowing depth in the experiment for seedling establishment.

  12. Responses of endogenous proline in rice seedlings under chromium exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.Z. Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were performed to exam the dynamic change of endogenous proline in rice seedlings exposed to potassium chromate chromium (VI or chromium nitrate chromium (III. Although accumulation of both chromium species in rice seedlings was obvious, more chromium was detected in plant tissues of rice seedlings exposed to chromium (III than those in chromium (VI, majority being in roots rather than shoots. Results also showed that the accumulation capacity of chromium by rice seedlings was positively correlated to chromium concentrations supplied in both chromium variants and the accumulation curve depicted an exponential trend in both chromium treatments over the entire period of exposure. Proline assays showed that both chromium variants induced the change of endogenous proline in shoots and roots of rice seedlings. Chromium (VI of 12.8 mg/L increased proline content significantly (p

  13. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  14. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  15. Effect of seedling stock on the early stand development and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuntala Sharma; Joshua P. Adams; Jamie L. Schuler; Robert L. Ficklin; Don C. Bragg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of spacing and genotype on the growth and physiology of improved loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings from three distinct genotypes planted in Drew County, Arkansas (USA). Genotype had a significant effect on survival and height. Clone CF Var 1 showed greater height and survival compared to other seedlings....

  16. Effects of acacia senegal (L.,Willd.) on sandy soils: A case study of El damokeya forest, Northern Kordofan State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D. M; Nimer, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Soil properties were studied in El Damokeya forest, located at 30 km east of Elobeid town, Northern Kordofan State, during the rainy season of 1998. The aim was to characterize the soils of the area and to examine the effects of Acacia senegal plantations on the soils physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the soils were sandy, weakly structured, yellowish-red, neutral and poor in nutrient content, and that Acacia senegal plantations had induced considerable changes in the soil morphological, physical and chemical properties. The soil became more differentiated, with a third layer clearly discernible. No change had occurred in the soil texture. But, it became well structured with stable aggregates. Its organic matter content had been augmented to about one and half times, deeply incorporated and stained the whole profile with darker hues. The soil reaction became slightly acidic (ph 6.3). The exchange capacity was improved qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, cation exchange capacity values increased from 2.8 in the bare land to 4.0 meq/100g soil under the forest, and the soil was saturated to 98% with base cations. The major nutrient elements (N,P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) had generally increased with various proportions ranging from 10% to more than 130%, but only Ca showed significant difference at P=0.05. Among the trace elements, Cu and Co had significantly decreased in the forest soil, but Zn and Mn had increased to about 100%.(Author)

  17. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  18. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cartilage Protection and Analgesic Activity of a Botanical Composition Comprised of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there have been augmented advances in drug discovery, current OA management is inadequate due to the lack of successful therapies proven to be effective in modifying disease progression. For some, the risk outweighs the benefit. As a result, there is a desperate need for safe and efficacious natural alternatives. Here we evaluated a composition from Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monoiodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Study lasted for 6 weeks. 59.6%, 64.6%, 70.7%, 69.9%, and 70.3% reductions in pain sensitivity were observed for rats treated with the composition from week 1 to week 5, respectively. Statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity (maintained at 57.1% versus MIA + vehicle treated rats were shown from the modified total Mankin score for animals treated with the composition. The composition showed a statistically significant reduction in uCTX-II level (54.1% reductions. The merit of combining these botanicals was also demonstrated in their synergistic analgesic activity. Therefore, the standardized blend of Morus alba, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Acacia catechu could potentially be considered as an alternative remedy from natural sources for the management of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  20. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  1. Characterization and emulsifying properties of β-lactoglobulin-gum Acacia Seyal conjugates prepared via the Maillard reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Binwei; Yang, Hao; Fang, Yapeng; Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Phillips, Glyn O

    2017-01-01

    Gum Acacia Seyal (ASY) is less valued than is gum Acacia Senegal, due to its poor emulsifying ability. The present study investigated the Maillard reaction between ASY and β-lactoglobulin (BLG) and its impact on the emulsifying properties of ASY. The reaction products of BLG/ASY mixture (r=1/4), prepared by dry-heating at 60°C and a relative humidity of 79%, as a function of incubation time, were characterized by SDS-PAGE, GPC-MALLS and DSC. The results showed that 12-24h of dry-heating under the given conditions was sufficient for conjugation, meanwhile avoiding the formation of deeply coloured and insoluble melanoidins. More than 64% of the protein was incorporated into ASY, resulting in a two-fold increase in arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) content and 3.5 times increase in weight-average molecular mass of ASY. The conjugation with BLG markedly improved the stability of ASY-stabilized emulsions and their resistance against severe conditions, such as low pH and high saline conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of desert rose seedlings in different potting media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the desert rose received fame in the flower market due to its striking and sculptural forms; however, the commercial production of these species is quite recent and little is known about its crop management, including substrates recommendation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different substrates on desert rose seed germination and production of its seedlings. Experiment I: freshly harvested seeds of desert rose were sown in different substrates e.g. sand, coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark, sand + coconut fiber, semi-composted pine bark + sand and coconut fiber + semicomposted pine bark. These substrates were evaluated to study the emergence percentage of seeds, initial growth of seedlings and seedling emergence speed index (ESI. Experiment II: desert rose from the experiment I were transferred to plastic pots filled with the same substrates as in experiment I. The pH and electrical conductivity (EC of the substrates were noted every 30 days while the growth parameters of seedlings were recorded after 240 days. Results from experiment I showed higher germination rate and seedling growth in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Similarly, in experiment II, better quality seedlings were observed in substrates containing semi-composted pine bark. Thus, for desert rose seed germination and seedling growth, it is recommended to use substrates containing semi-composted pine bark.

  3. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

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    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  4. Effects of benzoic acid and cadmium toxicity on wheat seedlings

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    Kavita Yadav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzoic acid (BA and Cd exhibit cumulative effects on plants due to their accumulation in the soil. The present study reports the effects of BA an allelochemical, Cd and their combinations on seed germination, seedling growth, biochemical parameters, and response of antioxidant enzymes in Triticum aestivum L. The experiment was conducted in sand supplemented with Hoagland nutrient solution. Benzoic acid was applied at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mM with or without Cd (7 mg L-1 to observe effects of allelochemical and Cd alone and in combination on wheat. Both stresses exhibited inhibitory effect on growth and metabolism of wheat seedlings. The allelochemical in single and combined treatments with Cd decreased seedling growth as compared to Cd stress. The two stresses significantly enhanced malondialdehyde content of wheat seedlings. The activity of other antioxidant enzymes, viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and guaiacol peroxidase (POX were also recorded. SOD increased in seedlings under the two stresses. CAT more prominently ameliorates the toxic effects of H2O2 as compared with APX and POX and protected wheat seedlings from oxidative stress. Allelochemical buttressed the toxic effect of Cd on wheat seedlings.

  5. Germination and initial development of aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva seedlings

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroeira has great economic importance due to its wood useful, tannins extraction and use in the pharmacology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the germination aspects and initial seedlings development of aroeira, under gibberellins, substrata and shading effects, and for that two experiments were led out. In the first one, seeds were previously soaked for 24 hours in water and in 100 mg.L-1 gibberellin solution and were sowed directly in cells trays in the following substrata: land and sand (1:1 and 1:2 and Plantmax . In the second experiment, 15 cm length seedlings were transplanted to polyethylene sacks filled out land+sand+poultry manure (1:1:1 partly decomposed and they were maintained at greenhouse for 15 days. Soon after, seedlings were transferred for the following conditions: shading (50% and full sun and they were 50 mg.L-1 and 150 mg.L-1 gibberellins solutions pulverized, as control seedlings water pulverized. Aroeira seeds should not be previously water or gibberellins imbibed before being sowed. The best substrata for aroeira seeds germination was Plantmax without germinative treatments to reach higher than 80% of seedlings survival. The seedlings developed better at full sun light and the gibberellin. It was observed increment in height, diameter, foliar area and fresh and dry mass from aerial and root part when compared to shading situation. The gibberellins applications did not influence the aroeira seedlings initial growth characteristics.

  6. Do cardinal directions in different Acacia tree species affect biological activities of bruchid beetle, Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera), in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, A S

    2009-12-15

    Biological activities of bruchid beetle: Bruchidius buettikeri Decelle (Bruchidae: Coleoptera) were studied in four cardinal directions of Acacia tree species in Huraimila and Salbouk. In Huraimila, two species of Acacia; A. grrrardii, subspecies A. g. negevensis (Iraqi) and A. g. nagednsis (Najdi); and A. ehrenbergiana (Salam) were sampled. In Salbouk, A. tortilis radiana (Samar) was sampled. No significant differences were observed for entrance and exit holes per pod and beetles emergence until 45 days on four cardinal directions of different Acacia tree species, except for entrance holes at Dam and Farm locations on Najdi in Huraimila. However, greater activities were observed in south and east direction in farm locations whereas, in the valley (Abu Gatada, Alyata and Dam locations) more bruchid activities were observed in north and south on Najdi and samar while east and west on Iraqi. Moreover, activities were greater on Acacia trees with greater number of seed per pod. Greater bruchid infestation per pod was found on East direction in the farm locations but in the valley locations no distinct trend was observed. Results showed a significant, positive correlation between bruchid activities and temperature but similar strength negative correlation was observed for rest of various abiotic factors. Moreover, a strong positive correlation was recorded between neonate entrance and number of beetle emergence.

  7. 304 Élaboration de modèles allométriques d'Acacia Sénégal L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADIE

    Acacia Sénégal) dans le but d'asseoir une base de calcul des stocks de carbone. ... L'Afrique est le continent le plus vulnérable aux impacts du changement climatique. .... la zone sylvopastorale se trouve confrontée à un problème global.

  8. Whole-tree transpiration and water-use partitioning between Eucalyptus nitens and Acacia dealbata weeds in a short-rotation plantation in northeastern Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Mark A.; Beadle, Christopher L.

    1998-01-01

    Whole-tree water use in 4- and 8-year-old plantations of Eucalyptus nitens Deane and Maiden (ex Maiden) in the presence and absence of Acacia dealbata Link. weeds was estimated by the heat pulse velocity technique during a six-week summer period. Maximum sap velocities were recorded between 5 and 15 mm under the cambium for both eucalypt and acacia trees, and marked radial and axial variations in sap velocity were observed. The latter source of variation was most pronounced in mixed stands where crowns were asymmetrical. Mean daily sap flux ranged from 1.4 to 103.6 l day(-1) for eucalypts and from acacias. Stem diameter explained 98% of the variation in sapwood area for E. nitens and 89% for A. dealbata, and was determined to be a suitable parameter for scaling water use from the tree to stand level. Plot transpiration varied from 1.4 to 2.8 mm day(-1) in mixed 8-year-old plots and was 0.85 mm day(-1) in a mixed 4-year-old plot. The degree of A. dealbata infestation was associated with absolute plot water use and regression models predicted that, in the absence of acacia competition, plot water use for the 8-year-old stand would approach 5-6 mm day(-1) during the growing season.

  9. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  10. Invasive Australian Acacia seed banks: Size and relationship with stem diameter in the presence of gall-forming biological control agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthys Strydom

    Full Text Available Australian Acacia are invasive in many parts of the world. Despite significant mechanical and biological efforts to control their invasion and spread, soil-stored seed banks prevent their effective and sustained removal. In response South Africa has had a strong focus on employing seed reducing biological control agents to deal with Australian Acacia invasion, a programme that is considered as being successful. To provide a predictive understanding for their management, seed banks of four invasive Australian acacia species (Acacia longifolia, A. mearnsii, A. pycnantha and A. saligna were studied in the Western Cape of South Africa. Across six to seven sites for each species, seed bank sizes were estimated from dense, monospecific stands by collecting 30 litter and soil samples. Average estimated seed bank size was large (1017 to 17261 seed m-2 as was annual input into the seed bank, suggesting that these seed banks are not residual but are replenished in size annually. A clear relationship between seed bank size and stem diameter was established indicating that mechanical clearing should be conducted shortly after fire-stimulated recruitment events or within old populations when seed banks are small. In dense, monospecific stands seed-feeding biological control agents are not effective in reducing seed bank size.

  11. Effects of excluding goat herbivory on Acacia tortilis woodland around pastoralist settlements in northwest Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Gufu

    1998-08-01

    Browsing by goats is considered to cause poor tree regeneration and reduced tree growth around settlements throughout the arid zones of sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated whether excluding goats from Acacia tortilis woodlands increased tree regeneration, current season's shoot growth rates and browse production over a period of 52 months between 1986 and 1990. The study also investigated the effects of climatic variability on tree growth and browse production. Excluding goat herbivory provided no advantage over continuous browsing for juvenile A. tortilis. Trees on the unbrowsed and on browsed transects increased by 22.2 (standard error [SE] ± 0.53) cm·yr -1 and 25.0 (SE ± 0.58) cm·yr -1, respectively. Fewer but longer shoots were produced by trees on the unbrowsed transects, while trees on the browsed transects invested more in shorter shoots. Net total browse production was lower on unbrowsed (1.73 [standard deviation (SD) ± 4.3] t·ha -1·yr -1) than on the browsed (3.03 [SD ± 3.6] t·ha -1 ·yr -1) transects. Biomass production on unbrowsed and browsed transects was closely correlated with rainfall and presumably soil moisture during wet seasons. Relative growth rates (RGR) of current season's shoots in the two treatments did not differ, implying goat herbivory at moderate stocking density (i.e. 13.0 tropical livestock units [TLU]·km -2) stimulated shoot growth. RGR remained positive except on the browsed transects during 1990, a dry year. Goat browsing pressure was moderate. Total biomass loss on unbrowsed transects was 15.5 %·yr -1 compared with 27.7 %·yr -1 on the browsed transects. These findings do not support the notion that goats always destroy young trees around settlements. Goat herbivory at moderate intensity stimulated shoot productivity. However, the results should not be used to generalize all conditions throughout sub-Saharan Africa, let alone the arid zones of northern Kenya. Rather, there is a need to emphasize individual case

  12. Effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and fecal egg count in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar Paswan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding Acacia nilotica pod meal on hematobiochemical profile and gastrointestinal parasitic load in growing goats. Materials and Methods: To experiment was conducted for a period of 3-month on 24 male goats (3½ month old, average body weight [BW] 6.50±1.50 kg, distributed into four groups of six animals each. The experimental animals were fed graded level of A. nilotica pod meal (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% mixed in concentrate mixture equivalent to tannin concentration of 0%, 1.91%, 3.82% and 5.73% in the total mixed ration I, II, III and IV, respectively, but ad libitum measured quantity of green sorghum fodder (Sorghum bicolor feeding. The blood samples were collected from experimental goats during the feeding experiment for the examination of different hematological indices and serum biochemical profile to know the overall health status of animals and standard method was followed to analyze the samples. Fecal sample was collected directly from the anus of goats by inserting middle finger and kept the samples in labeled polythene bag. Further fresh sample was processed and examined by McMaster Technique for eggs per gram and oocysts per gram. It gives accurate information regarding severity of infection. Results: The feeding of babul pod meal did not address significant changes about the hematological parameters among various treatment groups. The lymphocyte count was significantly higher (p=0.07 in T3 group as compared to control and increase with increase in level of babul pod meal in the diet. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN level was 4.86 and 6.59% lower in T1 and T2 group as compared to control and inversely proportional with level of supplement in ration. The decrease in BUN reflected good dietary protein metabolism happened in animals supplemented with babul pod meal. Serum creatinine level was significantly lower (p<0.01 in T2 group as compared to control. The creatinine level was 20

  13. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  14. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  15. Photomodulation of strigolactone biosynthesis and accumulation during sunflower seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Niharika; Tripathi, Smita; Bhatla, Satish Chander

    2015-01-01

    Present investigations report the presence of strigolactones (SLs) and photomodulation of their biosynthesis in sunflower seedlings (roots, cotyledons and first pair of leaves) during early phase of seedling development. Qualitative analyses and characterization by HPLC, ESI-MS and FT-IR revealed the presence of more than one type of SLs. Orobanchyl acetate was detected both in roots and leaves. Five-deoxystrigol, sorgolactone and orobanchol were exclusively detected in seedling roots. Sorgomol was detectable only in leaves. HPLC eluted fraction from seedling roots and leaves co-chromatographing with GR24 (a synthetic SL) could also bring about germination in Orobanche cernua (a weed) seeds, which are established to exhibit SL – mediated germination, thereby indicating the SL identity of the eluates using this bioassay. SLs accumulation was always more in the roots of light-grown seedlings, it being maximum at 4 d stage. Although significant activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD, the enzyme critical for SL biosynthesis) was detected in 2 d old seedling roots, SLs remained undetectable in cotyledons at all stages of development and also in the roots of 2 d old light and dark-grown seedlings. Roots of light-grown seedlings showed maximum CCD activity during early (2 d) stage of development, thereby confirming photomodulation of enzyme activity. These observations indicate the migration of a probable light-sensitized signaling molecule (yet to be identified) or a SL precursor from light exposed aerial parts to the seedling roots maintained in dark. Thus, a photomodulation and migration of SL precursor/s is evident from the present work. PMID:26252191

  16. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  17. Competition for light and light use efficiency for Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus grandis trees in mono-specific and mixed-species plantations in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maire, G.; Nouvellon, Y.; Gonçalves, J.; Bouillet, J.; Laclau, J.

    2010-12-01

    Mixed plantations with N-fixing species might be an attractive option for limiting the use of fertilizer in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. A randomized block design was set up in southern Brazil, including a replacement series and an additive series design, as well as a nitrogen fertilization treatment, and conducted during a full 6 years rotation. The gradient of competition between Eucalyptus and Acacia in this design resulted in very different conditions of growth of Acacia, from totally dominated up to dominant canopies. We used the MAESTRA model to estimate the amount of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) at tree level. This model requires the description of the scene and distinct structural variables of the two species, and their evolution with time. The competition for light is analysed by comparing the inter-specific values of APAR during a period of 2 years at the end of the rotation. APAR is further compared to the measured increment in stem wood biomass of the tree, and their ratio is an estimation of the light use efficiency for stemwood production at tree-scale. Variability of these LUE are analysed in respect to the species, the size of the tree, and at plot scale (competition level). Stemwood production was 3400, 3900 and 2400 gDM/m2 while APAR was 1640, 2280 and 2900 MJ/y for the pure Eucalyptus, pure Acacia and 50/50 mixed plantation, respectively, for an average LAI of 3.7, 3.3 and 4.5, respectively. Individual LUE for stemwood was estimated at an average value of 1.72 and 1.41 gDM/MJ/tree for Eucalyptus and Acacia, respectively, and at 0.92 and 0.40 gDM/MJ/tree when they were planted in mixed 50/50 plantations. LUE was highly dependant on tree size for both species. At the plot scale, LUE for stemwood were 2.1 gDM/MJ and 1.75 for Eucalyptus and Acacias, respectively, and 0.85 for the mixed 50/50 plantation. These results suggest that the mixed 50/50 plantation, which absorbed a higher amount of light, produce less

  18. Assessment of fuelwood resources in acacia woodlands in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Towards the development of planning tools for sustainable management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eshete, Getachew [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Resource Management and Geomatics

    1999-07-01

    The subjects addressed in this thesis are the development and description of methods for acquiring information on the state and change and for forecasting the potential future state in the acacia woodlands in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Since issues of data collection and prediction are core components of planning, it is believed that the methods developed and described will be useful in future integrated planning tools for the sustainable management of acacia woodlands. The thesis is composed of five studies that are reported separately. In the first study, the focus was on describing the population structure and regeneration of the main tree species in the study area. In the second study, biomass functions suitable for application in multiphase inventory designs were developed. In the third study, the application of satellite image data in the assessment of the acacia woodlands, partly using the functions developed in the second study, is demonstrated. Different methods were applied for assessing the biomass and crown closure of acacias in the study area. Results using the different estimators revealed that the average woody biomass is in the range of 10 to 20 tons ha{sup -1} and the crown cover was reduced by approximately 7 to 12 %, between the years 1972 and 1995, in the study area. Furthermore, the advantages and difficulties of using different designs were investigated. Maps indicating the patterns of the state and change of the woodlands in relation to the landscape features of the study site were also produced. In the fourth study, the aim was to find out whether or not tree-rings in acacias can be used as indicators of growth periodicity. The results indicated that the acacias form one ring per year in the study area, although this was not the case in surrounding, more humid, areas. Following this outcome, in the fifth study, single tree growth functions were developed and were utilized to project the biomass growth of acacias in the study area. One area

  19. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S.; Hassayoun, L.

    2005-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH 3 -N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 ± 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P 0.05). However, those supplemented with acacia without PEG (D3) had

  20. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  1. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  2. Proteomics and Transcriptomics analysis of Arabidopsis Seedlings in Microgravity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — On Earth plants are constantly exposed to a gravitational field of 1g. Gravity affects a plant in every step of its development. Germinating seedlings orient their...

  3. Seedlings and Saplings - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds318

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the total number and average number of saplings and seedlings of trees detected from 0.05-ha circular plot habitat samples taken in 2005 at sample...

  4. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  5. Effect of ponderosa pine needle litter on grass seedling survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt R. McConnell; Justin G. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Hard fescue survival rates were followed for 6 years on four different pine needle treatment plots. Needle litter had a significant effect on initial survival of fescue seedlings, but subsequent losses undoubtedly resulted from the interaction of many factors.

  6. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in polyembryonic mango cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa del Carmen Martínez Ochoa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurrence of polyembryony in the mango cultivars Manila and Ataulfo, and to determine whether seedlings cultured in vitro are zygotic or nucelar. Percentage of polyembryony was calculated and the number of embryos in 100 seeds of each cultivar was recorded. 'Manila' exhibited 97% polyembryony with 3.4 embryos per seed, while 'Ataulfo' had 95% polyembryony with 3.2 embryos per seed. Later, 20 seeds of each cultivar were established in vitro, and it was analyzed those in which all embryos germinated (12 seeds from 'Manila' and 7 from 'Ataulfo'. DNA was extracted from seedling leaf tissue, and its origin was identified with 14 RAPD primers. The polymorphic markers recognized the seedlings of sexual origin in seven of nine 'Manila' polyembryonic seeds, and in four of seven 'Ataulfo' ones. Also, in polyembryonic seeds not all zygotic seedlings were produced by small embryos located at the micropyle.

  7. The effect of osmopriming on germination, seedling growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    Oct 24, 2011 ... affecting the oxidative metabolism such as increasing superoxide dismutase ... the adverse effect of salinity by improving germination and seedling growth .... osmoregulation by the accumulation of proline. A positive effect of ...

  8. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. ... Key words: Cold stratification, salt stress, seedling emergence, ... methods used to cope with salinity, seed pre-sowing.

  9. Strong microsite control of seedling recruitment in tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graae, Bente J; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Lang, Simone I

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of environmental variation in studies of recruitment is a prerequisite for realistic predictions of the responses of vegetation to a changing environment. We investigated how seedling recruitment is affected by seed availability and microsite quality along a steep environmental......, the experimental seed addition showed that the microsite environment was even more important. For all species, seedling emergence peaked at the productive end of the gradient, irrespective of the adult niches realized. Disturbance promoted recruitment at all positions along the environmental gradient, not just...... at high productivity. Early seedling emergence constituted the main temporal bottleneck in recruitment for all species. Surprisingly, winter mortality was highest at what appeared to be the most benign end of the gradient. The results highlight that seedling recruitment patterns are largely determined...

  10. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes .... mean seed mass (without seed coat) per species was used for W1 ...... Of light and length: regulation of hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis.

  11. ARC EMCS Experiments (Seedling Growth-2) Experiment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, David; Steele, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of the status of the ARC ISS (International Space Station) Experiment, Seedling Growth-2 to the Payload Operations Investigator Working Group meeting at MSFC, Huntsville AL. The experiment employs the European Modular Cultivation System (ECMS).

  12. Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use of seedling containers and Fusarium circinatum association with asymptomatic Pinus patula planting stock. Andrew R Morris, Gerda Fourie, Izette Greyling, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicoletta B Jones ...

  13. Inhibiting effect of ponderosa pine seed trees on seedling growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald

    1976-01-01

    Ponderosa pine seed trees, numbering 4, 8, and 12 per acre, were left standing for 9 years after harvest cutting on the Challenge Experimental Forest, Calif. Seedling heights were measured at ages 5, 9, and 14, and for all ages were poorest if within 20 feet of a seed tree. Seedlings 20 feet or less from a seed tree at the ages given lost the equivalent in years of...

  14. Translocation of 14-C in ponderosa pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1971-01-01

    The movement of 14-C from the old needles to the roots, and later to the new needles, was measured in 2-year-old ponderosa pine seedlings. The seedlings were in one of three growth stages at the time of the feeding of 14-CO-2: 9 days before spring bud break with no root activity; 7 days before spring bud break with high root activity; and 7 days after spring bud break...

  15. Morphological and biological features of seedlings of some Trifolium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina A. Kalinkina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The author conducted morphological and biological characteristics of seedlings of six species belonging to three sections: Lupinaster(T. lupinasterL, T. pacificumBobr, T. eximium Steph. Ex. DC., Chronosemium(T. campestre Schreb. and Trifolium (T. arvenseL., T. pratense L. of the genus Trifolium. Dimensional and qualitative morphological characteristics of the main structural elements of the seedlings of these species are represented in the article.

  16. Onion seedlings versus onion sets in organic onion production

    OpenAIRE

    Kivijärvi, Pirjo; Hannukkala, Asko; Haapalainen, Minna; Iivonen, Sari

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find onion varieties that are suitable for seedling cultivation and high-yielding in our relatively cool and short growing season. In addition, the yield quantity, quality and long-term storage durability of onions produced from either seedlings or sets are compared. Rot incidence and composition of pathogen populations in diseased onions is monitored during the growing season and long-term storage. The field experiments and on-farm trials will be carried out...

  17. Stimulatory effects of aluminum on growth of sugar maple seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    George A. Schier; Carolyn J. McQuattie

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of aluminum (Al) on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), seedlings were grown in sand irrigated with nutrient solution (pH 3.8) containing 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg L-1 Al. Seedling growth was enhanced at 2.5 and 5mgL-1 Al. Although higher levels of Al reduced calcium (Ca) and...

  18. Silvicultural Attempts to Induce Browse Resistance in Conifer Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Kimball

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiyear study was conducted to determine if soil amendment combined with topical application of elemental sulfur could be employed to reduce deer browse damage to four conifer species. Fertilizer and sulfur were applied to conifer seedlings at seven sites near Corvallis, OR. Growth and browse damage data were collected for all seedlings over a period of 17 months. Additionally, foliar concentrations of monoterpenes and simple carbohydrates were assessed in western redcedar (Thuja plicata seedlings over a period of three years. Fertilization and sulfur treatments had a moderate impact on growth and no influence on browse damage or the chemical responses. Over the course of the study, browse damage diminished while foliar monoterpene concentrations increased in redcedar. It appears that silvicultural manipulation via sulfur application and/or soil amendment cannot accelerate or alter the ontogenetical changes that may naturally defend seedlings against mammalian herbivores. In a brief trial with captive deer, redcedar browse resistance was influenced by seedling maturation, but not monoterpene content. Other maturation effects may yield significant browse protection to young seedlings.

  19. Molecular biology of Ganoderma pathogenicity and diagnosis in coconut seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandan, A; Radjacommare, R; Ramanathan, A; Raguchander, T; Balasubramanian, P; Samiyappan, R

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Ganoderma boninense was tested on coconut seedlings under greenhouse conditions and infection confirmed by using immunological and molecular diagnostic tools. Desiccation of older leaves and the emergence of sporophores were observed from pathogen-inoculated seedlings, whereas a control seedling does not show any pathogenic symptoms. Mature sporophores were formed within 10-13 weeks after inoculation. Polyclonal antibodies raised against mycelial proteins of Ganoderma were used for detection of Ganoderma in infected field palm and seedlings through indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. We adopted dot-immunobinding assay for the detection of Ganoderma from greenhouse and field samples. Under nucleic-acid-based diagnosis, G. boninense (167 bp) was detected from artificially inoculated seedlings and infected field palms by polymerase chain reaction. Apart from these, histopathological studies also support the Ganoderma pathogenicity in coconut seedlings. The pathogenicity test and combination of all the three diagnostic methods for Ganoderma could be highly reliable, rapid, sensitive and effective screening of resistance in planting material in the future.

  20. Image seedling analysis to evaluate tomato seed physiological potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neumann Silva

    Full Text Available Computerized seedling image analysis are one of the most recently techniques to detect differences of vigor between seed lots. The aim of this study was verify the hability of computerized seedling image analysis by SVIS® to detect differences of vigor between tomato seed lots as information provided by traditionally vigor tests. Ten lots of tomato seeds, cultivar Santa Clara, were stored for 12 months in controlled environment at 20 ± 1 ºC and 45-50% of relative humidity of the air. The moisture content of the seeds was monitored and the physiological potential tested at 0, 6 and 12 months after storage, with germination test, first count of germination, traditional accelerated ageing and with saturated salt solution, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence and with seed vigor imaging system (SVIS®. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications. The parameters obtained by the computerized seedling analysis (seedling length and indexes of vigor and seedling growth with software SVIS® are efficient to detect differences between tomato seed lots of high and low vigor.

  1. Acclimatization and growth of ornamental pineapple seedlings under organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation techniques are commonly used to produce ornamental pineapple seedlings in commercial scale, aiming to attend the growers with genetic and sanitary quality seedlings. However, the choice of the ideal substrate is essential for the acclimatization and growth stage of the seedlings propagated by this technique, since some substrates can increase the seedling mortality and/or limit the seedling growth due to its physical and chemical characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acclimatization of ornamental pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. var. ananassoides (Baker Coppens & Leal] on different substrates. Seedlings with approximately seven centimeters, obtained from in vitro culture, were transplanted into styrofoam trays filled with the following substrates: sphagnum; semi-composed pine bark; carbonized rice husk; sphagnum + semicomposed pine bark; sphagnum + carbonized rice husk; and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk. Each treatment was replicated five times using 10 plants. At 180 days, there were evaluated the following variables: survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, largest root length, and shoot and root dry matter. The substrate semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk presented the lowest mean (62% for survival percentage. The semi-composed pine bark and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk treatments presented significant increments in some evaluated biometric characteristics. The semi-composed pine bark is the most favorable substrate for the A. comosus var. ananassoids acclimatization.

  2. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  3. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet

    2015-01-01

    Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light on the ...... stress the importance of testing ploidy levels of selected material and use of genetic markers to qualify the assumptions in the quantitative genetic analysis....... that progenies consisted of both diploid and polyploid trees, and growth, gum yield, and gum quality varied substantially among ploidy level, populations, and progenies. Analysis of molecular variance and estimates of outcrossing rate supported that trees within open-pollinated families of diploids were half...... sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production...

  4. ACACIA Project - Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Briot, P.; Raynal, L.; Broutin, P.; Gimenez, M.; Soazic, M.; Cessat, P.; Saysset, S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO 2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as Monoethanolamine (MEA) which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then), Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO 2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using de-mixing solvent, DMX TM , developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process. (authors)

  5. Qualidade da madeira de eucalipto e Acacia mangium consorciadas para produção de polpa kraft branqueada

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Lucas Recla

    2013-01-01

    Objetivou-se com esse estudo a avaliação da qualidade da madeira de Acacia mangium cultivada no Brasil em consórcio com o híbrido Eucalyptus urophylla X Eucalyptus grandis para a produção de celulose branqueada e papel. Para tanto, avaliou-se efeitos de diferentes proporções de plantio misto, sendo totalizados quatro tratamentos caracterizados pela relação árvores de Acácia e árvores de Eucalipto plantadas no talhão. A qualidade da madeira foi analisada por meio da análise da composição quími...

  6. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  7. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  8. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salem, H.; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Hochlef, H.; Ben Salem, L.

    2005-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 ± 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 ± 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those offered

  9. Efficiency of Acacia Tortillis Plant Pod Shell as a Low Cost and Available Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossien JafariMansoorian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nondegradable toxic compounds such as phenol in the environment has nowadays led to many health and environmental problems. The present empirical study was conducted on the lab scale to evaluate the efficiency of Acacia tortillis pod shell as a new alternative and low cost adsorbent for removing phenol from aqueous solutions. The experiment was performed in a batch system and the effects of important operation variables including initial phenol concentrations of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 mg/l, absorbent doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6g/l in predetermined mesh sizes (ranging over 30-60 and 60-100, pH levels of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, and contact times of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min were evaluated. Finally, the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were determined in order to describe the relationship between the colored solution and the absorbent. Results showed that the highest phenol absorption efficiency achieved was above 95% which was obtained with an optimum pH level of 2, an optimum absorbent dose of 0.2 g/l, and a mesh size of 60-100 for a contact time of 10 minutes and at a low pollutant concentration. Increasing phenol concentration increased its removal efficiency but this removal rate was lower at extreme concentrations. Also, the adsorption process was found to be more compatible with the Freundlich model. Based on the results obtained, the pod shells of Acacia tortillis pod shell may be claimed to be an effective, efficient, and cheap absorbent for the removal of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  10. Variation of some wood macroscopic properties along the stem of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. adult trees in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the variation of pith eccentricity, heartwood proportion, latewood percentage and basic wood density along the stem of 45-year-old A. melanoxylon trees collected in four sites of Portugal, and investigate the eventual relationship between these variables.Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal.Materials and methods: Four sites and five trees per site were selected in the Acacia melanoxylon Portuguese forest.One wood sample at each of six height levels per tree was collected in order to evaluate its basic density, pith eccentricity, heartwood and latewood proportions.Main results: The high variability of the wood macroscopic properties among trees from the same site regarding to the variation of the corresponding average properties along the stem is a key characteristic of the experimental data.As a consequence, a multiple linear regression model tested was not able to properly explain the wood basic density variation of the 120 wood samples analysed. In spite of this, the following trends could be recognized: (i excluding the base level, wood basic density moderately increased with tree level; (ii latewood proportion followed similar behaviour; (iii pith eccentricity was low; (iv heartwood proportion decreased markedly with tree height, from 70% at the base to 7% at the top.Research highlights: The high basic density, the relatively low variability along the stem and the low pith eccentricity enable us to anticipate good performance as raw material for the wood industry.Key words: Acacia melanoxylon; basic density; earlywood; latewood; heartwood; sapwood; pith eccentricity.

  11. Effects of sand burial and seed size on seed germination, seedling emergence and seedling biomass of anabasis aphylla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.T.; Chu, G.M.; Jiang, P.; Wang, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test the effects of sand burial (0-2 cm) and seed size (small, medium and large) on seed germination and seedling growth of Anabasis aphylla, which is typically used as a windbreak and for the fixation of sand in the Gurbantunggut desert of Xinjiang, region of northwest China. The results showed that sand burial significantly affected seed germination, seedling emergence, survival and biomass of A. aphylla. The seed germination rate, seedling emergence rate, seedling survival rate and biomass were highest at the 0.2 and 0.5 cm sand burial depths. At different burial depths, different sizes of A. aphylla seed showed a significant difference in the germination and emergence rate. At the same sand burial depth, the seedling emergence rate of the large seeds was significantly higher than that of medium and small seeds. At sand burial depth of 0.2-2 cm, germination of large seeds and seedling survival rates were significantly higher than those at the same sand burial depth for medium seed germination, and the latter was significantly higher than for small seed. We speculate that tolerance to sand burial and diversity of seed size increased the adaption of A. aphylla to this environment, contributing to its dominance in the windy and sandy area of Gurbantunggut desert. (author)

  12. Development of high-throughput SNP-based genotyping in Acacia auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using short-read transcriptome data

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    Wong Melissa ML

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next Generation Sequencing has provided comprehensive, affordable and high-throughput DNA sequences for Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP discovery in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium. Like other non-model species, SNP detection and genotyping in Acacia are challenging due to lack of genome sequences. The main objective of this study is to develop the first high-throughput SNP genotyping assay for linkage map construction of A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids. Results We identified a total of 37,786 putative SNPs by aligning short read transcriptome data from four parents of two Acacia hybrid mapping populations using Bowtie against 7,839 de novo transcriptome contigs. Given a set of 10 validated SNPs from two lignin genes, our in silico SNP detection approach is highly accurate (100% compared to the traditional in vitro approach (44%. Further validation of 96 SNPs using Illumina GoldenGate Assay gave an overall assay success rate of 89.6% and conversion rate of 37.5%. We explored possible factors lowering assay success rate by predicting exon-intron boundaries and paralogous genes of Acacia contigs using Medicago truncatula genome as reference. This assessment revealed that presence of exon-intron boundary is the main cause (50% of assay failure. Subsequent SNPs filtering and improved assay design resulted in assay success and conversion rate of 92.4% and 57.4%, respectively based on 768 SNPs genotyping. Analysis of clustering patterns revealed that 27.6% of the assays were not reproducible and flanking sequence might play a role in determining cluster compression. In addition, we identified a total of 258 and 319 polymorphic SNPs in A. auriculiformis and A. mangium natural germplasms, respectively. Conclusion We have successfully discovered a large number of SNP markers in A. auriculiformis x A. mangium hybrids using next generation transcriptome sequencing. By using a reference genome from the most closely

  13. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation of hexachlorobutadiene in pumpkin seedlings after waterborne exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xingwang; Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yanlin; Yu, Miao; Liu, Jiyan; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-10-18

    Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has been listed as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in the Stockholm Convention, and is now drawing more and more research interest. However, the understanding of its bioaccumulation, especially in plants, is still very limited. In this work, the behavior of HCBD in aqueous solution and pumpkin seedlings was studied through in-lab hydroponic exposure experiments. It was found that 69% of HCBD volatilized from water to the atmosphere after one day of exposure, and only 1% remained in the solution after four days. This high volatility might be the main cause of the low HCBD levels in aqueous environments. Although a great amount of HCBD volatilized into the atmosphere, only a small proportion of airborne HCBD was captured by the leaves and stems of the blank pumpkin seedling controls. The translocation of HCBD from the leaves to the bottom roots, as well as its release from the roots into the water, was detected. For the exposure groups, the pumpkin seedlings absorbed HCBD from both the hydroponic solution and the air via the roots and leaves, respectively. The concentration of HCBD in the exposed pumpkin roots linearly increased with the continuous addition of HCBD into the exposure system. Upward translocation from the roots to the leaves and downward translocation from the leaves to the roots existed simultaneously in the exposed pumpkin seedlings. However, the concentrations of HCBD in the leaves, stems and roots in the exposure group were much higher than those of the blank plant controls, suggesting little contribution from the airborne HCBD in the hydroponically exposed pumpkin seedlings. The lipid content did not show obvious effects on the bioaccumulation and biodistribution of HCBD in the pumpkin seedlings, indicating that the translocation of HCBD within the pumpkin seedlings might be an active process. This study provided new findings on the environmental behavior of HCBD, which will be helpful for understanding the exposure

  15. Gene expression in plant lipid metabolism in Arabidopsis seedlings.

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    An-Shan Hsiao

    Full Text Available Events in plant lipid metabolism are important during seedling establishment. As it has not been experimentally verified whether lipid metabolism in 2- and 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings is diurnally-controlled, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to investigate the expression of target genes in acyl-lipid transfer, β-oxidation and triacylglycerol (TAG synthesis and hydrolysis in wild-type Arabidopsis WS and Col-0. In both WS and Col-0, ACYL-COA-BINDING PROTEIN3 (ACBP3, DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (DGAT1 and DGAT3 showed diurnal control in 2- and 5-day-old seedlings. Also, COMATOSE (CTS was diurnally regulated in 2-day-old seedlings and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE6 (LACS6 in 5-day-old seedlings in both WS and Col-0. Subsequently, the effect of CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY from the core clock system was examined using the cca1lhy mutant and CCA1-overexpressing (CCA1-OX lines versus wild-type WS and Col-0, respectively. Results revealed differential gene expression in lipid metabolism between 2- and 5-day-old mutant and wild-type WS seedlings, as well as between CCA1-OX and wild-type Col-0. Of the ACBPs, ACBP3 displayed the most significant changes between cca1lhy and WS and between CCA1-OX and Col-0, consistent with previous reports that ACBP3 is greatly affected by light/dark cycling. Evidence of oil body retention in 4- and 5-day-old seedlings of the cca1lhy mutant in comparison to WS indicated the effect of cca1lhy on storage lipid reserve mobilization. Lipid profiling revealed differences in primary lipid metabolism, namely in TAG, fatty acid methyl ester and acyl-CoA contents amongst cca1lhy, CCA1-OX, and wild-type seedlings. Taken together, this study demonstrates that lipid metabolism is subject to diurnal regulation in the early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis.

  16. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (pmeat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (pmeat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (pmeat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  17. Mangrove microclimates alter seedling dynamics at the range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaney, John L; Lehmann, Michael; Feller, Ilka C; Parker, John D

    2017-10-01

    Recent climate warming has led to asynchronous species migrations, with major consequences for ecosystems worldwide. In woody communities, localized microclimates have the potential to create feedback mechanisms that can alter the rate of species range shifts attributed to macroclimate drivers alone. Mangrove encroachment into saltmarsh in many areas is driven by a reduction in freeze events, and this encroachment can further modify local climate, but the subsequent impacts on mangrove seedling dynamics are unknown. We monitored microclimate conditions beneath mangrove canopies and adjacent open saltmarsh at a freeze-sensitive mangrove-saltmarsh ecotone and assessed survival of experimentally transplanted mangrove seedlings. Mangrove canopies buffered night time cooling during the winter, leading to interspecific differences in freeze damage on mangrove seedlings. However, mangrove canopies also altered biotic interactions. Herbivore damage was higher under canopies, leading to greater mangrove seedling mortality beneath canopies relative to saltmarsh. While warming-induced expansion of mangroves can lead to positive microclimate feedbacks, simultaneous fluctuations in biotic drivers can also alter seedling dynamics. Thus, climate change can drive divergent feedback mechanisms through both abiotic and biotic channels, highlighting the importance of vegetation-microclimate interactions as important moderators of climate driven range shifts. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  18. Growth and ABA responses of maple seedlings to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, A.; Robitaille, G.; Boutin, R. [Canadian Forestry Service, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Nadeau, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Station, Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1995-12-01

    The impacts of low pH and 2.0 mM aluminum (Al) on the growth of sugar maple seedlings was assessed over a 13-week period. The hypothesis was that low pH and high aluminum concentration would lower the vigor of sugar maple seedlings and were contributing factors to sugar maple stand decline. The effects of the stresses were measured in roots and shoots. The concentration of abscisis acid (ABA) in xylem sap in response to Al over time was measured to determine whether it could be used as an indicator of Al stress in sugar maple seedlings. At week 9, total leaf area of Al-treated seedlings was reduced by 27%, but by week 13 leaf area was similar for seedlings in all treatments. None of the other growth parameters examined were negatively affected by the treatments at either week 9 or week 13. ABA concentration in the xylem sap was not affected by any of the treatments. The duration of exposure to Al was found critical when assessing a threshold concentration for Al toxicity because plants can acclimate to an Al concentration previously considered toxic. 36 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  19. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

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    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  20. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY FROM FIVE TYPES OF SEEDLINGS

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    Florina Maria Copaciu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After germination process, the green seedlings accumulate important quantities of bioactive compounds such as: enzymes, vitamins, minerals, chlorophylls and nutrients. The current study presents a comparison between different bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity, after the seedling germination and growth of five seeds (arugula, lentil, wheat, beans and mustard both on soil, in a pot (natural system, and directly on cotton wool soaked, in water (artificial system. In this study the carotenoids content and the antioxidant capacity were analysed. The data of the present study showed that the highest amount of zeaxanthin and β - carotene was found in cultivars of wheat grown in natural system, while the highest antioxidant activity was found in cultivars of wheat, lentils and beans, though in this case with no statistical differences between the systems. The results show statistical differences between the values of bioactive compounds in the five types of seedlings but also in the values obtained for the same seedlings in different systems. The best cultivars for improving the nutritional quality for human consumption are wheat seedlings followed by lentil ones.

  1. Biodegradable bags for the production of plant seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bilck

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of plant seedlings has traditionally used polyethylene bags, which are thrown out in the soil or burned after transplant because the large amount of organic material attached to the bags makes recycling difficult. Additionally, when a seedling is taken from the bag for transplant, there is the risk of root damage, which compromises the plant’s development. In this study, we developed biodegradable bags to be used in seedling production, and we verify their influence on the development of Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng Pedersen, when the plant is planted without being removed from the bag. Both black and white biodegradable bags remained intact throughout the seedling production period (60 days. After being transplanted into containers (240 days, they were completely biodegraded, and there was no significant difference between the dry mass of these plants and that of plants that were transplanted without the bags. The plants that were cultivated without being removed from the polyethylene bags had root development difficulties, and the wrapping showed no signs of degradation. The use of biodegradable films is an alternative for the production of bags for seedlings, as these can then be transplanted directly into the soil without removing the bag, reducing the risk of damage to the roots during the moment of transplant.

  2. Allelopathic Responses of Rice Seedlings under Some Different Stresses

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    Tran Dang Khanh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic responses of rice seedlings under submergence stress at different temperatures (10, 25, 32, and 37 °C. The results showed that a wide range of allelopathic responses of rice seedlings depended on varieties and stress conditions, with temperature was being a key factor. It showed that the extracts of rice seedlings induced significant suppression on lettuce and radish seedling germination, but had negligible allelopathic effects on growth of barnyardgrass, whilst the emergence and growth of natural weeds was stimulated. In contrast, the root exudates of Koshihikari rice seedlings (K32 at 32 °C reduced the number of total weeds by ≈60.0% and the total dry weight of weeds by 93.0%; i.e., to a greater extent than other root exudates. Among the 13 identified phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, sinapic and benzoic acids—at concentrations of 0.360, 0.045, 3.052, 1.309 and 5.543 μg/mL might be involved in allelopathic responses of K32, inhibiting the growth of barnyardgrass and natural weeds. Findings of the present study may provide useful information on allelopathic responses of rice under environmental stresses and thus further understand of the competitive relationships between rice and weeds under natural conditions.

  3. Response of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings to Stylet-Bearing Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglierchio, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Of 12 stylet-bearing nematodes used for inoculations, Pratylenchus penetrans, P. brachyurus, P. vulnus, Ditylenchus destructor, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla reproduced on Pinus ponderosa, while Xiphinema index, Aphelenchus avenae, Paratylenehus neoamblycephalus, Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and Macroposthonia xenoplax did not. P. vulnus, P. brachyurus, P. penetrans, A. avenae, D. destructor, T. semipenetrans, and P. neoamblycephalus significantly suppressed both the shoot and root wet weights of ponderosa pine seedlings obtained from stands in five different locations. X. index significantly suppressed root wet weights, M. xenoplax siguificantly suppressed shoot wet weight, and M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. hapla suppressed neither at the inoculation levels used. Injurious nematodes tended to suppress root growth more than shoot growth. Seedlings from two locations produced greater shoot growth wet weight than did seedlings from the other three locations. The more injurious nematodes tended to cause an increase in the water content of shoots. Frequency analyses of seedling population shoot-root ratios indicated that ponderosa pine seedlings could be selected for better shoot-root ratios as well as for resistance to several pathogenic nematodes. PMID:19300659

  4. Symbiotic propagation of seedlings of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi (Orchidaceae

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    Fernanda Aparecida Rodrigues Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In nature, orchid seeds obtain the nutrients necessary for germination by degrading intracellular fungal structures formed after colonization of the embryo by mycorrhizal fungi. Protocols for asymbiotic germination of orchid seeds typically use media with high concentrations of soluble carbohydrate and minerals. However, when reintroduced into the field, seedlings obtained via asymbiotic germination have lower survival rates than do seedlings obtained via symbiotic germination. Tree fern fiber, the ideal substrate for orchid seedling acclimatization, is increasingly scarce. Here, we evaluated seed germination and protocorm development of Cyrtopodium glutiniferum Raddi cultivated in asymbiotic media (Knudson C and Murashige & Skoog and in oatmeal agar (OA medium inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp., using non-inoculated OA medium as a control. We also evaluated the performance of tree fern fiber, pine bark, eucalyptus bark, corncob and sawdust as substrates for the acclimatization of symbiotically propagated plants. We determined germination percentages, protocorm development and growth indices at 35 and 70 days of cultivation. Relative growth rates and the effects of substrates on mycorrhizal formation were calculated after 165 days of cultivation. Germination efficiency and growth indices were best when inoculated OA medium was used. Corncob and pine bark showed the highest percentages of colonized system roots. The OA medium inoculated with Epulorhiza sp. shows potential for C. glutiniferum seedling production. Corncob and pine bark are promising substitutes for tree fern fiber as substrates for the acclimatization of orchid seedlings.

  5. MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins with Potent Antioxidant Activity from the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root Bark of Acacia confusa

    OpenAIRE

    Wei; Zhou; Lin; Liao; Chai

    2010-01-01

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidi...

  6. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  7. Differences in nitrogen cycling and soil mineralisation between a eucalypt plantation and a mixed eucalypt and #Acacia mangium# plantation on a sandy tropical soil

    OpenAIRE

    Tchichelle, Sogni Viviane; Epron, Daniel; Mialoundama, Fidèle; Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Harmand, Jean-Michel; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Mareschal, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Sustainable wood production requires appropriate management of commercial forest plantations. Establishment of industrial eucalypt plantations on poor sandy soils leads to a high loss of nutrients including nitrogen (N) after wood harvesting. An ecological intensification of eucalypt plantations was tested with the replacement of half of the Eucalyptus urophylla × E. grandis by Acacia mangium in the eucalypt monoculture to sustain soil fertility through enhancement of the N biological cycle. ...

  8. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M. A.; Osman, Husam Eldien H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1st and 3rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2nd group when compared with the 4th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs. PMID:21772755

  9. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Mawla, Ahmed M A; Osman, Husam Eldien H

    2011-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats) was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the 1(st) and 3(rd) groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in the 2(nd) group when compared with the 4(th) control group. This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  10. Atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos convertidos de savana para plantios de Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima. = Chemical attribuites and microbial activity in soils converted to savanna for plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. in Roraima, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Mourão Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana tem sido empregada na avaliação de solos manejados, sendo um indicador importante na caracterização de solos alterados. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de plantios de Acacia mangium com diferentes idades sobre os atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos representativos da Savana do Estado de Roraima. Os plantios de A. mangium de três e cinco anos encontravam-se em áreas de LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e os de quatro e seis anos em ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico. As áreas próximas aos plantios com as mesmas condições de solos e com cobertura vegetal primária (savana natural constituiram as testemunhas. Foram amostrados os horizontes A e B sendo avaliados os atributos químicos dos solos e a atividade microbiana. A pobreza química e elevadasaturação por alumínio (%m dos solos estudados influenciaram significativamente nos menores valores de C-CO2 evoluído pela atividade microbiana. A maior atividade microbiana ocorreu em áreas plantadas independentemente do tipo de solo, em função das melhores condições químicas. Os maiores valores de C-CO2 evoluído correlacionaram-se melhor com os teores de carbono orgânico e matéria orgânica do solo. = Microbial activity has been used in the evaluation of soils, an important indicator in the characterization of alteredsoils. Therefore, this study has as aim to evaluate the effect of replacing natural vegetation to plantations of Acacia mangium onmicrobial activity in soils of savannas in Roraima state. The areas studied consisted of plantations of acacia with three and fiveyears in Yellow Latosol with four and six years in yellow Alfisols. Areas near the plantations with the same conditions of soiland vegetation (natural savanna were considered control. Were sampled the A and B horizons, corresponding depths 0-30 and 30-60 cm respectively, with three replications for a total of 36 experimental units. The results

  11. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

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    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal do solo e quociente metabólico, além de atributos químicos de fertilidade. Foi verificado que os plantios de A. mangium não proporcionaram aumentos significativos do carbono orgânico do solo em comparação às áreas de referência. Entretanto, na média geral, esses plantios proporcionaram aumento do carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo e redução do quociente metabólico, indicando a possibilidade de acúmulo de carbono orgânico no solo em longo prazo. Também foi observado que, em comparação ao plantio da fazenda Cigolina e às áreas de referência, o carbono microbiano do solo foi maior e acompanhado de menor quociente metabólico no plantio de A. mangium no CEAB, mostrando que a estrutura de plantio exerceu influência sobre a biomassa microbiana do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Acacia mangium plantation in the Roraima's Savanna, on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass. Soil samplings were collected on the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in two Acacia mangium plantation sites, about five years old, and in two sites of native savanna as

  12. Crescimento e teor de metais de mudas de espécies arbóreas cultivadas em solo contaminado com metais pesados Growth and metal concentration of seedlings of woody species in a heavy metal contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o teor de metais pesados e o crescimento de mudas de 20 espécies arbóreas tropicais em solo com elevado grau de contaminação com metais pesados. Em casa de vegetação, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos contendo 3,3 kg de misturas com diferentes proporções (0, 20, 40 e 60% v/v de solo contaminado. Verificou-se comportamento diferenciado das espécies quanto à inibição de crescimento e aos teores de metais na raiz e na parte aérea em decorrência da contaminação. Com base na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, concluiu-se que apenas Myrsine umbellata, Cedrella fissilis, Tabebuia impetiginosa e Copaifera langsdorffii não foram afetadas pela contaminação, enquanto Hymenaea courbaril, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Acacia mangium e Platypodium gonoacantha sofreram pequeno impacto. As demais espécies foram muito inibidas pela contaminação do solo, o que é causado pela absorção, na maioria dos casos, de Zn e Cd. Várias espécies apresentaram elevada capacidade de reter esses metais nas raízes, evitando sua translocação para a parte aérea.The objective of the paper was to evaluate metal content and ability to grow in soil with excess of heavy metals of seedlings of 20 woody species. In the greenhouse, seedlings were transplanted to pots with 3.3 kg of soil-mixes with different proportions (0, 20, 40, 60% v/v of a heavy metal contaminated soil. It was found that plant species behaved differently in terms of growth inhibition and metal content in the shoots and roots. Based upon the dry matter yield, only Myrsine umbellata, Cedrella fissilis, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Copaifera langsdorffii were not affected by increasing contamination, whereas Hymenaea courbaril, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Acacia mangium and Platypodium gonoacantha were only slightly affected by it. All the other species were highly inhibited by the excess of metals in the soil, being such effects related, in most

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF INSECT OVIPOSITING REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NESS, ACACIA AURICULIFORMIS AND PIPER BETLE LINN LEAVES EXTRACTS TO BATROCERA CARAMBOLAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  14. An Investigation of Insect Ovipositing Repellent Activity of Andrographis paniculata Ness, Acacia auriculiformis and Piper betle Linn Leaves Extracts to Batrocera carambolae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcahyo Iman Prakoso

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Batrocera carambolae was one of the main pests in some types of fruits. This pest attack resulted in quantitative damage in the form of fall of young fruit and qualitatively in the form of fruit to rot and contains maggots. This research was conducted to determine selected extract from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves which have repellent activity for Batrocera carambolae. Nine extracts from the maceration process of the three leaves were evaluated by placing the extracts and flies together in the cage. The ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness, Piper betle Linn and Acacia auriculiformis leaves were applied to the test pieces and fed into a cage containing 10 male and female flies. From observation, N-hexane extracts from Andrographis Paniculata Ness and Piper betle Linn leaves and ethyl acetate extracts from Acacia auriculiformis leaf  having good activity as repellent and potentially to be used as a insect ovipositing repellent of Batrocera carambolae.

  15. Influence of microfibril angle on the thermal and dynamic-mechanical properties of Acacia Mangium wood using X-ray diffraction and dynamics-mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, T.A.; Julynnie Wajir; Fauziah Abdul Aziz

    2009-01-01

    The term microfibril angle, MFA in wood science refers to the angle between the direction of the helical windings of cellulose microfibrils in the secondary cell wall, S 2 layer of fibers and tracheids and the long axis of the cell. In this study, the mean MFA of the cell walls were determined for thin samples of thickness 200.0 μm from pith and outwards, for eight ages of Acacia Mangium wood. The determination of MFA was based on a diffraction pattern arising from cellulose crystal planes of the type 002 generated by x-ray diffraction and recorded using an electronic detector. The results show an inversely relationship between MFA and age of tree in Acacia mangium wood. MFA decreased from 26.13 degree at age 3 year-old to 0.20 degree at tree of age 15 year-old for the pith region. The most significant drop occurred from 16.14 degree at age 7 year-old to 11.30 degree at age 9 year-old. an inversely relationship between MFA and storage modulus E ' was evidence in Acacia mangium at age 10 year-old. The results showed that about 76.22 % variation of loss modulus E was attributed to the MFA, while about 66.4 % of the variation of glass transition T g was explained by MFA under the same experimental conditions. (author)

  16. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd. Evaluation of the breeding potential in height growth for Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre In 2009-10, in Ayapel, Planeta Rica and Tierralta, Córdoba department (Colombia the growth performance in overall height of 90 open-pollinated families of Acacia mangium was evaluated. In these municipalities the climate is classified, according to Holdridge, like tropical dry forest (TDF, except Tierralta that it is tropical moist forest (TMF. During the first year of growth, plants in each family were evaluated in progeny tests using a randomized experimental complete block design, with six blocks in each of the three locations. The experimental unit consisted of six open-pollinated plants per family, randomly distributed in three spatially separated pairs within each block. The prediction of genetic parameters individual and of families was conducted by the method BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction and the variance components by REML (restricted maximum likelihood procedure using the software SELEGEN. Heritability

  17. THE EFFECT OF MAGNETIC LIQUIDS IN SOME TREE SEEDLINGS

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    Ioan Creanga

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of two tree species, the black poplar hybrid (Populus canadiensis Moench. and the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L., among the most important for the temperate region, were treated with various concentrations of oil-ferrofluid based on natural hydrocarbons. The experiment has revealed the ferrofluid influence on the assimilatory pigments as well as on the nucleic acids (spectral measurements in young plantlets aged of 3 months. It was found that the levels of assimilatory pigments are generally diminished though the ratio chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b is generally enhanced for ferrofluid samples suggesting the seedlings sensitivity to the chemical and magnetic stimuli consistent with the ferrofuid addition. The LHC II system (Light Harvesting Complex II sensitivity to external factors might be associated with the ferrofluid influence on the young seedlings photosynthesis.

  18. Endophytic fungi reduce leaf-cutting ant damage to seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittleston, L. S.; Brockmann, F.; Wcislo, W.; Van Bael, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study examines how the mutualism between Atta colombica leaf-cutting ants and their cultivated fungus is influenced by the presence of diverse foliar endophytic fungi (endophytes) at high densities in tropical leaf tissues. We conducted laboratory choice trials in which ant colonies chose between Cordia alliodora seedlings with high (Ehigh) or low (Elow) densities of endophytes. The Ehigh seedlings contained 5.5 times higher endophyte content and a greater diversity of fungal morphospecies than the Elow treatment, and endophyte content was not correlated with leaf toughness or thickness. Leaf-cutting ants cut over 2.5 times the leaf area from Elow relative to Ehigh seedlings and had a tendency to recruit more ants to Elow plants. Our findings suggest that leaf-cutting ants may incur costs from cutting and processing leaves with high endophyte loads, which could impact Neotropical forests by causing variable damage rates within plant communities. PMID:20610420

  19. Propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salahbiah Abdul Majid; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Rafaie Abdul Salam; Nurhayati Irwan; Affrida Abu Hassan; Rusli Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Aquilaria malaccensis or karas is the principal source of gaharu resin, which is used in many cultures for incense, perfumes and traditional medicines. The species is mainly propagated conventionally through seeds, cuttings and graftings. Propagation by seeds is usually a reliable method for other forest species, but for karas, this technique is inadequate to meet the current demand of seedling supplies. This is principally due to its low seed viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting of seedlings, long life-cycle and rare seed production. Tissue culture has several advantages over conventional propagation, especially for obtaining large number of uniform and high-yielding plantlets or clones. This paper presents the current progress on mass-propagation of Aquilaria malaccensis seedlings through tissue culture technique at Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  20. Survival and Growth of Northern Red Oak Seedlings Following a Prescribed Burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. Johnson

    1974-01-01

    Mortality of northern red oak seedlings in a spring prescribed burn was related to temperature near the root collar. Most of the 42 percent of seedlings that survived the burn developed new shoots from the root collar.

  1. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se

  2. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  3. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  4. Influence of nutrition and various substrates on spruce seedling growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Matilda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the influence of main macronutrients (N, P, and K on growth and development of spruce (Picea abies L. Karst one-year old seedlings are presented. They were grown in containers, in nursery conditions, on four different substrates. There is a good influence on biogenous element contents, height, root collar diameter, needle length and mass, root mass as well as physiological vitality of spruce seedlings. It was observed that the effect of nutrition depends also on the type of substrate.

  5. Growth of short-day treated spruce seedlings planted throughout British Columbia. FRDA report No. 209

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasowski, M.J.; Letchford, T.; Eastham, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Short photoperiod (SD) treatments of conifer seedlings induce bud dormancy and enhance cold acclimation. Such treatments are also useful in regulating seedling height to meet a specific target and in preparing seedlings for lifting at a desirable time. These trials were designed to compare different SD-treated and untreated stock in terms of their annual height and ground-line stem diameter increments, 1st year post-planting terminal bud phenology, and seedling survival and condition.

  6. Impact of climate change, seedling type and provenance on the risk of damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings in Sweden due to early summer frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langvall, Ola (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Unit for Field-based Forest Research, Asa Forest Research Station, Lammhult (Sweden))

    2011-04-15

    A model including site-specific microclimate-affecting properties of a forest regeneration area together with seedling characteristics was used to evaluate the accumulated risk of frost damage to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings. Climate change in Sweden was simulated on the basis of the regional climate model RCA3. The daily average temperature, the driving factor for bud burst in the model, was adjusted using the difference between the mean of the climate model data for the years 1961-1990 and 2036-2065. The model was run for a highly frost prone, clear-cut site in which bare-rooted Norway spruce seedlings of mid-Swedish provenance were planted. Alternate runs were conducted with data for containerized seedlings and seedlings of Belarusian origin. The study showed that bud burst will occur at earlier dates throughout Sweden in the period 2036-2065 if the climate changes according to either of the climate scenarios examined, compared to the reference period 1961-1990. Furthermore, the risk of damage to Norway spruce seedlings as a result of frost events during summer will increase in southern Sweden and be unaffected or decrease in northern Sweden. The risk of frost damage was exacerbated in containerized seedlings, while the risk was lower for the seedlings of Belarusian provenance when compared with bare-rooted seedlings or seedlings of mid-Swedish origin

  7. Colorimetric Detection Based on Localised Surface Plasmon Resonance Optical Characteristics for the Detection of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Acacia Gum–Stabilised Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Alzahrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles in sensing is attracting the interest of many researchers. The aim of this work was to fabricate Acacia gum–stabilised silver nanoparticles (SNPs using green chemistry to use them as a highly sensitive and cost-effective localised surface plasmon resonance (LSPR colorimeter sensor for the determination of reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . Silver nanoparticles were fabricated by the reduction of an inorganic precursor silver nitrate solution (AgNO 3 using white sugar as the reducing reagent and Acacia gum as the stabilising reagent and a sonication bath to form uniform silver nanoparticles. The fabricated nanoparticles were characterised by visual observation, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The TEM micrographs of the synthesised nanoparticles showed the presence of spherical nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 10 nm. The EDAX spectrum result confirmed the presence of silver (58%, carbon (30%, and oxygen (12%. Plasmon colorimetric sensing of H 2 O 2 solution was investigated by introducing H 2 O 2 solution into Acacia gum–capped SNP dispersion, and the change in the LSPR band in the UV-Vis region of spectra was monitored. In this study, it was found that the yellow colour of Acacia gum–stabilised SNPs gradually changed to transparent, and moreover, a remarkable change in the LSPR absorbance strength was observed. The calibration curve was linear over 0.1–0.00001 M H 2 O 2 , with a correlation estimation ( R 2 of .953. This was due to the aggregation of SNPs following introduction of the H 2 O 2 solution. Furthermore, the fabricated SNPs were successfully used to detect H 2 O 2 solution in a liquid milk sample, thereby demonstrating the ability of the fabricated SNPs to detect H 2 O 2

  8. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P < 0.05) crude protein intake as the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal increased from 80 to 120 g. Similarly, treatment with PEG 4000 improved (P < 0.05) DM, OM and CP digestibilities when compared to 80 g Acacia nilotica leaf meal. Supplementation with PEG 4000 resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in blood urea concentrations. Polyethylene glycol 4000 has the potential to improve the feeding value of A. nilotica leaf meal and can, therefore, be used in the feeding systems for ruminant animals. The second experiment determined the effect of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation on in vitro digestibility of the diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP

  9. Rapid root extension during water pulses enhances establishment of shrub seedlings in the Atacama Desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, M.F.; Squeo, F.A.; Gutierrez, J.R.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Questions: (1) What is the water threshold for shrub seedling establishment in arid scrubland? (2) How do seedling root growth morphological traits affect the water threshold required for seedling establishment? Location: Arid scrubland, Atacama Desert, north-central Chile. Methods: We conducted a

  10. Naturally seeded versus planted ponderosa pine seedlings in group-selection openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary Fiddler; Martin Ritchie; Paula Anderson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to determine whether natural regeneration or planted seedlings should be used in group-selection openings. The answer dependson the survival and growth rate of both types of seedlings, and that could depend on the size of the openings and the effect of trees on their edge. In thisside-by-side study, the natural pine seedlings originated...

  11. Air lateral root pruning affects longleaf pine seedling root system morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Dave Haywood

    2016-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings were cultured with air lateral root pruning (side-vented containers, VT) or without (solid-walled containers, SW). Seedling root system morphology and growth were assessed before planting and 8 and 14 months after planting. Although VT seedlings had greater root collar diameter than the SW before planting,...

  12. [Physiological responses of mycorrhizal Pinus massoniana seedlings to drought stress and drought resistance evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ding, Gui-jie

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of inoculating Pisolithus tinctorius, Cenococcum geophilum, Cantharellus cibarius, and Suillus luteus on the physiological characteristics of Pinus massoniana seedlings under the conditions of drought stress and re-watering, with the drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings evaluated. Under drought stress, the MDA content and membrane' s relative permeability of P. massoniana seedlings increased, but these two indices in the inoculated (mycorrhizal) seedlings were significantly lower than these in the un-inoculated (control) seedlings. After re-watering, the MDA content and membrane's relative permeability of mycorrhizal seedlings had a rapid decrease, as compared with the control. In the first 21 days of drought stress, the production rate of superoxide radical of the seedlings increased, and the SOD, POD and NR activities of mycorrhizal seedlings increased significantly. With the extending of drought stress, the seedlings after re-watering had different recovery ability. Under the re-watering after 14 days drought stress, the SOD, POD and NR activities recovered. The drought resistance of the mycorrhizal seedlings was in the order of Suillus luteus 1 > Suillus luteus 7 > Cantharellus cibarius > Cenococcum geophilum > Pisolithus tinctorius. The SOD and MDA activities had a greater correlation with the mycorrhizal seedlings drought resistance, being able to be used as the indicators to evaluate the drought resistance of mycorrhizal seedlings.

  13. Characterizing Betula litwinowii seedling microsites at the alpine-treeline ecotone, central Greater Caucasus Mountains, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M Hughes; Daniel M. Johnson; Maia Akhalkatsi; Otar Abdaladze

    2009-01-01

    Seedling establishment is an important factor dictating the altitudinal limits of treeline species. Factors that affect seedling mortality and survival, however, have yet to be fully characterized, especially for deciduous treeline species. Here we describe microsite characteristics of successfully established Betula litwinowii seedlings at the...

  14. Four different Phytophthora species that are able to infect Scots pine seedlings in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate susceptibility of young Scots pine seedlings to four Phytophthora species: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora pini; seven-day-old seedlings of Scots pine (15 seedlings per experiment were infected using agar plugs of the respective species. Control group also consisted of 15 seedlings and was inoculated with sterile agar plugs. Results unambiguously show that after 4.5 days, all seedlings show clear signs of infection and display severe symptoms of tissue damage and necrosis. Moreover, three and two seedlings in the P. cactorum and P. cambivora infected seedlings groups, respectively, collapsed. The length of largest necrosis measured 13.4±3.90 mm and was caused by P. cactorum. To rule out any putative contamination or infection by secondary pathogens, re-isolations of pathogens from infection sites were performed and were positive in 100% of plated pieces of infected seedlings. All re-isolations were, however, negative in the case of the control group. Detailed microscopic analyses of infected tissues of young seedlings confirmed the presence of numerous Phytophthora species inside and on the surface of infected seedlings. Therefore, our results suggest Phytophthora spp. and mainly P. cactorum and P. cambivora as aggressive pathogens of Scots pine seedlings and highlight a putative involvement of these species in the damping off of young Scots pine seedlings frequently observed in forest nurseries.

  15. Effects of Fusarium circinatum on Disease Development and Gas Exchange in the Seedlings of Pinus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Soo Woo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Four-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii, Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida were inoculated with Fusarium circinatum isolate (FT-7, the pitch canker fungus, from P. thunbergii, to evaluate the effects of the pathogen on disease development and gas exchange rate. Needle dehydration was evident on 2 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii and P. rigida at 18 and 21 days after inoculation, respectively, while no symptoms were observed in P. densiflora seedlings throughout the experiment. Gas exchange stopped completely in 4 of 5 measured seedlings of P. thunbergii and 2 of 5 measured seedlings of P. rigida at 25 days after inoculation, and in the remaining 3 seedlings of P. rigida at 39 days after inoculation. Disease development in P. thunbergii seedlings was faster than that in P. rigida seedlings. By the time, the experiment was ended at 78 days after inoculation, 9 of 10 seedlings of P. rigida and 8 of 10 seedlings of P. thunbergii seedlings treated with FT-7 was almost dead, but all seedlings of P. densiflora were still healthy. We suggest that P. densiflora is resistant to F. circinatum in the current study, and gas exchange rate of the species after inoculation does not differ significantly compared to that of untreated control.

  16. Economic rationale for planting less trees in the face of seedling mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Dean; S. Joseph Chang

    2002-01-01

    Simple economic analyses are used to demonstrate that planting extra trees to compensate for initial seedling mortality can actually reduce the profit expected from a pine plantation. At a 6-percent interest rate, the cost of planting 15 or 25 percent additional seedlings compounded to the end of a 30-year rotation exceeds the revenue lost to these rates of seedling...

  17. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  18. Alternative control of early blight of tomato using plant extracts from Acacia nilotica, Achillea fragrantissima and Calotropis procera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A.M. BAKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo antifungal potential of extracts of three wild medicinal plants, (Acacia nilotica (L. Delile, Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk. Sch.Bip. and Calotropis procera (Aiton W. T. Aiton was examined against Alternaria solani, the causal agent of the early blight of tomato. Aqueous or ethanol extracts of all tested plants reduced the mycelial growth and conidium germination of A. solani in vitro. Ethanol extracts were more effective against the pathogen than the aqueous extracts. Extract of C. procera exhibited more antifungal potential against the pathogen than other plant extracts. Observations by scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic alterations in the morphology and ultrastructure of A. solani when treated with the ethanol extract of C. procera at a concentration of 20%. Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of many bioactive constituents in the extracts which were in greater amounts in C. procera than the other two plants. In a plot experiment, both types of extracts from C. procera reduced disease severity. Tomato fruit yield was increased after the treatment with the plant extracts.

  19. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  20. Evaluation of mosquito larvicidal activity of fruit extracts of Acacia auriculiformis against the Japanese encephalitis vector Culex vishnui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mousumi; Rawani, Anjali; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2018-02-19

    The larvicidal potentiality of crude and ethyl acetate extracts of fruits of Acacia auriculiformis was investigated against all the larval instars of JE vector Culex vishnui. The crude extracts showed good results against all the larval instars with highest mortality at 0.09%. Highest mortality was found at 300 ppm of ethyl acetate extract. Lowest LC 50 value was obtained at 72 h for third instar larvae. Non target organisms tested, showed no to very less mortality to ethyl acetate solvent extract. Presence of N-H stretching, a C=O stretching, C=C and C-N stretching vibrations of secondary amide or amine group were confirmed from IR analysis. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of three compounds namely Ethane 2-chloro-1,1-dimethoxy, Acetic acid, 1-methyl ether ester and [4-[1-[3,5-Dimethyl-4[(trimethylsilyl)oxy)phenyl]-1,3-dimethylbutyl)-2,6dimethylphenoxy)(trimethyl) silane, responsible for mosquito larval death.

  1. Consideraciones y recomendaciones prácticas para mejorar la calidad de la madera seca de Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio Monge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium, es actualmente, una de las especies más utilizadas en plantaciones comerciales en Costa Rica. Sin embargo, los usos de su madera han sido restringidos debido a que presenta algunos problemas durante el proceso de secado artificial, entre los que destaca la alta variabilidad del contenido de humedad final, la alta incidencia de defectos y la presencia de bolsas de humedad. Se han investigado las causas de esta variación y del desarrollo de estos defectos y se ha encontrado que los principales factores que influyen son: la alta variabilidad en el contenido de humedad inicial de la madera, la procedencia de la materia prima, la altura, la posición radial de la tabla al extraerla del árbol y el uso de programas de secado inadecuados para la especie. Asímismo se dan una serie de recomendaciones a considerar antes de iniciar el secado artificial con el fin de lograr una mejor calidad de madera en cuanto a la variabilidad del secado y lapresencia de defectos.

  2. Development of Acacia Glulam Wood Exterior Beam-to-Column Connection with Angles and Steel Rods System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanta Djoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two models (M9B1 and M9B2 connection types of acacia glulam wood exterior beam-to-column connections with angles and steel rod system have been developed. Both models have been tested experimentally under monotonic static and cyclic loadings. The behaviour of each model under static and cyclic loadings, maximum displacement, maximum moment, equivalent viscous damping ratio, stiffness degradation, rotational stiffness and ductility have been observed. From the test results it can be concluded that the behaviour of the connections were influenced by the number of bearing steel rods at the beam, wood quality, and thickness of the angles. The M9B1 connection type has more flexibility than the M9B2 connection type. Three dimensional finite element analyses considering anisotropic plasticity have been conducted for both models. It can be concluded that in M9B1 connection type, the tensile forces due to the moment are received by the combination of tensile steel rods and bearing force in the steel rod and wood around it. Overall performance of M9B2 connection type is better than that of M9B1 connection type because the former has higher initial stiffness and higher rotational ductility than the later.

  3. IMPACT OF Acacia drepanolobium (AN INVASIVE WOODY SPECIES ON GUM-RESIN RESOURCES AND LOCAL LIVELIHOOD IN BORANA, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayana Abdeta

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of Acacia drepanolobium, a species threatening rangeland resources including Gum-resin production and pastoralists’ livelihoods in Borana. Data were collected through vegetation surveys, key informant interviews, use of formal questionnaires and focus group discussions. We found a total of 22 woody species in the study area. A. drepanolobium was found to be the most dominant (22% and abundant (65% invasive woody species with an importance value index (IVI of 103. According to our respondents, A. drepanolobium was the first widely expanded woody species followed by Dichrostachys cinerea and A. mellifera. Eighty seven percent of our respondents ranked A. drepanolobium as the most invading woody species during their life time. Overall, our results demonstrated that the impact of A. drepanolobium had greatly affected the condition of rangeland vegetation. The implication is that the reduction in the capacity of rangelands for livestock grazing could reduce the resilience of local livelihood under changing environmental conditions. Furthermore, pastoralists’ perception indicated that the expansion of A. drepanolobium had reduced the survival of Gum-resin producing species. Generally, the shift from cattle based pastoral economy to mixed livestock types could be attributed to the expansion of A. drepanolobium that forced the community to shift their mode of production. We confirmed that A. drepanolobium is an invasive indigenous woody species with multiple effects on the ecology of rangelands and on the livelihood security of pastoral communities.

  4. The effect of acacia gum and a water-soluble dietary fiber mixture on blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, C D; Spiller, G A; Gates, J E; Miller, A F; Whittam, J H

    1993-04-01

    Water-soluble dietary fibers (WSDF) are generally thought to lower cholesterol. This study compared the cholesterol-lowering effects of a medium viscosity WSDF mixture (psyllium, pectin, guar gum and locust bean gum) with an equal amount of WSDF from acacia gum, which has a lower viscosity. Hypercholesterolemic males (n = 13) and females (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two WSDF treatments provided in a low-calorie powder form for mixing into beverages (powders into their usual beverages and to consume them three times daily (5 g WSDF/serving) for 4 weeks while consuming their typical fat-modified diets. Exercise and body weights were also held constant. The WSDF mixture yielded a 10% decrease in plasma total cholesterol (from 251 +/- 20 to 225 +/- 19 mg/dL; p gum-treated group showed no change in any plasma lipid parameters. The WSDF treatments did not produce significant changes in mean dietary intakes within or between treatment groups. These data support previous findings that a diet rich in select WSDF can be a useful cholesterol-lowering adjunct to a fat-modified diet, but that caution should be exercised in ascribing cholesterol-lowering efficacy to dietary fibers based solely on their WSDF classification. Finally, WSDF viscosity is a potential cholesterol-lowering factor to be explored further.

  5. Microencapsulation of vitamin e from palm fatty acid distillate with galactomannan and gum acacia using spray drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. Br.; Kaban, J.; Zulmi, R.

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin E from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been encapsulated using spray drying method with gum acacia (GA) and mixed of galactomannan from Arenga pinnata (GAP) with GA as encapsulating agent. Composite films with thickness vary from 0.542 - 0.779 mm were prepared by incorporating vitamin E onto matrix of GA (7 g) with various concentration of GAP (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.4 g). The film obtained from 0.2 g GAP and 1.3 g vitamin E showed better compatibility and have viscosity similar with standard (ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 22000:2005). That composition was used for spray drying method rendering micro-particle size 11 µm and the particle had spherical shape. Although the increment of GAP decreasing moisture content and the particle size from 16 µm to 11 µm, the yield of microcapsule, encapsulation efficiency, the amount of vitamin E absorbed and oxidation stability of vitamin E were increased.

  6. Combustion and kinetic parameters estimation of torrefied pine, acacia and Miscanthus giganteus using experimental and modelling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Małgorzata; Magdziarz, Aneta; Gajek, Marcin; Zajemska, Monika; Jayaraman, Kandasamy; Gokalp, Iskender

    2017-11-01

    A novel approach, linking both experiments and modelling, was applied to obtain a better understanding of combustion characteristics of torrefied biomass. Therefore, Pine, Acacia and Miscanthus giganteus have been investigated under 260°C, 1h residence time and argon atmosphere. A higher heating value and carbon content corresponding to a higher fixed carbon, lower volatile matter, moisture content, and ratio O/C were obtained for all torrefied biomass. TGA analysis was used in order to proceed with the kinetics study and Chemkin calculations. The kinetics analysis demonstrated that the torrefaction process led to a decrease in Ea compared to raw biomass. The average Ea of pine using the KAS method changed from 169.42 to 122.88kJ/mol. The changes in gaseous products of combustion were calculated by Chemkin, which corresponded with the TGA results. The general conclusion based on these investigations is that torrefaction improves the physical and chemical properties of biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. ARCAS (ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System) -- a Web Access System for Climate Model Data Access, Visualization and Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkarinen, C.; Brown, D.; Callahan, J.; hankin, S.; de Koningh, M.; Middleton-Link, D.; Wigley, T.

    2001-05-01

    A Web-based access system to climate model output data sets for intercomparison and analysis has been produced, using the NOAA-PMEL developed Live Access Server software as host server and Ferret as the data serving and visualization engine. Called ARCAS ("ACACIA Regional Climate-data Access System"), and publicly accessible at http://dataserver.ucar.edu/arcas, the site currently serves climate model outputs from runs of the NCAR Climate System Model for the 21st century, for Business as Usual and Stabilization of Greenhouse Gas Emission scenarios. Users can select, download, and graphically display single variables or comparisons of two variables from either or both of the CSM model runs, averaged for monthly, seasonal, or annual time resolutions. The time length of the averaging period, and the geographical domain for download and display, are fully selectable by the user. A variety of arithmetic operations on the data variables can be computed "on-the-fly", as defined by the user. Expansions of the user-selectable options for defining analysis options, and for accessing other DOD-compatible ("Distributed Ocean Data System-compatible") data sets, residing at locations other than the NCAR hardware server on which ARCAS operates, are planned for this year. These expansions are designed to allow users quick and easy-to-operate web-based access to the largest possible selection of climate model output data sets available throughout the world.

  8. Seed germination and seedling emergence of Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy B. Harrington

    2009-01-01

    Scotch broom is a large, leguminous shrub that has invaded 27 U.S. states. The species produces seeds with a hard coat that remain viable in the soil for years. Growth-chamber studies were conducted to determine effects of temperature regime and cold-stratification period on seed germination. Seedling emergence, mortality, and biomass also were studied in response to...

  9. Effect of exogenous gibberellic acid on germination, seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gibberellic acid on germination and seedling growth of lettuce variety, Vista, under salinity conditions was studied. A reduction in germination percentage, roots and shoots length and fresh weight were observed under salt stress. At the same time, acid phosphatase and phytase activities in roots were reduced ...

  10. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient ...

  11. Soil seed bank evaluation and seedling establishment along a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of rangeland degradation on the size and species composition of the seed bank and seedling establishment in the field were quantified over a two year period (2000–2001 and 2001–2002 growing seasons). Soil seed bank sampling was carried out at three-monthly intervals from 0.25m2 blocks 50mm deep.

  12. Rooting of needle fascicles from western white pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramond J. Hoff; Geral I. McDonald

    1968-01-01

    In one test, 45 out of 318 (14 percent) needle fascicles from 2-year-old seedlings of Pinus monticola Dougl. were rooted. Eight of the needle fascicles produced shoot growth. In another test, 392 out of 742 (53 percent) needle fascicles were rooted, but none of these produced shoot growth.

  13. Identification of zygotic and nucellar seedlings in citrus interspecific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... Department of Plant Breeding and Improvement, Iran Citrus Research Institute, Mottahari Street, Ramsar, .... (C. aurantium) rootstock plants for further agronomic evaluation .... literatures may be attributed to pollination efficiency and ... zygotic seedlings in Swingle citromelo Citrus paradisi × Poncirus tifoliata.

  14. Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis of seedling traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indirect selection is a useful means for improving yield in cotton crop. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic variability, broad sense heritability, genetic advance and correlation among the six seedling traits and their direct and indirect effects on cotton yield by using path coefficient analysis.

  15. Decision making analysis of walnut seedling production on a small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision has to be made between those three alternatives aiming at achievement of optimal/best economic result for the family farm. Summarizing results obtained from the decision tree, simulation and sensitivity analysis, the optimal solution for the family farm should be to continue production of walnut seedlings with ...

  16. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  17. [Comparison of development condition of different Liriope spicata seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Su, He; Zhan, Yan-Ting; Yang, Yang; Dong, Xue-Hui

    2017-04-01

    The study identified the main morphological index of the seedlings classification including seedling age,the root width and number of newborn buds and coarse roots, according to the local agricultural production techniques and assessment of Liriope spicata's growth and development condition. After carrying on K cluster analysis of the morphological, we separated the seedlings into two levels. The first level (Ⅰ): the new talent with the root width exceeding two point five millimeters, the new born buds exceeding three, and with the coarse root exceeding one. The second level (Ⅱ): the old talent with the root width below one millimeters, the newborn buds below two and without coarse root. The study surveyed the plants' growth index dynamics, as well as the yield and quality of the tuberous root. The experimental results suggested that the growth condition of seedling Ⅰwas better, the yield of earthnut higher, the quality of earthnut more excellent. The study lied the foundation of L. spicata's grading standards and standardized production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Light-emitting diode lighting for forest nursery seedling production

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Crop lighting is an energy-intensive necessity for nursery production of high-quality native plants and forest tree seedlings. During the winter months (especially in northern USA latitudes) or overcast or cloudy days, the amount of solar radiation reaching greenhouse crops is insufficient resulting in growth cessation, early terminal bud formation, and failure of...

  19. Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential effects of aluminium on the seedling parameters of wheat. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... and Maroon (Al tolerant) were grown on hydroponic solution (non modified Hoagland) containing AlCl3 (0-100-200-300 μM). Factorial ...

  20. Experiences in the containerized tree seedlings forest nurseries production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Izquierdo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work summarizes the results of the research carried out by the team of forest nurseries at Sustainable Forest Management Group in Pinar del Río University Forest Research Centre in the last 25 years. The characteristics of seedlings quality are presented, the best growing media, the water management to harden the forest species under the ecological conditions of more and more lingering periods of drought. The studied forest species were: Talipariti elatum (Sw. Fryxell, Pinus tropicalis Morelet , Swietenia mahagon(L.Jacq. Swietenia macrophylla King, Caesalpinia violacea (Mill. Stand, Genipa americana L, Gerascanthus gerascanthoides (Kunth Borhidi y Cedrela odorata L. y Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. The main results can be summarized in the following way: the size of the containers oscillates between 90 and 300 cubic centimeters; the growing media combines organic and composted components fundamentally of Pinus caribaea and Eucalyptus ssp bark., with proportions that they vary according to the species and the disposability of these components in the nurseries where the plants take place; for the water management hardening procedures were used by watering in last month of the cultivation. In general the economic analyses demonstrated the decrease of the production costs for seedlings with the employment of this novel technology, the same as their advantages on the traditional technology of seedlings production in polybags: humanization of manpower work in forest nursery, reduction of costs production, improvement of produced seedling quality and productivity increase of their workers.

  1. Effect of organic media on growth of vegetable seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic media physical and chemical properties are suitable for growing seedling. It is not is low cost for additional chemical substances. In NP/sub 2/O/sub 5/K/sub 2/ O additional media M5 compared to organic media. The purpose of this study was to determine; the use of different growing media for organic production of tomatoes and peppers seedling quality characterictics. The trial was conducted the year 2010 in the greenhouse of Organic Agriculture Program of Arslanbey Vocational School of Kocaeli University. In this research M4 containing peat-stable manure-perlite, M5 containing peat-sand-NPK, M6 containing peat-stable manure and M8 containing peat gave positive results in tomato and pepper seedling cultivation. The quality of tomato and pepper seedling measured values and there were a difference between different growing media statistically at p<0.05 level. However, the width of cotyledons of pepper with different growing medium did not differ statistically. (author)

  2. Photosynthetic Responses of Seedlings of two Indigenous Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. The potential role of exotic tree plantations in facilitating successional processes on degraded areas was evaluated in southern Ethiopia, Munessa-Shashemene forest, by examining photosynthetic responses of Bersamaabyssinica Fres. and Croton macrostachyusDel. seedlings naturally grown inside ...

  3. Water application rate and frequency affect seedling survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate amount of water is critical to successful tree nursery operation among resource-constrained smallholder farmers in Africa. Two experiments were undertaken with the objectives of evaluating effects of water application rate and frequency on seedling growth and survival of Persea americana and Vangueria ...

  4. Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glyoxalase I expression pattern in Hevea brasiliensis seedlings under varied stress conditions. MVP Siraj, A Thulaseedharan, Anu Augustine. Abstract. Drought is one of the most important stress factors which adversely affect plants' growth and productivity. Global climate change may make this situation more serious in the ...

  5. Simulated drought influences oxidative stress in Zea mays seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is an abiotic factor that limits the productivity of crop plants survival and productivity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of simulated drought on the malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes activity in Zea mays. Seedlings were grown for 8 weeks in nursery bags filled with sandy-loam soil in ...

  6. Morphological adaptation of Cercis griffithii seedlings in response to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment for evaluate the effect of drought and salinity stresses on the morphological behaviours of Afghan redbud seedlings was done in Torogh nursery in Iran country. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design; without stress (tap common water in the nursery- EC 0.8 dS m-1), drought stress ...

  7. Photosynthetic efficiency of Pedunculate oak seedlings under simulated water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of seedlings of Quercus robur exposed to short-term water stress in the laboratory conditions was assessed through the method of induced fluorometry. The substrate for seedlings was clayey loam, with the dominant texture fraction made of silt, followed by clay and fine sand, with total porosity 68.2%. Seedlings were separated in two groups: control (C (soil water regime in pots was maintained at the level of field water capacity and treated (water-stressed, WS (soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point and lentocapillary capacity. The photosynthetic efficiency was 0.642±0.25 and 0.522±0.024 (WS and C, respectively, which was mostly due to transplantation disturbances and sporadic leaf chlorosis. During the experiment Fv/Fm decreased in both groups (0.551±0.0100 and 0.427±0.018 in C and WS, respectively. Our results showed significant differences between stressed and control group, in regard to both observed parameters (Fv/Fm and T½. Photosynthetic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings was significantly affected by short-term water stress, but to a lesser extent than by sufficient watering.

  8. Germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata Mast. provenances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulan Xu; Nianhui Cai; Bin He; Ruili Zhang; Wei Zhao; Jianfeng Mao; Anan Duan; Yue Li; Keith Woeste

    2016-01-01

    We studied seed germination and early seedling growth of Pinus densata to explore the range of variability within the species and to inform afforestation practices. Phenotypes were evaluated at a forest tree nursery under conditions that support Pinus yunnanensis, one of the presumed parental species of P. densata...

  9. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate appropriate concentrations of plant growth retardants (PGRs) and duration of seed soaking in order to suppress hypocotyl length and plug seedling height of 2 tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Seogeon and Seokwang). Daminozide (B-9), uniconazole ...

  10. Mycorrhizal inoculation of pecan seedlings with some marketable truffles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian M. Benucci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pecan is the common name of Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, an ectomycorrhizal tree native to North America, also frequently known as hickory. Mycorrhizal inoculations of pecan seedlings with: Tuber aestivum Vittad., T. borchii Vittad., T. indicum Cooke & Massee, and T. lyonii Butters are described and discussed.

  11. Sucrose metabolic pathways in sweetgum and pecan seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Sung; P.P. Kormanik; D.P. Xu; C.C. Black

    1989-01-01

    Sucrose metabolism and glycolysis were studied in one- to two-year-old seedlings of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch). The sucrose synthase pathway was identified as the dominant sucrose metabolic activity in sucrose sink tissues such as terminal buds and the root cambial...

  12. Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietras, Justyna; Stojanović, Marko; Knott, R.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 529-535 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought stress * sap flow * transpiration * biomass Production * sessile Oak * sprout * seedling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  13. Cross reaction between P-61 sunflower seedlings oleosomal protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A true triacylglycerol lipase was detected in germinating sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings associated to oleosomes. This enzyme that has not yet been identified was partially purified as shown by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) (10%); two protein bands, P-61 and P-66 ...

  14. Proteomic analysis of cold stress responses in tobacco seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...

  15. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  16. Effect on nursery and field performance of Pinus patula seedlings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusarium circinatum is an important fungal pathogen of Pinus species. In South Africa, it is the most significant pathogen of Pinus patula seedlings in forestry nurseries where it presents a substantial constraint to productivity and can continue to cause mortality in-field for up to two years after establishment. This study ...

  17. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling growth of wheat under salt treatment. L Wang, HL Wang, CH Yin, CY Tian. Abstract. Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cold ...

  18. Genetic improvement of Eucalyptus grandis using breeding seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus grandis is commercially important in Zimbabwe and a breeding program has been in progress since 1962. A classical breeding strategy was used initially but, in 1981, the Multiple Population Breeding Strategy (MPBS) was implemented and the concept of the Breeding Seedling Orchard (BSO) became central to ...

  19. Measuring Maize Seedling Drought Response in Search of Tolerant Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hays

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify and develop drought tolerant maize (Zea mays L., high-throughput and cost-effective screening methods are needed. In dicot crops, measuring survival and recovery of seedlings has been successful in predicting drought tolerance but has not been reported in C4 grasses such as maize. Seedlings of sixty-two diverse maize inbred lines and their hybrid testcross progeny were evaluated for germination, survival and recovery after a series of drought cycles. Genotypic differences among inbred lines and hybrid testcrosses were best explained approximately 13 and 18 days after planting, respectively. Genotypic effects were significant and explained over 6% of experimental variance. Specifically three inbred lines had significant survival, and 14 hybrids had significant recovery. However, no significant correlation was observed between hybrids and inbreds (R2 = 0.03, indicating seedling stress response is more useful as a secondary screening parameter in hybrids than in inbred lines per se. Field yield data under full and limited irrigation indicated that seedling drought mechanisms were independent of drought responses at flowering in this study.

  20. Sugar signalling during germination and early seedling establishment in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Sugars have pronounced effects on many plant processes like gene expression, germination and early seedling development. Several screens for sugar insensitive mutants were performed to identify genes involved in sugar response pathways using the model plant Arabidopsis. These include sun, gin and

  1. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Brian M. LaPoint; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2005-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is conducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling methods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture...

  2. No de novo sulforaphane biosynthesis in broccoli seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorissen, Antonie; Kraut, Nicolai U.; de Visser, Ries; de Vries, Marcel; Roelofsen, Han; Vonk, Roel J.

    2011-01-01

    The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in significant amounts in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) seedlings in the form of its precursor glucoraphanin, has been identified as an inducer of quinine reductase, a phase-II detoxification enzyme known for its anticarcinogenic properties. Its

  3. Production of nursery-reared seedlings of the gray mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate germination of A. marina seeds and subsequent growth parameters of their seedlings in response to three different salinity levels composed of tap water, 50 % and 100 % seawater (0, 21, 42 ‰ salinity). Experimental results indicate that 21 ‰ salinity (50% seawater) has the highest ...

  4. The effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi and bacteria on pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Dahm

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ecomycorrhizal fungi (Hebelon crustuliniforme(Bull.: Fr. Quél. 5392 and Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers. Coker et Couch 5335 and bacteria (Bacillus polymyxa and Azospirillum brasilense. associated with mycorrhizas on the growth of pine seedligs was investigated. In addition the influence of bacteria on fungal biomass production and the relationship between ectomycorrhizal fungi and fungi pathogenic to root of pine seedlings were determined. In general, the shoot/root ratio was higher in plants inoculated with Hebeloma crustuliniforme and bacteria than in the control seedlings (grown only under sterile conditions. In non-sterile substrate the root/shoot ratio of the mycorrhizal seedlings was lower as compared to the control. Similar phenomenon was noted in plants inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinetorius. The bacteria used as well as the time of introduction of these organisms into the cultures of mycorrhiza fungi affected the production of fungal biomass. Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Pisolithus tinctorius inhibited the growth of Rizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi pathogenic to pine seedlings.

  5. Evaluation of polycross sweetpotato seedlings for root yield potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at determining the root yield potential of the sweetpotato seedlings, the variation in storage root flesh colour and response of the storage roots to major pests and diseases attacking sweetpotato in the field .The experiment was carried out in the screen house and at the Eastern experimental field of National ...

  6. Morphology targets: What do seedling morphological attributes tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Morphology is classically defined as the form and structure of individual organisms, as distinct from their anatomy or physiology. We use morphological targets in the nursery because they are easy to measure, and because we can often quantitatively link seedling morphological traits with survival and growth performance in the field. In the 20 years since the Target...

  7. Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergence of forage legume seedlings influenced by water potential and soil strength. DMG Njarui, LM Bahnisch, B O'Hagan, B So. Abstract. No Abstract Available E. Afr. Agric. For. J. 2003 69(1), 29-38. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthetic Genes in Germinating Arabidopsis Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasek, WL; Shirley, BW; McKillop, A; Goodman, HM; Briggs, W; Ausubel, FM

    1992-01-01

    Many higher plants, including Arabidopsis, transiently display purple anthocyanin pigments just after seed germination. We observed that steady state levels of mRNAs encoded by four flavonoid biosynthetic genes, PAL1 (encoding phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 1), CHS (encoding chalcone synthase), CHI (encoding chalcone isomerase), and DFR (encoding dihydroflavonol reductase), were temporally regulated, peaking in 3-day-old seedlings grown in continuous white light. Except for the case of PAL1 mRNA, mRNA levels for these flavonoid genes were very low in seedlings grown in darkness. Light induction studies using seedlings grown in darkness showed that PAL1 mRNA began to accumulate before CHS and CHI mRNAs, which, in turn, began to accumulate before DFR mRNA. This order of induction is the same as the order of the biosynthetic steps in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results suggest that the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is coordinately regulated by a developmental timing mechanism during germination. Blue light and UVB light induction experiments using red light- and dark-grown seedlings showed that the flavonoid biosynthetic genes are induced most effectively by UVB light and that blue light induction is mediated by a specific blue light receptor. PMID:12297632

  9. Effect of Trichoderma isolates on tomato seedling growth response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-29

    Jun 29, 2011 ... Seed germination rate was not affected by Trichoderma application, but .... system architecture under sterile condition (Bjorkman et al. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... of application to tomato seed in seedling shoot and root elements content. .... with production of some organic acids in the rhizosphere.

  10. Salt tolerance of physalis during germination and seedling growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.; Karlidag, H.

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NaCl salinity on germination and emergence of Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis peruviana. Seeds of P. ixocarpa and P. peruviana were germinated by the use of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl solutions in petri dishes. Final germination percentage (FGP) decreased with the increase in NaCl concentration. Both species germinated at the ranges of salinity. P. peruviana gave the greater germination percentages under salt stress than P. ixocarpa. NaCl salinity at different concentrations adversely affected germination rates. For seedling growth, seeds of both species were sown at 10 mm depth in plastic trays filled with peat to determine final emergence percentage (FEP). The trays were irrigated manually to saturation every day with 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 mM NaCl solutions to maintain the level of salinity. Salinity affected seed emergence and seedlings growth more than seed germination. The study showed that no emergence of Physalis was observed at 90, 120 and 180 mM NaCl salinity. Fresh and dry weights of normal seedlings were also evaluated. Salt stress significantly decreased the plant fresh and dry weight of both species. Based on the results of the experiment, it can be concluded that seedling emergence and growth is more sensitive to salt stress than seed germination in Physalis. (author)

  11. Common arbuscular mycorrhizal networks amplify competition for phosphorus between seedlings and established plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Marie Porret; Ambus, Per; Rosendahl, Søren

    2013-01-01

    ) seedlings grew into established networks of Rhizophagus irregularis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) in two experiments. One experiment studied seedling uptake of 32P in the network in response to cutting of cucumber shoots; the other analysed seedling uptake of P and nitrogen (N) in the presence of intact...... or severed arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus networks and at two soil P concentrations. Pre‐established and intact networks suppressed growth of tomato seedlings. Cutting of cucumber shoots mitigated P deficiency symptoms of seedlings, which obtained access to P in the extraradical mycelium and thereby showed...

  12. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry, J.A.; Emmingham, W.H.; Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1994-01-01

    Strontium-90 ( 90 Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90 Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90 Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90 Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  13. Differential radiosensitivity of seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.A.; Rao, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    A comparative study of the effects of γ-irradiation on seeds, seedlings and callus cultures of Petunia inflata showed striking differences in radiosensitivity as reflected in differences in mean fresh and dry weights, seedling height and morphology. Seeds subjected to low doses (4-6 kR) of irradiation showed stimulation of seedling height. Direct exposure of seedlings to high doses (10 kR) of irradiation caused inhibition in their development. Callus cultures, however, were more radioresistant compared to seeds and seedlings. Tissues grown on either an irradiated nutrient medium or on a medium in which sucrose alone had been irradiated, showed a marked inhibition in their growth potential

  14. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  15. Seed treatments with essential oils protect radish seedlings against drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Klein

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seedlings of economic crops is often reduced if there is not a steady supply of water. Essential oils (EO from plants are increasingly used instead of synthetic chemicals to protect plant and animal products against biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated priming radish seeds by soaking or by matriconditioning with synthetic or natural compounds as a means of inducing resistance to drought stress, thus maintaining crop yield. Priming radish seeds for two hours in solutions of essential oils (EO thymol and carvacrol derived from Origanum syriacum, with “oregano natural product” (ONP; a solution of the residue remaining after EO extraction, or with the gibberellin synthesis inhibitor trinexapac ethyl (TE, was much more effective in inducing drought resistance than was matriconditioning with the same compounds in sawdust for two days. The latter treatment induced considerable fungal and bacterial infection in treated seeds if the substrate-matrix was not heat-treated beforehand. The increase in specific leaf area in plants from treated seeds was mostly consistent with an increase in leaf water content. Seed treatments with EO, ONP, and especially TE led to a three-fold increase in radish seedling survival compared with water-treated controls, when 21 day-old seedlings were irrigated after 6 days of drought. Under drought conditions, seedlings from treated seeds had a 2–3-fold increase in relative water content increased 2–3-fold, while membrane permeability decreased 20–50-fold as a result of the treatments. However, the physical benefits of the treatments often did not correlate with treatment-induced increases in physiological parameters such as pigments (chlorophyll, carotenoid, anthocyanin, pigment ratios (chlorophyll a/b, carotenoid/chlorophyll, or antioxidant activity. Seed treatments with biostimulants can be as effective as treatments with synthetic compounds in inducing drought resistance in seedlings.

  16. Seedling recruitment of forb species under experimental microhabitats in alpine grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S. S.; Yu, L.; Lin, W. G.; Pingi, T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Which factors limit plant seedling recruitment in alpine meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), China? This study examined the relative influence of seed mass and microsites (resulted from grazing disturbance) on field seedling emergence and survival of nineteen alpine herbaceous species with a range of traits in QTP. Seed mass had significant effects on seedling emergence and survival eliminating influence of light and nutrient variances among these species. The larger-seed species had more advantageous than the smaller-seed species in seedling survival, but it was disadvatage for seedling emergence, especially under high nutrient availability and low light intensity conditions. Light had obvious effects on seedling survival, but less effects on seedling emergence for these species. Moreover, nutrient and light treatments altered the regression relationships of seed mass and seedling emergence and survival and the order of significances was L25>L50>L100>L10>L4. These results suggested that seed mass may restrict seedling recruitment processes, however, light and nutrient availability all have significant effects on seedling emergence and survival for these alpine species. Moderate light intensity was propitious to seedling emergence and survival in alpine grassland. This suggests that ecological factors in alpine grassland provide a stochastic influence on different seed-mass species. These trends may help to explain why many small-seeded species of Asteraceae and Gramineae tend to be more abundant in disturbed habitats. (author)

  17. Effects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmans, William; Mahy, Grégory; Monty, Arnaud

    2016-02-01

    Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits.

  18. The effects of Vexar® seedling protectors on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M.; Anthony, R. Michael; Krupa, Heather W.; Evans, James

    1997-01-01

    The effects on the growth and development of lodgepole pine roots from the Vexar® tubes used to protect seedlings from pocket gopher damage were studied in the Targhee National Forest, Idaho and the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. At each site, Vexar-protected and unprotected seedlings, with and without above-ground gopher damage were examined after six growing seasons for root deformities and growth. Undamaged seedlings exhibited greater growth, reflecting the importance of non-lethal gopher damage as a deterrent to tree growth. Protected seedlings with similar damage history as unprotected seedlings had greater root depth than unprotected seedlings, although unprotected seedlings with no above-ground damage generally had the greatest root weight. In general, the percent of seedlings with root deformities was greater for the unprotected seedlings than for the Vexar-protectd seedlings, although this could be largely due to the greater care required to plant protected seedlings. Acute deformities were more common for unprotected seedlings, whereas root deformities with less severe bending were more common for protected seedlings. The incidence of crossed roots was similar for protected and unprotected seedlings on the Deschutes site, where enough occurrences of this deformity permitted analyses. Protected seedlings were similar in root abundance, root distribution, root size and vigor to the unprotected seedlings, with some indication from the Deshutes study site that root distribution was improved with Vexar protection.

  19. Effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, S; Akgun, A

    2006-07-01

    The experiment was undertaken to test the efficiency of inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi on the seedling growth of three Pistacia species used as rootstocks. The stratified Pistacia seeds were inoculated with VAM fungi. The highest rate of inoculated roots was 96.7% in P. khinjuck seedlings with G. clarum and G. etunicatum, 83.3% in P. vera seedlings with G. caledonium and 73.3% in P. terebinthus seedlings with G. caledonium. Mycorrhizal inoculations improved seedling height only in P. terebinthus. Certain mycorrhizal inoculations increased the leaf N, but not P and K contents. Seedlings inoculated with G. caledonium had higher reducing sugar contents. It was concluded that pre-inoculated Pistacia seedlings could have a better growth in the harsh field conditions.

  20. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray John C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.