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Sample records for acacia dealbata nas

  1. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

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    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  2. Two invasive acacia species secure generalist pollinators in invaded communities

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    Montesinos, Daniel; Castro, Sílvia; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Exotic entomophilous plants need to establish effective pollinator interactions in order to succeed after being introduced into a new community, particularly if they are obligatory outbreeders. By establishing these novel interactions in the new non-native range, invasive plants are hypothesised to drive changes in the composition and functioning of the native pollinator community, with potential impacts on the pollination biology of native co-flowering plants. We used two different sites in Portugal, each invaded by a different acacia species, to assess whether two native Australian trees, Acacia dealbata and Acacia longifolia, were able to recruit pollinators in Portugal, and whether the pollinator community visiting acacia trees differed from the pollinator communities interacting with native co-flowering plants. Our results indicate that in the invaded range of Portugal both acacia species were able to establish novel mutualistic interactions, predominantly with generalist pollinators. For each of the two studied sites, only two other co-occurring native plant species presented partially overlapping phenologies. We observed significant differences in pollinator richness and visitation rates among native and non-native plant species, although the study of β diversity indicated that only the native plant Lithodora fruticosa presented a differentiated set of pollinator species. Acacias experienced a large number of visits by numerous pollinator species, but massive acacia flowering resulted in flower visitation rates frequently lower than those of the native co-flowering species. We conclude that the establishment of mutualisms in Portugal likely contributes to the effective and profuse production of acacia seeds in Portugal. Despite the massive flowering of A. dealbata and A. longifolia, native plant species attained similar or higher visitation rates than acacias.

  3. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

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    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  4. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

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    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan; Rameshkumar Santhanam; Sunghyun Hong; Jin-Woo Jhoo; Songmun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the inhibitory effects of acetone extracts from the stem bark of three Acacia species(Acacia dealbata, Acacia ferruginea and Acacia leucophloea) on nitric oxide production.Methods: The lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used to investigate the regulatory effect of acetone extracts of three Acacia stem barks on nitric oxide production and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase,cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a. Further, the phenolic profile of acetone extracts from the Acacia barks was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis.Results: All the three extracts significantly decreased LPS-induced NO production as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and tumor necrosis factor-a in a concentration dependent manner(25, 50 and 75 mg/m L). In the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis, acetone extract of Acacia ferruginea bark revealed the presence of 12 different phenolic components including quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid and rosmanol. However, Acacia dealbata and Acacia leucophloea barks each contained 6 different phenolic components.Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  5. Magnolia dealbata en Nuevo León, México Magnolia dealbata in Nuevo Leon, México

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    Carlos Gerardo Velazco-Macías

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza y describe la distribución de Magnolia dealbata Zucc. en el estado de Nuevo León, México, aportando información acerca de la ecología, estado de conservación, situación del hábitat y fenología de las poblaciones estudiadas. Por medio de una revisión bibliográfica y trabajo de campo realizado en la sierra Madre Oriental, se obtuvieron datos que permiten distinguir 2 núcleos poblacionales ubicados en el municipio de Montemorelos, en el centro del estado, con extensión total de 17.66 hectáreas, y densidad de hasta 30 individuos por 100 m2. Se presenta en asociación con Pinus teocote, Quercus spp., Cornus florida, Carya sp. y Sambucus nigra. La observación fenológica durante el periodo de estudio mostró que la aparición de nuevos brotes foliares comienza a principios de marzo y la floración a principios de mayo. El hábitat se observa con pocas alteraciones y no se identificaron amenazas a corto plazo para estas poblaciones.The distribution of Magnolia dealbata Zucc. in the state of Nuevo León in northeastern Mexico is analyzed and described; information regarding its conservation status, habitat health, and phenology of studied populations is provided. Through bibliographical information and field work in the Sierra Madre Oriental, 2 core populations of M. dealbata Zucc. can be distinguished, both located in the municipality of Montemorelos in the center of the state, covering a total of 17.66 hectares. Density reaches 30 individuals per 100 square meters. The species grows in association with Pinus teocote, Quercus spp, Cornus florida, Carya sp. and Sambucus nigra. New leaves sprout in early March, and flower production starts in early May. Habitat shows little disturbance and no short-term threats were identified for these populations.

  6. Insecticidal activity of raw ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata Zucc on a tephritid pest.

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    Flores-Estévez, Norma; Vasquez-Morales, Suria G; Cano-Medina, Tomás; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata (Zucc.) (Magnoliaceae); leaves, bark, seeds, sarcotesta and flowers were evaluated for insecticidal activity against adults of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using feeding bioassays composed from sugar-extract mixtures, only the extract from sarcotesta indicated insecticidal activity against the flies. The extracts from the other four plant tissues (leaves, bark, seeds and flowers) did not manifest any biological activity. The most effective extract was obtained from oven-dried sarcotesta, whereas extracts from fresh sarcotesta were inactive. Our results suggest that M. dealbata sarcotesta contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against A. ludens adults. These metabolites are as potent as natural pyrethins and represent a potential substance for controlling this type of pest.

  7. Analysis of commercial proanthocyanidins. Part 4: solid state (13)C NMR as a tool for in situ analysis of proanthocyanidin tannins, in heartwood and bark of quebracho and acacia, and related species.

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    Reid, David G; Bonnet, Susan L; Kemp, Gabre; van der Westhuizen, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    (13)C NMR is an effective method of characterizing proanthocyanidin (PAC) tannins in quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) heartwood and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) bark, before and after commercial extraction. The B-rings of the constituent flavan-3-ols, catechols (quebracho) or pyrogallols (wattle), are recognized in unprocessed source materials by "marker" signals at ca. 118 or 105ppm, respectively. NMR allows the minimum extraction efficiency to be calculated; ca. 30%, and ca. 80%, for quebracho heartwood and black wattle bark, respectively. NMR can also identify PAC tannin (predominantly robinetinidin), and compare tannin content, in bark from other acacia species; tannin content decreases in the order A. mearnsii, Acacia pycnantha (87% of A. mearnsii), Acacia dealbata and Acacia decurrens (each 74%) and Acacia karroo (30%). Heartwood from an underexploited PAC tannin source, Searsia lancea, taxonomically close to quebracho, shows abundant profisetinidin and catechin PACs. NMR offers the advantage of being applicable to source materials in their native state, and has potential applications in optimizing extraction processes, identification of tannin sources, and characterization of tannin content in cultivar yield improvement programmes.

  8. Australian blackwood acacia

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    Samraj, P.; Chinnamani, S.

    1981-01-01

    An account of the silviculture and uses of Tasmanian blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The species is grown in the hills of Nilgiris and Pulneys (above altitude 1500 metres). It can also be grown near centre of livestock farming where the land is unsuitable for intensive cultivation of grasses and legumes, and planted as field boundaries, shelterbelts and ornamental or shade trees. The leaves are used as livestock fodder, twigs as fuelwood, and the wood for pulp, cabinet making, agricultural implements and construction timber.

  9. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

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    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  10. Dispersal and predation in alien Acacia.

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    Holmes, P M

    1990-06-01

    I investigated seed removal in the litter layer of alien Acacia stands at bimonthly intervals throughout one year. Both ants (dispersers) and rodents (predators) removed significant quantities of seeds and may compete for seeds in low density Acacia stands. Seed removal from depots was greatest prior to seed-fall (Sept.-Nov.) and lowest during seed-fall (Jan.-Mar.). As rodents may consume a large proportion of the annual seed production at low Acacia densities, I propose that ants have played a critical role in accumulating Acacia seed banks.

  11. Breeding Strategy of Acacia Hybrid (Acacia mangium × A. auriculiformis to Increase Forest Plantation Productivity in Indonesia

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    Sri Sunarti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia hybrid (Acacia mangium× A.auriculiformis shows better growth and wood properties, and tolerance to pest and disease. Currently, acacia hybrid breeding strategy was developed through naturally hybrid selected from trees grown in plantation. However, mass propagation of acacia hybrid using such kind of strategy was not satisfied due to ageing effect. This study was aimed to develop a new acacia hybrid breeding strategy using controlled pollination hybridization technique. The strategy was developed through a series of research: flowering, crossing, hybrid identification, clone multiplication, and clonal test. The results of study showed that the series of research for developing acacia hybrid breeding strategy was achieved. Flowering time synchronization provided a high probability for the success of controlled pollination hybridization. Leaves taxonomy at seedling stage revealed to be an efective way to identify acacia hybrid with acuracy of 92.2%. The acacia hybrid was succesfully propagated using shoot cutting at rate of 78.1%. The best selected clones of acacia hybrid outperformed in height growth at rates of 17.28% over to superior pure parents, which is equivalent to the estimated stand productivity at around 48 m3 ha-1 y-1. The series of research provided a new effective and efficient breeding strategy for acacia hybrid.Keywords: Acacia auriculiformis,  Acacia mangium, acacia hybrid, controlled pollination, breeding strategyDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.128

  12. Host plant use by competing Acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts

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    Stefanie Kautz; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Johannes Kroiss; Pauls, Steffen U.; Moreau, Corrie S.; Sascha Eilmus; Erhard Strohm; Martin Heil

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavior...

  13. Maximizing seed germination in two Acacia species

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    Akram Kiani Abari; Mohammad Hoseini Nasr; Mohammad Hodjati; Dariush Bayat; Morteza Radmehr

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of disturbed land,particularly in arid environment,is often hindered by low seedling establishment.Information on seed biology and germination cues of valuable species is lacking.We investigated seed germination of two Acacia species (Acacia tortilis (Forsk.) Hayne and Acacia oerfota (Forssk) schweinf),required for nitrogen fixation and rehabilitation of arid and semi-arid areas.(four pre-germination seed treatments were applied in order to find the best treatment in germinating acacia species.The medium was L2 and three replicates were used.Seeds pre-treated with sand paper and also with H2SO4 and then H2O2 had the highest germination percentage in both species.The lowest germination percentage resulted from soaking seeds in water for 48 h followed by soaking in H2SO4 for A.oerfota and from soaking in water for 24 h for A.tortilis.Because the use of sand paper is difficult and time consuming,we recommend pre-treatment of A.tortilis and A.oerfota seeds with H2SO4 and H2O2 before planting.Our study results are significant for conservation agencies with an interest in optimizing germination in arid zones for rehabilitation and reforestation.

  14. In vitro effect of condensed tannin extract from acacia (Acacia mearnsii) on gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep.

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    Minho, Alessandro P; Bueno, Ives Cláudio Da S; Gennari, Solange Maria; Jackson, Frank; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of condensed tannin extract from acacia on the feeding of first-stage larvae (L1) of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta. The experiment was developed such that the inhibition of feeding for each of the nematode species could be evaluated. L1 recovered from fecal samples from a donor with monospecific infection was incubated in several dilutions of acacia extract (AE). The LD50 was determined for the three species of nematodes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was added to all dilutions of AE to inactivate the condensed tannins (CT) from acacia and to confirm their effects on L1. The impact of CT on larval feeding inhibition was detected for all the species of nematodes (H. contortus, T. colubriformis and T. circumcincta). There were differences between the aqueouswater control and CT treated groups (P nematodes studied could be used as an alternative means for controlling nematodes in sheep.

  15. Does the whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium) use auditory aposematism to deter mammalian herbivores?

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    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2016-08-02

    Auditory signaling including aposematism characterizes many terrestrial animals. Auditory aposematism by which certain animals use auditory aposematic signals to fend off enemies is well known for instance in rattlesnakes. Auditory signaling by plants toward animals and other plants is an emerging area of plant biology that still suffers from limited amount of solid data. Here I propose that auditory aposematism operates in the African whistling thorn acacia (Acacia drepanolobium = Vachellia drepanolobium). In this tree, the large and hollow thorn bases whistle when wind blows. This type of aposematism compliments the well-known conspicuous thorn and mutualistic ant based aposematism during day and may operate during night when the conspicuous thorns are invisible.

  16. Polygynous supercolonies of the acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, an inferior colony founder.

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    Kautz, S; Pauls, S U; Ballhorn, D J; Lumbsch, H T; Heil, M

    2009-12-01

    In ant-plant protection mutualisms, plants provide nesting space and nutrition to defending ants. Several plant-ants are polygynous. Possessing more than one queen per colony can reduce nestmate relatedness and consequently the inclusive fitness of workers. Here, we investigated the colony structure of the obligate acacia-ant Pseudomyrmex peperi, which competes for nesting space with several congeneric and sympatric species. Pseudomyrmex peperi had a lower colony founding success than its congeners and thus, appears to be competitively inferior during the early stages of colony development. Aggression assays showed that P. peperi establishes distinct, but highly polygynous supercolonies, which can inhabit large clusters of host trees. Analysing queens, workers, males and virgin queens from two supercolonies with eight polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed a maximum of three alleles per locus within a colony and, thus, high relatedness among nestmates. Colonies had probably been founded by one singly mated queen and supercolonies resulted from intranidal mating among colony-derived males and daughter queens. This strategy allows colonies to grow by budding and to occupy individual plant clusters for time spans that are longer than an individual queen's life. Ancestral states reconstruction indicated that polygyny represents the derived state within obligate acacia-ants. We suggest that the extreme polygyny of Pseudomyrmex peperi, which is achieved by intranidal mating and thereby maintains high nestmate relatedness, might play an important role for species coexistence in a dynamic and competitive habitat.

  17. A REVIEW ON ACACIA ARABICA - AN INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT

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    Saurabh Rajvaidhya*, B.P. Nagori, G.K. Singh, B.K. Dubey, Prashant Desai and Sanjay Jain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various health ailments has been in practice from time immemorial. Acacia arabica has been reported to be effective against a variety of disease including diabetes, skin disease and most concerning with cancer. The fresh plants parts of Acacia arabica is considered as astringent, demulcent, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, with good nutritional value in Indian traditional medicine system. This article briefly reviews the ethanobotanical as well as medicinal uses of Acacia arabica with plant description. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspect of Acacia arabica and its potential use. More studies are needed before the pharmacological properties of Acacia arabica can be utilized in therapy.

  18. Early growth performance of full-sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies at three different sites

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    Shah Aimin, Atirah Abdullah; Abdullah, Mohd Zaki; Muhammad, Norwati; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2014-09-01

    Field trials of 14 full sib Acacia auriculiformis x Acacia mangium F1 hybrid progenies were evaluated for growth performance at three sites (Bintulu, Mentakab and Segamat). Results indicated that there were significant differences (p> 0.05) for diameter breast height (Dbh) and total height (Ht) among the progenies and different sites. Superior progenies have been identified for future tree selection and improvement.

  19. Neotropical mutualism between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex: phylogeny and divergence times.

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    Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Rico-Arce, Lourdes; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Magallón, Susana; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2010-07-01

    The interaction between Acacia and Pseudomyrmex is a textbook example of mutualism between ants and plants, nevertheless aspects of its evolutionary biology have not been formally explored. In this paper we analyze primarily the phylogenies of both New World Acacia and of their associated species of ants, and the geographic origin of this mutualism. Until now, there has been no molecular analysis of this relationship in terms of its origin and age. We analyzed three chloroplast markers (matK, psaB-rps14, and trnL-trnF) on a total of 70 taxa of legumes from the subfamily Mimosoideae, and two nuclear regions (long-wavelength rhodopsine and wingless) on a total of 43 taxa of ants from subfamily Pseudomyrmecinae. The monophyly of subgenus Acacia and within the New World lineages that of the myrmecophilous Acacia group was established. In addition, our results supported the monophyly of the genus Pseudomyrmex and of the associated acacia-ants P. ferrugineus group. Using Bayesian methods and calibration data, the estimated divergence times for the groups involved in the mutualism are: 5.44+/-1.93 My for the myrmecophilous acacias and 4.58+/-0.82 My for their associated ant species, implying that their relationship originated in Mesoamerica between the late Miocene to the middle Pliocene, with eventual diversification of both groups in Mexico.

  20. ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES AND FIBER DIMENSION OF PRICKLY ACACIA (Acacia nilotica L. FROM BALURAN NATIONAL PARK

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    Krisdianto Krisdianto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex. Delile growing in Baluran National Park has dramatically altered the ecological balance of grasslands and thereby threatens the existence of local biodiversity. Prickly acacia is able to spread rapidly and remains uncontrollable. Baluran National Park authorization has been struggling to control this prickly acacia trees. One possible action that can be taken to encounter this problem is allowing wood based industries, and local people take advantages of this nilotica timber utilization. This paper studies the anatomical properties and fiber dimensions of nilotica timber and discusses the possible utilization of  nilotica timber.   This timber is characterized by dark brown heartwood which is clearly distinct from reddish brown color of sapwood. The denser cell wall shows attractively streaked in tangential surfaces. The length of  wood fiber decreases from pith toward periphery portion. Longitudinally, higher stem has shorter fiber. Nilotica wood has second class quality of fiber, which means its fiber is moderately thick with narrow lumen diameter. Due to small log diameter and branches, the nilotica timber is not recommended for construction material. The timber is suitable for carved and turnery products. Nilotica timber is suitable for charcoal manufacture and fuel wood due to its high calorific value.

  1. 21 CFR 172.780 - Acacia (gum arabic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.780 Acacia (gum arabic). The food additive may be safely used in...). Copies may be examined at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Library, Food and...

  2. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

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    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  3. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

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    Kautz, Stefanie; Ballhorn, Daniel J; Kroiss, Johannes; Pauls, Steffen U; Moreau, Corrie S; Eilmus, Sascha; Strohm, Erhard; Heil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  4. Host plant use by competing acacia-ants: mutualists monopolize while parasites share hosts.

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    Stefanie Kautz

    Full Text Available Protective ant-plant mutualisms that are exploited by non-defending parasitic ants represent prominent model systems for ecology and evolutionary biology. The mutualist Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus is an obligate plant-ant and fully depends on acacias for nesting space and food. The parasite Pseudomyrmex gracilis facultatively nests on acacias and uses host-derived food rewards but also external food sources. Integrative analyses of genetic microsatellite data, cuticular hydrocarbons and behavioral assays showed that an individual acacia might be inhabited by the workers of several P. gracilis queens, whereas one P. ferrugineus colony monopolizes one or more host trees. Despite these differences in social organization, neither of the species exhibited aggressive behavior among conspecific workers sharing a tree regardless of their relatedness. This lack of aggression corresponds to the high similarity of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles among ants living on the same tree. Host sharing by unrelated colonies, or the presence of several queens in a single colony are discussed as strategies by which parasite colonies could achieve the observed social organization. We argue that in ecological terms, the non-aggressive behavior of non-sibling P. gracilis workers--regardless of the route to achieve this social structure--enables this species to efficiently occupy and exploit a host plant. By contrast, single large and long-lived colonies of the mutualist P. ferrugineus monopolize individual host plants and defend them aggressively against invaders from other trees. Our findings highlight the necessity for using several methods in combination to fully understand how differing life history strategies affect social organization in ants.

  5. Estudio genecológico en prosopis laevigata, acacia farnesiana y acacia schaffneri (leguminosae

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    Sandra Luz Gómez Acevedo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se emplea una técnica de extendido en superficie y secado al aire (splash para cromosomas vegetales a fin de analizar la posible respuesta genotipo-ambiente de tres especies de leguminosas típicas de las zonas áridas y semiáridas mexicanas, ubicadas en poblaciones con características climáticas diferentes. Las especies estudiadas fueron Prosopis laevigata y Acacia schaffneri del municipio de Santiago de Anaya, estado de Hidalgo (20o 16’ N y P. laevigata y Acacia farnesiana del municipio de Bermejillo, estado de Durango (25o 49’ N. Los parámetros evaluados fueron las longitudes cromosómicas totales, el cariotipo, la frecuencia de polisomatía y el peso de las semillas. En Prosopis laevigata se corrobora un 2n=28 y diferencias interpoblacionales estadísticamente significativas (a=0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales, sin modificación de la fórmula cariotípica (2m+10sm+2st con frecuencia de polisomatía que no rebasó el 10%. En las especies del género Acacia se registraron números cromosómicos diploides 2n=26 sin diferencias interespecíficas estadísticamente significativas (a= 0,01 en las longitudes cromosómicas totales; no obstante se obtuvieron fórmulas cariotípicas diferentes, reportadas por primera vez empleando una técnica de extendido y secado al aire: 9m+4sm para A. schaffneri y 9m+2sm+2st para A. farnesiana. En ambas especies la polisomatía tuvo una frecuencia similar sin rebasar el 30%. Para Prosopis y Acacia no se encontraron diferencias significativas (a= 0,01 en relación al peso de la semilla. Los resultados obtenidos señalan una clase de adaptación en estrecha

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the acacia-ant Crematogaster mimosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, B E; Makarewich, C A; Talaba, A L; Stenzler, L; Bogdanowicz, S M; Lovette, I J

    2009-07-01

    We describe 10 microsatellite loci developed from Crematogaster mimosae, an ant species that nests mutualistically in Acacia drepanolobium trees in east Africa. Polymorphism ranged from 4 to 16 alleles per locus (mean = 7.3). Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.485 to 0.813 (mean 0.626), and from 0.502 to 0.894 (mean 0.674), respectively. These markers will foster studies of the population structure, colony structure, and reproductive strategies of these ants.

  7. Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ya Jie; Lu, Jun Kun; Chen, Ying Long; Wang, Sheng Kun; Sui, Xin Hua

    2015-01-01

    Three novel strains, RITF741T, RITF1220 and RITF909, isolated from root nodules of Acacia melanoxylon in Guangdong Province of China, have been previously identified as members of the genus Mesorhizobium, displaying the same 16S rRNA gene RFLP pattern. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three strains belong to the genus Mesorhizobium and had highest similarity (100.0 %) to Mesorhizobium plurifarium LMG 11892T. Phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes recA, atpD and glnII revealed that these strains represented a distinct evolutionary lineage within the genus Mesorhizobium. Strain RITF741T showed >73 % DNA–DNA relatedness with strains RITF1220 and RITF909, but Leucaena leucocephala. In conclusion, these strains represent a novel species belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium based on the data obtained in the present and previous studies, for which the name Mesorhizobium acaciae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RITF741T ( = CCBAU 101090T = JCM 30534T), the DNA G+C content of which is 64.1 mol% (Tm). PMID:26296667

  8. DETERMINATION OF TANNIN PRODUCTION EQUATIONS OF ACACIA-NEGRA, Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was established with the objective to determine functions to estimate the production of tannin of Acacia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild in kilograms per tree and hectare. Thus dendrometrical information was collected in 32 experimental plots, stratified by the age of 3.5 up to 8.5 years, on good and poor sites with different spacings. Tannin content was measured on the basis of 64 trees, 32 trees with medium diameter and 32 trees with dominant height. The results obtained allow the following conclusions: a The production of tannin (PTA in kilograms per tree can be estimated in function of  diameter (d in cm, height (h and medium distance between the trees in meters after one of the following equations: ln PTA = - 6.0141145 + 2.43202867 . ln d + 1.0413106 . ln EM; ln PTA = - 5.853512 + 1.53029074 . ln d + 0.38185298 . ln (d²h b The production of tannin in kilograms per hectar (PT can be expressed in dependance of basal area (G in m2/ha and dominant height (ho in meters, and estimated with the equation: ln PT = 3.5222278 + 1.1417977 . ln G + 0.2031873 . ln ho

  9. 77 FR 63311 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Petition for Rate Approval Take notice that on October 9, 2012, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) filed a Petition for...

  10. 75 FR 24940 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing April 29, 2010. Take notice that on April 27, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted its baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any person desiring to...

  11. 75 FR 28599 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 13, 2010. Take notice that on May 11, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a corrected baseline... under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (``NGPA''). Any person desiring...

  12. Tree invasion in a semi-arid savanna in Zimbabwe : seedling recruitment of Acacia karroo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirara, C. (Chipangura)

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis Chirara reports on his study on the competitive interaction between savanna grasses and young tree seedlings of Acacia karroo, from hereon indicated as ' Acacia seedlings' . Acacia is one of the tree species that dominates savanna grassland in situations of overgrazing (bush encroachm

  13. 75 FR 27334 - Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Acacia Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Baseline Filing May 7, 2010. Take notice that on May 5, 2010, Acacia Natural Gas Corporation (Acacia) submitted a correction to its April... transportation services provided under section 311(a)(2) of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA). Any...

  14. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  15. Effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia karoo diets on Haemonchus contortus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahiya, C; Mukaratirwa, S; Thamsborg, S M

    2003-07-29

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of Acacia karoo and Acacia nilotica diets on Haemonchus contortus infections in goats. Twenty-four Boer goats of mixed sex (live weight 17-22 kg) were randomly assigned to four treatment groups, namely: A. nilotica (AN) group, A. karoo (AK) group, control infected with H. contortus (HC) group and the non-infected control (NHC) group. Animals in the AN, AK and HC groups were orally infected with a single dose of 3000 HC third stage larvae. The AN and AK groups had dried leaves of AN and AK, respectively, included in their basal diet at a rate of 40% dry matter (DM) while the HC and NHC groups had the basal diet throughout the experiment. All animals received a total feed allowance of 500 g DM per day and Katambora Rhodes grass hay ad libitum for roughage. Parameters measured included faecal egg counts and live weight. At the end of the experiment, three animals from each group were slaughtered and abomasal worm burdens were determined. A significant decrease in the faecal egg counts was recorded in animals in the AK group (P<0.05) relative to those in the AN and HC groups. The worm burdens were reduced by 34% in the AK group (P<0.05) and by 10% in the AN group (non-significant) relative to the infected control group. The study indicates that the difference in the effects of the two forages on HC infections may be related to type and concentration of tannins.

  16. SEQUENCE POLYMORPHISMS OF FOUR CHLOROPLAST GENES IN FOUR ACACIA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonius Y.P.B.C. Widyatmoko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequence polymorphisms among and within four Acacia species,  A. aulacocarpa, A. auriculiformis, A. crassicarpa, and A. mangium, were investigated using four chloroplast DNA genes (atpA, petA, rbcL, and rpoA. The phylogenetic relationship among these species is discussed in light of the results of the sequence information. No intraspecific sequence variation was found in the four genes of the four species, and a conservative rate of mutation of the chloroplast DNA genes was also confirmed in the Acacia species. In the atpA and petA of the four genes, all four species possessed identical sequences, and no sequence variation was found among the four Acacia species. In the rbcL and rpoA genes, however, sequence polymorphisms were revealed among these species. Acacia aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa shared an identical sequence, and A. auriculiformis and A. mangium also showed no sequence variation.  The fact that A. mangium and A. auriculiformis shared identical sequences as did A. aulacocarpa and A. crassicarpa indicated that the two respective species were extremely closely related. Although a putative natural hybrid of A. aulacocarpa and A. auriculiformis has been reported, our results suggested that natural hybridization should be further verified using molecular markers.

  17. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant-acacia mutualism for enemy-free space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-02-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protective effect of acacia ants on E. oblonga by comparing spider abundance over time on acacias with ants and on acacias from which entire ant colonies were experimentally removed. Both juvenile and adult spider abundance significantly decreased over time on acacias without ants. Concomitantly, the combined abundance of potential spider predators increased over time on acacias without ants. These results suggest that ant protection of the ant-acacia Acacia melanocerus also protects the spiders, thus supporting the hypothesis that E. oblonga exploits the ant-acacia mutualism for enemy-free space. Although E. oblonga takes advantage of the protection services of ants, it likely exacts little to no cost and should not threaten the stability of the ant-acacia mutualism. Indeed, the potential threat of exploiter species to protection mutualisms in general may be limited to species that exploit the material rewards traded in such mutualisms rather than the protection services.

  18. Look before leaping: foraging selectivity of capuchin monkeys on acacia trees in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hilary; Fedigan, Linda M; Addicott, John F

    2008-02-01

    Acacia trees in Costa Rica have an obligate mutualism with three species of Pseudomyrmex ants, which vigorously defend their host tree from insect and mammalian herbivores. Depending on the size and species of ant colony, individual acacia trees may be differentially protected. For animals able to discern between weakly and highly aggressive ant colonies, costs of ant stings from less active colonies might be offset by nutritional value acquired from feeding on acacia fruit or ant larvae in swollen thorns. We examined foraging selectivity of capuchin monkeys on acacia trees in Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. We measured four characteristics of the acacia trees from which capuchins fed and of acacias immediately adjacent to those in which the monkeys fed: diameter at breast height (DBH), accessibility, species of closest tree and ant species present. We found that capuchins prefer to forage in acacias that are large and accessible. We also made two measurements of ant colony activity on each tree, one before and one after disturbing the ant colony. We found that the three species of mutualistic ants differ in baseline activity levels and that mutualistic ants are more active than non-mutualistic ant species found in acacia trees. We also found that capuchins foraged more frequently in trees colonized by non-mutualistic ants, but the explanatory value (r (2)) of this model was low. Furthermore, monkeys did not discriminate between acacias on the basis of baseline ant activity or the ant colony's response to disturbance. We conclude that these monkeys select acacia trees in which to forage based on characteristics of the trees rather than the ants. In addition, our study suggests that white-faced capuchins act as predators on the acacia ants but they probably benefit the dispersal and reproductive success of acacia trees. Capuchins may in fact function as an additional mutualistic partner for acacia trees via seed dispersal, but they must overcome the ants

  19. Anatomia da madeira de seis espécies exóticas do gênero Acacia Mill. (Fabaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo Fernando dos Santos; Marchiori, José Newton Cardoso; Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; Siegloch,Anelise Marta

    2015-01-01

    As madeiras de Acacia acuminata A. Gray, Acacia cambagei R.T. Baker, Acacia harpophylla F. Muell. Ex Benth., Acacia koa A. Gray, Acacia rhodoxylon Maiden e Acacia richii A. Gray são anatomicamente descritas e ilustradas com fotomicrografias. Todas as seis espécies apresentam os seguintes caracteres de ampla ocorrência em Fabaceae: porosidade difusa; placas de perfuração simples; elementos vasculares com  pontoações ornamentadas; parênquima paratraqueal; raios homogêneos; e fibras libriformes ...

  20. Fractionation of acacia honey affects its antioxidant potential in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Aliyu; Oyeronke A Odunola; Ahsana D Farooq; Ahmed M Mesaik; Muhammad I Choudhary; Ochuko L Erukainure; Shahida Perveen; Almas Jabeen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of fractionation of acacia honey on its antioxidant potential in contrast with the pure honey from whole blood, brain and liver in vitro. Methods: Honey was partitioned into three fractions (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous). Their immuno-modulatory effect on whole blood was assayed using Luminol-amplified chemiluminescence technique. Their antioxidant activities on rat brain and hepatic tissues which covers for catalase, SOD activities and lipid peroxidation. Results: Fractions of the honey enhanced the production of radicals with no significant (P>0.05) antioxidant activity on whole blood where as pure honey does. Pure honey significantly (P0.05) effects on lipid peroxidation. Conclusions: Fractionation of acacia honey negatively affects its antioxidant potential thereby making it a radical generating agent in contrast with the unfractionated.

  1. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  2. Phenolic compounds from the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Cui Li; Li Xin Yang; Hong Qing Wang; Ruo Yun Chen

    2011-01-01

    From the aqueous extract of Acacia catechu, two new phenolic compounds (3R,4R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-hydroxycy-clohexanone (1) and (4R)-5-(l-(3,4-dihydrophenyl)-3-oxoburyl)-dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one (2) were obtained. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Free-radical scavenging activities of them were evaluated.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3400 - Karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... denture adhesive. 872.3400 Section 872.3400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A karaya and sodium borate with or without acacia denture adhesive is a device composed of karaya and sodium borate with...

  4. Antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri and Acacia farnesiana pods extracts: in vitro and in vivo assays

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is a worldwide public health issue, reaching epidemic condition in developing countries associated to chronic diseases. Oxidative damage is another side effect of obesity. Antioxidant activity from plant components regulates at some extent this imbalance. Main goal of the present study was to determine the antioxidant activity and protection against oxidative-induced damage of Acacia shaffneri (AS) and Acacia farnesiana (AF) pods extracts. Methods To evaluated antioxidant a...

  5. Características físicas, químicas e conteúdo de água em solos convertidos de savana para plantio de Acacia mangium. = Physical and chemical characteristics and soil humidity by converting savanna to Acacia mangium crop, Roraima State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivonilde Leitão de Souza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os quarenta mil quilômetros quadrados de savana (cerrado em Roraima vêm sendo substituídos por agricultura, pecuária e florestamento, portanto, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da conversão da savana nativa para plantios de Acacia mangium, com diferentes idades, em diferentes classes de solos e profundidades dos solos nas características químicas, físicas e no teor de água do solo. O trabalho foi conduzido em duas fazendas do Empreendimento Ouro Verde Agrosilvopastoril Ltda, no município do Cantá, RR, em plantios de Acacia mangium com até quatro anos de implantação comparado a condição natural (savana. As áreas situam-se em solos da classe Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (Fazenda Tuquinha e Argissolo Amarelo distrófico (Fazenda Garimpeira e as variáveis foram avaliadas nas profundidades de 0 - 30; 30 - 60 e 60 - 90 cm. As variáveis analisadas foram: pH, bases trocáveis, alumínio trocável, H+ + Al3+, fósforo, sódio, Matéria Orgânica do Solo (MOS, granulometria, densidade do solo e teor de água no solo. Em geral, os solos são de baixa fertilidade natural, verificando-se que a implantação de Acaciamangium não apresentou alterações químicas positivas no solo, revelando uma tendência de aumento da umidade do solo coma idade de plantio de Acacia mangium. = The forty thousand square kilometers of savannah (cerrado in Roraima State, Brazil, are being replaced by agriculture and forestry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of native savanna conversion to plantationsof Acacia mangium at different ages, classes and soil depths on chemical and physical attribute and water content of soil. Thisresearch was done in two farms of Ouro Verde Agrossilvopastoril Ltda., in the city of Cantá – RR, with up to four year oldAcacia mangium crops at Tuquinha`s farm and at Garimpeira`s farm, and in natural savanna conditions. The collected samples were of dystrophic yellow Latosol (Tuquinha farm and dystrophic yellow

  6. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Acacia aroma Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Mattana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma, native plant from San Luis, Argentina, is commonly used as antiseptic and for healing of wounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and ethanolic extract (EE of A. aroma. The cytotoxic activity was assayed by neutral red uptake assay on Vero cell. Cell treatment with a range from 100 to 5000 μg/mL of HAE and EE showed that 500 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL were the maximum noncytotoxic concentrations, respectively. The CC50 was 658 μg/mL for EE and 1020 μg/mL for HAE. The genotoxicity was tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis comet assay. The results obtained in the evaluation of DNA cellular damage exposed to varied concentrations of the HAE showed no significant genotoxic effect at range of 1–20 mg/mL. The EE at 20 mg/mL showed moderate genotoxic effect related to the increase of the DNA percentage contained in tail of the comet; DNA was classified in category 2. At concentrations below 5 mg/mL, the results of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Acacia aroma guarantee the safety at cell and genomic level. However further studies are needed for longer periods including animal models to confirm the findings.

  7. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor.

  8. The Inhibition of Lipase and Glucosidase Activities by Acacia Polyphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia mearnsii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. In an in vitro study, we measured the inhibitory activity of AP on lipase and glucosidase. In addition, we evaluated the effects of AP on absorption of orally administered olive oil, glucose, maltose, sucrose and starch solution in mice. We found that AP concentration-dependently inhibited the activity of lipase, maltase and sucrase with an IC50 of 0.95, 0.22 and 0.60 mg ml−1, respectively. In ICR mice, olive oil was administered orally immediately after oral administration of AP solution, and plasma triglyceride concentration was measured. We found that AP significantly inhibited the rise in plasma triglyceride concentration after olive oil loading. AP also significantly inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after maltose and sucrose loading, and this effect was more potent against maltose. AP also inhibited the rise in plasma glucose concentration after glucose loading and slightly inhibited it after starch loading. Our results suggest that AP inhibits lipase and glucosidase activities, which leads to a reduction in the intestinal absorption of lipids and carbohydrates.

  9. Pharmacological evidence of neuro-pharmacological activity of Acacia tortilis leaves in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Waheeb D M; Azmat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    Acacia tortilis is abundantly present in Saudi Arabia but its neuro-pharmacological activity has not yet been evaluated. In this study, the antidepressant by Forced swim test, Anxiolytic (Light and Dark box) and sedative effects (by using Open Field) of Acacia leaves extract were evaluated in mice. Aqueous extracts of the Acacia tortilis leaves were prepared. Two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg) of the extracts were administered to the mice orally (p.o.). In exploratory behavior, Acacia leave extract (800 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction (Veh, 91.00 ± 5.26; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 46.33 ± 3.24 p light-dark box test, mice treated with high dose (800 mg/kg/day) spent significant (p light-dark box similar to positive control DZP. (Veh, 114.40 ± 6.30 s; Acacia 800 mg/kg, 162.2 ± 14.9; DZP 1.0 mg/kg, 184.20 ± 9.24 p < 0.05). The present research propounded that Acacia tortilis leave extract contains some active ingredients with potential anxiolytic activity at low doses and antidepressant and sedative activity at high doses.

  10. Uso de equações para estimar carbono orgânico em plantações de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. no Rio Grande do Sul - Brasil Use of equations to estimate organic carbon in Acacia mearnsii De Wild plantations in Rio Grande do Sul - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Fleig Saidelles

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Para entender a importância das florestas e plantações florestais como sumidouros de carbono, é necessário desenvolver e aprimorar as metodologias de estimativa de biomassa e carbono. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o estoque de carbono orgânico (CO em plantações de Acacia mearnsii com 4 anos de idade. A área de trabalho localiza-se na cidade de Arroio dos Ratos, RS, nas coordenadas 30º07'12"de latitude sul e 51º57'45" de longitude oeste, com altitude média de 90 m. Após a realização de inventário florestal, foram abatidas 21 árvores, distribuídas em sete classes diamétricas, para cobrir a heterogeneidade do povoamento. Em seguida, determinaram-se a biomassa e o teor de CO dos componentes: folha, galho vivo, galho morto, madeira, casca e raiz. A estimativa do estoque de CO em povoamentos de Acacia mearnssi e nos seus compartimentos das árvores pode ser realizada por meio de equações matemáticas. O total de CO estocado na biomassa é de 29,79 Mg ha-1, distribuídos da seguinte forma: 64% na madeira, 11% na raiz, 9% na casca, 7% nos galhos vivos e 4% nos galhos mortos e nas folhas.To understand the importance of the forests and forest plantations as carbon sink, it is necessary to develop and improve the methodologies to estimate biomass and carbon. The aim of this study was to estimate the organic carbon (OC stock in 4-year-old plantations of Acacia mearnsii . The work area is located in Arroio dos Ratos-RS, in a farm of the Agroseta S.A. corporation, with coordinates 30º07'12" latitude south and 51º57'45" longitude west, and average altitude of 90 m. After the performance of the forest inventory, 21 trees were felled, distributed in 7-diameter classes to cover stand heterogeneity. The biomass and organic carbon were determined for: leaves, live branch, dead branch, wood, bark and roots. The estimate of the OC stock in Acacia mearnssi plantations and in its tree compartments can be carried out using

  11. Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (Mexico) of Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Koeppen, C W; Hermes, M

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Oaxaca (Mexico, 10 km north-west of Puerto Escondido 15 degrees 55' N, 97 degrees 09' W) we were able to collect some microfungi living as parasites or saprophytes on Acacia species, some of them are causing attention for Oaxaca. Many belong to the Deuteromycotina (Hyphomycetes, Coelomycetes) and Ascomycotina. On A. hindsii: Calonectria pseudopeziza (Desm.) Sacc., Hypoxylon truncatum (Schwein. Fr.) J.H. Miller, Epicoccum nigrum Link., Zygosporium gibbum (Sacc., M. Roussau & E. Bommer) S.J. Hughes and on A. cornigera: Phyllosticta acaciicola P. Henn., Taeniolella alta (Ehrenb. ex Pers.) S.J. Hughes, Cephaliophora tropica Thaxt., Diplodia mutila (Fr. Fr.) Mont., Pleospora herbarum (Pers. Fr.) Rabenh., Gliocladium roseum Bainier, Ulocladium atrum Preuss., and different others. All species collected are listed in text.

  12. Tannins quantification in barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii

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    Leandro Calegari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior when analyzed by hide-powder method, reaching 47.8% and 24.1% for A. mearnsii and M. tenuiflora, respectively. By Stiasny method, the tannins levels considered were 39.0% for A. mearnsii, and 15.5% for M. tenuiflora. Despite the best results presented by A. mearnsii, the bark of M. tenuiflora also showed great potential due to its considerable amount of tannin and the availability of the species at Caatinga biome.

  13. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  14. Analysis of Leucaena mimosine, Acacia tannins and total phenols by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, M.N.V. [Hyderabad Univ. (India). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    1995-11-01

    The mimosine contents of Leucaena foliage, Acacia tannins and total phenols from leaf, bark and pod were analyzed by a near infrared relectance spectrophotometer (Compscan 3000). A calibration equation (linear summation regression) was developed with near infrared spectral analysis software, using 30 spectra from old and young leaves of Leucaena and 23 spectra from different samples of Acacia. The near infrared analyzer calculated that the percentages of mimosine, total phenols and tannins are closely comparable to laboratory results. (author)

  15. Inhibition of the Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Media by Naturally Occurring Acacia Senegal

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    Urvija Garg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in HCl solution by naturally occurring Acacia Senegal has been studied in relation to the concentration of inhibitor and concentration of corrosive medium. It has been observed that the Acacia Senegal alcoholic extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in hydrochloric acid solution and the adsorption of the extract provides a good protection against mild steel corrosion.

  16. Nodulation of Acacia Species by Fast- and Slow-Growing Tropical Strains of Rhizobium

    OpenAIRE

    Dreyfus, B. L.; Dommergues, Y. R.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen Acacia species were classified into three groups according to effective nodulation response patterns with fast- and slow-growing tropical strains of Rhizobium. The first group nodulated effectively with slow-growing, cowpea-type Rhizobium strains; the second, with fast-growing Rhizobium strains; and the third, with both fast- and slow-growing Rhizobium strains. The Rhizobium requirements of the Acacia species of the second group were similar to those of Leucaena leucocephala.

  17. The importance of Acacia trees for insectivorous bats and arthropods in the Arava desert.

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    Talya D Hackett

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat modification often has a profound negative impact on the flora and fauna of an ecosystem. In parts of the Middle East, ephemeral rivers (wadis are characterised by stands of acacia trees. Green, flourishing assemblages of these trees are in decline in several countries, most likely due to human-induced water stress and habitat changes. We examined the importance of healthy acacia stands for bats and their arthropod prey in comparison to other natural and artificial habitats available in the Arava desert of Israel. We assessed bat activity and species richness through acoustic monitoring for entire nights and concurrently collected arthropods using light and pit traps. Dense green stands of acacia trees were the most important natural desert habitat for insectivorous bats. Irrigated gardens and parks in villages and fields of date palms had high arthropod levels but only village sites rivalled acacia trees in bat activity level. We confirmed up to 13 bat species around a single patch of acacia trees; one of the richest sites in any natural desert habitat in Israel. Some bat species utilised artificial sites; others were found almost exclusively in natural habitats. Two rare species (Barbastella leucomelas and Nycteris thebaica were identified solely around acacia trees. We provide strong evidence that acacia trees are of unique importance to the community of insectivorous desert-dwelling bats, and that the health of the trees is crucial to their value as a foraging resource. Consequently, conservation efforts for acacia habitats, and in particular for the green more densely packed stands of trees, need to increase to protect this vital habitat for an entire community of protected bats.

  18. Anatomia da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. Wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn.

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho é a descrição anatômica da madeira de Acacia bonariensis Gill. Hook. et Arn. A estrutura anatômica é comparada com outras espécies sul-brasileiras do mesmo gênero. A presença de raios multisseriados estreitos e fibras septadas permitem classificar a espécie na série Vulgares Bentham ou sub-gênero Aculeiferum Vassal.The wood anatomy of Acacia bonariensis Gill. ex Hook. et Arn. is described and compared with other south-american Acacias. The presence of narrow multisseriate rays and libriform fibres, observed in the wood, are commonly found among species of the series Vulgares Benth. or sub-genus Aculeiferum Vassal.

  19. Influence Of Acacia nilotica On Arsenic Induced Genotoxicity In Male and Female Mice

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    INAS S. Ghaly AND ZEINAB E. HANAFY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicine and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia nilotica leaves on the genotoxicity of arsinic . Arsenic contamination in groundwater a global human health hazard .There is no effective remedial action of chronic arsenicsis. However, a well-nourished diet can modulate the onset of adverse health effects and delayed the effect of arsenic in drinking water. In the present work, genotoxic effects were induced by sodium arsenate through oral administration,and the protective effect of Acacia nilotica was studied. Chromosomal aberrations were more pronounced in sodium arsenate treated mice, while supplementation of Acacia nilotica with sodium arsenate reduced the incidence of the aberrations. The mean of DNA fragmentation induced by sodium arsenate was highly significant increase. However, the administration of Acacia nilotica significantly decreased DNA fragmentation induced by sodium arsenate. The mean number of sperms, were decreased significantly after treatment with sodium arsenate, while administration of Acacia nilotica increased the number of sperm in mice treated with sodium arsenate, and also decreased the percentage of sperm abnormalities induced by sodium arsenate. The outcome of study showed that Acacia nilotica has the efficiency to encounter the genotoxic effects induced by arsenic.

  20. Equações Hipsométricas e Volumétricas para Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima / Hypsometric And Volumetric Equations for Acacia mangium Willd In Roraima

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    Helio Tonini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia mangium é a espécie florestal mais plantada no Estado de Roraima, sendo necessários estudos que visem ao desenvolvimento de sistemas silviculturais adaptados às condições locais. Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de selecionar equações de relação hipsométrica e de volume para A. mangium em área de savana no estado de Roraima. Foram utilizadas 701 árvores amostras localizadas em três fazendas e duas regiões. Foram testadas 8 equações hipsométricas e 5 volumétricas. Nas condições estudadas, a equação hipsométrica selecionada apresentou um R2aj = 0,62 e a equação logaritmizada de Spurr se mostrou a mais adequada para estimar a o volume total (R2aj =0,98 e comercial com casca (R2aj =0,58.

  1. Termites, vertebrate herbivores, and the fruiting success of Acacia drepanolobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Alison K; Palmer, Todd M; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Doak, Dan F

    2010-02-01

    In African savannas, vertebrate herbivores are often identified as key determinants of plant growth, survivorship, and reproduction. However, plant reproduction is likely to be the product of responses to a suite of abiotic and biotic factors, including nutrient availability and interactions with antagonists and mutualists. In a relatively simple system, we examined the role of termites (which act as ecosystem engineers--modifying physical habitat and creating islands of high soil fertility), vertebrate herbivores, and symbiotic ants, on the fruiting success of a dominant plant, Acacia drepanolobium, in East African savannas. Using observational data, large-scale experimental manipulations, and analysis of foliar N, we found that Acacia drepanolobium trees growing at the edge of termite mounds were more likely to reproduce than those growing farther away, in off-mound soils. Although vertebrate herbivores preferentially used termite mounds as demonstrated by dung deposits, long-term exclusion of mammalian grazers did not significantly reduce A. drepanolobium fruit production. Leaf N was significantly greater in trees growing next to mounds than in those growing farther away, and this pattern was unaffected by exclusion of vertebrates. Thus, soil enrichment by termites, rather than through dung and urine deposition by large herbivores, is of primary importance to fruit production near mounds. Across all mound-herbivore treatment combinations, trees that harbored Crematogaster sjostedti were more likely to fruit than those that harbored one of the other three ant species. Although C. sjostedti is less aggressive than the other ants, it tends to inhabit large, old trees near termite mounds which are more likely to fruit than smaller ones. Termites play a key role in generating patches of nutrient-rich habitat important to the reproductive success of A. drepanolobium in East African savannas. Enhanced nutrient acquisition from termite mounds appears to allow plants to

  2. Rebrota de cepas de Acacia mearnsii em diferentes idades, épocas do ano e alturas de corte Resprouting of Acacia mearnsii stumps under different ages, seasons and cut heights

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    Edison Rogério Perrando

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da idade, da época do ano e da altura de corte sobre a capacidade de rebrota de cepas de Acacia mearnsii De Wild. O trabalho foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso e parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Em árvores de quatro e sete anos, foram avaliadas as alturas de corte de 0,15; 0,30; 0,45; 0,60; 1,2 e 2 m aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 e 90 dias depois do corte, nas quatro estações do ano. Obteve-se interação significativa entre a altura de corte e a época de avaliação, em ambas as idades avaliadas. As maiores médias, quanto ao número de brotações por cepa, foram constatadas a 1,2 e 2 m de altura, na idade de quatro anos. Elevados porcentuais de mortalidade foram registrados em cepas com sete anos, independentemente da altura de corte. A capacidade de rebrota em cepas de acácia-negra é estimulada, quando o corte é realizado no período entre o outono e a primavera. O verão é a estação menos adequada à rebrota de cepas dessa espécie.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of age, time of the year and cut height on the resprouting capacity of Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stumps. The work was conducted in stands of four and seven years of age, in randomized blocks design and time subdivided plots. Different cut heights (0.15; 0.30; 0.45; 0.60; 1.2 and 2 m, and evaluation times (15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after cutting, in the four seasons of the year were evaluated. A significant interaction between cut height and evaluation time was found in both ages. The higher averages due to stumps in each strain were verified in 1.2 and 2 m height, in the age of four years. High death percentages were registered in seven years-old stumps, independently of cut height. The resprouting capacity of black wattle stumps is stimulated when cut is conducted between autumn and spring; summer is the least suitable season to stumps resprouting of this specie.

  3. Produção de mudas de acácia colonizadas com micorrizas e rizóbio em diferentes recipientes Production of acacia plants colonized with mycorrhizas and rhizobium in different recipients

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    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação, com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes métodos na produção de mudas de Acacia mangium Willd, colonizadas com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs e rizóbio. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado num esquema fatorial 4x2 (controle, FMAs, rizóbio e FMAs + rizóbio x blocos prensados e tubetes de plástico, com seis repetições. Os blocos prensados foram confeccionados com substratos orgânicos (bagaço de cana + torta de filtro de usina açucareira e vermiculita, colocados em fôrma metálica de 60x40x20 cm e prensados a 10 kgf cm-2, a fim de proporcionar agregação do material. A inoculação do rizóbio foi realizada com estirpe selecionada para a espécie (Br 3609, Br 6009. A inoculação de FMAs foi feita no momento da confecção dos blocos. Mudas de Acacia mangium que receberam inóculo de FMAs + rizóbio e produzidas em blocos prensados apresentaram maior produção de matéria seca e conteúdo de N na parte aérea. O conteúdo de P na parte aérea é significativamente maior somente nas mudas infectadas com os FMAs, independentemente do tipo de recipiente.A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to evaluate different methods to produce Acacia mangium Willd plant seedlings, inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and rhizobium. A completely randomized design in a factorial scheme 4x2 (control, AMF, rhizobium and AMF + rhizobium x pressed blocks and plastic tubes, with six repetitions was used. The pressed blocks used to produce Acacia mangium plants were made with organic residue from sugarcane (sugarcane bagasse + filter cake and vermiculite. The inoculation with rhizobium was done with selected strain (Br 3609, Br 6009. The inoculation with AMF was done at the time when pressed blocks were made. Acacia mangium plants inoculated with both AMF + rhizobium led to a significant increase in dry matter yield and N content of shoot plants, only in

  4. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

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    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  5. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  6. A mycorrhiza helper bacterium enhances ectomycorrhizal and endomycorrhizal symbiosis of Australian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, R; Plenchette, C

    2003-04-01

    The aims of this study were to test the effects of a mycorrhiza helper bacterium (MHB), Pseudomonas monteilii strain HR13 on the mycorrhization of (1) an Australian Acacia, A. holosericea, by several ectomycorrhizal fungi or one endomycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices, and (2) several Australian Acacia species by Pisolithus alba strain IR100 under glasshouse conditions. Bacterial inoculant HR13 significantly promoted ectomycorrhizal colonization for all the Acacia species, from 45.8% ( A. mangium) to 70.3% ( A. auriculiformis). A stimulating effect of HR13 on the ectomycorrhizal establishment was recorded with all the fungal isolates (strains of Pisolithus and Scleroderma). The same effect of bacteria on the frequency of endomycorrhizal colonization of A. holosericea seedlings by G. intraradices with vesicles and hyphae frequencies was recorded. The stimulation of saprophytic fungal growth by MHB is usually the main mechanism that could explain this bacterial effect on mycorrhizal establishment. MHB could stimulate the production of phenolic compounds such as hypaphorine and increase the aggressiveness of the fungal symbiont. However, no significant effect of MHB on fungal growth was recorded with Scleroderma isolates under axenic conditions but positive bacterial effects were observed with Pisolithus strains. From a practical viewpoint, it appears that MHB could stimulate the mycorrhizal colonization of Australian Acacia species with ectomycorrhizal or endomycorrhizal fungi, and could also facilitate controlled mycorrhization in nursery practices where Acacia species are grown for forestation purposes.

  7. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

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    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  8. Pharmacognostic Screening, Phytochemical Evaluation and In- Vitro free radical Scavenging Activity of Acacia leucophloea Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deenanath Jhade; Sachin Jain; Ankit Jain; Praveen Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacognostic Screening and evaluate the in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of roots Acacia leucophloea. Methods: Pharmacognostic Standardization, Physico-chemical evaluation of the roots of Acacia leucophloea was carried out to determine its macro-and microscopical characters and also some of its quantitative standards. Microscopical studies were done by using trinocular microscope. Microscopically, root showed cork, cortex, stellar region and calcium oxalate crystals. Petroleum ether, ethanol, aqueous extracts of Acacia leucophloea were prepared, with successive extraction in soxhlet apparatus. Each extract was selected to study the free radical scavenging activity by superoxide scavenging assay method. Results: It was found that aqueous extract contained carbohydrates, glycosides amino acids flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids; ethanolic extract contained glycosides amino acids flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, steroids. Ethanolic extract of Acacia leucophloea shows maximam inhibition in superoxide scavenging model. Aqueous extract also showed almost similar activity compared to ethanolic extract), while Petroleum ether extract showed poor inhibition of superoxide scavenging activity. Conclusion: The present study on pharmacognostic standardization, physico and phytochemical evaluation of Acacia leucophloea root might be useful to supplement information about its identification parameters assumed significantly in the way of acceptability of herbal drugs in present scenario lacking regulatory laws to control quality of herbal drugs.

  9. Carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo em plantios de Acacia mangium no Cerrado de Roraima Soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass in Acacia mangium plantation in the Savanna of Roraima

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    Sara Magda Oliveira Simões

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de plantios de Acacia mangium, localizados no cerrado em Roraima, sobre o carbono orgânico e biomassa microbiana do solo. Foram realizadas amostragens de solo nas profundidades de 0-20 cm e 20-40 cm em dois plantios de A. mangium com cerca de cinco anos de idade, e em duas áreas de Cerrado nativo consideradas referência. Um dos plantios de A. mangium (localizado na Fazenda Cigolina correspondeu a um plantio homogêneo (espa��amento de 3,6 m entre linhas e 2,0 m entre plantas enquanto que o outro (localizado no Campo Experimental Água Boa - CEAB correspondeu a um plantio em faixas com duas linhas de plantio (espaçamento de 6 m entre linhas, 2,5 m entre plantas e cerca de 30 m entre faixas. As amostras de solo foram analisadas quanto ao carbono orgânico, carbono da biomassa microbiana, respiração basal do solo e quociente metabólico, além de atributos químicos de fertilidade. Foi verificado que os plantios de A. mangium não proporcionaram aumentos significativos do carbono orgânico do solo em comparação às áreas de referência. Entretanto, na média geral, esses plantios proporcionaram aumento do carbono da biomassa microbiana do solo e redução do quociente metabólico, indicando a possibilidade de acúmulo de carbono orgânico no solo em longo prazo. Também foi observado que, em comparação ao plantio da fazenda Cigolina e às áreas de referência, o carbono microbiano do solo foi maior e acompanhado de menor quociente metabólico no plantio de A. mangium no CEAB, mostrando que a estrutura de plantio exerceu influência sobre a biomassa microbiana do solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Acacia mangium plantation in the Roraima's Savanna, on soil organic carbon and soil microbial biomass. Soil samplings were collected on the depths of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in two Acacia mangium plantation sites, about five years old, and in two sites of native savanna as

  10. Fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em estéril revegetado com Acacia mangium, após mineração de bauxita Colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi in substrate, after bauxite mining, vegetated with Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Caproni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição das comunidades de FMAs em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium após a mineração de bauxita na região de Porto Trombetas, PA. Foram coletadas amostras de solo compostas nos períodos seco e chuvoso, em áreas revegetadas com Acacia mangium, que receberam inóculos de Glomus clarum e Gigaspora margarita, com 1 e 5 anos de idade. Os solos foram revegetados sem a reposição do horizonte superficial orgânico. Os esporos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs foram extraídos e identificados através de suas características morfológicas. Analisou-se a densidade de esporos e de espécies em cada amostra, a densidade relativa e a freqüência de ocorrência de cada espécie por período de amostragem, além do índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF. Sob o plantio de mudas de A. mangium, a densidade de esporos de FMAs foi elevada e aumentou com a idade, enquanto o número de espécies não variou. Glomus clarum produz alta densidade de esporos na fase inicial do plantio e declina com o tempo, e Gigaspora margarita não esporula nas condições edafoclimáticas locais. A maioria das espécies de FMA não apresenta o mesmo padrão de esporulação nos períodos seco e chuvoso.The objective of this work was to monitor the establishment of Gigaspora margarita and Glomus clarum in reclaimed areas after the bauxite mining in Porto Trombetas, PA, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and rainy periods under one and five-year-old Acacia mangium trees grown from seedlings that had been inoculated with Glomus clarum and Gigaspora margarita. The exposed subsoil was managed without replacing the organic soil layer. FMA spores were extracted and identified through their morphologic characteristics. Spore density and frequency of each species were determined in each sampling The index of abundance and frequency (IAF were estimated for all samples. Under A. mangium the arbuscular

  11. Sintomas de deficiência nutricional em mudas de Acacia holosericea em resposta à omissão de macronutrientes Symptoms of nutritional deficiency in seedlings of Acacia holosericea submitted to absence of macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiane Santi Sarcinelli

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A Acacia holosericea é uma espécie leguminosa arbórea bastante utilizada na recuperação de áreas degradadas. O conhecimento dos sintomas de deficiência nutricional apresentados por esta espécie possibilita a identificação e a correção de deficiências em exemplares plantados em substratos degradados. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar a sintomatologia visual de carências de macronutrientes e avaliar a produção de biomassa e o acúmulo de nutrientes nas raízes e na parte aérea de mudas de Acacia holosericea, submetidas a diferentes soluções nutritivas com exclusão de macronutrientes. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de sete soluções nutritivas: 1 solução completa (SC; 2 SC -N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; e 7 SC -S. Os tratamentos -N e Mg foram os que mais afetaram a produção total de biomassa. O decréscimo de produção manifestou-se na seguinte ordem: -N = -Mg > -K > -S > -Ca > SC > -P. As plantas do tratamento -N formaram nódulos no sistema radicular, exibindo teores foliares de N maiores que as plantas do tratamento SC. Com exceção dos tratamentos SC e -P, todos os outros apresentaram sintomas de deficiência. A ausência de S alterou a disposição natural dos filódios novos da A. holosericea.Acacia holosericea is a leguminous species that has been extensively used in land reclamation programs. The knowledge of its nutritional symptoms allows the identification and correction of deficiencies in individuals planted in degraded substrates. The aim of this work was to characterize the behavior of seedlings of A. holosericea submitted to different nutritional solutions with absence of macronutrients. The treatments consisted of seven nutritional solutions: 1 Complete solution (SC; 2 SC - N; 3 SC -P; 4 SC -K; 5 SC -Ca; 6 SC -Mg; 7 SC -S. Treatments -N and -Mg were the ones that most affected biomass production. Decrease in biomass production occurred in the following order: -N = -Mg > -K > -S

  12. Arabinogalactan Proteins from Baobab and Acacia Seeds Influence Innate Immunity of Human Keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Abderrakib; Despres, Julie; Benard, Magalie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Leprince, Jerome; Vaudry, David; Rihouey, Christophe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité; Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure

    2016-10-13

    Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However little is currently known regarding their potential activity towards skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes. These data suggest that plant AGP, already known to control plant defensive processes, could also modulate skin innate immune responses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Low chitinase activity in Acacia myrmecophytes: a potential trade-off between biotic and chemical defences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, M.; Staehelin, Christian; McKey, D.

    We determined chitinase activity in leaves of four myrmecophytic and four non-myrmecophytic leguminous species at the plants' natural growing sites in Mexico. Myrmecophytic plants (or 'ant plants') have obligate mutualisms with ants protecting them against herbivores and pathogenic fungi. Plant chitinases can be considered a reliable measure of plant resistance to pathogenic fungi. The myrmecophytic Acacia species, which were colonised by mutualistic ants, exhibited at least six-fold lower levels of chitinase activity compared with the non-myrmecophytic Acacia farnesiana and three other non-myrmecophytes. Though belonging to different phylogenetic groups, the myrmecophytic Acacia species formed one distinct group in the data set, which was clearly separated from the non-myrmecophytic species. These findings allowed for comparison between two recent hypotheses that attempt to explain low chitinase activity in ant plants. Most probably, chitinases are reduced in myrmecophytic plant species because these are effectively defended indirectly due to their symbiosis with mutualistic ants.

  14. Cambios provocados en el suelo por la invasión de acacias australianas

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    P. Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La invasión por acacias australianas altera profundamente tanto las características abióticas del suelo como la estructura de las comunidades microbianas edáficas, modificando los procesos y servicios de los ecosistemas invadidos. En general, las acacias invasoras conllevan un gran aumento del contenido de hojarasca, carbono y nitrógeno, así como modificaciones en los ciclos biogeoquímicos de estos elementos y una disminución de la disponibilidad hídrica en los ecosistemas invadidos. Producen también modificaciones en la diversidad funcional y genética de las comunidades de bacterias y hongos del suelo. Durante la invasión por algunas especies de acacias australianas se ha comprobado además que se produce una co-invasión de bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno exóticas asociadas a las acacias. Estas bacterias exóticas pueden asociarse a leguminosas nativas que existen en el ecosistema invadido lo que conlleva una disrupción de la simbiosis entre leguminosas y rizobios nativos. Todos estos cambios en las propiedades abióticas y bióticas del suelo pueden tener consecuencias negativas para las especies vegetales nativas, reduciendo su crecimiento o impidiendo su establecimiento. Además, los cambios introducidos por las acacias refuerzan la invasión ya que favorecen la germinación, crecimiento y capacidad competidora de estas especies. Los estudios realizados sugieren que estos procesos de retroalimentación positivos entre las acacias y los suelos que invaden aumentan con el tiempo de invasión y dificultan la recuperación natural de los ecosistemas.

  15. Co-composting of invasive Acacia longifolia with pine bark for horticultural use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale co-composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species with pine bark waste from the lumber industry, in a blend ratio of 60:40 (v:v), was investigated and compared with previous research on the composting of Acacia without additional feedstock, to determine the potential process and end-product quality benefits of co-composting with bark. Pile temperatures rose rapidly to >70 °C and were maintained at >60 °C for several months. Acacia and bark biomass contained a large fraction of mineralizable organic matter (OM) equivalent to approximately 600 g kg(-1) of initial OM. Bark was more recalcitrant to biodegradation compared with Acacia, which degraded at twice the rate of bark. Therefore, incorporating the bark increased the final amount of compost produced compared with composting Acacia residues without bark. The relatively high C/N ratio of the composting matrix (C/N=56) and NH3 volatilization explained the limited increases in NH4+-N content, whereas concentrations of conservative nutrient elements (e.g. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe) increased in proportion to OM mineralization, enriching the compost as a nutrient source for horticultural use. Nitrogen concentrations also increased to a small extent, but were much more dynamic and losses, probably associated with N volatilization mechanisms, were difficult to actively control. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilized end-product, such as pH, electrical conductivity and OM content, were improved with the addition of bark to Acacia biomass, and the final compost characteristics were suitable for use for soil improvement and also as horticultural substrate components.

  16. nas

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    Modesto Varas

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.

  17. Purification of anthocyanins from species of Banksia and Acacia using high-voltage paper electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenstorfer, Robert E; Morgan, Anne L; Hayasaka, Yoji; Sedgley, Margaret; Jones, Graham P

    2003-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the isolation and rapid identification of anthocyanins from two floricultural crops based on the use of high-voltage paper electrophoresis with bisulphite buffer. Using this method, anthocyanin pigments were successfully purified as their negatively charged bisulphite-addition compounds from crude extracts of plant tissue. In conjunction with liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry, the method enabled the anthocyanins from the flowers of two Banksia species and the leaves of two Acacia species to be identified. The Banksia flowers contained both cyanidin and peonidin-based pigments, while the Acacia leaves contained cyanidin and delphinidin derivatives.

  18. Effet des contraintes hydrique et saline sur la germination de quelques acacias africains

    OpenAIRE

    Ndour, P.; Danthu, P.

    1998-01-01

    Notre étude a porté sur la germination de neuf espèces ouest africaines du genre #Acacia$ originaires de zones bioclimatiques contrastées (#Acacia albida$, #A. dudgeoni$, #A. ehrenbergiana$, #A. nilotica adansonii$, #A. nilotica tomentosa$, #A. raddiana$, #A. senegal$, #A. seyal$ et #A. sieberiana$) soumises à une contrainte saline ou hydrique simulée par apport, dans l'eau d'imbibition des graines, de chlorure de sodium (de 0 à 40 g/l, correspondant à une pression osmotique de 0 à -2,4 MPa),...

  19. Condensed tannins from acacia mangium bark: Characterization by spot tests and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharudin, Muhammad Azizi; Zakaria, Sarani; Chia, Chin Hua

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the adaptation and evaluation of one chemical tests for tannins characterization in acacia mangium bark. Acid butanol test developed to identify respectively condensed tannins is described. The two traditional tests used for tannin characterization namely ferric test and vanillin test were also performed and their functional also discussed. Condensed tannins were extracted from acacia mangium bark using water medium in presence of three different concentration basic reagent of NaOH(5%,10% and 15%) and were characterized by FT-IR spectrometry.

  20. The SMART-NAS Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Rudolph A.

    2015-01-01

    The SMART-NAS Testbed for Safe Trajectory Based Operations Project will deliver an evaluation capability, critical to the ATM community, allowing full NextGen and beyond-NextGen concepts to be assessed and developed. To meet this objective a strong focus will be placed on concept integration and validation to enable a gate-to-gate trajectory-based system capability that satisfies a full vision for NextGen. The SMART-NAS for Safe TBO Project consists of six sub-projects. Three of the sub-projects are focused on exploring and developing technologies, concepts and models for evolving and transforming air traffic management operations in the ATM+2 time horizon, while the remaining three sub-projects are focused on developing the tools and capabilities needed for testing these advanced concepts. Function Allocation, Networked Air Traffic Management and Trajectory Based Operations are developing concepts and models. SMART-NAS Test-bed, System Assurance Technologies and Real-time Safety Modeling are developing the tools and capabilities to test these concepts. Simulation and modeling capabilities will include the ability to assess multiple operational scenarios of the national airspace system, accept data feeds, allowing shadowing of actual operations in either real-time, fast-time and/or hybrid modes of operations in distributed environments, and enable integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies, and NAS architectures. An important focus within this project is to enable the development of a real-time, system-wide safety assurance system. The basis of such a system is a continuum of information acquisition, analysis, and assessment that enables awareness and corrective action to detect and mitigate potential threats to continuous system-wide safety at all levels. This process, which currently can only be done post operations, will be driven towards "real-time" assessments in the 2035 time frame.

  1. Toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

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    Alli Lukman Adewale

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a widely used plant in traditional medical practice in Northern Nigeria and many African countries. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of a single dose (acute and of repeated doses (sub-acute administration of aqueous extract of A. nilotica root in rodents, following our earlier study on antiplasmodial activity. In the acute toxicity test, three groups of Swiss albino mice were orally administered aqueous extract of A. nilotica (50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight and signs of toxicity were observed daily for 14 days. In the sub-acute toxicity study, four groups of 12 rats (6 male and 6 female were used. Group 1 received 10 ml/kg b.w distilled water (control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w of the extract, respectively, for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage. Signs of toxicity/mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes were observed. Biochemical parameters were analysed in both plasma and liver homogenate. In the acute and sub-acute toxicity studies, the extract did not cause mortality. A significant reduction in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w, while alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher than control values at 500 mg/kg b.w. The aqueous extract of A. nilotica was found to be safe in single dose administration in mice but repeated administration of doses higher than 250 mg/kg b.w of the extract for 28 days in rats may cause hepatotoxicity.

  2. Actividad antimicrobiana de Waltheria indica y Acacia farnesiana

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    Nidia M. Rojas Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre las plantas medicinales empleadas en Tierra Caliente, estado de Guerrero, México, se encuentran el Güinar (Waltheria indica L., Esterculiaceae y el Huizache (Acacia farnesiana L. Willd, Mimosaceae. En ambas, la infusión de la raíz se usa popularmente para las diarreas. Con la finalidad de validar las propiedades que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro de los extractos acuosos y etanólicos preparados con las raíces de ambas plantas. A estos extractos, se les determinó el rendimiento de sólidos solubles totales y se les realizó el análisis fitoquímico general. La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó frente a 25 cultivos bacterianos, dos cepas de hongos filamentosos y 13 cepas de siete especies de levaduras del género Candida. En ambas plantas, los extractos etanólicos tuvieron mayor actividad que los acuosos. Los extractos etanólicos de estas especies vegetales afectaron el crecimiento de siete cepas bacterianas, lo cual correspondió al 28 % de los cultivos evaluados. Esta actividad fue bacteriostática y bactericida para los dos extractos, a los que se les determinaron las Concentraciones Mínimas Inhibitoria (CMI y Bactericida (CMB frente a los cultivos sensibles. Solo se detectó actividad antifúngica por el extracto de W. indica sobre la cepa de C. utilis. La acción sobre bacterias enteropatógenas in vitro valida el uso de estas plantas en medicina tradicional y reafirma la necesidad de estudios toxicológicos para asegurar la inocuidad de su uso.

  3. STRATEGI DIVERSIFIKASI PRODUK KAYU OLAHAN Acacia mangium (studi kasus : PT. Musi Hutan Persada

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    Hamzah Hamzah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objective of this study is to suggest  the best wood  products of Acacia mangium  that have  high value-added as an alternative business and to formulate the fitting  strategy. This study  is descriptive case study applying  purposive sampling method which involved wood product Experts and Senior PT. Musi Hutan Persada Management.  Data have been analyzed through Exponential Compare Method (MPE to select the best product alternative based on eleven set criteria, using AHP method, Hayami value-added Analysis, and Cost Analysis.  The study shows that there are five superior Acacia mangium based products, namely 1 Sawnwood and woodworking (KGKO, 2 Furniture, 3 Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF, 4 Tannin-glue of Acacia mangium  bark and 5 Wood Charcoal.  And  Sawnwood and Woodworking (KGKO, Furniture, and   Tannin-glue  have the best chance.  Best business strategy to be adhered by MHP, “related-diversification”, then is  to continue utilizing  Acacia mangium wood  as renewable resources,  integrated and sustainable business.

  4. Acacia saligna: an invasive species on the coast of Molise (southern Italy

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    Calabrese V

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Italy is one of the European countries most affected by biological invasions. In this study, we focused on the impact of Acacia saligna, an Australian invasive plant species, on the coastal ecosystem’s ecology and biodiversity along the sandy coasts of Molise (southern Italy. We analyzed data from 61 vegetation plots recorded in coastal pine forest and Mediterranean scrub habitats of Molise throughout the preparatory actions of the “LIFE Maestrale” project (NAT/IT/000262. In order to study the ecological impact of Acacia saligna comparing invaded and non-invaded areas, we first assigned the Ellenberg’s indicator values to each plant species, which were then used to relate the presence of Acacia saligna with ecological characteristics of sites through a generalized linear model (GLM. Our results showed a significant positive relationship between the presence of Acacia saligna and high levels of soil nutrients and, on the contrary, a negative relationship with the presence of mesophilic species, which are typical of the community interest habitats of pine forest (2270*. The use of ecological indicators is effective to pinpoint the ecological effects of biological invasions, as well as to evaluate habitat conservation state and to identify vulnerable native species.

  5. Kinetic release studies of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate from gum acacia crosslinked hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderibigbe, B A; Varaprasad, K; Sadiku, E R; Ray, S S; Mbianda, X Y; Fotsing, M C; Owonubi, S J; Agwuncha, S C

    2015-02-01

    Natural polymer hydrogels are useful for controlling release of drugs. In this study, hydrogels containing gum acacia were synthesized by free-radical polymerization of acrylamide with gum acacia. The effect of gum acacia in the hydrogels on the release mechanism of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (BP) was studied at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The hydrogels exhibited high swelling ratios at pH 7.4 and low swelling ratios at pH 1.2. The release study was performed using UV-Visible spectroscopy via complex formation with Fe(III) ions. At pH 1.2, the release profile was found to be anomalous while at pH 7.4, the release kinetic of BP was a perfect zero-order release mechanism. The hydrogels were found to be pH-sensitive and the release profiles of the BP were found to be influenced by the degree of crosslinking of the hydrogel network with gum acacia. The preliminary results suggest that these hydrogels are promising devices for controlled delivery of bisphosphonate to the gastrointestinal region.

  6. Improving Acacia auriculiformis seedlings using microbial inoculant (Beneficial Microorganisms)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bayezid M. Khan; M.K. Hossain; M.A.U. Mridha

    2014-01-01

    A microbial inoculant, known as effective microorganisms (EM), was applied to determine its efficacy on seed germination and seedling growth in the nursery of Acacia auriculiformis A Cunn. ex Benth. The seedlings were grown in a mixture of sandy soil and cow dung (3:1) and kept in polybags;EM was poured at different concentra-tions (0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% and 10%). Seed germination rate and growth parameters of seedlings - shoot and root lengths, fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, vigor, volume, and quality indices and stur-diness - were measured. The nodulation status influenced by EM was also observed, along with the measurement of pigment contents in leaves. The highest germination rate (72%) was observed in 2% EM solution while the lowest (55%) was found in control treatment. The highest shoot and root lengths (30.6 cm and 31.2 cm respectively) were recorded in 2%EM and were significantly (p <0.05) different from control. Both fresh and dry weights of shoots were maximum (8.66 g and 2.99 g respectively) in 2% EM, whereas both fresh and dry weights of root were maximum (2.56 g and 1.23 g respectively) in 5%EM solution. Although the highest vigor index, volume index, and sturdiness (4450, 628 and 67.5 respec-tively) were found in 2% EM, the highest quality index (0.455) was found in 5%EM solution. The nodule number was higher at a very low (0.5%) concentration of EM but it normally decreased with the increase of concentration. The contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and caro-tenoid were maximum (43.26 mg⋅L-1, 13.56 mg⋅L-1and 17.99 mg⋅L-1 respectively) in 2%EM. Therefore, low concentration of EM (up to 2%)can be recommended for getting maximum seed germination and seed-ling development of A. auriculiformis in the nursery.

  7. PRODUCTION OF MANGIUM (Acacia mangium WOOD VINEGAR AND ITS UTILIZATION

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    Tjutju Nurhayati

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Production  of  wood vinegar from mangium (Acacia  mangium wood bolts/pieces  with their diameter of 3  17 cm, length of 30  67 cm, moisture content of 84.4%, and specific gravity of 0.52 conducted in a dome-shaped kiln with 1.2 m'-capacity afforded a yield of 40.3%.   The mangium wood vinegar was produced  through condensation  (cooling of  smoke/gas fractions released during the charcoaling (carbonization process  of  mangium wood.    The  process  could be regarded  as an integrated production of wood vinegar and charcoal.  The yield of wood vinegar combined with the resulting charcoal was 73.9%  based on  the dry weight of  inputed  mangium wood.    Results of chromatography analysis on mangium wood vinegar as conducted in Japan revealed its organic acid content at 73.9 ppm, phenol content 8.09 ppm, methanol 3.34 ppm, acidity degree 4.91  ppm, and pH 3.89.   Similar analysis on the mangium wood vinegar was conducted in Indonesia's laboratories, and the results were comparable with  those  of  Japan.     Results of  inhibition  testings  on  particular microorganisms   (i.e.  Pseudomonas  aerogjnosa,  Stafi/ococms   attreus,  and  Candidi   albicans  fimgz indicated that the mangium wood vinegar could inflict antirnicrobe action on those microorganism with its effectiveness somewhat below that of  liquid betel soap which could be purchased  from drugstores.  The experimental use of mangium wood vinegar at 3-5% concentration on ginger (Zingiber officinale var. white ginger plants revealed significantly positive growth responses/  characteristics with respect to their height, leaf length, and sprout/ shoot development, in comparison with the untreated ginger plants (control.   Such responses/characteristics were not significantly different from those using atonik's growth hormone.  Likewise, the preliminary use of mangium wood vinegar at 2-percent concentration on teak

  8. Olifantinvloed op Acacia Nigrescens-bome in 'n gedeelte van die Punda Milia- Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H Engelbrecht

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Olifantinvloed op groot Acacia nigrescens (knop- piesdoring borne in die Punda Milia-Sandveld van die Nasionale Krugerwildtuin, is in Desernber 1978 ondersoek. 'n Monster van 951 borne toon dat die voortbestaan van die boornpopulasie bedreig word. Elephant impact on Acacia nigrescens trees in a section of the Punda Milia-Sandveld of the Kruger National Park. An investigation of elephant impact on tall Acacia nigrescens trees in the Punda Milia- Sandveld of the Kruger National Park was conducted during December 1978. A sample of 951 trees showed that the tree population is endangered.

  9. Multitasking in a plant-ant interaction: how does Acacia myrtifolia manage both ants and pollinators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bauer, Angélica E; Martínez, Gerardo Cerón; Murphy, Daniel J; Burd, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Plant associations with protective ants are widespread among angiosperms, but carry the risk that ants will deter pollinators as well as herbivores. Such conflict, and adaptations to ameliorate or prevent the conflict, have been documented in African and neotropical acacias. Ant-acacia associations occur in Australia, but little is known of their ecology. Moreover, recent phylogenetic evidence indicates that Australian acacias are only distantly related to African and American acacias, providing an intercontinental natural experiment in the management of ant-pollinator conflict. We examined four populations of Acacia myrtifolia over a 400-km environmental gradient in southeastern Australia using ant and pollinator exclusion as well as direct observation of ants and pollinators to assess the potential for ant-pollinator conflict to affect seed set. Native bees were the only group of floral visitors whose visitation rates were a significant predictor of fruiting success, although beetles and wasps may play an important role as "insurance" pollinators. We found no increase in pollinator visitation or fruiting success following ant exclusion, even with large sample sizes and effective exclusion. Because ants are facultative visitors to A. myrtifolia plants, their presence may be insufficient to interfere greatly with floral visitors. It is also likely that the morphological location of extrafloral nectaries tends to draw ants away from reproductive parts, although we commonly observed ants on inflorescences, so the spatial separation is not strict. A. myrtifolia appears to maintain a generalized mutualism over a wide geographic range without the need for elaborate adaptations to resolve ant-pollinator conflict.

  10. The NAS Computational Aerosciences Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Kristina D.; Globus, Al; Lasinski, T. A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In order to further the state-of-the-art in computational aerosciences (CAS) technology, researchers must be able to gather and understand existing work in the field. One aspect of this information gathering is studying published work available in scientific journals and conference proceedings. However, current scientific publications are very limited in the type and amount of information that they can disseminate. Information is typically restricted to text, a few images, and a bibliography list. Additional information that might be useful to the researcher, such as additional visual results, referenced papers, and datasets, are not available. New forms of electronic publication, such as the World Wide Web (WWW), limit publication size only by available disk space and data transmission bandwidth, both of which are improving rapidly. The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Systems Division at NASA Ames Research Center is in the process of creating an archive of CAS information on the WWW. This archive will be based on the large amount of information produced by researchers associated with the NAS facility. The archive will contain technical summaries and reports of research performed on NAS supercomputers, visual results (images, animations, visualization system scripts), datasets, and any other supporting meta-information. This information will be available via the WWW through the NAS homepage, located at http://www.nas.nasa.gov/, fully indexed for searching. The main components of the archive are technical summaries and reports, visual results, and datasets. Technical summaries are gathered every year by researchers who have been allotted resources on NAS supercomputers. These summaries, together with supporting visual results and references, are browsable by interested researchers. Referenced papers made available by researchers can be accessed through hypertext links. Technical reports are in-depth accounts of tools and applications research projects

  11. NAS Panel faults export controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Efeito da quitosana na emergência, desenvolvimento inicial e caracterização bioquímica de plântulas de Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Rodrigo Freddo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A quitosana é um polímero que vem sendo testado na proteção e indução de resistência em frutos, contra patógenos causadores de podridões. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal testar o efeito do tratamento de sementes de Acacia mearnsii com esse produto, bem como seu efeito no desenvolvimento inicial e na caracterização bioquímica das plântulas. Para tanto realizou-se este trabalho na Unepe de Silvicultura e no Laboratório de Fitossanidade da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná - Câmpus Dois Vizinhos. As sementes de Acacia mearnsii foram tratadas com diferentes concentrações de quitosana (0; 0,25; 0,5; 1 e 2% e plantadas em tubetes com o substrato contaminado com o fungo Rhizoctonia solani. Avaliou-se aos 22 dias após a semeadura, a porcentagem de emergência, o índice de velocidade de emergência, a altura das plântulas, o comprimento da radícula, a massa da matéria fresca, além das variáveis bioquímicas dos tecidos foliares, o teor de proteínas totais e de compostos fenólicos e a atividade da enzima fenilalanina amônia-liase (FAL. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o uso de concentrações de quitosana entre 0,6 e 0,9% foram mais favoráveis à emergência e ao desenvolvimento das plântulas. Bioquimicamente, a quitosana demonstrou capacidade de alteração do teor de proteínas e da atividade da FAL, enzima a qual, está no ponto de ramificação entre o metabolismo primário e o secundário, indicando a possibilidade de ter havido ativação do sistema de defesa vegetal das plântulas, pelo tratamento das sementes com quitosana.

  13. UAS-NAS Stakeholder Feedback Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Debra; Murphy, Jim; Grindle, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    The need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to national security and defense, emergency management, science, and to enable commercial applications has been continually increasing over the past few years. To address this need, the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) Integrated Aviation Systems Program (IASP) formulated and funded the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project (hereafter referred to as UAS-NAS Project) from 2011 to 2016. The UAS-NAS Project identified the following need statement: The UAS community needs routine access to the global airspace for all classes of UAS. The Project identified the following goal: To provide research findings to reduce technical barriers associated with integrating UAS into the NAS utilizing integrated system level tests in a relevant environment. This report provides a summary of the collaborations between the UAS-NAS Project and its primary stakeholders and how the Project applied and incorporated the feedback.

  14. Future NAS Flight Demand Generation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aviation and Air Traffic Management researchers are increasingly utilizing complex regional or NAS-wide simulations to evaluate future concepts. These analyses...

  15. Effects of biotic and abiotic constraints on the symbiosis between rhizobia and the tropical leguminous trees Acacia and Prosopis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Leena A; Lindström, Kristina

    2003-10-01

    N2-fixing, drought tolerant and multipurpose Acacia and Prosopis species are appropriate trees for reforestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics. Acacia and Prosopis trees form N2-fixing nodules with a wide range of rhizobia, for example African acacias mainly with Sinorhizobium sp. and Mesorhizobium sp., and Australian acacias with Bradyrhizobium sp. Although dry and hot seasons restrict formation of N2-fixing nodules on Acacia and Prosopis spp., fully grown trees and their symbiotic partners are well adapted to survive in harsh growth conditions. This review on one hand deals with major constraints of arid and semiarid soils, i.e. drought, salinity and high soil temperature, which affect growth of trees and rhizobia, and on the other hand with adaptation mechanisms by which both organisms survive through unfavourable periods. In addition, defects in infection and nodulation processes due to various abiotic and biotic constraints are reviewed. This knowledge is important when Acacia and Prosopis seedlings are used for forestation of degraded areas in arid and semiarid tropics.

  16. Immunochemical Characterization of Acacia Pollen Allergens and Evaluation of Cross-Reactivity Pattern with the Common Allergenic Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hosein Shamsbiranvand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen from the Acacia has been reported as an important source of pollinosis in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The aim of this study was to characterize the IgE binding protein of Acacia farnesiana pollen extract and evaluate cross-reactivity with the most allergenic pollens. In this study, pollen extract was fractionated by SDS-PAGE and the allergenic profile was determined by IgE-immunoblotting and specific ELISA using forty-two Acacia allergic patients. Potential cross-reactivity among Acacia and selected allergenic plants was evaluated with ELISA and immunoblotting inhibition experiments. There were several resolved protein fractions on SDS-PAGE which ranged from 12 to 85 kDa. Several allergenic protein bands with molecular weights approximately between 12 and 85 kDa were recognized by IgE-specific antibodies from Acacia allergic patients in the immunoblot assay. The inhibition by the Prosopis juliflora pollen extract was more than those by other pollen extracts. Moreover, the wheal diameters generated by the Acacia pollen extract were highly correlated with those of P. juliflora pollen extracts. The findings suggest that several proteins such as 15, 23, 45, and 50 kDa proteins could be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents for patients allergic to A. farnesiana and P. juliflora.

  17. Produção Arbórea e Animal em Sistema Silvipastoril com Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii Trees and Animal Production in a Silvipastoral System with Black Wattle (Acacia mearnsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Maria de Souza Castilhos

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho dos componentes arbóreo e animal em um sistema silvipastoril (SSP com acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild e gramíneas perenes de verão, foi conduzido um trabalho em convênio com a empresa Seta S.A., na unidade da Fepagro em Tupanciretã, RS, no período de outubro de 1995 a maio de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi um bifatorial (espécie forrageira e densidade arbórea inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As espécies forrageiras (EF avaliadas foram capim annoni (Eragrostis plana, braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha e capim gatton (Panicum maximum cv. Gatton nos quatro primeiros anos, e capim gatton, capim aruana (P. maximum cv. Aruana e capim pangola (Digitaria diversinervis para os demais anos. As densidades arbóreas (DA testadas foram de 1.667, 1.000, 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Com 1.667 árvores.ha-1 houve maior rendimento de madeira em todas as avaliações, não diferindo de 1.000 árvores/ha-1 a partir do quinto ano. A produtividade animal foi mais elevada em DA de 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1, sendo respectivamente 229 e 223 kg.ha-1 de peso vivo. Aos sete anos de implantação da acácia negra, o volume de madeira foi de 166; 143; 86 e 51 m3.ha-1, respectivamente, nas densidades arbóreas de 1.667; 1.000; 833 e 500 árvores.ha-1. Para que haja um equilíbrio entre produção arbórea e animal, SSPs com densidades arbóreas entre 1.000 e 833 árvores.ha-1 apresentam-se como alternativas viáveis para os produtores rurais.

     

    doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.39

    A silvopastoral study consisting of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild and tropical perennial grasses was developed at the Fepagro Research Unity in Tupanciretã, RS, in collaboration with Seta Group, from October 1995 until May 2003, with the objective of evaluating trees and animal (beef cattle performances. The experiment was a bifactorial completely randomized design (forage specie and arboreal density with two

  18. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  19. GaInNAs laser gain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHOW,WENG W.; JONES,ERIC D.; MODINE,NORMAND A.; KURTZ,STEVEN R.; ALLERMAN,ANDREW A.

    2000-05-23

    The optical gain spectra for GaInNAs/GaAs quantum wells are computed using a microscopic laser theory. From these spectra, the peak gain and carrier radiative decay rate as functions of carrier density are determined. These dependences allow the study of the lasing threshold current density of GaInNAs/GaAs quantum well structures.

  20. STUDIES ON DIURETIC AND LAXATIVE ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondal Sumanta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The diuretic and laxative activity of aqueous extract of Acacia suma (Roxb. barks (Family: Fabaceae were studied in Wistar albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg, p.o. and agar-agar (300 mg/kg, p.o. were used as reference standards respectively for activity comparison. The aqueous extract (400 mg/kg has shown significant increase in the volume of urine, urinary concentration of Na+, K+ and Cl- ions. However 200mg/kg dose failed to do so. On the other hand the extract was found to produce significant laxative activity in dose dependant manner. Presence of different phytoconstituents in aqueous extract of Acacia suma may be responsible for the specific activities.

  1. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.C.; Wong, J.P.K.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Wong, J.W.C.; Wong, M.H. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Inst. of Natural Resources and Waste Management

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a greenhouse study conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized ({lt} 53{mu}m) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seeding growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  2. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites.

  3. Symbiotic and taxonomic diversity of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Salif; Willems, Anne; de Lajudie, Philippe; Roche, Philippe; Jeder, Habib; Quatrini, Paola; Neyra, Marc; Ferro, Myriam; Promé, Jean-Claude; Gillis, Monique; Boivin-Masson, Catherine; Lorquin, Jean

    2002-04-01

    A collection of rhizobia isolated from Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana from various sites in the North and South of Sahara was analyzed for their diversity at both taxonomic and symbiotic levels. On the basis of whole cell protein (SDS-PAGE) and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, most of the strains were found to belong to the Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium genera where they may represent several different genospecies. Despite their chromosomal diversity, most A. tortilis Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium symbionts exhibited very similar symbiotic characters. Nodulation tests showed that the strains belong to the Acacia-Leucaena-Prosopis nodulation group, although mainly forming non-fixing nodules on species other than A. tortilis. Most of the strains tested responded similarly to flavonoid nod gene inducers, as estimated by using heterologous nodA-lacZ fusions. Thin layer chromatography analysis of the Nod factors synthesized by overproducing strains showed that most of the strains exhibited similar profiles. The structures of Nod factors produced by four different Sinorhizobium sp. strains were determined and found to be similar to other Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulating rhizobia of the Sinorhizobium-Mesorhizobium-Rhizobium branch. They are chitopentamers, N-methylated and N-acylated by common fatty acids at the terminal non reducing sugar. The molecules can also be 6-O sulfated at the reducing end and carbamoylated at the non reducing end. The phylogenetic analysis of available NodA sequences, including new sequences from A. tortilis strains, confirmed the clustering of the NodA sequences of members of the Acacia-Prosopis-Leucaena nodulation group.

  4. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, M.; Jimenez-Aleman, G.; W Boland

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new part...

  5. An orb-weaver spider exploits an ant–acacia mutualism for enemy-free space

    OpenAIRE

    Styrsky, John D

    2014-01-01

    Exploiters of protection mutualisms are assumed to represent an important threat for the stability of those mutualisms, but empirical evidence for the commonness or relevance of exploiters is limited. Here, I describe results from a manipulative study showing that an orb-weaver spider, Eustala oblonga, inhabits an ant-acacia for protection from predators. This spider is unique in the orb-weaver family in that it associates closely with both a specific host plant and ants. I tested the protect...

  6. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats

    OpenAIRE

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plants express numerous ‘pathogenesis-related’ (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extra-floral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EF...

  7. TEKNIK PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN DAN METODE PERKECAMBAHAN UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BENIH Acacia crassicarpa HASIL PEMULIAAN

    OpenAIRE

    Naning Yuniarti; Megawati Megawati; Budi Leksono

    2013-01-01

    Acacia crassicarpa improved seed has a higher quality than unimproved seed. To maintain the viability, improved seeds are required as appropriate handling techniques. One of the important steps in seed handling is seed germination test. A. crassicarpa seed have dormancy and to break it needs spesific pretreatment. Germination test can be worked in the laboratory and greenhouse. The purpose of this research was to obtain pretreatment and germination method better to maintain the viability of A...

  8. Minor lipid components of some Acacia species: potential dietary health benefits of the unexploited seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Nizar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oilseed samples from four Acacia species ( A. cyclops, A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. cyanophylla were analyzed in order to evaluate the potential nutritional value of their unexploited seeds. Methods Samples were collected from different Tunisian geographic locations. Seed oils were extracted and carotenoids, tocopherols and sterols were analyzed using chromatographic methods. Results The studied Acacia seeds seem to be quite rich in lipids (from 6% to 12%. All Acacia species contain mainly the xanthophylls zeaxanthin and lutein compounds: from ca. 38 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 113 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyanophylla. Total tocopherols varied from ca. 221 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops to ca. 808 mg.kg-1 of total lipids (A. ligulata. Sterols are highly present and their contents ranged between ca. 7 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. salicina and 11 g. kg-1 of total lipids (A. cyclops. Conclusion This study highlights that these unexploited seeds might have a potential nutritional value and encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for these plants for healthy purposes.

  9. Effects of Different Pretreatments to the Seed on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Acacia polyacantha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Missanjo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyacantha Willd. is a multipurpose tree species prioritised as one of the agroforestry tree species in Malawi. However, its use in agroforestry practices is limited by the low seedling growth and survival at the nursery stage. A study was conducted to evaluate the seedling growth and survival of Acacia polyacantha as affected by different pretreatments on the seeds at Malawi College of Forestry and Wildlife nursery, Malawi. Seeds were subjected to five presowing seed treatments methods, namely, immersion in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours, immersion in hot water (100°C for 5 minutes, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (0.3 M H2SO4 for 20 minutes, scarification by mechanically nicking using secateurs, and a control where seeds were sown without any treatment. The results indicate that presowing seed treatments have positive influence on the seedling growth and survival percentage. Nicked seeds exhibited the highest significant (P<0.001 performance for vegetative characteristics of height, root collar diameter, number of leaves, and survival percentage compared to other pretreatments. Therefore, it is suggested to use nicking as a pretreatment method on Acacia polyacantha seeds in order to enhance the speed and the amount of early seedling growth at the nursery stage.

  10. The Development of a Biochemical Profile of Acacia Honey by Identifying Biochemical Determinants of its Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Alexandru MARGHITAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Codex Alimentarius Standard, EU Legislation and National Standards state honey authenticity. Authenticity in respect of production (to prevent adulteration and authenticity in respect of geographical and botanical origin are the two main aspects of general honey authenticity. Quality of honey depends on the plant source, the chemical composition of these plants as well, as on the climatic conditions and soil mineral composition. Romanian acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia honey that came from the most important Transylvanian massif (Valea lui Mihai, Bihor County, Romania was evaluated for authenticity by pollen-analysis, several physico-chemical analyses, including sugar profile and mineral content. As polyphenolic content could be also an important factor for botanical authentification, HPLC-DAD-MS analyses were performed to assess the fingerprint of this important secondary plant metabolite. Statistical data were processed in order to develop a biochemical profile of this type of honey and the main quality categories identification. The results of physico-chemical analysis demonstrated that the tested honey samples could be framed into monofloral type of acacia honeys. The analysis of acacia honeys originating from Valea lui Mihai, Romania, showed that polyphenolic profile (phenolic acids and flavonoids could be used as a complementary method for authenticity determination together with pollen analysis and other physico-chemical analysis.

  11. Hydraulic conductance of Acacia phyllodes (foliage) is driven by primary nerve (vein) conductance and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Katy E; Sack, Lawren; Ball, Marilyn C

    2012-01-01

    We determined effects of venation traits on hydraulic conductance of phyllodes (foliage), using an array of Acacia s.str. species with diverse phyllode morphologies as the source of variation. Measurements were made on phyllodes from 44 species, grown in common gardens but originating from different positions along a precipitation gradient. K(phyllode) varied 18-fold and was positively correlated with primary nerve hydraulic conductance, and with primary nerve (vein) density but not with minor nerve density, in contrast with previous studies of true leaves in other dicotyledons. Phyllodes with higher primary nerve density also had greater mass per area (PMA) and larger bundle sheath extensions (BSEs) from their minor nerves. We suggest that higher primary nerve conductivity and density may decrease the distance travelled in the high-resistance extra-xylem pathways of the phyllode. Further, larger BSEs may increase the area available for dispersion of water from the xylem to the extra-xylem tissue. High PMA phyllodes were more common in acacias from areas receiving lower annual precipitation. Maximizing efficient water movement through phyllodes may be more important where rainfall is meagre and infrequent, explaining relationships between nerve patterns and the climates of origin in Australian phyllodinous Acacia.

  12. Studies on the Removal of Cu(II from Aqueous Solutions using Modified Acacia nilotica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilagavathy Palanisamy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sustainable and biodegradable Acacia nilotica leaf (AN was chemically modified to remove Cu(II from aqueous solutions, which is considered a versatile approach to clean contaminated aquatic environments. Zinc chloride-modified Acacia nilotica leaf (ZAN was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and other physico-chemical parameters like pHZPC. The aim was to assess the efficiency and mechanism of adsorption on Acacia nilotica via isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Harkin-Jura, and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill, kinetic models, and thermodynamic parameters. To optimize the removal efficiency, parameters such as effect of initial concentration, effect of pH, dosage, initial concentration, and contact time were studied by batch and column methods. Desorption studies illustrated that about 73% of the metal ions could be removed using 0.2N HCl. The results of the present investigation indicated that ZAN has a high potential for the removal of Cu(II from aqueous solutions, and the resultant data can serve as a base line for designing treatment plants on an industrial scale.

  13. Pollen viability reduction as a potential cost of ant association for Acacia constricta (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D

    2000-05-01

    Field studies investigating the impact of ants on the reproduction of plants bearing extrafloral nectaries have traditionally focused on seed production, a component of female fitness. The purpose of this study was to test whether ants can affect the pollen viability, a component of male fitness, when they visit flowers of the shrub Acacia constricta. Acacia constricta inflorescences hand-pollinated with flowers over which Formica perpilosa ants had crawled set significantly fewer seed pods than inflorescences hand-pollinated by control flowers that had no contact with ants. Many ant species secrete antibiotic substances onto the integument that render pollen inviable, and these secretions are probably the mechanism for reduced pollen viability in this study. The ratio of seed pods produced by self-pollinated inflorescences to those produced by cross-pollinated inflorescences was 0.16, indicating that A. constricta is largely self-incompatible. Because F. perpilosa workers forage primarily on the acacia tree under which they nest, they are unlikely to serve as efficient vectors of outcrossing. Previous work showed that A. constricta shrubs with F. perpilosa ants produce approximately twice as many seeds as similarly sized plants not so associated. The results indicate that association with F. perpilosa could cause a reproductive trade-off for A. constricta: benefits to female function may be accompanied by costs to male function. Selection to discourage ant visitation to flowers may have affected the pollination biology of this and other ant-associated plant species.

  14. A role for indirect facilitation in maintaining diversity in a guild of African acacia ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Stanton, Maureen L; Young, Truman P; Lemboi, John S; Goheen, Jacob R; Pringle, Robert M

    2013-07-01

    Determining how competing species coexist is essential to understanding patterns of biodiversity. Indirect facilitation, in which a competitively dominant species exerts a positive effect on one competitor by more strongly suppressing a third, shared competitor, is a potentially potent yet understudied mechanism for competitive coexistence. Here we provide evidence for indirect facilitation in a guild of four African Acacia ant species that compete for nesting space on the host plant Acacia drepanolobium, showing that a competitively dominant acacia ant species indirectly creates establishment opportunities for the most subordinate species that may help to maintain diversity. Using long-term observational data and field experiments, we demonstrate that the competitively dominant ant species outcompetes two competitively intermediate species, while tolerating colonies of the subordinate competitor; this creates opportunities for local colonization and establishment of colonies of the subordinate species within the dominant species' territories. Host plants occupied by this subordinate species are then more likely to be colonized by the intermediate species, which in turn are more likely to be displaced by the dominant species. This process has the potential to generate a cyclical succession of ant species on host trees, contributing to stable coexistence within this highly competitive community.

  15. Analysis and Comparison on Anatomic Features and Properties of 4 Acacia Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Junliang; PANG Yu

    2006-01-01

    The anatomic features and fiber morphology for 4 acacia species were investigated by the method of comparative analysis.Physical and mechanical properties such as air-dry density,dimension stability,MOR,MOE and toughness were also measured and compared.Results indicate that A.crassicarpa is of the greatest average fiber length and A.mangium is of the greatest average vessel length,which are 1 179.6 μmand 333.1 μm,respectively.Fiber morphology of all 4 acacia species accords with the requirement on pulping and paper-making,so the 4 acacia timbers can be used for pulpwood.A.cincinata is of the greatestair-dry density 721 kg/m3 and greatest basic density 617 kg/m3,however,A.mangium is of the best dimensional stability because of its smallest coefficient of shrinkage.With the highest value of every index,A.cincinata isof the best mechanical properties.

  16. Does aridity influence the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon L; Warwick, Nigel W M; Prychid, Christina J

    2013-12-01

    Calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystals are a common natural feature of many plant families, including the Leguminosae. The functional role of crystals and the mechanisms that underlie their deposition remain largely unresolved. In several species, the seasonal deposition of crystals has been observed. To gain insight into the effects of rainfall on crystal formation, the morphology, distribution and accumulation of calcium oxalate crystals in phyllodes of the leguminous Acacia sect. Juliflorae (Benth.) C. Moore & Betche from four climate zones along an aridity gradient, was investigated. The shapes of crystals, which include rare Rosanoffian morphologies, were constant between species from different climate zones, implying that morphology was not affected by rainfall. The distribution and accumulation of CaOx crystals, however, did appear to be climate-related. Distribution was primarily governed by vein density, an architectural trait which has evolved in higher plants in response to increasing aridity. Furthermore, crystals were more abundant in acacias from low rainfall areas, and in phyllodes containing high concentrations of calcium, suggesting that both aridity and soil calcium levels play important roles in the precipitation of CaOx. As crystal formation appears to be calcium-induced, we propose that CaOx crystals in Acacia most likely function in bulk calcium regulation.

  17. Podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium Heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo de Almeida Halfeld-Vieira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência da podridão-do-lenho em plantios homogêneos de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. A observação dos sintomas iniciais em ferimentos de poda indica que a desrama artificial é um fator de predisposição. Estimativas realizadas em dois talhões comerciais constataram cerca de 8 e 39% de incidência da doença em árvores de três anos. Isolamentos a partir de árvores sintomáticas e testes de patogenicidade demonstram que Lasiodiplodia theobromae pode contribuir no processo de podridão. Este é o primeiro relato da podridão-do-lenho em A. mangium no Brasil, o que pode limitar sua exploração comercial.The objective of this work was to report the occurrence of heartrot in homogeneous stands of Acacia mangium in the State of Roraima, Brazil. Observations of symptoms initiating from pruning wounds indicated that the artificial pruning is a predisposing factor. A survey carried out in two commercial stands showed 8 and 39% of disease incidence in three-year-old trees. Isolations performed from symptomatic trees and pathogenicity tests demonstrated that the fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae can incite the rot development. This is the first record of A. mangium heartrot in Brazil. The disease can restrict its commercial exploration.

  18. Impact of the energy crop Jatropha curcas L. on the composition of rhizobial populations nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and acacia (Acacia seyal L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Floury, Antoine; Laguerre, Gisèle; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Baudoin, Ezékiel

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha curcas, a Euphorbiaceae species that produces many toxicants, is increasingly planted as an agrofuel plant in Senegal. The purpose of this study was to determine whether soil priming induced by J. curcas monoculture could alter the rhizobial populations that nodulate cowpea and acacia, two locally widespread legumes. Soil samples were transferred into a greenhouse from three fields previously cultivated with Jatropha for 1, 2, and 15 years, and the two trap legumes were grown in them. Control soil samples were also taken from adjacent Jatropha-fallow plots. Both legumes tended to develop fewer but larger nodules when grown in Jatropha soils. Nearly all the nifH sequences amplified from nodule DNA were affiliated to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Only sequences from Acacia seyal nodules grown in the most recent Jatropha plantation were related to the Mesorhizobium genus, which was much a more conventional finding on A. seyal than the unexpected Bradyrhizobium genus. Apart from this particular case, only minor differences were found in the respective compositions of Jatropha soil versus control soil rhizobial populations. Lastly, the structure of these rhizobial populations was systematically imbalanced owing to the overwhelming dominance of a very small number of nifH genotypes, some of which were identical across soil types or even sites. Despite these weak and sparse effects on rhizobial diversity, future investigations should focus on the characterization of the nitrogen-fixing abilities of the predominant rhizobial strains.

  19. Metabolismo do cobre nas epilepsias

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    Luís Marques de Assis

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do fato de que o metabolismo do cobre está alterado nas epilepsias, o autor estudou sob que forma essa alteração se manifesta e, mediante o uso de curare em pacientes mentais submetidos ao eletrochoque, a influência da hiperatividade muscular própria da crise convulsiva sobre o metabolismo do cobre. Além disso, o autor estudou as correlações entre sexo e idade dos pacientes epilépticos, de um lado, e cupremia e cuprorraquia, do outro, e fez a correlação entre os níveis de cobre do soro e do LCR desses pacientes. Nos pacientes epilépticos (84 foram colhidas amostras de sangue (81 casos e de LCR (66 casos em período intercrítico para dosagem do cobre total. Nos pacientes mentais (32 foram colhidas amostras de sangue antes e imediatamente após crise convulsiva determinada pelo eletrochoque simples (22 casos para dosagem de ceruloplasmina, e imediatamente após eletrochoque sob ação de curare (10 casos para dosagem do cobre total. Os resultados foram submetidos a análise estatística, tendo o autor chegado às seguintes conclusões: 1 o nível de cobre do sangue e do LCR dos pacientes epilépticos não depende do sexo nem da idade; 2 o teor de cobre do LCR está correlacionado com o do sangue nos pacientes epilépticos; 3 a supressão, mediante o uso de substância curarizante, das manifestações musculares da crise produzida pelo eletrochoque acarreta queda não significativa do nível de cobre do sangue; 4 a queda do nível de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque depende da hiperatividade muscular que caracteriza a crise convulsiva; 5 a queda do nível de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque depende principalmente do cobre de reação direta; 6 a queda dos níveis de cobre do sangue após convulsões determinadas pelo eletrochoque é devida à pas* sagem desse elemento para os espaços intracelulares.

  20. The Effect of Sonic Bloom Fertilizing Technology on The Seed Germination and Growth of Acacia mangium Willd Seedling

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    Mulyadi A T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium Willd is one of the promising wood species, it is a fast growing species and can be used as raw materials for pulp, furniture and wood working. Musi Hutan Persada Company has planted Acacia mangium Willd in large scale for pulp processing raw materials and for wood working industry. The faculty of forestry of the Nusa Bangsa University in collaboration with the Musi Hutan Persada have examined  the effect of “Sonic Bloom” to the Acacia mangium Willd germination and seedling growth. The results of the research are the following : (1 The seed germination with “Sonic Bloom” provided percented of germination of 82%, better than those without “Sonic Bloom”, i.e. only 34%; (2 With Sonic Bloom,  the height of 80-days old seedling is 129.6 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom”of only 90.7 cm  ; (3 the diameter of 80-days old seedling with “Sonic Bloom” is 0,24 cm higher than those without “Sonic Bloom” harving diameters of only 0.19 cm.The study concludes that sonic bloom treatment is very useful for the seed germination and the growth of Acacia mangium Willd seedling Key Words : Sonic Bloom, persemaian, Acacia mangium, perkecambahan, bibit   Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Minerals disappearance rate of leaves of some acacia trees after digestion in goats’ rumen using nylon bags technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al shafei N. K

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The browse plants, including acacia species, provide excellent forage with high nutritive value for ruminants especially in dry areas of Africa. In this study, some minerals (P, K, Na, Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu and Zn were determined in leaves of browse plants (Acacia albida, Acacia nubica, Acacia sieberiana, Balanites aegyptiaca and Ziziphus spina- christi collected from different areas of Sudan before and after digestion of the sample in goat’s rumen by using nylon bag technique. Nylon bags containing the samples were inserted through the rumen fistula into the goat’s rumen, and were incubated for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hrs. After incubation periods, it was found that there were a high loss of minerals and this is attributed to the rumen digestion and solubility of minerals in rumen liquor. The results indicate that the time of incubation and the type of mineral likely had a significant effect on the loss of minerals in the rumen. It can be observed from these figures that the disappearance rates (slope of the curves vary across mineral types and species of acacia trees. Disappearance rates suggest that the rumen microorganisms have a significant role in the digestion of minerals and their disappearance rates are due to the solubility of minerals in the rumen liquor and the loss of minerals due to utilization of microorganisms to a certain amount for their maintenance.

  2. Simultaneous Estimation of Hydrochlorothiazide, Hydralazine Hydrochloride, and Reserpine Using PCA, NAS, and NAS-PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Badyal, Pragya Nand; Rawal, Ravindra K

    2015-01-01

    In this study, new and feasible UV-visible spectrophotometric and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were described for the simultaneous determination of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), hydralazine hydrochloride (H.HCl), and reserpine (RES) in combined pharmaceutical tablets. Methanol was used as a solvent for analysis and the whole UV region was scanned from 200-400 nm. The resolution was obtained by using multivariate methods such as the net analyte signal method (NAS), principal component analysis (PCA), and net analyte signal-principal component analysis (NAS-PCA) applied to the UV spectra of the mixture. The results obtained from all of the three methods were compared. NAS-PCA showed a lot of resolved data as compared to NAS and PCA. Thus, the NAS-PCA technique is a combination of NAS and PCA methods which is advantageous to obtain the information from overlapping results.

  3. Tree size as a factor influencing leaf emergence and leaf fall in Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novellie

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available In Acacia nigrescens and Combretum apiculatum saplings tended to retain leaves over the dry season, whereas the mature trees generally lost most of their leaves. In Acacia nigrescens the production of new leaves over the dry season was more commonly observed in saplings than in mature trees.

  4. Wood ash treatment, a cost-effective way to deactivate tannins in Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage and to improve digestion by Barbarine sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie (INRAT), Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Three in vitro experiments and one in vivo experiment were carried out to study the effect of wood ash sources (6 L wood ash solution/kg fresh plant leaves) and levels and treatment duration on the nutritive value of acacia leaves. In Experiment 1, samples of fresh (F), dried (D), or dried and ground (DG) acacia were soaked for 6 h in water or acacia wood ash solution (120 g of wood ash dry matter/L of water). Soaking acacia in water decreased total extractable phenols (TP), total extractable tannins (TT) and extractable condensed tannins (CT). Wood ash treatment led to a further decrease of these phenolic compounds and was highest with DG acacia. Experiment 2 investigated different levels of acacia wood ash (0, 120, 180 and 240 g wood ash dry matter/L of water) and treatment duration (1, 2 and 3 days). The higher the level of wood ash, the lower proportion of TP and CT in acacia was noted. In Experiment 3, two sources of wood ash (i.e., acacia and Aleppo pine) and the same solution of each source of wood ash were used eight times. The two sources of wood ash had similar deactivating effect on TP and CT. The rate of decrease of TP and CT was highest when the same wood ash solution was used four consecutive times and decreased progressively thereafter. In these three experiments, water and wood ash treatment reduced organic matter and crude protein content but substantially increased the neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content of treated acacia. In the fourth experiment, we treated acacia with acacia wood ash (180 g/L of water for 2 days) and the same solution was used five times. Treated and untreated acacia were air-dried and fed ad libitum to two groups, each of four Barbarine rams together with 300 g of concentrate. Wood ash treatment did not affect intake and OM digestibility of the diet but increased crude protein and NDFom digestibility (P < 0.05). Feeding untreated acacia resulted in negative N balances but with wood ash treatment, N balance was positive

  5. DETERMINAÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO DE CASCA EM ACÁCIA-NEGRA Acacia mearnsii De Wild. Yield bark determination for black wattle, Acacia mearnsii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson Luiz Mainardi

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com acácia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild., e teve como objetivo a elaboração de tabelas de produção de casca verde, estimadas através de equações obtidas por modelagem da produção em função da idade, altura dominante e área basal, expressa pelo modelo genérico: log C = bo + b1ho2 + b2logG, sendo C = peso de casca verde por hectare; G = área basal por hectare; ho = altura dominante. Esta equação apresentou uma precisão, sendo que as variáveis independentes, altura dominante e área basal, explicaram 97,8% da variação da produção de casca verde por hectare.

  6. Efeito de diferentes substratos sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia sp. Effect of different substrates on the development of Acacia sp. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os biossólidos têm sido estudados como fonte de matéria orgânica na agricultura. Objetivou-se avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Acacia mangium e Acacia auriculiformis em diferentes substratos: a horizonte Bw com areia lavada (1:1, v:v e adubação mineral de 160, 640 e 160 g m-3de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente (HB; b horizonte Bw com areia lavada e esterco bovino (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c horizonte Bw com areia lavada e lodo de esgoto (1:1:1, v:v (HBL; e d 100% de lodo de esgoto (LE. Aplicou-se 1 kg de CaCO3 p.a. por m³ de substrato. Foram utilizadas sementes inoculadas com rizóbio e não-inoculadas, determinando-se, aos 90 dias após a semeadura, a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do colo e o peso da matéria seca da raiz e da parte aérea, na qual se determinaram N, P, K, Ca e Mg. O delineamento estatístico foi inteiramente casualizado, no esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com ou sem inoculação x 4 substratos. No LE com inoculação, obteve-se melhor crescimento das mudas. O HBE produziu efeito superior no desenvolvimento das mudas em relação àquele com a mesma proporção de material orgânico na forma de lodo (HBL. Na maioria dos parâmetros avaliados não houve diferença devido à inoculação dos substratos HBE, HBL e HB, provavelmente devido à existência de bactérias nativas nesses substratos. As mudas desenvolvidas no substrato LE foram as que acumularam mais N e Ca, principalmente quando inoculadas. Houve tendência de maior acúmulo de P, K e Mg na parte aérea das mudas desenvolvidas no substrato HBE.Sewage sludge has been studied as source of organic matter on seedling production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the development of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis seedlings in the following substrates: a oxic horizon + sand (1:1, v:v + 160, 640 e 160 g m-3 of N, P2O5 and K2O respectively (HB; b oxic horizon + sand + cattle manure (1:1:1, v:v (HBE; c oxic horizon + sand + sewage sludge (1:1:1, v:v (HBL and; d 100% sewage

  7. The conversion of grassland to acacia forest as an effective option for net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoi, Stefânia Guedes; Neufeld, Ângela Denise Hubert; Ibarr, Mariana Alves; Ferreto, Décio Oscar Cardoso; Bayer, Cimélio; Lorentz, Leandro Homrich; Vieira, Frederico Costa Beber

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of forestation with leguminous Acacia mearnsii De Wild in native grasslands on the soil greenhouse (GHG) fluxes and their main driving factors. The experiment was conducted in the Brazilian Pampa over the period of one year in a six-year-old Acacia plantation, evaluating four treatments: Acacia (AM), Acacia with litter periodically removed (A-l), Acacia after harvest (AH) and native grassland (NG) (reference treatment). Air samples were obtained by the static chamber method, and gas concentrations were evaluated by gas chromatography. Soil and climate factors were monitored. The accumulated fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were statistically similar between the soils in the AM and NG treatments, which tended to oxidize CH4 (-1445 and -1752 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively) and had low emission of N2O (242 and 316 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1)), most likely influenced by the low water-filled pore space and the low content of mineral N in the soil. However, the soil in the AH treatment presented higher emissions of both gases, totaling 1889 g C-CH4 ha(-1) yr(-1) and 1250 g N-N2O ha(-1) yr(-1). Afforestation neither significantly affected the total organic C stocks nor their lability, keeping the C management index for the forested area similar to that in the NG treatment. The conversion from grassland to Acacia forest represents an effective option for mitigating the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, which is basically determined by C accumulation in biomass and wood products.

  8. Effect of composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Won Min; Sang Un Park; Yeon Sil Jang; Young-Ho Kim; Poong-Lyul Rhee; Seo Hyun Ko; Nami Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B.lactis)has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).METHODS:A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume,twice daily for 8 wk,either the composite yogurt or the control product.The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B.lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures.Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment.RESULTS:Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51,P =0.010,64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5,P < 0.001; respectively).In constipation-predominant IBS,improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8,P < 0.001).In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS,improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81,P =0.006).CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B.lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt.

  9. [The Interaction of Oil Microcapsule Wall Materials between Whey Protein and Acacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Li, Ru-yi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qian; Li, De-jun; Tu, Zong-cai

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between whey protein and acacia which were used as wall material was studied on the formation of the oils microcapsules by the FTIR Spectroscopy and Computer Aided Analysis. The results indicated that whey protein changed obviously in amide A and amide I by high pressured homogenization and spray-drying. The amide A moved from 3 406.5 cm(-1) to 3 425.4 cm(-1) which was possibly due to covalent cross-linking between whey protein and acacia. Furthermore the amide I moved from 1 648.6 cm(-1) to 1 654.7 cm(-1) for intramolecular hydrogen bonding of protein had been weaken. After Gaussian fitting on amide I , it was found that the content of secondary structure of α-helix content and β-folding in whey protein reduced from 19.55% to 17.50% and from 30.59% to 25.63%, respectively. This suggests that protein intramolecular hydrogen bonding force was abated, resulting in abating the rigid structure of the protein molecules and enhancing of the toughness structure. The protein molecules showed some flexibility. The result of SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed that whey protein--gum Arabic complexes produced covalent products in larger molecular weight. During the spray-drying process, covalent cross-linking produced between whey protein and gum Arabic which improved emulsifying activity of the complex whey protein and gum Arabic produced covalent cross-linking and improved the complex emulsifying activity. Observing the surface structure of the fish oil microcapsule by SEM, the compound of whey protein and acacia as wall material was proved better toughness, less micropore, and more compact structure.

  10. Silage Quality of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides Treated with Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria and Tannin of Acacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the silage quality of king grass (Pennisetum purpureophoides treated with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB prepared from fermented grass extract (FGE or combined with tannin of acacia. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replications. Treatments were (A king grass without additive as a control; (B king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE; (C king grass + 3% (v/w of FGE + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/100 ml; (D king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/75 ml; (E king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/50 ml, and (F king grass + 3% of FGE (v/w + 10 ml of acacia extract (50 g/25 ml. About 250 g of silage materials were ensiled in 400 ml bottle silos at room temperatures (approximately 28 °C for 30 days. Variables measured were characteristics of FGE, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and the significance differences among means were tested by the Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the number of lactic acid bacteria in FGE increased from 0.8 × 107 cfu/ml to 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml after 2 days anaerobic incubation. Concentration of lactic acid in silages with addition of FGE or combined with tannin of acacia (B, C, D, E, and F were higher (P<0.01 than that of silage A (control. Silages with addition of FGE combined with tannin of acacia (C, D, E, and F had lower pH value than that of silages A and B. Concentrations of NH3-N decreased with increasing concentration of tannin. Butyric acid concentration decreased in silages B, C, D, E, and F as compared to that in silage A. Addition of FGE combined with tannin prepared from acacia leaf improved fermentation quality of king grass silage.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles loaded gum acacia/poly(SA) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, S K; Jadaun, Mamta; Tiwari, Seema

    2016-11-20

    In this work, zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in-situ within the gum acacia/poly (acrylate) hydrogel network using hydrothermal approach. The synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized by Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water absorption behavior of ZnO/GA/poly(SA) hydrogels was investigated in the phosphate buffer saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 at 37°C. The water uptake data were analyzed with the help of various kinetic models. Finally, the antimicrobial action of nanocomposites was studied using E. coli as model bacteria.

  12. Chemical Composition profile of Acacia Nilotica Seed Growing Wild in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abbasian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acacia Nilotica is a pioneer species, relatively high in bioactive secondary compound and are important for a variety of functions is economically used as a source of tannins, gums, timber, fuel and fodder. Babul plant is therapeutic used as Anti-cancer, anti tumours, Antiscorbutic, Astringent, anti-oxidant, Natriuretic, Antispasmodial, Diuretic, Intestinal pains and diarrhea, Nerve stimulant, Cold, Congestion, Coughs, Dysenter, Fever, Hemorrhages, Leucorrhea, Ophthalmia and Sclerosis. The aim of this study was determination of proximate composition, mineral elements (Calcium, Potassium, Iron, Zinc, Sodium, Selenium and Copper contents in this endemic Iranian seed.

  13. Antimycobacterial Activity and Mechanism of Action of NAS-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratraud, Paul; Surolia, Namita; Besra, Gurdyal S; Surolia, Avadhesha; Kremer, Laurent

    2008-03-01

    The antimalarial agents NAS-91 and NAS-21 were found to express potent antimycobacterial activity, NAS-91 being more active than NAS-21. They partially inhibited mycolic acid biosynthesis and profoundly altered oleic acid production. The development of a cell-free assay for Delta 9-desaturase activity allowed direct demonstration of the inhibition of oleic acid biosynthesis by these compounds.

  14. NASSN: a NAS-based storage network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN De-zhi

    2007-01-01

    With the digital information and application requirement on the Internet increasing fleetly nowadays,it is urgent to work out a network storage system with a large capacity, a high availability and scalability. To solve the above-mentioned issues, a NAS-based storage network ( for short NASSN) has been designed. Firstly,the NASSN integrates multi-NAS,iNAS (an iSCSI-based NAS) and enterprise SAN with the help of storage virtualization, which can provide a greater capacity and better scalability. Secondly, the NASSN can provide high availability with the help of server and storage subsystem redundancy technologies. Thirdly, the NASSN simultaneously serves for both the file I/O and the block L/O with the help of an iSCSI module, which has the advantages of NAS and SAN. Finally, the NASSN can provide higher I/O speed by a high network-attached channel which implements the direct data transfer between the storage device and client. In the experiments, the NASSN has ultra-high-throughput for both of the file I/O requests and the block I/O requests.

  15. Revegetation of lagoon ash using the legume species Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, K C; Wong, J P; Zhang, Z Q; Wong, J W; Wong, M H

    2000-07-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of two legume species, Acacia auriculiformis and Leucaena leucocephala for growth on ameliorated lagoon ash with or without nitrogen (N(2))-fixing bacteria inoculation. Even though amendments of 30% (w/w) vermiculite or with sewage sludge compost were added to improve the chemical and physical limitations of lagoon ash, significant suppressions in biomass and plant nutrient content were found with ameliorated lagoon ash in comparison to an agricultural soil. The high proportion of clay-sized (<53 microm) ash particles limited root growth. In addition, heavy metal toxicity was a possible factor contributing to poor seedling growth. Higher plant productivity resulted from the sewage sludge compost-amended lagoon ash than with vermiculite due to a greater contribution of plant nutrients in the compost. Nodulation was inhibited in ameliorated lagoon ash but not in agricultural soil. High pH and electrical conductivity and elevated toxic metals may be important parameters that limit bacterial activity. Both species showed potential to establish on amended lagoon ash, with Acacia auriculiformis being the best adapted.

  16. Gastroprotective effect ofAcacia nilotica young seedless pod extract:Role of polyphenolic constituents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Kumar Bansal; Rajesh Kumar Goel

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To systematically evaluate antiulcer potential ofAcacia nilotica in different ulcer models in rats.Methods:Different extracts [ethanolic,50% hydroethanolic(50:50),70% hydroethanolic(70:30) and aqueous] of young seedless pods were examined in pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcers in rats.Various parameters like, volume of gastric acid secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity, ulcer index , mucin content and antioxidant studies were determined and were compared between extract treated, standard and vehicle control following ulcer induction. The most active extract was also evaluated in swimming stress induced andNSAID induced gastric ulceration.Results:Among different extracts of young seedless pods only hydroethanolic extracts showed significant antiulcer activity in pyloric ligation induced ulceration.Even more the70% hydroethanolic extract showed better protection as compared to50% hydroethanolic extract.Further70% hydroethanolic extract also showed significant mucoprotection in swimming stress induced and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs induced gastric ulceration.Conclusions:The results of present study concluded that the hydroethanolic extract of young seedless pods of Acacia nilotica has antiulcer activity in pylorus ligation, swimming stress andNSAID induced rat ulcer models.The extract containing more amount of phenolic components show high antiulcer activity, indicating the phenolic component of the extract to be responsible for the activity of the extracts.

  17. El género Acacia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae en el estado de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Arce, María de Lourdes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a contribution to the knowledge of the genus Acacia in Oaxaca; a study based on herbarium specimens from more than 12 institutions. This includes 35 different species, of which 4 are endemic to the Rio Balsas Basin in Oaxaca State. Descriptions of the genus, species, identification keys and distribution maps are given. Some of the species are illustrated.Este trabajo es una contribución al conocimiento del género Acacia (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae, en el estado de Oaxaca (México, de donde se reconocen 35 especies, cuatro deellas endémicas de la cuenca alta del Rio Balsas. De todas se proporcionan descripciones morfológicas, habitat y distribución geográfica. Se hace un análisis crítico de las recolecciones depositadasen más de 12 herbarios, aclarando las identidades de algunos nombres y excluyendoalgunas especies citadas erróneamente. Se incluyen ilustraciones de siete especies y una clave para todas las especies incluidas.

  18. Coexistence and performance of diploid and polyploid Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene

    Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify the potent......Polyploidy is defined as possession of more than two sets of chromosomes of an organism. It is known to play a major role in evolution of organisms, but few studies are available on Sahelian trees. In the case of Acacia senegal (distributed across the Sahel), it is important to clarify...... natural sites with different rainfall and salinity showed no simple geographical pattern in the frequency of polyploids. However, salinity was found to be positively correlated with frequency of polyploids. Analysis of population differentiation between cytotypes compared to genetic relationship among...... be effective. These results represent a good start-up for a future program of conservation, reforestation and restoration of A. senegal in the Sahel region....

  19. Arsenic toxicity in Acacia mangium willd. and mimosa Caesalpiniaefolia benth. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Nery Cipriani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia are fast-growing woody fabaceous species that might be suitable for phytoremediation of arsenic (As-contaminated sites. To date, few studies on their tolerance to As toxicity have been published. Therefore, this study assessed As toxicity symptoms in A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia seedlings under As stress in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Acacia mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia were grown for 120 d in an Oxisol-sand mixture with 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 As, in four replications in four randomized blocks. The plants were assessed for visible toxicity symptoms, dry matter production, shoot/root ratio, root anatomy and As uptake. Analyses of variance and regression showed that the growth of A. mangium and M. caesalpiniaefolia was severely hindered by As, with a reduction in dry matter production of more than 80 % at the highest As rate. The root/shoot ratio increased with increasing As rates. At a rate of 400 mg kg-1 As, whitish chlorosis appeared on Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia seedlings. The root anatomy of both species was altered, resulting in cell collapse, death of root buds and accumulation of phenolic compounds. Arsenic concentration was several times greater in roots than in shoots, with more than 150 and 350 mg kg-1 in M. caesalpiniaefolia and A. mangium roots, respectively. These species could be suitable for phytostabilization of As-contaminated sites, but growth-stimulating measures should be used.

  20. Diversity of nitrogen fixing bacteria associated to the new Caledonian ubiquitous tree Acacia spirorbis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeteau, C.; Ducousso, M.; Jourand, P.; Lebrun, M.; Klonowska, A.; Fritsch, E.; Juillot, F.; Acherar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The New Caledonian endemic tree species Acacia spirorbis is able to grow and to present invasive traits on a wide range of soils (e.g.: ultramafic, calcareous coral, siliceous, aluminium enriched) in a large range of pH. Acacia spirorbis is also adapted to poly-metallic toxicity, especially Ni, to an unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio in strong favour of Mg and to poor N, P and K availability. The goal of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the influence of bacterial symbionts on A. spirorbis adaptation to different soil conditions. Firstly, bacterial symbiots were isolated from field collected nodules or nodules obtained by trapping method and characterized by phylogenetic analysis of housekeeping genes (recA, dnaK and glnII) and symbiotic genes (nodA and nifH). A strong preference of A. spirorbis for different species of Bradyrhizobium has been noted ; Rhizobium species has been isolated only from nodules collected from a plantation located out of its natural area of distribution. A selection of representative rhizobial strains isolated from diverse soils was tested to compare their symbiotic efficiency with A. spirorbis in nursery conditions. Results are presented in function of soils diversity and in perspective of A. spirorbis adaptation to extremely diverse and adverse soil conditions.

  1. Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Hamzah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC. The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.

  2. Host-driven diversification of gall-inducing Acacia thrips and the aridification of Australia

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    Chapman Thomas W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insects that feed on plants contribute greatly to the generation of biodiversity. Hypotheses explaining rate increases in phytophagous insect diversification and mechanisms driving speciation in such specialists remain vexing despite considerable attention. The proliferation of plant-feeding insects and their hosts are expected to broadly parallel one another where climate change over geological timescales imposes consequences for the diversification of flora and fauna via habitat modification. This work uses a phylogenetic approach to investigate the premise that the aridification of Australia, and subsequent expansion and modification of arid-adapted host flora, has implications for the diversification of insects that specialise on them. Results Likelihood ratio tests indicated the possibility of hard molecular polytomies within two co-radiating gall-inducing species complexes specialising on the same set of host species. Significant tree asymmetry is indicated at a branch adjacent to an inferred transition to a Plurinerves ancestral host species. Lineage by time diversification plots indicate gall-thrips that specialise on Plurinerves hosts differentially experienced an explosive period of speciation contemporaneous with climatic cycling during the Quaternary period. Chronological analyses indicated that the approximate age of origin of gall-inducing thrips on Acacia might be as recent as 10 million years ago during the Miocene, as truly arid landscapes first developed in Australia. Conclusion Host-plant diversification and spatial heterogeneity of hosts have increased the potential for specialisation, resource partitioning, and unoccupied ecological niche availability for gall-thrips on Australian Acacia.

  3. Conteúdo e exportação de micronutrientes em acácia-negra (Acacia Mearnsii De Wild. procedência batemans bay (Austrália Content and exportation of micronutrients in black wattle (Acacia Mearnsii de wild. of Australian batemans bay provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar o conteúdo e a exportação de micronutrientes (Mn, B, Cu, Zn e Fe e o Na nos diferentes componentes de árvores de um povoamento de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., procedência australiana Batemans Bay, com 2,4 anos de idade, em Butiá-RS (Brasil. A biomassa total estimada foi de 36.155 kg/ha, apresentando distribuição de 46,0, 20,0, 19,5, 12,0 e 3,0%, na madeira do lenho, nas folhas, nos galhos vivos, na casca e nos galhos mortos, respectivamente. A proporção de micronutrientes acumulados na biomassa dos componentes da árvore foram 43,76% nas folhas, 26,94% na madeira do tronco, 19,56% nos galhos vivos, 7,21% na casca e 2,54% nos galhos mortos. A quantidade estimada de micronutrientes contidos na biomassa acima do solo foi 10,4 kg/ha, acumulados da seguinte forma: Na (58,84%, Fe (21,79%, Zn (9,16%, B (4,09%, Mn (4,59% e Cu (1,54%. A casca e a madeira do lenho acumulou Na (21,47%, Fe (6,71%, Mn (2,11%, Zn (1,66%, B (1,58% e Cu (0,63%. A copa (folhas e galhos vivos e mortos acumularam Na (37,36%, Fe (15,07%, Zn (7,49%, B (2,53%, Mn (2,48% e Cu (0,91%. A exploração intensiva de áreas com a procedência Batemans Bay gera suspeitas de possíveis ocorrências de deficiências nutricionais de Na nas rotações futuras, tornando necessário o emprego de fertilizantes para manter a produtividade do sítio.This study aimed to estimate the content and exportation of micronutrients (Mn, B, Cu, Zn e Fe and Na in different tree components of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. forest of Batemans Bay Australian provenance, 2.4 years old in Butiá, RS, Brazil. The total biomass found was 36,155 kg/ha, thus distributed: 46.0%; 20.0%; 19.5%; 12.0% and 3.0%, spread in the wood of the stem, leaves, live branches, bark and dead branches, respectively. The proportion of the micronutrients accumulated in the biomass of the components were: leaves (43.76%, wood of the stem (26.94%, live branches (19

  4. Cryptic speciation and host specificity among Mycosphaerella spp. occurring on Australian Acacia species grown as exotics in the tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Pongpanich, K.; Himaman, W.; Arzanlou, M.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Species of Mycosphaerella and their anamorphs represent serious pathogens of two phyllodenous species of Acacia, A. mangium and A. crassicarpa. In recent years, these fungi have been collected during surveys in South America and South-East Asia, where these trees are widely planted as exotics. In th

  5. Antibacterial Activities and Possible Modes of Action of Acacia nilotica (L. Del. against Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal Sadiq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are frequently used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity and mode of action of Acacia nilotica and the antibiogram patterns of foodborne and clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The mechanism of action of acacia extracts against E. coli and Salmonella was elucidated by observing morphological damages including cell integrity and cell membrane permeability, as well as changes in cell structures and growth patterns in kill-time experiments. The clinical isolates of E. coli and Salmonella were found resistant to more of the tested antibiotics, compared to food isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of acacia leaf extracts were in the ranges of 1.56–3.12 mg/mL and 3.12–6.25 mg/mL, respectively, whereas pods and bark extracts showed somewhat higher values of 3.12–6.25 mg/mL and 6.25–12.5 mg/mL, respectively, against all tested pathogens. The release of electrolytes and essential cellular constituents (proteins and nucleic acids indicated that acacia extracts damaged the cellular membrane of the pathogens. These changes corresponded to simultaneous reduction in the growth of viable bacteria. This study indicates that A. nilotica can be a potential source of new antimicrobials, effective against antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.

  6. 78 FR 73434 - Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Food Additives Permitted for Direct Addition to Food for Human Consumption; Acacia (Gum Arabic) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...--FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION 0 1. The authority...

  7. Predicting Acacia invasive success in South Africa on the basis of functional traits, native climatic niche, and human use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Diëz, P.; Langendoen, T.; Poorter, L.; Saldaña-Lopez, A.

    2011-01-01

    Australian Acacia species have been widely planted worldwide for different purposes. Some of them have spread and altered the native ecosystem functions to the extent of being considered economic and ecologic threats. Understanding factors that allow these species to become invasive is an important

  8. Comparative study of defect levels in GaInNAs, GaNAsSb, and GaInNAsSb for high-efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polojärvi, Ville; Aho, Arto; Tukiainen, Antti; Schramm, Andreas; Guina, Mircea

    2016-03-01

    Background doping and defect levels in GaInNAs, GaNAsSb, and GaInNAsSb solar cells with 1 eV band-gap are reported. Localized point defect induced traps were observed showing broadest defect distribution in GaInNAsSb. Incorporation of Sb reduced the unintentional p-type background doping by an order of magnitude, but increased the capture cross sections of deep levels by three orders of magnitude. The thermal activation energy of the dominating hole trap was increased from 350 meV for GaInNAs to 560 meV for GaNAsSb. Annealing of GaNAsSb solar cells improved the open circuit voltage from 280 mV to 415 mV, owing to the reduction in trap density.

  9. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P goats supplemented with Neem tree (72 %) and A. senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P goats supplemented with A. Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  10. GANANCIA GENÉTICA ESPERADA EN Acacia mangium EN LOS CHILES, ZONA NORTE DE COSTA RICA

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    Benjam\\u00EDn Pavlotzky-Blank

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.

  11. Comparative analysis of some essential amino acids and available lysine in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds using chemical methods and an amino acid analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Olumuyiwa S; Adewusi, Steve R A

    2013-01-01

    Methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, and available lysine were determined in Acacia colei and A. tumida seeds and some cereals using chemical methods, and the results were compared to those obtained using an amino acid analyzer. Ba(OH)2 hydrolysis gave the best result of the three methods of hydrolysis (acid, base, and enzyme) tried. Oxidized methionine, cysteine, and tryptophan were not detected, but S-carboxyethylcysteine was estimated as cysteine by the chemical methods, thus overestimating cysteine's content in Acacia seeds. Tryptophan and methionine were higher in cereals than in Acacia seeds, while the level of cysteine and available lysine was higher in Acacia seeds than in cereals. These results agreed with values obtained using the amino acid analyzer and could therefore be used in low budget laboratories.

  12. Mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chin-Hong Ng; Soon-Leong Lee; Kevin Kit-Siong Ng; Norwati Muhammad; Wickneswari Ratnam

    2009-04-01

    The mating system and seed variation of Acacia hybrid (A. mangium × A. auriculiformis) were studied using allozymes and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, respectively. Multi-locus outcrossing rate estimations indicated that the hybrid was predominantly outcrossed (mean±s.e. $t_{m} = 0.86\\pm 0.01$). Seed variation was investigated using 35 polymorphic RAPD fragments. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed the highest genetic variation among seeds within a pod (66%–70%), followed by among pods within inflorescence (29%–37%), and the least variation among inflorescences within tree (< 1%). In addition, two to four RAPD profiles could be detected among seeds within pod. Therefore, the results suggest that a maximum of four seeds per pod could be sampled for the establishment of a mapping population for further studies.

  13. Antibacterial activity of extracts of Acacia aroma against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mattana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma was evaluated against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Inhibition of bacterial growth was determined using agar diffusion and bioautographic methods. Among all assayed organic extracts only ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts presented highest activities against all tested Staphylococcus strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values ranging from 2.5 to 10 mg/ml and from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts show little antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus strains. The bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against S. aureus in correspondence with flavonoids and saponins. A. aroma would be an interesting topic for further study and possibly for an alternative treatment for skin infections.

  14. Algunas propiedades físico-mecánicas y de trabajabilidad de la Acacia melanoxylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Correcha R.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra los resultados obtenidos de las propiedades físicas como: gravedad especifica anhidra, seca al aire y en estado verde; densidad verde, seca al aire, anhidra y básica; y contracciones radial, tangencial y volumétrica. Propiedades mecánicas tales como: flexión estática en estado verde y seca al aire, compresión paralela al grano en estado verde y seca al aire. Además ensayos de trabajabilidad de cepillado, moldurado, taladrado y torneado de la Acacia melanoxylon. Se usaron metodologías establecidas por ASTM, ICONTEC y COPANT. Estos ensayos se realizaron en los laboratorios del Instituto de Ensayos e Investigación (IEI de la facultad de Ingenleria, Universidad Nacional de Bogotá.

  15. The impact of Acacia saligna invasion on Italian coastal dune EC habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Acosta, Alicia; Stanisci, Angela

    2013-07-01

    Alien species can represent a threat to several ecosystems because they can alter species relationships and ecosystem function. In Italy, Acacia saligna is a major invader and it forms dense stands in coastal environments. We analyze the impact of A. saligna in Italian Mediterranean dune systems. We randomly sampled coastal dune vegetation and investigated its floristic composition with ordination techniques. We compared species richness in invaded and non-invaded plots with rarefaction curves and analyzed the frequency of focal and ruderal species. A. saligna invaded Mediterranean scrub (habitats 2250* and 2260) and coastal Pinus dune wood (habitat 2270*) and it is particularly prevalent in sunny areas of habitat 2270*. We observed an increase in ruderal species and a decrease in focal species in the invaded plots of habitat 2270*. We suggest that more open and disturbed areas are more prone to A. saligna invasion.

  16. Soil recovery after removal of the N2-fixing invasive Acacia longifolia: consequences for ecosystem restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Struwe, Sten;

    2009-01-01

    Invasion by Acacia longifolia alters soil characteristics and processes. The present study was conducted to determine if the changes in soil C and N pools and processes induced by A. longifolia persist after its removal, at the São Jacinto Dunes Nature Reserve (Portugal). Some areas had been...... invaded for a long time (>20 years) and others more recently (Soil samples...... decreased >30%, ß-glucosaminidase activity (N mineralization index) >60% and potential nitrification >95%. Removal of plants and litter resulted in a >35% decrease in C and N content after four and half years. In recently invaded areas, ß-glucosaminidase activity and potential nitrification showed a marked...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of gum acacia inspired silica hybrid xerogels for mercury(II) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Singh, Somit Kumar

    2011-04-01

    In a sol-gel process, gum acacia inspired silica xerogels have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate. Besides showing photoluminescence under ultraviolet excitation, the hybrid xerogels were very efficient in capturing mercury(II) from synthetic solution. To synthesize the optimum sample (in terms of Hg(II) uptake), different ratios of H(2)O:TEOS:EtOH were taken at fixed GA and catalyst concentrations where 4:1:1 ratio was found to be most favorable. Calcination in air further enhanced the mercury binding capacity of this sample. Optimum sample (H4) was obtained on calcination of the gel at 600°C. The hybrids have been structurally characterized using Infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis. In a preliminary batch adsorption experiment, H4 was evaluated to be highly efficient in the removal Hg(II) from synthetic aqueous solution.

  18. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  19. Invasive Acacia longifolia induce changes in the microbial catabolic diversity of sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten

    2008-01-01

    of invasion, carbon (C) content, nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratio, pH, and litter quantity explained 39.6% of the variance of catabolic responses. It is concluded that invasion by A. longifolia has substantial effects on the catabolic diversity of the soil microbial communities. These effects may have wider......Acacia longifolia is one of the main plant species invading Portuguese dune ecosystems. Areas invaded by this exotic tree have reduced plant diversity and altered soil microbial processes and nutrient pools, but the impacts on microbial functional diversity in the soil have been little explored...... diversity. Five substrate groups were tested: amino acids, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, plant litters, and plant polymers. CRP clearly discriminated between the three different areas. Respiratory responses to the individual substrates a-ketoglutaric acid, oxalic acid, starch, citric acid, and xylose...

  20. SCREENING OF SECONDARY METABOLITES AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ACACIA CONCINNA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Vergeese raja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary phytochemical study and in vitro antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of Acacia concinna having ethno medicinal uses were investigated. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of phenol, tannin, fat and fixed oil, flavanoids, saponin and quinone. The extracts were subjected for screening of in vitro antibacterial activity against various pathogens at the concentrations of 500 and 250 µg/ml by well diffusion assay method. The results of antibacterial activity revealed that all the extract showed good inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens and the chloroform extract showed comparative by better activity than the other extracts against S.pyogens and s. aureus. The activities of the extract were compared with standard antibiotics. These results indicate that A. concinna leaves possesses potential broad spectrum antibacterial activity.

  1. Effects of chopping, and soaking in water, hydrochloric acidic and calcium hydroxide solutions on the nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wina, E. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)]. E-mail: winabudi@yahoo.com; Tangendjaja, B.; Susana, I.W.R. [Research Institute for Animal Production, Bogor (Indonesia)

    2005-08-19

    Acacia villosa, a thornless shrub legume, has potential as a feed supplement for ruminants if anti-nutritional factors, especially tannins, can be overcome. The effects of chopping and soaking the leaves on the amounts of tannin in the extracting solution and that left in the recovered leaves were studied. The tannin and non-tannin phenolics were solubilized in the extracting solution and the amount was increased with the soaking time. Soaking in calcium hydroxide solution, hydrochloric acid or water removed 41-76% of tannin and total phenolics removed from the recovered leaves. Soaking of the leaves also removed fermentable materials and reduced the gas production. In the first of two digestibility experiments, three groups of goats received one of these diets, those were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia leaves (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) and (3) sugar cane tops: water soaked Acacia leaves (7:3) + 100 g/day of cassava flour. Live weight of goats was measured every 2 weeks and a large increase in average daily gain was obtained for goats fed diet containing water soaked leaves and cassava flour (71 g/day) compared to those fed diet containing unsoaked leaves and water soaked leaves (38.9 and 44.7 g/day, respectively) (P < 0.05). In the second digestibility experiment, the three diets were: (1) sugar cane tops: unsoaked Acacia (7:3), (2) sugar cane tops water soaked Acacia (7:3), (3) sugar cane tops: calcium hydroxide soaked Acacia (7:3). A supplement of 100 g/day of cassava flour was added to each of these three diets. In both digestibility experiments, soaking improved intake and digestibility of Acacia leaves, and cassava flour increased the intake, but when all the diets contained cassava flour, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) found in intake or digestibility between unsoaked and soaked leaves. In conclusion, soaking reduced tannin in Acacia leaves, improved digestibility and intake of Acacia leaves. In the

  2. Distributed Command/Control Impacts on NAS Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Command and Control (C2) activities abound in the NAS, and significantly influence daily operations and overall NAS efficiency. Since C2 effects are so prominent,...

  3. Canker and decline caused by Neofusiccocum parvum on Acacia melanoxylon in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidoti A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2012, in reforested areas of Peloritani Mountains (Sicily, Italy a severe dieback of Acacia melanoxylon R. Brown was observed. The main symptoms on both young and adults plants consisted of elongated cankers on the trunks and epicormic shoots, wilt of the canopy and dieback interested mostly aged trees. The woody tissues showed browning beyond the cankers. Sapwood and heartwood appeared decayed with a brown to gray-greenish discoloration. One fungal species was consistently isolated from infected woody tissues, which was morphologically attributed to Neofusiccocum sp. The sequencing of the ITS regions of a representative isolate allowed to identify (99% similarity the species Neofusiccocum parvum (Pennycook & Samuels Crous, Slippers and Phillips, teleomorph Botryosphaeria parva Pennycook & Samuels. The pathogenicity tests have reproduced symptoms similar to those observed in the field. N. parvum is the aetiologic agent of mortality of australian blackwood observed in Sicily and to our knowledge this is the first report of this fungus on Acacia melanoxylon. It is a generalist pathogen, cosmopolitan, present in many temperate areas, Mediterranean and subtropical. The older Peloritani Mountains populations of australian blackwood seem particularly susceptible to the pathogen, the latter favored by the lack of silvicultural interventions that generate interspecific and intraspecific competition, as well as the increase and spread of the fungus. To minimize the consequential damage is necessary to adopt sanitation measures that would lower the fungal inoculum and program substitutions of this exotic species with others that have multiple functions suited to environments (e.g., Chestnut or encouraging the establishment and development of native species, such as the holm oak and shrub.

  4. Contraste en la eficiencia defensiva de dos especies de hormigas del género Pseudomyrmex sobre plantas de Acacia cornigera (Parte III)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Galván, Ingrid R.; López Acosta, Juan Carlos; Rico-Gray, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    One of the most emblematic mutualistic interactions in the Neotropics is that between Acacia plants and Pseudomyrmex ants. In his first studies, D. H. JANZEN (1969) related the functional defensive system by the ants to allelopathic chemical agents, thus this system can be associated to induced defensive systems. Our study system, the interaction between Acacia cornigera and two Pseudomyrmex species (P. gracilis and P. ferrugineus), includes ant colonization patterns and plant behavior after ...

  5. Phylogeny of nodulation genes and symbiotic diversity of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and A. seyal (Del.) Mesorhizobium strains from different regions of Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Galiana, Antoine; Le Roux, Christine; Kane, Aboubacry; Duponnois, Robin; Ndoye, Fatou; Fall, Dioumacor; Noba, Kandioura; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Diouf, Diégane

    2015-04-01

    Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal are small, deciduous legume trees, most highly valued for nitrogen fixation and for the production of gum arabic, a commodity of international trade since ancient times. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes represents the main natural input of atmospheric N2 into ecosystems which may ultimately benefit all organisms. We analyzed the nod and nif symbiotic genes and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from A. senegal and A. seyal in Senegal. The symbiotic genes of rhizobial strains from the two Acacia species were closed to those of Mesorhizobium plurifarium and grouped separately in the phylogenetic trees. Phylogeny of rhizobial nitrogen fixation gene nifH was similar to those of nodulation genes (nodA and nodC). All A. senegal rhizobial strains showed identical nodA, nodC, and nifH gene sequences. By contrast, A. seyal rhizobial strains exhibited different symbiotic gene sequences. Efficiency tests demonstrated that inoculation of both Acacia species significantly affected nodulation, total dry weight, acetylene reduction activity (ARA), and specific acetylene reduction activity (SARA) of plants. However, these cross-inoculation tests did not show any specificity of Mesorhizobium strains toward a given Acacia host species in terms of infectivity and efficiency as stated by principal component analysis (PCA). This study demonstrates that large-scale inoculation of A. senegal and A. seyal in the framework of reafforestation programs requires a preliminary step of rhizobial strain selection for both Acacia species.

  6. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en el norte de Chile Survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.A survey of anthophagous lepidopteran larvae associated with Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae was made in two coastal valleys from northern Chile: Azapa and Chaca. Eight species, distributed in eight genera and five families, were recorded in the areas. Species composition was the same for both localities. However, assemblage abundance and species abundance were different between the valleys.

  7. Seed oil composition of Acacia nilotica (L. Delile from Iran / Skład oleju z nasion Acacia nilotica (L. Delile rosnącej w Iranie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasian Karim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wstęp: Acacia nilotica (L. Delile należy do rodziny Fabaceae, podrodziny Mimosoideae; otrzymuje się z niej gumę arabską. W południowym Iranie są spożywane pieczone młode strąki i nasiona tej rośliny Cel: Badano skład oleju z dojrzałych nasion A. nilotica zebranych z naturalnych stanowisk na południu Iranu w celu określenia jego przydatności do spożycia przez ludzi i zwierzęta. Metody: Wyekstrahowany olej analizowano metodą chromatografii gazowej sprzężonej ze spektrometrią mas (GC/MS. Wyniki: Zawartość oleju w jadalnych nasionach wynosiła 3.4% (v/w świeżej masy. Olej zawierał rzadko spotykany fitosterol, sześć kwasów tłuszczowych, dziewięć węgolwodorów i jeden diterpenoid; związki te stanowiły łącznie około 83.5% oleju. Głównymi składnikami oleju były: fitosterol, 26-ethylcholesta-5,25(Z-dien-3.β-ol (20.8% oraz nasycone i nienasycone kwasy tłuszczowe. Zawartość pozostałych składników nie przekroczyła 5%. Wniosek: Olej z nasion omawianego gatunku może być nowym naturalnym środkiem odżywczym dla ludzi.

  8. Alterações morfofisiológicas em folhas de Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sob influência do sombreamento por Acacia mangium Willd Morphophysiological alterations in leaves of Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' shaded by Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Angélica Cordeiro Gomes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças na disponibilidade de radiação podem causar modificações na estrutura e função das folhas do cafeeiro, que podem responder de maneira diferencial à radiação por alterações morfológicas, anatômicas, de crescimento e na taxa fotossintética. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características morfofisiológicas de cafeeiros (Coffea arabica L. cv. "Oeiras" sombreados por acácia (Acacia mangium Willd. na época seca e chuvosa no sul de Minas Gerais. As maiores taxas fotossintéticas e maiores espessuras da epiderme adaxial foram observadas na estação chuvosa nas linhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol. O sombreamento influenciou em menor espessura das folhas e em espaços intercelulares maiores no tecido esponjoso. Foi também verificada mudança na forma dos cloroplastos, os quais apresentaram-se mais alongados em folhas de cafeeiros a pleno sol quando relacionados aos arborizados.Light availability is one of the most important environmental factors affecting leaf structure and functions in coffee plants that can respond differently to radiation by changes in leaf anatomy, morphology, growth and photosynthetic rate. The objective of this research was evaluate some morphophysiological aspects in leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica L. cv. 'Oeiras' cropped under shelter trees in the south of Minas Gerais during the rainy and dry season. The shade caused lower leaves thickness and higher intercellular spaces in spongious tissue. There was also verified a change in chloroplast shape, which showed more elongated in coffee tree kept at full sunlight in relation to that ones maintained on shading.

  9. Characterization of rhizobia isolated from Albizia spp. in comparison with microsymbionts of Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng Qin; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Yong Fa; Chen, Wen Xin

    2006-09-01

    This is the first systematic study of rhizobia associated with Albizia trees. The analyses of PCR-RFLP and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins and clustering of phenotypic characters grouped the 31 rhizobial strains isolated from Albizia into eight putative species within the genera Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium. Among these eight rhizobial species, five were unique to Albizia and the remaining three were shared with Acacia and Leucaena, two legume trees coexisting with Albizia in China. These results indicated that Albizia species nodulate with a wide range of rhizobial species and had preference of microsymbionts different from Acacia and Leucaena. The definition of four novel groups, Mesorhizobium sp., Rhizobium sp. I, Rhizobium sp. II and "R. giardinii", indicates that further studies with enlarged rhizobial population are necessary to better understand the diversity and to clarify the taxonomic relationships of Albizia-associated rhizobia.

  10. Lipoproteínas: metabolismo y lipoproteínas aterogénicas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carvajal

    2014-01-01

    Los lípidos viajan en sangre en diferentes partículas conteniendo lípidos y proteínas llamadas lipoproteínas. Hay cuatro clases de lipoproteínas en sangre: quilomicrones, VLDL, LDL y HDL. Los quilomicrones transportan triglicéridos (TAG) a tejidos vitales (corazón, musculo esquelético y tejido adiposo). El hígado secreta VLDL que redistribuye TAG al tejido adiposo, corazón y músculo esquelético. LDL transporta colesterol hacia las células y HDL remueve colesterol de las células de vuelta al h...

  11. Effect of distance and depth on soil microbial biomass, N mineralization and genetic diversity of Rhizobia under Acacia senegal Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, D.; Faye, A.; Sall, S. N.; Diouf, D.

    2009-07-01

    The relations between plants and soil biota involve positive and negative feedbacks between soil organisms, their chemical environment, and plants. Then, the characterization of microbial community functioning and their diversity are important to understand these linkages. An experiment was conducted in a field system for two years (2005 and 2006) to investigate the effect of distance from tree stem on soil microbial biomass, N mineral content and the diversity of rhizobia associated to Acacia senegal. (Author)

  12. Anatomical study on the wood of Acacia mearnsii%黑荆树木材解剖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林贻绵; 葛华荣

    1986-01-01

    @@ 黑荆树(Acacia mearnsii de Willd)为豆科含羞草亚科金合欢属植物.原产澳洲.我国从50年代初引进,70年代引入江西.它适应性强,速生,是经济价值高、用途广的树种.

  13. Initial Infection of Falcataria moluccana Leaves and Acacia mangium Phyllodes by Uromycladium tepperianum Fungi in a Laboratory Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sengon is a fast growing species that is cultivated widely in Indonesia. Lately, sengon is severely attacked by fungus Uromycladium tepperianum that causing gall rust disease. It is also known to attack various types of acacia. This study aims to determine the fungal infection process U. tepperianum on sengon leaves and the possibility of infection on Acacia mangium in the laboratory trial. Leave samples and fungal pathogen teliospores obtained from Cangkringan, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Several approach procedures conducted to achieve these objectives were: (1 identification of diseased trees, (2 collecting samples of diseased leaves, branches, twigs, and stems, and (3 artificial inoculation and investigating the infection process of U. tepperianum teliospores in the laboratory. The results showed that the process of infection in sengon started by teliospores germination and germ tube formation. Successive germ tube forming penetration pegs. In the plant tissue, the penetration peg formed hypha and further developed into intracellular and intercellular hyphae. The artificial inoculation on A. mangium leaf surface showed few spores can germinate. However, none of them managed to penetrate. Keywords: Uromycladium tepperianum, sengon, acacia, gall rust, infection DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.187

  14. Hemostatic, antibacterial biopolymers from Acacia arabica (Lam.) Willd. and Moringa oleifera (Lam.) as potential wound dressing materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Monica; Parwani, Laxmi; Sharma, Vinay; Ganguli, Jhuma; Bhatnagar, Ashish

    2013-10-01

    Acacia arabica and Moringa oleifera are credited with a number of medicinal properties. Traditionally gum of Acacia plant is used in the treatment of skin disorders to soothe skin rashes, soreness, inflammation and burns while Moringa seed extracts are known to have antibacterial activity. In the present study the potential of the polymeric component of aqueous extracts of gum acacia (GA) and the seeds of M. oleifera (MSP) in wound management was evaluated. The results revealed that both biopolymers were hemostatic and hasten blood coagulation. They showed shortening of activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time and were non-cytotoxic in nature. Both showed antibacterial activity against organisms known to be involved in wound infections with MIC ranging from 500-600 microg mL(-1) for GA and 300-700 microg mL(-1) for MSP. They were biodegradable and exhibited water absorption capacity in the range of 415 to 935%. The hemostatic character coupled to these properties envisions their potential in preparation of dressings for bleeding and profusely exuding wounds. The biopolymers have been further analysed for their composition by Gas chromatography.

  15. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  16. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  17. Perdas de solo e água em plantio de Acacia mangium wild e savana em Roraima, norte da Amazônia Soil and water losses in Acacia mangium wild plantations and natural savanna in Roraima, northern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana da Silva Barros

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Plantios florestais de Acacia mangium constituem uma alternativa cada vez mais adotada em áreas de savanas do norte da Amazônia (Roraima e podem causar alterações significativas de características do solo. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi determinar perdas de solo e de água por erosão, que ocorrem em escoamento superficial (run off em savana nativa e plantios de acácia na região Amazônica. Para isso, foram instaladas em duas fazendas, Santa Rita e Araçá, localizadas no município de Bonfim, na região da Serra da Lua, calhas coletoras de sedimentos, acopladas a caixas d'água, em Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram determinadas a granulometria, a densidade aparente (Dap, a resistência à penetração (RP e a velocidade de infiltração (VIB, bem como parâmetros físicos relacionados a perdas de solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos: cobertura natural de savana (SV, plantio de Acacia mangium com um ano de idade (P1 e plantio de Acacia mangium com quatro anos de idade (P4, em três repetições. O experimento teve a duração de 12 meses (setembro de 2006 a agosto de 2007. Os resultados indicaram maiores perdas de solo e de água no plantio mais recente de acácia (P1, de savana nativa e do plantio com 4 anos (P4. Os resultados foram atribuídos à exposição do solo no período inicial de desenvolvimento da planta, ao selamento superficial e à coesão do solo. O pico de perdas de solo ocorreu nos meses de abril a agosto, sendo o tipo de cobertura vegetal o fator determinante para redução das perdas de solo e de água por erosão, sendo que as práticas de plantio no sentido do declive provavelmente agravaram as perdas de solo nos plantios de Acácia. Neste trabalho, a densidade do solo e o teor de matéria orgânica não representaram bons indicadores do tipo de manejo adotado na área.As an alternative land use of savanna areas in Roraima, commercial forest stands of

  18. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kasi Murugan,1 Balakrishnan Senthilkumar,2,3 Duraisamy Senbagam,2 Saleh Al-Sohaibani11Department of Microbiology and Botany, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Biotechnology, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Health and Medical Science College, Haramaya University, Harar, EthiopiaAbstract: The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae. Visual observation, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17–29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737, Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272, Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657, and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475. This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using

  19. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLIC CONTENT IN AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE BARK OF ACACIA NILOTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Tenguria et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. The objective of the present study is to estimate the total polyphenolic content in aqueous and methanolic extract prepared from the bark of Acacia nilotica plant species. Acacia nilotica (L. Willd. ex Del commonly known as babul, kikar or Indian gum Arabic tree, has been recognized worldwide as a multipurpose tree. Mostly it occurs as an isolated tree and rarely found in patches to a limited extent in forests and has been widely planted on farms throughout the plains of the Indian subcontinent. The bark, root, gum, leaves and flowers have found use for skin diseases, diarrhoea, dysentery, cough, diabetes, eczema, wound healing, burning sensation and as an astringent, demulcent, anti-asthmatic. For present work the bark of well identified A. nilotica (L plant for the extraction of phytochemicals was done from the village Khargawali (Hoshangabad district. 20-20 grams of the fine powdered sample were subjected to soxhlet extraction with 200 ml distilled water and 40% methanol separately at 70oC and 50oC respectively, for 24 hours and concentrated. The percentage yield so obtained was 35 and 32.5% respectively. The extracts were then subjected for preliminary phytochemical screening of alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and glycosides the results of which refers to data given in this article. The total phenolic content of the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method with suitable modification. When compared with the gallic acid standard curve the aqueous extract of 0.01 mg/ml dilution contains 0.323 mg/ml approx of total polyphenol content and that of the methanolic extract of the same concentration shows 0.422 mg/ml approx concentration of TPC. Thus from the present study it can be concluded that the aqueous and

  20. Lipoproteínas: metabolismo y lipoproteínas aterogénicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carvajal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Los lípidos viajan en sangre en diferentes partículas conteniendo lípidos y proteínas llamadas lipoproteínas. Hay cuatro clases de lipoproteínas en sangre: quilomicrones, VLDL, LDL y HDL. Los quilomicrones transportan triglicéridos (TAG a tejidos vitales (corazón, musculo esquelético y tejido adiposo. El hígado secreta VLDL que redistribuye TAG al tejido adiposo, corazón y músculo esquelético. LDL transporta colesterol hacia las células y HDL remueve colesterol de las células de vuelta al hígado. Las lipoproteínas ricas en TAG y sus remanentes son aterogénicas y están asociadas con otros factores lipídicos de riesgo (partículas de LDL pequeñas y densas y bajo HDL. LDL y Lp(a son partículas aterogénicas. HDL es una lipoproteína anti-aterogénica.

  1. Crescimento e nodulação de Acacia mangium, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Sesbania virgata em solo contaminado com metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. B. Trannin

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Um dos desafios atuais da pesquisa é encontrar plantas e microssimbiontes tolerantes e que possibilitem a revegetação de áreas degradadas por excesso de metais pesados. Este experimento foi realizado no período de agosto a dezembro de 1998, em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, Lavras (MG, com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância a metais pesados e a capacidade de estabelecimento de simbiose de rizóbio de diferentes origens com Enterolobium contortisiliquum (tamboril, Acacia mangium (acácia e Sesbania virgata (sesbânia, em misturas de solos, que continham proporções de solo contaminado (PSC: (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% v/v com Zn, Cd, Pb e Cu (18.600, 135, 600 e 596 mg dm-3, extraídos por aqua regia, respectivamente, diluído em Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Estirpes recomendadas (E e isolados de solo contaminado (ISC e de solo não contaminado (ISNC, cuja tolerância a Cu, Cd e Zn foi determinada previamente "in vitro", foram inoculados. O aumento da PSC nas misturas inibiu o crescimento vegetativo, a produção de matéria seca e a nodulação das três espécies. A simbiose tamboril-BR4406 foi a mais tolerante e acácia-BR3617 a mais sensível à contaminação do solo. Os ISC que foram mais tolerantes "in vitro" formaram nódulos eficientes em solo sem contaminação, mas foram ineficientes em solos contaminados. Na PSC 15% (Zn = 750; Cd = 22,1; Pb = 65,1 e Cu = 111 mg dm-3 extraídos por DTPA a atividade específica da nitrogenase aumentou 5 e 10 vezes em relação ao solo sem contaminação para as simbioses sesbânia-BR5401 e tamboril-BR4406, respectivamente. A tolerância de rizóbio a metais "in vitro" não correspondeu à tolerância da simbiose em solo contaminado.

  2. Study on Fiber Morphology of Four Acacia Wood from Plantation%4种相思树种人工林木材纤维形态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李清芸; 卞丽萍; 林金国

    2014-01-01

    Fiber morphology of four Acacia species wood from plantation were determined and analysed com⁃parative.The results indicated that Acacia melanoxy and Acacia Implexa wood had short-sized fiber,Acacia crassicapa and Acacia mangiun wood had medium-sized fiber.Moreover,the ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter for four Acacia species wood were all less than 1.The order of Acacia wood from plantation as a raw material for papermaking merits was A.melanoxy,A.Mangiun,A.Implexa and A.crassicapa.There was ex⁃tremely significant difference or significant difference in fiber length between different Acacia species wood. In addition,there weren’t significant differences in ratio of fiber wall thickness to diameter between A.mela⁃noxy and A.implexa wood from plantation while there were extremely significant difference between others different Acacia species wood.There were extremely significant differences in every feature of fiber morpholo⁃gy between A.crassicapa and A.melanoxy,A.mangiun and A.melanoxy wood from plantation.%对4个相思树种人工林木材纤维形态特征进行测定和比较分析,结果表明:黑木相思和灰木相思的木材纤维属于短纤维,厚荚相思和马占相思的木材纤维属于中等纤维,4种相思木材壁腔比均小于1。相思树种人工林木材作为造纸原料的优劣顺序为:厚荚相思、马占相思、黑木相思和灰木相思。4个相思树种人工林木材纤维长度差异均达显著或极显著水平;黑木相思与灰木相思人工林木材纤维壁腔比差异不显著,其余相思树种差异极显著;厚荚相思与灰木相思、马占相思与灰木相思木材人工林木材纤维各形态特征均差异极显著。

  3. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and cytotoxicity activity of Acacia lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using Acacia lignin mediated silver nanoparticles (AGNPs). The synthesis of AGNPs was achieved at conditions optimized as, 3 ml of 0.02% lignin and 1mM silver nitrate incubated for 30 min at 80°C and pH 9. Initial screening of AGNPs was performed by measuring the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis confirmed the spherical shaped face centered cubic structure and 10-50 nm size of AGNPs. The infrared spectroscopy study further revealed that the active functional groups present in lignin were responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to metallic silver (Ag(0)). Lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles showed good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentrations of H2O2 (10(-1) to 10(-6)M). Further, the in vitrocytotoxicity activity of the lignin mediated AGNPs (5-500 μg/ml) demonstrated toxicity effects in MCF-7 and A375 cell lines. Thus, lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles based optical sensor for H2O2 could be potentially applied in the determination of reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals which further expands the importance of lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

  4. Antiviral activity of Acacia nilotica against Hepatitis C Virus in liver infected cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Tariq

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV belonging to the family Flaviviridae has infected 3% of the population worldwide and 6% of the population in Pakistan. The only recommended standard treatment is pegylated INF-α plus ribavirin. Due to less compatibility of the standard treatment, thirteen medicinal plants were collected from different areas of Pakistan on the basis of undocumented antiviral reports against different viral infections. Medicinal plants were air dried, extracted and screened out against HCV by infecting HCV inoculums of 3a genotype in liver cells. RT-PCR results demonstrate that acetonic and methanolic extract of Acacia nilotica (AN showed more than 50% reduction at non toxic concentration. From the above results, it can be concluded that by selecting different molecular targets, specific structure-activity relationship can be achieved by doing mechanistic analysis. So, additional studies are required for the isolation and recognition of antiviral compound in AN to establish its importance as antiviral drug against HCV. For further research, we will scrutinize the synergistic effect of active antiviral compound in combination with standard PEG INF-α and ribavirin which may be helpful in exploring further gateways for antiviral therapy against HCV.

  5. Investigation of Ethyl Acetate Extract/Fractions of Acacia nilotica willd. Ex Del as Potent Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajbir Singh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extract/fractions of Acacia nilotica Willd. Ex. Del extracted with different solvents of increasing and decreasing order of solvent polarity. The antioxidative activities, including the 1’-1’ diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical-scavenging effects, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, chelating ability, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition in rat tissue homogenate were studied in vitro. It was found that the antioxidative effect provided by extract/fractions was strongly concentration dependent and increased on fractionating the extract into water and ethyl acetate fractions. In general, the antioxidative activity increased with increasing extract/fractions concentration to a certain extent, and then leveled off with further increase in antioxidant activity. From a comparison of the antioxidant potential and IC 50 values for different antioxidative reactions, it seemed that extract/fractions were more effective in scavenging DPPH and hydroxyl radicals than reducing, chelating heavy metals and lipid peroxidation inhibitory potential.

  6. Nocturnal sap flow characteristics and stem water recharge of Acacia mangium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Quan WANG; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we studied the nocturnal stem water recharge of Acacia mangium. It is helpful to improve the precision of canopy transpiration estimation and canopy stomatal conductance, and to further understand the lag time of canopy transpiration to stem sap flow.In this study,the whole-tree sap flow in an A.mangium forest was measured by using Granier's thermal dissipation probe for over two years in the hilly land of South China. The environmental factors, including relative humidity (RH), precipitation, vapor pressure deficit (VPD), photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR),and air temperature (Ta) were recorded simultaneously. The stem water recharge of A. Mangium was analyzed on both daily and monthly scales. Sap flux density was lower at night than during the day. The time range of nighttime sap flux density was longer in the dry season than in the wet season. The water recharging mainly occurred from sunset to midnight.No significant differences were observed among inter-annual nighttime water recharges. Nighttime water recharge had no significant correlation with environmen-tal factors, but was welt correlated with the diameter at breast height, tree height, and crown size. In the dry season the contribution of nighttime water recharge to total transpiration had significant correlations with daytime transpiration, total transpiration, VPD, PAR and Ta, while in the wet season it was significantly correlated with daily transpiration and total transpiration.

  7. Function and value of water conservation in different age classes of Acacia mangium plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Bin; QIN Wuming; WU Qingbiao; DAI Jun; HUANG Yong; LIU Feng

    2007-01-01

    For this paper,we studied the water-holding capacity of canopy,vegetation layer under canopy and litter layer,the water-holding capacity and permeability of soil as well as their changes with growth of stands in Acacia mangium plantations of three different age classes(four-,seven-and 11-year-old).Results show that total waterholding above ground in the order of 11-year stand age(52.86 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(41.90 t/hm2)>seven-year stand age(25.78 t/hm2),the increment tendency increased with stand age.Similar sequence also obtained on the water-holding capacity and permeation capacity of soil (0-=40cm).The total water-storage capacity both above ground and soil in four-year-old,seven-year-old and 11year-old of A.mangium plantations were 2,023.0,2,158.4 and 2,260.4 t/hm2,respectively,and the all value of water conservation were 1,372.70,1,474.42 and 1,549.91 yuan (RMB)/hm2,respectively.Therefore,A.mangium plantation had a good ability to modify soil structure and good water conservation function.

  8. Preliminary phytochemical and elemental analysis of aqueous and fractionated pod extracts of Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shaibu Auwal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica (Thorn mimosa is used locally for various medicinal purposes by traditionalists and herbalists in northeastern Nigeria. Plants products have been used since ancient times in the management of various conditions. The bark of A. nilotica has been reported to be used traditionally to manage diabetes, dysentery, leprosy, ulcers, cancers, tumor of the eye, ear and testicles, induration of liver and spleen and also in treatment of various condylomas. The objective of this study is to determine the phytochemical and elemental constituents of the extracts of A. nilotica pods. Flame emission and atomic absorption spectrometry were also used to determine the presence or absence of micro- and macro-elements in the extracts. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous, ethyl acetate and N-butanol fractionated portions of the pod extracts of A. nilotica revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, carbohydrate, whereas carbohydrates and tannins were the only constituent in the residue portion. Anthraquinones, alkaloids, terpene and steroids were not present in the extracts. The elemental screening revealed the presence of iron, potassium, manganese, zinc, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, cadmium and copper. Lead, arsenic and molybdenum were not detected in the pod.

  9. NUTRIENTS POOL IN CONSORTIA OF Eucalyptus urograndis, Acacia mearnsii AND Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810543This study aimed to determine the nutrient pool in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii in a consortium with Zea mays.The amount determination of nutrients of forest species was carried out in the treatments: 100E (100% of eucalyptus; 100A (100% of black wattle and 50E:50A (50% of eucalyptus + 50% of black-wattle. On the other hand, for corn, it was carried out in all treatments (100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A – 75% of eucalyptus + 25% black-wattle and 25E:75A – 25% of eucalyptus + 75% of black wattle. The delimitation adopted was the one of a randomized block with three replications. The magnitude of the nutrient pool in the agrossilvicultural systems biomass was: N> K > Ca > Mg > P > S, for macronutrients, and Mn > Fe > Zn > B > Cu, for micronutrients. Due to the great export of nutrients through the corn harvest, residues should be kept and it is necessary to make a nutritional reposition, mainly with P, N, K, S and Zn in the following crops, because of the higher amount that are exported with the extraction of the corn tang, which reaches 75.3; 60.6; 59.9; 55.8 e 53.8%, respectively, in relation to the total stocked in the biomass.

  10. Culling phenotypically inferior trees in seed production area enhances seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sivakuma; B.Gurudevsingh; R.Anandalakshmi; R.R.Warrier; S.Sekaran; Mulualem Tigabu; P.C.Odén

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis after culling phenotypically inferior trees was studied in a 6-year old seed production area (SPA). A 5-ha plantation was identified, of which 2.3 ha was converted into SPA. The initial stocking, 1 612 trees·ha-1, was thinned down to 982 trees·ha-1 based on growth characteristics. The following fruiting season, seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees in culled and non-culled stands, and seed physical characters, germination and seedling traits were assessed. Seed weight,seed thickness and percentage germination increased by 32.1%, 4.43% and 22.37%, respectively in the culled stand compared to the non-culled stand. Culling also increased the speed of germination, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index. Heritability values were high for seed weight (0.974) and seed thickness (0.948) while medium values were observed for percentage germination (0.577) and total dry weight (0.534).Predicted genetic gain was 11.13% and 11.22% for seed weight and percentage germination, respectively. The actual gain was 32.1, 51.9 and 22.9% for seed weight, percentage germination and total dry matter,respectively. In conclusion, SPAs established by culling inferior trees could serve as sources of good quality seeds for reforestation programs until genetically improved seeds are made available.

  11. A COMPATIBLE ESTIMATION MODEL OF STEM VOLUME AND TAPER FOR Acacia mangium Willd. PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruni Krisnawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the establishment of a compatible volume estimation model for Acacia mangium Willd on the basis of 279 felled sample trees collected from the A. mangium plantation stands in South Sumatra, Indonesia. The model comprises of a total volume model and a stem taper model, which is compatible in the sense of the total volume obtained by integration of the taper model being equal to that computed by the total volume model. Several well-known total volume functions were evaluated including constant form factor, combined variable, generalized combine variable, logarithmic, generalized logarithmic and Honer transformed variables. A logarithmic model was determined to be the best and was then used as the basis for deriving the taper model. Appropriate statistical procedures were used in model fitting to account for the problems of heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation that are associated with the construction of volume and taper functions. The simultaneous fitting method of the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR improved the parameter estimates and goodness-of-fit statistics while ensuring numeric consistency among the component models and reducing the total squared error obtained by an independent fitting method. The developed model can be used to estimate total stem volume, merchantable volume to any merchantability diameter limit at any height, and (possibly height of any diameter based on only easily measurable parameters such as diameter at breast height and total tree height for the species analysed.

  12. Physical Damages of Wood Fiber in Acacia Mangium due to Biopulping Treatment

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    Ridwan Yahya

    2016-05-01

    chrysosporium to Acacia mangium Willd can reduce lignin and improve holocellulose and cellulose content of the material. Fiber dimension recognized as other important factor for paper properties. The question is how the integrity and dimensions of the wood fiber that has been pretreated with the fungus. The objectives of present study were to know effect of pretreatment of P. chrysosporium to the integrity and dimensions of the fiber. The P. chrysosporium was cultured for 14 days in growth medium, and inoculated to wood chips 5% (w/v and incubated for 0, 15 and 30 days. The inoculated wood chips were chipped into 1 mm x 1 mm x 20 mm and macerated using franklin solution at 60 oC for 48 hours. Forty fibers from each incubated time were analized their physical damages using a light microscope at a 400 magnification. The inoculated fibers were measured theirs dimensions. The physical damage percentage of fibers pretreated using P. chrysosporium was 0%. Length and wall thickness of the pretreated fibers were can be categorized as middle class and thin fibers, respectively.

  13. [Regeneration of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations in Yuanmou dry and hot valley].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangming; Li, Kun; Zhang, Changshun

    2006-08-01

    An investigation on the seed yield, seed dispersal pattern, seed density, and the numbers of seedlings and saplings was conducted at the sampling sites of Acacia glauca and Leucaena leucacephala plantations. The factors affecting the natural regeneration and tree adaptability of A. glauca and L. leucacephala were analyzed, and their regeneration status was evaluated by gray relational analysis. The results showed that the seed yield of A. glauca with the same age was 566 grains per tree, while that of L. leucacephala was 1 199 grains per tree. The mean seed yield of individual tree, whether A. glauca or L. leucacephala, was higher in mixed forest than in pure forest, and that of naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was between those of A. glauca and L. leucacephala plantations. With the increasing distance to mother tree, A. glauca had a smaller decrement of seed density than L. leucacephala. The seed dispersal distance of A. glauca was 110 m, while that of L. leucacephala was 90 m. The gray relational coefficient of A. glauca plantation, L. leucacephala plantation, and naturally regenerated L. leucacephala forest was 0.7269, 0.6000 and 0.6000, respectively, indicating that A. glauca plantation had a better regeneration status.

  14. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  15. Multi-layered gelatin/acacia microcapsules by complex coacervation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ijichi, K.; Yoshizawa, H.; Uemura, Y.; Hatate, Y. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Y. [Miyazaki University, Miyazaki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-20

    Microencapsulation of biphenyl was carried out by varying the colloid concentration to investigate the microencapsulation of large oil droplets by the complex coacervation method. In dilute colloid solutions, the traditional model of the complex coacervation method is supported where coacervate droplets formed in the bulk solution adhere to oil droplets. However, in a solution of 3.0 wt% colloid, it was clarified that the microcapsule membrane was formed not by adhesion of the full-grown coacervate droplets, but by growth of small coacervate droplets adhering to oil droplets. Spherical gelatine/acacia microcapsules with thicker membrane were successfully prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation method. The affinity of coacervate droplets to a core material is found to be a dominant factor in microencapsulation in the complex coacervation method. The multi-layered microcapsules endured the release of encapsulated biphenyl, however the singlelayered microcapsules were ruptured within a short time in release experiments, and a serious initial burst was induced. The multi-layered microcapsules prepared by repeating the conventional complex coacervation can be applied as a dosage form in the controlled release of active agents. 12 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization improves growth and biochemical profile in Acacia arabica under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Promita Datta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidated the individual and mixed mycorrhizal effects of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM isolates on growth and biochemical status of Acacia arabica under salinity stress gradients. Salt treatment provided in soil hampered legume growth and its biochemical status. But, mycorrhizal colonizations in plant root system reduced the extent of deleterious salt effect and also helped in plant growth enhancement. Additionally, mixed mycorrhizal association (Glomus mosseae + Glomus fasciculatum responded better towards osmolyte accumulation and in salt stress alleviation. Due to individual and mixed mycorrhizal colonizations in A. arabica; protein, carbohydrate and reducing sugar acquisitions were found maximum at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m over corresponding non-mycorrhizal plant. However, mixed AM inoculation accumulated proline content and improved dry biomass to a higher magnitude at the highest soil salinity level. Mixed AM (G. mosseae + G. fasciculatum colonization improved maximum amount of total chlorophyll (20.94%, protein (19.72%, carbohydrate (23.83%, reducing sugar (17.60% at soil salinity of 5.94 dS/m and dry biomass (20.35%, proline content (10.99% at salinity level of 8.26 dS/m when compared with non-mycorrhizal counterpart. Greater magnitude of AM root colonization was found in mixed AM treated plant and may be responsible for more improvement in growth and biochemical status and consequently mitigated adverse salt effect better.

  17. Ground level photosynthetically active radiation dynamics in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péllico Netto, Sylvio; Sanquetta, Carlos R; Caron, Braulio O; Behling, Alexandre; Simon, Augusto A; Corte, Ana Paula D; Bamberg, Rogério

    2015-09-01

    The objective is to study the dynamics of photosynthetic radiation reaching the soil surface in stands of Acacia mearnsii De Wild and its influence on height growth in stands. This fact gives rise to the formulation of the following hypothesis for this study: "The reduction of the incidence of light inside the stand of black wattle will cause the inflection point in its height growth when this reaches 4 to 5 m in height, i.e. when the stand is between 2 and 3 years of age". The study was conducted in stands in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where diameters at breast height, total height and photosynthetically active radiation available at ground level were measured. The frequency tended to be more intense when the age of the stands increases. It was evident that a reduction of light incidence inside the forest occurred, caused by canopy closure. Consequently, closed canopy propitiated the competition of plants. This has affected the conditions for growth in diameter and height of this species, reason why it becomes possible to conceive the occurrence of an inflection point in the growth of these two variables, confirming the formulated hypothesis.

  18. Conflict resolution in an ant-plant interaction: Acacia constricta traits reduce ant costs to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, E Fleur; Wagner, Diane

    2006-05-01

    Many plant species attract ants onto their foliage with food rewards or nesting space. However, ants can interfere with plant reproduction when they visit flowers. This study tests whether Acacia constricta separates visiting ant species temporally or spatially from newly opened inflorescences and pollinators. The diurnal activity patterns of ants and A. constricta pollinators peaked at different times of day, and the activity of pollinators followed the daily dehiscence of A. constricta inflorescences. In addition to being largely temporally separated, ants rarely visited open inflorescences. A floral ant repellent contributes to the spatial separation of ants and inflorescences. In a field experiment, ants of four species were given equal access to inflorescences in different developmental stages. On average, the frequency with which ants made initial, antennal contact with the floral stages did not differ, but ants significantly avoided secondary contact with newly opened inflorescences relative to buds and old inflorescences, and old inflorescences relative to buds. Ants also avoided contact with pollen alone, indicating that pollen is at least one source of the repellent. The results suggest A. constricta has effectively resolved the potential conflict between visiting ants and plant reproduction.

  19. Pseudomyrmex ants and Acacia host plants join efforts to protect their mutualism from microbial threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Heil, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Plants express numerous 'pathogenesis-related' (PR) proteins to defend themselves against pathogen infection. We recently discovered that PR-proteins such as chitinases, glucanases, peroxidases and thaumatin-like proteins are also functioning in the protection of extrafloral nectar (EFN) of Mexican Acacia myrmecophytes. These plants produce EFN, cellular food bodies and nesting space to house defending ant species of the genus Pseudomyrmex. More than 50 PR-proteins were discovered in this EFN and bioassays demonstrated that they actively can inhibit the growth of fungi and other phytopathogens. Although the plants can, thus, express PR-proteins and secrete them into the nectar, the leaves of these plants exhibit reduced activities of chitinases as compared to non-myrmecophytic plants and their antimicrobial protection depends on the mutualistic ants. When we deprived plants of their resident ants we observed higher microbial loads in the leaves and even in the tissue of the nectaries, as compared to plants that were inhabited by ants. The indirect defence that is achieved through an ant-plant mutualism can protect plants also from infections. Future studies will have to investigate the chemical nature of this mechanism in order to understand why plants depend on ants for their antimicrobial defence.

  20. Divergent investment strategies of Acacia myrmecophytes and the coexistence of mutualists and exploiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; González-Teuber, Marcia; Clement, Lars W; Kautz, Stefanie; Verhaagh, Manfred; Bueno, Juan Carlos Silva

    2009-10-27

    Ant-plant interactions represent a diversity of strategies, from exploitative to mutualistic, and how these strategies evolve is poorly understood. Here, we link physiological, ecological, and phylogenetic approaches to study the evolution and coexistence of strategies in the Acacia-Pseudomyrmex system. Host plant species represented 2 different strategies. High-reward hosts produced significantly more extrafloral nectar (EFN), food bodies, and nesting space than low-reward hosts, even when being inhabited by the same species of ant mutualist. High-reward hosts were more effectively defended against herbivores and exploited to a lower extent by nondefending ants than low-reward hosts. At the phenotypic level, secretion of EFN and ant activity were positively correlated and a mutualistic ant species induced nectar secretion, whereas a nondefending exploiter did not. All of these mechanisms contribute to the stable association of high-reward hosts with defending ant species. However, exploiter ants are less dependent on the host-derived rewards and can colonize considerable proportions of the low-reward hosts. Mapping these strategies onto phylogenetic trees demonstrated that the low-reward hosts represent the derived clade within a monophyletic group of obligate ant plants and that the observed exploiter ant species evolved their strategy without having a mutualistic ancestor. We conclude that both types of host strategies coexist because of variable net outcomes of different investment-payoff regimes and that the effects of exploiters on the outcome of mutualisms can, thus, increase the diversity within the taxa involved.

  1. Effects of large mammalian herbivores and ant symbionts on condensed tannins of Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David; Young, Truman P

    2002-05-01

    Condensed tannins have been considered to be important inducible defenses against mammalian herbivory. We tested for differences in condensed tannin defenses in Acacia drepanolobium in Kenya over two years among different large mammalian herbivore treatments [total exclusion, antelope only, and megaherbivore (elephants and giraffes) + antelope] and with four different ant symbiont species on the trees. We predicted that (1) condensed tannin concentrations would be lowest in the mammal treatment with the lowest level of herbivory (total exclusion), (2) trees occupied by mutualist ants that protect the trees most aggressively would have lower levels of tannins, and (3) if chemical defense production is costly, there would be a trade-off between tannin concentrations, growth, and mechanical defenses. Mean tannin concentrations increased from total exclusion treatments to wildlife-only treatments to megaherbivore + antelope treatments. In 1997, condensed tannin concentrations were significantly lower in trees occupied by the ant Crematogaster nigriceps, the only ant species that actively removed axillary buds. Contrary to our prediction, trees occupied by ant species that protect the trees more aggressively against mammalian herbivores did not have lower overall levels of condensed tannins. There was no consistent evidence of a trade-off between tannin concentrations and growth rate, but there was a positive correlation between mean thorn length and mean tannin concentrations across species of ant inhabitants and across herbivore treatments in 1997. Contrary to our expectation, trees had higher tannin concentrations in the upper parts of the canopy where there is little herbivory by mammals.

  2. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO ESPINILHO, Acacia caven (Mol. Mol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os aspectos anatômicos da madeira e casca de Acacia cavem (Mol. Mol. São apresentados dados quantitativos de 34 características do xilema secundário, bem como fotomicrografias das estruturas anatômicas da madeira e casca. A ausência de septos em fibras, a abundância de parênquima axial e a elevada percentagem de raios com 4 ou mais células de largura, são os caracteres mais importantes na estrutura do lenho. O arranjo das fibras floemáticas em feixes tangenciais regulares, rodeados por sériescristalíferas, é, por sua vez, o aspecto mais notável da casca. Este caráter ainda não havia sido reportado pela literatura anatômica das acácias sul-americanas, e pode ter valor taxonômico em nivel infra-genético.

  3. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lotfi Ghribia; Hatem Ghouilaa; Amel Omrib; Malek Besbesb; Hichem Ben Janneta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods: Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A.cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1’-1’-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay.Results:(67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect Conclusions: The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla.

  4. Entomofauna Associada a Galhos de Acacia mangium Willd. Roletados por Oncideres saga (Dalman (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Cordeiro

    2010-04-01

    Abstract. The study of the insects associated with branches and stems girdled by Oncideres saga (Dalman is important to know its possible natural enemies. Therefore, these work had the objective of register the insects associated with branches and stems girdled of Acacia mangium Willd. by this twig girdler beetle, in Coimbra, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Stems and branches of A. mangium were collected in January/2007 to April/2007. This material has been inspected, stored in plastic bags, and kept in a room with controlled conditions (25.4 ± 0.3°C and 66.7 ± 1.4%. It was noted the presence of a non-determined species of Scolytidae and the emergence of four species of Cerambycidae: Engyum quadrinotatum Thomsom; Eburodacrys sexmaculata (Olivier; Achryson surinamum (Linnaeus and Neoclytus pusillus (Laporte & Gory. It can be concluded that studies are needed with the objective of verify the behavior of these insects in relation with twig girdler O. saga.

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2 to 17.31 (fraction F11. There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038, respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9 was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11.

  6. Tree sap flow and stand transpiration of two Acacia mangium plantations in Sabah, Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienciala, E.; Kučera, J.; Malmer, A.

    2000-09-01

    Water use of Acacia mangium trees grown in plantations was measured by a heat balance method in two stands that largely differed in tree density. Tree sap flow was closely coupled to climatic drivers and responded with minimal time delay. Using no time shift, sap flow rate could be tightly fitted to a simple equation that combined a parabolic response to radiation and an inverse linear response to air humidity. On the contrary, the analysis of canopy conductance showed no meaningful response to either individual or combined microclimatic variables. No indication of water deficit was observed, though the measurement period was during the dry period of the year. The measurements indicate a minimal diurnal use of water stored in plant tissues. The difference in tree water use from the two studied stands was effectively scaled by tree sapwood area. Canopy transpiration of the densest stand reached in average 3.9 mm d -1 compared with 2.7 mm d -1 for the stand representing the average conditions in the catchment.

  7. Response of canopy stomatal conductance of Acacia mangium forest to environmental driving factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Ping ZHAO; Xingquan RAO; Ling MA; Xian CAI; Xiaoping ZENG

    2008-01-01

    Granier's probes were applied to measure the sap flow of 14 sample trees in an Acacia mangium forest on the hilly lands in Heshan City, Guangdong, during the time period of October, 2003. The photosynthetically active radi-ation (PAR), air relative humidity (RH) and temperature of air (T) above the forest canopy were recorded. The sap flow measurement was used in combination with morphological characteristics of tree and forest structure to calculate the whole-tree transpiration (E), stand transpiration (Et), and mean canopy stomatal conductance (gc). Analyses on the rela-tionships between tree morphological characters and whole-tree water use, and on the responses of gc to PAR and vapor pressure deficit (D) were conducted. The results showed that whole-tree transpiration correlated significantly and positively with tree diameter at breast height (DBH) (p < 0.0001), with sapwood area (p < 0.0001), and with canopy size (p = 0.0007) logarithmically, but exponentially with tree height (p = 0.014). The analyses on the responses of canopy stomatal conductance showed that the maximum gc (gcmax) changed with PAR in a hyperbolic curve (p <0.0001) and with D in a logarithmic one (p < 0.0001). The results obtained with sap flow technique indicate its reliability and accuracy of the methods of estimation of whole-tree and stand transpirations and canopy stomatal conductance.

  8. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from Acacia confusa flowers and buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yu Tang; Chang, Wei Chun; Chen, Ping Sheng; Chang, Tzu Cheng; Chang, Shang Tzen

    2011-04-01

    Acacia confusa Merr. (Leguminosae), a species native to Taiwan, is widely distributed on the hills and lowlands of Taiwan, and has been used in traditional medicines. In this study, the application of ultrasound-assisted extraction was used to extract the phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds for the first time. Among the extraction methods, it can significantly enhance the contents of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in A. confusa flower and bud extracts using ultrasound-assisted extraction (10  min×12 times). Considering both the solvent consumption and the time needed for extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction was found to be the most practical approach for the rapid and efficient extraction of bioactive phenolic constituents. In addition, gallic acid, myricitrin-3-rhamnoside, quercitrin-3-rhamnoside, europetin-3-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, rhamnetin-3-glucoside, and rhamnetin-3-rhamnoside were also quantified in different extracts by RP-HPLC. It is clear that ultrasound-assisted extraction is an efficient method for extracting phenolic compounds from A. confusa flowers and buds.

  9. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents.

  10. Larvicidal activity of Acacia nilotica extracts and isolation of D-pinitol--a bioactive carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubal, Rohini; Pawar, Pushpa V; Hebbalkar, Geeta D; Tungikar, Vijay B; Puranik, Vedavati G; Deshpande, Vishnu H; Deshpande, Nirmala R

    2005-05-01

    A low-molecular-weight, sugar-like compound other than glucose, fructose, sucrose, or myo-inositol showing lipophilic nature was isolated from the EtOH extract of Acacia nilotica. The structure of the compound was determined by spectral methods. This alicyclic polyalcohol was found to be D-pinitol (= 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol; 1). The configuration of the compound was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The compound 1 is known from Soybean, Australian mangroves, Fagonia indica, Arachis hypogaea, etc., but we have isolated this compound for the first time from the aerial parts of A. nilotica. Very few references have been cited for compound 1 for its entomological activity, and there are no reports on mosquitoes. Therefore, the crude extracts of A. nilotica were tested for its biological activity against mosquito larvae. Acetone extract at 500-ppm concentration showed chronic toxicity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus IVth instar mosquito larvae. Such a biological activity has been observed for the first time for this plant. This study could be a stepping stone to a solution for destroying larval species as well as consumption of such a widely grown, problem weed, A. nilotica. This larvicidal agent, since it is derived from plant, is eco-friendly, cost effective, non-hazardous to non-target organisms and would be safe unlike commercially available insecticides.

  11. Estimation of Acacia melanoxylon unbleached Kraft pulp brightness by NIR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The ability of NIR spectroscopy for predicting the ISO brightness was studied on unbleached Kraft pulps of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal. Materials and methods: The samples were Kraft pulped in standard identical conditions targeted to a kappa number of 15. A Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLSR model was developed for the ISO brightness prediction using 75 pulp samples with a variation range of 18.9 to 47.9 %. Main results: Very good correlations between NIR spectra and ISO brightness were obtained. Ten methods were used for PLS analysis (cross validation with 48 samples, and a test set validation was made with 27 samples. The 1stDer pre-processed spectra coupling two wavenumber ranges from 9404 to 7498 cm-1 and 4605 to 4243 cm-1 allowed the best model with a root mean square error of ISO brightness prediction of 0.5 % (RMSEP, a r2 of 99.5 % with a RPD of 14.7. Research highlights: According to AACC Method 39-00, the present model is sufficiently accurate to be used for process control (RPD ≥ 8

  12. Glucanases and chitinases as causal agents in the protection of Acacia extrafloral nectar from infestation by phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Pozo, María J; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales; Adame-Alvarez, Rosa M; Heil, Martin

    2010-03-01

    Nectars are rich in primary metabolites and attract mutualistic animals, which serve as pollinators or as an indirect defense against herbivores. Their chemical composition makes nectars prone to microbial infestation. As protective strategy, floral nectar of ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana langsdorffii x Nicotiana sanderae) contains "nectarins," proteins producing reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide. By contrast, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were detected in Acacia extrafloral nectar (EFN), which is secreted in the context of defensive ant-plant mutualisms. We investigated whether these PR proteins protect EFN from phytopathogens. Five sympatric species (Acacia cornigera, A. hindsii, A. collinsii, A. farnesiana, and Prosopis juliflora) were compared that differ in their ant-plant mutualism. EFN of myrmecophytes, which are obligate ant-plants that secrete EFN constitutively to nourish specialized ant inhabitants, significantly inhibited the growth of four out of six tested phytopathogenic microorganisms. By contrast, EFN of nonmyrmecophytes, which is secreted only transiently in response to herbivory, did not exhibit a detectable inhibitory activity. Combining two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that PR proteins represented over 90% of all proteins in myrmecophyte EFN. The inhibition of microbial growth was exerted by the protein fraction, but not the small metabolites of this EFN, and disappeared when nectar was heated. In-gel assays demonstrated the activity of acidic and basic chitinases in all EFNs, whereas glucanases were detected only in EFN of myrmecophytes. Our results demonstrate that PR proteins causally underlie the protection of Acacia EFN from microorganisms and that acidic and basic glucanases likely represent the most important prerequisite in this defensive function.

  13. Enough is enough: the effects of symbiotic ant abundance on herbivory, growth, and reproduction in an African acacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Todd M; Brody, Alison K

    2013-03-01

    Understanding how cooperative interactions evolve and persist remains a central challenge in biology. Many mutualisms are thought to be maintained by "partner fidelity feedback," in which each partner bases their investment on the benefits they receive. Yet, we know little about how benefits change as mutualists vary their investment, which is critical to understanding the balance between mutualism and antagonism in any given partnership. Using an obligate ant-plant mutualism, we manipulated the density of symbiotic acacia ants (Crematogaster mimosae) and examined how the costs and benefits to Acacia drepanolobium trees scaled with ant abundance. Benefits of ants to plants saturated with increasing ant abundance for protection from branch browsing by elephants and attack by branch galling midges, while varying linearly for protection from cerambycid beetles. In addition, the risk of catastrophic whole-tree herbivory by elephants was highest for trees with very low ant abundance. However, there was no relationship between ant abundance and herbivory by leaf-feeding invertebrates, nor by vertebrate browsers such as giraffe, steinbuck, and Grant's gazelle. Ant abundance did not significantly influence rates of branch growth on acacias, but there was a significant negative relationship between ant abundance and the number of fruits produced by host plants, suggesting that maintaining high-density ant colonies is costly. Because benefits to plants largely saturated with increasing colony size, while costs to plant reproduction increased, we suggest that ant colonies may achieve abundances that are higher than optimal for host plants. Our results highlight the conflicts of interest inherent in many mutualisms, and demonstrate the value of examining the shape of curves relating costs and benefits within these globally important interactions.

  14. Ciclagem de nutrientes em Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantificação do conteúdo de nutrientes na biomassa aérea de Acacia mearnsii de wild. Procedência australiana Nutrient cycling in Acacia mearnsii de wild. V. Quantification of nutrient contents in the above-ground biomass of australian provenance of Acacia mearnsii de wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi quantificado o conteúdo de nutrientes na procedência Australiana Bodalla de Acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., aos 2,4 anos de idade. A procedência encontra-se estabelecida em solo de baixa fertilidade, com acidez elevada e localizado na Fazenda Menezes, no Distrito de Capão Comprido, município de Butiá-RS, pertencente à Empresa Florestal Agroseta S.A.. Foi selecionado um total de nove árvores para comporem as amostras. A amostragem destrutiva constituiu na individualização dos compartimentos da biomassa aérea (folhas, galhos vivos, galhos mortos, casca e madeira visando à determinação da matéria seca e do conteúdo de nutrientes. As quantidades de nutrientes contidos na biomassa aérea total da procedência Bodalla foram de 182,1kg ha-1 de N; 8,2kg ha-1 de P; 104,4kg ha-1 de K; 66,7kg ha-1 de Ca; 16,1kg ha-1 de Mg e 10,0kg ha-1 de S. Na procedência Bodalla, 57,4% da matéria seca foi alocada para folhas, galhos vivos e galhos mortos, contento 74% do N; 72,1% do P; 63% do K; 68,5% do Ca, 69,3% do Mg e 74,1% do S do total existente na parte aérea. O componente fuste ( casca e madeira acumulou 26% do N; 27,9% do P; 37% do K; 31,5% do Ca; 30,7% do Mg e 25,8% do S.Nutrient contents of 2.4 years old black wattle (., from Bodalla Australian provenance, were quantified. This provenance was established on soils of low fertility and high acidity, at Menezes Farm of Agroseta S.A. Forest CompAcacia mearnsii De Wildany in the Capão Comprido District, municipality of Butiá-RS. A total of nine trees were selected to form the sample. The destructive sampling was constituted in the individualization of compartments of above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark and wood to determine dry matter and nutrient contents. The quantity of total nutrients in the above-ground biomass from Bodalla provenance was 182.1kg ha-1 of N; 8.2kg ha-1 of P; 104.4kg ha-1 of K; 66.7kg ha-1 of Ca; 16.1kg ha-1 of

  15. Effect of feeding Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. on goats stabled during late pregnancy and lactation Efecto de la alimentación con Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. en caprinos estabulados en el último tercio de prenez y lactancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Meneses R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia saligna (Labill. H.L. Wendl. forage is an alternative feed supply for goats during dry periods It was used as feed during pregnancy and lactation to evaluate production response and some blood parameters. Six animals in each group were fed with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of acacia as alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. hay replacement in a completely randomized design. Forage chemical analysis was done to calculate nutrient intake. Blood samples were analyzed for albumin, urea N, globulin, total protein, Ca, and P. Productive parameters were analyzed by ANOVA, Duncan, and regression analyses between acacia and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, metabolizable energy (ME, and milk production. Acacia consumption during pregnancy was 65.5% of control, affected by the consumption of CP, ME intake and body condition (P La Acacia saligna es una alternativa de alimentación para caprinos, por lo que se ofreció a hembras en prenez y lactancia para evaluar su respuesta y algunos parámetros sanguíneos. Los animales fueron asignados a grupos que recibieron 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de acacia en reemplazo de heno de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., en un diseno completamente al azar. Análisis químico de forraje fue realizado para calcular consumo de nutrientes. Albumina, N úrico, globulinas, proteína total, Ca, y P fueron analizados en sangre. Se controló peso, condición corporal, y peso de nacimiento. Se realizó ANDEVA, Duncan, y regresión para acacia y las variables evaluadas. El consumo de acacia en la prenez fue 65,5% del control, afectó el consumo de proteína cruda (PC, energía metabolizable (EM y condición corporal (P < 0,01. El peso corporal no fue afectado (P < 0,01, siendo 25,9% el nivel límite de inclusión de acacia. El peso de nacimiento fue diferente con 100% de acacia (P < 0,05. En lactancia, el consumo de MS, PC, y EM aumentó (P < 0,01. Niveles de 50 y 25% acacia disminuyeron el peso y la condición corporal. El N úrico y albumina fueron

  16. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  17. Effect of cold water extracts of Acacia modesta Wall. and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. on Tribolium castaneum and Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeefullah, Sayed; Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to introduce an alternative way for insects control through biodegradable plants materials. The different cold water extracts dilutions of Acacia modesta and Glycyrrhiza glabra were tested against Tribolium castaneum. The extracts dilutions of both plants caused mortality of the Tribolium castaneum. ANOVA revealed that dilutions and plants were highly significant. The interaction between plants and dilutions was also significant at P Glycyrrhiza glabra extracts significantly inhibited the growth of Lemna minor. ANOVA showed that dilutions of both plants extracts were significant at P < 0.05.

  18. DECOMPOSIÇÃO DAS PODAS DAS LEGUMINOSAS ARBÓREAS Gliricidia sepium E Acacia angustissima EM UM SISTEMA AGROFLORESTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Diniz de Paula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Agroforestry Systems (SAFs bring multiple benefits and they are an alternative to minimize environmental degradation, and to achieve a sustainable development, due to greatest diversity of species. This study evaluated the contribution of the leguminous trees, gliricídia sepium and Acacia angustissima , grown in alley cropping of banana ( Musa sp. and “açaí” palm ( Euterpe oleraceae used as green manure in the implantation of an Agroforestry Systems. They were compared the production of biomass, nutrients cycling, nitrogen intake, activity and diversity of soil fauna, and banana productivity in the SAF, and with the usage of the legume Pueraria phaseoloides and nitrogen fertilization. The SAF implantation occurred in May 2004, at the Research Center of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State. The following year it was planted the forest African mahogany specie ( Kaya senegalensis , at the centre of the legumes alleys. The experimental design was of randomized blocks with five treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the leguminous trees arranged between the lines of bananas and the “açaí” palm, and they were: acacia angustíssima ( Acacia angustissima , tropical kudzu ( Pueraria phaseoloides , and gliricídia (G liricídia sepium ; besides application of nitrogen as urea and spontaneous vegetation. To quantify the production of biomass, and the release of N, P, Ca, Mg and K, the legumes branches were cut and the kudzu tropical and spontaneous vegetation were mowed, in the rainy and dry seasons. The determination of remaining dry matter, releasing of nutrients, decomposition rates, and half life time of plant residues were held to 50 grams of fresh material from litterbags, placed on the soil surface, sampled at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 60 and 75 days after the installation of the experiment. Acacia angustissima and kudzu tropical showed higher dry biomass, 9.5 and 10.8 Mg ha

  19. Short- and longterm impacts of Acacia longifolia invasion on belowground processes of a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchante, Elizabete; Kjøller, Annelise; Struwe, Sten;

    2008-01-01

    Many coastal dune ecosystems in Portugal are invaded by the leguminous tree Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. This exotic species was first introduced over one hundred years ago in an effort to mitigate dune erosion and loss of coastal landscapes. However, since then A. longifolia has spread...... to new areas, displacing the native vegetation. These invaded ecosystems contrast with the native dune ecosystems that are typically dominated by herb and shrub communities. This study characterizes belowground changes to the native environment as a result of recent (20 y...

  20. Elephant impact on Sclerocarya Caffra trees in Acacia Nigrescens tropical plains Thornveld of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J Coetzee

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of elephant impact at various distances from roads was conducted in June 1978 for Sclerocarya caffra (marula tree populations in Acacia nigrescens Tropical Plains Thornveld in the Kruger National Park, Republic of South Africa. Data from scar recovery indicate that widespread scarring of S. caffra trees by elephant commenced in 1973, coinciding with a wet cli- matic phase. Elephant impact, old and fresh and irrespective of kind, decreased with distance from roads. Substantially higher impact was also recorded along S. caffra population boundaries. The most recent impact on some populations was higher than expected from the established relationship between elephant impact and tree density.

  1. 小海胆,新大陆——为Sogyumo Acacia Band暖场

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ladybird

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1492年哥伦布发现了新大陆,于是已经存在几生几世的美洲大陆摇身变成"新"的了--我是给自己这样一个牵强的借口来鼓励自己写写Sogyumo Acacia Band的.是的,他们的专辑在前两年就已经有人在听(正确的发行日期是2004年11月23日),于我却是新的聆听体验.

  2. Estudio fitoquímico de la corteza de acacia farnesianautilizada tradicionalmente para el tratamiento de la malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Daza Bareño, Ada Zurima

    2014-01-01

    En Colombia se ha reportado el uso de decocciones de las hojas y la corteza de Acacia farnesiana para el tratamiento de fiebres y malaria. El presente trabajo es una contribución al estudio fitoquímico de la corteza de esta especie colectada en dos épocas del año, época seca (junio) y de lluvia (octubre). Para tal fin se recolectó el material vegetal en Armero-Guayabal, Departamento Tolima (Colombia) y se realizó una caracterización fitoquímica del extracto etanólico obtenido por percolación ...

  3. Influence of mineral fertilization on edaphic fauna in Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Parente Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and/or the accumulation of organic matter from plant residues can influence the composition of soil and litter community. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of P and K fertilization on total faunal and nematode faunal composition and richness in plant litter and soil for 360 days in an area reforested with Acacia auriculiformis (A. Cunn, located in the municipality of Conceição de Macabu in the State of Rio de Janeiro. For each treatment (fertilized and unfertilized plots, samples of litter and soil (to a depth of 5 cm were collected and transferred into a Berlese-Tüllgren funnels for the extraction of fauna. Mesofauna and macrofauna were quantified, and the major taxa identified. Nematodes were extracted by centrifugal flotation in sucrose solution and identified according to feeding habits. Density (number of individuals m-2 of total fauna, microphages, social insects and saprophages varied significantly per treatment and sampling time in both litter and soil. The total number of individuals collected was 5,127, and the total number of nematodes 894. Phosphorus and potassium fertilization resulted in an increase in total fauna density and richness in the litter due to an increased abundance of social insects, saprophages and herbivores. In the soil, fertilization increased the saprophage and predator densities. Saprophages were the predominant taxa in the litter, while social insects (Formicidae prevailed in the soil. Litter nematode populations were favored by mineral fertilization. Bacteriophages were the predominant nematode group in both litter and soil.

  4. Acacia ferruginea inhibits inflammation by regulating inflammatory iNOS and COX-2.

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    Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Guruvayoorappan, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a local defensive reaction of a host to cellular injury or infection. Prolonged inflammation can contribute to pathogenesis of many disorders. Identification of naturally occurring phytoconstituents that can suppress inflammatory mediators can lead to the discovery of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Acacia ferruginea is used traditionally to treat numerous ailments including hemorrhage, irritable bowel syndrome and leprosy. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of A. ferruginea extract against acute (carrageenan) and chronic (formaldehyde) inflammation in Balb/c mice. Pre-treatment with A. ferruginea extract (10 mg/kg BW) for 5 consecutive days via intraperitonial (IP) administration significantly inhibited subsequent induction of paw edema in both models; the effects were comparable to that of the standard drug indomethacin. The results also showed the A. ferruginea extract significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and iNOS expression (as measured in serum), diminished inflammation in - and neutrophil infiltration to - the paw tissues and led to a reduction in the number of COX-2(+) immunoreative cells (as evidenced by histologic and immunohistochemical analyses) in the paws relative to those in paws of mice that received the irritants only. Further, in vitro studies showed the extract could significantly scavenge free radicals generated as in DPPH and NO radical generating assays. Taken together, the results showed that A. ferruginea extract imparted potent anti-oxidant and -inflammatory effects, in part by maintaining oxidative homeostasis, inhibiting NO synthesis and suppressing iNOS and COX-2 expression and so could potentially be exploited as a potential plant-based medication against inflammatory disorders.

  5. Biological Activity of Tannins from Acacia mangium Bark Extracted by Different Solvents

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    E. Wina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium bark is abundant byproduct of wood industry in Indonesia. It is underutilized and mainly used as fire wood for the wood industry. The bark contains high level of tannin but the tannin has not been extracted or produced commercially. Tannin isolate can be used for several purposes such as tanning agent for leather, adhesive for plywood or particle board, etc. In ruminant, tannin can be detrimental but can also be beneficial. This experiment was aimed of getting the highest yield of tannin extract with the highest biological activity in rumen fermentation. Nine different solvents at different temperatures were used to extract tannin from A. mangium bark. The extracts were analyzed for their tannin contents and biological activities. Tannin content was analyzed using folin ciocalteau and butanol-HCl methods. Biological activity was described as a percentage of an increase in gas production in the in vitro rumen-buffer fermentation, with and without addition of PEG. The results show that Na2SO3 solution extracted more tannin than other solutions and the higher the concentration of Na2SO3 solution, the higher the yield of tannin extract. The solution of 6% sodium sulphite gave the highest yield of tannin extract (31.2% of original bark sample and the highest concentration of tannin (18.26% but produced a negative effect on in vitro fermentation (% increase of gas production = 2.70%. Extraction with 50% acetone gave a high yield of extract (22.28% of original bark which contained 12.98% of tannin and showed the highest biological response (% increase of gas production = 216%. In conclusion, sodium sulphite solution is not recommended for tannin extraction if the tannin will be used as feed additive in ruminant feed; on the other hand, the aqueous acetone (50% acetone solution is a better choice to be used.

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kasi; Senthilkumar, Balakrishnan; Senbagam, Duraisamy; Al-Sohaibani, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The immense potential of nanobiotechnology makes it an intensely researched field in modern medicine. Green nanomaterial synthesis techniques for medicinal applications are desired because of their biocompatibility and lack of toxic byproducts. We report the toxic byproducts free phytosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the bark extract of the traditional medicinal plant Acacia leucophloea (Fabaceae). Visual observation, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the synthesized AgNPs. The visible yellow-brown color formation and surface plasmon resonance at 440 nm indicates the biosynthesis of AgNP. The TEM images show polydisperse, mostly spherical AgNP particles of 17-29 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that primary amines, aldehyde/ketone, aromatic, azo, and nitro compounds of the A. leucophloea extract may participate in the bioreduction and capping of the formed AgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The in vitro agar well diffusion method confirmed the potential antibacterial activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs against the common bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 737), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 1272), Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC 657), and Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1475). This research combines the inherent antimicrobial activity of silver metals with the A. leucophloea extract, yielding antibacterial activity-enhanced AgNPs. This new biomimetic approach using traditional medicinal plant (A. leucophloea) barks to synthesize biocompatible antibacterial AgNPs could easily be scaled up for additional biomedical applications. These polydisperse AgNPs green-synthesized via A. leucophloea bark extract can readily be used in many applications not requiring high uniformity in particle size or shape.

  7. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

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    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  8. Use of gelatin-acacia coacervate containing benzocaine in topical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichwan, A M; Karimi, M; Dash, A K

    1999-08-01

    The in vitro release of a drug from topical formulations depends on the concentration of the drug in the formulation, the solubility of the drug in the base, the diffusion coefficient of the drug in the vehicle, and the partition coefficient of the drug between the vehicle, and the release medium. Incorporation of both complexing agents and cosolvents into such formulations has been used to enhance the in vitro release of a drug from topical formulations. In this investigation, a novel approach to enhance the in vitro release of benzocaine from different ointment formulations has been introduced. In this study, benzocaine was microencapsulated using gelatin-acacia complex coacervation technique. Various weight fractions of the coacervate, 5, 10, and 20% (w/w), were incorporated into both oleaginous and absorption bases. The in vitro release characteristics of benzocaine from the resulting ointments were studied using a modified USP Dissolution Apparatus 2. A plot of the cumulative amount of drug released (7-8%) per unit surface area versus (time)(1/2) was linear. Microscopic studies of the formulations revealed that the coacervates maintained their integrity in the formulation during the preparation and storage of the dosage form. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) studies indicated that the drug existed in the crystalline state in all formulations including those at a low drug load (0.5% w/w). DSC was also used to determine the solubility of the drug in the formulation. The rate and extent of drug release was higher in the absorption base as compared to the oleaginous base.

  9. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    S.K. Singh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be predicted.

  10. Longevity and growth of Acacia tortilis; insights from 14C content and anatomy of wood

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    Krzywinski Knut

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood have made dendrochronological studies possible. The possibilities for using pre- and post-bomb 14C content in wood samples along with the presence of narrow marginal parenchymatic bands in the wood is therefore tested to gain further insight into the age, growth and growth conditions of A. tortilis in the hyper-arid Eastern Desert of Egypt. Results Based on age scenarios and the Gompertz growth equation, the age of trees studied seems to be from 200 up to 650 years. Annual radial growth estimated from calibrated dates based on the post-bomb 14C content of samples is up to 2.4 mm, but varies both spatially and temporally. Parenchymatic bands are not formed regularly. The correlation in band pattern among trees is poor, both among and within sites. Conclusion The post-bomb 14C content of A. tortilis wood gives valuable information on tree growth and is required to assess the age scenario approach applied here. This approach indicates high longevities and slow growth of trees. Special management measures should therefore be taken at sites where the trend in tree population size is negative. The possibilities for dendrochronological studies based on A. tortilis from the Eastern Desert are poor. However, marginal parenchymatic bands can give insight into fine scale variation in growth conditions and the past management of trees.

  11. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

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    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  12. Improvement of nutritive value of acacia mangium bark by alkali treatment

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    Elizabeth Wina

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Bark, especially from Acacia mangium is a by-product from wood processing industries that commonly found in Indonesiaand in big amount will cause environmental problems. One of the alternatives to utilize bark is for animal feed. The aims of this experiment are to improve the nutritive value of bark by alkali treatments (urea and sodium hydroxide and to determine the level of substitution of elephant grass by bark. The experiment consisted of 3 in vitro studies and 1 in sacco study. In vitro studies consisted of 1 the use of urea or NaOH by wetting and incubation-method, 2 the use of different concentration of Na OH (0-4% by soaking method, 3 determination of substitution level of elephant grass by treated bark. In sacco study was conducted at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation to compare the degradation of treated bark to elephant grass. The results show that urea treatment did not improve DM or OM digestibilities of bark. Soaking bark in 4% NaOH solution was more effective than wetting and incubation-method in improving in vitro digestibility. (49.26% vs19.56% for soaking and dry-method, respectively. In sacco studyl shows that treated bark had a very high solubility at 0 hour incubation but the degradation at 72 hours incubation was not significantly different from that of 0 hour incubation. The gas produced at in vitro study of treated bark was very low indicated that there was no degradation of bark at all. The level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark up to 30% gave a non-significant digestibility value to that of 100% elephant grass. In conclusion, bark after tannin-extraction was a better feedstuff for animal feed. The soaking method in 4% NaOH solution improved the digestibility of bark significantly and the level of substitution of elephant grass by treated bark was 30%.

  13. Nutritional value of Acacia amentacea and Parkinsonia texana grown in semiarid conditions

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    Tilo G. Domínguez-Gómez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the nutritional value of Parkinsonia texana and Acacia amentacea, two leguminosae species of the Tamaulipan scrubland, Northeastern Mexico, two experiments were carried out: the first tested the effects of season and browse species on chemical composition as nutritional variable to small ruminants; the second tested the effect of the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG on fermentation parameters. Foliage samples were collected from three sites. Data of chemical composition were analysed using analysis of variance for a bi-factorial arrangement, whereas the effect of PEG was analysed by a strip plot design. Results of chemical composition were affected by interacting factors season*species as individually they were significantly different (P<0.001. Addition of PEG affected (P<0.001 fermentation parameters. Significantly higher values of neutral detergent fibre (42%, condensed tannins (19%, purines (9 μmol, partitioning factor (PF (6.1 and gross energy losses (GEL=6.7% were found in A. amentacea, while P. texana gave higher crude protein (18%, in vitro true organic matter digestibility (82%, metabolisable energy (ME [2.1 Mcal/kg dry matter (DM], A (183 mL, c (0.07/h and L (0.86 h. Addition of PEG increased ME, and affected (P<0.001 fermentation parameters A and c, while purines and PF decreased. Results indicate that chemical composition and fermentation parameters vary according to seasons and species. PEG addition increases the fermentation parameters, which indicates that PEG counteracts the detrimental effects of secondary components of samples. Data suggest that using both species combined could supply necessary nutritional requirements to small ruminants in the Tamaulipan scrubland.

  14. Polar extracts from (Tunisian Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

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    Boubaker Jihed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD, and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA and benzo[a]pyrene (B(aP were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(aP (7.5 μg/plate, 2-AA (5 μg/plate, MMS (1.3 mg/plate and NOPD (10 μg/plate. Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC, against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances.

  15. Hepatoprotective and Antiviral Efficacy of Acacia mellifera Leaves Fractions against Hepatitis B Virus

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    Ahmed H. Arbab

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the hepatoprotective and anti-HBV efficacy of Acacia mellifera (AM leaves extracts. The crude ethanolic-extract, including organic and aqueous fractions, were tested for cytotoxicity on HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cells (IC50 = 684 μg/mL. Of these, the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-toxicated cells at 48 h. In CCl4-injured rats, oral administration of AM ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg·bw for three weeks significantly normalized the sera aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein levels and elevated tissue nonprotein sulphydryl and total protein. The histopathology of dissected livers also revealed that AM cured the tissue lesions. The phytochemical screening of the fractions showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, and saponins. Further, anti-HBV potential of the fractions was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions exhibited the best inhibitory effects on HBsAg and HBeAg expressions in dose- and time-dependent manner. Taken together, while the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions exhibited the most promising antioxidant/hepatoprotective and anti-HBV activity, respectively, the n-butanol partition showed both activities. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of AM extracts warrants further isolation of the active principle(s and its phytochemical as well as biological studies.

  16. TEKNIK PERLAKUAN PENDAHULUAN DAN METODE PERKECAMBAHAN UNTUK MEMPERTAHANKAN VIABILITAS BENIH Acacia crassicarpa HASIL PEMULIAAN

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    Naning Yuniarti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia crassicarpa improved seed has a higher quality than unimproved seed. To maintain the viability, improved seeds are required as appropriate handling techniques. One of the important steps in seed handling is seed germination test. A. crassicarpa seed have dormancy and to break it needs spesific pretreatment. Germination test can be worked in the laboratory and greenhouse. The purpose of this research was to obtain pretreatment and germination method better to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed. Pretreatment in resources were without treatment, soaking in hot water (100oC and followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 1 minute in hot water (100oC followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 6 minutes in hot water (100oC followed by soaking for 24 hours in cold water, soaking for 30 minutes in H2SO4, torn of seedcoat, and torn of seedcoat and then soaking for 24 hours in cold water. Laboratory Germination method were top of paper (TP, between paper (BP, and pleated paper (PP test. Whereas growing media used in greenhouse were top soil, sand, a mixture of top soil and sand (1:1/v:v, and cocopeat. The results showed that to maintain the viability of A. crassicarpa improved seed required the best pretreatment technique and germination methods were (1 in laboratory used combine between torn of seedcoat and top of paper. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 96 %, and (2 in greenhouse used combine between torn of seedcoat and cocopeat. In this method, the percent of seed germination reached 88 %. 

  17. Drought tolerance of Acacia karroo, a native tree species to South Africa,in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ying; Janusz Zwolinski; Yin Wei-lun; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Acacia karroo is an indigenous, strong drought-tolerant and widely planted tree in South Africa. In order to match the plant with its adaptation to forest sites in China, it is important to know the drought-tolerance of this species under Chinese forest site conditions. Our study was carried out in cinnamon soils in Beijing and with Platycladus orientalis, the most drought-tolerant tree in Beijing, as control. Physiological parameters of young plants of the trees were measured and divided into three groups in response to soil drying. The first group included root activity, ABA content in roots and peroxidase (POD) activity in leaves. Their values changed similarly to those of P. orientalis and dramatically increased to maximum values when the soil water content (SWC) decreased from its normal level of 20% to 7.6% where the three indices decreased dramatically when SWC was reduced further from 7.6%. The second group of parameters included the contents of proline, soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA). Their values showed greater variation than those of P. orientalis and significantly increased when SWC decreased from 20% in response to soil drying. However,the proline and soluble protein contents fluctuated in A. karroo at a lower level than those in P. orientalis. In contrast, the content of MDA in A. karroo was much higher than that in P. orientalis which almost did not increase in the drying soil. The third group of parameters consisted of soluble sugar, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). These parameters showed greater diversity and fluctuations among the three varieties of A. karroo compared with the control in response to soil drying. These results suggest that A. karroo is characterized as a strong, drought tolerant species in most of physiological parameters but weaker than P.orientalis in membrane lipid antioxidation.

  18. [The NAS system: Nursing Activities Score in mobile technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Vanessa Menezes; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Neutzling, Agnes Ludwig; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Borges, Gilberto Cabral de Mello

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present the computerized structure that enables the use of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in mobile technology. It is a project for the development of technology production based on software engineering, founded on the theory of systems development life cycle. The NAS system was built in two modules: the search module, which is accessed using a personal computer (PC), and Data Collection module, which is accessed through a mobile device (Smartphone). The NAS system was constructed to allow other forms, in addition to the NAS tool, to be included in the future. Thus, it is understood that the development of the NAS will bring nurses closer to mobile technology and facilitate their accessibility to the data of the instrument relating to patients, thus assisting in decision-making and in staffing to provide nursing care.

  19. Studies on Antimicrobial and Immunomodulatory Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica L. Leaves against Common Veterinary Pathogens

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    Arvind Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia nilotica is a plant species that is almost ubiquitously found in different parts of the world. Various preparations of it have been advocated in folk medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, smallpox, dysentery, cough, ophthalmia, toothache, skin cancer as astringent, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac since immemorial times. The present study investigates the antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and immunomodulatory potential of hot aqueous extract (HAE of Acacia nilotica leaves. On dry matter basis, the filtered HAE had a good extraction ratio (33.46% and was found to have carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, saponins, and flavonoids as major constituents. HAE produced dose dependent zone of inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus uberis and fungal pathogens Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates; however, no antiviral activity was recorded against IBR virus. HAE of A. nilotica revealed both proliferative and inhibitory effects on the rat splenocytes and IL-10 release depending on the dose. Detailed studies involving wide spectrum of bacterial, fungal, and viral species are required to prove or know the exact status of each constituents of the plant extract.

  20. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology.

  1. Antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

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    Pai Mithun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The establishment and maintenance of oral microbiota is related not only to interbacterial coaggregations but also to interactions of these bacteria with yeasts. Hence, it is important for agents used in the treatment of oral diseases to have antifungal properties for effective therapy. Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antifungal efficacy of Punica granatum, Acacia nilotica, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: The pomegranate peel is separated, dried and powdered. Fennel, cumin and acacia bark obtained from the tree are powdered. Candida is inoculated at 37˚C and seeded on Sabourauds agar medium. Sterilized filter papers saturated with 30 μl of the extracts are placed on the seeded plates and inoculated at 24 and 48 h. Zones of inhibition on all four sides are measured around the filter paper with a vernier caliper. The experiments were repeated on four plates, with four samples of each extract on one plate for all of the extracts. Results: All the above-mentioned ingredients showed antifungal property, with Punica granatum showing the highest inhibition of Candida albicans with a mean zone of inhibition of 22 mm. P-values <0.05 were obtained for Punica granatum when compared with the other extracts. Conclusion: The results showed the potential use of these products as cheap and convenient adjuvants to pharmaceutical antifungal products.

  2. Argentinean native wood species: Physical and mechanical characterization of some Prosopis species and Acacia aroma (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Pizzo, Benedetto; Brunetti, Michele; Macchioni, Nicola; Ewens, Mauricio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2009-03-01

    One of the problems in marketing the wood of Prosopis and Acacia is the lack of standardization of its qualities. The aim of this paper was to obtain a preliminary detection of some properties of the wood of four species of the genus Prosopis and one species from Acacia grown in Argentina. To accomplish this objective, the content of extractives and some physical and mechanical characteristics were analyzed. The density rho(12) of all the species indicates that these woods range from heavy to very heavy (>or=0.69g/cm(3)). The total volumetric shrinkage values are low, less than 10%, for all species. The parallel compression strength and the shear strength for all the species indicate a very resistant wood (>or=46.93MPa and >or=18.35MPa, respectively). Brinell hardness was higher than 5kg/mm(2) in all cases. The species with less content of extractives is P. ruscifolia (approximately 9% of anhydrous mass) whereas A. aroma was the one with the greatest content (approximately 25% of anhydrous mass in the heartwood).

  3. Avaliação nutricional de mudas de Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata e Eucalyptus camaldulensis inoculadas com fungos micorrízicos, em casade- vegetação e em cava de extração de argila = Nutritional evaluation of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, grown under greenhouse conditions and in an area of clay extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs na nutrição de mudas de acácia (Acacia mangium Willd., sesbânia (Sesbania virgata (Cav.Pers. e eucalipto (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. em casa-de-vegetação, bem como a influência dos FMAs, do monocultivo e/ou consórcio sobre os teores dos nutrientes nas folhas das plantas em cava degradada pela extração de argila. Em casa-de-vegetação, mudas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos nos conteúdos de N, P e Zn de 22, 71 e 67%, respectivamente; as de sesbânia, de 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 e 54%, respectivamente para N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn e Zn. Na cava de extração de argila, plantas de acácia consorciadas com sesbânia apresentaram menor teor de Ca nas folhas. Ainda, no consórcio com eucalipto, plantas de acácia inoculadas com FMAs tiveram incrementos de 36% no teor de Mg, em relação às sem inoculação. Plantas de sesbâniaconsorciadas com acácia e/ou eucalipto apresentaram menor teor de Mg, em relação às do monocultivo. Por outro lado, plantas de eucalipto consorciadas com acácia e/ou sesbânia sem FMAs apresentaram menor teor de N, em relação às do monocultivo. Até o presente momento, não foram observadas melhorias nutricionais em plantas de eucalipto advindas do consórcio com acácia e/ou sesbânia.This work aimed to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on the nutrient uptake of Acacia mangium, Sesbania virgata and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, as well as, the influence of these fungi on the shoot nutrient content of these plant species, when cultivated in single and intercropping systems, under field conditions in an area of clay extraction. Under greenhouse conditions, AMF inoculation increased N, P and Zn content of A. mangium by 22, 71 and 67%, respectively, and in S. virgata the increase of N, P, Ca, Mg, Mn and Zn was of 39, 49, 56, 24, 105 and 54%, respectively. Under

  4. Gomose da acácia-negra causada por Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Gummosis of Acacia decurrens Willd. Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst.

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    Ivan José Antunes Ribeiro

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available É relatada a ocorrência, pela primeira vez no Brasil, de Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. sobre acácia-negra. Testes de inoculação cruzada foram efetuados em casa de vegetação com o isolado obtido de acácia-negra (Acacia decurrens Willd. e outro de mangueira (Mangifera indica L.. Observou-se que ambos os isolados foram patogênicos à acácia-negra e à mangueira.Several plants of Acacia decurrens showed wilting and subsequent branche drying. The branches showed wood splitting and gum exudation. The transversally cut wood showed ashy colored pith, that desenvolved numerous perithecia when kept in a humid chamber. These perithecia were transferred aseptically to potato-dextrose-agar and the culture was classified as Ceratocystis fimbriata Ell. & Halst. Four mounth old Acacia plants inoculated with the isolate died after 14 days. The fungus was again isolated from these dead plants. Cross inoculation tests with isolate of C. fimbriata from Acacia and mango (Mangifera indica L. showed pathogenic effects for both hosts.

  5. Suppressive effects of acetone extract from the stem bark of three Acacia species on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

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    Kandhasamy Sowndhararajan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The acetone extracts of three Acacia species effectively inhibited the NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the presence of different phenolic components in the bark extracts might be responsible for reducing the NO level in cells.

  6. Interaction between ungulates and bruchid beetles and its effect on Acacia trees: modeling the costs and benefits of seed dispersal to plant demography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Wiegand, Kerstin; Ward, David

    2011-09-01

    Integrative studies of plant-animal interactions that incorporate the multiple effects of interactions are important for discerning the importance of each factor within the population dynamics of a plant species. The low regeneration capacity of many Acacia species in arid savannas is a consequence of a combination of reduction in seed dispersal and high seed predation. Here we studied how ungulates (acting as both seed dispersers and herbivores) and bruchid beetles (post-dispersal seed predators) modulate the population dynamics of A. raddiana, a keystone species in the Middle East. We developed two simulation models of plant demography: the first included seed ingestion by ungulates and seed predation by bruchids, whereas the second model additionally incorporated herbivory by ungulates. We also included the interacting effects of seed removal and body mass, because larger ungulates destroy proportionally fewer seeds and enhance seed germination. Simulations showed that the negative effect of seed predation on acacia population size was compensated for by the positive effect of seed ingestion at 50 and 30% seed removal under scenarios with and without herbivory, respectively. Smaller ungulates (e.g., seeds than larger ungulates (e.g., >250 kg) to compensate for the negative effect of seed predation. Seedling proportion increased with seed removal in the model with herbivory. Managing and restoring acacia seed dispersers is key to conserving acacia populations, because low-to-medium seed removal could quickly restore their regeneration capacity.

  7. Development of a Model for Estimation of Acacia Senegal Tree Biomass Using Allometry and Aster Satellite Imagery at Ennuhud, West Kordofan State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Hatim; Elnour Adam, Hassan; Csaplovics, Elmar

    The current paper deals with the development of a biomass model for Acacia senegal trees by applying allometric equations for ground data combined with ASTER satellite data sets. The current study is conducted around Ennuhud area which is located in Ennuhud locality in West Kordofan State, Sudan. Primary data are obtained by application of random sampling around Ennuhud town where Acacia senegal tree species is abundant. Ten sample units are taken. Each unit contains five sample plots (15x15 m), one in the centre and the others in the four directions 100 m away from the centre forming a total of 50 sample plots. The tree coordinates, diameter/diameters (diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm), height and crown diameters will be recorded. Sensor data were acquired from ASTER remote sensing satellite (29.03.2007 & 26.01.2011) and integrated with the in-situ data. The expected findings allow for the calculation of the mean diameter of trees. The tree above ground biomass (TAGB), tree below ground biomass (TBGB) and the tree total biomass (TTB) of Acacia senegal are computed consequently. Remotely sensed data are integrated with the ground data for creating the data base for calculating the correlation of the relationship between the two methods of data collection. The application of allometric equations is useful as a non-destructive method for biomass estimation by the application of remote sensing is recommended for biomass modelling over large areas. Keywords: Biomass model, Acacia senegal tree, remote sensing, Ennuhud, North Kordofan

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

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    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  9. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

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    E O Ogbadoyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  10. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobia on seed germination and seedling traits in Acacia senegal

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    Sunil Kumar Singh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Among arid zone tree species, Acacia senegal and Prosopis cineraria are the most important dryland resources of Western Rajasthan desert ecosystem. Due to ecological, biological and molecular similarities, they are often studied together. The climatic conditions in this region restrict the build-up of soil organic matter and soils are generally deficient in nitrogen. Studies were carried out to isolate and molecularly characterize the diverse group of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria from root nodules of native A. senegal and P. cineraria and their effect on seed germination and seedling traits in two genotypes of A. senegal. The direct sequencing of 16S rDNA region resulted in molecular identification of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria as Bacillus licheniformis, Sinorhizobium saheli isolated from root nodules of A. senegal and S. kostiense and S. saheli isolated from root nodules of P. cineraria. The partial sequences of 16S rDNA were assigned Gen accession numbers HQ738496, HQ738499, HQ738506 and HQ738508. Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid (98% for 15 minutes was able to break the exogenous seed dormancy and enhanced germination percentage in control treatment to 90% and 92.5% in A. senegal in genotypes CAZRI 11113AS and CAZRI 35AS, respectively. The treatments with Bacillus licheniformis or S. kostiense, either inoculated individually or as coinoculants, had positive effect on phenotypic traits of germination. Two A. senegal genotypes exhibited significant differences with regard to all the phenotypic traits. On the other hand, treatments with S. saheli isolated from either A. senegal or P. cineraria had negative effects on germination and related phenotypic traits. Values of the coeffivient of determination (R2 over 80% for root length versus shoot length, root/shoot ratio and seedling weight respectively validate that the observed attributes are inter-dependable and linear progression trend can be

  11. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

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    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  12. Contain or eradicate? Optimizing the management goal for Australian acacia invasions in the face of uncertainty

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    Moore, J.L.; Runge, M.C.; Webber, B.L.; Wilson, J.R.U.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To identify whether eradication or containment is expected to be the most cost-effective management goal for an isolated invasive population when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. Location Global and South Africa. Methods We developed a decision analysis framework to analyse the best management goal for an invasive species population (eradication, containment or take no action) when knowledge about the current extent is uncertain. We used value of information analysis to identify when investment in learning about the extent will improve this decision-making and tested the sensitivity of the conclusions to different parameters (e.g. spread rate, maximum extent, and management efficacy and cost). The model was applied to Acacia paradoxa DC, an Australian shrub with an estimated invasive extent of 310ha on Table Mountain, South Africa. Results Under the parameters used, attempting eradication is cost-effective for infestations of up to 777ha. However, if the invasion extent is poorly known, then attempting eradication is only cost-effective for infestations estimated as 296ha or smaller. The value of learning is greatest (maximum of 8% saving) when infestation extent is poorly known and if it is close to the maximum extent for which attempting eradication is optimal. The optimal management action is most sensitive to the probability that the action succeeds (which depends on the extent), with the discount rate and cost of management also important, but spread rate less so. Over a 20-year time-horizon, attempting to eradicate A. paradoxa from South Africa is predicted to cost on average ZAR 8 million if the extent is known, and if our current estimate is poor, ZAR 33.6 million as opposed to ZAR 32.8 million for attempting containment. Main conclusions Our framework evaluates the cost-effectiveness of attempting eradication or containment of an invasive population that takes uncertainty in population extent into account. We show that incorporating

  13. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

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    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  14. Benefit from the association of small amounts of tannin-rich shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl.) with soya bean meal given as supplements to Barbarine sheep fed on oaten hay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Nefzaoui, A.; Abidi, S. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Hassayoun, L. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Two trials were conducted to test the hypotheses that (i) feeding small amount of a tanniniferous shrub foliage (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) increases the proportion of rumen undegradable protein, and consequently benefits growth performance in Barbarine lamb; and (ii) such positive effect depends on the timing of feeding tannin source (i.e. acacia) relative to protein source (soya bean meal, SBM). Total (TT) and condensed tannin (CT) concentrations in air-dried acacia leaves used in this study averaged 29 g tannic acid and 48 g leucocyanidin equivalents per kg dry matter (DM), respectively. In trial 1, rumen fistulated ewes received oaten hay (hay) ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 100 g acacia fed with the SBM (D2, mixed strategy) or as D2, but the SBM fed 1 h later than acacia when acacia was consumed completely (D3, sequential strategy). Hay intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters (pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}-N) and total volatile fatty acids) and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen were similar between D1 and D2 (P > 0.05). However, the sequential strategy (D3) resulted in efficient use of N as reflected by the decrease of crude protein digestibility (CPD), plasma urea, NH{sub 3}-N concentration and in situ degradation of SBM nitrogen. In trial 2, four groups each of six Barbarine lambs (initial LW 35.3 {+-} 3.7 kg) received for 90 days: hay ad libitum and 200 g SBM (D1), D1 and 20 g polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW 4000) mixed with SBM (D2), D1 and 100 g acacia with the SBM fed 1 h later when acacia was completely consumed (sequential strategy) (D3) or D3 and 20 g PEG fed with the SBM (D4). Polyethylene glycol was here used to deactivate tannins. Hay intake and DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility were similar among dietary treatment (P > 0.05). However, supplementing lambs with SBM and acacia without PEG (D3) resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.001) of CPD (0.664 versus 0.597, respectively for D1 and

  15. UAS Integration in the NAS FY15 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Laurie; Randall, Debra; Hackenburg, Davis

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS progress and future directions.

  16. Exclusive rewards in mutualisms: ant proteases and plant protease inhibitors create a lock-key system to protect Acacia food bodies from exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Svatos, Ales; Farías-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Heil, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Myrmecophytic Acacia species produce food bodies (FBs) to nourish ants of the Pseudomyrmex ferrugineus group, with which they live in an obligate mutualism. We investigated how the FBs are protected from exploiting nonmutualists. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the FB proteomes and consecutive protein sequencing indicated the presence of several Kunitz-type protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs extracted from Acacia FBs were biologically active, as they effectively reduced the trypsin-like and elastase-like proteolytic activity in the guts of seed-feeding beetles (Prostephanus truncatus and Zabrotes subfasciatus), which were used as nonadapted herbivores representing potential exploiters. By contrast, the legitimate mutualistic consumers maintained high proteolytic activity dominated by chymotrypsin 1, which was insensitive to the FB PIs. Larvae of an exploiter ant (Pseudomyrmex gracilis) taken from Acacia hosts exhibited lower overall proteolytic activity than the mutualists. The proteases of this exploiter exhibited mainly elastase-like and to a lower degree chymotrypsin 1-like activity. We conclude that the mutualist ants possess specifically those proteases that are least sensitive to the PIs in their specific food source, whereas the congeneric exploiter ant appears partly, but not completely, adapted to consume Acacia FBs. By contrast, any consumption of the FBs by nonadapted exploiters would effectively inhibit their digestive capacities. We suggest that the term 'exclusive rewards' can be used to describe situations similar to the one that has evolved in myrmecophytic Acacia species, which reward mutualists with FBs but safeguard the reward from exploitation by generalists by making the FBs difficult for the nonadapted consumer to use.

  17. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  18. A comparison of anthropogenic and elephant disturbance on Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree populations in the Lowveld, South Africa

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    J. Botha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia xanthophloea (the ‘fever tree’ is a popular medicinal species that is traded widely in South Africa. Although it occurs throughout southern Africa, there is increasing pressure on its riverine and marshy habitats. This study compares the impact of harvesting on an A. xanthophloea population located on private land near Komatipoort, Mpumalanga, with two protected populations situated within the Kruger National Park. The densities of the harvested and protected populations were similar (84±8 trees/ha and 85±20 trees/ha, respectively. There were fluctuations in the quotients between frequencies of trees in successive diameter classes, which is common in savanna where high levels of fire, mega-herbivore and anthropogenic disturbance are experienced. The extent of stem damage (stripping of bark and breakage by elephants in the protected area was significantly higher than the extent of harvesting on private land, although the degree of damage was relatively low, with only 7 % of the populations having been damaged at rates >26 %. The degree of harvesting on private land was relatively low, with the majority of trees having been harvested at rates of less than 10 % of the stem below 2 m. Despite this, ringbarking had occurred (4 %. The basal diameters and heights were significantly lower in the protected population than in the harvested one, suggesting that over time elephant impact was the more severe disturbance. Acacia xanthophloea exhibited high resilience to disturbance, with all the elephant damaged trees and harvested individuals surviving. However, the mean bark thickness measured in local markets (6.3±1.4 mm was significantly lower than that measured in either the harvested (12.4±1.0 mm or the KNP (10.3±0.8 mm populations. As harvesters tend to select the largest individuals in a population to maximise their financial returns, this could mean that smaller individuals are being harvested, and/or bark is not being given

  19. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTESEN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (MIMOSACEAEDE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA. Litterfall and Nutrient Dynamics in Acacia mangium (MimosaceaeForest Plantations of Antioquia, Colombia

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    JEINER CASTELLANOS BARLIZA

    Full Text Available La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium estable-cidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca colom-biano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor pro-porción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1,5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este es-tudio, muestran que la especie Acacia mangium tiene un gran potencial para la recupera-ción de áreas degradadas, a partir del restablecimiento de los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Fine litter production, nutrient return, nutrient resorption, and nutrient use efficiency were studied during one year in Acacia mangium forest plantations in mining gold degraded soils at the Bajo Cauca region of Colombia. Annual fine litter production was estimated at 10.4 Mg ha-1 and it was dominated by the leaf fraction (54%, followed by the reproduc-tive material (24% and to a lesser proportion by other debris (6% and other species leaves (1.5%. The highest organic matter and nutrients returns were found on sites classified as high quality. Soil plowing realized

  20. Basic wood density of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br related to sample tree height, tree and site; Densidad basica de la madera de Acacia melanoxylon R. Br en relacion con la altura de muestreo, el arbol y el sitio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igartua Dora, D. V.; Monteoliva, S.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the work was to assess basic wood density variations of Acacia melanoxylon R.Br according to sample tree height, tree, and site. Twenty trees were selected from four sites in Buenos Aires Province, Argentine. Wood density was determined over two disc samples at four tree height (base, breast height, 30% and 50% of total tree height). According to determined ages, some trees were divided into two groups according to age (26-32 years and 9-12 years) and data were analyzed with an analysis of variance according to mixed model where tree was the random effect. Trees represent 74 % of total random variance. Within tree, axial tendency of wood density was to decrease from the base toward breast height and then its value was stable to the top. This was consistent across all sites and age groups. Forest resource growing at Los Tuelches site presented the highest basic wood density. (Author) 40 refs.

  1. Microencapsulation of dodecyl acetate by complex coacervation of whey protein with acacia gum and its release behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Tong Yu; Li Na Liu; Xiao Li Zhu; Xiang Zheng Kong

    2012-01-01

    Complex coacervation of whey protein (WP) with acacia gum (AG) was carried out in water with the presence of dodecyl acetate (DA),a component of insect sex pheromones,in order to obtain microeapsules with DA as the core material and WP-AG coacervate as the wall materials.Through variations in wall/core ratios,concentrations of the wall materials in capsule preparations,DA encapsulation was optimized,which showed a high DA encapsulation was achieved when coacervation was conducted at pH 3.5 with wall/core mass ratio at 3 combined with concentration of wall materials at 1.0 wt%.Morphology and the structure of DA loaded microcapsules were examined by scanning electron microscope,which showed the microcapsules were of core/shell structure with DA encapsulated in the inner of the microcapsules.DA release was examined and the behavior of the release was discussed.

  2. QUANTIFICATION OF ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS IN STAND OF Acacia mearnsii DE WILD., BATEMANS BAY PROVENANCE - AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., at 2.4 years after planting was quantified. The provenance was established in soils of low fertility, with high acidity, at Fazenda Menezes, District of Capão Comprido, County of Butiá/RS. Nine trees were selected to form a sample. The destructive sampling comprised the individualization of the compartments of the above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark, and wood, and the determination of the dry matter allocated in each of these compartments. The production of above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay was 36,1 Mg ha-1 with the following distribution: 20% in the leaves; 19,5% in the live branches; 2,8% in the dead branches; 11,8% in the bark and 45,9% in the wood.

  3. ACACIA Project – Development of a Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Process. Case of the DMXTM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the ACACIA project was to develop processes for post-combustion CO2 capture at a lower cost and with a higher energetic efficiency than first generation processes using amines such as MonoEthanolAmine (MEA which are now considered for the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS demonstrators. The partners involved in this project were: Rhodia (Solvay since then, Arkema, Lafarge, GDF SUEZ, Veolia Environnement, IFP Energies nouvelles, IRCE Lyon, LMOPS, LTIM, LSA Armines. To validate the relevance of the breakthrough processes studied in this project, techno-economic evaluations were carried out with comparison to the reference process using a 30 wt% MEA solvent. These evaluation studies involved all the industrial partners of the project, each partner bringing specific cases of CO2 capture on their industrial facilities. From these studies, only the process using demixing solvent, DMXTM, developed by IFPEN appears as an alternative solution to the MEA process.

  4. Effect of Bruchid Beetles (Burchidius Arabicus Decelle Infestation on the Germination of Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne Seeds

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    M. A.J. Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of bruchid beetle infestation on seed germination of Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne Mimosaceae under different incubation temperatures and degrees of scarification was studied under controlled conditions. Results indicate that seed germination was highest (96% in scarified seeds at 25-35°C incubation temperature, whereas, it was only 28% in intact seeds. Seeds infected by bruchid beetles with one or two holes did not germinate regardless of different incubation temperatures. X-ray results of A. tortilis seeds showed substantial consumption of endosperm and embryonic portions by the bruchid beetles resulting in one or two holes in the infected seeds curtailing seed germination. A unique method of identifying seed viability of A. tortilis by X-ray studies is reported. v

  5. Evaluation of gentamicin and lidocaine release profile from gum acacia-crosslinked-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Baljit; Dhiman, Abhishek

    2017-01-27

    In this manuscript an attempt has been made to incorporate both, antibiotic agent 'gentamicin' and pain relieving agent 'lidocaine' into the gum acacia-poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate)-carbopol based hydrogel for wound dressing application. Drug release, gel strength, network parameter, antimicrobial activity and biodegradation properties of hydrogel have been evaluated. Porous microstructure of the hydrogel was observed in cryo-SEM images. The hydrogel showed mesh size 37.29 nm, cross-link density 2.19× 10-5 mol/cm3, molecular weight between two cross-links 60.25× 10-3 g/mol and gel strength 0.625±0.112 N in simulated wound fluid. The hydrogels were evaluated as a drug carrier for model drugs gentamicin and lidocaine. The release of these drugs occurred through Fickian diffusion mechanism and release profile of the drugs was best fitted in first order kinetic model.

  6. Inhibitive effects of some treatments on the browning rate during the in vitro culture of Acacia karroo Hayne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Hong-lang; Janusz Zwolinski; Yin Wei-lun; Liu Yu-jun; Wang Hua-fang

    2006-01-01

    Acacia karroo Hayne is an arbor species widely distributed in South Africa with the characteristics of fast growth and drought resistance. The species was introduced to China recently. In vitro culture is an effective method to rapidly produce plants and a strategy to minimize somaclonal variation among regenerated plants. Browning, however, is a problem in establishing the in vitro culture system. The present study diminished the problem by selecting explants, using different browning inhibitors and chilling treatment. Results showed that the use of embryos as explants reduced the browning ratio to 46.7%, whilst stem segment explants were browned up to 56.7%. The adventitious buds were successfully induced in the modified tissue culture medium supplemented with 5.0 mg·L-1 6-BA and 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. The proliferation coefficient of adventitious buds is 2.8.

  7. Study of quantitative genetics of gum arabic production complicated by variability in ploidy level of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diallo, Adja Madjiguene; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Hansen, Jon Kehlet;

    2015-01-01

    sibs, while the open-pollinated families of polyploids showed low variation within families. The difference in sibling relationship observed between ploidy levels complicated estimation of genetic parameters. However, based on the diploid trees, we conclude that heritability in gum arabic production......Gum arabic is an important international commodity produced by trees of Acacia senegal across Sahelian Africa, but documented results of breeding activities are limited. The objective of this study was to provide reliable estimates of quantitative genetic parameters in order to shed light...... on the breeding potential for improvement of gum yield and quality. For this purpose, we measured growth on 617 offspring from 60 open-pollinated trees after 18 years, and gum yield and quality based on two seasons, 18 and 19 years after establishment. Genotyping with eight microsatellite markers revealed...

  8. Partition of nocturnal sap flow in Acacia mangium and its implication for estimating the whole-tree transpiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua WANG; Ping ZHAO; Xian CAI; Ling MA; Xingquan RAO; Xiaoping ZENG; Quan WANG

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the partition of nocturnal sap flow into refilling of internal water storage and transpiration in Acacia mangium. Sap flow of trees was monitored continuously with Granier's sensors for estimating the whole-tree transpiration. Possible night transpiration and stomatal conductance at the leaf level in the canopy were measured with a LI-6400 photosynthesis measuring system. For nocturnal leaf transpiration and stomatal conductance were weak, nocturnal sap flow of mature A. mangium trees was mainly associated with water recharge in the trunk. No significant change in night water recharge of the trunk was found at both seasonal and inter-annual scales. Morphological features of trees including diameter at the breast height (DBH), tree height, and canopy size could explain variances of night water recharge. Furthermore, although the contribution of nocturnal sap flow to the total transpiration varied among seasons and DBH classes, the error caused by night water recharge on whole-tree transpiration was negligible.

  9. Understanding the stability of silver nanoparticles bio-fabricated using Acacia arabica (Babool gum) and its hostile effect on microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mukeshchand; Pandey, Sunil; Mewada, Ashmi; Shah, Ritu; Oza, Goldie; Sharon, Madhuri

    2013-05-01

    We report green synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from Acacia arabica gum and its anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. UV-Vis spectral analysis of synthesized SNPs showed maximum peak at 462 nm initially and 435 nm after 24 h. Using Transmission Electron microscopy (TEM), the average size of synthesised SNPs was found to be ˜35 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Selective area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern confirmed the crystalline nature of SNPs. Percentage conversion of Ag+ ions into Ag° was calculated using ICP-AES and was found to be 94%. By calculating flocculation parameter, we could see that these SNPs are extremely stable under the influence of very high NaCl concentration up to 4.16 M. These stable SNPs can be used in various industrial and medical applications.

  10. Effect of early experience and adaptation period on voluntary intake, digestion, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. foliage) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Salem, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia)]. E-mail: bensalem.hichem@iresa.agrinet.tn; Nefzaouia, A.; Ben Salem, I. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hochlef, H. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie, Laboratoire des Productions Animales et Fourrageres, Ariana (Tunisia); Ecole Superieure d' Agriculture de Mateur, Mateur (Tunisia); Ben Salem, L. [Office de l' Elevage et des Paturages, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2005-08-19

    Our objective was to determine whether experience early in life and adaptation time (up to 72 days) to tannin-rich diets affect feed intake, digestion, nitrogen balance, and growth in Barbarine lambs given tannin-containing (Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., acacia) or tannin-free (oaten hay) diets later in life. Twelve experienced lambs (live-weight, LW: 13.2 {+-} 2.0 kg) were divided into two equal groups. Each group received air-dried acacia (tannin-containing diet) or oaten hay (hay, tannin free-diet) ad libitum. Twelve other inexperienced lambs (LW 12.3 {+-} 2.5 kg) were also divided into two equal groups. Each group received one of the above two diets. All animals were 4 months old at the start of this experiment and were supplemented with 300 g concentrate. To investigate the carry-over effect of tannins, the acacia-diet was removed on day 73, thus all lambs received thereafter the hay-diet for a further 24 days before starting a 6-day faecal collection period. Irrespective to early experience and adaptation time, the nutritive value of hay-diet was higher than that of acacia-diet and consequently lambs given hay performed better than those receiving acacia (P = 0.0001). Animals exposed to tannins early in life exhibited higher digestible crude protein intake (P = 0.0389), retained more N (P = 0.0963) and excreted more allantoin in urine (P = 0.0248) than the inexperienced lambs. Except plasma urea (P = 0.2923), the adaptation period to experimental diets affected significantly all measured parameters (P 0.0001). Animals adapted to diets for only 6 days exhibited the lowest acacia or hay intake and the highest diet digestibility compared to those adapted to these diets for 24, 48 or 72 days. Weight losses of inexperienced lambs adapted to acacia-diet for 6 days were associated with negative nitrogen balance. Sheep which received the acacia-diet, followed by the hay diet, had similar hay intake, diet digestibility, N balance and growth rate as compared to those

  11. Effect of Aqueous-Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Acacia polyacantha on Blood Glucose Levels on Normoglycemic Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Okpanachi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the blood glucose reducing effect (hypoglycemic effect of stem bark extract of Acacia polyacantha on normal wistar rats over a 24 h period. Three groups of previously fasted wistar rats, with each group made up of 5 rats each were administered with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o of aqueous methanolic stem bark extract of A. polyacantha. The hypoglycemic effect of A . polyacantha stem bark aqueous methanolic extract was compared with that of Metformin (250 mg/kg in fasted normal rats. Following treatment, relatively moderate to high doses of A. polyacantha (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. produced a dose-dependent, significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose levels of fasted normal rats. The three doses of the extract did not significantly alter the blood glucose levels after 2 h of extract administration. After 8 and 16 h of extract administration at a dose of 200 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 decreased the blood glucose levels when compared to control, while the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly decreased the blood glucose levels after 4, 8 and 16 h of extract administration when compared with the control group. The Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthraquinones, steroids and saponins. The median lethal dose (LD50 in rats was calculated to be 3807.9 mg/kg body weight. In conclusion the aqueous methanolic extract of Acacia polyacantha possesses hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic rats.

  12. Multilocus sequence analyses reveal several unnamed Mesorhizobium genospecies nodulating Acacia species and Sesbania sesban trees in Southern regions of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Asa

    2011-05-01

    Leguminous trees play an important role in agroforestry in Ethiopia, but studies of their rhizobial symbionts are scarce. In earlier studies, we surveyed natural nodulation of native leguminous trees growing in different agro-ecological zones in Southern Ethiopia, isolated 400 rhizobia, and characterized them based on different phenotypic and genotypic methods. In the present study we characterized 18 strains belonging to the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from nodules of Acacia abyssinica, A. senegal, A. tortilis and Sesbania sesban. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene grouped the test strains into three distinct clades separated from all currently recognized Mesorhizobium species. Three divergent strains formed separate branches while the other 15 strains formed three distinct groups, genospecies I-III. Grouping of the isolates under study based on the house-keeping genes recA, gyrB, rpoB and gltA were consistent and in agreement with that of 16S rRNA. Similarly phylogenetic relationships based on the symbiosis-related genes nodC, nodA and nifH were generally similar to those shown by the core genes, suggesting that these Acacia and Sesbania symbionts have a long history of separate evolution within Mesorhizobium. Cross inoculation experiments demonstrated a large variation in the ability of the test strains to elicit effective nodules. The Sesbania isolates, occupying a distinct clade in the nodC phylogenetic tree, formed effective nodules only with this host legume. The study strongly suggests that this collection of Mesorhizobium strains comprises several new species, and also indicates the role of the symbiotic genes in determining the host range of these bacteria.

  13. A preliminary assessment of the potential of using an acacia--biochar system for spent mine site rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Yang, Hong; Ho, Thian Yuan; Yan, Guijun; Wang, Jian; Xu, Zhihong; Chen, Chengrong; Zhang, Dongke

    2015-02-01

    Mining activities result in extensive soil degradation by removing the top soil, disturbing soil structure and altering microbial communities. Rehabilitation of spent mine sites through revegetation thus requires proper soil amendments. In this study, a pot trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a jarrah biochar on the growth and nutrient status of a native legume, Acacia tetragonophylla, grown in a mixture of topsoil and mine rejects. Two biochar application rates (37 and 74 t ha(-1)) and two types of biochar, namely nutrient-enriched and non-enriched, were tested. We measured the soil pH and electrical conductivity, the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents and C and N isotope composition (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of soil and plants, the foliar phosphorus content and the growth and leaf biomass of the plants. Whilst no significant effect of biochar was observed on plant growth, biochar amendment affected soil properties and plant nutritional status. The highest rate of biochar application increased soil pH, C content and C/N ratio, and decreased soil δ(13)C. Biochar application also enhanced photosynthetic N use efficiency, as showed by the increase in foliar C/N ratio, and biological N fixation rates, as indicated by foliar δ(15)N. These positive effects were not observed when biochar was nutrient-enriched due to the associated increase in soil N. Revegetation of mine sites with acacia in combination with biochar amendment constitutes a plausible alternative to the wide use of N fertiliser through the supply of additional N to the system, even though other nutrients may be required in order to enhance plant early growth.

  14. Chemical, Colour and Strength Changes of Eco-friendly Hot Oil Treatment on 15 Year-old Cultivated Acacia Hybrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razak Wahab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical, colour and strength properties of thermally modified cultivated 15-year-old Acacia hybrid were investigated. Logs of A. hybrid were harvested and cut at the bottom, middle and top sections. The wood later underwent hot oilthermal modification using palm oil at temperatures 180°C, 200°C and 220°C for 30, 60 and 90 min. Untreated wood was used as control. The hot oil thermal modification process caused some features changed in the chemical composition, colour appearances and strength properties of A. hybrid wood. Parameters such as temperatures and treatment time were closely monitored as they influence the chemical, colour and strength changes in the treated wood. Temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C, and treatment time of 1 hr, 2 hrs. and 3 hrs. were used in the study. The degradation in holocellulose, cellulose, and hemicellulose contents was recognized when acacia woods were exposed to oil thermally modified process. Holocellulose and celulose degraded with the increasing of treatment temperature and duration of heating exposure, while lignin showed the increment in content through this treatment. The colour changes in the sapwood and heartwood were measured using the Minolta Chroma-meter CR-310 and the results are presented according to the CIE L*a*b* colour co-ordinates system. The results show that temperature at certain treatment time enhanced and darkened the treated wood. The colour of the treated sapwood can be enhanced to match the colour of the natural A. hybrid heartwood. The strength properties of the oil heat treated A. hybrid wood decreases in values of both MOR and MOE throughout thetreatment process. The decreases in values were influenced by temperature and duration of the treatment.

  15. The effect of inoculation of an indigenous bacteria on the early growth of Acacia farnesiana in a degraded area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ceccon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of native vegetation and fuelwood production are important environmental pending goals for Mexico, where years of wrong management practices resulted in ecosystemic degradation and fuelwood scarcity. In degraded areas, native rhizobial strains are often undetectable, therefore, the restoration of natural vegetation associated with an effective nodulation of the leguminous trees is mostly appropriate. Sinorhizobium americanum is a native nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from nodules of the native Acacia species in the region. Acacia farnesiana is a multipurpose leguminous shrub from Mexican seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTF. In this study we analyzed the effect of inoculation with S. americanum on A. farnesiana growth in a greenhouse and in a very degraded area and compared with non-inoculated seedlings. In a greenhouse, we measured the biomass dry weight of different parts of the plant, using destructive sampling after 15, 20, 30, 45 and 120 days of growth. We also calculated the relative growth rate (RGR and the resources allocation (root/shoot weight ratio and root length/root dry weight of seedlings. In a degraded area we measured the seedling length and survival and calculated the RGR. In the greenhouse and in the degraded area, the inoculation positively affected the growth of seedlings. However in the greenhouse, the inoculation did not have effect on resource allocation patterns. Therefore, the inoculation with Sinorhizobium americanum could improve the A. farnesiana growth and the re-establishment of important plant-soil interactions in degraded areas, being a recommendable technique for land restoration and the improvement of fuelwood production.

  16. The interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytic bacteria enhances plant growth of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbes living symbiotically in plant tissues mutually cooperate with each other by providing nutrients for proliferation of the partner organism and have a beneficial effect on plant growth. However, few studies thus far have examined the interactive effect of endophytic bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF in hostile conditions and their potential to improve plant stress tolerance. In this study, we investigated how the synergistic interactions of endophytic bacteria and AMF affect plant growth, nodulation, nutrient acquisition and stress tolerance of Acacia gerrardii under salt stress. Plant growth varied between the treatments with both single inoculants and was higher in plants inoculated with the endophytic B. subtilis strain than with AMF. Co-inoculated A. gerrardii had a significantly greater shoot and root dry weight, nodule number, and leghemoglobin content than those inoculated with AMF or B. subtilis alone under salt stress. The endophytic B. subtilis could alleviate the adverse effect of salt on AMF colonization. The differences in nitrate and nitrite reductase and nitrogenase activities between uninoculated plants and those inoculated with AMF and B. subtilis together under stress were significant. Both inoculation treatments, either B. subtilis alone or combined with AMF, enhanced the N, P, K, Mg and Ca contents and phosphatase activities in salt-stressed A. gerrardii tissues and reduced Na and Cl concentration, thereby protecting salt-stressed plants from ionic and osmotic stress-induced changes. In conclusion, our results indicate that endophytic bacteria and AMF contribute to a tripartite mutualistic symbiosis in A. gerrardii and are coordinately involved in the plant adaptation to salt stress tolerance.Key words: AMF, endophyte, Acacia gerrardii, salinity, nutrition

  17. Positive and negative effects of grass, cattle, and wild herbivores on Acacia saplings in an East African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riginos, Corinna; Young, Truman P

    2007-10-01

    Plant-plant interactions can be a complex mixture of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on abiotic and community contexts. In savanna systems, the effects of large herbivores on tree-grass interactions have rarely been studied experimentally, though these herbivores are major players in these systems. In African savannas, trees often become more abundant under heavy cattle grazing but less abundant in wildlife preserves. Woody encroachment where cattle have replaced wild herbivores may be caused by a shift in the competitive balance between trees and grasses. Here we report the results of an experiment designed to quantify the positive, negative, and net effects of grasses, wild herbivores, and cattle on Acacia saplings in a Kenyan savanna. Acacia drepanolobium saplings under four long-term herbivore regimes (wild herbivores, cattle, cattle + wild herbivores, and no large herbivores) were cleared of surrounding grass or left with the surrounding grass intact. After two years, grass-removal saplings exhibited 86% more browse damage than control saplings, suggesting that grass benefited saplings by protecting them from herbivory. However, the negative effect of grass on saplings was far greater; grass-removal trees accrued more than twice the total stem length of control trees. Where wild herbivores were present, saplings were browsed more and produced more new stem growth. Thus, the net effect of wild herbivores was positive, possibly due to the indirect effects of lower competitor tree density in areas accessible to elephants. Additionally, colonization of saplings by symbiotic ants tracked growth patterns, and colonized saplings experienced lower rates of browse damage. These results suggest that savanna tree growth and woody encroachment cannot be predicted by grass cover or herbivore type alone. Rather, tree growth appears to depend on a variety of factors that may be acting together or antagonistically at different stages of the

  18. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food.

  19. Effect of Household Solid Waste on Initial Growth Performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona in Mycorrhiza Inoculated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal and management became one of the major environmental concerns in Bangladesh. Realising the problem, the present study has been undertaken with a view to find a sound and effective way of bio-degradable solid waste management. The study was carried out in the nursery of Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences at University of Chittagong to determine the effects of solid waste and waste inoculated with mycorrhizal soil on initial growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis and Cedrela toona. Before planting the seedlings, decomposable waste and mycorrhiza inoculated decomposable waste were placed on the planting holes. Physical growth parameters of seedlings (shoot and root length, leaf and branch number, fresh and dry weight of shoot and root and nodulation status and the macro nutrients (N, P and K were recorded after six months of planting. The highest performance of physical parameters was recorded in the soil treated by mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Cedrela toona was represented by maximum nutrients uptake (N-2.60%, P-0.21% and K-2.34% respectively in the soil treated with mycorrhiza. In case of Acacia auriculiformis, N uptake was maximum (3.02% in control while K uptake was highest (1.27% in soil with waste and P (0.18% uptake was highest in the soil treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. Highest initial growth performance was revealed by seedlings treated with mycorrhiza inoculated waste. This study suggested to use mycorrhiza and waste for plantation purposes for hygienic disposal of solid waste and to reduce cost of cultivation.

  20. National Air Space (NAS) Data Exchange Environment Through 2060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Aloke

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NextGen Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project focuses on capabilities to improve safety, capacity and efficiency of the National Air Space (NAS). In order to achieve those objectives, NASA sought industry-Government partnerships to research and identify solutions for traffic flow management, dynamic airspace configuration, separation assurance, super density operations, airport surface operations and similar forward-looking air-traffic modernization (ATM) concepts. Data exchanges over NAS being the key enabler for most of these ATM concepts, the Sub-Topic area 3 of the CTD project sought to identify technology candidates that can satisfy air-to-air and air/ground communications needs of the NAS in the year 2060 timeframe. Honeywell, under a two-year contract with NASA, is working on this communications technology research initiative. This report summarizes Honeywell's research conducted during the second year of the study task.

  1. UAS-NAS Flight Test Series 3: Test Environment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Murphy, Jim; Otto, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability (SSI), Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communications (Comm), and Certification to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Detect and Avoid (DAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project is conducting a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) and flight test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity, and

  2. Prospección de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en el norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas,Héctor A.; Parra,Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Se efectuó una prospección de larvas de lepidópteros antófagos asociados a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae) en dos valles costeros del norte de Chile: Azapa y Chaca. Fueron registradas ocho especies, distribuidas en ocho géneros y cinco familias. La composición de especies del ensamble fue la misma en las dos localidades. Sin embargo, la abundancia del ensamble y la abundancia por especie fueron diferentes entre los valles.

  3. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

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    Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001 in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  4. A STUDY OF THE BACTERICIDAL PROPERTY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MEDICINAL PLANTS-ACACIA CATECHU AND FISCUS HISPIDA USED IN THE TRADITIONAL SYSTEM OF MEDICINE IN MANIPUR

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    Lokhendro Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To find out the bactericidal effect of extract of the Acacia catechu and Ficus hispida which are commonly used by the local quacks for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery in the villages of the state of Manipur where the medical facilities are not available. METHODS: The plant barks are collected from different parts of Manipur during the period of March 2006 to February 2007, dried at room temperature; make powder in the grinder and soxhlated at low temperature to get the yield (extract. In case of Acacia catechu dried power form is available in the market. The powder is soxhlated to get the yield. These extracts are tested for the bactericidal effect in serial dilutions against the known strain of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the tubes are checked for the growth of the organisms and from the tubes sub cultures are made serially corresponding to the dilutions on to the Blood agar, Mac Conkey and Nutrient agar media, incubated at 370C overnight. After overnight incubation, the dilution where the growth of the organisms does not occurred, are noted and tabulated. RESULT: The aqueous extract of Acacia catechu shows bactericidal effect up to the dilution of 1:8 whereas the aqueous extract of Ficus hispida shows no bactericidal effect even at higher concentration. CONCLUSION: These plants extract have been using for the treatment of ailments in the villages of the state of Manipur by the local quacks since time immemorial. In this study it has seen that Acacia catechu has the medicinal properties whereas Ficus hispida has no bactericidal property though the plant has other medicinal properties. It is therefore, necessary to do further studies to identify the ingredients present in this two plants for safe use and large scale production in the state.

  5. Atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos convertidos de savana para plantios de Acacia mangium Willd em Roraima. = Chemical attribuites and microbial activity in soils converted to savanna for plantations of Acacia mangium Willd. in Roraima, Brazil.

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    Moisés Mourão Júnior

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A atividade microbiana tem sido empregada na avaliação de solos manejados, sendo um indicador importante na caracterização de solos alterados. Nesse sentido, objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de plantios de Acacia mangium com diferentes idades sobre os atributos químicos e atividade microbiana em solos representativos da Savana do Estado de Roraima. Os plantios de A. mangium de três e cinco anos encontravam-se em áreas de LATOSSOLO AMARELO Distrófico e os de quatro e seis anos em ARGISSOLO AMARELO Distrófico. As áreas próximas aos plantios com as mesmas condições de solos e com cobertura vegetal primária (savana natural constituiram as testemunhas. Foram amostrados os horizontes A e B sendo avaliados os atributos químicos dos solos e a atividade microbiana. A pobreza química e elevadasaturação por alumínio (%m dos solos estudados influenciaram significativamente nos menores valores de C-CO2 evoluído pela atividade microbiana. A maior atividade microbiana ocorreu em áreas plantadas independentemente do tipo de solo, em função das melhores condições químicas. Os maiores valores de C-CO2 evoluído correlacionaram-se melhor com os teores de carbono orgânico e matéria orgânica do solo. = Microbial activity has been used in the evaluation of soils, an important indicator in the characterization of alteredsoils. Therefore, this study has as aim to evaluate the effect of replacing natural vegetation to plantations of Acacia mangium onmicrobial activity in soils of savannas in Roraima state. The areas studied consisted of plantations of acacia with three and fiveyears in Yellow Latosol with four and six years in yellow Alfisols. Areas near the plantations with the same conditions of soiland vegetation (natural savanna were considered control. Were sampled the A and B horizons, corresponding depths 0-30 and 30-60 cm respectively, with three replications for a total of 36 experimental units. The results

  6. EFECTO DE LA INVASIÓN DE ACACIA NEGRA (GLEDITSIA TRIACANTHOS L. (FABACEAE SOBRE LA TEMPERATURA, LUZ Y METABOLISMO DE UN ARROYO PAMPEANO

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    ADONIS GIORGI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El asentamiento de especies invasoras en una región generalmente produce cambios en los ecosistemas en los que se in- troducen. En este caso se analiza el efecto producido por una invasión de Gleditsia triacanthos, la acacia negra, sobre un arroyo pampeano. Esta especie modifica el clima térmico y lumínico del tramo. La amplitud térmica se reduce significativamente en el tramo invadido aunque la temperatura promedio en ambos tramos es similar. La irradiación se reduce entre un 85 y un 95 % bajo el dosel arbóreo. Estas modificaciones disminuyen la producción primaria bruta de 2,7 a 1,7 g O2/m2 en primavera y de 25 a 20 g O2/m2 en verano. La respiración se reduce a la mitad en los tramos invadidos, tanto en primavera como en verano, siendo el metabolismo neto similar en ambos tramos y estaciones del año. Por otro lado, el tramo invadido por acacia tiene muy escasas macrófitas. Se postula que la invasión de acacias además de disminuir la biodiversidad por reducción de las macrófitas y de los organismos asociados a ella reduce la producción primaria provocando cambios en la red trófica.

  7. Effect of polyethylene glycol 4000 supplementation on the performance of indigenous Pedi goats fed different levels of Acacia nilotica leaf meal and ad libitum Buffalo grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motubatse, M R; Ng'ambi, J W; Norris, D; Malatje, M M

    2008-04-01

    In a first of two experiments, twenty yearling male Pedi goats weighing 21.3 +/- 0.5 kg live weight were used in a 37-day study in a 2 (levels of PEG 4000) x 2 (levels ofAcacia) Factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomised Design to determine the effect of the level of Acacia nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g polyethylene glycol 4000 on diet intake and digestibility, and growth rate of Pedi goats fed ad libitum Buffalo grass hay. Acacia nilotica leaf meal contained high amounts of total phenolics (2.04% DM) and low amounts of condensed tannins; both extracted (0.37% DM) and unextracted (1.83% DM). Supplementation with PEG 4000 increased (P diets similar to the actual ratios of the first experiment. Level of A. nilotica leaf meal supplementation plus 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation improved (P < 0.05) in vitro DM, OM and CP digestibilities where 120 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. Similarly, 23 g PEG 4000 supplementation also improved (P < 0.05) in vitro CP digestibility where 80 g A. nilotica leaf meal was supplemented. In vivo DM and OM digestibilities were best predicted from in vitro DM and OM digestibilities while in vivo CP was explained by in vitro OM and CP digestibilities. It is, therefore, concluded that in vitro DM and OM digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo DM and OM digestibilities while OM and CP digestibilities have good capacity to predict in vivo CP digestibility.

  8. Changes in soil diversity and global activities following invasions of the exotic invasive plant, Amaranthus viridis L., decrease the growth of native sahelian Acacia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Arsene; Béguiristain, Thierry; Cébron, Aurelie; Berthelin, Jacques; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Leyval, Corinne; Sylla, Samba; Duponnois, Robin

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the invasive plant Amaranthus viridis influenced soil microbial and chemical properties and to assess the consequences of these modifications on native plant growth. The experiment was conducted in Senegal at two sites: one invaded by A. viridis and the other covered by other plant species. Soil nutrient contents as well as microbial community density, diversity and functions were measured. Additionally, five sahelian Acacia species were grown in (1) soil disinfected or not collected from both sites, (2) uninvaded soil exposed to an A. viridis plant aqueous extract and (3) soil collected from invaded and uninvaded sites and inoculated or not with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices. The results showed that the invasion of A. viridis increased soil nutrient availability, bacterial abundance and microbial activities. In contrast, AM fungi and rhizobial development and the growth of Acacia species were severely reduced in A. viridis-invaded soil. Amaranthus viridis aqueous extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on rhizobial growth, indicating an antibacterial activity of this plant extract. However, the inoculation of G. intraradices was highly beneficial to the growth and nodulation of Acacia species. These results highlight the role of AM symbiosis in the processes involved in plant coexistence and in ecosystem management programs that target preservation of native plant diversity.

  9. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd. Evaluation of the breeding potential in height growth for Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre In 2009-10, in Ayapel, Planeta Rica and Tierralta, Córdoba department (Colombia the growth performance in overall height of 90 open-pollinated families of Acacia mangium was evaluated. In these municipalities the climate is classified, according to Holdridge, like tropical dry forest (TDF, except Tierralta that it is tropical moist forest (TMF. During the first year of growth, plants in each family were evaluated in progeny tests using a randomized experimental complete block design, with six blocks in each of the three locations. The experimental unit consisted of six open-pollinated plants per family, randomly distributed in three spatially separated pairs within each block. The prediction of genetic parameters individual and of families was conducted by the method BLUP (best linear unbiased prediction and the variance components by REML (restricted maximum likelihood procedure using the software SELEGEN. Heritability

  10. Multiplicação in vitro de gemas axilares de acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. In vitro multiplication of black watlle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. axillary buds

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    Norton Borges Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A acácia-negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. é uma espécie de difícil micropropagação devido à pequena capacidade de multiplicação e desenvolvimento de gemas. O presente estudo visou determinar a influência de diferentes citocininas na proliferação de gemas axilares em segmentos nodais de A. mearnsii. Plântulas germinadas in vitro forneceram explantes que foram inoculadas em meio básico B5 (GAMBORG et al., 1968. Testaram-se as citocininas: BAP (6-benzilaminopurina, BA (6-benziladenosina, 2iP (gama,gama-isopenteniladenina e cinetina (6-furfuralamino-purina. Diferentes concentrações desses reguladores de crescimento foram empregadas: 1 mgL-1, 2 mgL-1 e 3 mgL-1. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial, com seis repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. As avaliações foram feitas aos 30 dias, através da contagem de gemas alongadas e da presença de calos. A utilização de BAP a 2 mgL-1 promoveu a maior taxa de multiplicação de gemas (3,5 brotos/explante.Black wattle (Acacia mearnsii de Wild. is difficult to micropropagate due to the low ability of multiplication and development of shoots. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the influence of various cytokinins on axillary bud proliferation in nodal segments of A. mearnsii. Explants from in vitro germinated seedlings were inoculated on B5 (Gamborg et al., 1968 basal medium. BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, BA (6-benzyladenine, 2iP (gamma,gamma-dimethylallylamino-purine and Kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine were tested at the concentrations 1 mgL-1, 2 mgL-1, and 3 mgL-1. A randomized block design, in factorial arrangement with 6 replications, and 5 plants per plot was used. The assessments were made after 30 days, by counting the elongated shoots and the presence of callus. The use of BAP at 2 mgL-1 promoted the highest rate of bud multiplication (3,5 shoots/explant.

  11. Emprego dos gangliosidos do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias perifericas

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    James Pitagoras De Mattos

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores registram a experiência pessoal com o emprego de gangliosídios do cortex cerebral nas neuropatias periféricas. O ensaio clínico e eletromiográfico revelou-se eficaz em 30 dos 40 casos tratados. Enfatizam os melhores resultados em casos de paralisias faciais periféricas.

  12. Acacia cyclops A. Cunn. ex G. Don (Leguminosae in Italy: first cases of naturalization

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    Pasta, Salvatore

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first two cases of naturalization of Acacia cyclops are reported for Italy. Young trees were observed growing in the wild some 15 years ago on Linosa (Pelagie Islands, Strait of Sicily. A decade later, this alien plant should no longer be considered as a casual, since a very intensive process of self-sown regeneration has been observed in some plantations on Lampedusa, the major island of the same Archipelago. The available literature suggests the need for careful monitoring of the ongoing invasion process, as A. cyclops has already shown a very invasive behaviour elsewhere within Mediterranean-type biomes due to its ability to withstand high environmental stresses. As migrating birds are suspected to have played an important role in facilitating the arrival of A. cyclops, further propagules are likely to reach the islands in the future. We recommend that new plantations of A. cyclops should be forbidden, but that extant naturalized populations should be managed instead of eradicating them. In fact, the effect of Acacia plantations warrants investigation at different scales in order to assess their impact on local plant-diversity and ecological succession processes.

    Se muestran los dos primeros casos de naturalización de Acacia cyclops para el territorio italiano. Se observó que las plántulas de este arbol crecen en forma silvestre hace unos 15 años en Linosa (islas Pelagias, estrecho de Sicilia. Una década después, ya no puede ser considerada una xenófita casual ya que se observó una regeneración muy intensa en algunos proyectos de reforestación en Lampedusa, la isla más grande del mismo archipiélago. Publicaciones anteriores sugieren la necesidad de un monitoreo cuidadoso del proceso de invasión en curso, ya que A. cyclops ha expresado un comportamiento altamente invasivo en otros biomas de tipo mediterráneo, debido a su alta tolerancia al estrés ambiental. Dado que se

  13. In vivo and in vitro effect of Acacia nilotica seed proteinase inhibitors on Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Ramesh Babu; B Subrahmanyam; Srinivasan; I M Santha

    2012-06-01

    Acacia nilotica proteinase inhibitor (AnPI) was isolated by ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-25 and resulted in a purification of 10.68-fold with a 19.5% yield. Electrophoretic analysis of purified AnPI protein resolved into a single band with molecular weight of approximately 18.6+1.00 kDa. AnPI had high stability at different pH values (2.0 to 10.0) except at pH 5.0 and are thermolabile beyond 80°C for 10 min. AnPI exhibited effective against total proteolytic activity and trypsin-like activity, but did not show any inhibitory effect on chymotrypsin activity of midgut of Helicoverpa armigera. The inhibition kinetics studies against H. armigera gut trypsin are of non-competitive type. AnPI had low affinity for H. armigera gut trypsin when compared to SBTI. The partially purified and purified PI proteins-incorporated test diets showed significant reduction in mean larval and pupal weight of H. armigera. The results provide important clues in designing strategies by using the proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from the A. nilotica that can be expressed in genetically engineered plants to confer resistance to H. armigera.

  14. Cold tolerance of Acacia karroo and A.nilotica, two tree species from South Africa, in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ying; Janusz Zwolinski; Wang Hua-fang; Yin Wei-lun

    2006-01-01

    Fynbos plant communities developed under geographic and climatic conditions unique to South Africa. Acacia karroo is the most widespread tree species, well known for its drought tolerance. A. nilotica exudes a good quality gum which is edible and suitable for confectionery. The two species have been introduced to China but little is known about their adaptability under the new environmental conditions. For our present study, the growth potential and physiological and biochemical parameters of the two species in response to cold stress were investigated. The results, measured as seed qualities (purity, thousand seed weights, germination,etc.) show differences between A. karroo and 4. nilotica. The seed germination rate was between 10% and 60%. Seedlings were established in fields, pots and plugs. Those in the field grew well during the growing season but completely died in the winter. Those in pots or plugs were moved to and managed in the greenhouse. The plants were green in winter. The electrical conductivity of cells, the contents of water soluble sugars, proteins, malondialdehyde (MDA) increased during eight hours of low temperature treatment at 4℃.The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) decreased markedly during the eight hours of 4℃ treatment. We conclude that A. karroo and A. nilotica have little adaptability to the cold winter weather and cannot survive in the outdoors in the Beijing area, but could grow well indoors as ornamentals.

  15. Acacia (wattle and Cananga (ylang-ylang: from spiral to whorled and irregular (chaotic phyllotactic patterns – a pictorial report

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    Rolf Rutishauser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phyllotaxis, i.e., the arrangement of leaves around the stem and leaf-like organs inside flowers is regular in most vascular plants. Thus, developmental models usually explain regular phyllotactic patterns such as Fibonacci spirals and decussate/whorled patterns that obey Hofmeister’s rule: primordia form as far away as possible from previously initiated primordia. However, flowering plants showing at first Fibonacci spirals or whorled phyllotaxes may switch to other patterns that lack an obvious order and thus may be called irregular or even chaotic. Vegetative shoot tips of various Australian wattles (Acacia spp., Leguminosae in eudicots and flower buds of ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata and other Annonaceae (basal angiosperms provide examples of irregular patterning. This pictorial report provides food for thought for scientists interested in phyllotaxis patterns beyond the usual spiral and whorled patterns. Emphasis is given on irregular phyllotaxes that occur in wild-type plants, mainly correlated with geometrical parameters such as leaf and stamen primordia that are very small as compared to the size of their apical meristems. They call for additional explanatory models, combining auxin-driven development with geometrical constraints and biophysical processes.

  16. Stability assessment of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion formulated with acacia and xanthan gums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Maryam; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein; Nasirpour, Ali

    2016-05-15

    The development of a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) oil-in-water beverage emulsion containing acacia gum (AG) and xanthan gum (XG) was investigated. D-optimal design and response surface method was used and 10% w/w AG, 3.5% w/w CLA and 0.3% w/w XG was introduced as the optimum formula. Afterward the effect of storage time on the physicochemical properties of selected formulation including specific gravity, turbidity, viscosity, average droplet size, span, size index, creaming index, oxidation measurements and stability in its diluted form, were determined. Findings revealed that the size of oil droplets increased after six weeks and resulted in instability of the emulsion concentrate. Peroxide value increased until 21 days and then decreased dramatically, whereas TBA and Totox values began to increase after this time. Turbidity loss rate was low demonstrating the good stability of the diluted emulsion. The results revealed that it is possible to produce a stable CLA oil-in-water emulsion for using in beverages.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Anthelmintic Activity of Acacia nilotica (L. Willd.Ex Delile Bark and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Badar, Zafar Iqbal*, Muhammad Nisar Khan and Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME of bark (LC50= 201.0032 µg/ml had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC50= 769.2485 µg/ml on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01% in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44% @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.

  18. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  19. Consideraciones y recomendaciones prácticas para mejorar la calidad de la madera seca de Acacia mangium Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tenorio Monge

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mangium, es actualmente, una de las especies más utilizadas en plantaciones comerciales en Costa Rica. Sin embargo, los usos de su madera han sido restringidos debido a que presenta algunos problemas durante el proceso de secado artificial, entre los que destaca la alta variabilidad del contenido de humedad final, la alta incidencia de defectos y la presencia de bolsas de humedad. Se han investigado las causas de esta variación y del desarrollo de estos defectos y se ha encontrado que los principales factores que influyen son: la alta variabilidad en el contenido de humedad inicial de la madera, la procedencia de la materia prima, la altura, la posición radial de la tabla al extraerla del árbol y el uso de programas de secado inadecuados para la especie. Asímismo se dan una serie de recomendaciones a considerar antes de iniciar el secado artificial con el fin de lograr una mejor calidad de madera en cuanto a la variabilidad del secado y lapresencia de defectos.

  20. Kappa Number Prediction of Acacia melanoxylon Unbleached Kraft Pulps using NIR-PLSR Models with a Narrow Interval of Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J.A. Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 120 Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. (Australian blackwood stem discs, belonging to 20 trees from four sites in Portugal, were used in this study. The samples were kraft pulped under standard identical conditions targeted to a Kappa number of 15. A Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLSR model was developed for the Kappa number prediction using 75 pulp samples with a narrow Kappa number variation range of 10 to 17. Very good correlations between NIR spectra of A. melanoxylon pulps and Kappa numbers were obtained. Besides the raw spectra, also pre-processed spectra with ten methods were used for PLS analysis (cross validation with 48 samples, and a test set validation was made with 27 samples. The first derivative spectra in the wavenumber range from 6110 to 5440 cm-1 yielded the best model with a root mean square error of prediction of 0.4 units of Kappa number, a coefficient of determination of 92.1%, and two PLS components, with the ratios of performance to deviation (RPD of 3.6 and zero outliers. The obtained NIR-PLSR model for Kappa number determination is sufficiently accurate to be used in screening programs and in quality control.

  1. GROWTH PERFORMANCE, BIOMASS AND PHYTOEXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF ACACIA MANGIUM AND MELALEUCA CAJUPUTI IN REMEDIATING HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibli Nik Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are very toxic and soil contaminated with sewage sludge urgently need remediation in order to avoid related health hazards. Phytoremediation is a low cost and reliable technique to remediate heavy metal contamination. However phytoremediation using timber species was rarely reported and its efficiency was questionable. A field study was conducted to examine the efficiency of two timber species namely Acacia mangium and Melaleuca cajuputi in phytoextraction of Zn, Cu and Cd from contaminated soil. Two hundred of A. mangium and M. cajuputi were planted on sewage sludge disposal site and the growth was recorded for 12 months before at the end total biomass of each species was determined. Results show in 12 months, about 72 and 4 t ha-1 of aboveground biomass can be produced by A. mangium and M. cajuputi, respectively. Both species show potential for phytoremediation, however A. mangium is more efficient compared to M. cajuputi where efficiency of A. mangium to remove Zn was 24.4, 6.2 for Cu and 9.5% for Cd. As for M. cajuputi the efficiency was 1.3, 0.3 and 0.14% for Zn, Cu and Cd, respectively. It is projected that A. mangium require 5, 17 and 20 years to remove 79.82 kg ha-1 of Zn, 46.94 kg ha-1 of Cu and 2.33 kg ha-1 of Cd, respectively.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationships of Antimicrobial Gallic Acid Derivatives from Pomegranate and Acacia Fruit Extracts against Potato Bacterial Wilt Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Salah El Dine, Riham; Fahmy, Sherifa; Yassin, Aymen; Porzel, Andrea; Brandt, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial wilts of potato, tomato, pepper, and or eggplant caused by Ralstonia solanacearum are among the most serious plant diseases worldwide. In this study, the issue of developing bactericidal agents from natural sources against R. solanacearum derived from plant extracts was addressed. Extracts prepared from 25 plant species with antiseptic relevance in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their antimicrobial properties against the potato pathogen R. solancearum by using the disc-zone inhibition assay and microtitre plate dilution method. Plants exhibiting notable antimicrobial activities against the tested pathogen include extracts from Acacia arabica and Punica granatum. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of A. arabica and P. granatum resulted in the isolation of bioactive compounds 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid and gallic acid, in addition to epicatechin. All isolates displayed significant antimicrobial activities against R. solanacearum (MIC values 0.5-9 mg/ml), with 3,5-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid being the most effective one with a MIC value of 0.47 mg/ml. We further performed a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study for the inhibition of R. solanacearum growth by ten natural, structurally related benzoic acids.

  3. Growth inhibition and apoptosis in cancer cells induced by polyphenolic compounds of Acacia hydaspica: Involvement of multiple signal transduction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Tayyaba; Trembley, Janeen H.; Salomon, Christine E.; Razak, Suhail; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Ahmed, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Acacia hydaspica R. Parker is known for its medicinal uses in multiple ailments. In this study, we performed bioassay-guided fractionation of cytotoxic compounds from A. hydaspica and investigated their effects on growth and signaling activity in prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Four active polyphenolic compounds were identified as 7-O-galloyl catechin (GC), catechin (C), methyl gallate (MG), and catechin-3-O-gallate (CG). The four compounds inhibited prostate cancer PC-3 cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, whereas CG and MG inhibited breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell growth. All tested compounds inhibited cell survival and colony growth in both cell lines, and there was evidence of chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies. Further, acridine orange, ethidium bromide, propidium iodide and DAPI staining demonstrated that cell death occurred partly via apoptosis in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In PC-3 cells treatment repressed the expression of anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and survivin, coupled with down-regulation of signaling pathways AKT, NFκB, ERK1/2 and JAK/STAT. In MDA-MB-231 cells, treatment induced reduction of CK2α, Bcl-xL, survivin and xIAP protein expression along with suppression of NFκB, JAK/STAT and PI3K pathways. Our findings suggest that certain polyphenolic compounds derived from A. hydaspica may be promising chemopreventive/therapeutic candidates against cancer. PMID:26975752

  4. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL SELECTION FOR GENETIC DIVERSITY OF Acacia mangium SEEDLING SEED ORCHARD USING AFLP MARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y.P.B.C. Widyatmoko

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of seed orchard is aimed at producing good quality seeds which is an important activity for breeding program. Seed orchard is also a base population, thus its genetic diversity is depending on its design and composition (provenance, family and individual tree. Selection of an individual tree in seed orchard is needed for the enhancement of  retaining good-character trees. However, selection of individual tree can change the genetic diversity of seed orchard, and the degrees to which the genetic diversity will change depend on the used selection methods. In order to investigate the effects of selection methods, 4 simulations of selection methods based on height, diameter and stem performance of individual trees were used. The differences among the 4 methods were the ranking of individual trees those selected, and families and provenances those have been represented. Seedling seed orchard of Acacia mangium in Wonogiri, Central Java was used as materials. Analysis of genetic diversity was carried out using AFLP markers. Nine primer combinations were used to produce 1025 AFLP banding patterns. Among those banding patterns, only 109 were polymorphic markers. No significant effect of individual tree selection was revealed in this study. Even though the selection was done intensively, only 7.1% of genetic diversity was reduced. In other words, the selection activity did not reduce the genetic diversity of seed orchard significantly. The result is important for developing future tree improvement of A. mangium, including development of hybrid between A. mangium and A. auriculiformis.

  5. PYROLIGNEOUS LIQUOR PRODUCED FROM ACACIA MEARNSII DE WILD WOOD UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS AS A RENEWABLE SOURCE OF CHEMICALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acacia mearnsii de Wild (black wattle is one of the most important trees planted in Southern Brazil for tannin extraction and charcoal production. The pyrolysis of the black wattle wood used for obtaining charcoal is performed in brick ovens, with the gas fraction being sent directly into the environment. The present study examines the condensable compounds present in the liquor produced from black wattle wood at different thermal degradation conditions, using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Branches of black wattle were thermally degraded at controlled ambient and temperature conditions. Overall, a higher variety of compounds were obtained under atmospheric air pressure than under synthetic air pressure. Most of the tentatively identified compounds, such as carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, and low molecular mass lignin fragments, such as guayacol, syringol, and eugenol, were products of lignin thermoconversion. Substituted aromatic compounds, such as vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and 2-methoxy-4-propeny-phenol, were also identified. At temperatures above 200 ºC, furan, 2-acetylfuran, methyl-2-furoate, and furfural, amongst others, were identified as polysaccharide derivatives from cellulose and hemicellulose depolymerization. This study evidences the need for adequate management of the condensable by-products of charcoal production, both for economic reasons and for controlling their potential environmental impact.

  6. The impact of kleptoparasitic invasions on the evolution of gall-size in social and solitary Australian Acacia thrips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THOMAS WILLIAM CHAPMAN; KAREN LEAH FRANCIS-GEYER; MICHAEL PHILIP SCHWARZ

    2006-01-01

    Many species of gall-inducing Acacia thrips are attacked by kleptoparasitic thrips who enter the gall, destroy the occupants, and then use the gall for producing their own offspring. The hypothesis tested here is that pressure exerted by kleptoparasites (genus Koptothrips) not only provoked the evolution of soldiers in the gall-inducing clade, but have also influenced the evolution of gall size and morphology. Various size dimensions of invaded galls were compared to those of uninvaded galls using data from six gall-inducing species and their kleptoparasites. For the non-social gall-inducing species (K. ellobus and K.nicholsoni) invaded galls showed no significant size differences from galls that had not been invaded. For the four social gall-inducingspecies (K. habrus, K. intermedius, K. waterhousei and K. morrisi) invaded galls were significantly narrower and/or shorter than uninvaded galls. Galls of social species that had not been invaded and contained adult soldiers were significantly larger than galls where soldiers were still at a larval stage, suggesting that gall size is related to gall age in these species. An hypothesis is proposed that links the timing of invasion by kleptoparasites to size of the host gall: induction of a smaller gall by host founders will reduce the period of vulnerability to invasion (before soldiers become adults)for social thrips by allowing foundresses in these smaller galls to begin laying soldierdestined eggs relatively sooner.

  7. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  8. Recovery of degraded areas revegeted with Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus with special reference to organic matter humification Ecuperação de áreas degradadas revegetadas com acácia e eucalipto enfocando a humificação da matéria orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolimar Antonio Schiavo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Humidified fractions of organic matter and soil microorganism populations are used as environmental quality indicators. This work aimed to study the changes in chemical and microbiological soil attributes, as well as in the humidified fractions, of the organic matter in a substrate from a clay extraction area cropped with Brachiaria mutica, Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus. In the Eucalyptus area, the P contents increased linearly with planting time. However, only at the twelfth year, differences between Eucalyptus and B. mutica areas have occurred. In the A. mangium area, such differences in the P content occurred at the third year with increment of 43%, at the 0-10 cm layer, in relation to B. mutica. Also, at the 0-10 cm layer, the total carbon contents were 98%, 78%, 70% and 40% higher than those found in Eucalyptus with three, five, twelve years of age and in the B. mutica area, respectively. Such increments also occurred in the humidified fractions, especially in the fulvic acids (C FA. The population of microorganisms was higher in the A. mangium area, mainly in the summer, where it was observed a positively correlation with total carbon (total bacteria, r = 0.96**, total fungi, r = 0.91*, and phosphate solubilizer microorganisms, r = 0.98** and with the C FA fraction (total bacteria r = 0.96**, total fungi, r = 0.90*, and phosphate solubilizer microorganisms, r = 0.98**. The use of A. mangium led to improvements in the chemical and microbiological soil attributes in the substrateFrações da matéria orgânica humificada e a população de microrganismos do solo são utilizadas como indicadores da qualidade ambiental. Objetivou-se verificar mudanças nos atributos químicos, microbiológicos e nas frações humificadas da matéria orgânica em substrato de cava de extração de argila com cobertura de Brachiaria mutica, Acacia mangium e Eucalyptus. Nas áreas de Eucalyptus os teores de P aumentaram linearmente em função do tempo de plantio

  9. President Ilves tänas Belgia kuningapaari õhuturbe eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ja proua Evelin Ilves võtsid Kadriorus vastu Belgia kuninga Albert II ja kuninganna Paola. President T. H. Ilves tänas Eestisse riigivisiidile saabunud kuningapaari Belgia õhuturbemissiooni eest Balti riikides. Belgia sõjalennukid olid esimesed, mis võtsid Balti riikide õhuruumi kontrolli alla 29. märtsil 2004, kui Balti riigid said ametlikult NATO liikmeks

  10. Graded band gap GaInNAs solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, F.; Perl, S.; Kamp, M. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex, Material Systems, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, Würzburg D97074 (Germany); Höfling, S. [Technische Physik, Physikalisches Institut and Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Research Center for Complex, Material Systems, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, Würzburg D97074 (Germany); SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-08

    Dilute nitride GaInN(Sb)As with a band gap (E{sub g}) of 1.0 eV is a promising material for the integration in next generation multijunction solar cells. We have investigated the effect of a compositionally graded GaInNAs absorber layer on the spectral response of a GaInNAs sub cell. We produced band gap gradings (ΔE{sub g}) of up to 39 meV across a 1 μm thick GaInNAs layer. Thereby, the external quantum efficiency—compared to reference cells—was increased due to the improved extraction of photo-generated carriers from 34.0% to 36.7% for the wavelength range from 900 nm to 1150 nm. However, this device figure improvement is accompanied by a small decrease in the open circuit voltage of about 20 mV and the shift of the absorption edge to shorter wavelengths.

  11. Study of GaInNAs Epilayers Using Optical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yutsung

    Photovoltaic devices that convert sun's energy into electricity have the potential to influence energy needs on a global scale. A major limitation of single junction solar cells is that only photons with energy slightly above the bandgap are absorbed efficiently. One of the methods is to split the energy of the incoming spectrum into multiple bands each of which is absorbed separately for more efficient collection. That is why multijunction solar cells formed from III-V compound semiconductors are the highest efficiency photovoltaic devices today. To achieve this goal, researchers stack a number of junctions made of different materials with the highest gap material at the top and the lowest at the bottom since each material is transparent to photons with energy smaller than its bandgap. Kurtz [1] predicted an improvement in the performance of multijunction solar cells if a fourth material with bandgap in the 1.0eV-1.05eV range is included between the GaAs (bandgap = 1.42 eV) and Ge (bandgap = 0.67 eV) in the solar cell. In order for this fourth material to be easily incorporated into the GaInP/ GaAs/Ge triple junction device, it must also be lattice matched to germanium. Since it is preferred to grow multijunction solar cells monolithically lattice matching is required making the options for the 1 eV material rather limited. The most promising material for the fourth junction is currently GaInNAs. This is the reason why this thesis concentrates on the study of this material. In this thesis, we have conducted PL, optical pumping, magneto-PL, reflectance and transmission spectroscopic studies of undoped and p-type doped GaInNAs epilayers. The objective of these studies is to investigate the following phenomena in our samples: (a) Localized excitons and free excitons at low temperatures in GaInNAs epilayers: The exciton localization at low temperatures in undoped GaInNAs epilayers results in the S-shape of the PL peaks versus temperature plot. On the other hand, the

  12. New therapeutic perspectives in HBV: when to stop NAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cameo, Cristina; Pons, Mònica; Esteban, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to achieve seroclearance of HBsAg. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are one of the first-line treatments for CHB. NAs produce a potent suppression of viral replication but are associated with a low rate of HBsAg seroclearance and a high risk of virological relapse after discontinuation. Because of these reasons, long-term treatment is needed. They are well-tolerated oral drugs, and it seems they do not produce important side-effects in long-term administration. The duration of NA treatment remains unclear, nevertheless, in some patients NAs can be stopped with a low rate of relapse. HBeAg-positive patients could discontinue NA therapy if they achieved HBeAg seroclearance and maintain undetectable HBV DNA. For HBeAg-negative patients, to stop NA treatment is not recommended. In addition to other factors, serum HBsAg titres during treatment have recently been proposed to guide NA-based therapy duration in selected patients. All patients could be stopped from taking treatment if they achieve HBsAg loss.

  13. 48 CFR 852.236-82 - Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... construction contracts (without NAS). 852.236-82 Section 852.236-82 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 852.236-82 Payments under fixed-price construction contracts (without NAS). As... “Network Analysis System (NAS).” Payments Under Fixed-Price Construction Contracts (APR 1984) The...

  14. 76 FR 1511 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX AGENCY... coordinates within the Fort Worth Naval Air Station (NAS) JRB (Carswell Field), TX, area and renames the... Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 by adjusting the geographic coordinates of the Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell...

  15. Análise faunística de abelhas Euglossina (Hymenoptera: Apidae em ambientes de floresta nativa e plantios de Acacia mangium no Estado de Roraima. = Faunal analysis of the Euglossina bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae within the native Forest and plantations of Acacia mangium in the Brazilian State of Roraima.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Fernandes Tavares Maia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho comparar a Fauna de abelhas Euglossina de mata nativa com plantios de Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae atraídas por iscas odoríferas. Foram utilizadas armadilhas de garrafas de politereftalato de etila (PET, contendo fragrâncias de salicilato de metila e eugenol. As abelhas foram retiradas das armadilhas em intervalos de 30 em 30 minutos a contar das 6 horas até as 12 horas de cada dia de coleta. Foram selecionados três locais em mata nativa (Ilha de Maracá, Serra Grande e Itã e três em plantios de Acacia mangium (Haras Cunhã-Pucá, Fazenda Jacitara e Fazenda Umirizal. Em cada local de coleta as abelhas foram capturadas em um único dia, perfazendo um total de 6 dias de coletas para todos os locais. Foram coletados 123indivíduos de 21 espécies. Nos pontos de coleta nos plantios de Acacia mangium foram coletados 35 indivíduos pertencentes a 12 espécies e em mata nativa foram coletados 88 indivíduos pertencentes a 17 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Eulaema pseudocingulata (48 espécimes, Eul. meriana (12 espécimes, Eul. cingulata (11 espécimes, Euglossa augaspis (10 espécimes e Eug. amazonica (8 espécimes. Os pontos de coleta nos plantiosde Acacia mangium apresentaram baixa diversidade e abundância quando comparados com os pontos de coleta em mata nativa. = The objective of this study was to compare the Fauna of the Euglossina bees of native forest and plantings of Acacia mangium collected with odoriferous baits. Traps made from PET bottles were used, and contained fragrances of methyl salicilate and eugenol. The bees were removed from the traps in intervals of 30 in 30 minutes from 6 am to 12 pm every day during the period of collection. Three places were selected within the native forest (Island of Maracá, Serra Grande, and Itã, and from three plantations of Acacia mangium (Cunhã-Pucá farm, Jacitara farm and Umirizal farm. In each area of collection,the bees were captured on a

  16. Litter Decomposition of Acacia caven (Molina Molina and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in Mediterranean Climate Ecosystems Descomposición de Hojarascas de Acacia caven (Molina Molina y Lolium multiflorum Lam. en Ecosistemas de Clima Mediterráneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Martínez G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The ecosystems of the Mediterranean interior dryland of Chile, dominated by an espinal agroecosystem of Acacia caven (Molina Molina, show low productivity as a result of soil degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate litter decomposition of A. caven and Lolium multiflorum Lam. in espinal ecosystems: well preserved (Wp 50 to 80%, typical (Pd 25 to 50%, and degraded (De with 10 to 25% cover. During 420 d and starting in April 2004 until August 2005, weight loss in litter bags and chemical composition (hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, non-structural components, ash, N, C, C/N ratio, and P were determined by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS and the Van Soest protocol. Weight loss ranged from 31 to 52% in L. multiflorum and 26 to 40% in A. caven after 420 d. During the chemical decomposition process of L. multiflorum, cellulose degradation was relevant in the labile phase while lignin was important in the recalcitrant phase. On the other hand, non-structural components and cellulose were degraded in the labile phase and lignin in the recalcitrant stage for A. caven. Moreover, both litters improved N concentration during the decomposition process. Espinal ecosystems with higher canopy cover (Pd and Wp had a positive influence, and showed early effects during the decomposition process, especially in the De espinal ecosystem, probably because of the microenvironmental conditions it generated. A better knowledge of the dynamics of litter decomposition in ecosystems was achieved by using both techniques: litter bags and NIRS.Los ecosistemas del secano interior mediterráneo de Chile presentan una baja productividad debido a la degradación de los suelos, dominados por un agroecosistema espinal de Acacia caven (Molina Molina. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la descomposición de hojarascas de A. caven y Lolium multiflorum Lam., en ecosistemas espinales: densos (Wp con cobertura de 50-80%, poco densos (Pd 25-50% y

  17. Seletividade de herbicidas em mudas das espécies nativas Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae Herbicides selectivity on seedlings of native species Acacia polyphylla, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Monquero

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a seletividade de herbicidas sobre espécies nativas de florestas estacionais semideciduais de São Paulo, amplamente utilizadas em projetos de restauração de ecossistemas naturais degradados: Acacia polyphylla e Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, e Ceiba speciosa e Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma testemunha sem herbicida e da aplicação de herbicidas imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1.000, 2.000 e 3.000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100, 200, 400, 800, 1.400 e 2.400 g ha-1, glyphosate (90, 180, 360, 720, 1.440 e 2.160 g ha-1 e metribuzin (360, 720, 1.920, 2.880, 5.760 e 8.400 g ha-1 . Foram avaliados os sintomas de fitotoxicidade aos 30 dias após aplicação (DAA e a biomassa seca da parte aérea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Cada parcela experimental foi constituída de uma muda com 30 cm de altura. Os resultados permitem concluir que, entre os herbicidas testados, o glyphosate foi o menos seletivo às espécies arbóreas, razão pela qual são sugeridas aplicações dirigidas desse produto. As espécies estudadas diferiram em relação à seletividade dos herbicidas avaliados. Para C. speciosa, o imazapyr foi o herbicida mais seletivo, seguido do sulfentrazone. O herbicida metribuzin foi seletivo para A. polyphylla. Quanto a E. contortisiliquum, o metribuzin foi menos tóxico, seguido pelo sulfentrazone. Para L. divaricata, somente o herbicida sulfentrazone foi seletivo.We aimed to evaluate the selectivity of the herbicides imazapyr, glyphosate, metribuzin, and sulfentrazone, when applied on four native species of semideciduous forests from southeastern Brazil: Acacia polyphylla and Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Fabaceae, and Ceiba speciosa and Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae. We did a randonmized design with four replicates per treatment: the application of imazapyr (125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 g ha-1, sulfentrazone (100

  18. Stomatal distribution, stomatal density and daily leaf movement in Acacia aroma (Leguminosae Distribución y densidad estomática y movimiento diario de la hoja en Acacia aroma (Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo P. Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia aroma Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. grows in the Chacoan and Yungas Biogeographic Provinces, Argentina. It has numerous medicinal applications, sweet and edible fruits, and it may be used as forage. The objective of the present contribution was to analyse the stomatal distribution and stomatal density on the secondary leaflet surfaces, in different parts of the leaf, and at different tree crown levels, establishing the leaf movement and environmental condition relationships. The work was performed with fresh material and herbarium specimens, using conventional anatomical techniques. Stomatal distribution on the secondary leaflet surfaces was established, and differences in stomatal density among basal, medium and apical leaflets were found. A decrease in stomatal density from the lower level to the upper level of the tree crown would be connected with that. The stomatal distribution and density appear related to the secondary leaflet shape and its position on the secondary rachis, interacting with the daily secondary leaflets and leaf movement, and the weather conditions. It is interesting that the medium value of stomata density were found in the middle part of the leaf and at the middle level of the tree crown. Original illustrations are given.Acacia aroma crece en las Provincias Biogeográficas Chaqueña y de las Yungas, Argentina. Este árbol posee numerosas aplicaciones en medicina popular, sus frutos son comestibles y puede ser usada como forraje. Los objetivos de la presente contribución fueron: establecer la distribución y densidad de los estomas en el folíolo secundario, en distintos folíolos secundarios de la misma hoja y en los folíolos secundarios de las hojas de la parte basal, media y superior de la copa del árbol, estableciendo relaciones con el movimiento diario de las hojas y condiciones ambientales. Para el estudio se utilizó material fresco y ejemplares de herbario empleando técnicas de anatomía convencionales. Se

  19. Light ECF bleaching for kraft pulp of eucalyptus and acacia%桉木和相思木硫酸盐浆在轻ECF漂白中性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    逄锦江; 刘忠; 蒋华朋; 惠兰峰

    2013-01-01

      对桉木和相思木硫酸盐浆在轻ECF漂序中对比实验,其中对漂白前后纸张的物理性能、纤维长度、结晶度及纸浆基本性能进行检测。实验得出:在相同的漂白工艺下,相思木硫酸盐浆的选择性较好;相同漂白流程下,相思木硫酸盐浆可漂性高;在相同的盘磨转数下,桉木浆经过盘磨之后抗张强度和耐破强度都优于相思木浆;相思木和桉木浆经过漂白之后,纤维素的结晶度不同程度的降低,相思木硫酸盐浆无论原浆还是经过漂白的纸浆结晶度都高于桉木硫酸盐浆。%Comparison experiments of eucalyptus and acacia kraft pulp was carried out in light ECT bleaching sequence, in which the physical properties of paper, fiber length, degree of crystallinity and pulp basic performance were tested before and after bleaching. The results show that the acacia kraft pulp has the better selectivity, the bleachability of the aca-cia kraft pulp is higher than eucalyptus under the same bleaching process;the tensile strength and bursting strength of eucalyptus pulp are better than acacia wood pulp at the same revolution of refiner; the crystallinity degree of cellulose of both acacia and eucalyptus are reduced to some extent after bleaching, but the crystallinity of acacia kraft pulp, whether unbleached or bleached, is higher than eucalyptus kraft pulp.

  20. Interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and fluorescent pseudomonads on Acacia holosericea: isolation of mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB) from a Soudano-Sahelian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founoune, Hassna; Duponnois, Robin; Meyer, Jean Marie; Thioulouse, Jean; Masse, Dominique; Chotte, Jean Luc; Neyra, Marc

    2002-07-01

    Abstract Acacia holosericea seedlings were planted in 1-l pots filled with a soil collected from an Australian Acacia plantation in Southern Senegal. After 6 months of culture, mycorrhizosphere soil, roots, galls induced by root-knot nematodes and Rhizobium nodules were sampled from each pot. The diversity of this bacterial group was characterized by siderotyping (pyoverdine IsoElectric Focusing (IEF) analysis) and by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The effect of these isolates on the establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between an Australian Acacia (A. holosericea) and Pisolithus sp. strain IR100 was studied. In the mycorrhizosphere soil, the population of fluorescent pseudomonads was represented by strains of two different siderovars (groups of bacterial strains presenting an identical pyoverdine-IEF pattern): siderovar 1 (74%) and siderovar 2 (26%). The siderotyping of the isolates around galls of the root-knot nematodes revealed three siderovars (40% from siderovar 1, 40% from siderovar 2 and about 15% from siderovar 3). RFLP of 16S rDNA divided the isolates into four different groups with MspI, two with HhaI and two with HaeIII endonucleases. The establishment of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with A. holosericea was promoted by 14 bacterial strains isolated from the mycorrhizosphere soil, three isolates from the roots and four from the galls. Shoot biomass of A. holosericea seedlings was stimulated by eight bacterial isolates from soil, six isolates from galls and seven from roots. These mycorrhiza helper bacteria could have a great ecological importance in tropical areas through the reforestation programs.

  1. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  2. ESTOQUES DE CARBONO E NITROGÊNIO EM ARGISSOLO SUBMETIDO AO MONOCULTIVO DE Eucalyptus urograndis E EM ROTAÇÃO COM Acacia mangium

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    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pursuit of sustainable systems of soil management has led researchers to develop new techniques of cultivation. Among them, studies with forest species able to fix atmospheric N2 and increase C and N stocks in labile and stable soil organic matter (SOM stand out in Brazil. The study aimed to evaluate changes in stocks of C and N in fractions of humic substances, light fraction of SOM and microbial biomass in soils of short-rotation Eucalyptus “urograndis”, long rotation plantations and stands of Acacia mangium which succeeded short rotation eucalyptus monoculture, in comparison to the soil of native forest (Atlantic Forest. It was obtained the total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN stocks, C and N stocks in the fractions of humic substances (fulvic acid fraction-AF, humic acid fraction-HA and humin fraction-H, C and N in light fraction of SOM (C-LOM and N-LOM and C and N microbial biomass (CMB and N-MB. The results indicated that the short rotation eucalyptus cultivation reduced total organic carbon stocks, total nitrogen, C and N in the humic substances, and N storage in the microbial biomass compared to Acacia mangium soil. The cultivation of Acacia mangium and the increase of the eucalyptus rotation time increased stocks of C and N of the labile (C-LOM, N-LOM and C-MB and stable fractions (C and N in humic substances indicating a significant recovery of their stocks to levels approaching those original (native, and higher than stocks obtained in the soil of short rotation eucalypt.

  3. CAÍDA DE HOJARASCA Y DINÁMICA DE NUTRIENTES EN PLANTACIONES DE Acacia mangium (Mimosaceae DE ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

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    castellanos jeiner jesus

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La producción de hojarasca, el retorno y la reabsorción de nutrientes, y la eficiencia en su uso, fueron estudiados durante un año en plantaciones de Acacia mangium establecidas en suelos degradados por minería aurífera en la región del Bajo Cauca Colombiano. La producción anual de hojarasca fina fue de 10,4 Mg ha-1 y estuvo dominada por la fracción foliar (54%, seguida del material reproductivo (24%, y en menor proporción por otros restos (6% y hojas de otras especies (1.5%. Los mayores retornos de materia orgánica y nutrientes se presentaron en los sitios clasificados como de calidad alta, en tanto que la práctica de subsolado del suelo, previo establecimiento de las plantaciones, no mostró efectos significativos sobre estos. La hojarasca foliar mostró una concentración alta de N y consecuentemente, dados los altos valores de producción de esta fracción, un retorno potencial alto de N. El P, con baja concentración foliar y un bajo retorno potencial, además de los altos valores de los índices de eficiencia en su uso y de reabsorción foliar, fue el nutriente más limitante. Los altos valores de producción de hojarasca fina y de retorno potencial de nutrientes determinados en este estudio, muestran que la especie Acacia

  4. Physio-biochemical and morphological characters of halophyte legume shrub, Acacia ampliceps seedlings in response to salt stress under greenhouse

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    Cattarin eTheerawitaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acacia ampliceps (salt wattle, a leguminous shrub, has been introduced in salt-affected areas in northeast of Thailand for remediation of saline soils. However, the defense mechanisms underlying salt tolerance A. ampliceps are unknown. We investigated various physio-biochemical and morphological attributes of A. ampliceps in response to varying levels of salt treatment (200 to 600 mM NaCl. Seedlings of A. ampliceps (252 cm in plant height raised from seeds were treated with 200 mM (mild stress, 400 and 600 mM (extreme stress of salt treatment (NaCl under greenhouse conditions. Na+ and Ca2+ contents in the leaf tissues increased significantly under salt treatment, whereas K+ content declined in salt-stressed plants. Free proline and soluble sugar contents in plant grown under extreme salt stress (600 mM NaCl for 9 days significantly increased by 28.7 (53.33 mol g1 FW and 3.2 (42.11 mg g1 DW folds, respectively over the control, thereby playing a major role as osmotic adjustment. Na+ enrichment in the phyllode tissues of salt-stressed seedlings positively related to total chlorophyll degradation (R2=0.72. Photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence in salt-stressed plants increased under mild salt stress (200 mM NaCl. However, these declined under high level of salinity (400-600 mM NaCl, consequently resulting in reduced net photosynthetic rate (R2=0.81 and plant dry weight (R2= 0.91. The study concludes that A. ampliceps has an osmotic adjustment and Na+ compartmentation as effective salt defense mechanisms, and thus it could be an excellent species to grow in salt-affected soils.

  5. Comparative analysis of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC.

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    Samriti Faujdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves of Acacia ferruginea DC. Hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves were evaluated for analgesic activity using hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Hydroalcoholic extract of the bark at the dose of 50 mg/kg (6.10 ± 0.30 and leaves at a dose of 100 mg/kg (5.72 ± 0.39 after 45 min exhibited significant (P < 0.001 analgesic activity in hot plate test, which was comparable to Tramadol (6.11 ± 0.31 at a dose of 10 mg/kg. However, in acetic acid-induced writhing test, hydroalcoholic extract of both bark (90% and leaves (90.91% showed maximum protection from acetic acid at the dose of 100 mg/kg as compared to standard drug (50.91% at a dose of 5 mg/kg. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves at a dose of 400 mg/kg had significantly (74.68% inhibited the inflammation as comparable to indomethacin (82.8% after 3 h of induction of carrageenan. It is concluded that hydroalcoholic extracts of bark and leaves have central analgesic and peripheral analgesic effects, respectively. Both hydroalcoholic extracts of the bark and leaves significantly reduced the paw oedema at a dose of 400 mg/kg and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. Effect of different pre-sowing treatments on seed germination percentage and growth performance of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Salim Azad; Mizanur Rahman Manik; Md. Shamin Hasan; Md. Abdul Matin

    2011-01-01

    Seed morphology, germination and seedlings growth of Acacia auriculiformis were studied. The experiment was conducted in the nursery of Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline, Khulna University,Bangladesh. Matured seeds of the species were collected from healthy trees of road side plantation from different areas of Khulna District,Bangladesh and treated with five pre-sowing treatments (control, immersion in cold water, immersion in hot water, scarification with sand paper and immersion in concentrated H2SO4). The average length, breadth and thickness were found to be (0.58±0.017) cm, (0.44±0.007) cm and (0.20±0.089) cm, respectively. Germination was conducted in polybags with a mixture of top soil, coconut husk, coarse sand, and fine sand in a ratio of 3:4:1:1. Results reveal that pre-sowing treatments influences the germination rates of seeds that significantly inerease the percentage germination compared with those in control (43%) and cold water treatment (52%). The highest germination success rate was found 83% in hot water treatment followed by 78% in scarification with sand paper, and 75% with immersion in H2SO4. Germination started from 7 to 12 days and completed between 28 and 35 days period in all treatments. ANOVA showed the significant difference (p<0.05) among the treatments in seed germination, but no significant difference among treatment with regard to starting day, closing day and total germination period. In case of height and diameter growth, seedlings originated from the seeds with hot water treatment shows significantly higher in wet season (from May to July).Hot water treatment can be recommended on seed germination of the species in rural Bangladesh.

  7. Removal of fluoride by thermally activated carbon prepared from neem (Azadirachta indica) and kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Asha; Yadav, J P

    2008-03-01

    The present investigation deals with fluoride removal from aqueous solution by thermally activated neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves carbon (ANC) and thermally activated kikar (Acacia arabica) leaves carbon (AKC) adsorbents. In this study neem leaves carbon and kikar leaves carbon prepared by heating the leaves at 400 degrees C in electric furnace was found to be useful for the removal of fluoride. The adsorbents of 0.3 mm and 1.0 mm sizes of neem and kikar leaves carbon was prepared by standard sieve. Batch experiments done to see the fluoride removal properties from synthetic solution of 5 ppm to study the influence of pH, adsorbent dose and contact time on adsorption efficiency The optimum pH was found to be 6 for both adsorbents. The optimum dose was found to be 0.5g/100 ml forANC (activated neem leaves carbon) and 0.7g/100 ml forAKC (activated kikar leaves carbon). The optimum time was found to be one hour for both the adsorbent. It was also found that adsorbent size of 0.3 mm was more efficient than the 1.0 mm size. The adsorption process obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The straight line of log (qe-q) vs time at ambient temperature indicated the validity of langergren equation consequently first order nature of the process involved in the present study. Results indicate that besides intraparticle diffusion there maybe other processes controlling the rate which may be operating simultaneously. All optimized conditions were applied for removal of fluoride from four natural water samples.

  8. Long-term effects of drenches with condensed tannins from Acacia mearnsii on goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Júnior, Livio M; Costa, Jailson S; Lôbo, Ítala C P D; Soares, Alexandra M S; Abdala, Adibe L; Chaves, Daniel P; Batista, Zulmira S; Louvandini, Helder

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the long-term effects of exposure to a drench containing condensed tannins (CTs) from Acacia mearnsii on gastrointestinal nematodes in goats were investigated. Male cross-bred Anglo-Nubian goat kids between 3 and 5 months of age were dewormed at the beginning of the experiment. The goat kids were divided into one group that received weekly 24 g oral doses of A. mearnsii bark extract dissolved in water containing 16.7% CTs (GCT group, n = 8) and a second group that did not receive CTs (GC group, n = 8). All of the animals were kept in an Andropogon gayanus pasture and grazed with a herd of 100 naturally infected adult goats. Each animal was supplemented daily with 200 g of a concentrated mixture containing 18% crude protein. Fecal egg counts (FECs) were performed weekly for 192 days, and weight measurements and blood collections were done at two-week intervals in this period. The packed cell volume of the blood was calculated, and the plasma was used to determine the total protein, albumin, and glucose concentrations. After 192 days, the animals were slaughtered and the carcasses evaluated, with nematodes harvested for identification and counting. The FECs of the animals treated with CTs from A. mearnsii (GCT group) remained lower than the FECs of the control group animals for the majority of the first half of the experimental period. An observed increase in the FECs for both groups coincided with increased rainfall in the region where the experiment was conducted. The worm burden, scrotal circumference, carcass weight, leg circumference, carcass size and blood analysis were not significantly different between the groups. The packed cell volume (PCV) was constant in all of the animals throughout the experiment. In conclusion, repeated and prolonged treatment of goats with CTs from A. mearnsii helped to maintain low FECs in a period of low challenge but did not reduce nematode infections in the goats.

  9. Variation of some wood macroscopic properties along the stem of Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. adult trees in Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.; Simoes, R.; Tavares, M.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the variation of pith eccentricity, heartwood proportion, late wood percentage and basic wood density along the stem of 45-year-old A. melanoxylon trees collected in four sites of Portugal, and investigate the eventual relationship between these variables. Area of study: Sites covering littoral north, mid interior north and centre interior of Portugal. Materials and methods: Four sites and five trees per site were selected in the Acacia melanoxylon Portuguese forest. One wood sample at each of six height levels per tree was collected in order to evaluate its basic density, pith eccentricity, heartwood and late wood proportions. Main results: The high variability of the wood macroscopic properties among trees from the same site regarding to the variation of the corresponding average properties along the stem is a key characteristic of the experimental data. As a consequence, a multiple linear regression model tested was not able to properly explain the wood basic density variation of the 120 wood samples analysed. In spite of this, the following trends could be recognized: (i) excluding the base level, wood basic density moderately increased with tree level; (ii) late wood proportion followed similar behaviour; (iii) pith eccentricity was low; (iv) heartwood proportion decreased markedly with tree height, from 70% at the base to 7% at the top. Research highlights: The high basic density, the relatively low variability along the stem and the low pith eccentricity enable us to anticipate good performance as raw material for the wood industry. (Author)

  10. The critical role of ants in the extensive dispersal of Acacia seeds revealed by genetic parentage assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascov, Caitlin M; Nevill, Paul G; Elliott, Carole P; Majer, Jonathan D; Anthony, Janet M; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2015-12-01

    Ants are prominent seed dispersal agents in many ecosystems, and dispersal distances are small in comparison with vertebrate dispersal agents. However, the distance and distribution of ant-mediated dispersal in arid/semi-arid environments remains poorly explored. We used microsatellite markers and parentage assignment to quantify the distance and distribution of dispersed seeds of Acacia karina, retrieved from the middens of Iridomyrmex agilis and Melophorus turneri perthensis. From parentage assignment, we could not distinguish the maternal from each parent pair assigned to each seed, so we applied two approaches to estimate dispersal distances, one conservative (CONS), where the parent closest to the ant midden was considered to be maternal, and the second where both parents were deemed equally likely (EL) to be maternal, and used both distances. Parentage was assigned to 124 seeds from eight middens. Maximum seed dispersal distances detected were 417 m (CONS) and 423 m (EL), more than double the estimated global maximum. Mean seed dispersal distances of 40 m (±5.8 SE) (CONS) and 79 m (±6.4 SE) (EL) exceeded the published global average of 2.24 m (±7.19 SD) by at least one order of magnitude. For both approaches and both ant species, seed dispersal was predominantly (44-84% of all seeds) within 50 m from the maternal source, with fewer dispersal events at longer distances. Ants in this semi-arid environment have demonstrated a greater capacity to disperse seeds than estimated elsewhere, which highlights their important role in this system, and suggests significant novel ecological and evolutionary consequences for myrmecochorous species in arid/semi-arid Australia.

  11. TEORES DE NUTRIENTES EM POVOAMENTOS MONOESPECÍFICOS E MISTOS DE Eucalyptus urograndis e Acacia mearnsii em SISTEMA AGROSSILVICULTURAL

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    Márcio Viera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study had as objective compare the nutrients content in the different species involved in monospecific and mixed stands of Eucalyptus urograndis and Acacia mearnsii and in a consortium with Zea mays. The determination for forest species nutrients concentration, the treatments 100E (100 % eucalyptus + maize; 100A (100 % black-wattle + maize and 50E:50A (50 % eucalyptus + 50 % black-wattle + maize, and in the maize were done in treatments 100E; 100A, 50E:50A; 75E:25A (75 % eucalyptus + 25 % black-wattle + maize and 25E:75A (25 % eucalyptus + 75 % black-wattle + maize. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Forests species sampling was made in average tree in each plot, based on diameter at breast height (DBH, in three trees six month-old per treatment. Within all treatments and your replicates, installed one subplot with long 3.0 m by three corn-rows as wide, where the plants were harvested in stem, leaf, grain, cob and straw. With the exception of Ca, which was more concentrated in the bark fraction and Mg and B in the bark and leaves, the other nutrients in Eucalyptus urograndis, so in monoculture much in mixed stands, contained higher concentration just in leaves. The grain component has the highest concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, as straw and cob have the highest potassium concentration and the leaf component has the largest concentrations of other nutrients. The forest species did not influence significantly the levels of nutrients in components of aboveground biomass of maize.

  12. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fiona J; Auld, Tony D; Ramp, Daniel; Kingsford, Richard T

    2016-01-01

    The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal) can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae), a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal) and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l) seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l) vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  13. Native and domestic browsers and grazers reduce fuels, fire temperatures, and acacia ant mortality in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimuyu, Duncan M; Sensenig, Ryan L; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2014-06-01

    Despite the importance of fire and herbivory in structuring savanna systems, few replicated experiments have examined the interactive effects of herbivory and fire on plant dynamics. In addition, the effects of fire on associated ant-tree mutualisms have been largely unexplored. We carried out small controlled burns in each of 18 herbivore treatment plots of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), where experimentally excluding elephants has resulted in 42% greater tree densities. The KLEE design includes six different herbivore treatments that allowed us to examine how different combinations of megaherbivore wildlife, mesoherbivore wildlife, and cattle affect fire temperatures and subsequent loss of ant symbionts from Acacia trees. Before burning, we quantified herbaceous fuel loads and plant community composition. We tagged all trees, measured their height and basal diameter, and identified the resident ant species on each. We recorded weather conditions during the burns and used ceramic tiles painted with fire-sensitive paints to estimate fire temperatures at different heights and in different microsites (under vs. between trees). Across all treatments, fire temperatures were highest at 0-50 cm off the ground and hotter in the grass under trees than in the grassy areas between trees. Plots with more trees burned hotter than plots with fewer trees, perhaps because of greater fine woody debris. Plots grazed by wildlife and by cattle prior to burning had lower herbaceous fuel loads and experienced lower burn temperatures than ungrazed plots. Many trees lost their ant colonies during the burns. Ant survivorship differed by ant species and at the plot level was positively associated with previous herbivory (and lower fire temperatures). Across all treatments, ant colonies on taller trees were more likely to survive, but even some of the tallest trees lost their ant colonies. Our study marks a significant step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the

  14. A Switch in Keystone Seed-Dispersing Ant Genera between Two Elevations for a Myrmecochorous Plant, Acacia terminalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Thomson

    Full Text Available The dispersal capacity of plant species that rely on animals to disperse their seeds (biotic dispersal can alter with changes to the populations of their keystone dispersal vectors. Knowledge on how biotic dispersal systems vary across landscapes allows better understanding of factors driving plant persistence. Myrmecochory, seed dispersal by ants, is a common method of biotic dispersal for many plant species throughout the world. We tested if the seed dispersal system of Acacia terminalis (Fabaceae, a known myrmecochore, differed between two elevations in the Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area, in southeastern Australia. We compared ant assemblages, seed removal rates of ants and other vertebrates (bird and mammal and the dominant seed-dispersing ant genera. At low elevations (c. 200 m a.s.l seed removal was predominantly by ants, however, at high elevation sites (c. 700 m a.s.l vertebrate seed dispersers or seed predators were present, removing over 60% of seeds from experimental depots when ants were excluded. We found a switch in the keystone seed-dispersing ant genera from Rhytidoponera at low elevations sites to Aphaenogaster at high elevation sites. This resulted in more seeds being removed faster at low elevation sites compared to high elevation sites, however long-term seed removal rates were equal between elevations. Differences in the keystone seed removalist, and the addition of an alternate dispersal vector or seed predator at high elevations, will result in different dispersal and establishment patterns for A. terminalis at different elevations. These differences in dispersal concur with other global studies that report myrmecochorous dispersal systems alter with elevation.

  15. Comportamiento de procedencias de Acacia saligna (Labill. H. L. Wendl. en la región de Coquimbo, Chile.

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    Freddy Mora Pobrete

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Catorce procedencias de Acacia saligna fueron evaluadas en función del crecimiento a los 15 meses en dos sitios del norte de Chile. Correlaciones genéticas tipo B fueron estimadas para examinar la interacción genotipo x ambiente (G x A del crecimiento en altura total, diámetro medio de copa y diámetro de cuello. Máxima Verosimilitud Restringida (REML, fue el método utilizado para la estimación de componentes de varianza. Para el crecimiento en altura, la correlación genética fue moderada (ΓpB = 0,46. Para diámetro de cuello y diámetro medio de copa, los valores de correlación genética mostraron un valor bajo (ΓpB = 0,27 y 0,17, respectivamente, indicando una alta interacción G x A. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las procedencias, en cada sitio estudiado (p ≤ 0,01. El crecimiento promedio de las procedencias varió entre los distintos sitios, mostrando mayor potencial hacia el sur de la Región. De persistir una alta interacción GxA en el tiempo, se hace necesario seleccionar grupos de procedencias específicos para cada sitio, debido a que no siempre el mejor grupo para un sitio específico mantuvo su superioridad en el otro.

  16. DETECÇÃO DE FUNGOS PATOGÊNICOS EM SEMENTES DE ACÁCIA-NEGRA (Acacia mearnsii De Wild

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    Flávia Elise Meneghini dos Santos

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available A presença de fungos pode reduzir a capacidade germinativa de um lote de sementes, causar a morte de plântulas ou transmitir doenças para plantas adultas. É necessário conhecer os agentes, as causas e as conseqüências decorrentes da contaminação por fungos patogênicos. Desse modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os fungos associados às sementes de Acacia mearnsii De Wild, armazenadas a 5°C, por um período de 12 meses. Foram utilizadas sementes de acácia-negra oriundas de plantio comercial, aos 4 anos de idade cuja procedência é África do Sul. As sementes foram colhidas em três épocas distintas: (i quando com frutos verdes e/ou pigmentados; (ii quando com frutos negros e início de abertura das vagens; (iii quando com sementes coletadas no solo, após a dispersão natural, sendo empregadas como testemunha. Os fungos associados às sementes foram: Botryodiplodia sp., Botrytis sp. (família Moniliaceae, Cladosporium sp.(família Dematiaceae, Cylindrocladium sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., Pestalotia sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Trichoderma sp. e outros fungos não identificados. De maneira geral, a autoclavagem das sementes promoveu maiores taxas de germinação e a eliminação de fungos associados. As sementes, que apresentaram maior contaminação por fungos, foram aquelas oriundas da coleta no solo. Os fungos de solo observados, que poderiam ocasionar danos em plântulas no viveiro e, simultaneamente, estarem associados à gomose em acácia-negra, foram: Botrytis sp., Cylindrocladium sp.

  17. Concreto submetido a vibrações nas primeiras idades

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    J. F. Fernandes

    Full Text Available Este artigo traz informações sobre o comportamento nas primeiras idades de um concreto de alta resistência, produzido com cimento de alta resistência inicial, lançado e adensado em ambientes submetidos a vibrações, como em obras de pontes de rodovias. Apresenta-se o programa experimental desenvolvido, descrevendo desde a moldagem dos corpos-de-prova, sob ação de vibrações similares às induzidas pelo tráfego, até os ensaios de caracterização mecânica e de aderência aço-concreto. Os resultados experimentais indicam que o concreto submetido à vibração nas primeiras idades pode sofrer perdas na resistência à tração e no módulo de elasticidade. A redução dessas propriedades pode comprometer a utilização da estrutura devido ao aparecimento de flechas e fissuras acima dos limites de norma. A redução da resistência à tração do concreto deve ser considerada, também, na aplicação de pavimentos rígidos, onde essa propriedade é fundamental para garantir a durabilidade do sistema. Não foi observada nenhuma redução na resistência à compressão ou na capacidade de aderência devido à introdução de vibrações nas primeiras idades do concreto.

  18. Abuso de poder nas eleições

    OpenAIRE

    Isumi, Francy

    2013-01-01

    O trabalho realiza análise acerca do abuso de poder nas eleições, seja na forma de abuso de poder político, abuso de poder económico e uso indevido dos meios de comunicação. Para tanto, primeiramente foi analisado o plano do direito material, abordando-se as principais leis que tratam do tema, a arrecadação e gastos de recursos durante a campanha eleitoral, a prestação de contas, as condutas vedadas aos agentes públicos, bem como a interpretação do Tribunal Superior Eleitoral sobre alguns des...

  19. PROTEÍNAS: REDEFINIENDO ALGUNOS CONCEPTOS Proteins: redefined some concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Calderón Vélez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento sobre las estructuras primarias, secundarias y terciarias de las proteínas crece cada día; la terminología y su adecuado uso, incluso para los conocedores, pueden resultar confusos. Se propone en esta comunicación una forma sencilla y práctica de abordar el tema.Our knowledge about primary, secondary and tertiary structures of proteins grow-up every day. Terminology and its use can result difficult, even for knowledge people. This paper propose a simple and practical, often personal, way of utilization.

  20. Adjetivos nas gramáticas do português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Santos de Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a apontar que mesmo depois de cinco décadas do advento da Nomenclatura Gramatical Brasileira (NGB, ainda seja possível perceber, nas gramáticas do português, uma variedade de códigos terminológicos para se referir ao mesmo tipo de adjetivo. Visamos, com isso, levantar alguns questionamentos acerca dos motivos pelos quais ainda persiste um conflito de termos em torno da classe dos adjetivos, além de sinalizar a possibilidade de simplificação e padronização dos conceitos e da nomenclatura conflitante.

  1. Proteínas de arroz: propiedades estructurales y funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo general: Estudiar las proteínas de arroz de la variedad Nutriar desde el punto de vista estructural y funcional provenientes de grano pulido e integral. Compararlas con las de una variedad de amplio uso local, de calidad tropical. Objetivos específicos: Determinar la composición proteica, cuali y cuantitativamente de la variedad Nutriar en comparación con la variedad de referencia. Explorar distintos métodos de preparación de aislados proteicos mediante la variaci...

  2. Paradigma e Disciplina nas Perspectivas de Kuhn e Morin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luís Boeira

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2009v6n1p90 Este ensaio compara o conceito de paradigma nas perspectivas de Thomas Kuhn e Edgar Morin. Apesar da relevância internacional de suas obras e de suas contribuições para a história da ciência e para a filosofia da ciência, observa-se na literatura uma falta de estudos comparativos sobre suas principais idéias, o que tem gerado confusões e simplificações. O ensaio parte de extensa pesquisa de obras publicadas pelos autores em âmbito internacional. Na primeira seção, trata-se da perspectiva de Kuhn sobre diversas noções, como paradigma, matriz disciplinar, comunidade científica e incomensurabilidade. Na segunda, examina-se a perspectiva de Morin sobre paradigma disjuntor-redutor e paradigma da complexidade. Na terceira seção, comparam-se suas perspectivas sobre progresso científico, a partir da noção de disciplina, para discernir aspectos convergentes e divergentes em suas obras, resumidos nas conclusões. Palavras-chave: Paradigma; Disciplina; Filosofia da ciência.

  3. UAS-NAS Project Demo - Mini HITL Week 2 Stats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James R.; Fern, Lisa C.; Rorie, Robert C.; Shively, Robert; Jovic, Srboljub

    2016-01-01

    The UAS-NAS Project demo will showcase recent research efforts to ensure the interoperability between proposed UAS detect and avoid (DAA) human machine interface requirements (developed within RTCA SC-228) and existing collision avoidance displays. Attendees will be able to view the current state of the art of the DAA pilot traffic, alerting and guidance displays integrated with Traffic advisory and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) II in the UAS-NAS Project's research UAS ground control station (developed in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory). In addition, attendees will have the opportunity to interact with the research UAS ground control station and "fly" encounters, using the DAA and TCAS II displays to avoid simulated aircraft. The display of the advisories will be hosted on a laptop with an external 30" monitor, running the Vigilant Spirit system. DAA advisories will be generated by the JADEM software tool, connected to the system via the LVC Gateway. A repeater of the primary flight display will be shown on a 55" monitor mounted on a stand at the back of the booth to show the pilot interaction to the passersby.

  4. 基于NAS Benchmarks的ORC性能测试%The Performance of ORC with NAS Benchmarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海波; 汤志忠

    2003-01-01

    Itanium is the first generation product processor based on IA-64 architecture. ORC(Open Research Compil-er )provides an open source IPF(Itanium Processor Family)research compiler infrastructure. We have compiled andrun NAS Benchmarks on the Itanium machine. This paper briefly describes the performance of orcc, sgicc and gcc inthe following 3 ways: execution time, compilation time, and executable file size. The results show that orcc has near-ly the same performance as sgicc, which is 2 fold faster over gcc in the aspect of execution time. We also find that evenwith the best-optimized program, the utilization ratio of process resources is no more that 70%.

  5. Microgreffage de quatre espèces ligneuses sahéliennes Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica et Ziziphus mauritiana en vue de leur rajeunissement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danthu, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Micrografting of Four Sahelian Trees (Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritiana with a View to their Rejuvenation. This paper proposes a protocol of rejuvenation of four Sahelian ligneous species : Acacia senegal, Faidherbia albida, Tamarindus indica and Ziziphus mauritian. It consists in aseptically removing a small scion (5-10 mm in length and in micrografting it on to a seeding grown in vitro used as rootstock. The main elements of success are the age of the rootstock (two to six weeks depending on species, the level of grafting (on hypocotyl instead of epicotyl and the origin of the scion (apex have higher growth after micrografting than axillary buds. The method developed was applied to the restoration of juvenile traits of adult trees. The main criterion is the rooting ability of microcuttings sampled on scions, after micrografting. Rooting competence restoration depends on the species, the nature of the first copy of the donor tree and the number of cycles of micrografting. The rejuvenation was more definite for F. albida, mobilised by root cuttings. In this case, one third of the microcuttings rooted after the first cycle of micrografting and 75 % after the second. For 2. Mauritiana mobilised by horticultural budding, 25 % of microcuttings were rooted after the second successive micrograft. No restoration of rooting competence was obtained with A. senegal and T. indica mobilised by cutting.

  6. Priming of prosopis cineraria (L. druce and acacia tortilis (forssk seeds with fulvic acid extracted from compost to improve germination and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting of waste plant materials and its use in agriculture and landscape sites is an environmental friendly way of reducing waste material and conserving the environment. In this perspectives a survey has been performed at the Dubai based International Center for Biosaline Agriculture to compost the plants based waste material (lawn cuttings-grass to compost. The material was inoculated with a consortium of microbes leading to form stable and mature compost with high organic matter (38%. In order to conduct seed germination tests, Fulvic acid was extracted from the compost. A pot experiment was conducted over a period of 30 days in the green house to study the effect of Fulvic acid on the seed germination, and plant growth of Prosopis cineraria (L. Druce (Ghaff and Acacia tortilis (Forssk. Hayne. Seeds of both trees were treated with Fulvic acid at 0.5% and 1% and water treatment was used as control. Generally seed germination and biomass were increased at both rates of fulvic acid. However, a pronounced increase was found in seed germination when fulvic acid was used at 1.0% (Prosopis cineraria 27%; Acacia tortilis 20% increase over control. Similarly biomass (shoot and root of A. tortilis and P. cineraria was increase 34% and 94% respectively.

  7. Bradyrhizobia nodulating the Acacia mangium x A. auriculiformis interspecific hybrid are specific and differ from those associated with both parental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Christine; Tentchev, Diana; Prin, Yves; Goh, Doreen; Japarudin, Yani; Perrineau, Marie-Mathilde; Duponnois, Robin; Domergue, Odile; de Lajudie, Philippe; Galiana, Antoine

    2009-12-01

    In the context of an increasing utilization of the interspecific hybrid Acacia mangium x A. auriculiformis as a plantation tree in the tropical humid zone, its symbiotic characterization was carried out in comparison with that of its two parental species. Rhizobium strains of diverse geographical origins were isolated from root nodules of the hybrid and its parents. Almost all Acacia hybrid isolates were fast growing on yeast extract-mannitol medium, in contrast to those isolated from both parental species, which were mostly slow growing. The rhizobium strains were characterized through partial sequencing of the rRNA operon. In the phylogenetic tree, almost all strains isolated from the hybrid were grouped together in a clade close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum, while all strains isolated from both parental species were close to Bradyrhizobium elkanii. Inoculation experiments performed under in vitro or greenhouse conditions showed that all strains were infective with their original hosts but exhibited very variable degrees of effectivity according to the host plant tested. Thus, homologous strain-host associations were more effective than heterologous ones. This shows that there is still a high potential for isolating and testing new strains from hybrids to be used as inoculants in the context of large-scale afforestation programs.

  8. Dichrostachys cinerea and Acacia nilotica fruits as dry season feed supplements for goats in a semi-arid environment: Summary of a DFID funded project in Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: timsmith2@btopenworld.com; Mlambo, V. [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, P.O. Luvengo (Swaziland); Sikosana, J.L.N.; Maphosa, V. [Department of Agricultural Research and Extension, Matopos Research Station, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe); Mueller-Harvey, I.; Owen, E. [School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Earley Gate, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Indehiscent fruits of six tree species, common in Matabeleland were examined in in vitro and in vivo trials. The results for two of them, Acacia nilotica and Dichrostachys cinerea are presented here. Acacia nilotica contained more total phenolics than D. cinerea, but less nitrogen (N) and fibre (ADF and NDF). After 48 h incubation, in vitro OMD of both species was increased by PEG and NaOH or wood ash treatment, except when NaOH or wood ash were used in combination with PEG with D. cinerea fruits. DM intake, DMD were lowest and N-retention negative in goats fed A. nilotica as supplement. However when fed a supplement of D. cinerea, untreated or treated with PEG or NaOH, digestibility and N-retention were highest, and similar to a commercial goat meal, with the untreated fruit. In a trial in which milking does were supplemented with D. cinerea fruits, for 65 before and 65 days after kidding, kid birthweight and weaning weight were increased by supplementation. Deaths of twin-born kids were lowest in the supplemented but unmilked group. Supplementation with D. cinerea fruit resulted in improved goat performance. The only treatment applied of practical significance, wood ash, is currently being tested in an in vivo study. More research is required on detoxification of tannins, especially with A. nilotica. (author)

  9. The effects of seed quality and pipecolic and djenkolic acids on bruchid beetle infestation in water deficit-stressed Acacia trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, K; Ward, D

    2004-11-01

    Acacia trees in the Negev desert and the Arava valley of Israel are suffering high levels of mortality due to water stress. Additionally, recruitment is negatively affected by bruchid beetles. We hypothesized that water-stressed trees would be less able to produce secondary defense compounds, such as the nonprotein amino acids, pipecolic acid and djenkolic acid, in their seeds to decrease seed herbivory. We further hypothesized that the high seed infestation reported is due to increased fitness of beetles infesting trees that are in a poor physiological state. Contrary to our prediction, pipecolic acid concentration was higher in water-stressed Acacia raddiana trees. We found that infestation rates and beetle fitness were higher in trees in a poor physiological state, despite the higher levels of pipecolic acid in these trees. There was a significant positive correlation between infestation level and the amounts of djenkolic acid in the seeds, indicating that the beetles may have found a means of utilizing djenkolic acid for their own benefit.

  10. A Preliminary Report on Acacia crassicarpa Planted on Karstic Hills%厚荚相思石山地区造林试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁一萍; 黄礼勒; 覃永华; 秦武明

    2007-01-01

    选用厚荚相思(Acacia crassicarpa)、台湾相思(Acacia confusa)和小叶榕(Ficus microcarpa)3个树种在崇左市石山地区进行造林试验,3年后调查分析造林绿化效果.结果表明,树高、地径和冠幅的净生长量,厚荚相思分别达到4.4m、7.1cm和2.8m,分别为台湾相思的2.0倍、2.4倍和1.6倍,为小叶榕的6.3倍、2.6倍和3.1倍.厚荚相思的石山造林绿化效果极显著地优于台湾相思和小叶榕.而且厚荚相思林下植被总盖度、枯落物等生态环境比后两种优良.厚荚相思是崇左市石山地区人工造林绿化的优良先锋树种.

  11. Heterogeneity of terrestrial bromeliad colonies and regeneration of Acacia praecox (Fabaceae) in a humid-subtropical-Chaco forest, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Ignacio M; Lewis, Juan Pablo

    2005-01-01

    In several tropical and subtropical forests, plants of the understorey act as an ecological filter that differentially affects woody species regeneration. In convex sectors of the Schinopsis balansae (Anacardiaceae) forests of the Southeastern Chaco there are dense colonies of terrestrial bromeliads. These may influence forest regeneration by intercepting rain water and propagules in their tanks. Within colonies, the spatial distribution of bromeliads is clumped because their clonal growth leaves numerous internal gaps. In this study we describe the internal heterogeneity of three bromeliad colonies (plots) and analyze how this heterogeneity affects Acacia praecox regeneration (i.e. seedling recruitment and survival). In January 1996, we randomly placed three transects with 150 contiguous quadrats of 100 cm(2) in each plot. For each quadrat we recorded the type of floor cover (i.e. bromeliads, herbs, litter, or bare soil) and the presence of A. praecox seeds or seedlings. In July 1996 we relocated the transects and recorded seedling survival. Bromeliad colonies showed a high internal heterogeneity. Almost half of the 450 quadrats were covered by two terrestrial bromeliads. Aechmea distichantha was recorded in 81% of all quadrats with bromeliads, and Bromelia serra in the others. All quadrats with bromeliads were covered by litter. Half of them were occupied by the bases of bromeliads and the others were covered by their leaves. In contrast, where bromeliads were not present, soil surface was covered by litter in 83% and by herbaceous vegetation in 11% of the quadrats; very few quadrats were covered by bare soil. In January 1996, we recorded 127 seeds and 176 seedlings of A. praecox. Seed and seedling densities of A. praecox were similar in quadrats with and without bromeliads, but variability in seedling density of A. praecox was higher within than among plots. Seed density was higher in quadrats covered by bromeliad leaves than inside the tanks. Seedling survival

  12. Effect of Inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with Mycorrhiza and Rhizobia on soil properties and microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assigbetsé, K.; Ciss, I.; Bakhoum, N.; Dieng, L.

    2012-04-01

    Inoculation of legume plants with symbiotic microorganisms is widely used to improve their development and productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal mature trees with rhizobium (Sinorhizobium) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae, G. fasciculatum, G. intraradices) either singly or in combination, on soil properties, activity and the genetic structure of soil microbial communities. The experiment set up in Southern Senegal consisted of 4 randomized blocks of A. senegal mature trees with 4 treatments including inoculated trees with Rhizobium (R), mycorrhizal fungus (M) and with Rhizobium+mycorhizal fungus (RM) and non-inoculated control (CON). Soil were sampled 2 years after the inoculation. Soil pH, C and N and available P contents were measured. The microbial abundance and activity were measured in terms of microbial biomass C (MBC) and basal soil respiration. The community structure of the total bacterial, diazotrophic and denitrifying communities was assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA, nifH and nirK genes respectively. Inoculations with symbiont under field conditions have increased soil pH. The C and N contents were enhanced in the dual-inoculated treatments (RM). The mycorrhized treatment have displayed the lowest available P contents while RM and R treatments exhibited higher contents rates. The microbial biomass C rates were higher in treatments co-inoculated with AM fungi and Rhizobium than in those inoculated singly with AM fungi or Rhizobium strains. The basal soil respiration were positively correlated to MBC, and the highest rates were found in the co-inoculated treatments. Fingerprints of 16S rDNA gene exhibited similar patterns between inoculated treatments and the control showing that the inoculation of mature trees have not impacted the total bacterial community structure. In contrast, the inoculated treatments have displayed individually different

  13. Production and carbon allocation in monocultures and mixed-species plantations of Eucalyptus grandis and Acacia mangium in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvellon, Yann; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Epron, Daniel; Le Maire, Guerric; Bonnefond, Jean-Marc; Gonçalves, José Leonardo M; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-06-01

    Introducing nitrogen-fixing tree species in fast-growing eucalypt plantations has the potential to improve soil nitrogen availability compared with eucalypt monocultures. Whether or not the changes in soil nutrient status and stand structure will lead to mixtures that out-yield monocultures depends on the balance between positive interactions and the negative effects of interspecific competition, and on their effect on carbon (C) uptake and partitioning. We used a C budget approach to quantify growth, C uptake and C partitioning in monocultures of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) and Acacia mangium (Willd.) (treatments E100 and A100, respectively), and in a mixture at the same stocking density with the two species at a proportion of 1 : 1 (treatment MS). Allometric relationships established over the whole rotation, and measurements of soil CO(2) efflux and aboveground litterfall for ages 4-6 years after planting were used to estimate aboveground net primary production (ANPP), total belowground carbon flux (TBCF) and gross primary production (GPP). We tested the hypotheses that (i) species differences for wood production between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures were partly explained by different C partitioning strategies, and (ii) the observed lower wood production in the mixture compared with eucalypt monoculture was mostly explained by a lower partitioning aboveground. At the end of the rotation, total aboveground biomass was lowest in A100 (10.5 kg DM m(-2)), intermediate in MS (12.2 kg DM m(-2)) and highest in E100 (13.9 kg DM m(-2)). The results did not support our first hypothesis of contrasting C partitioning strategies between E. grandis and A. mangium monocultures: the 21% lower growth (ΔB(w)) in A100 compared with E100 was almost entirely explained by a 23% lower GPP, with little or no species difference in ratios such as TBCF/GPP, ANPP/TBCF, ΔB(w)/ANPP and ΔB(w)/GPP. In contrast, the 28% lower ΔB(w) in MS than in E100 was explained both by

  14. Effect of grass density and date of tapping on Acacia senegal gum yield in north kordofan state, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris M.Adam; M.E.Ballal; Kamal El.M.Fadl

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a two-factor experiment in randomized complete block design with four replications during 2004 in E1 Demokeya Forest Reserve and E1 Himaira Natural Forest,North Kordofan State,Sudan.The objective was to develop an understanding of the ecological effects of under-story vegetation and tapping date on the productivity of gum arabic from Acacia senegal as over story cover.The first factor was grass cover which was tested in four levels (100% and 50% grass cover in addition to bare and burnt).The second factor,date of tapping was tested in three levels namely (lst Oct,15th Oct and 1st Nov).The first picking was done after 45 days from tapping and the gum yield up to seven pickings was collected at intervals of 15 days.Gum yield from each picking was collected and weighed using sensitive balance.Analysis of variance was carried out using MSTAT-C statistical package,and the Tukey test was applied for mean comparisons.The results showed highly significant differences (p < 0.01) of grass cover on gum arabic yield in the two sites for most of the first consecutive pickings (1st-4th out of seven) in addition to total yield (kg/ha).With exception to the 4th pickings,the interaction effect between the grass densities and tapping date was not significantly different.The total gum yield was significantly (p < 0.05) increased in only two pickings (third and fourth) in E1 Demokeya Forest Reserve and two pickings (1st and 2nd) at El Himaira Natural Forest.The density of grass cover significantly (p < 0.05) affected the number of pickings at both sites; the number of gum pickings was directly proportional to grass density.The number of gum pickings was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) increased at the early date of tapping.

  15. 1.15 Å resolution structure of the proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 PDZ domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Chingakham R. [Kansas State University, 338 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Lovell, Scott; Mehzabeen, Nurjahan [University of Kansas, Del Shankel Structural Biology Center, Lawrence, KS 66047 (United States); Chowdhury, Wasimul Q.; Geanes, Eric S. [Kansas State University, 338 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States); Battaile, Kevin P. [IMCA-CAT Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Building 435A, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Roelofs, Jeroen, E-mail: jroelofs@ksu.edu [Kansas State University, 338 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2014-03-25

    The proteasome-assembly chaperone Nas2 binds to the proteasome subunit Rpt5 using its PDZ domain. The structure of the Nas2 PDZ domain has been determined. The 26S proteasome is a 2.5 MDa protease dedicated to the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotes. The assembly of this complex containing 66 polypeptides is assisted by at least nine proteasome-specific chaperones. One of these, Nas2, binds to the proteasomal AAA-ATPase subunit Rpt5. The PDZ domain of Nas2 binds to the C-terminal tail of Rpt5; however, it does not require the C-terminus of Rpt5 for binding. Here, the 1.15 Å resolution structure of the PDZ domain of Nas2 is reported. This structure will provide a basis for further insights regarding the structure and function of Nas2 in proteasome assembly.

  16. In vivo inhibition of NAS preparation on H9N2 subtype AIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ruo-feng; Liang, Jian-ping; Na, Zhong-yuan; Yang, Hong-jun; Lu, Yu; Hua, Lan-ying; Guo, Wen-zhu; Cui, Ying; Wang, Ling

    2010-04-01

    NAS preparation, a kind of Chinese herbal medicine found by the Yunnan Eco-agricultural Research Institute, has potential antiviral activity. In this paper, the inhibiting effect of NAS preparation on H9N2 subtype Avian influenza virus (AIV) was investigated in vivo. Chickens infected with H9N2 virus were treated with NAS preparation for 4 days. The virus was then detected by hemoagglutination (HA) test and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that no H9N2 virus could be detected at the 7th day when the chickens were treated with 0.2 g/kg/d or 0.1 g/kg/d of NAS preparation. However the virus could be detected in other chickens without NAS preparation treatment. This result suggested that NAS preparation may be a potential drug candidate to control infection of H9N2 subtype AIV in chickens.

  17. Sobre a Pesquisa nas Artes: um discurso amoroso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pérez Royo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo resulta de um exercício de reescrita experimental e de um pensamento analógico cujo objetivo era abrir uma nova perspectiva sobre pesquisa nas artes. Metodologicamente, as diferentes figuras de amor no livro Fragmentos de um Discurso Amoroso, de Barthes, são levadas a conversar sobre a relação entre pesquisador e objeto de estudo. Essa analogia nos permite encontrar parâmetros de qualidade baseados em uma escala de valores diferentes dos hegemônicos na academia (produtividade, competitividade, inovação. Esses novos parâmetros podem constituir uma sólida base ontológica para a construção de uma nova política de pesquisa artística na academia que permita uma reconsideração radical dos processos de investigação em artes.

  18. Realismo versus globalismo nas relações internacionais

    OpenAIRE

    Vigevani, Tullo; Veiga, João Paulo C; Karina Lilia P. Mariano

    1994-01-01

    Discute-se a influência que os temas econômicos produzem nas bases do poder mundial, tradicionalmente vinculadas aos temas clássicos da estratégia e das relações de poder. Para isso, discutem-se dois pontos de vista teóricos centrais no debate contemporâneo sobre as relações internacionais, o realismo e o globa-lismo, concluindo-se que as divergências existentes não excluem percepões semelhantes no que toca à visão de mundo. As teorias da estabilidade hegemônica e da interdependência complexa...

  19. Estudo de silanos nas linhas de pintura da Caetano Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Química Tecnológica (Química Tecnológica e Qualidade), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 O principal objectivo deste trabalho foi o controlo da concentração de silício no banho à base de silanos, que integra o pré-tratamento efectuado nas linhas de pintura a pó e pintura líquida da Caetano Coatings com a implementação do procedimento interno ME/LAB/Silanos. O banho à base de silanos é preparado com uma concentração de silício i...

  20. 温度和光照对厚荚相思种子萌发特性的影响%Effect of Temperature and Light on the Seed Germination Characteristics of Acacia crassicarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盛; 梁机

    2014-01-01

    The germination rate,germination energy,germination index of Acacia crassicarpa were measured at dif-ferent temperature & illumination conditions.The effect of temperature & illumination on the germination charac-teristics of Acacia crassicarpa seed was studied.Result shows that:the temperature have significant effects on ger-mination rate & germination index of Acacia crassicarpa ;the effect of temperature on germination energy is not sig-nificant;the light period have insignificant effects on germination rate,germination energy and germination index of Acacia crassicarpa .At 25℃ or 25/1 5℃,Acacia crassicarpa seeds have higher germination rate ,germination ener-gy & germination index;the light has no effect on the seed germination.%通过对厚荚相思种子在不同温度及光照下发芽率、发芽势、发芽指数的测定,研究了温度与光照对厚荚相思种子萌发特性的影响。结果表明:温度对厚荚相思种子的发芽率和发芽指数的影响极显著,而对发芽势的影响不显著;光照周期对厚荚相思种子的发芽率、发芽势及发芽指数的影响均不显著;在25℃或者25/15℃的温度下催芽,厚荚相思种子的发芽率、发芽势及发芽指数均最高;光照对种子萌发无影响。

  1. PROTEÍNAS EXTRACELULARES MARCADORAS DEL POTENCIAL EMBRIOGÉNICO EN SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Coffea spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Rodríguez; Cevallos, A M; Silvia Montes

    2000-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio de las proteínas extracelulares EP3 y PE32 en suspensiones celulares de Coffea canephora var. Robusta y Coffea arabica cv. Catimor. El proceso embriogénico fue caracterizado inmunoquímicamente con la utilización de anticuerpos policlonales de ambas proteínas. El carácter embriogénico del cultivo se corroboró por el comportamiento de las proteínas estudiadas presentes en la matriz extracelular. Se sugiere la utilización de estas proteínas como marcadores moleculares de la...

  2. Acuaporinas: proteínas mediadoras del transporte de agua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Sánchez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Todos los organismos vivos están compuestos en su mayoría por agua, siendo ésta fundamental para la homeostasis celular a todo nivel. Por esta razón su transporte a través de las membranas biológicas ha sido siempre un campo de gran interés en la fisiología. La investigación acerca de este tópico se ha incrementado notablemente en los últimos años a partir del descubrimiento de las acuaporinas, las cuales han permitido comprender mejor los mecanismos que la célula utiliza para el control de los flujos de agua a través de la membrana y por ende, la regulación de su osmolaridad interna. Tema general. Hasta el momento se han descrito 11 subtipos de acuaporinas (AQP0-10, las cuales comparten similitudes estructurales y se han relacionado con una gran diversidad de enfermedades en diversos sistemas, desde cataratas hasta diabetes insípida. Objetivo. Se presenta una visión del estado actual del conocimiento acerca de estas importantes proteínas y su relación con diversos procesos fisiológicos y patológicos. Conclusiones. Las acuaporinas son proteínas mediadoras del transporte de agua y las alteraciones en su funcionamiento pueden conducir a una gran diversidad de enfermedades, por lo cual deben ser un objeto prioritario de investigación en el futuro próximo para ayudar a comprender mejor su fisiopatología.

  3. Ensinar e aprender geografia com/nas redes sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Pasini Tonetto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata de refletir sobre as potencialidades/operacionalidades das práticas pedagógicas da Geografia na apropriação das redes sociais online. Para isso, analisamos possíveis potencialidades oferecidas pelas redes sociais online para a Geografia e como podem ser operacionalizadas nas práticas pedagógicas com as redes sociais online seu ensino e, também, pensar como elas podem contribuir para ensinar e aprender com mais significância Geografia. Os fios teóricos da pesquisa estão tramados no entendimento de aprendizagem online para emaranhar os conceitos de espaço e ciberespaço, transitando por dois locais fundamentais: o da escola e o das redes. A abordagem metodológica é construída nas trilhas das pesquisas pós-críticas em educação, onde o Facebook é o lócus para analisar as novas formas de comunicar que subjetivam os sujeitos e engendram novos formatos de ensinagem. Os resultados apontam diferentes potencialidades e operacionalidades das redes sociais online, mas que não representam apenas o uso da técnica em sala de aula, mas sim como parte da agenda de busca pela construção de processos de aprendizagens significativos em Geografia, através das redes sociais, que representam uma forma contemporânea de comunicar/interagir presente no cotidiano dos alunos.

  4. Invasive alien woody plants of the Orange Free State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and abundance of invasive alien woody plants were recorded along roadsides and at watercourse crossings in 66% (151/230 of the quarter degree squares in the study area. The survey yielded 64 species of which the most prominent (in order of prominence in streambank habitats were:  Salix babylonica, Populus x  canescens, Acacia dealbata and  Salix fragilis (fide R.D. Meikle pers. comm . The most prominent species (in order of prominence in roadside and veld habitats were:  Opunlia ficus-indica, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus spp..  Rosa eglanteria, Pyracantha angustifolia and Acacia dealbata.Little invasion was recorded for most of the province. The greatest intensity of invasion was recorded along the perennial rivers and rocky hillsides in the moist grassland of the eastern mountain region bordering on Lesotho and Natal.

  5. 黑木相思根瘤菌遗传多样性%Biodiversity of Rhizobia associated with Acacia melanoxylon grown in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦雅静; 陆俊锟; 康丽华; 王胜坤; 江业根; 廖绍波

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究分离自广东、福建、江西等15个地点的174株黑木相思(Acacia melanoxylon)根瘤菌的遗传多样性.[方法]采用16S rDNA限制性片段长度多态性分析(Restriction fragment length polymorphism,RFLP)和16S rDNA基因、持家基因(recA、atpD、glnⅡ)系统发育分析的方进行研究.[结果]16S rDNAPCR-RFLP分析中,在70%的相似性水平上,所有供试菌株分成9个类群 ;16S rDNA基因和持家基因系统发育分析结果基本一致,34株代表菌株主要分布在α-变形菌纲(Alpha-Proteobacteria)的慢生根瘤菌属(Bradyrhizobium)、根瘤菌属(Rizobium)、中慢生根瘤菌属(Mesorhizobium),并与Bradyrhizobium liaoningense、Bradyrhizobium betae、Bradyrhizobium cytisi、Rizobium multihospitium、Mesorhizobium plurifarium亲缘关系较近.[结论]供试菌株被鉴定到属的水平,Bradyrhizobium、Rhizobium或Mesorhizobium为优势菌群,证明了黑木相思根瘤菌具有丰富的遗传多样性.%This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of 174 isolates of symbiotic bacteria associated with Acacia melanoxylon obtained from 15 sampling sites in Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi provinces of China. [Methods] The 16S rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rDNA and housekeeping genes (reck, glnll and atpD) . [Results] In the 16S rDNA PCR-RFLP analysis, 9 rDNA types were identified among the 174 isolates; Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rDNA and housekeeping gene sequences indicated that 34 representative isolates belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium in Alpha-Proteobacteria, and the most closely related strains are Bradyrhizobium liaoningense, Bradyrhizobium betae, Bradyrhizobium cytisi, Rhizobium multihospitium and Mesorhizobium plurifarium. [ Conclusion ] All of the isolates could be identified to general, and Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium or Mesorhizobium could be the dominant microsymbiont. The microsymbionts

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues as potential inhibitors of the mycobacterial FAS-II dehydratase enzyme Rv0636.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowruth, Veemal; Brown, Alistair K; Besra, Gurdyal S

    2008-07-01

    The identification of potential new anti-tubercular chemotherapeutics is paramount due to the recent emergence of extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Libraries of NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues were synthesized and evaluated for their whole-cell activity against Mycobacterium bovis BCG. NAS-21 analogues 1 and 2 demonstrated enhanced whole-cell activity in comparison to the parental compound, and an M. bovis BCG strain overexpressing the dehydratase enzyme Rv0636 was resistant to these analogues. NAS-91 analogues with ortho-modifications gave enhanced whole-cell activity. However, extension with biphenyl modifications compromised the whole-cell activities of both NAS-21 and NAS-91 analogues. Interestingly, both libraries demonstrated in vitro activity against fatty acid synthase II (FAS-II) but not FAS-I in cell-free extracts. In in vitro assays of FAS-II inhibition, NAS-21 analogues 4 and 5 had IC(50) values of 28 and 19 mug ml(-1), respectively, for the control M. bovis strain, and the M. bovis BCG strain overexpressing Rv0636 showed a marked increase in resistance. In contrast, NAS-91 analogues demonstrated moderate in vitro activity, although increased resistance was again observed in FAS-II activity assays with the Rv0636-overexpressing strain. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and mycolic acid methyl ester (MAME) analysis of M. bovis BCG and the Rv0636-overexpressing strain revealed that the effect of the drug was relieved in the overexpressing strain, further implicating and potentially identifying Rv0636 as the target for these known FabZ dehydratase inhibitors. This study has identified candidates for further development as drug therapeutics against the mycobacterial FAS-II dehydratase enzyme.

  7. Avaliação de adesivos à base de taninos de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis e de Acacia mearnsii na fabricação de painéis aglomerados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Guimarães Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814588Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os métodos para a extração dos taninos da casca do Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, assim como verificar a viabilidade técnica de utilização dos taninos da casca de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, de Acacia mearnsii, de misturas de taninos de acácia negra e pinus e de misturas do adesivo ureia-formaldeído (UF com taninos de acácia e pinus na produção de adesivos para aglomerados. As cascas de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis foram fragmentadas em moinho de martelo, peneiradas, extraídas sob refluxo, por 2 horas, utilizada uma relação casca:licor de 1:15 p:v, em nove tratamentos. A melhor forma de extração foi utilizada para obtenção de grandes quantidades de extratos, que foram utilizados na confecção de adesivos tânicos e nas misturas com adesivo UF e com taninos comerciais de acácia negra na fabricação de painéis aglomerados. A adição de sulfito de sódio proporcionou maior extração de taninos, sendo recomendável a extração com adição de 5% de sulfito de sódio. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os taninos de acácia, quanto os de Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis, apresentam boas propriedades de colagem. É possível a adição de solução tânica de pinus à solução tânica de acácia e também substituir parte do adesivo UF pelos taninos de acácia em até 25% sem comprometer a qualidade da colagem. A substituição de 10% de UF por extrato tânico, tanto de pinus quanto de acácia, não alterou os valores de inchamento em espessura (IE dos painéis. É possível obter boas propriedades mecânicas com adesivos UF modificados com extratos tânicos na proporção de 10%. Os altos valores encontrados para ligação interna (LI dos painéis fabricados com extratos tânicos evidenciaram o potencial desses taninos para colagem de painéis de madeira.

  8. Quantificação da biomassa acima do solo de Acacia mearnsii de Wild., procedência Batemans Bay - Austrália

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay of black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild., at 2.4 years after planting was quantified. The provenance was established in soils of low fertility, with high acidity, at Fazenda Menezes, District of Capão Comprido, County of Butiá/RS. Nine trees were selected to form a sample. The destructive sampling comprised the individualization of the compartments of the above-ground biomass (leaves, live branches, dead branches, bark, and wood, and the determination of the dry matter allocated in each of these compartments. The production of above-ground biomass of the Australian provenance Batemans Bay was 36,1 Mg ha-1 with the following distribution: 20% in the leaves; 19,5% in the live branches; 2,8% in the dead branches; 11,8% in the bark and 45,9% in the wood.

  9. COMPOSICIÓN QUÍMICA Y PRODUCCIÓN DE GAS IN VITRO DE DIETAS CON VAINAS DE ACACIA FARNESIANA

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se valoró el efecto de la inclusión de vainas de Acacia farnesiana en dietas para corderos. Los niveles de A. farnesiana en los tratamientos fueron 0, 100, 200, 300 y 400 g/kg MS en dietas isoprotéicas para corderos en crecimiento que incluyeron rastrojo de maíz, harina de soya, salvado de trigo y mezcla de minerales. Las vainas aportan una importante cantidad de proteína (115 g/kg), de taninos (7,8 g/kg). La producción de gas in vitro disminuyó (p0,05) con la inclusión de 400 g/kg (304,45 ml...

  10. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Nefatti, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Leila, Chekir-Ghedira

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress.

  11. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of condensed tannins with potent antioxidant activity from the leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Liao, Meng-Meng; Chai, Wei-Ming

    2010-06-15

    The structures of the condensed tannins from leaf, stem bark and root bark of Acacia confusa were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, and their antioxidant activities were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that the condensed tannins from stem bark and root bark include propelargonidin and procyanidin, and the leaf condensed tannins include propelargonidin, procyanidin and prodelphinidin, all with the procyanidin dominating. The condensed tannins had different polymer chain lengths, varying from trimers to undecamers for leaf and root bark and to dodecamers for stem bark. The condensed tannins extracted from the leaf, stem bark and root bark all showed a very good DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power.

  12. Durability of five native Argentine wood species of the genera Prosopis and Acacia decayed by rot fungi and its relationship with extractive content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pometti, Carolina L; Palanti, Sabrina; Pizzo, Benedetto; Charpentier, Jean-Paul; Boizot, Nathalie; Resio, Claudio; Saidman, Beatriz O

    2010-09-01

    The natural durability of four Argentinean species of Prosopis and one of Acacia was evaluated in laboratory tests, according to European standards, using three brown rot and one white rot fungi. These tests were complemented by assessing the wood chemical composition. All the species were from moderately slightly durable to very durable (classes 4-1), and in all cases the heartwood was the most resistant to fungal attack. Chemical extractives content (organic, aqueous, tannic and phenolic) was higher in the heartwood. However, species durability was not related to extractive contents nor with wood density. Instead, it is possible that extractives could contribute to natural durability in different ways, including the effects related to the antioxidant properties of some of them.

  13. Enhanced tumor growth in the NaS1 sulfate transporter null mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Paul Anthony; Choyce, Allison; Chuang, Christine

    2010-01-01

    to detect collagen. After 14 days, tumor weights were markedly increased (by approximately 12-fold) in Nas1(-/-) mice when compared with Nas1(+/+) mice. Histological analyses of tumors revealed increased (by approximately 2.4-fold) vessel content, as well as markedly reduced collagen and immunoreactivity...

  14. Looking Backward: Parting Reflections on Higher Education Reform from NAS's Founding President

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-five years at the helm of the National Association of Scholars (NAS) have left the author with vivid memories: of knocks and bruises, peaks of exhilaration and, especially, unforgettable characters. But as for lessons learned, that's a very different story. In this article, the author shares some of the successes that happened in NAS for…

  15. 槐花蜂蜜酒酿造工艺最佳条件的探讨%Discussion on the Optimal Technological Condition for Acacia Honey Wine Brewing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅国城

    2015-01-01

    Using acacia honey as raw material, through single factor and orthogonal experimental design, the optimal fermentation parameters for acacia honey wine were as follows:Angel's highly active dry yeast BV818 was used as fermentation strain;the initial sugar concentration was 23%;the inoculum size was 0.24%;the initial pH was 4.0;the fermentation temperature was 28℃. Under this optimized condition, the alcoholic degree of the product was 12.4%vol;sensory evaluation score was 96 points;quaternary chitosan dosage was 0.3g/L;the light transmittance of wine was 98.65%allowed to stand at room temperature for 36h. Honey pure and good flavor were emerged.%以槐花蜜为原料,通过单因素及正交实验设计,确定槐花蜂蜜酒的最佳发酵工艺参数:发酵菌种为安琪高活性干酵母BV818、起始糖度23%、接种量0.25%、起始pH4.00、发酵温度28℃,在此工艺条件下,产品酒精度为12.4%vol,感官评分达96分;壳聚糖季铵盐用量为0.3g/L,室温条件下静置36h时,酒体透光率达98.65%。蜂蜜酒蜜香纯正,风味良好。

  16. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3 was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome.

  17. Natural Attenuation Software (NAS): A computer program for estimating remediation times of contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Brauner, S.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a modeling system called Natural Attenuation Software (NAS). NAS was designed as a screening tool to estimate times of remediation (TORs), associated with monitored natural attenuation (MNA), to lower groundwater contaminant concentrations to regulatory limits. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include advection, dispersion, sorption, biodegradation, and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution. This paper discusses the three main interactive components of NAS: 1) estimation of the target source concentration required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits, 2) estimation of the time required for NAFL contaminants in the source area to attenuate to a predetermined target source concentration, and 3) estimation of the time required for a plume extent to contract to regulatory limits after source reduction. The model's capability is illustrated by results from a case study at a MNA site, where NAS time of remediation estimates compared well with observed monitoring data over multiple years.

  18. Update on the NAS-NRC Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William F

    2006-12-01

    The National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) Twin Registry is one of the oldest, national population-based twin registries in the United States. It consists of 15,924 white male twin pairs born in the years 1917 to 1927 (inclusive), both of whom served in the armed forces, mostly during World War II. This article updates activity in this registry since the earlier 2002 article in Twin Research. The results of clinically based studies on dementia, Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, and primary osteoarthritis were published, as well as articles based on previously collected questionnaire data on chronic fatigue syndrome, functional limitations, and healthy aging. In addition, risk factor studies are being planned to merge clinical data with earlier collected risk factor data from questionnaires. Examination data from the subset of National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) twins resulted in a number of articles, including the relationship of endogenous sex hormones to coronary heart disease and morphological changes in aging brain structures. The NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory (a paper-and-pencil self-administered questionnaire) has been fielded for the first time. A push to consolidate the various data holdings of the registry is being made.

  19. O Estatuto da Pitié nas Obras de Rousseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Alves Vento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO:A hipótese apresentada neste texto é a de que a piedade, que Rousseau também denomina “segundo princípio”, encontrado por ele “ao meditar nas primeiras e mais simples operações da alma humana”, não é um princípio antagônico ao amor de si. Pretende-se mostrar como o dualismo radical dos princípios se renderia diante da evidência de uma unidade representada por um duplo movimento: o de fixar-se ou aderir-se em si (amor de si e o de expansão, que seria a expressão da piedade. Desse ponto de vista, o segundo princípio teria um status complementar do amor de si e não opositivo a ele, como algumas interpretações propõem. Entretanto, é uma discussão complexa, uma vez que nela estão implicadas as controvérsias entre os intérpretes de Rousseau em relação à possível divergência da noção de piedade, no Segundo Discurso, no Emílio e no Ensaio sobre a Origem das Línguas, além das discussões em torno da datação do Ensaio.

  20. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  1. CULTURA DE APRENDIZAGEM E DESEMPENHO NAS TV’S CEARENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo insere-se no campo da Cultura de Aprendizagem Organizacional. Procura-se analisar a relação entre a Cultura de Aprendizagem (CA e o Desempenho Organizacional (DO em emissoras de TVs cearense, na percepção de seus colaboradores. Trata-se de uma survey descritiva, com uma abordagem quantitativa. Na coleta de dados, utilizou-se o questionário “DLOQ-A” desenvolvido por Yang (2003, contendo 27 itens, respondido por 95 indivíduos. Foi aplicado o método de Mínimos Quadrados Ordinários para analisar a correção entre as duas variáveis: cultura de aprendizagem organizacional e desempenho organizacional. Os resultados indicam que o Desempenho Organizacional nas emissoras está fortemente associado ao desempenho financeiro. Os fatores de Cultura de Aprendizagem que possuem maior capacidade explicativa encontram-se no nível individual (oportunidades para a aprendizagem contínua e no nível organizacional (estímulo a liderança estratégica para a aprendizagem; e desenvolvimento da visão sistêmica da organização. Em síntese, a CA exerce forte influência no desempenho organizacional com o coeficiente de regressão ( de 0,763.

  2. Estruturas de poder nas redes de financiamento político nas eleições de 2010 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rossi Horochovski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa os 299.968 relacionamentos estabelecidos entre os 251.665 doadores e/ou receptores de recursos financeiros legais abrangidos pelas prestações de contas das campanhas nas eleições de 2010 no Brasil, englobando todos os candidatos e partidos. Aplica-se aos dados do Tribunal Superior Eleitoral (TSE a metodologia de análise de redes sociais e tratamentos estatísticos complementares para a exploração da topologia das sub-redes (componentes e dos cálculos de centralidade dos atores – candidatos, agentes partidários e financiadores privados. Os resultados expõem a alta conectividade e assimetria da rede de financiamento eleitoral no Brasil e mostram que o posicionamento dos atores em estratos da rede é determinante para o desempenho tanto de candidatos quanto de financiadores, revelando, de uma forma inédita, uma elite no poder político-eleitoral brasileiro.

  3. Nas brumas do HGPE: a imagem partidária nas campanhas presidenciais brasileiras (1989 a 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Ribeiro Dias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida a análise de alguns dados coletados em estudos anteriores acerca da imagem partidária construída pelos partidos políticos brasileiros em campanhas eleitorais, incorporando dados e informações relativos às eleições presidenciais de 2010. Entretanto, não se trata de apenas adicionar novos dados a uma estrutura de análise prévia. O objetivo é construir um diagnóstico da imagem partidária que vem sendo projetada em campanhas presidenciais no Brasil, entre 1989 e 2010. A discussão dos dados quantitativos é seguida por uma análise qualitativa direcionada especificamente à campanha de 2010. O objetivo é analisar os aspectos mais relevantes do papel dos partidos políticos nas campanhas dos dois principais candidatos em disputa: Dilma Rousseff (PT e José Serra (PSDB. A discussão sobre o papel do PSDB na candidatura de José Serra centrou-se no discurso antipartidário empreendido pela campanha televisiva. A discussão sobre o papel do PT na candidatura de Dilma Rousseff centrou-se na participação do Presidente Lula em sua campanha na televisão, analisando o papel da liderança na dinâmica eleitoral contemporânea.

  4. Photocurrent and Photoluminescence Investigations of GaInNAs and GaInNAs(Sb Quantum Wells Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Bouzid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated photocurrent (PC and photoluminescence (PL in sequentially grown GaInNAs/GaAs and GaInNAs(Sb/GaAsSbN quantum wells. Photocurrent transitions are analyzed by theoretical calculations using envelope function formalism taking into account the strain effect and the strong coupling between nitrogen localized state and the GaInAs band gap. The results are consistent with a type I band alignment and a conduction band offset ratio of about 80 %. Additionally, our results suggest an increase of the electron effective mass by as much as 0.035 m0 resulting from the flattening of the conduction band under nitrogen effect. The temperature evolution of the PL peak energy and the integrated PL intensity of GaInNAsSb QW show evidence of strong localization of carriers. Both, the high delocalization temperature, in the 230 K range and the strong shift between the PC and PL spectra of GaInNAsSb QW, indicate the presence of deeper localized states as compared to that in the GaInNAs QW.

  5. Effects of zinc acexamate (NAS-501) on superoxide radicals and lipid peroxidation of rat gastric mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Nakamura, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Kawanaka, N; Sato, M

    1999-04-01

    Zinc acexamate (NAS-501), an anti-ulcer agent, has been reported to prevent various acute experimental gastric mucosal lesions and duodenal ulcers in rats. In order to clarify the mechanisms by which NAS-501 exhibits the anti-ulcer effects, we investigated the anti-oxidative effects of NAS-501 in vitro and in vivo. NAS-501 significantly reduced the superoxide radical-dependent chemiluminescence, generated by hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase, rat neutrophils and guinea-pig macrophages in vitro. These in vitro effects were also confirmed by electron spin resonance using a 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping method. In addition, NAS-501 significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by increasing concentrations of Fe2+/ascorbate in rat gastric mucosal homogenate in vitro. Oral administration of NAS-501 (30 mg/kg) significantly inhibited production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance in rat gastric mucosa following per os instillation of 60% ethanol in 150 mmol/l HCl in vivo. These results suggest that NAS-501 exhibits the preventive effect from acute gastric mucosal lesions by the anti-oxidative activity.

  6. [Study on the Application of NAS-Based Algorithm in the NIR Model Optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ying; Xiang, Bing-ren; He, Lan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, net analysis signal (NAS)-based concept was introduced to the analysis of multi-component Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts. NAS algorithm was utilized for the preprocessing of spectra, and NAS-based two-dimensional correlation analysis was used for the optimization of NIR model building. Simultaneous quantitative models for three flavonol aglycones: quercetin, keampferol and isorhamnetin were established respectively. The NAS vectors calculated using two algorithms introduced from Lorber and Goicoechea and Olivieri (HLA/GO) were applied in the development of calibration models, the reconstructed spectra were used as input of PLS modeling. For the first time, NAS-based two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was used for wave number selection. The regions appeared in the main diagonal were selected as useful regions for model building. The results implied that two NAS-based preprocessing methods were successfully used for the analysis of quercetin, keampferol and isorhamnetin with a decrease of factor number and an improvement of model robustness. NAS-based algorithm was proven to be a useful tool for the preprocessing of spectra and for optimization of model calibration. The above research showed a practical application value for the NIRS in the analysis of complex multi-component petrochemical medicine with unknown interference.

  7. O Impacto Financeiro das Auditorias da Qualidade nas empresas Portuguesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Passos Batista

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho aborda como temática principal as implicações financeiras que as empresas portuguesas têm com a implementação e posterior certificação do Sistema da Qualidade e respetivas Auditorias da Qualidade. A revisão da literatura demonstra que as empresas não publicam os resultados financeiros sobre a temática em questão, tornando-se necessário adquirir informação através de um questionário. Foram enviados cerca de 126 questionários. A nossa amostra é no entanto de 32 questionários validados. Pode-se concluir que os 5 principais benefícios gerais, ou benefícios financeiros indiretos para as empresas portuguesas foram, respetivamente: melhoria da organização interna; melhoria da imagem da empresa; aumento da satisfação dos clientes; melhoria contínua no atendimento ao cliente; melhoria da posição competitiva. Em termos de benefícios financeiros diretos os 3 principais benefícios obtidos pelas empresas foram: Aumento do volume de negócios; Desempenho (redução de custos;Aumento da produtividade da empresa. Espera-se assim dar um contributo para o conhecimento do impacto, nomeadamente, financeiro dos Sistemas de Gestão da Qualidade e respetivas auditorias nas empresas portuguesas.

  8. Imagens e representações de masculinidades nas telenovelas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Donza Cancela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Inicialmente pensadas como um produto para as mulheres, as telenovelas foram modificando-se ao longo dos anos e alcançaram como público-consumidor os homens. Um aspecto dessa mudança pode ser percebido nos merchandisings (visual e social. Assim, os folhetins eletrônicos contribuem para a visualização, construção, manutenção e ressignificação do “ser homem” e das masculinidades na contemporaneidade, desempenhando importante papel como fonte de conhecimento para a maioria da população, acionando imagens e experiências. Para discutir a relação entre telenovela e masculinidade, realizou-se entrevistas com cinco mulheres e onze homens, cuja faixa etária estava compreendida entre 18 e 30 anos. O objetivo da pesquisa era perceber a relação que homens e mulheres de Belém do Pará têm com os folhetins eletrônicos; bem como, quais as representações do masculino que eles/elas identificam nas telenovelas da atualidade. Ver-se-á que é percebida uma mudança nos tipos masculinos que são veiculados hodienarmente; contudo, o perfil recorrentemente identificado ainda é o heterossexual, marcado pela virilidade, a despeito de novos personagens relacionados ao modo de ser metrossexual e à homossexualidade ganharem cada vez mais espaço e serem lembrados pelos/as interlocutores/as.

  9. A Inovação nas Empresas de Caruaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Felipe Pereira Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão em torno da inovação é tema de grande relevância na atualidade. Trata-se de um processo que, ao mesmo tempo, é sistemático, composto de riscos e desafios assumidos na busca por resultados positivos, seja pelo investimento em pesquisa, desenvolvimento e capacitação dos profissionais, pela redução de gastos com produção ou processos, aumento do faturamento ou alcance de um novo mercado. Desse modo, este artigo tem como objetivo geral colher evidências empíricas da percepção dos empreendedores do município de Caruaru – PE sobre inovação. A metodologia utilizada é classificada como survey exploratória. Os dados foram coletados mediante questionários fechados enviados via e-mail aos empreendedores de Caruaru-PE. Ao fim da pesquisa, processaram-se a codificação e a tabulação dos dados, seguida pela descrição e análise dos mesmos. A análise dos dados foi feita através do programa Microsoft Excel 2010, onde após o tratamento dos dados, obtiveram-se os gráficos com as variáveis pesquisadas. Como principais resultados da pesquisa destacam-se a identificação do foco e das características da inovação nas empresas de Caruaru-PE, bem como o perfil do empreendedor inovador caruaruense.

  10. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Ney Meziat Filho; Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTA...

  11. ANÁLISIS GENÓMICO-FUNCIONAL DE PROTEÍNAS CON DOMINIOS TIR EN YUCA

    OpenAIRE

    VERÓNICA ROMÁN REYNA; CAMILO LÓPEZ

    2012-01-01

    Dentro de las proteínas implicadas en inmunidad de plantas y animales se encuentran aquellas que poseen un dominio TIR (Toll Interleukin Receptor). El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis genómico global de las proteínas que presentan un dominio TIR en yuca y discernir su posible función en la resistencia a la bacteriosis vascular. En el proteoma de yuca se logró identificar 46 proteínas con dominios TIR, los cuales fueron divididos en cuatro categorías según la presencia o no de...

  12. Propiedades de geles de concentrado de proteínas de lactosuero, miel y harina

    OpenAIRE

    Yamul, Diego Karim

    2008-01-01

    La capacidad de las proteínas de suero de leche para formar geles por calentamiento es una de las principales propiedades funcionales que se esperan de estas proteínas. El proceso de gelificación en sistemas de alimentos se lleva a cabo normalmente en varias etapas incluyendo los cambios conformacionales de las moléculas de proteína, su agregación, y la formación de una red de gel tridimensional por la interacción de agregados. En la gelificación termotrópica de las proteínas globulares, la d...

  13. Estabilidad de emulsiones preparadas con proteínas de sueros de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Wagner; Pablo Sobral

    2011-01-01

    Por precipitación con acetona en frio, se obtuvieron muestras de proteínas aisladas de dos sueros de soja, el suero SS proveniente de la obtención de aislados de soja y el suero de tofu ST. A partir del SS y del mismo suero previamente liofilizado y calentado (SSLC) se obtuvieron las proteínas denominadas PSS y PSSLC, respectivamente; a partir de ST se preparó la muestra PST. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la estabilidad de emulsiones o/w preparadas con las proteínas de sueros de soja e...

  14. Quantificação de taninos nas cascas de jurema-preta e acácia-negra

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Calegari; Pedro Jorge Goes Lopes; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Darci Alberto Gatto; Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2016-01-01

    Due to its chemical complexity, there are several methodologies for vegetable tannins quantification. Thus, this work aims at quantifying both tannin and non-tannin substances present in the barks of Mimosa tenuiflora and Acacia mearnsii by two different methods. From bark particles of both species, analytical solutions were produced by using a steam-jacketed extractor. The solution was analyzed by Stiasny and hide-powder (no chromed) methods. For both species, tannin levels were superior whe...

  15. 78 FR 12951 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard beneficiary's claim to be paid. Currently, NAS are required for non-emergency inpatient mental health care...

  16. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... establishes Class E surface airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, due to the Air Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) now operating on a part time basis. This action enhances...

  17. 75 FR 28610 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R- 10/038A). This draft report responds to the key recommendations and comments included in the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)...

  18. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... operating hours, and establish Class E Airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, due to the Air Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on a part time basis. This...

  19. 76 FR 57690 - TRICARE; Elimination of the Non-Availability Statement (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... (NAS) Requirement for Non-Emergency Inpatient Mental Health Care AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... states a NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard... issuance of NAS(s) has been eliminated and are only required for non-enrolled beneficiaries who live...

  20. 75 FR 35800 - Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... AGENCY Draft EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments... Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments'' (EPA/600/R-10/038A) for independent external review, and... Sciences (NAS) 2006 report. In addition, it includes new analyses on potential human effects that...

  1. Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis-nodulating rhizobia Sinorhizobium arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 produce tetra- and pentameric LCOs that are N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Petri; Soupas, Laura; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Lindström, Kristina

    2004-04-28

    Sinorhizobium arboris and S. kostiense are rhizobia that nodulate the tropical leguminous trees Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. The lipochito-oligosaccharidic signalling molecules (LCOs) of S. arboris HAMBI 2361 and S. kostiense HAMBI 2362 were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The major LCOs produced by the strains were shown to be pentameric, acylated with common fatty acids, N-methylated, O-6-carbamoylated and partially sulfated, as are the LCOs characterized to date for other Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. Besides the major LCOs the two strains produced (i) tetrameric LCOs, (ii) LCOs acylated with fatty acids other than those commonly found, (iii) LCOs with only an acyl substituent and (iv) noncarbamoylated LCOs. Production of LCOs (i) to (iii) are novel among Acacia-nodulating rhizobia. The roles of the different structural characteristics of LCOs in the rhizobium-A. senegal symbiosis are discussed. Specific structural features of the LCOs are proposed to be important in the selection of effective nitrogen-fixing rhizobia by A. senegal.

  2. O EFEITO CHAMARIZ NAS DECISÕES DE INVESTIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Tibúrcio Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo das fi nanças comportamentais vem ganhando destaque e sendo objeto de diversos trabalhos acadêmicos. Muitos conceitos tradicionais de economia, sobre o homem econômico, têm sido questionados, ao se considerarem aspectos observados na prática. Principalmente, a partir dos modernos estudos de economia comportamental, aponta-se que o homem se comporta de maneira enviesada e irracional, para tomar suas decisões. É infl uenciado por detalhes que podem levá-lo a fazer escolhas menos vantajosas, relacionadas ao seu dinheiro, e nem mesmo se dar conta disso. O efeito chamariz refere-se à infl uência que um item, a ser escolhido, exerce sobre aqueles que farão uma escolha, inclusive levando- os a tomar uma decisão que, anteriormente, era duvidosa, ou até mesmo a mudar uma escolha anterior. Esse efeito mostra como o homem cria falsas bases de comparação, para simplifi car um ambiente de escolha entre opções. O trabalho faz uma pesquisa sobre uma decisão de investimento, em que há duas situações, com a presença ou não de um chamariz, algo que pode infl uenciar a decisão fi nal dos investidores. Participaram da pesquisa 386 alunos de graduação do curso de Ciências Contábeis, de cinco universidades, do Distrito Federal. Os alunos foram considerados investidores capazes de analisar índices de liquidez e de julgar qual seria a melhor opção para investir. Viu-se que as pessoas se sentem incentivadas a investir em empresas nas quais foi criada uma falsa base de comparação, pela presença do chamariz. Esse efeito é observado com maior intensidade em alguns grupos específi cos de investidores. Sugere-se a elaboração de novas pesquisas na área, com o objetivo de observar esse efeito em outras situações e de divulgar o estudo das fi nanças comportamentais.

  3. A LITISPENDÊNCIA NAS AÇÕES COLETIVAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Florentino Lascala

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Os interesses transindividuais reclamam a adaptação das regras do tradicional processo civil, pensado e elaborado para tutelar o interesse particular. Neste artigo, será abordada a litispendência nas ações coletivas, suas características, efeitos e particularidades. Litispendência  é  a repetição de ação em curso. Em relação às ações coletivas, este fenômeno processual pode existir mesmo que a segunda ação seja proposta por  autor diverso. Isso porque, no pólo ativo da  demanda coletiva, a parte está em juízo defendendo interesse alheio, de grupo determinável ou indeterminável. Então, ainda que haja legitimadosdiversos no pólo ativo, buscando o mesmo interesse coletivo, na verdade, ambos os autores estão em juízo representando a mesma coletividade. É que,  no campo da legitimação extraordinária, ainda que a ação seja proposta por autor diferente, o titular do direito material estará igualmente representado,  havendo, portanto, repetição da causa em juízo. Com isso, pode-se afirmar haver litispendência dessas ações. Apesar de haver litispendência, o intuito do processo coletivo é a busca da verdade real e, por isso, seria prejudicial a extinção de uma das demandas. Portanto,  o que se quer provar é que o efeito típico da conexão pode ser aqui aplicado, ou seja, o efeito de reunião das ações para julgamento conjunto. Esta é a solução que mais atende ao resultado útil do processo na tutela coletiva.

  4. A reserva de vagas para negros nas universidade brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Maggie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O GOVERNO do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, depois de votada por aclamação na Assembléia Legislativa, adotou em 2001 uma política de cotas para "negros e pardos" nas suas instituições de ensino superior. Na trilha da preparação da III Conferência Mundial das Nações Unidas de Combate ao Racismo, Discriminação Racial, Xenofobia e Intolerância Correlata que teve lugar em Durban, na África do Sul, em 2001, esta política e aquelas decretadas pelo governo federal não foram objeto de um amplo debate público. Este debate começa agora fracamente depois dos fatos consumados. Os autores analisam os caminhos dessa mudança de rumo radical do paradigma racial brasileiro através da descrição de cartas de leitores ao jornal O Globo. Estes leitores, os nossos "nativos", são ponto de partida para avaliar as dificuldades e as conseqüências que uma tal política de Estado impõe à população brasileira, especialmente àqueles que, longe do poder das elites, serão obrigados a se definir "racialmente" para serem tratados desigualmente na luta por vagas no serviço público e na universidade.IN 2001, a law obliging the institutions of higher learning of the State of Rio de Janeiro to reserve 40% of all places for "blacks and browns" was passed by acclamation and without debate. Along the path of the preparations for the III United Nations World Conference against Racism, which was held in Durban in 2001, this policy and other similar ones decreed by the federal government came into being without ample public debate. Ex post facto this debate is now only beginning. The authors analyze the sequence of this radical change in Brazil's racial paradigm through a description of readers' letters published in the newspaper O Globo. These readers, our "natives" lead us to evaluate the difficulties and the consequences that this government policy imposes on the Brazilian population, especially those poorer citizens, who, far from the power elites, will

  5. Efecto del Peso de la Semilla en el Crecimiento de Acacia Melanoxylon R. Br. a los 6 Meses de Edad en Tres Condiciones de Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Castañeda María Del Carmen

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1991 se estableció un ensayo con el fin de estudiar el efecto del peso de la semilla de acacia negra (Acacia melanoxylon R. Br. sobre diferentes parámetros germinativos bajo condiciones de laboratorio (fase I, el posterior comportamiento de las plántulas en el campo bajo diferentes condiciones de suelo (fase II, la respuesta en crecimiento a la fertilización inicial (fase III y tardía (fase IV en suelo remanente de minería, muy severamente erosionado. El presente informe corresponde a la fase II, esto es la evaluación a los 6 meses de edad de la sobrevivencia, el rendimiento y el incremento en altura de plántulas provenientes de 4 grupos de semillas de un mismo lote clasificadas por peso, bajo diferentes condiciones de suelo. Las semillas se clasificaron en el Laboratorio de Semillas Forestales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín, con base en una distribución de frecuencias normalizada, en 4 grupos diferenciados por su peso. Después de 60 días de la siembra el crecimiento promedio bajo condiciones de Laboratorio (fase I en Gómez y Piedrahita, 1994 fue de 10.57 cm para las plántulas provenientes de semilla pesada, 7.85 cm para las de semilla mediana, 4.77 cm para las de semilla liviana y 7.17 cm para las semillas del grupo testigo. A esta edad (60 días las plántulas se trasplantaron a bolsa individual y a los 120 días se llevaron definitivamente al campo. La fase II del ensayo se estableció en la cuenca hidrográfica de Piedras Blancas (Municipio de Guarne Antioquia en áreas aledañas a las quebradas Piedras Blancas y La Rosario (zona de vida bosque húmedo montano bajo. En el campo se seleccionaron tres sirios definidos por su fisiografía así: 1 terreno plano inundable con una pendiente de 1%; 2 terreno ligeramente inclinado con pendiente de 18%; 3 terreno inclinado con pendiente de 32 %, muy severamente erosionado. A los seis meses de establecido el ensayo en el campo se encontró que

  6. A EPÊNTESE DO FOMEMA “I” NAS FLEXÕES VERBAIS.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Entendemos por epêntese o metaplasmo por acréscimo que consisteem inserir-se fonema no meio da palavra.Exemplo: stella>estrela.Nas flexões verbais, especificamente, a inserção do fonema “i”em verbos terminados em EAR ocorre quando, nas suas formas rizotônicas,(acentuação tônica sobre a raiz do vocábulo) transforma-se o “e” doradical em “ei”:Isto ocorre nas três pessoas do singular e na terceira pessoa doplural do presente do indicativo e do subjuntivo; fenômeno idêntico verifica-se nas for...

  7. Environmental Assessment for the management of the Greenbelt Area at Naval Air Station (NAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 3,595 acres of land around Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon, known as the greenbelt, are out leased to local farmers for agricultural production. In...

  8. Algoritmos evolutivos para predição de estruturas de proteínas

    OpenAIRE

    Telma Woerle de Lima

    2006-01-01

    A Determinação da Estrutura tridimensional de Proteínas (DEP) a partir da sua seqüência de aminoácidos é importante para a engenharia de proteínas e o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos. Uma alternativa para este problema tem sido a aplicação de técnicas de computação evolutiva. As abordagens utilizando Algoritmos Evolutivos (AEs) tem obtido resultados relevantes, porém estão restritas a pequenas proteínas, com dezenas de aminoácidos e a algumas classes de proteínas. Este trabalho propõe a inv...

  9. Composition control of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyashita, Naoya; Ahsan, Nazmul; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Islam, Muhammad Monirul [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    In order to precisely control the composition of quinary GaInNAsSb alloy, we investigated the incorporation behavior of constituent atoms during atomic hydrogen-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth. The nitrogen (N) composition, in comparison of GaNAs and GaNAsSb, increased by the supply of antimony (Sb). However, addition of indium (In) decreases the N composition during Sb mediated growth of GaInNAsSb, which enables obtaining the same N composition when an adequate In composition is chosen. It was revealed that Sb incorporation was increased when (i) In composition decreased, (ii) Sb flux increased, (iii) growth temperature decreased, and (iv) growth rate increased. These results are thought to be related to the effect of competitive role among strain, coverage, desorption, and segregation. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Boekbespreking van C. Nas, ‘EQUIPping’ delinquent male adolescents to think pro-socially

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, René

    2006-01-01

    Bespreking (review) van: Coralijn Nas, ‘EQUIPping’ delinquent male adolescents to think pro-socially (diss. Utrecht), Faculteit Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, 2005, 107 blz., ISBN 90-8559-054-x.

  11. Market-Based Mechanisms for Efficient Allocation of NAS Resources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both FAA and NASA research has highlighted the need for efficient and equitable allocation of NAS resources and increased operational flexibility. In particular,...

  12. Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace (SMART NAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Develop a simulation and modeling capability that includes: (a) Assessment of multiple parallel universes, (b) Accepts data feeds, (c) Allows for live virtual constructive distribute environment, (d) Enables integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies and National Airspace System (NAS) architectures.

  13. An industrialized technique for raising tissue culture plant of Acacia cincinnata%卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张月娇

    2012-01-01

    通过对卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗技术研究的阐述,总结了卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗最优培养基配方为:诱导培养基为改良MS+ 6-BA 0.3 mg/L+ KT 0.5 mg/L+ NAA 0.3 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,继代增殖培养基为改良MS+ 6-BA 0.8 mg/L+ KT 0.3 mg/L+ NAA 0.6 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,生根培养基为1/2改良MS+ NAA 0.5 mg/L+蔗糖20 g/L+卡拉胶8 g/L,pH值为5.8.用此培养基配方进行卷荚相思组培工厂化育苗其诱导率可达70%,有效芽增殖倍数可达3倍以上,生根率可达95%以上.%A research on tissue culture technique of Acacia cincinnata was summarized and the optimal mediums were proposed in this paper. The medium of improved MS +6-BA 0. 3mg/L + KT 0. 5mg/L + NAA 0. 3mg/L + sucrose 30 g/L + carrageenan 8g/L was optimal for inducement, the medium of improved MS + 6-BA 0. 8mg/L + KT 0. 3mg/L + NAA 0. 6mg/L + sucrose 30 g/L + carrageenan 8 g/L was optimal for subculture. The medium of 1/2 improved MS + NAA 0. 5mg/L + sucrose 20 g/L + carrageenan 8 g/L was optimal for rooting, and the Ph was 5. 8. Using these mediums, the inducement rate of industrialized tissue culture of Acacia cincinnata could be up to 70% , effective bud multiplication was more than three times, the rooting rate was more than 95%.

  14. Fractal analysis of canopy architectures of Acacia angustissima, Gliricidia sepium, and Leucaena collinsii for estimation of aboveground biomass in a short rotation forest in eastern Zambia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin.L.Kaonga

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted at Msekera Regional Agricultural Research Station in eastern Zambia to (1) describe canopy branching properties of Acacia angustissima,Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena collinsii in short rotation forests,(2) test the existence of self similarity from repeated iteration of a structural unit in tree canopies,(3) examined intra-speciflc relationships between functional branching characteristics,and (4) determine whether allometric equations for relating aboveground tree biomass to fractal properties could accurately predict aboveground biomass.Measurements of basal diameter (D10) at 10cm aboveground and total height (H),and aboveground biomass of 27 trees were taken,but only nine trees representative of variability of the stand and the three species were processed for functional branching analyses (FBA) of the shoot systems.For each species,fractal properties of three trees,including fractal dimension (Dfract),bifurcation ratios (p) and proportionality ratios (q) of branching points were assessed.The slope of the linear regression ofp on proximal diameter was not significantly different (P <0.01) from zero and hence the assumption that p is independent of scale,a pre-requisite for use of fractal branching rules to describe a fractal tree canopy,was fulfilled at branching orders with link diameters >1.5 cm.The proportionality ration q for branching patterns of all tree species was constant at all scales.The proportion ofq values >0.9 (fq) was 0.8 for all species.Mean fractal dimension (Dfract) values (1.5-1.7) for all species showed that branching patterns had an increasing magnitude of intricacy.Since Dfract values were >1.5,branching patterns within species were self similar.Basal diameter (D10),proximal diameter and Dfract described most of variations in aboveground biomass,suggesting that allometric equations for relating aboveground tree biomass to fractal properties could accurately predict aboveground biomass.Thus,assessed Acacia

  15. The NAS Alert System: a look at the first eight years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Pam L.; Neilson, Matt; Huge, Dane H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS) database program (http://nas.er.usgs.gov) tracks the distribution of introduced aquatic organisms across the United States. Awareness of, and timely response to, novel species introductions by those involved in nonindigenous aquatic species management and research requires a framework for rapid dissemination of occurrence data as it is incorporated into the NAS database. In May 2004, the NAS program developed an alert system to notify registered users of new introductions as part of a national early detection/rapid response system. This article summarizes information on system users and dispatched alerts from the system's inception through the end of 2011. The NAS alert system has registered over 1,700 users, with approximately 800 current subscribers. A total of 1,189 alerts had been transmitted through 2011. More alerts were sent for Florida (134 alerts) than for any other state. Fishes comprise the largest taxonomic group of alerts (440), with mollusks, plants, and crustaceans each containing over 100 alerts. Most alerts were for organisms that were intentionally released (414 alerts), with shipping, escape from captivity, and hitchhiking also representing major vectors. To explore the archive of sent alerts and to register, the search and signup page for the alert system can be found online at http://nas.er.usgs.gov/AlertSystem/default.aspx.

  16. Appraisal of {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods for estimating N{sub 2} fixation by understorey Acacia leiocalyx and A. disparimma in a native forest of subtropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Shahla Hosseini; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Environmental Futures Centre; Sun, Fangfang [Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Research Centre for Quality, Safety and Standard of Agricultural Products; Chen, Chengrong [Griffith Univ., Nathan, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre; Wild, Clyde [Griffith Univ., Gold Coast, QLD (Australia). School of Environment, Environmental Futures Centre

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: It is anticipated that global climate change will increase the frequency of wildfires in native forests of eastern Australia. Understorey legumes such as Acacia species play an important role in maintaining ecosystem nitrogen (N) balance through biological N fixation (BNF). This is particularly important in Australian native forests with soils of low nutrient status and frequent disturbance of the nutrient cycles by fires. This study aimed to examine {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques in terms of their utilisation for evaluation of N{sub 2} fixation of understorey acacias and determine the relationship between species ecophysiological traits and N{sub 2} fixation. Materials and methods: A trial was established at sites 1 and 2 located at Toohey Forest, Queensland, Australia, a eucalypt-dominated native forest, to examine the determination of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance methods. Toohey Forest is an urban forest and subjected to frequent fuel reduction burns to protect the adjacent properties. Plant physiological status was measured to determine the relationship between physiological and N{sub 2} fixation activities. Results and discussion: Both {sup 15}N enrichment and {sup 15}N natural abundance techniques may be used to estimate N{sub 2} fixation of acacia tree species. The estimation of BNF using {sup 15}N enrichment was higher than those of the {sup 15}N natural abundance method. A grass reference plant, Themeda triandra, as well as tree reference plants provided an appropriate {delta}{sup 15}N signal. Potential B values for Acacia spp. between -0.3 permille and 1.0 permille provided an acceptable BNF estimation. This suburban forest is located nearby a busy highway leading to N deposition over time with consequent negative {delta}{sup 15}N signal. This N deposition may explain the separation between the {delta}{sup 15}N signal of the acacias and that of the reference plants which led to

  17. Causas e leis nas ciências do homem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Albieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta humeana acerca do método e da investigação na ciência do homem tornou-o um precursor do conhecido modelo covering-law de explicação científica, tal como defendido por Hempel, Nagel e outros filósofos contemporâneos da ciência. A interpretação da teoria da ciência de Hume como precursora desse modelo costuma ser majoritária entre os comentadores de sua filosofia. Apenas Donald Livingston travou uma discussão singular contra essa quase unanimidade, propondo-se a defender a existência de dois modelos de explicação na epistemologia de Hume, um adequado às ciências naturais, outro às morais. O autor apóia-se em certas passagens em que Hume parece reconhecer que, em ciências morais, predominariam as explicações recorrendo a causas morais, as quais consistiriam nas razões do agente ou conjunto de agentes envolvidos no evento a ser explicado. Defendemos que a diversidade das explicações causais naturais e morais em Hume pode ser discutida, não a partir de uma distinção radical de natureza, como aquela que Livingston quer estabelecer, mas a partir de uma distinção de grau: os graus de certeza que distinguem entre provas e probabilidades, entre explicações pela via dedutiva a partir de leis ou por generalizações estatísticas. Isto é, mais de acordo com a assimetria que Nagel reconhece entre ciências do particular e generalizadoras, quanto ao objetivo de estabelecer leis, no segundo caso, ou de apenas aplicá-las, no primeiro. Uma distinção compatível com aquela que Hume já adotara, atribuindo graus diferentes de generalidade de modo análogo a ciências naturais ou morais.Hume's proposal of a science of man is often taken as a precursor of the now well-known covering-law model of scientific explanation, sustained by Hempel, Nagel and other contemporary philosophers of science. Among Hume's commentators D. Livingston is an exception, defending the existence of two models of explanation in Hume

  18. Determinação da produção de casca de acácia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Renato Schneider

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com acácia-negra, Acacia mearnsii De Wild., e teve como objetivo a elaboração de tabelas de produção de casca verde, estimadas através de equações obtidas por modelagem da produção em função da idade, altura dominante e área basal, expressa pelo modelo genérico: log C = b0 + b1 h02 + b2 log G, sendo C = peso de casca verde por hectare; G = área basal por hectare; ho = altura dominante. Esta equação apresentou uma alta precisão, sendo que as variáveis independentes, altura dominante e área basal, explicaram 97,8% da variação da produção de casca verde por hectare.

  19. Evaluation of Acacia nilotica as a non conventional low cost biosorbent for the elimination of Pb(II and Cd(II ions from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Waseem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study a biomass derived from the leaves of Acacia nilotica was used as an adsorbent material for the removal of cadmium and lead from aqueous solution. The effect of various operating variables, viz., adsorbent dosage, contact time, pH and temperature on the removal of cadmium and lead has been studied. Maximum adsorption of cadmium and lead arises at a concentration of 2 g/50 ml and 3 g/50 ml and at a pH value of 5 and 4, respectively. The sorption data favored the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of the metal ions by A. nilotica biomass. Based on regression coefficient, the equilibrium data found were fitted well to the Langmuir equilibrium model than other models. Thermodynamic parameters such as free energy change (ΔG°, enthalpy change (ΔH° and entropy change (ΔS° have been calculated, respectively revealed the spontaneous, endothermic and feasible nature of adsorption process. The activation energy of the biosorption (Ea was estimated as 9.34 kJ mol−1 for Pb and 3.47 kJ mol−1 for Cd from Arrhenius plot at different temperatures.

  20. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs.

  1. Purification of a Kunitz-type inhibitor from Acacia polyphyllaDC seeds: characterization and insecticidal properties against Anagasta kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Suzy Wider; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho; Bezerra, Cezar da Silva; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Regina Kill, Marta; Machado, Olga Lima Tavares; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria Ligia Rodrigues

    2013-03-13

    Anagasta kuehniella is a polyphagous pest that causes economic losses worldwide. This species produces serine proteases as its major enzymes for protein digestion. In this study, a new serine-protease inhibitor was isolated from Acacia polyphylla seeds (AcKI).Further analysis revealed that AcKI is formed by two polypeptide chains with a relative molecular mass of ∼20 kDa. The effects of AcKI on the development, survival, and enzymatic activity of Anagasta kuehniella larvae were evaluated, by incorporating AcKI in an artificial diet. Bioassays revealed a reduction in larval weight of ∼50% with the lower concentration of AcKI used in the study (0.5%). Although additionalassays showed an increase in endogenous trypsin and chymotrypsin activities, with a degree of AcKI-insensivity, AcKI produces an anti nutritional effect on A. kuehniella, indicating AcKI as a promising bioinsecticide protein for engineering plants that are resistant to insect pests.

  2. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, A. A.; Al-Huqail, A. A.; Shah, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71), and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae) to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth.) against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols) and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR). PMID:27597969

  3. LITTER AND MACRONUTRIENT DEPOSITION IN A STAND OF BLACK WATTLE (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viera

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated litter and macronutrient deposition in a six year-old black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. stand, in Butia-RS. Five plots (18mx24m of litter were systematically allocated, each one with four trap collectors of 1 m2. The litter intercepted was collected monthly between January 2002 and December 2003. After collection, litter was divided into leaves, flowers, fruits and caterpillar (Adeloneivaia subangulata feces, oven dried, weighed, milled and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents. The average annual litter deposition reached 4.32 Mg ha-1, and was composed of 75.5, 11.1, 11.2 and 2.2% of leaves, flowers, fruits and feces, respectively. Litter deposition was more concentrated in the spring. The higher deposition of nutrients was through the leaf fraction, which contributed annually with a great amount of litter biomass, although not showing the highest nutrient concentrations. The supply of total amount of macronutrients to the soil was of 74.8 of N, 26.8 of K, 23.1 of Ca, 7.9 of Mg and 2.4 of P (kg ha-1.

  4. Hop and Acacia Phytochemicals Decreased Lipotoxicity in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, db/db Mice, and Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna M. Minich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-based compounds rho-iso-alpha acids (RIAA from Humulus lupulus (hops and proanthocyanidins (PAC from Acacia nilotica have been shown to modulate insulin signaling in vitro. We investigated their effects on triglyceride (TG deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, glucose and insulin in obese mouse models, and metabolic syndrome markers in adults with metabolic syndrome. The combination of RIAA and PAC synergistically increased TG content and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes under hyperinsulinemic conditions and reduced glucose or insulin in obese mice. In a clinical trial, tablets containing 100 mg RIAA and 500 mg PAC or placebo were administered to metabolic syndrome subjects (3 tablets/day, n=35; 6 tablets/day, n=34; or placebo, n=35 for 12 weeks. Compared to placebo, subjects taking 3 tablets daily showed greater reductions in TG, TG  :  HDL, fasting insulin, and HOMA scores. The combination of RIAA  :  PAC at 1  :  5 (wt  :  wt favorably modulates dysregulated lipids in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

  5. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  6. EVALUATION OF HEAVY METALS IN ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF ACACIA CATECHU AS INDICATOR OF POLLUTION BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC (FAAS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi.T

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acacia catechu ethanolic leaf extract were selected to determine their heavy metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant material was procured from green chem herbal extracts, Bangalore, India and was digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 6030 and the concentration of different heavy metals in the plant sample was calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant material is safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contains heavy metals such as arsenic (As, lead (Pb and mercury (Hg and cadmium (Cd, which were present within the permissible limit.

  7. 马占相思优树组培快繁技术研究%Tissue Culture Technique of Acacia mangium Elite Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄烈健; 陈祖旭; 张赛群; 梁日高

    2012-01-01

    Taking Acacia mangium elite trees as explants, the tissue culture technique system for dormant bud of 3-5 year-old elite trees was established. The system includes the germination-inducing of the dormant buds, the multiplying of shoots, the rooting of adventitious shoots, and the pre-treating and transplanting of seedlings. The medium MS + Sucrose 30 g · L-1 + BA 0.5 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.1 mg · L-1 was used for inducing the dormant buds; the medium MS + BA 1.0 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.05 mg · L-1 was used for multiplying; while the medium 1/2 MS + IBA 2.0 mg · L-1 + NAA 0.5 mg · L-1 was used for rooting. The results revealed that it was viable to producing field seedlings with micropropagation. Although the branches with dormant buds harbored many kinds of microbes and the adventitious shoots were not easy to root, 20% to 30% healthy germination could be yielded and the rooting rate of adventitious shoots could be higher than 85%. Pretreated with ABT powder ( rooting hormone) , both the rooting rate and survival rate of adventitious shoots were nearly 100%.

  8. Induction of Osmoregulation and Modulation of Salt Stress in Acacia gerrardii Benth. by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of soil microbiota in plant stress management, though speculated a lot, is still far from being completely understood. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine synergistic impact of plant growth promoting rhizobacterium, Bacillus subtilis (BERA 71, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF (Claroideoglomus etunicatum; Rhizophagus intraradices; and Funneliformis mosseae to induce acquired systemic resistance in Talh tree (Acacia gerrardii Benth. against adverse impact of salt stress. Compared to the control, the BERA 71 treatment significantly enhanced root colonization intensity by AMF, in both presence and absence of salt. We also found positive synergistic interaction between B. subtilis and AMF vis-a-vis improvement in the nutritional value in terms of increase in total lipids, phenols, and fiber content. The AMF and BERA 71 inoculated plants showed increased content of osmoprotectants such as glycine, betaine, and proline, though lipid peroxidation was reduced probably as a mechanism of salt tolerance. Furthermore, the application of bioinoculants to Talh tree turned out to be potentially beneficial in ameliorating the deleterious impact of salinity on plant metabolism, probably by modulating the osmoregulatory system (glycine betaine, proline, and phenols and antioxidant enzymes system (SOD, CAT, POD, GR, APX, DHAR, MDAHR, and GSNOR.

  9. Analyse des potentialités de la commercialisation de la gomme arabique (Acacia senegal sur les marchés Italiens et Européens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Daniele

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La gomme arabique produite en Afrique (Soudan, Tchad, Sénégal, etc. en particulier par l’Acacia senegal est une espèce spontanée exploitée grâce à ses exsudations qui sont particulièrement important du point de vue commercial et industriel (alimentation, boisson, oenologie, cosmétique, pharmaceutique, etc.. Le premier exportateur au niveau mondial est le Soudan, suivi du Tchad, tandis que les plus grands importateurs mondiaux sont représentés par l’Inde, les Etats Unis et l’Union Européenne. L’Italie connait une croissance de ses importations et exploitations de gomme arabique. Le but de cette analyse est de fournir un cadre exhaustif des potentialités du marché de la gomme arabique en Italie en particulier, et en Europe en général, dans le but de renforcer la production et exportation de la gomme arabique à partir du Tchad. L’analyse a été conduite en utilisant la méthodologie SWOT (Strength Weakeness Opportunity Threat Analysis qui a permit de déterminer les points de forces et de faiblesse, les opportunités et les menaces relatifs à la commercialisation de la gomme arabique Tchadienne dans les marchés Italiens et Européens.

  10. The astacin metalloprotease moulting enzyme NAS-36 is required for normal cuticle ecdysis in free-living and parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepek, Gillian; McCormack, Gillian; Birnie, Andrew J; Page, Antony P

    2011-02-01

    Nematodes represent one of the most abundant and species-rich groups of animals on the planet, with parasitic species causing chronic, debilitating infections in both livestock and humans worldwide. The prevalence and success of the nematodes is a direct consequence of the exceptionally protective properties of their cuticle. The synthesis of this cuticle is a complex multi-step process, which is repeated 4 times from hatchling to adult and has been investigated in detail in the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. This process is known as moulting and involves numerous enzymes in the synthesis and degradation of the collagenous matrix. The nas-36 and nas-37 genes in C. elegans encode functionally conserved enzymes of the astacin metalloprotease family which, when mutated, result in a phenotype associated with the late-stage moulting defects, namely the inability to remove the preceding cuticle. Extensive genome searches in the gastrointestinal nematode of sheep, Haemonchus contortus, and in the filarial nematode of humans, Brugia malayi, identified NAS-36 but not NAS-37 homologues. Significantly, the nas-36 gene from B. malayi could successfully complement the moult defects associated with C. elegans nas-36, nas-37 and nas-36/nas-37 double mutants, suggesting a conserved function for NAS-36 between these diverse nematode species. This conservation between species was further indicated when the recombinant enzymes demonstrated a similar range of inhibitable metalloprotease activities.

  11. Abordagem centrada nas pessoas Approach focused on people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Diniz Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A Medicina de Família e comunidade pressupõe um novo marco epistemológico que obriga também o uso de instrumentos e ferramentas que se correspondam com ela. Este modelo de atenção permite levar adiante uma consulta onde estejam presentes todas as categorias nas quais se expressa o processo saúde-doença. A Medicina de Família pretende combinar ambas visões e para isto oferece elementos para incorporar a moléstia como parte essencial da nossa sistemática de abordagem do paciente sendo o foco principal a abordagem por problemas, que nada mais é que aquilo que preocupa a pessoa, sua família ou o medico, ou a todos, e as vezes haverá moléstia, em outras doenças e em outras tantas ambas coexistirão. Sabe-se que o impacto de um problema de saúde sobre uma pessoa não só afeta a ela, mas também ao seu entorno. Este por sua vez pode atuar como origem ou perpetuador da crise, ou então servir para ajudar na resolução do conflito. Distintas ferramentas servem para o propósito de conhecer o contexto no qual a crise de saúde se desenvolve, tais como: genograma, ciclo vital individual e familiar. Toda vez que duas pessoas se comunicam, o acordo ou desacordo são variáveis possíveis. Narelação médico-paciente isto não é uma exceção. Os valores, crenças, sentimentos e informações de cada indivíduo são diferentes, e não necessariamente médicos e pacientes estão de acordo em v��rios pontos durante uma consulta. O objetivo é a necessidade de alcançar um mínimo de acordos para que esta consulta tenha efetividade terapêutica, sendo assim importante encontrar um território comum. As relações em geral envolvem poder, cuidado, sentimentos, confiança e objetivos. O objetivo neste tipo de relação deve ser obviamente compartilhado por ambos, e não pode ser outro que o de conseguir o maior grau de saúde para nosso paciente. Assim, nossa especialidade, considerada de baixa complexidade, transforma-se em uma

  12. Um estudo sôbre a eosinofilia nas helmintoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Gomes de Moraes

    1968-08-01

    "índice eosinofilico", o qual corresponde à relação entre o número de casos de um determinado grupo com Eo > 5% e Eo < 5%. Para o total de casos positivos, ao "índice eosinofílico" denominamos "índice eosinofílico médio" em para o total dos negativos "índice eosinofílico residual"; 11 - Estabelecendo-se o "índice eosinofílico", pode-se ajuizar a capacidade eosinofilogênica de cada helminto isoladamente, bem como a de suas associações; 12 - Atenção especial foi dada aos problemas da existência da hipereosinofilia nos casos com exames coprológicos negativos para helmintos, tendo-se passado em revista vários dos aspectos biológicos que o assunto comporta; 13 - Outra questão de grande importância clínica explanada neste trabalho é a do encontro de casos de parasitismo por vermes, sem hipereosinofilia. O autor, baseado em seus dados e em outros colhidos na literatura sôbre o assunto, discute a fisiopatologia da eosinopoiese nas helmintoses e ojerece uma interpretação para êste fato ainda não defintivamente esclarecido.

  13. Theoretical studies of GaInNAs for optoelectronic device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandropoulos, D

    2003-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the theoretical analysis of GalnNAs alloys for use in optoelectronic devices. We develop reliable theoretical models that describe the properties of GaInNAs alloys and apply these to establish design rules. We develop a k centre dot p model for the band structure of GaInNAs-based Quantum Wells (QW) that accounts for valence band mixing effects, strain effects and the N induced coupling of the conduction band states of GaInNAs alloys. We implement the model to study the effect of N on the conduction and valence bands. The optical properties of GaInNAs structures are studied and design rules that ensure optimal performance are derived for 1.3 mu m emission. It is established that high N content decreases the differential gain and the Momentum Matrix Element (MME) for TE polarisation while it increases the transparency concentration and the MME for TM polarisation. The material gain and linewidth enhancement factor are found to have comparable values to InGaAsP structures. The effect of al...

  14. Active ear acupuncture points in neonates with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raith, Wolfgang; Kutschera, Jörg; Müller, Wilhelm; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the presence of acupuncture ear points in neonates with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). NAS occurs in the first days of life in neonates whose mothers have a history of drug abuse, and may also occur in neonates whose mothers are currently following substitution therapy. The patients are neonates with NAS admitted over one year to the Division of Neonatology at the University Hospital Graz. The examination took place on the third day after delivery (mean value 70.3 hours) and was performed by a neuronal pen (PS 3 © Silberbauer, Vienna, Austria). An integrated sound and optical signal detected the active ear points that were then placed on an ear map. We investigated six neonates (four male, two female). All investigated neonates showed the presence of active ear acupuncture points. The psychovegetative rim was the most common organic area of the children, following by a few organic points. This corresponds with the results found in healthy neonates. In all neonates with NAS, we found the presence of psychic ear points. The identified psychic ear points are the frustration-point, R-point and the psychotropic area nasal from the incisura intertragica. In all neonates with NAS, active organic and psychic ear points were detectable in both ears. In the future, it could be possible to use active ear points for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  15. The NAS perchlorate review: questions remain about the perchlorate RfD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary; Rice, Deborah

    2005-09-01

    Human exposure to perchlorate is commonplace because it is a contaminant of drinking water, certain foods, and breast milk. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a perchlorate risk assessment in 2002 that yielded a reference dose (RfD) based on both the animal and human toxicology data. This assessment has been superceded by a recent National Academy of Science (NAS) review that derived a perchlorate RfD that is 20-fold greater (less stringent) than that derived by the U.S. EPA in 2002. The NAS-derived RfD was put on the U.S. EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database very quickly and with no further public review. In this commentary we raise concerns about the NAS approach to RfD development in three areas of toxicity assessment: the dose that the NAS described as a no observable adverse-effect level is actually associated with perchlorate-induced effects; consideration of uncertainties was insufficient; and the NAS considered the inhibition of iodine uptake to be a nonadverse effect. We conclude that risk assessors should carefully evaluate whether the IRIS RfD is the most appropriate value for assessing perchlorate risk.

  16. Proteínas celulares cómplices de las proteínas regulatorias y accesorias del VIH-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Castaño

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1 a medicamentos antivirales ha presionado la búsqueda de métodos alternativos de terapia. En esta revisión, se presenta un análisis de los avances más recientes en el estudio de la interacción entre las proteínas regulatorias y accesorias del VIH-1 con factores celulares, sus efectos en la célula huésped y los beneficios para el virus. Se muestra cómo estas proteínas virales alteran procesos fundamentales de la célula huésped de manera muy precisa y las utilizan para aumentar la replicación viral, evadir la respuesta inmune del hospedero y causar enfermedad.

  17. Proteínas celulares cómplices de las proteínas regulatorias y accesorias del VIH-1.

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Castaño; Silvio Urcuqui

    2009-01-01

    La resistencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1) a medicamentos antivirales ha presionado la búsqueda de métodos alternativos de terapia. En esta revisión, se presenta un análisis de los avances más recientes en el estudio de la interacción entre las proteínas regulatorias y accesorias del VIH-1 con factores celulares, sus efectos en la célula huésped y los beneficios para el virus. Se muestra cómo estas proteínas virales alteran procesos fundamentales de la célula huésp...

  18. LAS PROTEÍNAS DESORDENADAS Y SU FUNCIÓN: UNA NUEVA FORMA DE VER LA ESTRUCTURA DE LAS PROTEÍNAS Y LA RESPUESTA DE LAS PLANTAS AL ESTRÉS

    OpenAIRE

    César Luis Cuevas-Velázquez; Alejandra A. Covarrubias-Robles

    2011-01-01

    El dogma que relaciona la función de una proteína con una estructura tridimensional definida ha sido desafiado durante los últimos años por el descubrimiento y caracterización de las proteínas conocidas como proteínas no estructuradas o desordenadas. Estas proteínas poseen una elevada flexibilidad estructural la cual les permite adoptar estructuras diferentes y, por tanto, reconocer ligandos diversos conservando la especificidad en el reconocimiento de los mismos. A las proteínas de este tipo...

  19. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Promoters of ZmNAS1 and ZmNAS2 Genes in Maize%玉米ZmNAS1和ZmNAS2基因启动子的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李岩; 吴承来; 董炳雪; 张倩倩; 张春庆

    2012-01-01

    PCR reactions were carried out to clone promoters of ZmNASl and ZmNAS2 from genomic DNA using primers designed according to the whole genome sequence of maize. And then, cis-acting elements and the differences of the promoters between two cultivars(K12 and Shenl37) of maize were analyzed by bioinformatics software. The results showed that compared to cultivar K12, Shenl37 was lack of 574 bp sequences in its promoter, besides existed 24 SNPs. However, the promoters of ZmNAS2 had no difference between the two cultivars of maize. There were some cis-acting elements relevant to light regulating, hormone inducing and stress responding in promoters of ZmNASl and ZmNAS2 genes, and core sequences in elements associated with the iron-deficiency-response were also identified. According to the a-nalysis of promoter elements, we make a pre-judgement that expression and regulation of ZmNASl and ZmNASl were a complex process, and the two genes were regulated by several signals besides iron-deficiency stress. In addition, the promoters of ZmNASl are significantly different in the two cultivars, which indicated that the expression and regulation of ZmNASl between the two cultivars are not same.%根据已知玉米全基因组序列设计引物,采用PCR方法从基因组DNA中克隆两种玉米材料的ZmNAS1和ZmNAS2基因启动子,利用生物信息学软件对启动子元件进行分析预测并比较在两种材料间差异.结果表明,ZmNAS1基因启动子在两种材料上差异明显,沈137较K12除一段574 bp缺失外,他们之间还有24处单核苷酸多态性位点;两种材料间的ZmNAS2基因启动子无差异.ZmNAS1和ZmNAS2基因启动子均具有一些与光调控、激素诱导、响应逆境胁迫等有关的顺式作用元件,但数目存在一定差异;两个基因启动子上都有一定数目缺铁诱导元件的核心序列.根据启动子元件分析,初步判断ZmNAS1和ZmNAS2基因除受缺铁诱导表达外,还可能受到其他多种信号的共

  20. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks St., Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D. [Amethyst Research Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M. [CRHEA-CNRS, Rue Bernard Gregory, Valbonne 06560 (France)

    2015-04-06

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells.

  1. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R.; Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D.; Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M.

    2015-04-01

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells.

  2. Invalidez por dor nas costas entre segurados da Previdência Social do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Meziat Filho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as aposentadorias por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema Único de Informações de Benefícios e dos Anuários Estatísticos da Previdência Social em 2007. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez foi calculada segundo as variáveis idade e sexo, nos estados. Os dias de trabalho perdidos por invalidez decorrente de dor nas costas foram calculados segundo atividade profissional. RESULTADOS: A dor nas costas idiopática foi a primeira causa de invalidez entre as aposentadorias previdenciárias e acidentárias. A maioria dos beneficiários residia em área urbana e era comerciário. A taxa de incidência de dor nas costas como causa das aposentadorias por invalidez no Brasil foi de 29,96 por 100.000 contribuintes. Esse valor foi mais elevado entre os homens e entre as pessoas mais velhas. Rondônia exibiu taxa quatro vezes superior ao esperado (RT = 4,05 e a segunda maior taxa, referente à Bahia, foi de aproximadamente duas vezes o esperado (RT = 2,07. Os comerciários foram responsáveis por 96,9% dos dias perdidos por invalidez. CONCLUSÕES: A dor nas costas foi uma importante causa de invalidez em 2007, sobretudo entre comerciários, com grandes diferenças entre os estados.

  3. Actividad antitrombótica de proteínas de amaranto

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbione, Ana Clara

    2015-01-01

    Con el fin de obtener conocimientos que sirvan de aporte para futuros desarrollos de alimentos funcionales que contengan a las proteínas de amaranto como uno de sus ingredientes, en este trabajo nos hemos propuesto estudiar los aspectos básicos de la actividad antitrombótica de las proteínas de amaranto. Se estudiaron diversos protocolos de hidrólisis sobre los aislados proteicos de amaranto como una herramienta que nos permitiese generar distintos polipéptidos y péptidos activos. E...

  4. LAS PROTEÍNAS ARABINOGALACTANOS EN CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS VEGETALES

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Michelle Hernández Sánchez; Jacqueline Capataz Tafur; Mario Rodríguez-Monroy; Gabriela Sepúlveda Jiménez

    2009-01-01

    Las proteínas arabinogalactanos (AGPs) son macromoléculas que se encuentran prácticamente en todos los órganos de las plantas, siendo asociadas con varios aspectos del crecimiento y desarrollo vegetal. Estas moléculas se caracterizan bioquímicamente por contener carbohidratos y proteínas en relación 9:1. El carbohidrato está compuesto principalmente por arabinogalactanos tipo II; mientras que la parte proteica está organizada en dominios que definen a las AGPs como clásicas o no clásicas. Las...

  5. Compositional dependence of the band gap in Ga(NAsP) quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandieri, K., E-mail: kakhaber.jandieri@physik.uni-marburg.de; Ludewig, P.; Wegele, T.; Beyer, A.; Kunert, B.; Springer, P.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Koch, S. W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W. [Materials Science Center and Faculty of Physics, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg (Germany)

    2015-08-14

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of the composition dependence of the direct band gap energy in Ga(NAsP)/GaP quantum well heterostructures grown on either (001) GaP- or Si-substrates. The theoretical description takes into account the band anti-crossing model for the conduction band as well as the modification of the valence subband structure due to the strain resulting from the pseudomorphic epitaxial growth on the respective substrate. The composition dependence of the direct band gap of Ga(NAsP) is obtained for a wide range of nitrogen and phosphorus contents relevant for laser applications on Si-substrate.

  6. Heavy metals need assistance: The contribution of nicotianamine to metal circulation throughout the plant and the Arabidopsis NAS gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eBauer

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulated inter- and intracellular metal circulation is one of the challenges in the field of metal homeostasis. Inside organisms metal ions are bound to organic ligands to prevent their uncontrolled reactivity and to increase their solubility. Nicotianamine (NA is one of the important ligands. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is synthesized by nicotianamine synthase (NAS. NA is involved in mobilization, uptake, transport, storage and detoxification of metals. Much of the progress in understanding NA function has been achieved by studying mutants with altered nicotianamine levels. Mild and strong Arabidopsis mutants impaired in nicotianamine synthesis have been identified and characterized, namely nas4x-1 and nas4x-2. Arabidopsis thaliana has four NAS genes. In this review, we summarize the structure and evolution of the NAS genes in the Arabidopsis genome. We summarize previous results and present novel evidence that the four NAS genes have partially overlapping functions when plants are exposed to Fe deficiency and nickel supply. We compare the phenotypes of nas4x-1 and nas4x-2 and summarize the functions of NAS genes and NA as deduced from the studies of mutant phenotypes.

  7. TRICARE; elimination of the non-availability statement (NAS) requirement for non-emergency inpatient mental health care. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    This final rule eliminates the requirement that states a NAS is needed for non-emergency inpatient mental health care in order for a TRICARE Standard beneficiary's claim to be paid. Currently, NAS are required for non-emergency inpatient mental health care for TRICARE Standard beneficiaries who live within a military treatment facility catchment area. At this time, the number of NASs issued is negligible as most mental health admissions are emergency admissions. Requiring a NAS for a relatively few non-emergency inpatient mental health admissions is disproportionate to the cost of maintaining the systems necessary to process and coordinate the NAS.

  8. Heavy Metals Need Assistance: The Contribution of Nicotianamine to Metal Circulation Throughout the Plant and the Arabidopsis NAS Gene Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Mara; Bauer, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the regulated inter- and intra-cellular metal circulation is one of the challenges in the field of metal homeostasis. Inside organisms metal ions are bound to organic ligands to prevent their uncontrolled reactivity and to increase their solubility. Nicotianamine (NA) is one of the important ligands. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is synthesized by nicotianamine synthase (NAS). NA is involved in mobilization, uptake, transport, storage, and detoxification of metals. Much of the progress in understanding NA function has been achieved by studying mutants with altered nicotianamine levels. Mild and strong Arabidopsis mutants impaired in nicotianamine synthesis have been identified and characterized, namely nas4x-1 and nas4x-2. Arabidopsis thaliana has four NAS genes. In this review, we summarize the structure and evolution of the NAS genes in the Arabidopsis genome. We summarize previous results and present novel evidence that the four NAS genes have partially overlapping functions when plants are exposed to Fe deficiency and nickel supply. We compare the phenotypes of nas4x-1 and nas4x-2 and summarize the functions of NAS genes and NA as deduced from the studies of mutant phenotypes.

  9. Evaluación de las características del fruto de huizache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) para su posible uso en curtiduría o alimentación animal

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    El huizache (Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.) es una especie silvestre distribuida en el estado de Jalisco y en México, que podría ser utilizada como forraje. Se realizó un estudio para determinar análisis químico proximal (AQP), perfil de aminoácidos y degradabilidad de la materia in situ, en borregos pelibuey fistulados, utilizando el fruto (cáscara y semilla) del huizache, sin tratamiento alguno y con extracción previa de taninos. Los taninos fueron evaluados por los métodos ALCA y número de...

  10. Clinical and Preclinical Cognitive Function Improvement after Oral Treatment of a Botanical Composition Composed of Extracts from Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia and cognitive impairment have become the major concerns worldwide due to a significantly aging population, increasing life span and lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In light of limited pharmaceutical drug choices and the socioeconomic implications of these conditions, the search for safe and effective alternatives from natural sources has gained many attractions within the medical food and dietary supplement industry. Two polyphenol extracts derived from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and heartwoods of Acacia catechu containing free-B-ring flavonoids and flavans, respectively, were combined into a proprietary blend called UP326. A similar bioflavonoid composition, UP446, has been reported with modulation of pathways related to systemic inflammation. To test the effect of UP326 on memory and learning, a radial arm water maze (RAWM and contextual fear conditioning (CF were utilized in aged F344 rats fed with UP326 at doses of 3, 7, and 34 mg/kg for 11 weeks. The 7 and 34 mg/kg dosage groups had significantly fewer errors than aged vehicle control animals and their performance was equivalent to young animal controls. In a separate human clinical trial, test subjects orally given 300 mg of UP326 BID for 30 days showed marked improvement in speed and accuracy of processing complex information in computer tasks and reduced their standard deviation of performance compared to baseline and the placebo group. This data suggest that UP326 may help maintain memory, sustain speed of processing, and reduce the number or memory errors as we age.

  11. Ecological Impact on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling of a Widespread Fast-growing Leguminous Tropical Forest Plantation Tree Species, Acacia mangium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Ishizuka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is one of the major pathways of N input to forest ecosystems, enriching N availability, particularly in lowland tropics. Recently there is growing concern regarding the wide areas of fast-growing leguminous plantations that could alter global N2O emissions. Here, we highlight substantially different N and phosphorus utilization and cycling at a plantation of Acacia mangium, which is N2-fixing and one of the major plantation species in tropical/subtropical Asia. The litterfall, fresh leaf quality and fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium were compared to those of non-N2-fixing Swietenia macrophylla and coniferous Araucaria cunninghamii in wet tropical climates in Borneo, Malaysia. The N and P concentrations of the A. mangium fresh leaves were higher than those of the other two species, whereas the P concentration in the leaf-litterfall of A. mangium was less than half that of the others; in contrast the N concentration was higher. The N:P ratio in the A. mangium leaf was markedly increased from fresh-leaf (29 to leaf-litterfall (81. Although the N flux in the total litterfall at the A. mangium plantation was large, the fine-root ingrowth of A. mangium significantly increased by applying both N and P. In conclusion, large quantities of N were accumulated and returned to the forest floor in A. mangium plantation, while its P resorption capacity was efficient. Such large N cycling and restricted P cycling in wide areas of monoculture A. mangium plantations may alter N and P cycling and their balance in the organic layer and soil on a stand level.

  12. Evaluación del potencial de mejoramiento genético en el crecimiento en altura de Acacia mangium Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Javier Pastrana-Vargas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el periodo 2009-2010, en Ayapel, Planeta Rica y Tierralta, departamento de Córdoba (Colombia se evaluó el desempeño en crecimiento en altura total de 90 familias de polinización abierta de Acacia mangium. En estos municipios el clima se clasifica, de acuerdo con Holdridge, como bosque seco tropical (Bs-T, excepto Tierralta que es bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T. Durante el primer año de crecimiento, las plantas en cada familia fueron evaluadas en ensayos de progenie mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con seis bloques en cada una de las tres localidades. La parcela o unidad experimental consistió en seis plantas de polinización abierta por familia, distribuidas aleatoriamente en tres parejas espacialmente separadas dentro de cada bloque. La predicción de parámetros genéticos individuales y de familias se efectuó por medio del procedimiento BLUP y los componentes de varianza por medio del procedimiento REML utilizando el software SELEGEN. Las estimaciones de heredabilidad variaron entre <1 y 13%, y entre 6 y 68%, para heredabilidad individual en sentido estricto (h²a y heredabilidad media de familias (h²mp, respectivamente. El ranking genético en altura de las 15 mejores familias indica que las de mayor crecimiento fueron también las más estables y de mayor adaptabilidad a los ambientes. Los resultados sugieren un alto potencial de mejoramiento al nivel de familia en crecimiento y productividad de plantaciones de A. mangium en el departamento de Córdoba, Colombia. Son necesarios nuevos estudios a fin de lograr una mejor selección genética.

  13. Plio-Pleistocene history and phylogeography of Acacia senegal in dry woodlands and savannahs of sub-Saharan tropical Africa: evidence of early colonisation and recent range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odee, D W; Telford, A; Wilson, J; Gaye, A; Cavers, S

    2012-12-01

    Drylands are extensive across sub-Saharan Africa, socio-economically and ecologically important yet highly sensitive to environmental changes. Evolutionary history, as revealed by contemporary intraspecific genetic variation, can provide valuable insight into how species have responded to past environmental and population changes and guide strategies to promote resilience to future changes. The gum arabic tree (Acacia senegal) is an arid-adapted, morphologically diverse species native to the sub-Saharan drylands. We used variation in nuclear sequences (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) and two types of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) markers (PCR-RFLP, cpSSR) to study the phylogeography of the species with 293 individuals from 66 populations sampled across its natural range. cpDNA data showed high regional and rangewide haplotypic diversity (h(T(cpSSR))=0.903-0.948) and population differentiation (G(ST(RFLP))=0.700-0.782) with a phylogeographic pattern that indicated extensive historical gene flow via seed dispersal. Haplotypes were not restricted to any of the four varieties, but showed significant geographic structure (G(ST(cpSSR))=0.392; R(ST)=0.673; R(ST)>R(ST) (permuted)), with the major division separating East and Southern Africa populations from those in West and Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS data indicated a more recent origin for the clade including West and Central African haplotypes, suggesting range expansion in this region, possibly during the Holocene humid period. In conjunction with paleobotanical evidence, our data suggest dispersal to West Africa, and across to the Arabian Peninsula and Indian subcontinent, from source populations located in the East African region during climate oscillations of the Plio-Pleistocene.

  14. Optimum conditions for rapid propagation with clones of Acacia implexa%灰木相思离体培养体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文锦; 黄骐; 陈由强; 代容春; 林思祖

    2007-01-01

    灰木相思Acacia implexa是南方优良的多用途造林树种,但种子繁殖性状分离严重,试图通过组织培养找到新的繁育途径.通过对灰木相思成年优树幼嫩的带腋芽茎段的离体培养试验,探讨了灰木相思茎段不定芽分化、继代增殖和壮苗生根的最佳培养条件.采用正交试验对防止培养过程中出现玻璃化苗的方法进行了探讨.结果表明:适宜灰木相思不定芽诱导的培养基配方为MS(Murashige and Skoog)+1.0 mg·L-16-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)+0.2 mg·L-1萘乙酸(NAA)+1.0 mg·L-1玉米素(ZT),适宜继代培养的培养基为改良1/2 MS(NH+4∶NO-3=1∶2)+1.0 mg·L-16-BA+0.05 mg·L-1NAA ,适宜进行壮苗生根的培养基配方为改良1/2 MS+0.1 mg·L-1 NAA,移栽后成活率可达70 %.

  15. Development of a new model for the induction of chronic kidney disease via intraperitoneal adenine administration, and the effect of treatment with gum acacia thereon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Za'abi, Mohammed; Al Busaidi, Mahfouda; Yasin, Javid; Schupp, Nicole; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Ali, Badreldin H

    2015-01-01

    Oral adenine (0.75% w/w in feed), is an established model for human chronic kidney disease (CKD). Gum acacia (GA) has been shown to be a nephroprotective agent in this model. Here we aimed at developing a new adenine-induced CKD model in rats via a systemic route (intraperitoneal, i.p.) and to test it with GA to obviate the possibility of a physical interaction between GA and adenine in the gut. Adenine was injected i.p. (50 or 100 mg/Kg for four weeks), and GA was given concomitantly in drinking water at a concentration of 15%, w/v. Several plasma and urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress were measured and the renal damage was assessed histopathologically. Adenine, at the two given i.p. doses, significantly reduced body weight, and increased relative kidney weight, water intake and urine output. It dose-dependently increased plasma and urinary inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers, and caused morphological and histological damage resembling that which has been reported with oral adenine. Concomitant treatment with GA significantly mitigated almost all the above measured indices. Administration of adenine i.p. induced CKD signs very similar to those induced by oral adenine. Therefore, this new model is quicker, more practical and accurate than the original (oral) model. GA ameliorates the CKD effects caused by adenine given i.p. suggesting that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties possessed by oral GA are the main mechanism for its salutary action in adenine-induced CKD, an action that is independent of its possible interaction with adenine in the gut.

  16. Interspecific and temporal variation of ant species within Acacia drepanolobium ant domatia, a staple food of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A; Young, Truman P

    2007-12-01

    The ants that live in the swollen thorns (domatia) of Acacia drepanolobium are staple foods for patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). To obtain a better understanding of these insects as resources for patas monkeys, we sampled the contents of 1,051 swollen thorns (ant domatia) over a 22-month period from December 1999 to September 2001, in Laikipia, Kenya. First, we confirmed that of the four species of ants that live on A. drepanolobium, Crematogaster sjostedti, the competitively dominant ant in this system, does not rear significant brood in the swollen thorns and is therefore not a major food item of patas monkeys. Second, across the other three species that do use swollen thorns for rearing their brood, C. nigriceps, C. mimosae, and Tetraponera penzigi, the number of worker ants per swollen thorn increased with increasing competitive dominance. Third, although there was considerable month-to-month variation in the number of workers, immatures, and especially alates (winged reproductives) within species, there was less variation across species because ant production was asynchronous. Variation in domatia contents was poorly related to rainfall for each of the three species. Finally, distal thorns held more alates and fewer workers than interior thorns, and branches higher off the ground held more alates and more workers than lower branches. For the numerically dominant C. mimosae, higher branches held significantly more immature ants than did lower branches. Ants are reliable food resources for patas monkeys, and are probably more reliable than many plant resources in this highly seasonal environment. We estimate that patas monkeys may get as much as a third of their daily caloric needs from these ants year-round. As ants and other insects are widely consumed by primates, we suggest that greater consideration be given to species differences in animal food choices and that further studies be conducted to examine the degree to which ants influence energy intake and

  17. Utilización de las proteínas séricas y caseínas como suplementos dietéticos para la prolongación del efecto de saciedad en mujeres obesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Reyna

    Full Text Available Se estudió el consumo de tres tipos de suplementos, proteínas del lactosuero, caseínas y maltodextrinas (control en la disminución de la ingesta energética y prolongación del efecto de saciedad de 60 mujeres obesas. Después de 10 semanas, la reducción del peso corporal, IMC, % de grasa corporal y circunferencia de la cintura fue significativamente mayor (p < 0,001 en el grupo que consumió las proteínas lactoséricas frente a los otros dos grupos (control y caseínas. También se observa un descenso en la ingesta energética de -383 kcal/día en las mujeres que consumieron las proteínas de lactosuero frente a un descenso de -144 kcal/día en el grupo de caseínas y de tan solo -70 kcal/día en el grupo control. Finalmente la regulación del efecto de saciedad mediante escala visual analógica fue también más efectiva en el caso de las proteínas séricas, que en el caso de las caseínas y maltodextrinas.

  18. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Integrated Test and LVC Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Hoang, Ty

    2015-01-01

    Overview presentation of the Integrated Test and Evaluation sub-project of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). The emphasis of the presentation is the Live, Virtual, and Constructive (LVC) system (a broadly used name for classifying modeling and simulation) infrastructure and use of external assets and connection.

  19. 1.3~1.55 m GAInNAsSb Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S. Harris

    2003-01-01

    The realization of long wavelength lasers on GaAs provides the opportunity to produce both much lower cost vertical cavity lasers and high power lasers. Results of work on the GaInNAsSb system to realize such lasers are described.

  20. 1.3~1.55μm GAInNAsSb Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; S.; Harris

    2003-01-01

    The realization of long wavelength lasers on GaAs provides the opportunity to produce both much lower cost vertical cavity lasers and high power lasers. Results of work on the GaInNAsSb system to realize such lasers are described.

  1. Producción de proteínas recombinantes en Bacillus megaterium: estado del arte

    OpenAIRE

    Keyla Tortoló-Cabañas; Antonio Bell-García

    2015-01-01

    Se recoge una actualización del estado del arte del uso de Bacillus megaterium como hospedero para la expresión de proteínas recombinantes, las características de este microorganismo, así como las consideraciones generales y algunos aspectos a tener en cuenta.

  2. Environmental Assessment for EOD Stand-Up at NAS Fort Worth JRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    herbaceous, frequently mowed, lawn areas (NAS Fort Worth JRB, 2004a). These areas provide minimal habitat value for native species of flora and fauna...Jacinto Austin, TX 78701 Mark Wolfe State Historic Preservation Officer Texas Historical Commission 1511 Colorado Austin, TX 78701 Local

  3. Iraagi peaminister tänas Eestit abi eest / Toivo Tootsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tootsen, Toivo, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paeti kohtumisest Iraagi peaministri Nuri al-Malikiga, mille käigus tänas peaminister Eestit osutatud abi eest ning rõhutas Iraagi iseseisvumisprotsessi tähtsust, mille saavutamisel on oluline roll ka koalitsioonivägedel

  4. Consistency of TTO-NAS inorganic carbon data with modern measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhua, Toste; Wallace, Douglas W. R.

    2005-07-01

    We compare alkalinity and total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) measurements made during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean, North Atlantic Study (TTO-NAS) in 1981 with modern measurements from a TTO reoccupation cruise in 2004 (M60/5). We find that the TTO-NAS alkalinity values are 3.6 +/- 2.3 μmol kg-1 higher than modern alkalinity data tied to Certified Reference Materials. The TTO-NAS DIC values re-calculated from original alkalinity and discrete-pCO2 data using currently accepted constants are 3.8 μmol kg-1 higher than those reported in the revised TTO data set. This difference is reduced to 0.7 μmol kg-1 when our suggested correction to the TTO-NAS alkalinity is applied. These re-calculated DIC values are 2.4 μmol kg-1 too low relative to contemporaneous measurements made by the vacuum extraction/manometric Certified method. Application of this correction brings the TTO data into almost perfect agreement with modern measurements for slowly-ventilated deep water of the eastern Atlantic.

  5. A thermo-mechanical stress prediction model for contemporary planar sodium sulfur (NaS) cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Keeyoung; Colker, Jeffrey P.; Cao, Yuzhe; Kim, Goun; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a comprehensive finite-element analysis (FEA) computational model to accurately predict the thermo-mechanical stresses at heterogeneous joints and components of large-size sodium sulfur (NaS) cells during thermal cycling. Quantification of the thermo-mechanical stress is important because the accumulation of stress during cell assembly and/or operation is one of the critical issues in developing practical planar NaS cells. The computational model is developed based on relevant experimental assembly and operation conditions to predict the detailed stress field of a state-of-the-art planar NaS cell. Prior to the freeze-and-thaw thermal cycle simulation, residual stresses generated from the actual high temperature cell assembly procedures are calculated and implemented into the subsequent model. The calculation results show that large stresses are developed on the outer surface of the insulating header and the solid electrolyte, where component fracture is frequently observed in the experimental cell fabrication process. The impacts of the coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of glass materials and the thicknesses of cell container on the stress accumulation are also evaluated to improve the cell manufacturing procedure and to guide the material choices for enhanced thermo-mechanical stability of large-size NaS cells.

  6. Room-temperature electron spin amplifier based on Ga(In)NAs alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttisong, Yuttapoom; Buyanova, Irina A; Ptak, Aaron J; Tu, Charles W; Geelhaar, Lutz; Riechert, Henning; Chen, Weimin M

    2013-02-06

    The first experimental demonstration of a spin amplifier at room temperature is presented. An efficient, defect-enabled spin amplifier based on a non-magnetic semiconductor, Ga(In)NAs, is proposed and demonstrated, with a large spin gain (up to 2700% at zero field) for conduction electrons and a high cut-off frequency of up to 1 GHz.

  7. Sobre trote, vampiros e relacionamento humano nas escolas médicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pereira Lima

    Full Text Available Os relacionamentos dos estudantes entre si e destes com seus professores podem se tornar difíceis em diferentes momentos. O ingresso na universidade parece ser um período especialmente tenso em função dos trotes sofridos nesta fase da vida acadêmica. Este estudo apresenta uma revisão da literatura a respeito do trote, em especial aquele realizado nas escolas médicas, tentando identificar as características ritualísticas e os fatores mantenedores deste. Paralelamente, constrói uma metáfora com o mito do vampiro, propondo esta lenda como um paradigma para compreender as relações humanas nas faculdades de Medicina. São discutidas as características comuns entre vampiros e vítimas, encontradas no mito e nas inter-relações presentes nas escolas médicas, abordando-se possíveis estratégias de manejo.

  8. Devassa da vida privada dos índios coloniais nas vilas de El Rei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resende, Maria Leônia Chaves de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da vivência de índios e/ou seus descendentes, de diversas procedências étnicas que desterrados de suas aldeias, passaram a viver nas vilas de Minas Gerais, no século XVIII

  9. ANÁLISIS GENÓMICO-FUNCIONAL DE PROTEÍNAS CON DOMINIOS TIR EN YUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERÓNICA ROMÁN REYNA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de las proteínas implicadas en inmunidad de plantas y animales se encuentran aquellas que poseen un dominio TIR (Toll Interleukin Receptor. El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis genómico global de las proteínas que presentan un dominio TIR en yuca y discernir su posible función en la resistencia a la bacteriosis vascular. En el proteoma de yuca se logró identificar 46 proteínas con dominios TIR, los cuales fueron divididos en cuatro categorías según la presencia o no de otros dominios: TIR (T, TIR- NB (TN, TIR-LRR (TL y TIR-NB-LRR (TNL. El 56,5 % de las 46 proteínas corresponde a la categoría TNL. Mediante alineamientos múltiples se encontró que no todos los do- minios TIR de yuca presentan la región aE implicada en la dimerización y activación de las respuestas de inmunidad. Tres de las cuatro categorías de proteínas (T, TNL y TN presentan un mayor número de sustituciones sinónimas, sugiriendo que no están implicadas en procesos de reconocimiento. Por medio de doble híbrido de levadura y agroinfiltración se analizaron dos dominios TIR que no presentan la región aE, encontrando que ambos son capaces de formar homo y heterodímeros pero no desencadenan respuestas de defensa. Con este trabajo se pudo concluir que algunas proteínas que poseen dominios TIR pueden funcionar como adaptadores en la transducción de la señal con otras proteínas de resistencia. Además, se puso en evidencia que no siempre la región aE es importante para la dimerización, pero sí para activar las señales de respuestas de defensa.

  10. Estabilidad de emulsiones preparadas con proteínas de sueros de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Wagner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Por precipitación con acetona en frio, se obtuvieron muestras de proteínas aisladas de dos sueros de soja, el suero SS proveniente de la obtención de aislados de soja y el suero de tofu ST. A partir del SS y del mismo suero previamente liofilizado y calentado (SSLC se obtuvieron las proteínas denominadas PSS y PSSLC, respectivamente; a partir de ST se preparó la muestra PST. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la estabilidad de emulsiones o/w preparadas con las proteínas de sueros de soja en forma comparativa con un aislado de soja nativo (ASN. Las emulsiones se prepararon por homogeneización de dispersiones proteicas (0,1–1,0 % p/v en buffer fosfato 10 mM pH 7 y aceite de girasol (Φmásico=0,33, empleando un Ultraturrax T-25. La estabilidad fue evaluada por medida del aceite separado, distribución de tamaño de partículas (por difracción láser y los grados de cremado y coalescencia evaluados a través de perfiles de BackScattering. Se observó que en todas las concentraciones ensayadas las emulsiones preparadas con proteínas aisladas (por precipitación con acetona en frío de suero de tofu tratado térmicamente (PST tenían una estabilidad comparable a la de emulsiones preparadas con ASN. Se halló una estabilidad menor en emulsiones con proteínas nativas de suero de soja (PSS obtenido en laboratorio no tratado térmicamente. Las proteínas obtenidas de este suero liofilizado y calentado (PSSLC exhibieron una mejor capacidad emulsionante. Los resultados mostraron que las proteínas de sueros de soja presentan buenas propiedades emulsionantes y estabilizantes dependientes del grado de desnaturalización y glicosilación alcanzado.

  11. Aprendizagem situada, participação e legitimidade nas práticas de trabalho.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Socoloski Gudolle

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objetivo identificar e analisar o processo de aprendizagem situada a partir da participação e legitimidade nas práticas dos grupos de trabalho da Dublin Irish Pub. O arcabouço teórico envolve a aprendizagem situada, aprofundada junto com o estudo da participação periférica legitimada e diferentes níveis de participação nas práticas de trabalho dos grupos de trabalho. Com base no método qualitativo básico, a coleta de dados ocorreu por observação direta, diário de campo, entrevistas em profundidade. O período de observação de seis meses totalizou 32 idas a campo e oito entrevistas realizadas na empresa estudada. Assim, por meio da análise interpretativista, as informações da pesquisa permitem elucidar de que maneira a participação e legitimidade nas práticas de trabalho podem auxiliar na aprendizagem. Entre os resultados encontrados no estudo, destacam-se as formas de aprendizagem situada que surgiram em três grupos: garçons, barmen e cozinha. Descrevendo de forma analítica o engajamento e participação dos aprendizes nas práticas de trabalho e nas comunidades de prática, argumenta-se, com base neste trabalho, que esse processo de atuação nas comunidades de prática passa pela fase inicial de participação periférica legitimada, já que, a partir do engajamento e da atuação com os mais experientes, desenvolve-se a aprendizagem. Além disso, os ganhos de legitimidade e pertencimento são elementos relevantes no processo de aprendizagem, e pode-se identificar que o processo de aprendizagem situada não ocorre somente em comunidades de prática e que o pertencimento e a participação periférica legitimada são características a serem fomentadas nas organizações. A partir da negociação e renegociação de significados, pelo estabelecimento de relacionamentos sociais e comunidades de prática, cria-se um sistema por meio do qual os modos de ver, interpretar, compreender e praticar

  12. SST Image Blind Restoration Based on SIMO and NAS-RIF%基于SIMO和NAS-RIF的SST图像盲恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲伟波; 金声震; 宁书年

    2006-01-01

    图像恢复是太空太阳望远镜图像处理的重要组成部分,针对SST的多通道太阳观测的特点,将SIMO模型引入到SST图像恢复中,根据SST图像的特点,给出了基于SIMO和NAS-RIF的多通道盲恢复算法.仿真结果表明,该方法对SST图像恢复具有较好的适应性.

  13. An Integrated Gate Turnaround Management Concept Leveraging Big Data Analytics for NAS Performance Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, William W.; Ingram, Carla D.; Ahlquist, Douglas Kurt; Chachad, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    "Gate Turnaround" plays a key role in the National Air Space (NAS) gate-to-gate performance by receiving aircraft when they reach their destination airport, and delivering aircraft into the NAS upon departing from the gate and subsequent takeoff. The time spent at the gate in meeting the planned departure time is influenced by many factors and often with considerable uncertainties. Uncertainties such as weather, early or late arrivals, disembarking and boarding passengers, unloading/reloading cargo, aircraft logistics/maintenance services and ground handling, traffic in ramp and movement areas for taxi-in and taxi-out, and departure queue management for takeoff are likely encountered on the daily basis. The Integrated Gate Turnaround Management (IGTM) concept is leveraging relevant historical data to support optimization of the gate operations, which include arrival, at the gate, departure based on constraints (e.g., available gates at the arrival, ground crew and equipment for the gate turnaround, and over capacity demand upon departure), and collaborative decision-making. The IGTM concept provides effective information services and decision tools to the stakeholders, such as airline dispatchers, gate agents, airport operators, ramp controllers, and air traffic control (ATC) traffic managers and ground controllers to mitigate uncertainties arising from both nominal and off-nominal airport gate operations. IGTM will provide NAS stakeholders customized decision making tools through a User Interface (UI) by leveraging historical data (Big Data), net-enabled Air Traffic Management (ATM) live data, and analytics according to dependencies among NAS parameters for the stakeholders to manage and optimize the NAS performance in the gate turnaround domain. The application will give stakeholders predictable results based on the past and current NAS performance according to selected decision trees through the UI. The predictable results are generated based on analysis of the

  14. 密度对大叶相思林生物量分配的影响%Effect of density on biomass allocation of Acacia auriculaeformis stands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    列志旸; 周彤彤; 薛立

    2016-01-01

    以密度为10000、4444和1667株/hm2的4年生大叶相思林为研究对象,对各种不同密度林分中大叶相思各器官生物量分配、生物量径级结构和群落生物量进行了研究。结果表明:各密度大叶相思干的生物量占林分生物量的55%以上,根占14.11%~15.50%,叶占8.34%~10.76%,而在枝和皮的分配比例上差异较大;三种密度大叶相思林的总生物量径阶分配呈正态分布;群落总生物量随林分密度的增加而增加,但林下植物生物量随林分密度的增加而减小。%The allocation pattern of organ biomass,radial structure and community of biomass were studied in four﹣yearold Acacia auriculaeformis stands with three densities (10 000,4 444 and 1 667 seedlings per hm2 ). The stem biomass of A. auriculaeformis stands accounted for above 55%of stand biomass,roots and leaves accounted for 14. 1 1%~15. 50%and 8. 34%~10. 76% respectively,whereas there were a great difference in distribution ratio for breach and bark bio﹣masses among the different density stands. The total biomass of diameter class in the A. auriculaeformis stands with three different densities exhibited the normal probability distribution. The total biomass of the community increased and the bio﹣mass of undergrowth decreased with increasing density.

  15. Role of phenolics as antioxidants, biomolecule protectors and as anti-diabetic factors - Evaluation on bark and empty pods of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arumugam Sathya; Perumal Siddhuraju

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To search for an efficient and inexpensive source of phytoconstituents with antioxidant potential and health promoting traits from bark and empty pods of Acacia auriculiformis (A. auriculiformis). Methods: Samples of bark and empty pod extracts were analyzed for bioactives (phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins) and subjected to free radical scavenging activity on DPPH˙, ABTS˙+, OH˙, O2•-and NO along with the determination of reducing power, iron chelating activity and peroxidation inhibition. Defensive action of extracts on biomolecules and cell membranes were evaluated by DNA nicking assay and haemolysis inhibition assay respectively.α-amylase andα-glucosidase inhibitory potentials were also determined. Results: All the bioactives analyzed were higher in bark (B) than empty pods (EP) [TPC: B (574.51±16.11); EP (96.80±3.45) mg GAE/g. TFC: B (94.71±7.65); EP (247.87±20.45) mg RE/g. Proanthocyanidins: B (2.81±0.31); EP (1.25±0.01) mg LE/100 g DM] except flavonoids. Both the extracts showed higher quenching capacity on DPPH and ABTS (DPPH:B (0.21±0.01);EP (1.51±0.17) g extract/g DPPH. ABTS:B (111 519.14±79 340.91);EP (80 232.55±32 894.12) mmol TE/g) with the FRAP of B (84 515.63±3 350.69) and EP (47 940.79±1 257.60) mmol Fe (II)/g. Iron chelation was not observed. In addition, they showed lower quenching activity on OH˙(B (48.95±1.72);EP (34.94±1.62)%) and equivalent quenching on O2•-(B (53.47±3.92);EP (24.41±2.61)%), NO (B (49.04±5.04);EP (51.00±5.13)%), peroxidation inhibition (B (67.50±5.50); EP (55.1±2.3)%) and antihaemolytic potential (B (87.60±6.84)%) towards authentic antioxidant standards. Interestingly, Empty pod extracts are devoid of antihaemolytic activity. Both the extracts showed dose dependent DNA protection. Besides this, bark and empty pod extracts exhibited dual inhibiting potential againstα-amylase andα-glucosidase enzymes. Conclusions: On summarization, it insinuated that both bark and empty pods

  16. Influence of Acacia senegal agroforestry system on growth and yield of sorghum, sesame, roselle and gum in north Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of intercropping with Acacia senegal (L.) Willd on growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.),sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa).Field experiments were conducted in El-Obeid Research farm (13°10' N; 30°12' E),North Kordofan State,Sudan,during 2002-2003 in an 11-year-old A.senegal plantation.The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications.Data were recorded for plant height (cm),fresh weight (kg·ha-1),dry weight (kg·ha-1),crop yield (kg·ha-1),and gum yield (kg·ha-1).We used Land Equivalent Ratios (LER) and simple financial analyses of gross surpluses to evaluate the productivity and profitability of the different treatments.The results indicated that A.senegal trees had a beneficial effect on crop performance and yield as well as gum yield.Significant differences (p < 0.05)were obtained for plant height,fresh weight,dry weight and crop yield.Therefore,yield of sorghum,sesame and roselle under intercropping system were 13.7%,23.8% and 20.9% higher than that obtained in the sole cropping system respectively.The highest yield increase was observed with sesame (23.8%).Gum yield (g/tree/picking) was significantly (p < 0.05) increased for sorghum,sesame and roslle under intercropping system.The highest yield of (298 g/tree/picking) was obtained when roselle was intercropped with A.senegal,while the least gum yield of (239 g·tree-1) was recorded in pure A.senegal plot.All the treatments gave land equivalent ratio (LER) of more than one-indicating the superiority of growing the field crops in intercropping over the sole cropping systems.The highest LER of 3.8 was obtained for sesame intercropped with A.senegal (Hashab),followed by 3.7,when sorghum was intercropped with A.senegal and 3.3 when roselle intercropped with A.senegal.All the treatments gave positive net revenues,the highest being for intercropped sorghum (558 SDG·ha-1) (SDG=Sudanese gienh

  17. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the α-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with β-Proteobacteria, ε-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be

  18. Filhos de alcoolistas: afetividade e conflito nas relações familiares

    OpenAIRE

    Joseane de Souza

    2008-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivos: verificar os níveis de afetividade e de conflito nas díades pai-mãe, pai-filho, (subsistema parental), identificar a ocorrência de sintomas depressivos, problemas comportamentais e cognitivos nas crianças de 9 a 11 anos, identificar sintomas depressivos nos pais e mães, buscar compreender a história de vida do pai e da mãe em suas famílias de origem, descrever a percepção que pai/marido e mãe/esposa têm do alcoolismo e suas conseqüências para as relações...

  19. The Reflection of Quantum Aesthetics in Algis Mickūnas Cosmic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auridas Gajauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantum Aesthetics phenomenon was formed in Spain, at the end of the twentieth centure. The paper analyzes this movement in the context of Algis Mickūnas phenomenological cosmic philosophy. Movement initiator is a Spanish novelist Gregorio Morales. The study is divided into two parts: the first part presents aesthetic principles of the quantum, relationship between new aesthetics and theories of quantum mechanics, physics and other sciences. The paper also examines the similarities of quantum aesthetics and New Age movements. The second part presents cosmic - phenomenological reflection of quantum theory of beauty. Mickūnas philosophical position combines theory of "eternal recurrence", "the bodily nature of consciousness", "the cosmic dance", theory of "dynamic fields" and quantum approach to aesthetics and the Universe. Summa Summarum he writes that "the conception of quantum aesthetics is involved in the composition of the rhythmic, cyclical and mood dimensioned and tensed world". 

  20. Período de latência e tempo para compreender nas aprendizagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crístia Rosineiri Gonçalves Lopes Corrêa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo aborda a dimensão do período de latência e do tempo para compreender nas aprendizagens. Argumenta que, a partir de Lacan (1959, se de um lado a inibição neurótica pode ser lida como uma paralisação no tempo para compreender, de outro é possível concluir que a inibição estrutural diz de uma vivência própria do tempo para compreender, nas aprendizagens, a qual antecede e apoia o conclusivo ato de aprender e o usufruto dessa aprendizagem. Para tal argumento, o artigo extrai consequências da abordagem da latência dada por Freud (1939 em "Moisés e o monoteísmo", argumentando que a latência se aproxima do tempo para compreender do qual nos fala Lacan (1946.

  1. Representação da mulher nas grandes produções de Hollywood

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Rúben Gouveia

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação submetida como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Sociologia Questões de género constituem um vasto campo de análise em sociologia. A posição e o papel das mulheres na sociedade é uma das questões mais debatidas aí. Assistiu-se nas últimas décadas à progressiva libertação da mulher face aos limites que lhe eram impostos, uma evolução registada sobretudo nas sociedades ocidentais. Porém, ela ainda continua a enfrentar obstáculos. Os preconceitos e estereótipos,...

  2. Amaranto como ingrediente funcional: propiedades antioxidantes de proteínas y péptidos

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini Delgado, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo general: Analizar distintas condiciones de simulación de la digestión gastrointestinal in vitro de proteínas de amaranto y caracterizar las muestras obtenidas. Objetivos específicos: » Evaluar diferentes condiciones de digestión gastrointestinal simulada sobre un aislado proteico de amaranto, variando relaciones enzimas/sustrato y tiempos de reacción. » Analizar, junto con el grado de hidrólisis, la potencial actividad antioxidante de los dige...

  3. ZHANG Jie and V, W, W. Yam Elected NAS Foreign Associates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to an announcement released by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on May l, 2012, two outstanding scientists from China including physicist ZHANG Jie and chemist Vivian Wing Wah Yam, both members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, were elected to NAS as its new foreign associates. Prof. ZHANG Jie is a leading scientist in strong field physics and X-ray laser technologies, and now serves as the President of Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Prof.

  4. O impacto da depressão materna nas interações iniciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum, Evanisa Helena Maio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva examinar questões teóricas a respeito da depressão materna nas interações iniciais para o desenvolvimento infantil, os estudos apontam para a ocorrência de desordens comportamentais, afetivas, cognitivas e sociais, bem como alterações da atividade cerebral. Salienta-se algumas formas de intervenção precoce para dirimir a probabilidade de conseqüências adversas para o desenvolvimento infantil

  5. POLICIES AND PRACTICES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF IFRS AND NAS IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Lica ERHAN; Marian SOCOLIUC; Svetlana MIHAILA; Veronica GROSU

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse the process of harmonization of national accounting standards of the Republic of Moldova to the international standards. It highlights the main advantages, disadvantages, risks and opportunities regarding the implementation of the new standards. A major step for the Republic of Moldova was the implementation of IFRS, which has become mandatory for all public interest entities from 1 January 2012 and the adoption of new NAS in accordance with EU Directives and IFRS f...

  6. A regra de ouro e a ética nas organizações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Roberto Thiry-Cherques

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina o princípio da regra de ouro e questiona a sua ampla aplicação nas organizações. O texto resume a trajetória da regra na história do pensamento filosófico e, a partir da crítica de Kant, apresenta argumentos que expõem a sua fragilidade lógica.

  7. Flujo y concentración de proteínas en saliva total humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BANDERAS-TARABAY JOSÉ ANTONIO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar los promedios de flujo salival y la concentración de proteínas totales en una población joven del Estado de México. Material y métodos. Se seleccionaron 120 sujetos a quienes se les colectó saliva total humana (STH no estimulada y estimulada, la cual se analizó por medio de gravimetría y espectrofotometría (LV/LU; se calcularon medidas de tendencia central y de dispersión; posteriormente, se correlacionaron estos datos con los índices CPOD y CPITN. Resultados. Los sujetos estudiados mostraron un promedio de flujo salival (ml/min ± DE en STH no estimulada de 0.397±.26, y en STH estimulada, de 0.973±.53. El promedio en la concentración de proteínas (mg/ml ± DE fue de 1.374±.45 en STH no estimulada y de 1.526±.44 en STH estimulada. Las mujeres presentaron un menor porcentaje de flujo salival y mayor concentración de proteínas. No se observaron correlaciones entre el flujo y la concentración de proteínas totales y el CPOD y CPITN; sin embargo, sí las hubo con otras variables. Conclusiones. Estos hallazgos podrían estar asociados con el grado de nutrición, las características genéticas y los niveles de salud bucal en nuestra población. El presente estudio representa la fase inicial de la creación de una base de datos en sialoquímica, cuya meta será identificar los parámetros que indiquen el riesgo de enfermedades sistémicas o bucodentales.

  8. LA FASE ESPONJA COMO SISTEMA BIOMIMÉTICO PARA CRISTALIZAR PROTEÍNAS DE MEMBRANA

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    Amir Maldonado Arce

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe de manera general la importancia de la cristalización de proteínas para realizar experimentos de difracción de rayos X que permitan dilucidar la estructura terciaria de dichas biomoléculas. En particular, se expone que la cristalización de proteínas de membrana requiere métodos especiales de preparación de la matriz de cristalización puesto que se debe “mimetizar” el ambiente hidrofóbico de la proteína en la membrana. De esta manera, el trabajo se centra en algunas propiedades de la fase líquida de membranas denominada “fase esponja”, cuya característica principal es una estructura membranar compleja conectada en tres dimensiones. Debido a su microestructura, la fase esponja es transparente e isotrópica, además de presentar baja viscosidad en las membranas. Estas características convierten a la fase esponja en un medio “biomimético” potencialmente útil para cristalizar proteínas de membrana.

  9. Individualização, fragmentação e risco social nas sociedades globalizadas

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    Pedro Hespanha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor reflecte sobre os processos através dos quais a globalização está a provocar a corrosão das estruturas de coesão interna nas sociedades contemporâneas e, ao mesmo tempo, a aumentar o risco de marginalização e de exclusão para sectores crescentes da população. A diferenciação social é um desses processos e está relacionado com fenómenos bastante visíveis nas sociedades contemporâneas, como a acentuação das desigualdades, a crescente marginalização de certas camadas e a gradual destruição das solidariedades sociais. O texto começa por analisar dois dos efeitos mais notórios por que o processo de diferenciação social opera – os efeitos de segmentação social e de individualização da vida social –, centrando-se, posteriormente, nas questões do agravamento do risco social e da relativa invisibilidade deste risco.A sociedade portuguesa é tomada como referência nesta reflexão e os resultados dos estudos realizados no âmbito do projecto “A Sociedade Portuguesa perante os Desafios da Globalização” constituem o capital de prova utilizado.

  10. As meditações americanas de Keyserling: um cosmopolitismo nas incertezas do tempo

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    Daniel Faria

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoje esquecida, a obra de Keyserling teve grande sucesso nas décadas de 1920 e 1930, com êxito editorial e repercussão entre intelectuais ao redor do mundo. No Brasil, visitado pelo conde em 1929, Keyserling foi citado em textos de Oswald e Mário de Andrade, comentários de Alceu Amoroso Lima e Lindolfo Collor, entre outros. Mário de Andrade chegou a dizer que a obra de Keyserling era a chave para a interpretação de Macunaíma.. O tema de sua obra era a decadência ocidental frente à pluralidade dos tempos históricos nas civilizações do mundo. O oriente lento, o progresso europeu e o primitivismo americano formariam uma harmonia mundial das temporalidades. Neste artigo nos deteremos nas reflexões de Keyserling e seus interlocutores, tendo em vista a questão dos mal-entendidos subjacentes a um projeto de paz mundial, baseado numa interpretação exotizante acerca das diferenças culturais, especialmente as relacionadas a uma suposta identidade sul-americana.

  11. GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS ORGANIZAÇÕES OU DO DESCONHECIMENTO DA REALIDADE ORGANIZACIONAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fladimir F. dos Santos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a validade dos propósitos da gestão do conhecimento como ferramenta de intervenção organizacional, descrevendo alguns paradoxos existentes entre a sua teoria e prática nas organizações. Argumenta-se que seus propósitos originais de criação, difusão e incorporação de um novo conhecimento na organização estão dando lugar a uma abordagem que não condiz com a realidade das organizações. Faz-se também uma leitura da evolução das teorias administrativas para elucidar como esse novo paradigma da administração está sendo abordado nas empresas. Propõe-se que se trata de uma reificação da máxima taylorista, cujos propósitos originais estão se convertendo em mais um instrumento de manipulação humana nas empresas. Ao final, em substituição ao modelo gerencial vigente, é proposto um processo de gestão baseado em valores.

  12. GESTÃO DO CONHECIMENTO NAS ORGANIZAÃÃES OU DO DESCONHECIMENTO DA REALIDADE ORGANIZACIONAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibério Mitidieri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a validade dos propósitos da gestão do conhecimento como ferramenta de intervenção organizacional, descrevendo alguns paradoxos existentes entre a sua teoria e prática nas organizações. Argumenta-se que seus propósitos originais de criação, difusão e incorporação de um novo conhecimento na organização estão dando lugar a uma abordagem que não condiz com a realidade das organizações. Faz-se também uma leitura da evolução das teorias administrativas para elucidar como esse novo paradigma da administração está sendo abordado nas empresas. Propõe-se que se trata de uma reificação da máxima taylorista, cujos propósitos originais estão se convertendo em mais um instrumento de manipulação humana nas empresas. Ao final, em substituição ao modelo gerencial vigente, é proposto um processo de gestão baseado em valores.

  13. Nursing activities score (NAS): a proposal for practical application in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Cardoso Sousa, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    For over 30 years in an attempt to demonstrate the cost-benefit ratio of the intensive care unit (ICU) a variety of tools have been developed to measure not only the severity of illness of the patient but also to capture the true cost of nursing workload. In this context, the nursing activities score (NAS) was developed as a result of modifications to the therapeutic interventions scoring system-28 (TISS-28). The NAS is a tool to measure nursing workload ICU and it has been shown to be twice as effective in measuring how nurses spend their time caring for critically ill patients than the TISS-28. This paper discuss the introduction of the NAS into everyday use in an intensive care unit in Brazil and highlights the challenges of standardisation of operational definitions, training requirements and accurate completion of the documentation when using such a tool. The rationale and steps undertaken to achieve this are outlined and the benefits of such a process are highlighted.

  14. Improved performance due to selective passivation of nitrogen clusters in GaInNAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Miwa; Whiteside, Vincent R.; Al Khalfioui, Mohamed; Leroux, Mathieu; Hossain, Khalid; Sellers, Ian R.

    2015-03-01

    While GaInNAs has the potential to be a fourth-junction in multi-junction solar cells it has proved to be difficult to incorporate due to the low solubility of nitrogen in these materials. Specifically, mid-gap states attributed to nitrogen clusters have proved prohibitive for practical implementation of these systems. Here, we present the selective passivation of nitrogen impurities using a UV-activated hydrogenation process, which enables the removal of defects while retaining substitution nitrogen. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements of the intrinsic region of a GaInNAs p-i-n solar cell show a classic ``s-shape'' associated with localization prior to hydrogenation, while after hydrogenation no sign of the ``s-shape'' is evident. This passivation of nitrogen centers is reflected in improved performance of solar cells structures relative to reference, unpassivated devices presenting a potential route to practical implementation of GaInNAs solar cells. The authors acknowledge support through Oklahoma Center for the Advancement of Science and Technology under the Oklahoma Applied Research Support Grant No. AR12.2-040.

  15. O papel das quimiocinas nas uveítes The role of chemokines in uveitis

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    Roberto Martins Gonçalves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A inflamação é parte do processo fisiológico que visa reparar o dano tecidual causado por infecção, trauma, auto-imunidade. Quando este processo fisiológico encontra-se alterado, pode contribuir para o aumento do dano tecidual. As quimiocinas e seus receptores são importantes elementos envolvidos no processo de migração celular para os tecidos inflamados. Nas doenças oculares, principalmente nas uveítes, estas proteínas estão sendo identificadas como importantes mediadores da resposta inflamatória. Esta revisão visa discutir o papel das quimiocinas em diversas doenças oculares, dando ênfase aos processos uveíticos.Inflammation is part of the physiological process that aims at repairing the damage produced by different causes such as infection, trauma, and autoimmune disease. However, when this physiological process is not regulated, it can contribute to the increase in tissue damage. Chemokines and their receptors are major factors involved in the process of cell migration into inflamed tissues. In the ocular diseases, mainly in uveitis, such proteins have been identified as important mediators of the inflammation process. This review discusses the role of chemokines in several ocular diseases, with emphasis on the uveitic process.

  16. Nanodiscos como herramienta para estudiar interacciones entre proteínas de división bacteriana

    OpenAIRE

    García Montañés, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    La división celular en E. coli implica el ensamblaje de un complejo macromolecular, denominado divisoma, formado por varias proteínas, 10 de ellas esenciales. Se conoce la secuencia lineal y concertada de ensamblaje que siguen estas proteínas del divisoma y algunas de sus actividades bioquímicas, así como algunas interacciones proteína-proteína involucradas. Inicialmente, 3 proteínas, FtsZ, ZipA y FtsA ensamblan juntas formando el proto-anillo en el cual se van incorporando el resto de compon...

  17. Optimisation of optical properties of a long-wavelength GaInNAs quantum-well laser diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alias, M S; Maskuriy, F; Faiz, F; Mitani, S M [Advanced Physical Technologies Laboratory, Telekom Malaysia Research and Development (TMR and D), Lingkaran Teknokrat Timur, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia); AL-Omari, A N [Electronic Engineering Department, Hijjawi Faculty for Engineering Technology, Yarmouk University, Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2013-11-30

    We report optimisation of optical properties of a strained GaInNAs/GaAs quantum-well laser, by taking into account the many-body effect theory and the bowing parameter. The theoretical transition energies and the GaInNAs bowing parameter are fitted into the photoluminescence spectrum of the GaInNAs quantum well, obtained in the experiment. The theoretical results for the photoluminescence spectrum and laser characteristics (light, current and voltage) exhibits a high degree of agreement with the experimental results. (lasers)

  18. Respostas de Acacia mangium Willd e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel a fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nativos provenientes de áreas degradadas pela mineração de bauxita na Amazônia Responses of Acacia mangium Willd and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel to native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from remaining areas of bauxite mining in Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Freitas Marinho

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A resposta de Acacia mangium Willd (mangium e Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi à inoculação de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, oriundos de áreas em recuperação após a extração de bauxita, foi avaliada em experimento com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos (duas espécies leguminosas e sete tipos de solo e três repetições. Avaliou-se o número de esporos no solo, a colonização micorrízica, a matéria seca total, o P acumulado, a dependência micorrízica das mudas, e a abundância e a freqüência de espécies. O número de propágulos infectivos (NPI foi estudado em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com oito diluições de solo inóculo, cinco repetições e uma planta isca (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Utilizou-se substrato da mistura de um Planossolo mais areia lavada e fosfato de rocha araxá (0,60 g/kg. O número de esporos aumentou em função do tempo de cobertura das leguminosas. A colonização micorrízica foi mais intensa no tachi. Os valores de matéria seca dessa espécie foram inferiores aos de mangium, que por sua vez extraiu em torno de seis vezes mais P do substrato. Em geral, mangium, ao contrário do tachi, foi facultativa à presença dos FMA, sugerindo sua utilização na recuperação de áreas degradadas sem inoculação prévia. Dentre as 39 espécies de FMA identificadas, Glomus macrocarpum Tul. & Tul. apresentou maior índice de abundância e freqüência (IAF e maior NPI, destacando-se entre as espécies pioneiras, ao passo que outras apareceram apenas em estádios sucessionais mais avançados das áreas em recuperação.The responses of Acacia mangium Willd (mangium and Sclerolobium paniculatum Vogel (tachi to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculation collected from areas under reclamation after bauxite mining, was evaluated in an completely randomized design distributed in 14 treatments (two legume, species and seven soil types, with three replicates. Evaluated

  19. As pesquisas etnográficas em enfermagem nas sociedades complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Lenardt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: As sociedades multiculturais do mundo pós-moderno caracterizam-se pela complexidade de sua estrutura,organização e funcionamento. Nessas sociedades, há um conjunto de atores sociais heterogêneos que experimentam umavariedade de fenômenos no seu cotidiano nas cidades. Nesse contexto desenvolvem-se os cuidados profissionais emEnfermagem e nos últimos anos os enfermeiros têm recorrido à etnografia como ferramenta para conhecer a realidade sócioculturale a experiência dos fenômenos na perspectiva de quem os vivencia. Trata-se de estudo teórico com o objetivo derefletir sobre a aplicação da abordagem etnográfica nas pesquisas brasileiras em Enfermagem nas sociedades complexas.Etnografia nas pesquisas brasileiras em enfermagem nas sociedades complexas: Os enfermeiros brasileiros têm seapropriado dos recursos metodológicos e das teorias antropológicas e da Enfermagem para desenvolver estudos sobre asvivências, experiências e significados atribuídos ao processo saúde-doença, influência cultural sobre os comportamentosrelacionados à saúde e a avaliação e gerenciamento dos processos de trabalho. Ressalta-se ainda, estudos que buscam teorizare refletir a respeito da construção metodológica nessas pesquisas. Esse movimento evidencia uma mudança de enfoque naspesquisas e práticas da Enfermagem, para uma visão mais integrativa e complexa dos seres humanos e da realidade. O métodoetnográfico possibilita apreender elementos da cultura de uma realidade e, como resultado, obter novas perspectivas deconhecimento destes fenômenos.Reflexão final: Considera-se que os conhecimentos antropológicos ampliam a visão do enfermeiro sobre os sujeitos aosquais destina a sua prática, refinando-a. A aproximação na vivência e experiência dos sujeitos permite a percepção dosfenômenos na perspectiva dos atores envolvidos, oferecendo ao profissional um olhar diferenciado para as necessidades eresultados do cuidado de

  20. PROPRIEDADES FUNCIONAIS DAS PROTEÍNAS DE AMÊNDOAS DA MUNGUBA (Pachira aquatica Aubl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNADETE DE LOURDES DE ARAÚJO SILVA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A semente da munguba (Pachira aquatica Aubl. contém amêndoas que exibem um conteúdo excelente de óleo e um percentualsignificativo em proteínas. Propositou-se determinar algumas propriedades funcionais das proteínas de amêndoas damunguba com o objetivo de instituir sua utilização na indústria de alimentos. O teor lipídico foi de 46,62%, o proteico de 13,75% e na forma de torta apresentou um índice de 28,27% de proteínas. Obtiveram-se doisisolados proteicos, o IP 2,0 e o IP 10,0, decorrentes de duas condições de pH (2,0 e 10,0. Na obtenção dos isolados proteicos, os índices em proteínas extraídas foram de 38,52% para o IP 2,0 e 82,06% para o IP 10,0. Os índices de proteínas recuperadas através da precipitação isoelétrica foram de 23,35% para o IP 2,0 e de 70,94%para o IP 10,0, em pH 5,0. As propriedades funcionais exibiram solubilidade mínima em pH 5,0, no pontoisoelétrico (pI, sendo mais elevada em pH ácido e alcalino do pI. As melhores capacidades de absorçãode água e de óleo exibidas foram para o IP 10,0. As propriedades emulsificantes foram dependentes do pH para os dois isolados, e o IP 10,0 indicou melhores resultados. As propriedades funcionais estudadas permitem o emprego dos isolados proteicos em produtos alimentícios que requerem alta solubilidade, tais como os produtos de panificação, massas em geral, sopas desidratadas e molhos, produtos que exigem desempenho na absorção do óleo, como as carnes simuladas, e em produtos que requerem poderes emulsificantes.