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Sample records for ac susceptibility measurements

  1. Critical current density measurement of thin films by AC susceptibility based on the penetration parameter h

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiao-Fen; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Abrahamsen, Asger B.

    2012-01-01

    We have numerically proved that the dependence of AC susceptibility χ of a E(J) power law superconducting thin disc on many parameters can be reduced to one penetration parameter h, with E the electric field and J the current density. Based on this result, we propose a way of measuring the critical...... current density Jc of superconducting thin films by AC susceptibility. Compared with the normally used method based on the peak of the imaginary part, our method uses a much larger range of the AC susceptibility curve, thus allowing determination of the temperature (T) dependence of Jc from a normally...

  2. Magnetic hysteresis and complex susceptibility as measures of ac losses in a multifilamentary NbTi superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, R.B.; Clark, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetization and ac susceptibility of a standard NbTi superconductor were measured as a function of longitudinal dc magnetic field. The ac-field-amplitude and frequency dependences of the complex susceptibility are examined. The magnetization is related to the susceptibility by means of a theoretical derivation based on the field dependence of the critical current density. Hysteresis losses, obtained directly from dc hysteresis loops and derived theoretically from ac susceptibility and critical current density, were in reasonable agreement

  3. AC susceptibility and NQR measurements on CeCu6 below 5 mK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, C.; Lee, D.M.; Pollack, L.; Smith, E.N.; Markert, J.T.; Maple, M.B.; Hinks, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the zero field ac magnetic susceptibility of single and polycrystalline CeCu 6 samples down to 100 μK. For the single crystal sample, the susceptibility shows pronounced anisotropic behavior with respect to the crystal orientation. At ∼3 mK the susceptibility along two different crystal orientations shows a broad peak, and at 500 μK the susceptibility shows a second peak along one orientation and a plateau along the other. The susceptibility of the polycrystalline sample has a similar peak at 3 mK. NQR measurements are under way to study the Cu nuclear spin system in this compound in order to gain additional information about the nature of the peaks. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of critical state response in thin films by AC susceptibility measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Youssef, A.; Švindrych, Z.; Hadač, J.; Janů, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2008), s. 1589-1592 ISSN 1051-8223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0942 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : AC susceptibility * critical state * harmonics * thin film * axial magnetic-field * superconductor disks * cylinders Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2008

  5. A.c. susceptibility measurements in the presence of d.c. magnetic fields for Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watahiki, M.; Murakami, M.; Yoo, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    We report the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the complex a.c. susceptibility with bias d.c. magnetic fields for melt-processed Nd-Ba-Cu-O superconductor. The onset temperature (T onset ) of the real part of a.c. susceptibility shifted to a lower temperature with increasing d.c. magnetic field. The superconducting transition temperature (T c ) determined by d.c. magnetization measurements did not shift appreciably to a lower-temperature region with increasing d.c. magnetic field. The distinction between T onset and T c indicates that the a.c. susceptibility measurements detect the energy dissipation generated by the motion of flux lines. We have also measured flux profiles and found that there was no appreciable change in flux penetration below and above the peak field, which suggests that the peak effect in Nd-Ba-Cu-O is not due to the phase transition in the flux line lattice. (author)

  6. Magnetic irreversibility in granular superconductors: ac susceptibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, F.; Obradors, X.; Fontcuberta, J.; Vallet, M.; Gonzalez-Calbet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Ac susceptibility measurements of a ceramic weak-coupled superconductor in very low ac fields (2mG, 111Hz) are reported. We present evidence for the observation of the magnetic irreversibility following a ZFC-FC thermal cycling by means of ac susceptibilty measurements. It is shown that this technique also reflect local magnetic field effects in granular superconductors, as previously suggested in microwave surface resistance and I-V characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Study of critical current density from ac susceptibility measurements in (La1-xYx)2Ba2CaCu5O2 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, P.K.; Ravi, S. . sravi@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared a series of compounds (La 1-x Y x ) 2 Ba 2 CaCu 5 O 2 for x = 0 to 0.5 by adding a CaCuO 2 layer to the parent compound La 2 Ba 2 Cu 4 O 2 and by doping Y in place of La. These materials are also prepared by adding 5 wt% of Ag to enhance the intergranular coupling and critical current density. X-ray diffraction measurements show that all the samples are essentially in single phase form and the patterns could be refined using P4/mmm space group in tetragonal cell. The typical lattice parameters are found to be a = b 3.856 A, c = 11.576 A for x = 0.5 sample. Temperature variations of dc electrical resistivity measured on the above samples show that they exhibit superconductivity with T c ranging from 60 to 75 K. Temperature and ac field amplitude variation of ac susceptibility have been measured on the above samples. The field variation of ac susceptibility data has been analyzed by using Bean critical state model. Using both temperature and field variations of ac susceptibility data, the material dependent parameters, such as critical current density as a function of temperature and effective volume fraction grains have been estimated. The Ag doped samples show relatively large critical current density compared to pure samples due to improved intergranular coupling. (author)

  8. Nonlinear AC susceptibility, surface and bulk shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, C. J.; Indenbom, M. V.; D'Anna, G.; Benoit, W.

    1996-02-01

    We calculate the nonlinear AC response of a thin superconducting strip in perpendicular field, shielded by an edge current due to the geometrical barrier. A comparison with the results for infinite samples in parallel field, screened by a surface barrier, and with those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state, shows that the AC response due to a barrier has general features that are independent of geometry, and that are significantly different from those for screening by a bulk current in the critical state. By consequence, the nonlinear (global) AC susceptibility can be used to determine the origin of magnetic irreversibility. A comparison with experiments on a Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8+δ crystal shows that in this material, the low-frequency AC screening at high temperature is mainly due to the screening by an edge current, and that this is the unique source of the nonlinear magnetic response at temperatures above 40 K.

  9. AC susceptibility enhancement studies in magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Ranganathan, R.; Chakravarti, A.; Sil, S.

    2001-01-01

    Enhancement of AC susceptibility has been observed for typical ferromagnets (Gd), reentrant spin glasses like (Fe 1.5 Mn 1.5 Si) and canted spin systems (Ce(Fe 0.96 Al 0.04 ) 2 ). The data have been interpreted with the help of a simulation model based on dry friction-like pinning of domain walls for systems having ferromagnetic domain structures. A strong pinning mechanism appears in the reentrant spin glass like and canted spin systems at low temperatures in addition to the intrinsic one in the ferromagnetic phase. The temperature variation of the pinning potential has been given qualitatively for the reentrant spin glass like systems

  10. Hydrostatic Pressure Study on 3-K Phase Superconductivity in Sr2RuO4-Ru Eutectic Crystals by AC Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hiromichi; Sakaue, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure on 3-K phase superconductivity in Sr 2 RuO 4 -Ru eutectic crystals by means of AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. We have found that the application of hydrostatic pressure suppresses the superconducting transition temperature T c of the 3-K phase with a pressure coefficient of dT c /dP ≈ −0.2 K/GPa, similar to the case of the 1.5-K phase. We have also observed that the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the 3-K phase seems to be elastic whilst that of uniaxial pressure is plastic.

  11. Spectroscopic AC susceptibility imaging (sASI) of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficko, Bradley W.; Nadar, Priyanka M.; Diamond, Solomon G.

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a method for alternating current (AC) susceptibility imaging (ASI) of magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) using low cost instrumentation. The ASI method uses AC magnetic susceptibility measurements to create tomographic images using an array of drive coils, compensation coils and fluxgate magnetometers. Using a spectroscopic approach in conjunction with ASI, a series of tomographic images can be created for each frequency measurement set and is termed sASI. The advantage of sASI is that mNPs can be simultaneously characterized and imaged in a biological medium. System calibration was performed by fitting the in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements of an mNP sample with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm to a Brownian relaxation model (R 2 =0.96). Samples of mNPs with core diameters of 10 and 40 nm and a sample of 100 nm hydrodynamic diameter were prepared in 0.5 ml tubes. Three mNP samples were arranged in a randomized array and then scanned using sASI with six frequencies between 425 and 925 Hz. The sASI scans showed the location and quantity of the mNP samples (R 2 =0.97). Biological compatibility of the sASI method was demonstrated by scanning mNPs that were injected into a pork sausage. The mNP response in the biological medium was found to correlate with a calibration sample (R 2 =0.97, p<0.001). These results demonstrate the concept of ASI and advantages of sASI. - Highlights: • Development of an AC susceptibility imaging model. • Comparison of AC susceptibility imaging (ASI) and susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI). • Demonstration of ASI and spectroscopic ASI (sASI) using three different magnetic nanoparticle types. • SASI scan separation of three different magnetic nanoparticles samples using 5 spectroscopic frequencies. • Demonstration of biological feasibility of sASI

  12. Vortex dynamics and irreversibility line in optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 from ac susceptibility and magnetization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, G.; Carretta, P.; de Renzi, R.; Sanna, S.; Palenzona, A.; Putti, M.; Tropeano, M.

    2011-05-01

    Ac susceptibility and static magnetization measurements were performed in the optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 superconductor. The field-temperature phase diagram of the superconducting state was drawn, and, in particular, the features of the flux lines were derived. The dependence of the intragrain depinning energy on the magnetic field intensity was derived in the thermally activated flux-creep framework, enlightening a typical 1/H dependence in the high-field regime. The intragrain critical current density was extrapolated in the zero-temperature and zero-magnetic-field limit, showing a remarkably high value Jc0(0)~2×107 A/cm2, which demonstrates that this material is rather interesting for potential future technological applications.

  13. The complex ac susceptibility of superconducting Y-Ba-CuO thin film and bulk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobotka, P.; Goemoery, F.

    1988-01-01

    Complex ac susceptibility measurements as function of temperature on Y-Ba-CuO superconductors are reported. A strong dependence of the susceptibility curves on the ac field magnitude and little influence of the superimposed dc field are observed on both, thin film and bulk samples. The susceptibilities of these materials are frequency independent in the range 30 to 7200 Hz what demonstrates the negligible role of eddy currents. A second peak in the imaginary part of susceptibility is observed in the bulk sample at higher levels of ac field. This implies the existence of another component in the sample with higher T c and lower losses. (author)

  14. c-axis ac susceptibility in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldmann, O.; Lichtschlag, G.; Talalaevskii, A.; Kleiner, R.; Mueller, P.; Steinmeyer, F.; Gerhaeuser, W.

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the angle and magnetic field dependence of the ac susceptibility in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals at low external fields. The ac field was applied perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes. The first and third harmonics of the ac susceptibility exhibit remarkably sharp features when the dc field component perpendicular to the CuO 2 planes passes a threshold field H th . H th is strongly temperature dependent, but is independent of the parallel field component. We propose a simple model which excellently explains the data. Within this model the peak structures are related to the irreversibility line. We discuss the implications of the model for the interpretation of the ac susceptibility. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Development of a nano-tesla magnetic field shielded chamber and highly precise AC-susceptibility measurement coil at μK temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Prakash, Om; Ramakrishanan, S.

    2014-04-01

    A special sample measurement chamber has been developed to perform experiments at ultralow temperatures and ultralow magnetic field. A high permeability material known as cryoperm 10 and Pb is used to shield the measurement space consisting of the signal detecting set-up and the sample. The detecting setup consists of a very sensitive susceptibility coil wound on OFHC Cu bobbin.

  16. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  17. AC susceptibility of thin Pb films in intermediate and mixed state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janu, Zdenek, E-mail: janu@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Svindrych, Zdenek [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, CZ-182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Trunecek, Otakar [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, CZ-121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Kus, Peter; Plecenik, Andrej [Komenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Mlynska dolina, 842 48 Bratislava 4 (Slovakia)

    2011-12-15

    Thickness dependent transition in AC susceptibility between intermediate and mixed state in type-I superconducting films. The temperature induced crossover between reversible and irreversible behavior was observed in the thicker film. The temperature dependence of the AC susceptibility in mixed state follows prediction of model based on Bean critical state. The temperature dependence of the harmonics of the complex AC susceptibility in the intermediate state is explained. Thin films of type I superconductors of a thickness comparable or less than a flux penetration length behave like type II superconductors in a mixed state. With decreasing film thickness normal domains carrying a magnetic flux get smaller with smaller number of flux quanta per domain and finally transform into single quantum flux lines, i.e. quantum vortices similar to those found in type II superconductors. We give an evidence of this behavior from the measurements of the nonlinear response of a total magnetic moment to an applied AC magnetic field, directly from the temperature dependence of an AC susceptibility.

  18. Ac susceptibility of a Bi-2223/Ag tape in a perpendicular field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvides, N.; Mueller, K.-H.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We report experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of the real ( X ') and imaginary or loss ( X '') parts of the ac susceptibility as a function of temperature T = 4 - 130 K, frequency ω/2π = 5 Hz - 5 kHz and ac magnetic field amplitude μ 0 H m = 0.02 - 7 mT for of a monofilament silver-sheathed Bi-2223 tape. The susceptibilities consist of a hysteretic component due to ac loss ( Xsc '') in the superconductor core and an eddy current component due to eddy current loss ( Xed '') in the silver sheath. At high temperatures the low frequency limit is used to calculate the hysteretic and eddy current susceptibilities while at low temperatures the susceptibility is found to be due to eddy currents flowing along the edges of the tape. The measured loss at low frequencies (< 50 Hz) and high temperatures is dominated by the hysteresis loss which varies with amplitude but is essentially independent of frequency. At higher frequencies the eddy current loss of the silver sheath becomes dominant and it increases dramatically with frequency at both low and high temperatures

  19. Whole tissue AC susceptibility after superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent administration in a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, Francisco Jose; Gutierrez, Lucia; Rosa Abadia, Ana; Soledad Romero, Maria; Lopez, Antonio; Jesus Munoz, Maria

    2007-01-01

    A magnetic AC susceptibility characterisation of rat tissues after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Endorem ( R)), at the same dose as established for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement in humans, has been carried out. The measurements reveal the presence of the contrast agent as well as that of physiological ferritin in liver and spleen while no traces have been magnetically detected in heart and kidney. This preliminary work opens suggestive possibilities for future biodistribution studies of any type of magnetic carriers

  20. AC susceptibility response of bulk YBCO superconductors in the presence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodi, A.C.; Kirschner, I.

    1997-01-01

    Low-frequency AC susceptibility measurements on ceramic YBCO superconductors carried out at the presence of a quasi-one-dimensional temperature gradient are compared with those made without the temperature gradient. The values of the different characteristic temperatures measured on samples without and with a temperature gradient are identical but in the second case its characteristic temperature is a medium value. When the temperature gradient is constant on the sample the arithmetic medium value of the local temperatures is the effective characteristic temperature different phenomena. (orig.)

  1. On the relevance of the ac magnetic susceptibility on the study of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoder, A.F.; Couach, M.; Barbara, B.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ac susceptibility method allows to study in details the bulk superconductivity of as well homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials, such as high-T c superconductors. Shielding and Meissner effects at T c can be distinguished by a careful analysis of x' and x'' components of the susceptibility

  2. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  3. Quantitative analysis of the a.c. susceptibility of core–shell nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchini, M. A.; Riani, P.; Canepa, F.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and silica-coated magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and by a.c. susceptibility measurements as a function of the frequency both at room temperature and 80 K. A new mathematical approach based on the explicit coexistence (at room temperature) of Brownian and Néel contributions is proposed: the magnetic data were quantitatively analyzed following this approach and the results well agree with microscopic data. This mathematical procedure allows the achievement of the complete size distribution of coated magnetic NPs in solution as well as the real dimension of the magnetic nuclei.

  4. Ac loss measurement of SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delchamps, S.; Hanft, R.; Jaffery, T.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1992-09-01

    AC losses in full length and 1.5 m model SSC collider dipoles were successfully measured by the direct observation of energy flow into and out of magnets during a ramp cycle. The measurement was performed by using two double-integrating type digital volt meters (DVM's) for current and voltage measurement. Measurements were performed for six is m long ASST magnets and five 1.5 m long model magnets, inducting one 40 mm diameter magnet. There were large variations in the eddy current losses. Since these magnets use conductors with slight deviations in their internal structures and processing of the copper surface depending on the manufacturer, it is likely that there are differences in the contact resistance between strands. Correlation between the ramp rate dependence of the,quench current and the eddy current loss was evident

  5. Measuring Gravitational Flexion in ACS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David

    2005-07-01

    We propose measurement of the gravitational "Flexion" signal in ACS cluster images. The flexion, or "arciness" of a lensed background galaxy arises from variations in the lensing field. As a result, it is extremely sensitive to small scale perturbations in the field, and thus, to substructure in clusters. Moreover, because flexion represents gravitationally induced asymmetries in the lensed image, it is completely separable from traditional measurements of shear, which focus on the induced ellipticity of the image, and thus, the two signals may be extracted simultaneously. Since typical galaxies are roughly symmetric upon 180 degree rotation, even a small induced flexion can potentially produce a noticeable effect {Goldberg & Bacon, 2005}. We propose the measurement of substructure within approximately 4 clusters with high-quality ACS data, and will further apply a test of a new tomographic technique whereby comparisons of lensed arcs at different redshifts may be used to estimate the background cosmology, and thus place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy.

  6. AC susceptibility of thin Pb films in intermediate and mixed state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janů, Zdeněk; Švindrych, Zdeněk; Truněček, O.; Kúš, P.; Plecenik, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 471, 23-24 (2011), s. 1647-1650 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : intermediate state * mixed state * AC susceptibility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.014, year: 2011

  7. Susceptibility of The Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis, to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin CRY1AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Kyawt Kyawt Ei

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The larval susceptibility of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, to a Bacillus thuringiensis protein (Cry1Ac was evaluated using insect feeding bioassays. The founding population of O. furnacalis was originally collected from the experimental station of UGM at Kalitirto and had been reared in the laboratory for three generations using an artificial diet “InsectaLf”. The tested instars were exposed on diets treated with a series of concentrations of Cry1Ac for one week. The LC50 values on the seventh day after treatment for 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instars were 7.79, 21.12, 113.66, and 123.17 ppm, respectively, showing that the higher the instars the lesser the susceptibility to Cry1Ac. When the neonates were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cry1Ac (0.0583, 0.116, and 0.5830 ppm, growth and development of the surviving larvae were inhibited. The fecundity and viability of females produced from treated larvae decreased with increasing the concentrations. These findings indicate that Cry1Ac is toxic to larva of O. furnacalis and has chronic effects to larvae surviving from Cry1Ac ingestion.   Kepekaan larva penggerek batang jagung Asia, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, terhadap protein Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac diuji dengan metode celup pakan. Larva berasal dari pertanaman jagung di KP-4, UGM di Kalitirto dan telah dikembangbiakkan di laboratorium menggunakan pakan buatan (InsectaLF selama tiga generasi sebelum digunakan untuk pengujian. Larva O. furnacalis yang diuji dipaparkan pada pakan buatan yang telah dicelupkan pada seri konsentrasi Cry1Ac. Nilai LC50 pada hari ketujuh setelah perlakukan untuk instar 1, 2, 3, dan 4 berturut-turut adalah 0,79; 21,12; 113,66; dan 123,17 ppm. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa instar yang semakin tinggi tingkat kepekaannya terhadap Cry1Ac semakin menurun. Larva yang baru menetas dan diberi pakan yang telah dicelupkan pada konsentrasi sublethal Cry1Ac

  8. AC susceptibility as a tool to probe the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Gabriel T., E-mail: gtlandi@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Arantes, Fabiana R. [Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil); Cornejo, Daniel R. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-090 (Brazil); Bakuzis, Andris F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Goiás, 74690-900 Goiânia-GO (Brazil); Andreu, Irene; Natividad, Eva [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018 (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The dipolar interaction is known to substantially affect the properties of magnetic nanoparticles. This is particularly important when the particles are kept in a fluid suspension or packed within nano-carriers. In addition to its usual long-range nature, in these cases the dipolar interaction may also induce the formation of clusters of particles, thereby strongly modifying their magnetic anisotropies. In this paper we show how AC susceptibility may be used to obtain information regarding the influence of the dipolar interaction in a sample. We develop a model which includes both aspects of the dipolar interaction and may be fitted directly to the susceptibility data. The usual long-range nature of the interaction is implemented using a mean-field approximation, whereas the particle-particle aggregation is modeled using a distribution of anisotropy constants. The model is then applied to two samples studied at different concentrations. One consists of spherical magnetite nanoparticles dispersed in oil and the other of cubic magnetite nanoparticles embedded on polymeric nanospheres. We also introduce a simple technique to address the presence of the dipolar interaction in a given sample, based on the height of the AC susceptibility peaks for different driving frequencies. - Highlights: We discuss the importance of the dipolar interaction in magnetic nanoparticle samples. It is shown that AC susceptibility may be used to estimate the extent of this interaction. We develop a model that accounts for particle aggregation. The theoretical model is then fitted to distinct magnetite samples.

  9. Measuring Nematic Susceptibilities from the Elastoresistivity Tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A. T.; Shapiro, M. C.; Hlobil, Patrick; Maharaj, Akash; Chu, Jiun-Haw; Fisher, Ian

    The elastoresistivity tensor mijkl relates changes in resistivity to the strain on a material. As a fourth-rank tensor, it contains considerably more information about the material than the simpler (second-rank) resistivity tensor; in particular, certain elastoresistivity coefficients can be related to thermodynamic susceptibilities and serve as a direct probe of symmetry breaking at a phase transition. The aim of this talk is twofold. First, we enumerate how symmetry both constrains the structure of the elastoresistivity tensor into an easy-to-understand form and connects tensor elements to thermodynamic susceptibilities. In the process, we generalize previous studies of elastoresistivity to include the effects of magnetic field. Second, we describe an approach to measuring quantities in the elastoresistivity tensor with a novel transverse measurement, which is immune to relative strain offsets. These techniques are then applied to BaFe2As2 in a proof of principle measurement. This work is supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract DE-AC02-76SF00515.

  10. Ac susceptibility studies on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, Arani; Mukherjee, C.D.; Ranganathan, R.; Chatterjee, N.; Raychaudhuri, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    We report the low a.c. susceptibility data χ'(T,Hsub(rms)), χsup(double inverted commas)(T,Hsub(rms)) for the newly prepared superconducting system Bi x Sr 4 Ca 2 Cu 4 O y (x=0.5, 1.0 and 1.5) containing Bi at concentrations lower than that in the conventional Bi-based system. The experimental results are discussed in the light of existing theories. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  11. Measurements of temperature dependence of 'localized susceptibility'

    CERN Document Server

    Shiozawa, H; Ishii, H; Takayama, Y; Obu, K; Muro, T; Saitoh, Y; Matsuda, T D; Sugawara, H; Sato, H

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of some rare-earth compounds is estimated by measuring magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of rare-earth 3d-4f absorption spectra. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility obtained by the MCD measurement is remarkably different from the bulk susceptibility in most samples, which is attributed to the strong site selectivity of the core MCD measurement.

  12. An ac susceptibility study in capped Ni/Ni(OH)2 core-shell nanoassemblies: dual peak observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godsell, Jeffrey F; Roy, Saibal; Bala, Tanushree; Ryan, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the ac susceptibility (χ' and χ'') variation with temperature (10-100 K) for oleic acid (OA) capped Ni/Ni(OH) 2 core-shell nanoparticle assemblies are reported at frequencies varying from 0.1 to 1000 Hz. Nanoparticle assemblies, with two average particle diameters of ∼34 nm and ∼14 nm, were synthesized using a wet chemical synthesis approach. Two peaks in the ac susceptibility versus temperature curves are clearly discernable for each of the samples. The first, occurring at ∼22 K was attributed to the paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic transition of the Ni(OH) 2 present in the shell. The second higher temperature peak was attributed to the superparamagnetic blocking of the pure Ni situated at the core of the nanoparticles. The higher temperature peaks in both the χ' and χ'' curves were observed to increase with increasing frequency. Thus the Neel and the blocking temperatures for such core-shell nanoassemblies were clearly identified from the ac analysis, whereas they were not discernible (superimposed) even from very low dc (FC/ZFC) field measurements. Interparticle interactions within the assemblies were studied through the fitting of phenomenological laws to the experimental datasets. It is observed that even with an OA capping layer, larger Ni/Ni(OH) 2 nanoparticles experience a greater degree of sub-capping layer oxidation thus producing lower magnetic interaction strengths.

  13. Accuracy of magnetic resonance based susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdevig, Hannah E.; Russek, Stephen E.; Carnicka, Slavka; Stupic, Karl F.; Keenan, Kathryn E.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map the magnetic susceptibility of tissue to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Accurate measurements of susceptibility are important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and brain tissue for use in noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Induced magnetic fields with amplitude on the order of 100 nT, can be detected using MRI phase images. The induced field distributions can then be inverted to obtain quantitative susceptibility maps. The focus of this research was to determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements using simple phantom geometries and to compare the susceptibility measurements with magnetometry measurements where SI-traceable standards are available. The susceptibilities of paramagnetic salt solutions in cylindrical containers were measured as a function of orientation relative to the static MRI field. The observed induced fields as a function of orientation of the cylinder were in good agreement with simple models. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry using NIST-traceable standards. MRI can accurately measure relative magnetic susceptibilities while SQUID magnetometry measures absolute magnetic susceptibility. Given the accuracy of moment measurements of tissue mimicking samples, and the need to look at small differences in tissue properties, the use of existing NIST standard reference materials to calibrate MRI reference structures is problematic and better reference materials are required.

  14. Microstructural characterisation and change in a.c. magnetic susceptibility of duplex stainless steel during spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.H., E-mail: KHLO@umac.m [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Lai, J.K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-06-15

    The microstructural changes during long-term (up to 10,000 h) spinodal decomposition in a duplex stain less steel, 7MoPLUS, have been characterised using TEM, a.c. magnetic susceptibility, X-ray diffractometry, microhardness measurement and optical microscopy. The microstructural changes and deformation microstructures of ferrite and austenite upon spinodal decomposition are characterised. The use of a.c. magnetic susceptibility to study the progress of spinodal decomposition is discussed. Above 450 {sup o}C, recent research by K.L. Weng et al. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 379 (2004) 119 has established that spinodal decomposition leads to crisscrossing of dislocations and the development of mottled contrast in the ferrite phase. The present work has shown that at 350 {sup o}C (the low-end of the spinodal range), crisscrossing of dislocations still occurs, but mottled contrast is absent. The G phase tends to be in contact with dislocations and its precipitation lags behind the occurrence of spinodal decomposition. No noticeable microstructural changes could be observed in the austenite phase in the spinodal temperature regime.

  15. AC power flow importance measures considering multi-element failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Shi, Congling

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the criticality of individual components of power systems is essential for overall reliability and management. This paper proposes an AC-based power flow element importance measure, while considering multi-element failures. The measure relies on a proposed AC-based cascading failure model, which captures branch overflow, bus load shedding, and branch failures, via AC power flow and optimal power flow analyses. Taking the IEEE 30, 57 and 118-bus power systems as case studies, we find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of a bus or branch. It is observed that for a substation bus, its importance is statistically proportional to its power demand, but this trend is not observed for power plant buses. While comparing with other reliability, functionality, and topology-based importance measures popular today, we find that a DC power flow model, although better correlated with the benchmark AC model as a whole, still fails to locate some critical elements. This is due to the focus of DC-based models on real power that ignores reactive power. The proposed importance measure is aimed to inform decision makers about key components in complex systems, while improving cascading failure prevention, system backup setting, and overall resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a novel importance measure based on joint failures and AC power flow. • A cascading failure model considers both AC power flow and optimal power flow. • We find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of an element. • Power demand impacts the importance of substations but less so that of generators. • DC models fail to identify some key elements, despite correlating with AC models.

  16. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  17. AC-Conductivity measurements on γ-aluminium oxynitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, H.X.; Hal, van P.F.; Metselaar, R.; With, de G.

    1995-01-01

    AC-conductivity measurements were performed on aluminium oxynitrides (Alons) because of their interesting defect structure. Although it became apparent that these Alons are not stable in the temperature range used, the electrical properties of the materials could be measured with impedance

  18. Magnetic susceptibility measurements on Bi - Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaffa bin Haji Abdullah

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements on eight samples of tin-rich and three samples of bismuth-rich Bi-Sn alloys were made from 85K to 300K by Faraday's method. The susceptibilities of the eight tin-rich samples are positive and greater than the susceptibility of pure tin. The values are approximately constant at low temperatures but decreasing a little bit with increasing temperature. This result is interpreted as due to the predominant contribution of the Pauli spin paramagnetic susceptibility. A small decrease in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to the effect of the second order term in the expression for spin paramagnetic susceptibility. The fluctuation of the susceptibility for alloys of different composition is interpreted as due to the effect of the density of states at the Fermi levels. The three samples of bismuth-rich alloys show a transition to diamagnetic property, where the diamagnetism is increased with temperature. This result is predominant and due to the diamagnetic contribution from the ions. The increase in susceptibility with temperature is interpreted as due to an increase in the effective radii of the ions due to thermal expansion. (author)

  19. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Chen

    Full Text Available Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50 of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  20. Hidden transition in multiferroic and magnetodielectric CuCrO2 evidenced by ac-susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kaushak K.; Pal, Arkadeb; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Rahul; Saha, J.; Sinha, A. K.; Ghosh, A. K.; Patnaik, S.; Awasthi, A. M.; Chatterjee, Sandip

    2017-04-01

    Ferroelectric polarization, magnetic-field dependence of the dielectric constant and ac and dc magnetizations of frustrated CuCrO2 have been measured. A new spin freezing transition below 32 K is observed which is thermally driven. The nature of the spin freezing is to be a single-ion process. Dilution by the replacements of Cr ions by magnetic Mn ions showed suppression of the spin freezing transition suggesting it to be fundamentally a single-ion freezing process. The observed freezing, which is seemingly associated to geometrical spin frustration, represents a novel form of magnetic glassy behavior.

  1. Impedance Localization Measurements using AC Dipoles in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Papotti, Giulia; Persson, Tobias; Salvant, Benoit; Tomás, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the LHC impedance is of primary importance to predict the machine performance and allow for the HL-LHC upgrade. The developed impedance model can be benchmarked with beam measurements in order to assess its validity and limit. This is routinely done, for example, moving the LHC collimator jaws and measuring the induced tune shift. In order to localize possible unknown impedance sources, the variation of phase advance with intensity between beam position monitors can be measured. In this work we will present the impedance localization measurements performed at injection in the LHC using AC dipoles as exciter as well as the underlying theory.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and AC susceptibility studies of Mn and Gd doped 1:2:3 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Robina, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    For many years superconductivity was considered to be a low temperature phenomenon occurring below ∼ 25K. All this changed in April 1986 when J. G. Bednorz and K. A. Muller showed that the oxide La 2-x Ba x CuO 4 becomes a superconductor at ∼ 30K. Later in December 1986 the oxides La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 and La 2-x Ba x CuO 4 synthesised under high pressure, were shown to superconduct at ∼ 40K and ∼ 50K, respectively. Finally in February 1987, Chu synthesised the classic superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.8 , the so-called 1:2:3 material, which has a critical temperature circa 92K. In this thesis, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and susceptibility measurements are reported on various superconductors. In 1987 Bowden et al., showed that pure phase 1:2:3 samples are characterised by an absence of Cu EPR signals. This contrasts sharply with the Green phase material, Y 2 Ba 1 Cu 1 O 5 , which shows a very large EPR signal with a g eff of 2.08. In an attempt to induce EPR signals, Mn doped 1:2:3 samples have been synthesised and characterised with EPR , AC susceptibility, XRD and SEM measurements. It is shown that Mn EPR signals are not evident in the Mn doped samples with a g eff of 2.09. Also, below T c the EPR signals of the lightly doped Mn samples vanish. It is argued that this is due to fluxoids motion within the superconductor, which gives rise to very large non-reproducible signals. It is suggested that the signals originate from Cu, impurity contaminants and multiple phases produced when the 1:2:3 superconductor is doped with Manganese (author)

  3. Measurement of AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, K.M.; Shafer, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to measure the AC electrical characteristics of SSC superconducting dipole magnets over the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 10 kHz. A magnet equivalent circuit representing the magnet DC inductance, eddy current losses, coil-to-ground and turn-to-turn capacitance, was synthesized from the experimental data. This magnet equivalent circuit can be used to predict the current ripple distribution along the superconducting magnet string and can provide dynamic information for the design of the collider current regulation loop

  4. Magnetic properties of high temperature superconductors. AC susceptibility and magnetostriction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heill, L K

    1995-05-01

    The author of this thesis has measured the ac magnetic response function {mu} = {mu}`+i{mu}`` in melt-powder-melt-growth YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (Y123) with insulating Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} (Y211) and in single crystal YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (SC) in applied dc fields up to 8 T, oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the crystalline c-axis. Both samples are cubes with sides of about 1 mm. The response of the two samples was mapped out as a function of temperature, excitation field amplitude and frequency, dc field and field orientation. It is found that for both samples the loss peak line (LPL) and hence the irreversibility line (IL) exists at higher temperatures and fields for perpendicular field orientation than for parallel. Strong frequency but weak amplitude dependence is observed for parallel orientation, vice versa for perpendicular orientation. The measured response is strongly non-linear for perpendicular orientation, and intermediate between linear (ohmic) and extremely non-linear (Bean critical state) for parallel orientation. The situation at parallel orientation is close to but above the transition into a vortex solid state, and a power law temperature dependence with exponent 1.5 is obtained for the vortex glass transition line. For perpendicular orientation the response is consistent with that expected in a vortex solid. Pinning barriers are found by means of thermal activation analysis. Anomalous loss peaks {mu}``(T) are observed for the SC sample for intermediate fields in perpendicular orientation. Large magnetostriction is found in a flat single crystal Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} sample at low temperature and fields up to 6 T applied along the c-axis. 332 refs., 59 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. AC measurements on uranium doped high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisterer, M.

    1999-11-01

    The subject of this thesis is the influence of fission tracks on the superconducting properties of melt textured Y-123. The critical current densities, the irreversibility lines and the transition temperature were determined by means of ac measurements. The corresponding ac techniques are explored in detail. Deviations of the ac signal from the expectations according to the Bean model were explained by the dependence of the shielding currents on the electric field. This explanation is supported by the influence of the ac amplitude and frequency on the critical current density but also by a comparison of the obtained data with other experimental techniques. Y-123 has to be doped with uranium in order to induce fission tracks. Uranium forms normal conducting clusters, which are nearly spherical, with a diameter of about 300 nm. Fission of uranium-235 by thermal neutrons creates two high energy ions with a total energy of about 160 MeV. Each of these fission products induces a linear defect with a diameter of about 10 nm. The length of one fission track is 2-4 μm. At 77 K the critical current density is enhanced by the pinning action of the uranium clusters, compared to undoped samples. With decreasing temperature this influence becomes negligible. The critical current densities are strongly enhanced due to the irradiation. At low magnetic fields we find extremely high values for melt textured materials, e.g. 2.5x10 9 Am -2 at 77 K and 0.25 T or 6x10 10 Am -2 at 5 K. Since the critical current was found to be inverse proportional to the square root of the applied magnetic field it decreases rapidly as the field increases. This behavior is predicted by simple theoretical considerations, but is only valid at low temperatures as well as in low magnetic fields at high temperatures. At high fields the critical current drops more rapidly. The irreversibility lines are only slightly changed by this irradiation technique. Only a small shift to higher fields and temperatures

  6. Two-Gyro Pointing Stability of HST measured with ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekemoer, Anton M.; Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Riess, Adam; Sirianni, Marco; Biretta, John; Pavlovsky

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of the pointing stability tests for HST, as measured with the ACS/ HRC during the Two-Gyro test program conducted in February 2005. We measure the shifts of 185 exposures of the globular clusters NGC6341 and Omega Centauri, obtained over a total of 13 orbits, and compare the measured pointings to those that were commanded in the observing program. We find in all cases that the measured shifts and rotations have the same level of accuracy as those that were commanded in three-gyro mode. Specifically, the pointing offsets during an orbit relative to the first exposure can be characterized with distributions having a dispersion of 2.3 milliarcseconds for shifts and 0.00097 degrees for rotations, thus less than 0.1 HRC pixels, and agree extremely well with similar values measured for comparable exposures obtained in three-gyro mode. In addition, we successfully processed these two-gyro test data through the MultiDrizzle software which is used in the HST pipeline to perform automated registration, cosmic ray rejection and image combination for multiple exposure sequences, and we find excellent agreement with similar exposures obtained in three-gyro mode. In summary, we find no significant difference between the quality of HST pointing as measured from these two-gyro test data, relative to the nominal behavior of HST in regular three-gyro operations.

  7. Capacitance measurements and AC conductivity of Nickel Phthalocyanine films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, S.

    2005-01-01

    A C dark Current measurements of nickel phthalocyanine thin films using ohmic gold electrodes are investigated in the frequency range 30-10 Hz and within the temperature range 295-385 K. The A C conductivity as D Ac is found to vary as within the index s < 1, indicating a dominant hopping process at low temperatures. From the temperature dependence of A C conductivity, free carrier conduction with mean activation energy of 0.31 eV is observed at higher temperatures. Capacitance and loss tangent are found to be decreased with increasing frequency and increase with increasing temperature. Such characteristics are found to be in good qualitative agreement with existing equivalent circuit model assuming ohmic contacts

  8. Characterization of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles by fluxgate magnetorelaxometry, ac susceptibility, transmission electron microscopy and photon correlation spectroscopy-A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Frank; Heim, Erik; Schilling, Meinhard

    2009-01-01

    We have compared the structure parameters of magnetic core-shell nanoparticles determined from fluxgate magnetorelaxometry measurements applying the moment superposition model with the results from other methods. For the characterization of the magnetic cores, the nanoparticles are immobilized by freeze-drying. The core size distribution estimated for superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with polyacrylic acid shell agrees well with that from transmission electron microscopy measurements. The distribution of hydrodynamic diameters of nanoparticle suspensions estimated from magnetorelaxometry measurements is in good agreement with that obtained from ac susceptibility and photon correlation spectroscopy measurements. Advantages of magnetorelaxometry compared to the other two integral techniques are that it is fast and the signal is less dominated by larger particles.

  9. Measurement of Anisotropic Particle Interactions with Nonuniform ac Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bradley; Torres-Díaz, Isaac; Hua, Xiaoqing; Bevan, Michael A

    2018-02-20

    Optical microscopy measurements are reported for single anisotropic polymer particles interacting with nonuniform ac electric fields. The present study is limited to conditions where gravity confines particles with their long axis parallel to the substrate such that particles can be treated using quasi-2D analysis. Field parameters are investigated that result in particles residing at either electric field maxima or minima and with long axes oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the electric field direction. By nonintrusively observing thermally sampled positions and orientations at different field frequencies and amplitudes, a Boltzmann inversion of the time-averaged probability of states yields kT-scale energy landscapes (including dipole-field, particle-substrate, and gravitational potentials). The measured energy landscapes show agreement with theoretical potentials using particle conductivity as the sole adjustable material property. Understanding anisotropic particle-field energy landscapes vs field parameters enables quantitative control of local forces and torques on single anisotropic particles to manipulate their position and orientation within nonuniform fields.

  10. Refined candidate region specified by haplotype sharing for Escherichia coli F4ab/F4ac susceptibility alleles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Kracht, Steffen Skaarup; Esteso, G.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of the small intestine by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac is a major welfare problem and financial burden for the pig industry. Natural resistance to this infection is inherited as a Mendelian recessive trait, and a polymorphism in the MUC4 gene segregating for susceptibility....../resistance is presently used in a selection programme by the Danish pig breeding industry. To elucidate the genetic background involved in E. coli F4ab/ac susceptibility in pigs, a detailed haplotype map of the porcine candidate region was established. This region covers approximately 3.7 Mb. The material used...... for the study is a three generation family, where the founders are two Wild boars and eight Large White sows. All pigs have been phenotyped for susceptibility to F4ab/ac using an adhesion assay. Their haplotypes are known from segregation analysis using flanking markes. By a targeted approach, the candidate...

  11. AC susceptibility, XRD and DSC studies of Sm1-xGdxMn2Si2 silicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kervan, S.; Kilic, A.; Gencer, A.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction, AC susceptibility and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were performed on the polycrystalline Sm 1-x Gd x Mn 2 Si 2 (0≤x≤1) compounds. All compounds investigated crystallize in the body-centered tetragonal ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with the space group I4/mmm. Substitution of Gd for Sm leads to a linear decrease of the lattice constants and the unit cell volume. The lattice constants and the unit cell volume obey Vegard's law. At low temperatures, the rare earth sublattice orders and reconfigures the ordering in the Mn sublattice. The samples with x=0.6 and 0.8 exhibit spin reorientation phenomenon. The Neel temperature T N (Mn) determined by DSC technique and the Curie temperature T C (RE) increase linearly with increasing Gd content x. The results are summarized in the x-T magnetic phase diagram

  12. Magnetic relaxation phenomena in the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi : An ac susceptibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannenberg, L. J.; Lefering, A. J. E.; Kakurai, K.; Onose, Y.; Endoh, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Pappas, C.

    2016-10-01

    We present a systematic study of the ac susceptibility of the chiral magnet Fe1 -xCoxSi with x =0.30 covering four orders of magnitude in frequencies from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz, with particular emphasis to the pronounced history dependence. Characteristic relaxation times ranging from a few milliseconds to tens of seconds are observed around the skyrmion lattice A phase, the helical-to-conical transition and in a region above TC. The distribution of relaxation frequencies around the A phase is broad, asymmetric, and originates from multiple coexisting relaxation processes. The pronounced dependence of the magnetic phase diagram on the magnetic history and cooling rates as well as the asymmetric frequency dependence and slow dynamics suggest more complicated physical phenomena in Fe0.7Co0.3Si than in other chiral magnets.

  13. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  14. Effect of Low-Frequency AC Magnetic Susceptibility and Magnetic Properties of CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Tsung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the low-frequency alternate-current (AC magnetic susceptibilityac and hysteresis loop of various MgO thickness in CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ determined coercivity (Hc and magnetization (Ms and correlated that with χac maxima. The multilayer films were sputtered onto glass substrates and the thickness of intermediate barrier MgO layer was varied from 6 to 15 Å. An experiment was also performed to examine the variation of the highest χac and maximum phase angle (θmax at the optimal resonance frequency (fres, at which the spin sensitivity is maximal. The results reveal that χac falls as the frequency increases due to the relationship between magnetization and thickness of the barrier layer. The maximum χac is at 10 Hz that is related to the maximal spin sensitivity and that this corresponds to a MgO layer of 11 Å. This result also suggests that the spin sensitivity is related to both highest χac and maximum phase angle. The corresponding maximum of χac is related to high exchange coupling. High coercivity and saturation magnetization contribute to high exchange-coupling χac strength.

  15. Measurement of AC losses in a racetrack superconducting coil made from YBCO coated conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Eugen; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Kovac, Jan

    2012-01-01

    to reinforce it. The AC loss is measured versus the transport current Ia with the coil immersed in liquid nitrogen. Measurements at frequencies 21 Hz, 36 Hz and 72 Hz are compared. The AC losses follow I2 a dependence at low current amplitudes and I3 a at high amplitudes. After cutting the inner steel frame...

  16. Magnetic susceptibility measurement using 3D NMR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Kořínek, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, Suppl. 1 (2011), s. 381-382 ISSN 0968-5243. [ESMRMB 2011 Congress. 06.10.2011-08.10.2011, Leipzig] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MRI * artifact correction * magnetic susceptibility * gradient echo Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  17. Current distribution and ac susceptibility response of a thin superconducting disc in an axial field: a theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, S. A.; Zhang, P.; Lin, F. Y.; Ding, S. Y.; Yao, X. X.

    2000-04-01

    Within the framework of the thermally activated process of the flux line or flux line bundles, and by time integration of the 1D equation of motion of the circulating current density icons/Journals/Common/vecJ" ALT="vecJ" ALIGN="TOP"/> (icons/Journals/Common/rho" ALT="rho" ALIGN="TOP"/> ,t ), which is suitable for thin superconducting films (R >>d ,icons/Journals/Common/le" ALT="le" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/lambda" ALT="lambda" ALIGN="TOP"/> ), we present numerical calculations of the current profiles, magnetization hysteresis loops and ac susceptibility icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> n = icons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> ´n +iicons/Journals/Common/chi" ALT="chi" ALIGN="TOP"/> ´´n for n = 1, 3 and 5 of a thin disc immersed in an axial time-dependent external magnetic field Ba (t ) = Bdc +Bac cos(2icons/Journals/Common/pi" ALT="pi" ALIGN="TOP"/> icons/Journals/Common/nu" ALT="nu" ALIGN="TOP"/> t ). Our calculated results are compared with those of the critical state model (CSM) and found to prove the approximate validity of the CSM below the irreversibility field. The differences between our computed results and those of the CSM are also discussed.

  18. Materials with low DC magnetic susceptibility for sensitive magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatiwada, R; Kendrick, R; Khosravi, M; Peters, M; Smith, E; Snow, W M; Dennis, L

    2016-01-01

    Materials with very low DC magnetic susceptibility have many scientific applications. To our knowledge however, relatively little research has been conducted with the goal to produce a totally nonmagnetic material. This phrase in our case means after spatially averaging over macroscopic volumes, it possesses an average zero DC magnetic susceptibility. We report measurements of the DC magnetic susceptibility of three different types of nonmagnetic materials at room temperature: (I) solutions of paramagnetic salts and diamagnetic liquids, (II) liquid gallium–indium alloys and (III) pressed powder mixtures of tungsten and bismuth. The lowest measured magnetic susceptibility among these candidate materials is in the order of 10 −9 cgs volume susceptibility units, about two orders of magnitude smaller than distilled water. In all cases, the measured concentration dependence of the magnetic susceptibility is consistent with that expected for the weighted sum of the susceptibilities of the separate components within experimental error. These results verify the well-known Wiedemann additivity law for the magnetic susceptibility of inert mixtures of materials and thereby realize the ability to produce materials with small but tunable magnetic susceptibility. For our particular scientific application, we are also looking for materials with the largest possible number of neutrons and protons per unit volume. The gallium–indium alloys fabricated and measured in this work possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature liquid, and the tungsten-bismuth pressed powder mixtures possess to our knowledge the smallest ratio of volume magnetic susceptibility to nucleon number density per unit volume for a room temperature solid. This ratio is a figure of merit for a certain class of precision experiments that search for possible exotic spin-dependent forces of Nature. (paper)

  19. Calorimetric method of ac loss measurement in a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshal, P. K. [Oxford Instruments NanoScience, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX13 5QX (United Kingdom); Coombs, T. A.; Campbell, A. M. [Department of Engineering, Electrical Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    A method is described for calorimetric ac-loss measurements of high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTS) at 80 K. It is based on a technique used at 4.2 K for conventional superconducting wires that allows an easy loss measurement in parallel or perpendicular external field orientation. This paper focuses on ac loss measurement setup and calibration in a rotating magnetic field. This experimental setup is to demonstrate measuring loss using a temperature rise method under the influence of a rotating magnetic field. The slight temperature increase of the sample in an ac-field is used as a measure of losses. The aim is to simulate the loss in rotating machines using HTS. This is a unique technique to measure total ac loss in HTS at power frequencies. The sample is mounted on to a cold finger extended from a liquid nitrogen heat exchanger (HEX). The thermal insulation between the HEX and sample is provided by a material of low thermal conductivity, and low eddy current heating sample holder in vacuum vessel. A temperature sensor and noninductive heater have been incorporated in the sample holder allowing a rapid sample change. The main part of the data is obtained in the calorimetric measurement is used for calibration. The focus is on the accuracy and calibrations required to predict the actual ac losses in HTS. This setup has the advantage of being able to measure the total ac loss under the influence of a continuous moving field as experienced by any rotating machines.

  20. Study on AC loss measurements of HTS power cable for standardizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Kazuo; Iijima, Yasuhiro; Mido, Nobuhiro; Masuda, Takao; Morimura, Toshiya; Oya, Masayoshi; Nakano, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-01

    High-temperature superconducting power cables (HTS cables) have been developed for more than 20 years. In addition of the cable developments, the test methods of the HTS cables have been discussed and proposed in many laboratories and companies. Recently the test methods of the HTS cables is required to standardize and to common in the world. CIGRE made the working group (B1-31) for the discussion of the test methods of the HTS cables as a power cable, and published the recommendation of the test method. Additionally, IEC TC20 submitted the New Work Item Proposal (NP) based on the recommendation of CIGRE this year, IEC TC20 and IEC TC90 started the standardization work on Testing of HTS AC cables. However, the individual test method that used to measure a performance of HTS cables hasn’t been established as world’s common methods. The AC loss is one of the most important properties to disseminate low loss and economical efficient HTS cables in the world. We regard to establish the method of the AC loss measurements in rational and in high accuracy. Japan is at a leading position in the AC loss study, because Japanese researchers have studied on the AC loss technically and scientifically, and also developed the effective technologies for the AC loss reduction. The JP domestic commission of TC90 made a working team to discussion the methods of the AC loss measurements for aiming an international standard finally. This paper reports about the AC loss measurement of two type of the HTS conductors, such as a HTS conductor without a HTS shield and a HTS conductor with a HTS shield. The AC loss measurement method is suggested by the electrical method..

  1. A Correction Formula for the ST Segment Measurements for the AC-coupled Electrocardiograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Ramun; Isaksen, Jonas; Leber, Remo

    2017-01-01

    Goal: The ST segment of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is very important for the correct diagnosis of an acute myocardial infarction. Most clinical ECGs are recorded using an AC-coupled ECG amplifier. It is well known, that first-order high-pass filters used for the AC coupling can affect the ST...... segment of an ECG. This effect is stronger the higher the filter's cut-off frequency is and the larger the QRS integral is. We present a formula that estimates these changes in the ST segment and therefore allows for correcting ST measurements that are based on an AC-coupled ECG. Methods: The presented...

  2. Magnetic-susceptibility and heat-capacity measurements on PrRhSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S.K.; Takeya, H.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic-susceptibility (ac and dc) and heat-capacity measurements have been carried out on the compound PrRhSb. These measurements reveal two magnetic transitions in this compound---one at about 18 K and the other around 6 K. In the dc susceptibility the 18-K transition is evident as the temperature below which a magnetic correlation sets in and the susceptibility is found to be field dependent. The lower transition manifests as a peak in the susceptibility of zero-field-cooled samples which were measured in low applied fields. The electronic-specific-heat coefficient, γ, is found to be 33 mJ/mol K 2 between 40 and 70 K after correcting for the lattice contribution taken to be the same as in its La analog. The γ value is fairly large for a Pr compound and may be indicative of moderately heavy quasiparticles. A Kondo-type interaction of the Pr 4f electrons with the conduction electrons may be responsible for high-magnetic-ordering temperatures and the moderately large γ value in this compound

  3. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che'Rose, Simon

    2007-01-01

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x and MgB 2 thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB 2 the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  4. AC loss measurement of superconducting dipole magnets by the calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Y.; Hara, K.; Higashi, N.; Kabe, A.

    1996-01-01

    AC losses of superconducting dipole magnets were measured by the calorimetric method. The magnets were model dipole magnets designed for the SSC. These were fabricated at KEK with 50-mm aperture and 1.3-m overall length. The magnet was set in a helium cryostat and cooled down to 1.8 K with 130 L of pressurized superfluid helium. Heat dissipated by the magnet during ramp cycles was measured by temperature rise of the superfluid helium. Heat leakage into the helium cryostat was 1.6 W and was subtracted from the measured heat to obtain AC loss of the magnet. An electrical measurement was carried out for calibration. Results of the two methods agreed within the experimental accuracy. The authors present the helium cryostat and measurement system in detail, and discuss the results of AC loss measurement

  5. A Security Risk Measurement for the RAdAC Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Britton, David W; Brown, Ian A

    2007-01-01

    .... The intent is to quantify the risk involved in a single information transaction. Additionally, this thesis will attempt to identify the risk factors involved when calculating the total security risk measurement...

  6. A.c. magnetic-field measurements using the fluxgate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripka, Pavel; Primdahl, Fritz; Nielsen, Otto V

    1995-01-01

    Fluxgate sensors are mostly used in closed-loop d.c. magnetometer systems; they can also measure alternating fields up to severalkilohertz, either in open-loop mode or from an error signal in the slow-feedback loop as in the Thunderstorm rocket magnetometer, which has 0.1 nT resolution up to 3 k...

  7. Measurement of AC losses in different former materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Træholt, Chresten; Kühle, Anders Van Der Aa

    1998-01-01

    candidates separately; for example copper tubes, stainless steel braid, copper braid, corrugated stainless steel tubes, etc. The measured data are compared with the predictions of a theoretical model. Our results show that in most cases, the losses induced by eddy currents in the former are negligible...

  8. Automatic magnetic susceptibility measurements between 4 K and 1200 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, G.

    1969-01-01

    We give a detailed description of a Faraday magnetic susceptibility balance which operates from 4 K to 1200 K. Some preliminary results on platinum and tantalum illustrate the precision and the sensitivity of the measurements. The apparatus has been designed for measurements on the plutonium compounds which present severe health hazards. (author) [fr

  9. Remedial measures for nozzles susceptible to PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Remediating primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is usually directed towards one of the three causes of PWSCC, material susceptiability, tensile stress, and an aggressive environment. The most practical remedial measures for primary loop penetration of PWSCC are considered to be shot peening, electropolishing, stress relief, and electroplating. The objective of shot peening is to induce a comprehensive residual stress on surfaces of Inconel 600 which are exposed to aggressive environments. Experience with steam generator tubes has shown this method is most effective if applied before PWSCC occurs. If it has already occurred, then the peening may retard but not arrest the corrosion. Electroplating consists of plating the inside surface of the Inconel 600 penetration with pure nickel. One of the major problems with this method was in obtaining surfaces uniformly free from pitting and roughness. Electropolishing for PWSCC remediation would remove the high strength cold work surfaces on the insides of nozzles which are produced by mechanical working e.g. machining. 5 figs

  10. An improved inclusive measurement of Ac using the SLD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The authors report a new measurement of A c using data obtained by SLD in 1993--97. This measurement uses a vertex tag technique, where the selection of a c hemisphere is based on the reconstructed mass of the charm hadron decay vertex. The method uses the 3D vertexting capabilities of SLD's CCD vertex detector and the small and stable SLC beams to obtain a high c-event tagging efficiency and purity of 28% and 81%, respectively. Charged kaons identified by the CRID detector and the charge of the reconstructed vertex provide an efficient quark-antiquark tag. They obtain a preliminary result of A c = 0.650 ± 0.041 ± 0.033

  11. ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in scanning Kelvin probe microscope measurements: Detection and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan; Shannon, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the contact potential difference (CPD) reading on the ac driving amplitude in scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) hinders researchers from quantifying true material properties. We show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that an ac driving amplitude dependence in the SKPM measurement can come from a systematic error, and it is common for all tip sample systems as long as there is a nonzero tracking error in the feedback control loop of the instrument. We further propose a methodology to detect and to correct the ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in SKPM measurements. The true contact potential difference can be found by applying a linear regression to the measured CPD versus one over ac driving amplitude data. Two scenarios are studied: (a) when the surface being scanned by SKPM is not semiconducting and there is an ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error; (b) when a semiconductor surface is probed and asymmetric band bending occurs when the systematic error is present. Experiments are conducted using a commercial SKPM and CPD measurement results of two systems: platinum-iridium/gap/gold and platinum-iridium/gap/thermal oxide/silicon are discussed

  12. Measurement of ac electrical characteristics of SSC dipole magnets at Brookhaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, K.

    1992-04-01

    The SSC collider is designed to have circumference of 87 km. The superconducting magnets along the collider ring are grouped into ten sectors. Each sector, a string of average length of 8.7 km,m is powered by one power source located near the center of the sector. Because of the alternating-current (ac) electrical characteristics of the magnets, the power supply ripple currents and transients form a time and space distribution in the magnet string which affects particle motions. Additionally, since the power supply load is a magnet string, the current regulation loop design is highly dependent upon the ac electrical characteristics of the magnets. A means is needed to accurately determine the ac electrical characteristics of the superconducting magnets. The ac characteristics of magnets will be used to predict the ripple distribution of the long string of superconducting magnets. Magnet ac characteristics can also provide necessary information for the regulation loop design. This paper presents a method for measuring the ac characteristics of superconducting magnets. Two collider dipole magnets, one superconducting and one at room temperature, were tested at Brookhaven National Lab

  13. Magnetic susceptibility measuring probe utilizing a compensation coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, Jean; Fournet, Julien.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns a magnetic susceptibility measuring probe. It is used, inter alia, in logging, to wit continuous logging of the magnetic susceptibility of the ground throughout the length of a bore hole. The purpose of this invention is to increase the sensitivity of this type of probe by creating a side focusing effect . To this end, it provides for the use of a compensation winding, coaxial with the measurement winding and arranged symmetrically to the latter with respect to the centre of the induction windings [fr

  14. Ac loss measurements on a superconducting transformer for a 25 kA superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mulders, J.M.; de Reuver, J.L.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Ac loss measurements have been performed on a superconducting transformer. The transformer is a part of a 25 kA thermally switched superconducting rectifier operating at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The loss measurements have been automatized by means of a microcomputer sampling four relevant signals and

  15. Measurement of AC losses in superconducting tapes by reproduction of thermometric dynamic response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligneris, Benoit des; Aubin, Marcel; Cave, Julian

    2003-04-15

    We have developed a dynamic response thermometric method for the measurement of AC losses in high T{sub c} superconductors. This method is based on the comparison of a temperature response caused by a known dissipation in the sample with that produced by the AC losses. By passing a DC current and measuring the DC voltage and corresponding temperature response the sample can be used as its own power dissipation reference. The advantages of this method are the short measurement duration time and the possibility to vary many experimental conditions: for example, AC and DC transport currents and AC, DC and rotating applied magnetic fields. In this article we present the basic method using variable short pulses of constant DC current for calibration and similarly of constant amplitude AC current to create the losses. The losses are obtained by numerical modelling and comparison of the thermometric dynamic response in the two above conditions. Finally, we present some experimental results for a Bi2223 superconducting tape at 50 Hz and 77 K.

  16. The use of magnetic susceptibility measurements to determine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work presents a study on the application of magnetic susceptibility measurements and geochemical analysis for mapping or assessing heavy metal pollution in the agricultural soil in road proximity. The research work was also done to check any runoff of heavy metals pollution to the Owabi dam which serves ...

  17. A low-noise ac-bridge amplifier for ballistocardiogram measurement on an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, O T; Kovacs, G T A

    2010-01-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique for evaluating cardiovascular health. This note presents an ac-bridge amplifier for low-noise ballistocardiogram (BCG) recording from a modified weighing scale. The strain gauges in a commercial scale were excited by an ac source—square or sine wave—and the differential output voltage resulting from the BCG was amplified and demodulated synchronously with the excitation waveform. A standard BCG amplifier, with a simple dc-bridge excitation, was also built and the performance was compared to both the square- and sine-wave excited ac-bridge amplifiers. The total input-referred voltage noise (rms) integrated over the relevant BCG bandwidth of 0.3–10 Hz was found to be 30 nV (square wave source) or 25 nV (sine-wave source) for the ac-bridge amplifier and 52 nV for the standard amplifier: an improvement of 4.8 dB or 6 dB, respectively. These correspond to input-referred force noise (rms) values of 5 mN, 4 mN and 8.3 mN. The improvement in SNR was also observed in recorded waveforms from a seated subject whose BCG signal was measured with both dc- and ac-bridge circuits. (note)

  18. Modelling and measurement of ac loss in BSCCO/Ag-tape windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomen, M P; Nanke, R; Leghissa, M

    2003-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) transformers promise decreased weight and volume and higher efficiency. A 1 MVA HTS railway transformer was built and tested at Siemens AG. This paper deals with the prediction of ac loss in the BSCCO/Ag-tape windings. In a railway transformer the tape carries ac current in alternating field, the temperature differs from 77 K, tapes are stacked or cabled and overcurrents and higher harmonics occur. In ac-loss literature these issues are treated separately, if at all. We have developed a model that predicts the ac loss in sets of BSCCO/Ag-tape coils, and deals with the above-mentioned issues. The effect of higher harmonics on the loss in HTS tapes is considered for the first time. The paper gives a complete overview of the model equations and required input parameters. The model is validated over a wide range of the input parameters, using the measured critical current and ac loss of single tapes, single coils and sets of coils in the 1 MVA transformer. An accuracy of around 25% is achieved in all relevant cases. Presently the model is developed further, in order to describe other HTS materials and other types of applications

  19. Thermally-activated vortex dynamics in bismuth calcium strontium copper oxide (Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8+δ) studied by complex susceptibility measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, J.H.P.M.; Brabers, V.A.M.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Complex AC magnetic susceptibility has been measured on Bi2CaSr2Cu2O8+d single crystals with hnc, Hdc|c-axis. It will be shown that field, frequency and temperature dependence of both ¿' and ¿¿ in a constant but sufficiently large DC magnetic field can quantitatively be described by

  20. A new method for measuring the wall charge waveforms of AC PDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhihu; Liu Zujun; Liu Chunliang

    2004-01-01

    A new method is developed to measure the wall charge waveforms in coplanar alternating current plasma display panel (AC PDP). In the method, two groups of display electrodes are selected from a coplanar AC PDP and two capacitors are respectively connected with these two groups of display electrodes in series, and a measuring circuit and a reference circuit are thus constructed. With the help of special processing, discharge takes place in the cells included in the measuring circuit under a normal drive voltage but no discharge takes place in the cells included in the reference circuit under a normal drive voltage. The wall charge waveforms are obtained from the voltage difference between the two capacitors. Using the method, the wall charge waveforms are measured during resetting period, addressing period and sustaining period for the 304.8 mm (12-inch) test PDP panel. The result shows that the wall voltage is about 96 V during the sustaining period. (authors)

  1. Complex Susceptibility Measurement Using Multi-frequency Slingram EMI Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Simon , François Xavier; Tabbagh , Alain; Thiesson , Julien; Donati , J.C.; Sarris , A.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Complex magnetic susceptibility is a well-known property both theoretically and experimentally. To achieve this measurement, different ways have been tested, like TDEM or multi-frequential measurement on soil sample. In this study we carry out the measurements by the use of a multi-frequential EMI Slingram instrument to collect data quickly and in-situ. The use of multi-frequency data is also a way to correct effects of the conductivity on the in-phase component and ef...

  2. Design and implementation of VUV-CD and LD measurements using an ac modulated polarizing undulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi-Watanabe, K.; Yamada, T.; Tanaka, M.; Kaneko, F.; Kitada, T.; Ohta, Y.; Nakagawa, K.

    2005-01-01

    VUV circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) have been successfully measured at wavelengths beyond the conventional limit by using an ac modulated polarizing undulator. We have developed CD and LD measuring technique by polarization modulation at the source, without using transmission type polarizing modulator, to extend to the coverage to wavelengths shorter than 140-bar nm. AIST developed in 1986 ac polarizing undulator by using a electron storage ring 'TERAS' based on an original concept. The undulator which can produce any desired polarization of vertical- and horizontal-linear polarization (VLP and HLP) and right- and left-handed circular polarization (RCP and LCP) is specially well suited to both measurements of CD and LD. With this undulator, the polarization alternate in the order of VLP-RCP-HLP-RCP-VLP-LCP-HLP-LCP-VLP-, i.e. when circular polarization is modulated in f Hz, linear polarization alters in 2f Hz. This allows us simultaneous measurements of CD and LD. Since the TERAS can produce ac-modulated polarized radiation of wavelength as short as 40-bar nm, it is expected to have CD and LD measurement extended to 40-bar nm

  3. Method for the measurement of susceptibility to decubitus ulcer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, J H; Schut, G L; Ribbe, M W; Goovaerts, H G; Nieuwenhuys, R; Reulen, J P; Schneider, H

    1989-09-01

    A method for measuring the susceptibility of a patient to develop decubitus ulcers is described and initially evaluated. It is based on an indirect, noninvasive measurement of the transient regional blood flow response after a test pressure load which simulates the external stimulus for pressure-sore formation. This method was developed to determine the individual risk of a patient and to study the subfactors which contribute to the susceptibility. This would also offer the possibility of evaluating the effect of preventive treatment aimed at reducing the susceptibility. The method was found to discriminate between preselected elderly patients at risk on the one hand, and non-risk patients and healthy young adults on the other hand. No differences in blood flow responses were found between the non-risk elderly patients and the healthy young adults. This suggests that age per se is not a factor in the formation of pressure sores. In the risk group the recovery time after pressure relief was found to be three times as long as the duration of the pressure exercise. This indicates that the recovery time after pressure exercise may be as important as the period of pressure exercise in deducing the risk of developing decubitus ulcers.

  4. The Slab Method to Measure the Topological Susceptibility

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; de Forcrand, Philippe; Dromard, Arthur; Gerber, Urs

    2016-10-11

    In simulations of a model with topological sectors, algorithms which proceed in small update steps tend to get stuck in one sector, especially on fine lattices. This distorts the numerical results, in particular it is not straightforward to measure the topological susceptibility chi_t. We test a method to measure chi_t even if configurations from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as "slabs". This enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models and for 2-flavour QCD.

  5. Critical behavior of AC antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a spin-1/2 metamagnetic Ising system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulpinar, Gul; Vatansever, Erol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the temperature variations of the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic susceptibilities of a metamagnetic system are examined near the critical point. The kinetic equations describing the time dependencies of the total and staggered magnetizations are derived by utilizing linear response theory. In order to obtain dynamic magnetic relaxation behavior of the system, the stationary solutions of the kinetic equations in existence of sinusoidal staggered and physical external magnetic fields are performed. In addition, the static and dynamical mean field critical exponents are calculated in order to formulate the critical behavior of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic magnetic response of a metamagnetic system. Finally, a comparison of the findings of this study with previous theoretical and experimental studies is represented and it is shown that a good agreement is found with our results. - Highlights: ► Staggered dynamic susceptibility diverges as T→T N in the low frequency region. ► Dynamic total susceptibility exhibits a finite jump discontinuity as T→T N while wτ 2 ⪡1. ► The slope of the staggered magnetic dispersion curve chances in sign as T→T N .

  6. Time-differential observation of alpha -particle perturbed angular distribution; g-factor measurements for /sup 217/Ac/sup gs/ and /sup 217/Ac/sup m/

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, K H; Grawe, H; Kluge, H

    1981-01-01

    The g-factor measurements of the ground state and an isomeric level in /sup 217/Ac using the DPAD method with alpha -decay are described. The results of gamma -ray g-factor measurements for the isomer and a tentative decay scheme produced by alpha - gamma and gamma - gamma coincidence experiments are also presented. An analysis of the alpha - particle angular distributions suggests that nuclear deformation affects the observed anisotropy. (13 refs).

  7. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-01-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured

  8. Ac-loss measurement of a DyBCO-Roebel assembled coated conductor cable (RACC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, S.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Krempasky, L.; Schmidt, C.

    2007-10-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature around 50-77 K, which is a crucial precondition for economical cooling costs. We prepared a short length of a Roebel bar cable made of industrial DyBCO coated conductor (Theva Company, Germany). Meander shaped tapes of 4 mm width with a twist pitch of 122 mm were cut from 10 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude in transverse and parallel field orientations. In addition, the coupling current time constant of the sample was directly measured.

  9. Ac-loss measurement of coated conductors: The influence of the pick-up coil position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Curt

    2008-01-01

    The ac-loss measurement by the magnetization method requires calibration for obtaining absolute values. A convenient way of calibration is the calorimetric measurement which yields, within the measuring accuracy, absolute loss values. In the magnetization measurement the hysteresis loop of sample magnetization which determines the losses is measured via the integration of magnetic flux penetrating a pick-up coil. The ratio of flux integral to magnetization integral and hence the calibration factor is however, for a given pick-up coil geometry, not exactly a constant, but depends on the magnetization current pattern within the sample. Especially for thin tapes in perpendicular external field this effect has to be taken into consideration in order to avoid miss measurements. The relation between measured flux and sample magnetization was calculated for special cases of magnetization current distribution in the sample as a function of the pick-up coil position. Furthermore calibration factors were measured as a function of the ac-field amplitude and the result compared with available theoretical models. A good agreement was found between experiment and theory

  10. Spin dynamics of Mn12-acetate in the thermally activated tunneling regime: ac susceptibility and magnetization relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Teemu; Schoeller, Herbert

    2000-12-01

    In this work, we study the spin dynamics of Mn12-acetate molecules in the regime of thermally assisted tunneling. In particular, we describe the system in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field. Similar to recent experiments, the relaxation time/rate is found to display a series of resonances; their Lorentzian shape is found to stem from the tunneling. The dynamic susceptibility χ(ω) is calculated starting from the microscopic Hamiltonian and the resonant structure manifests itself also in χ(ω). Similar to recent results reported on another molecular magnet, Fe8, we find oscillations of the relaxation rate as a function of the transverse magnetic field when the field is directed along a hard axis of the molecules. This phenomenon is attributed to the interference of the geometrical or Berry phase. We propose susceptibility experiments to be carried out for strong transverse magnetic fields to study these oscillations and for a better resolution of the sharp satellite peaks in the relaxation rates.

  11. AC magnetic measurements of the ALS Booster Synchrotron Dipole Magnet engineering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Hoyer, E.; Keller, R.; Nelson, D.H.

    1988-09-01

    We made a minimal set of AC magnetic measurements of the engineering model of the ALS Booster Dipole Magnet as part of the process of qualifying its design for production. Magnetic induction integrals over paths approximating electron-beam trajectories were measured with long curved coils connected to an electronic integrator. Magnetic induction was measured with point coils and an integrator and independently with a Hall-effect Gaussmeter. These quantities, and magnet current, were displayed on a commercial digital storage oscilloscope as parametric functions of time. The displayed waveforms were stored, processed and redisplayed as representations of selected magnet parameters. A waveform representing the magnet's effective-length was created by dividing the integral waveform by the magnetic induction waveform. Waveforms of the transfer functions were produced by dividing both the integral waveform and the magnetic induction waveform by the current waveform. Pairs of matched coils, connected in series opposition, provided differential measurements of field uniformity. Quadrupole and sextupole coefficients were derived from the uniformity data. These magnet parameters were measured at 2 and 10 Hz frequencies. Together with measurements of the magnetic field at selected dc levels, the ac measurements demonstrated that the magnet design met specifications and qualified it for production. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Static Measurements on HTS Coils of Fully Superconducting AC Electric Machines for Aircraft Electric Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Hunker, Keith R.; Hartwig, Jason; Brown, Gerald V.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been developing the high efficiency and high-power density superconducting (SC) electric machines in full support of electrified aircraft propulsion (EAP) systems for a future electric aircraft. A SC coil test rig has been designed and built to perform static and AC measurements on BSCCO, (RE)BCO, and YBCO high temperature superconducting (HTS) wire and coils at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. In this paper, DC measurements on five SC coil configurations of various geometry in zero external magnetic field are measured to develop good measurement technique and to determine the critical current (Ic) and the sharpness (n value) of the super-to-normal transition. Also, standard procedures for coil design, fabrication, coil mounting, micro-volt measurement, cryogenic testing, current control, and data acquisition technique were established. Experimentally measured critical currents are compared with theoretical predicted values based on an electric-field criterion (Ec). Data here are essential to quantify the SC electric machine operation limits where the SC begins to exhibit non-zero resistance. All test data will be utilized to assess the feasibility of using HTS coils for the fully superconducting AC electric machine development for an aircraft electric propulsion system.

  13. Magnetisation and AC susceptibility studies of La1-xSrxFe0.8Cr0.2O3-δ (0.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.P.; Cruz, M.M.; Ramos, T.; Sa, M.A.; Carvalho, M.D.; Godinho, M.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetisation and AC magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed in the perovskite-type compounds La 1-x Sr x Fe 0.8 Cr 0.2 O 3-δ (x=0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8). All compounds show an overall antiferromagnetic behaviour mainly attributed to predominant Fe 3+ -O-Fe 3+ interactions. For 0.2 ord . The coexistence of AFM and FM interactions leads to reentrant magnetic behaviour for the x=0.4 compound and to spin-glass like behaviour for x=0.8. Between x=0.6 and 0.8, the similar magnetic moments found in the paramagnetic region indicate that the Fe/Cr valences do not change significantly, pointing towards an increased role for oxygen vacancy formation in the charge compensation mechanism

  14. AC loss time constant measurements on Nb3Al and NbTi multifilamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    The AC loss time constant is a previously univestigated property of Nb 3 Al, a superconductor which, with recent technological developments, shows some advantages over the more commonly used superconductors, NbTi and Nb 3 Sn. Four Nb 3 Al samples with varying twist pitches and one NbTi sample are inductively measured for their AC loss time constants. The measured time constants are compared to the theoretical time constant limits imposed by the limits of the transverse resistivity found by Carr [5] and to the theoretical time constants found using the Bean Model as well as to each other. The measured time constants of the Nb 3 Al samples fall approximately halfway between the theoretical time constant limits, and the measured time constants of the NbTi sample is close to the theoretical lower time constant limit. The Bean Model adequately accounts for the variance of the permeability of the Nb 3 Al superconductor in a background magnetic field. Finally, the measured time constant values of the Nb 3 Al samples vary approximately according to the square of their twist pitch. (author)

  15. Differential detection for measurements of Faraday rotation by means of ac magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valev, V K; Wouters, J; Verbiest, T

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that by using a combination of a Wollaston prism and two photodiodes the accuracy in the measurements of Faraday rotation with ac magnetic fields can be greatly improved. Our experiments were performed on microscope cover glass plates with thicknesses between 0.13 and 0.16 mm. We show that our setup is capable of distinguishing between the Faraday rotation signals of glass plates having a difference in thickness of a few micrometers, corresponding to Faraday rotations of hundreds of microdegrees per Tesla only

  16. Defects characterization of arsenic implanted silicon by AC Hall effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, H.; Ghibaudo, G.; Christofides, C.

    1986-01-01

    AC and DC Hall effects measurements as a function of temperature (77 - 300K) and frequency (1Hz - 100KHz) have been performed to characterize implanted Silicon films. This technique enables the determination of the annihilation processes of defects in such layers as a function of temperature of isochronal annealings (300/sup 0/C to 1100/sup 0/C during 1 hour). The experimental results are discussed with respect to proper transport models based on short and long range disorder considerations in order to find out the features of defects and inhomogeneities arising from implantation and their thermal annihilation after isochronal annealing

  17. A wide-frequency range AC magnetometer to measure the specific absorption rate in nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaio, E.; Collantes, J.M.; Garcia, J.A.; Plazaola, F.; Mornet, S.; Couillaud, F.; Sandre, O.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles is crucial to assert their potential for magnetic hyperthermia. To perform this task, calorimetric methods are widely used. However, those methods are not very accurate and are difficult to standardize. In this paper, we present AC magnetometry results performed with a lab-made magnetometer that is able to obtain dynamic hysteresis-loops in the AC magnetic field frequency range from 50 kHz to 1 MHz and intensities up to 24 kA m −1 . In this work, SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles dispersed in water are measured by AC magnetometry. The so-obtained values are compared with the SAR measured by calorimetric methods. Both measurements, by calorimetry and magnetometry, are in good agreement. Therefore, the presented AC magnetometer is a suitable way to obtain SAR values of magnetic nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We propose AC magnetometry as a method to measure the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles suitable for magnetic hyperthermia therapy. • We have built a lab-made AC magnetometer, which is able to measure magnetic dynamic hysteresis-loops of nanoparticle dispersions. • The device works with AC magnetic field intensities up to 24 kA m −1 in a frequency range from 75 kHz to 1 MHz. • The SAR values of maghemite nanoparticles around 12 nm in magnetic diameter dispersed in water are measured by the lab-made magnetometer and different calorimetric methods. • Although all methods are in good agreement, several factors (probe location, thermal inertia, losses, etc.) make calorimetric method less accurate than AC magnetometry

  18. Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olszowiec, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of  these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...

  19. Insulation measurement and supervision in live AC and DC unearthed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olszowiec, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Low voltage unearthed (IT) AC and DC systems are commonly applied for supply of power and control circuits in industry, transportation, medical objects etc. The main reasons for their use are high reliability and numerous advantages offered by isolating them against ground. Insulation level is a decisive factor for networks operational reliability and safety. Insufficient insulation-to-ground resistance can cause various disturbances. Though ground faults in IT systems do not make networks operation impossible, they may cause severe problems with their safe functioning. In this book the most important issues concerning normal operation and ground fault phenomena are described in concise form. Numerous methods of insulation resistance and capacitance measurement in live circuits are presented. Important other procedures of  these parameters determination based on measurement and calculation are explained and reviews of selected insulation resistance measurement devices as well as earth fault locating systems ...

  20. On-Site Measurements for Voltage Unbalance Studies Associated with the AC Railway Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2017-01-01

    unbalance with regards to traction loads has been augmented since the decision to expand the electric railway. Towards this direction, and on the occasion of a newly built electrified line, voltage unbalance measurements were carried out and are presented in this paper. The information from the extracted......On-site measurements in Electrical Power Systems can provide valuable information about the performance of the network and also, can be of great assistance to the validation and assessment of simulation models developed for power system studies. Lately, the noticeable increase of non......-conventional types of loads, such as the AC railway, has raised concerns regarding the secure operation of power transmission networks. This renders the monitoring and reporting of various aspects of system’s power quality even more necessary. For the Danish transmission grid, in particular, the relevance of voltage...

  1. The correlation between superparamagnetic blocking temperatures and peak temperatures obtained from ac magnetization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Moerup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2008-01-01

    We study the correlation between the superparamagnetic blocking temperature T B and the peak positions T p observed in ac magnetization measurements for nanoparticles of different classes of magnetic materials. In general, T p = α+βT B . The parameters α and β are different for the in-phase (χ') and out-of-phase (χ'') components and depend on the width σ V of the log-normal volume distribution and the class of magnetic material (ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic). Consequently, knowledge of both α and β is required if the anisotropy energy barrier KV and the attempt time τ 0 are to be reliably obtained from an analysis based solely on the peak positions

  2. Design of PCB search coils for AC magnetic flux density measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvr, Michal

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents single-layer, double-layer and ten-layer planar square search coils designed for AC magnetic flux density amplitude measurement up to 1 T in the low frequency range in a 10 mm air gap. The printed-circuit-board (PCB) method was used for producing the search coils. Special attention is given to a full characterization of the PCB search coils including a comparison between the detailed analytical design method and the finite integration technique method (FIT) on the one hand, and experimental results on the other. The results show very good agreement in the resistance, inductance and search coil constant values (the area turns) and also in the frequency dependence of the search coil constant.

  3. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    be recorded using, for example, a digital oscilloscope. The amplitude decay of the periodic voltage or current accurately reflects the power loss in the system. It consists of two components-an ohmic purely exponential one (from leads, contacts, etc.), and a nonexponential component originating from......A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  4. Magnetic properties of U(Ni1-xCux)2Si2 solid solutions in the vicinity of x = 0.50 studied by neutron diffraction and AC-susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznietz, M.; Andre, G.; Bouree, F.; Pinto, H.; Ettedgui, H.; Melamud, M.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic properties of two U(Ni 1-x Cu x ) 2 Si 2 solid in the vicinity of x = 0.50 (denoted I and II) have been studied by neutron diffraction and ac-susceptibility. Both materials have ThCr 2 Si 2 -type crystallographic structure. AC-susceptibility shows antiferromagnetic transitions at T N 150±5 K in UNiCuSi 2 (I) and 155±5 K in UNiCuSi 2 (II), followed by several transitions with ferrimagnetic (F) character at lower temperatures. Apart from the transitions to AF-I structure at T N =150K and 152K none of the F transitions is observed by neutron diffraction. Short-range magnetic order, involving several consecutive ferromagnetic planes or ferrimagnetic groups of planes in the AF-I phase, detected by ac-susceptibility and not by neutron diffraction in both materials and therefore significant to x ∼ 0.50, is proposed to explain the unusual susceptibility. (Author)

  5. AC-Specific Heat and Heat Conductivity Derived from Thermal Effusivity Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil

    It is shown how the 3-omega technique of AC-calorimetry applied to a plane heater with finite dimensions can be improved by including boundary effects.......It is shown how the 3-omega technique of AC-calorimetry applied to a plane heater with finite dimensions can be improved by including boundary effects....

  6. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility measurement using 2D magnetic resonance imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcon, P.; Bartušek, Karel; Burdkova, M.; Dokoupil, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2011), 105702:1-8 ISSN 0957-0233 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/11/0318; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : magnetic flux density * magnetic susceptibility * MRI * MR signal * reaction field Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.494, year: 2011

  8. Voltage-probe-position dependence and magnetic-flux contribution to the measured voltage in ac transport measurements: which measuring circuit determines the real losses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pe, T.; McDonald, J.; Clem, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The voltage V ab measured between two voltage taps a and b during magnetic flux transport in a type-II superconductor carrying current I is the sum of two contributions, the line integral from a to b of the electric field along an arbitrary path C s through the superconductor and a term proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the area bounded by the path C s and the measuring circuit leads. When the current I(t) is oscillating with time t, the apparent ac loss (the time average of the product IV ab ) depends upon the measuring circuit used. Only when the measuring-circuit leads are brought out far from the surface does the apparent power dissipation approach the real (or true) ac loss associated with the length of sample probed. Calculations showing comparisons between the apparent and real ac losses in a flat strip of rectangular cross section will be presented, showing the behavior as a function of the measuring-circuit dimensions. Corresponding calculations also are presented for a sample of elliptical cross section

  9. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Beille, J. [Laboratoire Louis Neel, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Berling, D.; Loegel, B. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Spectroscopie Electronique, URA 1435 Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Haute Alsace 4, rue des Freres Lumiere, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R. [EPM-MATFORMAG, Laboratoire dElaboration par Procede Magnetique, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe{lt}h{sub ac}{lt}100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL{close_quote}s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.{copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Ac irreversibility line of bismuth-based high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, A.; Beille, J.; Berling, D.; Loegel, B.; Noudem, J.G.; Tournier, R.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the magnetic properties of lead doped Bi-2223 bulk samples obtained through combined magnetic melt texturing and hot pressing (MMTHP). The ac complex susceptibility measurements are achieved over a broad ac field range (1 Oe ac <100 Oe) and show highly anisotropic properties. The intergranular coupling is improved in the direction perpendicular to the applied stress and magnetic field direction, and an intragranular loss peak is observed for the first time. A comparison is made with other bismuth-based compounds and it is shown that the MMTHP process shifts the ac irreversibility line (ac IL) toward higher fields. It is also shown that all the ac IL close-quote s for quasi 2D bismuth-based compounds show a nearly quadratic temperature dependence and deviate therefore strongly from the linear behavior observed in quasi 3D compounds and expected from a critical state model.copyright 1997 Materials Research Society

  11. Translation balance for measuring magnetic susceptibilities at high or low temperatures (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, A.; Peuch, M.A.

    1962-01-01

    A translation balance is described for the measurement of the magnetic susceptibilities of liquids or solids in the temperature range from 1.7 to 1400 deg. K. Measurements are made within a magnetic field adjustable from 3400 to 16000 oersteds, in any desired atmosphere. Susceptibilities between 10 -8 and 10 -4 u.e.m. C.G.S., can be measured. (authors) [fr

  12. Influence of the interaction between the inter- and intragranular magnetic responses in the analysis of the ac susceptibility of a granular FeSe0.5Te0.5 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Cimberle, M. R.; Pace, S.

    2015-09-01

    The temperature-dependent fundamental ac susceptibility of a granular superconductor in the absence of dc fields has been analyzed by developing a phenomenological model for effective magnetic fields, taking into account the influence of the magnetic interaction between the intergranular and the intragranular magnetizations due to demagnetizing effects. For this purpose a policrystal Fe-based superconductor FeSe0.5Te0.5 sample has been studied. By the frequency dependence of the peaks of the temperature-dependent imaginary part of the fundamental complex susceptibility, the dependence on temperature of the characteristic times both for intergranular and intragranular relaxations of magnetic flux are derived, and the corresponding relaxation processes due to combinations of the flux creep, the flux flow and the thermally activated flux flow regimes are identified on the basis of the effective magnetic fields both at the sample surface and at the grains’ surfaces. Such characteristic times, through the Havriliak-Negami function, determine the temperature and the frequency dependences of the complex susceptibility. The comparison of the numerically obtained curves with the experimental ones confirms the relevance, for identifying the intergranular and intragranular contributions to the ac magnetic response and the corresponding flux dynamical regimes, of the interaction between the intergranular and intragranular magnetizations due to demagnetizing effects.

  13. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of boring cores obtained from regional hydrological study project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Ken

    2010-02-01

    We measured the magnetic susceptibility of boring cores obtained from the Regional Hydrological Study Project to interpret the aeromagnetic survey data which was carried out in Tono area with about 40km square surrounding Tono Geoscience Center. The result of measurements indicates that the magnetic susceptibility of the Toki Granite is not distributed uniformly and the maximum value becomes two orders in magnitude larger than its minimum value. (author)

  14. Use of static and ac field techniques for measuring mobility and charge lifetimes of radon progeny with a simple device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    1998-01-01

    A simple device, based on a modification of the scintillation cell, has been developed for the measurement of radon daughter mobility and charge lifetimes by employing AC and static electric fields. It has a central electrode coated with ZnS and the scintillations are recorded by a PMT unit. The coating is made on the wire, instead of on the inner walls, to improve the relative response of the device with respect to the zero field situation. Radon is drawn into the cell by evacuation techniques. Theoretical formulae, relating the observed count rates to the system parameters and progeny mobilities and charge lifetimes, have been derived under zero field, static and AC field situations. Measurements indicate that the device has very low leak rate (T 1/2 ∼38 days) and the initial environment if maintained for long time. Results of experiments carried out with static and AC fields in most air yielded 218 Po mobilities (1.89 cm 2 /V/s) and charge lifetimes (0.08s) are comparable to those reported in the literature. This demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for future studies with different trace gases. A major advantage of this device as opposed to the conventional spectrometric methods is its simplicity. (author)

  15. Modified thermogravimetric apparatus to measure magnetic susceptibility on-line during annealing of metastable ferromagnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.; Constantini, A.; Branda, F.; Ausanio, G.; Hison, C.; Iannotti, V.; Luponio, C.; Lanotte, L.

    2004-01-01

    The insertion of proper coils to generate a magnetic field, with controlled gradient, in a standard thermogravimetric apparatus is shown to be a valid solution to measure on-line, upon heat treatment, the magnetic susceptibility in ribbon shaped samples of a metastable ferromagnetic material. The method is very useful to individuate the annealing conditions that optimise soft or hard magnetic properties without using separate apparatuses for heat treatment, control of the structural phase transition and characterization of magnetic susceptibility

  16. Quantitative measurements of brain iron deposition in cirrhotic patients using susceptibility mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zheng, Gang; Shen, Wen; Liu, Saifeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Haacke, E Mark; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-03-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been used to detect micro-bleeds and iron deposits in the brain. However, no reports have been published on the application of SWI in studying iron changes in the brain of cirrhotic patients. To compare the susceptibility of different brain structures in cirrhotic patients with that in healthy controls and to evaluate susceptibility as a potential biomarker and correlate the measured susceptibility and cadaveric brain iron concentration for a variety of brain structures. Forty-three cirrhotic patients (27 men, 16 women; mean age, 50 ± 9 years) and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (22 men, 12 women; mean age, 47 ± 7 years) were included in this retrospective study. Susceptibility was measured in the frontal white matter, basal ganglia, midbrain, and dentate nucleus and compared with results gathered from two postmortem brain studies. Correlation between susceptibility and clinical biomarkers and neuropsychiatric tests scores was calculated. In cirrhotic patients, the susceptibility of left frontal white matter, bilateral caudate head, and right substantia nigra was higher than that in healthy controls (P brain study (r = 0.835, P = 0.01) in eight deep grey matter structures and another in five brain structures (r = 0.900, P = 0.03). The susceptibility of right caudate head (r = 0.402) and left caudate head (r = 0.408) correlated with neuropsychological test scores (both P brain regions appears to reflect neurocognitive changes. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delrive, C.

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10 -5 SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm 2 pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends

  18. Experimentally Measured Susceptibility to Peer Influence and Adolescent Sexual Behavior Trajectories: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Giletta, Matteo; Widman, Laura; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat room" paradigm involving…

  19. Experimentally measured susceptibility to peer influence and adolescent sexual behavior trajectories : A preliminary study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choukas-Bradley, S.; Giletta, M.; Widman, L.; Cohen, G.L.; Prinstein, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental "chat

  20. Moessbauer and magnetic susceptibility measurements on M-type hexagonal Ba - ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipka, J.; Gruskova, A.; Sitek, J.; Miglierini, M.; Groene, R.; Hucl, M.; Toth, I.; Orlicky, O.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of stoichiometric BaFe 12 O 19 and Co, Ti substituted barium ferrite were prepared by chemical wet method. Moessbauer spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy were conducted to examine the mechanism of formation. The observed magnetic characteristics and electron scanning microscopy show that single domain coprecipitated powders were formed. (orig.)

  1. Disk-cylinder method for using NMR to measure magnetic susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    The sphere-cylinder method of using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to measure the magnetic susceptibility of diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials has been generalized to the disk-cylinder method. A two-fold increase in sensitivity was obtained. Accuracies of 0.1% of the diamagnetism of water should be readily obtainable

  2. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, M., E-mail: mitoh@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Ishizuka, M. [Renovation Center of Instruments for Science Education and Technology, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  3. AC loss in YBCO coated conductors at high dB/dt measured using a spinning magnet calorimeter (stator testbed environment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. P.; Gheorghiu, N. N.; Bullard, T.; Haugan, T.; Sumption, M. D.; Majoros, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2017-09-01

    A new facility for the measurement of AC loss in superconductors at high dB/dt has been developed. The test device has a spinning rotor consisting of permanent magnets arranged in a Halbach array; the sample, positioned outside of this, is exposed to a time varying AC field with a peak radial field of 0.566 T. At a rotor speed of 3600 RPM the frequency of the AC field is 240 Hz, the radial dB/dt is 543 T/s and the tangential dB/dt is 249 T/s. Loss is measured using nitrogen boiloff from a double wall calorimeter feeding a gas flow meter. The system is calibrated using power from a known resistor. YBCO tape losses were measured in the new device and compared to the results from a solenoidal magnet AC loss system measurement of the same samples (in this latter case measurements were limited to a field of amplitude 0.1 T and a dB/dt of 100 T/s). Solenoidal magnet system AC loss measurements taken on a YBCO sample agreed with the Brandt loss expression associated with a 0-0.1 T Ic of 128 A. Subsequently, losses for two more YBCO tapes nominally identical to the first were individually measured in this spinning magnet calorimeter (SMC) machine with a Bmax of 0.566 T and dB/dt of up to 272 T/s. The losses, compared to a simplified version of the Brandt expression, were consistent with the average Ic expected for the tape in the 0-0.5 T range at 77 K. The eddy current contribution was consistent with a 77 K residual resistance ratio, RR, of 4.0. The SMC results for these samples agreed to within 5%. Good agreement was also obtained between the results of the SMC AC loss measurement and the solenoidal magnet AC loss measurement on the same samples.

  4. Description of analytical method and clinical utility of measuring serum 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4) by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Leslie J; Lueke, Alan; Kenyon, Stacy M; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Camilleri, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Imbalance of bile acids (BA) homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to chronic diarrhea or constipation when BA in the colon are in excess or low, respectively. Since both disturbances of bowel function can result from other etiologies, identifying BA imbalance is important to tailor treatment strategies. Serum concentrations of 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7aC4), a precursor in bile acid synthesis, reflect BA homeostasis. Here we describe a method to accurately measure serum 7aC4 and evaluate the clinical utility in patients with diarrhea or constipation phenotypes. Serum 7aC4 is measured after acetonitrile protein precipitation using C18 liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry, and deuterium-labeled 7aC4 internal standard. Assay performance including linearity, precision, and accuracy was assessed using waste serum samples. The reference interval was established in healthy individuals without BA-altering conditions or medications. Clinical performance was assessed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The method precisely and accurately measured 7aC4 in human serum from 1.4-338ng/mL with no ion suppression or interference from related 7-keto-cholesterol. Central 95th percentile reference interval was 2.5-63.2ng/mL. Lower serum 7aC4 was found in patients with constipation with sensitivity/specificity of 79%/55% compared to healthy controls. Higher 7aC4 was found in patients with bile acid diarrhea (BAD) compared to those without BAD with sensitivity/specificity of 82%/53%. We have developed a sensitive and precise assay for measuring the concentration of 7aC4 in serum. The assay can be used to screen for diarrhea caused by bile acid malabsorption. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magneto-optical measurements on high-temperature superconductors influenced by AC-fields; Magnetooptische Untersuchungen an Hochtemperatursupraleitern unter Einfluss von Frequenzfeldern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che' Rose, Simon

    2007-01-15

    In this work magneto-optical measurements on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} and MgB{sub 2} thin films were done. For YBCO the influence of AC-pulses on the flux and current density of a thin film with transport current was investigated. For MgB{sub 2} the influence of AC-fields on the homogenous and dendritic flux penetration was researched. (orig.)

  6. A cell clone strain from Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) highly susceptible to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata NPV (MsNPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Gui-Ling; Zhao, Chuan-De; Wan, Fang-Hao; Li, Chang-You

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we describe a cell line, Ms-10C, cloned from the line QAU-Ms-E-10 (simplified Ms-10), an embryonic line from Mythimna separata. The cloned cell line was significantly more sensitive to nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV). Ms-10C cells were mainly spherical with a diameter of 14.42 ± 2.23 μm. DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) confirmed the profile of PCR-amplified bands of the cloned cell line was consistent with those of the parental cell line, Ms-10. The sequencing result of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCO I) fragment confirmed that the amplified 636-bps mtCOI fragment was 100% identical to that of M. separata. Its chromosomes exhibited the typical characters of lepidopteran cell lines. Its population doubling time was 42.2 h at 27°C. Ms-10C was more sensitive than Ms-10 to both Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and M. separata nucleopolyhedrovirus (MsNPV). At 4 d post infection, the infection rates of two viruses reached 94.2 and 92.3%, respectively. The availability of this cell clone strain will provide a useful tool for the basic research on nucleopolyhedrovirus and for potential application in expression of recombinant proteins with baculovirus expression vector system.

  7. Study of a Modified AC Bridge Technique for Loss Angle Measurement of a Dielectric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Wheatstone’s bridge network like Schering Bridge, DeSauty Bridge etc measures the loss angle or tangent of loss angle (tanδ of a dielectric material. In high voltage application this loss angle is generally measured by high voltage Schering Bridge. But continuous measurement of tan δ is not possible by these techniques. In the present paper a modified operational amplifiers based Schering Bridge network has been proposed for continuous measurement of tanδ in the form of a bridge network output voltage. Mathematical analysis of the proposed bridge network has been discussed in the paper and experimental work has been performed assuming the lossy dielectric material as a series combination of loss less capacitor and a resistor. Experimental results are reported in the paper. From the mathematical analysis and experimental results it is found that the output of the proposed bridge network is almost linearly related with tanδ.

  8. Evaluation of the electrode performance for PAFC by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Song, Rak-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Woo [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In PAFC, the degradation on cathode electrode caused by carbon corrosion, platinum dissolution and growth is especially severe. An acceleration test is a good technique for evaluating the degradation of electrode performance, because it does not need long time. Coleman et al used thermal cycling and on-off cycling as an acceleration test. Song et al showed that hydrogen shortage decreased the electrode performance more rapidly than that of air shortage in gas shortage test. Honji et al reported that the rate of coarsening of Pt particle is rapid in open circuit potential and this is one of major causes on the performance degradation of electrode. The cathode performance has been studied by using acid absorption, acceleration and ac-impedance measurements as functions of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) contents and sintering temperatures of the electrode.

  9. Continuous Real-time Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Magnetic Susceptibility In Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, E.; Hulka, Z.; Kapicka, A.; Magprox Team

    Measurements of top-soil magnetic susceptibility are used in approximative outlining polluted areas. However, one of the serious limitations of the method is discrimina- tion between top-soil layers enhanced by atmospherically deposited anthropogenic particles from those dominated by natural particles migrating from magnetically-rich basement rocks. For this purpose, measurements of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility along soil profiles is one of the most effective ways in estimating the effect of lithogenic contribution. Up to now, in most cases soil cores have to be mea- sured in laboratory. This method is quite time consuming and does not allow flexible decision about the suitability of the measured site for surface magnetic mapping. In our contribution we will present a new device enabling continuous real-time measure- ments of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility directly in field, performed in holes after soil coring. The method is fast, yielding smooth curves (6 data points per 1 mm dept), at least as sensitive as laboratory methods available until now, and at- tached notebook enables direct, on-line control of the lithogenic versus anthropogenic contributions.

  10. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  11. New measurement technique of ductility curve for ductility-dip cracking susceptibility in Alloy 690 welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoi, Kota; Uegaki, Takanori; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi

    2016-01-01

    The coupling of a hot tensile test with a novel in situ observation technique using a high-speed camera was investigated as a high-accuracy quantitative evaluation method for ductility-dip cracking (DDC) susceptibility. Several types of Alloy 690 filler wire were tested in this study owing to its susceptibility to DDC. The developed test method was used to directly measure the critical strain for DDC and high temperature ductility curves with a gauge length of 0.5 mm. Minimum critical strains of 1.3%, 4.0%, and 3.9% were obtained for ERNiCrFe-7, ERNiCrFe-13, and ERNiCrFe-15, respectively. The DDC susceptibilities of ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 were nearly the same and quite low compared with that of ERNiCrFe-7. This was likely caused by the tortuosity of the grain boundaries arising from the niobium content of around 2.5% in the former samples. Besides, ERNiCrFe-13 and ERNiCrFe-15 indicated higher minimum critical strains even though these specimens include higher content of sulfur and phosphorus than ERNiCrFe-7. Thus, containing niobium must be more effective to improve the susceptibility compared to sulfur and phosphorous in the alloy system.

  12. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  13. Novel Associations between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Variants and Risk-Predicting Mammographic Density Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Jennifer; Thompson, Deborah J.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Scott, Christopher; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hazra, Aditi; Li, Jingmei; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Jensen, Matt; Cunningham, Julie; Olson, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density measures adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI) are heritable predictors of breast cancer risk but few mammographic density-associated genetic variants have been identified. Using data for 10,727 women from two international consortia, we estimated associations between 77 common breast cancer susceptibility variants and absolute dense area, percent dense area and absolute non-dense area adjusted for study, age and BMI using mixed linear modeling. We found strong suppo...

  14. Automated AC Electrical Impedance Measurement of Ceramic Oxides by means of a Lock-in Amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khawaja, S.; Al-Sous, M. B.; Nasrallah, F.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, the electrical impedance of some ceramic oxides has been investigated employing the Perkin Elmer DSP 7280 Lock-in amplifier, while recording the electric response versus frequency and temperature at constant amplitude. Via integral automation of this lock-in with other delicate electrical measuring devices, a control program has been developed to accurately and swiftly acquire the frequency response of the sample, in order to lately infer the resulting samples' impedance in volt and ampere. Two maxima peaks characterising the impedance, in the curve of the doped molybdenum oxide have been observed discerning two phases in the sample (doped with 40% of niobium oxide), which shows a remarkable relaxation related to improvement in its ionic conductivity within the solid phase, with respect to increasing frequency. (author)

  15. Measurements of the surface impedance and the ac critical field of superconducting thin tin films at 10 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface impedances and ac critical fields of superconducting thin tin films were studied. These experiments were performed using a superconducting frequency stabilized microwave cavity of high Q. Measurements of the power losses in the cavity and the center frequency of the cavity were used to determine the surface impedance and the critical field of a thin film sample placed in the cavity. In this case a theoretical treatment based on a model proposed by I.O. Kulik was used to fit the data. The general agreement between the modified Kulik treatment and the data, obtained in this experiment, was substantial. The second method was to modify the thin film data to correspond to a bulk situation. This modification was accomplished by taking into account the measuring techniques used and the geometric consideration inherent in the experiment. The comparison between the modified experimental data and calculations obtained from the Mattis-Bardeen bulk model was generally very good. One aspect of the results which was not explained was the presence of a slight increase in the surface resistance in the vicinity of the transition temperature. The critical field measurements were compared to the (1 - (T/T/sub c/)/sup 1/2) dependence predicted by Bardeen. If it is assumed that substantial microwave heating took place in the sample near T/sub c/, then remarkable agreement with the Bardeen model can be reached

  16. Immobilization of cholesterol oxidase in LbL films and detection of cholesterol using ac measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Marli L.; Souza, Nara C. de; Hayasaka, Caio O.; Ferreira, Marystela; Rodrigues Filho, Ubirajara P.; Riul, Antonio; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2009-01-01

    The preserved activity of immobilized biomolecules in layer-by-layer (LbL) films can be exploited in various applications, including biosensing. In this study, cholesterol oxidase (COX) layers were alternated with layers of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) in LbL films whose morphology was investigated with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adsorption kinetics of COX layers comprised two regimes, a fast, first-order kinetics process followed by a slow process fitted with a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) function, with exponent ∼ 2 characteristic of aggregates growing as disks. The concept based on the use of sensor arrays to increase sensitivity, widely employed in electronic tongues, was extended to biosensing with impedance spectroscopy measurements. Using three sensing units, made of LbL films of PAH/COX and PAH/PVS (polyvinyl sulfonic acid) and a bare gold interdigitated electrode, we were able to detect cholesterol in aqueous solutions down to the 10 -6 M level. This high sensitivity is attributed to the molecular-recognition interaction between COX and cholesterol, and opens the way for clinical tests to be made with low cost, fast experimental procedures

  17. IDENTIFYING ANTHROPOGENIC METALLIC POLLUTANTS USING FREQUENCY DEPENDENT MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN ABUJA METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatto S. Solomon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil formed from lithological and weathering processes of parent rocks generally exhibit paramagnetic properties due to some minerals contained in the rocks and thus have significant value of magnetic susceptibility. This susceptibility arising from the influence of the parent rocks tend to mask anthropogenic grains pollutants released into the environment by human activities. Hence, it becomes difficult to identify the effect of the lithological and anthropogenic magnetic susceptibility in complex soil found in urban areas. The superparamagnetic effect of lithological soil, a single state domain and multi-domain state of anthropogenic grains can easily be investigated by frequency dependent measurements where readings between 0-2.0% indicates the absence of lithological influence, 2.0-8.0% indicates multi-domain grains or mixture of both single stage and multi-domian grains and 8.0-12% indicates the superparamagntic (SP grain from lithological origin. In this work frequency dependent measurements were carried out along 5 selected road networks within the 5 districts of Abuja phase 1. Measurements were also carried out in 379 random points at the surface and depth of 40.0cm to investigate the distribution of anthropogenic grains in Abuja metropolis using the Bartington susceptibility meter. Frequency dependent measurements along the selected road networks indicate0-3.0% immediately after the roads pavement to a distance of about 3.0m from the road, indicating that the magnetic susceptibility arise mostly form anthropogenic influence rather than lithological processes. At the distance of 3.0-8.0m, frequency dependent values of about 3.0-8.0% were recorded, indicating mixture of both superparamagnetic and multi-domain grains. Beyond the distance of 8.0m, the frequency dependent values are mostly above 8.0.0%, indicating virtually all SP grains. The spatial distribution frequency dependent surface map shows the presence of anthropogenic grains in

  18. Human cerebral blood volume measurements using dynamic contrast enhancement in comparison to dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artzi, Moran [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv (Israel); Liberman, Gilad; Vitinshtein, Faina; Aizenstein, Orna [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Nadav, Guy [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv (Israel); Blumenthal, Deborah T.; Bokstein, Felix [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Neuro-Oncology Service, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, The Wohl Institute for Advanced Imaging, Tel Aviv (Israel); Tel Aviv University, Sackler Faculty of Medicine and Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2015-07-15

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is an important parameter for the assessment of brain tumors, usually obtained using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI. However, this method often suffers from low spatial resolution and high sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts and usually does not take into account the effect of tissue permeability. The plasma volume (v{sub p}) can also be extracted from dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) MRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DCE can be used for the measurement of cerebral blood volume in place of DSC for the assessment of patients with brain tumors. Twenty-eight subjects (17 healthy subjects and 11 patients with glioblastoma) were scanned using DCE and DSC. v{sub p} and CBV values were measured and compared in different brain components in healthy subjects and in the tumor area in patients. Significant high correlations were detected between v{sub p} and CBV in healthy subjects in the different brain components; white matter, gray matter, and arteries, correlating with the known increased tissue vascularity, and within the tumor area in patients. This work proposes the use of DCE as an alternative method to DSC for the assessment of blood volume, given the advantages of its higher spatial resolution, its lower sensitivity to susceptibility artifacts, and its ability to provide additional information regarding tissue permeability. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of ac electrical conductivity of molten glass by impedance measurement using co-axial cylinder electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.G.; Yalmali, V.S.; Tawde, Manisha; Mishra, R.

    2006-01-01

    The need of nuclear power as an energy source requires the solution of many problems. One of the most important is fixation of high level radioactive waste (HLW) in suitable borosilicate glass formulation. The major issue with this process is maximum waste loading in the final vitrified product without compromising on long term product characteristics. The electrical resistivity measurement at high temperature could not be measured with good precision using standard parallel plate electrode configuration due to error in cell constant measurement. Hence a high accuracy, calibration free technique consisting of co-axial electrodes was employed

  20. Mobility of solid vortex matter in 'shaking' ac magnetic fields of variable amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.J.; Valenzuela, S.O.; Pasquini, G.; Bekeris, V.

    2004-01-01

    The vortex solid in high temperature superconductors exhibits several regimes and dynamical behaviors. A temporarily symmetric magnetic ac field (e.g. sinusoidal, square, triangular) can increase the vortex lattice mobility and a temporarily asymmetric one (e.g. sawtooth) can decrease it. In this work, we study the effect on the mobility of the vortex solid as a function of the amplitude of an ac symmetric 'shaking' field when it is applied to previously prepared high and low mobility configurations. This study was carried out in high quality twinned YBCO single crystals and vortex mobility was studied through ac susceptibility measurements

  1. Systematic measurement of electron drift velocity and study of some properties of four gas mixtures: A-CH4, A-C2H4, A-C2H6, A-C3H8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; L'Hote, D.

    1978-06-01

    Systematic measurements of the electron drift velocity have been made for four argon-hydrocarbon vapour mixtures: argon-methane, argon-ethylene, argon-ethane, argon-propane and values of the electric field ranging from 0.3 to 4KV/cm. The results are analysed in terms of stability and 'saturation' of the drift speed. The effects of the electron diffusion are also investigated

  2. In-flight particle measurement of glass raw materials in hybrid heating of twelve-phase AC arc with oxygen burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Tanaka, M; Ikeba, T; Choi, S; Watanabe, T

    2012-01-01

    The high temperature provided by a 12-phase AC arc plasma is beneficial to finish vitrification reaction in milliseconds. Another heating method called “hybrid plasma” combines multi-phase AC arc and oxygen burner are expected to improve glass quality and increase productivity with minimum energy consumption. In this study, recent works on the development of in-flight particle measurement in hybrid plasma system are presented. Two-colour pyrometry offers considerable advantages for measuring particle temperatures in flight. A high-speed camera equipped with a band-pass filter system was applied to measure the in-flight temperatures of glass particles. The intensity recorded by the camera was calibrated using a tungsten halogen lamp. This technique also allows evaluating the fluctuation of the average particle temperature within millisecond in plasma region.

  3. Development of an in vitro bioassay for measuring susceptibility to macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics in Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher C; Moorhead, Andrew R; Storey, Bobby E; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Kaplan, Ray M

    2013-12-01

    For more than 20 years, anthelmintics of the macrocyclic lactone (ML) drug class have been widely and effectively used as preventives against the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis. However, in recent years an increased number of lack of efficacy (LOE) cases are being reported, in which dogs develop mature heartworm infections despite receiving monthly prophylactic doses of ML drugs. While this situation is raising concerns that heartworms may be developing resistance to MLs, compelling evidence for this is still lacking. Resolution of this dilemma requires validated biological or molecular diagnostic assays, but, unfortunately, no such tests currently exist. To address this need, we developed and optimized a larval migration inhibition assay (LMIA) for use with D. immitis third-stage larvae. The LMIA was used to measure the in vitro dose-response of two ML drugs (ivermectin and eprinomectin) on a known ML-susceptible laboratory strain of D. immitis. A nonlinear regression model was fit to the dose-response data, from which IC50 values were calculated; the mean IC50 and 95% confidence interval for IVM was 4.56 μM (1.26-16.4 μM), greater than that for EPR at 2.02 μM (1.68-2.42 μM), and this difference was significant (p = 0.0428). The R (2) value for EPR assays (0.90) was also greater than that for IVM treatment (0.71). The consistency and reproducibility of the dose-response data obtained with this assay suggests that it may be a useful technique for investigating the relative susceptibilities to ML drugs in other D. immitis populations.

  4. AC Initiation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ac initiation system is described which uses three ac transmission signals interlocked for safety by frequency, phase, and power discrimination...The ac initiation system is pre-armed by the application of two ac signals have the proper phases, and activates a load when an ac power signal of the proper frequency and power level is applied. (Author)

  5. Ferromagnetic resonance and transverse susceptibility measurements on particulate recording media (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Th.; Pelzl, J.; Chantrell, R. W.; Veitch, R.; Jakusch, H.

    1993-05-01

    The FMR absorption of different particulate recording tapes was investigated at microwave frequencies in the X band and Q band using temperatures from 70 to 400 K. The FMR spectra as a function of the external magnetic field were recorded for four different orientations of the static and high frequency magnetic fields with respect to the tape. Particular interest of the experimental and theoretical study was devoted to the interaction fields between the particles, texture effects within the tape sample and the effective anisotropy fields. Tape samples with different particle materials, varying packing densities and orientation ratios were prepared. The shape and line position of the FMR spectra obtained are strongly dependent on the pigment material and the tape parameters mentioned above. The experimental data are compared with theoretical calculations, based on a phenomenological model and a computer simulation. This comparison gives information on the orientational distribution of the particles, which is the most important source for inhomogeneous line broadening, the mean interaction, and anisotropy fields which govern the line position, the effective magnetization of the tape, and the relaxation time. The influence of the crystalline anisotropy can be investigated via temperature dependent measurements. The results are proved by additional transverse susceptibility measurements.

  6. Fully automated measurement of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility using 3D rotator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Studýnka, J.; Chadima, Martin; Suza, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 629, 26 August (2014), s. 6-13 ISSN 0040-1951 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : AMS * Kappabridge * susceptibility tensor Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.872, year: 2014

  7. Application of independent component analysis to ac dipole based optics measurement and correction at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Correction of beta-beat is of great importance for performance improvement of high energy accelerators, like the Relativistic Hadron Ion Collider (RHIC. At RHIC, using the independent component analysis method, linear optical functions are extracted from the turn by turn beam position data of the ac dipole driven betatron oscillation. Despite the constraint of a limited number of available quadrupole correctors at RHIC, a global beta-beat correction scheme using a beta-beat response matrix method was developed and experimentally demonstrated. In both rings, a factor of 2 or better reduction of beta-beat was achieved within available beam time. At the same time, a new scheme of using horizontal closed orbit bump at sextupoles to correct beta-beat in the arcs was demonstrated in the Yellow ring of RHIC at beam energy of 255 GeV, and a peak beta-beat of approximately 7% was achieved.

  8. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) as a means to measure brain iron? A post mortem validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Schweser, Ferdinand; Krebs, Nikolaus; Deistung, Andreas; Goessler, Walter; Scheurer, Eva; Sommer, Karsten; Reishofer, Gernot; Yen, Kathrin; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique which allows determining the bulk magnetic susceptibility distribution of tissue in vivo from gradient echo magnetic resonance phase images. It is commonly assumed that paramagnetic iron is the predominant source of susceptibility variations in gray matter as many studies have reported a reasonable correlation of magnetic susceptibility with brain iron concentrations in vivo. Instead of performing direct comparisons, however, all these studies used the putative iron concentrations reported in the hallmark study by Hallgren and Sourander (1958) for their analysis. Consequently, the extent to which QSM can serve to reliably assess brain iron levels is not yet fully clear. To provide such information we investigated the relation between bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility and brain iron concentration in unfixed (in situ) post mortem brains of 13 subjects using MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A strong linear correlation between chemically determined iron concentration and bulk magnetic susceptibility was found in gray matter structures (r = 0.84, p < 0.001), whereas the correlation coefficient was much lower in white matter (r = 0.27, p < 0.001). The slope of the overall linear correlation was consistent with theoretical considerations of the magnetism of ferritin supporting that most of the iron in the brain is bound to ferritin proteins. In conclusion, iron is the dominant source of magnetic susceptibility in deep gray matter and can be assessed with QSM. In white matter regions the estimation of iron concentrations by QSM is less accurate and more complex because the counteracting contribution from diamagnetic myelinated neuronal fibers confounds the interpretation. PMID:22634862

  9. Measurement of weak electric currents in copper wire phantoms using MRI: influence of susceptibility enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruiwang; Posnansky, Oleg; Celik, Abdullah; Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Ermer, Veronika; Irkens, Marco; Wegener, H-Peter; Shah, N Jon

    2006-08-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods for the direct detection of neuronal currents is a topic of intense investigation. Much experimental work has been carried out with the express aim of establishing detection thresholds and sensitivity to flowing currents. However, in most of these experiments, magnetic susceptibility enhancement was ignored. In this work, we present results that show the influence of a susceptibility artefact on the detection threshold and sensitivity. For this purpose, a novel phantom, consisting of a water-filled cylinder with two wires of different materials connected in series, was constructed. Magnitude MR images were acquired from a single slice using a gradient-echo echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence. The data show that the time course of the detected MR signal magnitude correlates very well with the waveform of the input current. The effect of the susceptibility artefacts arising from the two different wires was examined by comparing the magnitudes of the MR signals at different voxel locations. Our results indicate the following: (1) MR signal enhancement arising from the magnetic susceptibility effect influences the detection sensitivity of weak current; (2) the detection threshold and sensitivity are phantom-wire dependent; (3) sub-mu A electric current detection in a phantom is possible on a 1.5-T MR scanner in the presence of susceptibility enhancement.

  10. Measurement of complex RF susceptibility using a series Q-meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, Yu.F.; Dulya, C.M.; Niinikoski, T.O.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we have for the first time derived closed form expressions for the nuclear magnetic susceptibility in terms of the series Q-meter output voltage. We discuss the corrections involved in determining nuclear polarization from NMR signals by using the deuteron and proton spin systems as examples. Deuteron signals are shown to exhibit a false asymmetry, while proton signals have substantial shape distortions. Moreover, for the first time the importance of making a phase correction is demonstrated. We conclude that the series Q-meter with real part detection is not sufficient to produce an output voltage from which the nuclear susceptibility can be determined. An additional phase-sensitive detector is proposed for obtaining the imaginary part of the signal required for unambiguous extraction of the complex RF susceptibility. ((orig.))

  11. Soil and water pollution studies from a waste site deposit in Bantama, Kumasi, Ghana using magnetic susceptibility measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, M.; Preko, K.; Ashia, T.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of soil and water samples from around the Uadara barracks waste site deposit in Bantama, a suburb of Kumasi was measured with the aim of investigating the potential threat of pollution to the soil, streams, fish ponds and other water sources at the site around Armed Forces Senior High School campus which shares the same premises with the barracks. The studied soil samples were picked from the near surface (∼10 cm depth) along profiles taken from the waste site towards the stream and the ponds. Again, water samples were picked along the stream and from ten (10) ponds aligned along the stream. Laboratory measurements of the magnetic susceptibility were done using the Bartington MS2 metre and the MS2B dual frequency sensor for the soil samples, and the MS2G sensor for the water samples. The soil samples from the site registered an average magnetic susceptibility of 180. 04 x 10 -5 SI whereas the water samples recorded an average of -2.3 x 10 -6 SI showing a significant increment in comparison with the standard water magnetic susceptibility of -9.04 x 10 -6 SI. Thus, not withstand the lithology of the area studied, the presence of heavy metals and other chemical waste materials form the Uadara barracks garbage deposit site were found to greatly pollute the soil and particularly the water bodies around the Armed Forces Senior High School. (au)

  12. Georeferenced measurement of soil EC as a tool to detect susceptible areas to water erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Sallesses, Leonardo; Aparicio, Virginia Carolina; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    areas presented the highest occurrence of clay dispersion and rill erosion. This would indicate that with one campaign of cultivation of potato under supplementary irrigation are given the conditions that facilitate erosive events. The georeferenced measurement of EC by contact ground sensors and their visualization through digital cartography could be an interesting tool to detect areas susceptible to erosive events. This information would help in decision making for a soil management that tends to avoid or reduce soil losses due to deterioration of physical and chemical properties by the incorporation of sodium by irrigation. Key words: Irrigation, soil sodium, erosion.

  13. Power-law index and penetration depth of (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films studied by AC susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaofen; He, Dong; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting (NdxSmxGd1−2x)Ba2Cu3O7−δ films with x=0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.33 were grown by PLD on STO single crystal substrates. The power-law index n and penetration depth λ are studied by AC susceptibility. During cooling, n in films with x ≠ 0 increases much slower compared with the films with x =....... The films with x ≠ 0 also tend to have a longer penetration depth. These properties might be related to the higher possibility for disorder in the mixed (Nd,Sm,Gd)BCO films....

  14. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of σ plutonium alloys. Contribution to the study of the 5f electrons localization in the plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot-Reymond, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physical properties of actinide metals are essentially ruled by the 5f electrons localization. From a theoretically point of view, this localization is more important in the δ-phase than in the α-one. To compare their magnetic behaviour, low temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements have been performed and previous-resistivity data have been analysed. Experimental results and theoretical data can be conciliate by the existence of a Kondo effect in the δ-Pu phase. (author)

  15. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Bagnarol, Mirko; Martucci, Alessandro; Merano, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\rm MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  16. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav

    2017-10-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Currently experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer $\\ m MoS_2$, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  17. Low Offset AC Correlator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This patent describes a low offset AC correlator avoids DC offset and low frequency noise by frequency operating the correlation signal so that low...noise, low level AC amplification can be substituted for DC amplification. Subsequently, the high level AC signal is demodulated to a DC level. (Author)

  18. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V

    2015-12-01

    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  19. ACAC Converters for UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase ACAC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  20. Nuclear structure of 231Ac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutami, R.; Borge, M.J.G.; Mach, H.; Kurcewicz, W.; Fraile, L.M.; Gulda, K.; Aas, A.J.; Garcia-Raffi, L.M.; Lovhoiden, G.; Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L.; Tengblad, O.

    2008-01-01

    The low-energy structure of 231 Ac has been investigated by means of γ ray spectroscopy following the β - decay of 231 Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a MINI-ORANGE electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of 231 Ra → 231 Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed βγγ(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus

  1. Electrochemical polarization measurements on pitting corrosion susceptibility of nickel-rich Alloy 825

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCright, R.D.; Fleming, D.L.

    1991-10-01

    Alloy 825 contains approximately 40% Ni, 30% Fe, 20% Cr, 3.5% Mo, 2% Cu, and 1% Ti. Alloy 825 has a number of performance features that make it attractive as a candidate material for nuclear waste containers. However, under certain environmental conditions Alloy 825 is susceptible to localized forms of corrosion, and the focus of this paper is determination of those conditions. Electrochemical polarization was used to determine the critical potential for passive film breakdown, a process which leads to localized corrosion attack. Results indicated that quite high levels of chloride ion concentrations coupled with low pH are required to lower the critical potential to approach the corrosion potential

  2. Dual-pump CARS measurements in a hydrogen diffusion flame in cross-flow with AC dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Munetake; Freund, Jonathan B.; Glumac, Nick G.; Elliott, Gregory S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) measurements for simultaneous detection of flow temperature and relative concentration, applied to the characterization of a discharge-coupled reacting jet in a cross flow. The diagnostic is hydrogen Q-branch based, providing a much wider dynamic range compared to detection in the S-branch. For a previously developed dielectric barrier discharge, aligned co-axially with the fuel jet, OH planar laser induced fluorescence measurements show that the disturbance in the flame boundary leads to mixing enhancement. The H2-N2 dual-pump CARS measurement was used to map two-dimensional temperature distributions. The increase of the maximum temperature was up to 300 K, with 50% more H2 consumption, providing the reason for the decrease in the flame length by 25%. The increase of the relative H2O-H2 fraction was accompanied with a temperature increase, which indicates local equivalence ratios of below 1. The H2-O2 dual-pump measurements confirmed that the fuel-oxidizer ratios remain in the fuel-lean side at most of the probed locations.

  3. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility and magnetic resonance measurements of the moisture content and hydration condition of a magnetic mixture material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, K.; Kusaka, T.; Saari, M. M.; Takagi, R.; Sakai, K.; Kiwa, T.; Bito, Y.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a magnetic measurement method to measure the moisture content and hydration condition of mortar as a magnetic mixture material. Mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, sand, and water, and these materials exhibit different magnetic properties. The magnetization–magnetic field curves of these components and of mortars with different moisture contents were measured, using a specially developed high-temperature-superconductor superconducting quantum interference device. Using the differences in magnetic characteristics, the moisture content of mortar was measured at the ferromagnetic saturation region over 250 mT. A correlation between magnetic susceptibility and moisture content was successfully established. After Portland cement and water are mixed, hydration begins. At the early stage of the hydration/gel, magnetization strength increased over time. To investigate the magnetization change, we measured the distribution between bound and free water in the mortar in the early stage by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI results suggest that the amount of free water in mortar correlates with the change in magnetic susceptibility

  5. Magnetic and structural properties of an octanuclear Cu(II) S=1/2 mesoscopic ring: Susceptibility and NMR measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascialfari, A.; Jang, Z. H.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.; Cornia, A.; Rovai, D.; Caneschi, A.; Carretta, P.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, 1 H NMR and 63 Cu NMR-NQR experiments on two slightly different species of the molecular S=1/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) ring Cu8, [Cu 8 (dmpz) 8 (OH) 8 ]·2C 5 H 5 N (Cu8P) and [Cu 8 (dmpz) 8 (OH) 8 ]·2C 5 H 5 NO 2 (Cu8N), are presented. The magnetic energy levels are calculated exactly for an isotropic Heisenberg model Hamiltonian in zero magnetic field. From the magnetic susceptibility measurements we estimate the AF exchange coupling constant J∼1000 K and the resulting gap Δ∼500 K between the S T =0 ground state and the S T =1 first excited state. The 63,65 Cu NQR spectra indicate the presence of four crystallographically inequivalent copper nuclei in each ring. From the combination of the 63 Cu NQR spectra and of the 63 Cu NMR spectra at high magnetic field, we estimate the quadrupole coupling constant v Q of each site and the average asymmetry parameter η of the electric-field gradient tensor. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) decreases exponentially on decreasing temperature for all nuclei investigated. The gap parameter extracted from 63 Cu NQR-NSLR is the same as for the susceptibility while a smaller value is obtained from the 63 Cu NMR-NSLR in an external magnetic field of 8.2 T. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. Measurement of AC electrical conductivity of single crystal Al2O3 during spallation-neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.C. III; Farnum, E.H.; Sommer, W.F.; Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Samples of single crystal Al 2 O 3 , commonly known as sapphire, and polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 were irradiated with spallation neutrons at the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) under various temperature conditions and with a continuously applied alternating electric field. This paper describes the results of measurements on the sapphire samples. Neutron fluence and flux values are estimated values pending recovery and analysis of dosimetry packages. The conductivity increased approximately with the square root of the neutron flux at fluences less than 3 x 10 21 n/m 2 . The increase in conductivity reached saturated levels as high as 2 x 10 -2 (ohm-m) -1 at fluences as low as 2 x 10 22 n/m 2 . Frequency swept impedance measurements indicated a change in the electrical properties from capacitive to resistive behavior with increasing fluence

  7. Direct measurement of A$_{b}$ and A$_{c}$ at the Z$^{0}$ pole using a lepton tag

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Adam, I; Akagi, T; Allen, N J; Arodzero, A; Ash, William W; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barakat, M B; Bardon, O; Barklow, Timothy L; Bashindzhagian, G L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Ben-David, R; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bilei, G M; Bisello, D; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bolen, B D; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Byrne, R M; Calcaterra, A; Calloway, D H; Camanzi, B; Carpinelli, M; Cassell, R; Castaldi, R; Castro, A; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Chou, A; Church, E; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Covery, M R; Cook, V; Cotton, R; Cowan, R F; Coyne, D G; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Danielson, M N; Daoudi, M; De Groot, N; Dell'Orso, R; Dervan, P J; De Sangro, R; Dima, M; de Oliveira, A; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Eisenstein, B I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fan, C; Fernández, J P; Fero, M J; Flood, K; Frey, R; Gillman, T; Gladding, G; González, S; Goodman, E R; Hart, E L; Harton, J L; Hasan, A; Hasuko, K; Hedges, S J; Hertzbach, S S; Hildreth, M D; Huber, J; Huffer, M E; Hughes, E W; Huynh, X; Hwang, H; Iwasaki, M; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Johnson, R A; Junk, T R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M S; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kang, H J; Karliner, I; Kawahara, H; Kim, Y D; King, R; King, M E; Kofler, R R; Krishna, N M; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Lath, A; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C J S; Liu, X; Liu, M X; Loreti, M; Lu, A; Lynch, H L; Ma, J; Mahjouri, M; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; Masuda, H; Mazzucato, E; McKemey, A K; Meadows, B T; Menegatti, G; Messner, R; Mockett, P M; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Nagamine, T; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nussbaum, M; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, H; Park, C H; Pavel, T J; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pieroni, E; Pitts, K T; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Punkar, G D; Quigley, J; Ratcliff, B N; Reeves, T W; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rensing, P E; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schindler, R H; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Sen, S; Serbo, V V; Shaevitz, M H; Shank, J T; Shapiro, G; Sherden, D J; Shmakov, K D; Simopoulos, C; Sinev, N B; Smith, S R; Smy, M B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, R; Steiner, H; Strauss, M G; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Szumilo, A; Takahashi, T; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Toumbas, N K; Usher, T; Vannini, C; Vagvra, J; Vella, E N; Venuti, J P; Verdier, R; Verdini, P G; Wagner, S R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Wang, J; Ward, C P; Watts, S J; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; White, S L; Wickens, F J; Williams, B; Williams, D C; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Word, G B; Wright, T R; Wyss, J; Yamamoto, R K; Yamartino, J M; Yang, X; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Zapalac, G H; Zdarko, R W; Zhou, J

    1999-01-01

    The parity violation parameters A/sub b/ and A/sub c/ of the Zbb and Zcc couplings have been measured directly, using the polar angle dependence of the Z/sup 0/-pole polarized cross sections. Bottom and charmed hadrons were tagged via semileptonic decays. Both the muon and electron identification algorithms take advantage of new multivariate techniques, incorporating for the first time information from the SLD Cerenkov ring imaging detector. Based on the 1993-1995 SLD sample of 150000 Z/sup 0/ decays produced with highly polarized electron beams, we measure A/sub b/=0.910+or-0.068(stat)+or- 0.037(syst), A/sub c /=0.642+or-0.110(stat)+or-0.063(syst). (20 refs).

  8. Measurement and Numerical Evaluation of AC-Losses in a ReBCO Roebel Cable at 4.5 K

    CERN Document Server

    van Nugteren, J.; Gao, P.; Bottura, L,; Dhallé, M.; Goldacker, W.; Kario, A.; ten Kate, H.; Kirby, G.; Krooshoop, E.; de Rijk, G.; Rossi, L.; Senatore, C.; Wessel, S.; Yagotintsev, K.; Yang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    EUCARD2 aims to research ReBCO superconducting magnets for future accelerator applications. The properties of ReBCO conductors are very different from low temperature superconductors. To investigate dynamic field quality, stability and normal zone propagation an electrical network model for coated conductor cables was developed. To validate the model two identical samples were prepared at CERN after which measurements were taken at the University of Twente and Southampton University. The model predicts that for Roebel cable, in a changing magnetic field applied in the perpendicular direction, the hysteresis loss is much larger than the coupling loss. In the case of a changing magnetic field applied parallel to the cable coupling loss is dominant. In the first case the experiment is in good agreement with the model. In the second case the data can only be compared qualitatively because the calibration for the inductive measurement is not available.

  9. Precision rectifier detectors for ac resistance bridge measurements with application to temperature control systems for irradiation creep experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, M. G.

    1977-05-01

    The suitability of several temperature measurement schemes for an irradiation creep experiment is examined. It is found that the specimen resistance can be used to measure and control the sample temperature if compensated for resistance drift due to radiation and annealing effects. A modified Kelvin bridge is presented that allows compensation for resistance drift by periodically checking the sample resistance at a controlled ambient temperature. A new phase-insensitive method for detecting the bridge error signals is presented. The phase-insensitive detector is formed by averaging the magnitude of two bridge voltages. Although this method is substantially less sensitive to stray reactances in the bridge than conventional phase-sensitive detectors, it is sensitive to gain stability and linearity of the rectifier circuits. Accuracy limitations of rectifier circuits are examined both theoretically and experimentally in great detail. Both hand analyses and computer simulations of rectifier errors are presented. Finally, the design of a temperature control system based on sample resistance measurement is presented. The prototype is shown to control a 316 stainless steel sample to within a 0.15/sup 0/C short term (10 sec) and a 0.03/sup 0/C long term (10 min) standard deviation at temperatures between 150 and 700/sup 0/C. The phase-insensitive detector typically contributes less than 10 ppM peak resistance measurement error (0.04/sup 0/C at 700/sup 0/C for 316 stainless steel or 0.005/sup 0/C at 150/sup 0/C for zirconium).

  10. Detailed single crystal EPR lineshape measurements for the single molecule magnets Fe8Br and Mn12-ac

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, S.; Maccagnano, S.; Park, K.; Achey, R. M.; North, J. M.; Dalal, N. S.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that our multi-high-frequency (40-200 GHz) resonant cavity technique yields distortion-free high field EPR spectra for single crystal samples of the uniaxial and biaxial spin S = 10 single molecule magnets (SMMs) [Mn12O12(CH3COO)16(H2O)4].2CH3COOH.4H2O and [Fe8O2(OH)12(tacn)6]Br8.9H2O. The observed lineshapes exhibit a pronounced dependence on temperature, magnetic field, and the spin quantum numbers (Ms values) associated with the levels involved in the transitions. Measurements ...

  11. AC-conductance and capacitance measurements for ethanol vapor detection using carbon nanotube-polyvinyl alcohol composite based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenshields, Márcia W C C; Meruvia, Michelle S; Hümmelgen, Ivo A; Coville, Neil J; Mhlanga, Sabelo D; Ceragioli, Helder J; Quispe, Jose C Rojas; Baranauskas, Vitor

    2011-03-01

    We report the preparation of inexpensive ethanol sensor devices using multiwalled carbon nanotube-polyvinyl alcohol composite films deposited onto interdigitated electrodes patterned on phenolite substrates. We investigate the frequency dependent response of the device conductance and capacitance showing that higher sensitivity is obtained at higher frequency if the conductance is used as sensing parameter. In the case of capacitance measurements, higher sensitivity is obtained at low frequency. Ethanol detection at a concentration of 300 ppm in air is demonstrated. More than 80% of the sensor conductance and capacitance variation response occurs in less than 20 s.

  12. Structure, resistivity, critical field, specific-heat jump at Tc, Meissner effect, a.c. and d.c. Susceptibility of the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroux, M.; Junod, A.; Bezinge, A.

    1987-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the resistivity, the magnetic properties and the specific heat were investigated on sintered samples of La 1.85 Sr 0.15 CuO 4 having zero resistance below 35 K. The crystal structure at 300K (tetragonal K 2 NiF 4 -type) was refined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The d.c. susceptibility shows no indication for the existence of localized Cu 2+ moments. The observation of a 60% Meissner effect and a smeared jump at T c in the specific-heat curve prove the intrinsic character of this superconducting state. The amplitude of this jump is compatible with the DOS estimated from the Pauli susceptibility. With a critical magnetic field slope dH c2 /dT| Tc = - 2.5 T/K, the orbital critical field is expected to be of the order of 64 T

  13. Cerebral Hemodynamics in a Healthy Population Measured by Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenius, J.; Soinne, L.; Tatlisumak, T.; Kaste, M.; Aronen, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To establish reference data and to study age-dependency for cerebral perfusion in various regions of the brain in a healthy population. Material and Methods: Eighty healthy subjects of both genders from 22 to 85 years of age were studied with spin echo echo-planar dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) at 1.5 T. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and contrast agent mean transit time (MTT) were calculated bilaterally for 20 distinct neuro anatomic structures. Results: In gray matter, the following values were found (mean ± SD): CBV (4.6 ± 1.0 ml/100 g), CBF (94.2 ± 23.0 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (3.0 ± 0.6 s), and in white matter: CBV (1.3 ± 0.4 ml/100 g), CBF (19.6 ± 5.8 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (4.3 ± 0.7 s). The perfusion parameters did not change with age, except for a tendency to an increase in gray matter MTT and CBV. Males exhibited higher MTT and CBV than females. No hemispheric difference was found in either gender. Conclusion: Cerebral hemodynamics can be assessed with DSC MRI. Age itself seems to have only a marginal effect on cerebral perfusion in healthy population

  14. Cerebral Hemodynamics in a Healthy Population Measured by Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helenius, J.; Soinne, L.; Tatlisumak, T.; Kaste, M. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Neurology; Perkioe, J.; Salonen, O.; Savolainen, S. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology; Oestergaard, L. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Carano, R.A.D. [Synarc Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Aronen, H.J. [Helsinki Brain Research Center (Finland). Functional Brain Imaging Unit

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: To establish reference data and to study age-dependency for cerebral perfusion in various regions of the brain in a healthy population. Material and Methods: Eighty healthy subjects of both genders from 22 to 85 years of age were studied with spin echo echo-planar dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC MRI) at 1.5 T. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and contrast agent mean transit time (MTT) were calculated bilaterally for 20 distinct neuro anatomic structures. Results: In gray matter, the following values were found (mean {+-} SD): CBV (4.6 {+-} 1.0 ml/100 g), CBF (94.2 {+-} 23.0 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (3.0 {+-} 0.6 s), and in white matter: CBV (1.3 {+-} 0.4 ml/100 g), CBF (19.6 {+-} 5.8 ml/100 g/min), and MTT (4.3 {+-} 0.7 s). The perfusion parameters did not change with age, except for a tendency to an increase in gray matter MTT and CBV. Males exhibited higher MTT and CBV than females. No hemispheric difference was found in either gender. Conclusion: Cerebral hemodynamics can be assessed with DSC MRI. Age itself seems to have only a marginal effect on cerebral perfusion in healthy population.

  15. Magnetic and structural properties of an octanuclear Cu(II) S=1/2 mesoscopic ring: Susceptibility and NMR measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, A. [Department of Physics ' ' A. Volta' ' and Unita INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, (Italy); Jang, Z. H. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Borsa, F. [Department of Physics ' ' A. Volta' ' and Unita INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, (Italy); Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Gatteschi, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Maragliano 77, I-50144 Florence, (Italy); Cornia, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Modena, Via Campi 183, I-41100 Modena, (Italy); Rovai, D. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Maragliano 77, I-50144 Florence, (Italy); Caneschi, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via Maragliano 77, I-50144 Florence, (Italy); Carretta, P. [Department of Physics ' ' A. Volta' ' and Unita INFM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia, (Italy)

    2000-03-01

    Magnetic susceptibility, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 63}Cu NMR-NQR experiments on two slightly different species of the molecular S=1/2 antiferromagnetic (AF) ring Cu8, [Cu{sub 8}(dmpz){sub 8}(OH){sub 8}]{center_dot}2C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N (Cu8P) and [Cu{sub 8}(dmpz){sub 8}(OH){sub 8}]{center_dot}2C{sub 5}H{sub 5}NO{sub 2} (Cu8N), are presented. The magnetic energy levels are calculated exactly for an isotropic Heisenberg model Hamiltonian in zero magnetic field. From the magnetic susceptibility measurements we estimate the AF exchange coupling constant J{approx}1000 K and the resulting gap {delta}{approx}500 K between the S{sub T}=0 ground state and the S{sub T}=1 first excited state. The {sup 63,65}Cu NQR spectra indicate the presence of four crystallographically inequivalent copper nuclei in each ring. From the combination of the {sup 63}Cu NQR spectra and of the {sup 63}Cu NMR spectra at high magnetic field, we estimate the quadrupole coupling constant v{sub Q} of each site and the average asymmetry parameter {eta} of the electric-field gradient tensor. The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (NSLR) decreases exponentially on decreasing temperature for all nuclei investigated. The gap parameter extracted from {sup 63}Cu NQR-NSLR is the same as for the susceptibility while a smaller value is obtained from the {sup 63}Cu NMR-NSLR in an external magnetic field of 8.2 T. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  16. FLUIDIC AC AMPLIFIERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several fluidic tuned AC Amplifiers were designed and tested. Interstage tuning and feedback designs are considered. Good results were obtained...corresponding Q’s as high as 12. Element designs and test results of one, two, and three stage amplifiers are presented. AC Modulated Carrier Systems

  17. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  18. Multiple sclerosis susceptibility-associated SNPs do not influence disease severity measures in a cohort of Australian MS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy J Jensen

    Full Text Available Recent association studies in multiple sclerosis (MS have identified and replicated several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP susceptibility loci including CLEC16A, IL2RA, IL7R, RPL5, CD58, CD40 and chromosome 12q13-14 in addition to the well established allele HLA-DR15. There is potential that these genetic susceptibility factors could also modulate MS disease severity, as demonstrated previously for the MS risk allele HLA-DR15. We investigated this hypothesis in a cohort of 1006 well characterised MS patients from South-Eastern Australia. We tested the MS-associated SNPs for association with five measures of disease severity incorporating disability, age of onset, cognition and brain atrophy. We observed trends towards association between the RPL5 risk SNP and time between first demyelinating event and relapse, and between the CD40 risk SNP and symbol digit test score. No associations were significant after correction for multiple testing. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that these new MS disease risk-associated SNPs influence disease severity.

  19. Effect of dc field on ac-loss peak in a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Ali; Düzgün, İbrahim; Çelebi, Selahattin

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of the ac susceptibility in a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape for some different ac magnetic field amplitudes, Hac, in the presence of bias magnetic field Hdc directed along Hac are reported. It is found that the peak values of the imaginary component of ac susceptibility χ″max versus Hac trace a valley for the orientation where applied field Ha perpendicular to wide face of the tape total. We note that the observation of the valley depends on various parameters such as field dependence parameter n in the critical current density, in the simple power law expression jc = α(T)/Bn, choice of the bias field Hdc together with selected ac field amplitudes Hac, and dimension and geometry of sample studied. Our calculations based on critical state model with jc = α(1 - T/Tcm)p/Bn using the fitting parameters of n = 0.25, p = 2.2, Tcm = 108 K gives quite good results to compare the experimental and calculated curves.

  20. Structure, resistivity, critical field, specific-heat jump at Tc, Meissner effect, a.c. and d.c. susceptibility of the high-Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, A.; Bezinge, A.; Graf, T.

    1987-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 superconductors with inductive transitions as narrows as 0.45 K above 90 K were synthetized. Samples were characterized by thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, X-ray and neutron diffraction. The structure is characterized by a two-dimensional Cu-O network with square-pyramidal and square-planar coordinated Cu atoms. Results show a clear metallic behaviour of the resistivity. An orbital critical field as high as 300 T is extrapolated. Meissner flux expulsion up to 40% is observed. Small amounts of magnetic Cu 2+ ions are correlated with the presence of the impurity phase BaCuO 2 . The Pauli susceptibility and the specific-heat jump at T c are consistent with γ ≅ 2mJ/(K 2 gat) (9mJ/(K 2 mole-Cu)), neglecting all renormalizations

  1. Assessment of the E-Selectin rs5361 (561A>C Polymorphism and Soluble Protein Concentration in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Association with Circulating Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sandoval-Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The acute coronary syndrome (ACS is a complex disease where genetic and environmental factors are involved. E-selectin gene is a candidate for ACS progression due to its contribution in the inflammatory process and endothelial function. The rs5361 (561A>C polymorphism in the E-selectin gene has been linked to changes in gene expression, affinity for its receptor, and plasmatic levels; therefore it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the rs5361 polymorphism with ACS and to measure serum levels of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin. Materials and Methods. 283 ACS patients and 205 healthy subjects (HS from Western Mexico were included. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the rs5361 polymorphism. The sE-selectin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of the rs5361 polymorphism showed statistical differences between groups. The sE-selectin levels were significantly higher in ACS patients compared to HS (54.58 versus 40.41 ng/ml, P=0.02. The C allele had no effect on sE-selectin levels. Conclusions. The rs5361 E-selectin gene polymorphism is not a susceptibility marker for ACS in Western Mexico population. However, sE-selectin may be a biological marker of ACS.

  2. Aging, Counterfeiting Configuration Control (AC3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-31

    Systems Intergrated Into AC3 CABS - Common As-Built System PRISM - Process Re-inventing Integration Systems for Manufacturing PDM - Product Data...looks forward to deploying the completed tool at Raytheon in a true production environment, for as much as we like the challenge associated with...performance of DoD systems. DoD systems are particularly susceptible to intrusion of counterfeit parts, especially during surge and extended production

  3. Vertical impedance measurements on concrete bridge decks for assessing susceptibility of reinforcing steel to corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Paul D.; Guthrie, W. Spencer; Mazzeo, Brian A.

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a pressing problem for aging concrete infrastructure, especially bridge decks. Because of its sensitivity to factors that affect corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete, resistivity is an important structural health indicator for reinforced concrete structures. In this research, an instrument was developed to measure vertical impedance on concrete bridge decks. Measurements of vertical impedance on slabs prepared in the laboratory, on slabs removed from decommissioned bridge decks, and on an in-service bridge deck in the field demonstrate the utility of the new apparatus.

  4. Harmonic and static susceptibilities of YBa2Cu3O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.; Goldfarb, R.B.; Okayasu, S.; Kazumata, Y.; Franz, J.; Arndt, T.; Schauer, W.

    1993-01-01

    Intergranular properties of the sintered superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 have been studied in terms of complex harmonic magnetic susceptibility χ n χ n ' - iχ n '' (n integer) as well as DC susceptibility χ dc . As functions of temperature T, χ 1 ' and χ 1 '' depend on both the AC magnetic-field amplitude H ac and the magnitude of a superimposed DC field H dc . Only odd-harmonic susceptibilities are observed below the critical temperature, T c , for zero H dc while both odd and even harmonics are observed for nonzero H dc . With T constant, odd-harmonic susceptibilities are even functions of H dc , whereas even-harmonic susceptibilities are odd functions of H dc . Experimental intergranular characteristics of χ n ' and χ n '' are in good agreement with theoretical predictions from a simplified Kim model of magnetization. In contrast, even-harmonic susceptibilities measured for a GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin film and an YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystal are not prominent due to missing weak links, whereas odd-harmonic susceptibilities are remarkable. A survey of several models for the harmonic response of superconductors is presented. The DC susceptibility curve for the zero-field-cooled YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 sample, χ ZFC (T), has a two-step structure arising from intra- and inter-granular components, similar to χ 1 '. DC susceptibility measured upon warming, χ FCW (T), shows a negative peak near T c for the sample cooled rapidly in small DC fields. DC susceptibility measured upon cooling, χ FCC (T), does not show a peak. A negative peak is not seen in measurements on a powdered sample. The negative peak can be explained by intergranular flux depinning upon warming. (orig.)

  5. AcMNPV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... biosynthesis pathway and plays an important role in insect growth and .... Construction and propagation of recombined AcMNPV. The recombined ... infected by virus increased with incubation time (Figure. 3). The growth of ...

  6. AC BREAKDOWN IN GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron- emission (multipactor) region, and (3) the low-frequency region. The breakdown mechanism in each of these regions is explained. An extensive bibliography on AC breakdown in gases is included.

  7. THERMIONIC AC GENERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    is shown that the maximum ac efficiency is equal to approximately 70% of the corresponding dc value. An illustrative example, including a proposed design for a rather unconventional transformer, is appended. (Author)

  8. Cirrus Susceptibility to Changes in Ice Nuclei: Physical Processes, Model Uncertainties, and Measurement Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    One of the proposed concepts for mitigating the warming effect of increasing greenhouse gases is seeding cirrus cloud with ice nuclei (IN) in order to reduce the lifetime and coverage of cold cirrus that have a net warming impact on the earth's surface. Global model simulations of the net impact of changing upper tropospheric IN have given widely disparate results, partly as a result of poor understanding of ice nucleation processes in the current atmosphere, and partly as a result of poor representation of these processes in global models. Here, we present detailed process-model simulations of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) transport and cirrus formation with ice nuclei properties based on recent laboratory nucleation experiments and field measurements of aerosol composition. The model is used to assess the sensitivity of TTL cirrus occurrence frequency and microphysical properties to the abundance and efficacy of ice nuclei. The simulated cloud properties compared with recent high-altitude aircraft measurements of TTL cirrus and ice supersaturation. We find that abundant effective IN (either from glassy organic aerosols or crystalline ammonium sulfate with concentrations greater than about 100/L) prevent the occurrences of large ice concentration and large ice supersaturations, both of which are clearly indicated by the in situ observations. We find that concentrations of effective ice nuclei larger than about 50/L can drive significant changes in cirrus microphysical properties and occurrence frequency. However, the cloud occurrence frequency can either increase or decrease, depending on the efficacy and abundance of IN added to the TTL. We suggest that our lack of information about ice nuclei properties in the current atmosphere, as well as uncertainties in ice nucleation processes and their representations in global models, preclude meaningful estimates of climate impacts associated with addition of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere. We will briefly discuss

  9. Design of a low temperature translation balance for the measurement of paramagnetic and diamagnetic susceptibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowry, G.S.

    1979-05-01

    A modified Foex and Forrer Translation Balance has been designed for measuring the paramagnetic and diamagnetic properties of materials over the temperature range 77-300/sup 0/K. The systems' temperature range can eventually be extended to 4.2/sup 0/K. The apparatus incorporates a vertical Dewar of Standard variety in addition to a horizontal Dewar for cooling the sample holder and adjacent horizontal supports. The design also allows for the placement of a thermocouple junction in direct contact with a sample. The balance sensitivity, defined as the change in displacement per unit applied force, is 0.0044 cm/dyne. The precision of the balance is +- .5% with an accuracy of 1.5%.

  10. Measurement of magnetic susceptibility on tailings cores report on cores obtained from the Ontario Research Foundation lysimeter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    Bulk susceptibility and induced magnetic remanence results are reported for 40 cores obtained from the uranium tailings lysimeter experiment at the Ontario Research Foundation. Both methods indicate a broad threefold subdivision of the tailings pile. An upper zone is characterized by an enhanced susceptibility level, which is related to enhanced concentration of both magnetite and hematite. Depletion zones, where present, are of limited areal extent and strongly developed. An intermediate zone is characterized by a mixture of large areas of reduced susceptibility that separate smaller regions of slightly enhanced susceptibility. The zones of susceptibility depletion appear to define a dendritic drainage pattern. Locally in this zone magnetite is enhanced and hematite depleted. In the lowermost zone susceptibility levels are reduced over most of the tailings bed. Only in the upper most right hand corner is there any vestige of a positive susceptibility concentration. Both magnetite and hematite are strongly depleted in this lower zone. Visually it is apparent that this lowermost depleted zone correlates to the zones of strongest 'yellowcake' development

  11. Association between gender, process of care measures, and outcomes in ACS in India: results from the detection and management of coronary heart disease (DEMAT registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha J Pagidipati

    Full Text Available Studies from high-income countries have shown that women receive less aggressive diagnostics and treatment than men in acute coronary syndromes (ACS, though their short-term mortality does not appear to differ from men. Data on gender differences in ACS presentation, management, and outcomes are sparse in India.The Detection and Management of Coronary Heart Disease (DEMAT Registry collected data from 1,565 suspected ACS patients (334 women; 1,231 men from ten tertiary care centers throughout India between 2007-2008. We evaluated gender differences in presentation, in-hospital and discharge management, and 30-day death and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; death, re-hospitalization, and cardiac arrest rates. Women were less likely to present with STEMI than men (38% vs. 55%, p<0.001. Overall inpatient diagnostics and treatment patterns were similar between men and women after adjustment for potential confounders. Optimal discharge management with aspirin, clopidogrel, beta-blockers, and statin therapy was lower for women than men, (58% vs. 65%, p = 0.03, but these differences were attenuated after adjustment (OR = 0.86 (0.62, 1.19. Neither the outcome of 30-day mortality (OR = 1.40 (0.62, 3.16 nor MACE (OR = 1.00 (0.67, 1.48 differed significantly between men and women after adjustment.ACS in-hospital management, discharge management, and 30-day outcomes did not significantly differ between genders in the DEMAT registry, though consistently higher treatment rates and lower event rates in men compared to women were seen. These findings underscore the importance of further investigation of gender differences in cardiovascular care in India.

  12. Liquid helium boil-off measurements of heat leakage from sinter-forged BSCCO current leads under DC and AC conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Niemann, R.C.; Hull, J.R.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Lanagan, M.T.; Nakade, M.; Hara, T.

    1995-06-01

    Liquid helium boil-off experiments are conducted to determine the heat leakage rate of a pair of BSCCO 2223 high-temperature superconductor current leads made by sinter forging. The experiments are carried out in both DC and AC conditions and with and without an intermediate heat intercept. Current ranges are from 0-500 A for DC tests and 0-1,000 A rms for AC tests. The leads are self-cooled. Results show that magnetic hysteresis (AC) losses for both the BSCCO leads and the low-temperature superconductor current jumper are small for the current range. It is shown that significant reduction in heat leakage rate (liquid helium boil-off rate) is realized by using the BSCCO superconductor leads. At 100 A, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is approximately 29% of that of the conventional copper lead. Further reduction in liquid helium boil-off rate can be achieved by using an intermediate heat intercept. For example, at 500 K, the heat leakage rate of the BSCCO/copper binary lead is only 7% of that of the conventional copper lead when an intermediate heat intercept is used

  13. Cooperative Frequency Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed secondary control strategies have been recently studied for frequency regulation in droop-based AC Microgrids. Unlike centralized secondary control, the distributed one might fail to provide frequency synchronization and proportional active power sharing simultaneously, due to having...... not require measuring the system frequency as compared to the other presented methods. An ac Microgrid with four sources is used to verify the performance of the proposed control methodology....

  14. Optimum Depth of Investigation and Conductivity Response Rejection of the Different Electromagnetic Devices Measuring Apparent Magnetic Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Benech , Christophe; Marmet , Eric

    1999-01-01

    International audience; Electromagnetic susceptibility surveys are valuable for archaeological prospection owing to their ability to cover large areas of land. Their use, however, is often compromised by the conductivity influence of the soil and the limited investigation depth of the susceptibility response. To examine these constraints further, we compared the characteristics of two types of apparatus: coincident loop (e.g. Bartington MS2 field coil) and 'Slingram' instruments (EM38, SH3, C...

  15. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  16. Studies of. gamma. -ray irradiation effects on tris(. beta. -diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) coordination compounds by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y.; Endo, K.; Sano, H. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    Both absorption Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements on tris(..beta..-diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) compounds indicate that ligands which have phenyl group as a substituent are more stable to ..gamma..-ray radiolysis, in accordance with previous results of emission Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of /sup 57/Co-labelled tris (..beta..-diketonato)cobalt(III) compounds.

  17. Mass of AC Andromedae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, D.S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Calculations indicate that AC Andromedae is population I rather than population II. A mass and radius for this star are calculated using a new set of opacities for the Kippenhahn Ia mixture. It is concluded that the mass is too high for an ordinary RR Lyrae star. (BJG)

  18. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  19. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  20. Innovative application of AC-voltammetry in the characterization of oxides nanolayers formed on metals, under the effect of AC-perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, V.; Lazzari, L.; Ormellesse, M. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering; Spinelli, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Stray AC-currents have been reported to cause many cases of unwanted corrosion on metallic structures. This study characterized the formation and stability of the surface oxide film formed on mild steel under the effect of AC voltage in a very basic environment. The response of the system to DC signals was examined, along with its reversibility to AC perturbations. SEM analysis was used to complement AC-Voltammetry. Reaction mechanisms responsible for the AC-corrosion were formulated. AC-Voltammetry involves the application of a controlled sinusoidal voltage onto a solid working electrode while it is being swept in a DC-voltage range, with the faradaic or capacitative components of the resulting AC-current being recorded. The innovative aspect is the application of AC-V to characterize its nano-surface while it is being affected by AC-signals. It was concluded that the AC-V can be useful for the study of redox processes occurring at the surface of a reactive electrode and for the application of a considerable AC perturbation to the electrode in a potentiostatically controlled way. According to the electrochemistry of the double layer, there are 3 main reactions in the NaOH 1M media that are not reversible to DC nor to AC perturbations in the range of cathodic protection of mild steel. When designing metallic systems susceptible to stray currents, the AC-V could quantify the final faradaic, resistive and capacitative responses. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  2. Evaluation of a centrifuge with rapid turnaround time for the preparation of plasma samples for measurement of common STAT markers on the ACS: 180 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K; Datta, P; Orswell, M; Tasaico, K; Alpert, A; Bluestein, B

    2000-01-01

    Reported is the evaluation of a new centrifugation method, Statspin, that addresses both time and sample separation integrity. The method can successfully separate the plasma fraction from the cellular material in 2 minutes as compared to 20 minutes for the conventional centrifuge method. The Statspin, combined with the ACS:180 system, can generate test results in less than 30 minutes, exclusive of transport to the laboratory. This study demonstrated that the combined technologies offer timing-saving improvements for clinical laboratories offering STAT immunoassays for cardiac markers, endocrine molecules, and therapeutic drugs.

  3. Susceptibility Testing by Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA Quantitation: A Method to Measure Drug Resistance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Joseph J.; Gorczyca, Paul; Kaplan, Joan C.; D'Aquila, Richard T.

    1992-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA quantitation (PDQ) susceptibility testing rapidly and directly measures nucleoside sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. PCR is used to quantitate the amount of HIV-1 DNA synthesized after in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA in cell lysates from cultures maintained at different drug concentrations reflect drug inhibition of virus replication. The results of PDQ susceptibility testing of 2- or 3-day cultures are supported by assays measuring HIV-1 p24 antigen production in supernatants of 7- or 10-day cultures. DNA sequence analyses to identify mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene that cause resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine also support the PDQ results. With the PDQ method, both infectivity titration and susceptibility testing can be performed on supernatants from primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PDQ susceptibility testing should facilitate epidemiologic studies of the clinical significance of drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates.

  4. Low temperature AC susceptibility of UCoGe crystal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prokleška, J.; Pospíšil, J.; Vejpravová Poltierová, J.; Sechovský, V.; Šebek, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 200, č. 1 (2010), 012161/1-012161/4 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Magnetism - ICM 2009. Karlsruhe, 26.07.2009-31.07.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetism * uranium * intermetallics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  5. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  6. Increased Ac excision (iae): Arabidopsis thaliana mutations affecting Ac transposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, P.; Belzile, F.; Page, T.; Dean, C.

    1997-01-01

    The maize transposable element Ac is highly active in the heterologous hosts tobacco and tomato, but shows very much reduced levels of activity in Arabidopsis. A mutagenesis experiment was undertaken with the aim of identifying Arabidopsis host factors responsible for the observed low levels of Ac activity. Seed from a line carrying a single copy of the Ac element inserted into the streptomycin phosphotransferase (SPT) reporter fusion, and which displayed typically low levels of Ac activity, were mutagenized using gamma rays. Nineteen mutants displaying high levels of somatic Ac activity, as judged by their highly variegated phenotypes, were isolated after screening the M2 generation on streptomycin-containing medium. The mutations fall into two complementation groups, iae1 and iae2, are unlinked to the SPT::Ac locus and segregate in a Mendelian fashion. The iae1 mutation is recessive and the iae2 mutation is semi-dominant. The iae1 and iae2 mutants show 550- and 70-fold increases, respectively, in the average number of Ac excision sectors per cotyledon. The IAE1 locus maps to chromosome 2, whereas the SPT::Ac reporter maps to chromosome 3. A molecular study of Ac activity in the iae1 mutant confirmed the very high levels of Ac excision predicted using the phenotypic assay, but revealed only low levels of Ac re-insertion. Analyses of germinal transposition in the iae1 mutant demonstrated an average germinal excision frequency of 3% and a frequency of independent Ac re-insertions following germinal excision of 22%. The iae mutants represents a possible means of improving the efficiency of Ac/Ds transposon tagging systems in Arabidopsis, and will enable the dissection of host involvement in Ac transposition and the mechanisms employed for controlling transposable element activity

  7. Nuclear structure of {sup 231}Ac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutami, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: borge@iem.cfmac.csic.es; Mach, H. [Department of Radiation Sciences, ISV, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Kurcewicz, W. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Fraile, L.M. [Departamento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gulda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pl-00 681 Warsaw (Poland); Aas, A.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway); Garcia-Raffi, L.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lovhoiden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Martinez, T.; Rubio, B.; Tain, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - Universidad de Valencia, Apdo. 22805, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113 bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    The low-energy structure of {sup 231}Ac has been investigated by means of {gamma} ray spectroscopy following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 231}Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a MINI-ORANGE electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of {sup 231}Ra {yields}{sup 231}Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed {beta}{gamma}{gamma}(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  8. Superconducting ac cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-11-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.

  9. ac superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerhoff, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface

  10. Superconducting ac cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1980-01-01

    The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de

  11. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin MoS2 by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav; Dai, Zhenyu; Zhang, Xixiang; Bagnarol, Mirko; Martucci, Alessandro; Merano, Michele

    2018-01-01

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer MoS. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Current experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer MoS, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  12. Measurement of the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity of atomically thin MoS2 by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    KAUST Repository

    Jayaswal, Gaurav

    2018-02-06

    We show how to correctly extract from the ellipsometric data the surface susceptibility and the surface conductivity that describe the optical properties of monolayer MoS. Theoretically, these parameters stem from modelling a single-layer two-dimensional crystal as a surface current, a truly two-dimensional model. Current experimental practice is to consider this model equivalent to a homogeneous slab with an effective thickness given by the interlayer spacing of the exfoliating bulk material. We prove that the error in the evaluation of the surface susceptibility of monolayer MoS, owing to the use of the slab model, is at least 10% or greater, a significant discrepancy in the determination of the optical properties of this material.

  13. Effectiveness of simple control measures on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection status and characteristics with susceptibility patterns in a teaching hospital in Peshawar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Muhammad Salman; Rafiq, Muhammad Imran; Khan, Taimur; Rafiq, Maria; Khan, Mah Muneer

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of simple control measures on the infection status and characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus including susceptibility patterns among health professionals and patients in a teaching hospital. The cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2013 to January 2014, and comprised samples collected from healthcare personnel and patients in the various units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. The specimens were collected before and one month after the implementation of simple control measures for outbreak prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. These were tested for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility. Data about methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, wound characteristics and susceptibility patterns was collected and effectiveness of simple control measures was determined. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 390 isolates, 180(46.2%) were Staphylococcus aureus; 77(19.7%) from healthcare personnel and 103(26.4%) from patients. Of these, 164(42.1%) were methicillin-sensitive and 16(4.1%) were methicillin-resistant. Among the patients, 38(15.1%) methicillin-sensitive and 8(3.2%) methicillin-resistant isolates were recovered from wounds or skin and soft tissues. Pus with 33(13.1%) and 4(1.6%) cases respectively was the second most common source. Among methicillin-resistant isolates, resistance to Linezolid was 0%, all were resistant to Oxacillin, Cefoxitin, Amoxicillin, Cefotaxime and Cephradine, and resistance to both Co-Amoxiclav and Ciprofloxacin was 87.5%. After one month of implementation of simple control measures, the number of methicillin-resistant cases among healthcare professionals and patients dropped from 4(2.9%) and 7(10.8%) to 1(0.7%) and 5(2.7%), respectively. Methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus differed in their anti-microbial susceptibility profiles. Selection of antibiotics

  14. Automatic magnetic susceptibility measurements between 4 K and 1200 K; Mesure automatique des susceptibilites magnetiques de 4 K a 1200 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    We give a detailed description of a Faraday magnetic susceptibility balance which operates from 4 K to 1200 K. Some preliminary results on platinum and tantalum illustrate the precision and the sensitivity of the measurements. The apparatus has been designed for measurements on the plutonium compounds which present severe health hazards. (author) [French] Nous decrivons en detail un appareil permettant la mesure des susceptibilites magnetiques de 4 K a 1200 K par la methode de FARADAY. Quelques resultats preliminaires sur le platine et le titane montrent la precision et la sensibilite des mesures, L'appareil a ete adapte aux mesures sur les composes particulierement dangereux du plutonium. (auteur)

  15. ACS Postflash Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda

    2011-10-01

    This program will evaluate the in-flight performance of the ACS/WFC post-flash lamp. A series of observations of Omega Cen will be taken using short and long exposures. The short exposures will be post-flashed using pre-determined exposure times to produce backgrounds from 0 to 125 e-. The data will be used to {1} make an empirical study of the effectiveness in preserving counts for faint stars on various post-flash backgrounds; {2} validate that our current mechanisms for formula-based and pixel-based corrections provide good fixes for whatever CTE remains; and {3} probe a fine enough range of backgrounds that users will be able to pick the level that optimizes their science, which will be a straightforward compromise between the noise added and the signal preserved.

  16. Assay Methods for ACS Activity and ACS Phosphorylation by MAP Kinases In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaomin; Li, Guojing; Zhang, Shuqun

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene, a gaseous phytohormone, has profound effects on plant growth, development, and adaptation to the environment. Ethylene-regulated processes begin with the induction of ethylene biosynthesis. There are two key steps in ethylene biosynthesis. The first is the biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from S-Adenosyl-Methionine (SAM), a common precursor in many metabolic pathways, which is catalyzed by ACC synthase (ACS). The second is the oxidative cleavage of ACC to form ethylene under the action of ACC oxidase (ACO). ACC biosynthesis is the committing and generally the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis. As a result, characterizing the cellular ACS activity and understanding its regulation are important. In this chapter, we detail the methods used to measure, (1) the enzymatic activity of both recombinant and native ACS proteins, and (2) the phosphorylation of ACS protein by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms -1 . The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  18. Statistical time lags in ac discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-04-06

    The paper presents statistical time lags measured for breakdown events in near-atmospheric pressure argon and xenon. Ac voltage at 100, 400 and 800 kHz was used to drive the breakdown processes, and the voltage amplitude slope was varied between 10 and 1280 V ms{sup -1}. The values obtained for the statistical time lags are roughly between 1 and 150 ms. It is shown that the statistical time lags in ac-driven discharges follow the same general trends as the discharges driven by voltage of monotonic slope. In addition, the validity of the Cobine-Easton expression is tested at an alternating voltage form.

  19. Induced AC voltages on pipelines may present a serious hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of induced AC voltages on pipelines has always been with us. Early pipeline construction consisted of bare steel or cast iron pipe, which was very well grounded. Bell and spigot, mechanical, or dresser-style joint couplings often were used, creating electrically discontinuous pipelines which are less susceptible to AC induction. Although induced AC affects any pipeline parallel to a high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) power line, the effects were not noticeable on bare pipelines. With the advent of welded steel pipelines, modern cathodic protection (CP) methods and materials, and the vastly improved quality of protective coatings, induced AC effects on pipelines have become a significant consideration on many pipeline rights-of-way. In the last two to three decades, one has been seeing much more joint occupancy of the same right-of-way by one or more pipelines and power lines. As the cost of right-of-way and the difficulty in acquisition, particularly in urban areas, have risen, the concept of joint occupancy rights-of-way has become more attractive to many utility companies. Federal and state regulations usually insist on joint-use right-of-way when a utility proposes crossing regulated or publicly owned lands, wherever there is an existing easement. Such joint use allows the induced AC phenomena to occur and may create electrical hazards and interference to pipeline facilities. Underground pipelines are especially susceptible if they are well-coated and electrically isolated for CP

  20. Use of Noninvasive Bone Structural Measurements to Evaluate Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training: Individual Profiles of Stress Fracture Susceptibility Among Female Recruits in U.S. Marine Corps Basic Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaffer, Rick

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to derive predictive models of stress fracture susceptibility in female military recruits by administering a questionnaire highlighting exercise and health habits prior...

  1. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca3Ir4Sn13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A.; Tomy, C.V.; Grover, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13 on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition

  2. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  3. ACS Photometric Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes in the Johnson filters. The reason for this is that ACS observations of excellent ground-based standard fields, such as the omega Cen field used for WFPC2 calibrations, have not been obtained. Instead, the ACS photometric calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS broadband images of the omega Cen standard field with both the WFC and HRC. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS transformations, and is expected to double the accuracy to which the ACS zero points are known. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager.

  4. PWM CONTROLLER'S MODELS FOR INVESTIGATION ACS IN SPICEFAMILY ECAD PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. VASYLENKO

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To improve simulation and design of Automatic Control Systems in the SPICE-compatible programs and to obtain separate economic and universal macromodels of PWM controller. Development of an PWM controller economical macromodel for the study of automatic control systems (ACS in computer-aided design (ECAD  programs, which does not generate algorithmic failures in comparison with the existing models of PWM. Findings. Analysis of SPICE-family applications’ mathematical basis allowed to classifying existing models of PWM-controllers, defining their suitability for ACS simulation. The criteria for the synthesis of new models have been defined. For the SPICE 3G algorithms, the Switch and Averaged models based on behavioral elements has been developed. Universal and economical PWM controller macromodel based on the simple algorithm for determining the output signal with minimum numbers of input parameters has been designed. For the Automated Measuring magnetic susceptibility System, the macromodel of quasi-PWM signal generator have been designed, which is used in the compensation subsystem. This model is different from the existing ones: it synthesizes the staircase output signal instead the pulse one, thus, there is direct control of the amplitude of the output signal, which is taken averaged. The adequacy of the models is confirmed as comparison of the simulation results during investigations of the model already existing in the SPICE program, as well as the results of experiments with real ACS. The modeling of the PWM controller was carried out on the basis of behavioral elements from the ECAD library, simulation (solution of algebra-differential equations systems with programming elements is based on SPICE algorithms. The object of the study was the simulation process of ACS with the pulse-width principle of adjusting the output value. The subject of the research are the models of PWM controllers. Originality. The new macromodel of PWM

  5. Measurement of third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP using extended Z-scan technique with elliptical polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masaki; Shinozaki, Tomohisa; Hara, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Kazunuki; Matsusue, Toshio; Bando, Hiroyuki

    2018-05-01

    The elliptical polarization dependence of the two-photon absorption coefficient β in InP has been measured by the extended Z-scan technique for thick materials in the wavelength range from 1640 to 1800 nm. The analytical formula of the Z-scan technique has been extended with consideration of multiple reflections. The Z-scan results have been fitted very well by the formula and β has been evaluated accurately. The three independent elements of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor in InP have also been determined accurately from the elliptical polarization dependence of β.

  6. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  7. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rosema, Keith; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Christensen, Charlotte; Gilbert, Karoline; Hodge, Paul; Seth, Anil C.; Dolphin, Andrew; Holtzman, Jon; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel; Cole, Andrew; Girardi, Leo; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Olsen, Knut; Freeman, Ken; Gallart, Carme; Harris, Jason; De Jong, Roelof S.

    2009-01-01

    The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) is a systematic survey to establish a legacy of uniform multi-color photometry of resolved stars for a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies (D 4 in luminosity and star formation rate. The survey data consist of images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), supplemented with archival data and new Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) imaging taken after the failure of ACS. Survey images include wide field tilings covering the full radial extent of each galaxy, and single deep pointings in uncrowded regions of the most massive galaxies in the volume. The new wide field imaging in ANGST reaches median 50% completenesses of m F475W = 28.0 mag, m F606W = 27.3 mag, and m F814W = 27.3 mag, several magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). The deep fields reach magnitudes sufficient to fully resolve the structure in the red clump. The resulting photometric catalogs are publicly accessible and contain over 34 million photometric measurements of >14 million stars. In this paper we present the details of the sample selection, imaging, data reduction, and the resulting photometric catalogs, along with an analysis of the photometric uncertainties (systematic and random), for both ACS and WFPC2 imaging. We also present uniformly derived relative distances measured from the apparent magnitude of the TRGB.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and a.c. magnetic analysis of magnetite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riani, P.; Napoletano, M.; Canepa, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the last years, the study of Fe-based magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) has attracted increasing interest either for the physical properties shown by nanosized materials (electric and magnetic properties are strongly affected by dimension and surface effects) either for the different technological applications of these materials (catalysis, drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging, contaminants removal from groundwater, new exchange coupled magnets, soft nanomagnets for high frequency applications, etc.). In this article, the results obtained in the synthesis and characterization of the Fe 3 O 4 MNP is reported. The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified Massart method. Structural characterization was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis and a complete morphological and dimensional study was carried out by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy, and a.c. magnetic susceptibility measured as a function of the frequency of the applied magnetic field. Diameters of the superparamagnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles are ranging from 2 to 10 nm, as evidenced by all the techniques employed. The size distribution of the hydrated aggregates in solution has been obtained by quantitative analysis of the frequency dependence of the a.c. susceptibility. The mathematical approach adopted will be described and all the obtained results will be compared and discussed.

  9. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number...

  10. Ten Minutes of α-tACS and Ambient Illumination Independently Modulate EEG α-Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko I. Stecher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS sees increased use in neurosciences as a tool for the exploration of brain oscillations. It has been shown that tACS stimulation in specific frequency bands can result in aftereffects of modulated oscillatory brain activity that persist after the stimulation has ended. The general relationship between persistency of the effect and duration of stimulation is sparsely investigated but previous research has shown that the occurrence of tACS aftereffects depends on the brain state before and during stimulation. Early alpha neurofeedback research suggests that particularly in the alpha band the responsiveness to a manipulation depends on the ambient illumination during measurement. Therefore, in the present study we assessed the brain’s susceptibility to tACS at the individual alpha frequency during darkness compared to ambient illumination. We measured alpha power after 10 min of stimulation in 30 participants while they continuously performed a visual vigilance task. Our results show that immediately after stimulation, the alpha power in the illumination condition for both the stimulated and sham group has increased by only about 7%, compared to about 20% in both groups in the ‘dark’ condition. For the group that did not receive stimulation, the power in darkness remained stable after stimulation, whereas the power in light increased by an additional 10% during the next 30 min. For the group that did receive stimulation, alpha power during these 30 min increased by another 11% in light and 22% in darkness. Since alpha power already increased by about 10% without stimulation, the effect of illumination does not seem to have interacted with the effect of stimulation. Instead, both effects seem to have added up linearly. Although our findings do not show that illumination-induced differences in oscillatory activity influence the susceptibility toward tACS, they stress the importance of

  11. Aislamiento acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobío, J. M.

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a very specific subject in the field of architectural acoustics, namely, insulation'. Emphasis is placed on the theoretical foundations of this phenomenon, and the most simple formula are developed to calculate easily the transmission losses of a material or the constructional insulating arrangements. The practical aspect of insulation can be considered by means of several graphs and charts, without the use of mathematics, and utilising common materials, that will not substantially increase the cost of the project. Finally this papers offers a critical discussion of building codes, and their reference to the acoustical insulation of dwellings, and data is included on the new regulations of the Madrid Municipality.Se trata un tema muy concreto de la Acústica Arquitectónica, el aislamiento, haciendo hincapié en los fundamentos teóricos del fenómeno y estableciendo las fórmulas más sencillas que permiten calcular fácilmente las pérdidas de transmisión de un material o disposición constructiva aislante. Varias gráficas y abacos permiten abordar, sin ningún tratamiento matemático, el problema práctico del aislamiento, aprovechando los materiales comunes y sin ocasionar gastos que graven sustancialmente el importe del proyecto. Por último, se hace un estudio crítico de las normas y su incidencia en los problemas del aislamiento de viviendas, incluyendo datos referentes a la nueva Ordenanza del Ayuntamiento de Madrid.

  12. A comparison of hepatitis A and hepatitis B measures among vaccinated and susceptible online men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L K; Levandowski, B A; Scanlon, K E; Peterson, R S

    2010-06-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) continue to be major health concerns among men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet both facilitates high-risk sexual encounters and provides opportunities for promoting healthy behaviours. This study compared self-reported HAV and HBV vaccination levels, based on demographics, health characteristics, hepatitis knowledge, attitudes and risk behaviours among MSM using an online survey posted from February through June 2005. Each participant (n = 968) reported whether they were vaccinated, infected or susceptible for hepatitis A and/or for hepatitis B. Men whose health-care provider recommended vaccination were 12.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.11, 20.55) times more likely to be vaccinated against HAV and 17.93 (95% CI 10.82, 29.70) times more likely to be vaccinated against HBV than those at risk of infection, respectively. These data provide essential information for public health professionals to successfully promote vaccination among members of this population.

  13. Laser-damage susceptibility of nodular defects in dielectric mirror coatings: AFM measurements and electric-field modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; DeFord, J.F.; Staggs, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electromagnetic field modeling were used to study the influence of nodular coating defects on laser-induced damage of multilayer dielectric coatings. In studies of HfO 2 /SiO 2 mirrors with 1.06 μm illumination, AFM results showed that nodular defects with high dome heights (>0.6 μm) were most susceptible to laser damage. Crater defects, formed by nodules ejected from the coating prior to illumination, were not damaged when illuminated over the same range of fluences. A finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic modeling code was used to study the influence of 3-D nodule defects on the E-field distribution within the interference coating. The modeling results show that Enfield enhancements as large as a factor of 4 can be present at the defects. Crater defects, however, result in minimal enhancement of the E-fields within the coating. These modeling results are consistent with the AFM experimental data, indicating that E-field enhancement is a contributing mechanism in defect-dominated laser damage of optical coatings

  14. Determination of Areas Susceptible to Landsliding Using Spatial Patterns of Rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Data, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fontes Guimarães

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of shallow landslide initiation reflect both spatial patterns of heavy rainfall and areas susceptible to mass movements. We determine the areas most susceptible to shallow landslide occurrence through the calculation of critical soil cohesion and spatial patterns of rainfall derived from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data for Paraty County, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our methodology involved: (a creating the digital elevation model (DEM and deriving attributes such as slope and contributing area; (b incorporating spatial patterns of rainfall derived from TRMM into the shallow slope stability model SHALSTAB; and (c quantitative assessment of the correspondence of mapped landslide scars to areas predicted to be most prone to shallow landsliding. We found that around 70% of the landslide scars occurred in less than 10% of the study area identified as potentially unstable. The greatest concentration of landslides occurred in areas where the root strength of vegetation is an important contribution to slope stability in regions of orographically-enhanced rainfall on the coastal topographic flank. This approach helps quantify landslide hazards in areas with similar geomorphological characteristics, but different spatial patterns of rainfall.

  15. Habilidades auditivas e medidas da imitância acústica em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade Auditory abilities and acoustic immittance measures in children from 4 to 6 year old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Della Giacoma Prado Toscano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho em habilidades auditivas e as condições de orelha média de crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade. MÉTODO: foram aplicados os testes de detecção sonora (audiômetro pediátrico em 20dBNA, a Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e as medidas de imitância acústica (handtymp com tom de 226Hz em 61 crianças com média de idade de 5,65 anos. Para comparar os resultados das provas de habilidades auditivas e das medidas da imitância acústica foi aplicado o teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of auditory abilities and conditions in the middle ear of children from 4 to 6 year old. METHOD: we applied the tests in order to detect sound (pediatric audiometer in 20dBHL, the Simplified Assessment of Auditory Processing (SAAP and the acoustic immittance measures (handtymp with a probe of 226Hz. In order to compare the results from the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic impedance we applied Fisher's exact test with significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS: the study involved 61 children with a mean age of 5.65 years. There was some alteration in at least one of the investigated auditory skills in 24.6% of the children. Tympanometry was altered in 34.4% of the children and 64% were classified on the "fail" criterion for the measure of ipsilateral acoustic reflex. Younger children had higher incidence of middle ear disorders, but with no significant statistical difference between different ages as for the tests. CONCLUSION: younger children showed a higher occurrence of alterations in the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic immittance. Research and monitoring programs for the conditions of the middle ear and auditory skills in preschool and school age can eliminate or minimize events that would alter the socio-linguistic development.

  16. Extension to AC Loss Minimisation in High Temperature Superconductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Archie

    2004-01-01

    ...: (a) Measure the AC losses of appropriate Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) samples with strong potential for minimizing losses at high frequencies and magnetic fields with the existing equipment. (b...

  17. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.C.; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders

  18. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)], E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor, Two Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, 450 Duane Ave, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders.

  19. Thermally Assisted Macroscopic Quantum Resonance on a Single-Crystal of Mn12-ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionti, F.; Thomas, L.; Ballou, R.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Barbara, B.; Sulpice, A.; Sessoli, R.; Gatteschi, D.

    1997-03-01

    Magnetization measurements have been performed on a single mono-crystal of the molecule Mn12-acetate (L. Thomas, F. Lionti, R. Ballou, R. Sessoli, D. Gatteschi and B. Barbara, Nature, 383, 145 (1996).). Steps were observed in the hysteresis loop for values of the applied field at which level crossings of the collective spin states of each manganese clusters take place. The influence of quartic terms is taken into account. At these fields, the magnetization relaxes at short time scales, being otherwise essentially blocked. This novel behavior is interpreted in terms of resonant quantum tunneling of the magnetization from thermally activated energy levels. Hysteresis loop measurements performed for different field orientations and ac-susceptibility experiments, confirm general trends of this picture.

  20. AcEST: DK959154 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fadin OS=Rattus norvegicus GN=Mllt4 PE=1 SV=1 33 0.57 sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candi...APPPPPQRNASYLKTQVLSPDSLF 1731 >sp|Q80ZC9|PS1C2_MOUSE Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate gene 2 protein hom

  1. AC Calorimetric Design for Dynamic of Biological Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeo Imaizumi

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new AC calorimeter for the measurement of dynamic specific heat capacity in liquids, including aqueous suspensions of biological materials. This method has several advantages. The first is that a high-resolution measurement of heat capacity, inmillidegrees, can be performed as a function of temperature, even with a very small sample. Therefore, AC calorimeter is a powerful tool to study critical behavior a tphase transition in biological materials. The second advantage is that ...

  2. A high sensitivity SQUID-method for the measurement of magnetic susceptibility of small samples in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K and application on small palladium particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Nguyen Quang.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper a method is developed for magnetic susceptibility measurements which is superior to the common methods. The method is based on the SQUID-principle (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) using the tunnel effect of a superconducting point contact and magnetic flux quantization for measuring electric and magnetic quantities. Due to this refined method susceptibility changes of very small palladium particles could be detected in the temperature range 1.5 K-40 K with respect to the bulk. In addition susceptibility differences of particle distributions with different means diameters (81 Angstroem and 65 Angstroem) have been measured for the first time. A quantitative comparison of the measurements with theoretical results shows satisfactory agreement. (orig./WBU) [de

  3. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Surveying for "artifacts": the susceptibility of the OCB-performance evaluation relationship to common rater, item, and measurement context effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Welsh, David T; Mai, Ke Michael

    2013-09-01

    Despite the increased attention paid to biases attributable to common method variance (CMV) over the past 50 years, researchers have only recently begun to systematically examine the effect of specific sources of CMV in previously published empirical studies. Our study contributes to this research by examining the extent to which common rater, item, and measurement context characteristics bias the relationships between organizational citizenship behaviors and performance evaluations using a mixed-effects analytic technique. Results from 173 correlations reported in 81 empirical studies (N = 31,146) indicate that even after controlling for study-level factors, common rater and anchor point number similarity substantially biased the focal correlations. Indeed, these sources of CMV (a) led to estimates that were between 60% and 96% larger when comparing measures obtained from a common rater, versus different raters; (b) led to 39% larger estimates when a common source rated the scales using the same number, versus a different number, of anchor points; and (c) when taken together with other study-level predictors, accounted for over half of the between-study variance in the focal correlations. We discuss the implications for researchers and practitioners and provide recommendations for future research. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  5. DC and AC biasing of a transition edge sensor microcalorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.F.; Ullom, J.N.; Miyazaki, T.; Drury, O.; Loshak, A.; Berg, M.L. van den; Labov, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing AC-biased transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeters for use in large arrays with frequency-domain multiplexing. Using DC bias, we have achieved a resolution of 17 eV FWHM at 2.6 keV with a decay time of 90 μs and an effective detector diameter of 300 μm. We have successfully measured thermal pulses with a TES microcalorimeter operated with an AC bias. We present here preliminary results from a single pixel detector operated under DC and AC bias conditions

  6. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....

  7. Influences of Cry1Ac broccoli on larval survival and oviposition of diamondback moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dengxia; Cui, Shusong; Yang, Limei; Fang, Zhiyuan; Liu, Yumei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong

    2015-01-01

    Larval survival and oviposition behavior of three genotypes of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), (homozygous Cry1Ac-susceptibile, Cry1Ac-resistant, and their F1 hybrids), on transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) broccoli expressing different levels of Cry1Ac protein were evaluated in laboratory. These Bt broccoli lines were designated as relative low, medium, and high, respectively, according to the Cry1Ac content. Untransformed brocccoli plants were used as control. Larval survival of diamondback moth on non-Bt leaves was not significantly different among the three genotypes. The Cry1Ac-resistant larvae could survive on the low level of Bt broccoli plants, while Cry1Ac-susceptible and F1 larvae could not survive on them. The three genotypes of P. xylostella larvae could not survive on medium and high levels of Bt broccoli. In oviposition choice tests, there was no significant difference in the number of eggs laid by the three P. xylostella genotypes among different Bt broccoli plants. The development of Cry1Ac-susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella on intact Bt plants was also tested in greenhouse. All susceptible P. xylostella larvae died on all Bt plants, while resistant larvae could survive on broccoli, which expresses low Cry1Ac protein under greenhouse conditions. The results of the greenhouse trials were similar to that of laboratory tests. This study indicated that high dose of Bt toxins in broccoli cultivars or germplasm lines is required for effective resistance management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  8. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Domelen, Dane R Van; Brychta, Robert J; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna E; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Chen, Kong Y; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β=-0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in 225 Ra, 225 Ac, and 227 Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in 225 Ra and 225 Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in 227 Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs

  10. AcEST: DK951349 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein J3 OS=Mus musculus GN... 33 1.5 sp|Q9UIG4|PS1C2_HUMAN Psoriasis...se kinase kin... 32 2.6 sp|Q7YR45|PS1C2_PANTR Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidat...PQQHSQLQPPHSQHPPPHQH 424 >sp|Q9UIG4|PS1C2_HUMAN Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate gene 2 protein OS=Homo

  11. The susceptibility of a mixed model measure of emotional intelligence to faking: a Solomon four-group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL S. WHITMAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used a Solomon four-group design to investigate the fakability of a widely used measure of emotional intelligence (EI. Administration instructions (faking/honest-response and testing effects (pre-test/no pre-test were the two conditions (i.e., 2 x 2 examined; two different Solomon four-group designs – one for fake-good instructional treatments and one for fake-bad instructional treatments – were assessed. Participants (n = 300 were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions and results indicate a significant pre-testing effect for fake-bad but not fake-good instructions. However, the interaction of testing and treatment was only significant for fake-good but not fake-bad. As expected, within-subjects designs resulted in higher distortion than between-subjects designs for both fake-good (d-value of 1.08 compared to 0.10 and fake-bad instructions (4.07 vs. 3.56, respectively. Participants were able to fake-bad more than fake-good, irrespective of the design used and scaling effects. Implications for EI assessments are discussed.

  12. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca{sub 3}Ir{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: santoshkumar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Tomy, C.V., E-mail: tomy@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Grover, A.K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca{sub 3}Ir{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition.

  13. AC ignition of HID lamps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobota, A.; Kanters, J.H.M.; Manders, F.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Haverlag, M.

    2010-01-01

    Our aim was to examine the starting behaviour of mid-pressure argon discharges in pin-pin (point-to-point) geometry, typically used in HID lamps. We focused our work on AC ignition of 300 and 700 mbar Ar discharges in Philips 70W standard burners. Frequency was varied between 200 kHz and 1 MHz. In

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  15. Method of magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. Experimental measurements for geologic structures determination; Methode de cartographie de susceptibilite magnetique sur carottes de forage. Mesures experimentales pour la determination de structures geologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delrive, C

    1993-11-08

    The evaluation of the safety of a deep geologic repository for dangerous materials requires the knowledge of the interstitial system of the surrounding host rock. A method is proposed for the determination of geologic structures (in particular fractures) from the magnetic susceptibility mapping of drilled cores. The feasibility of the method has been demonstrated using a SQUID magneto-gradient meter. A measurement tool using a new magnetic susceptibility captor and a testing bench have been developed. This tool allows the measurement of rocks with a magnetic susceptibility greater than 10{sup -5} SI units and can generate magnetic susceptibility maps with 4 x 4 mm{sup 2} pixels. A magnetic visibility criterion has been defined which allows to foresee if a structure is visible or not. According to the measurements done, it is shown that any centimeter-scale structure with a sufficient magnetic contrast (20%) with respect to the matrix is visible. Therefore, the dip and the orientation of such structure can be determined with a 3 degree and a 5 degree precision, respectively. The position of the structure along the core axis is known with a 4 mm precision. On the other hand, about half of the magnetic contrasts observed do not correspond to the visual analyses and can be explained by very small variations of the mineralogic composition. This last point offers some interesting ways for future research using magnetic susceptibility mapping. (J.S.). 31 refs., 90 figs., 18 tabs., 2 photos., 6 appends.

  16. Safe-commutation principle for direct single-phase AC-AC converters for use in audio power amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach it is not required to do any measurements, thus making it more reliable. Initial testing made on the prototype prove the feasibility of the approach. (au)

  17. AcEST: DK954361 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available in 5-4 OS=Homo sap... 33 1.1 sp|Q9DBY1|SYVN1_MOUSE E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin OS=... 33 1.4 sp|Q...86TM6|SYVN1_HUMAN E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin OS=... 33 1.4 sp|O55188|DMP1_MOUSE Dentin matrix ac

  18. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  19. Perfusion MRI (dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging) with different measurement approaches for the evaluation of blood flow and blood volume in human gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, H. (Den Sundhedsfaglige Kandidatuddannelse, Aarhus Universitet Bygning 1264, Aarhus (Denmark); University College Nordjylland, Aalborg (Denmark)), Email: hnt@ucn.dk; Steffensen, E. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark)); Larsson, E. M. (Aalborg Hospital/Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aalborg (Denmark); Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Background. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in the evaluation of brain tumors. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) is usually obtained by dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI using normal appearing white matter as reference region. The emerging perfusion technique arterial spin labelling (ASL) presently provides measurement only of cerebral blood flow (CBF), which has not been widely used in human brain tumor studies. Purpose. To assess if measurement of blood flow is comparable with measurement of blood volume in human biopsy-proven gliomas obtained by DSC-MRI using two different regions for normalization and two different measurement approaches. Material and Methods. Retrospective study of 61 patients with different types of gliomas examined with DSC perfusion MRI. Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in tumor portions with maximum perfusion on rCBF and rCBV maps, with contralateral normal appearing white matter and cerebellum as reference regions. Larger ROIs were drawn for histogram analyses. The type and grade of the gliomas were obtained by histopathology. Statistical comparison was made between diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and glioblastomas. Results. rCBF and rCBV measurements obtained with the maximum perfusion method were correlated when normalized to white matter (r = 0.60) and to the cerebellum (r = 0.49). Histogram analyses of rCBF and rCBV showed that mean and median values as well as skewness and peak position were correlated (0.61 < r < 0.93), whereas for kurtosis and peak height, the correlation coefficient was about 0.3 when comparing rCBF and rCBV values for the same reference region. Neither rCBF nor rCBV quantification provided a statistically significant difference between the three types of gliomas. However, both rCBF and rCBV tended to increase with tumor grade and to be lower in patients who had undergone resection/treatment. Conclusion. rCBF measurements normalized to white matter

  20. Development of an antibiotic spectrum score based on veterans affairs culture and susceptibility data for the purpose of measuring antibiotic de-escalation: a modified Delphi approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras-Kelly, Karl; Jones, Makoto; Remington, Richard; Hill, Nicole; Huttner, Benedikt; Samore, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    Development of a numerical score to measure the microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens (spectrum score) and method to identify antibiotic de-escalation events based on application of the score. Web-based modified Delphi method. Physician and pharmacist antimicrobial stewards practicing in the United States recruited through infectious diseases-focused listservs. Three Delphi rounds investigated: organisms and antibiotics to include in the spectrum score, operationalization of rules for the score, and de-escalation measurement. A 4-point ordinal scale was used to score antibiotic susceptibility for organism-antibiotic domain pairs. Antibiotic regimen scores, which represented combined activity of antibiotics in a regimen across all organism domains, were used to compare antibiotic spectrum administered early (day 2) and later (day 4) in therapy. Changes in spectrum score were calculated and compared with Delphi participants' judgments on de-escalation with 20 antibiotic regimen vignettes and with non-Delphi steward judgments on de-escalation of 300 pneumonia regimen vignettes. Method sensitivity and specificity to predict expert de-escalation status were calculated. Twenty-four participants completed all Delphi rounds. Expert support for concepts utilized in metric development was identified. For vignettes presented in the Delphi, the sign of change in score correctly classified de-escalation in all vignettes except those involving substitution of oral antibiotics. The sensitivity and specificity of the method to identify de-escalation events as judged by non-Delphi stewards were 86.3% and 96.0%, respectively. Identification of de-escalation events based on an algorithm that measures microbial spectrum of antibiotic regimens generally agreed with steward judgments of de-escalation status.

  1. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  2. Defect formation in LaGa(Mg,Ni)O3-δ : A statistical thermodynamic analysis validated by mixed conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumovich, E. N.; Kharton, V. V.; Yaremchenko, A. A.; Patrakeev, M. V.; Kellerman, D. G.; Logvinovich, D. I.; Kozhevnikov, V. L.

    2006-08-01

    A statistical thermodynamic approach to analyze defect thermodynamics in strongly nonideal solid solutions was proposed and validated by a case study focused on the oxygen intercalation processes in mixed-conducting LaGa0.65Mg0.15Ni0.20O3-δ perovskite. The oxygen nonstoichiometry of Ni-doped lanthanum gallate, measured by coulometric titration and thermogravimetric analysis at 923-1223K in the oxygen partial pressure range 5×10-5to0.9atm , indicates the coexistence of Ni2+ , Ni3+ , and Ni4+ oxidation states. The formation of tetravalent nickel was also confirmed by the magnetic susceptibility data at 77-600K , and by the analysis of p -type electronic conductivity and Seebeck coefficient as function of the oxygen pressure at 1023-1223K . The oxygen thermodynamics and the partial ionic and hole conductivities are strongly affected by the point-defect interactions, primarily the Coulombic repulsion between oxygen vacancies and/or electron holes and the vacancy association with Mg2+ cations. These factors can be analyzed by introducing the defect interaction energy in the concentration-dependent part of defect chemical potentials expressed by the discrete Fermi-Dirac distribution, and taking into account the probabilities of local configurations calculated via binomial distributions.

  3. Studies of vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen selective oxidation catalysts by sup 31 P and sup 51 V NMR spin-echo and volume susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the vanadium-phosphorous oxide (V-P-O) catalysts for the selective oxidation of n-butane and 1-butene to maleic anhydride. The utility of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance as an analytical tool in this investigation lies in its sensitivity to the electronic environment surrounding the phosphorous and vanadium nuclei, and proximity of paramagnetic species. Spin-echo mapping NMR of {sup 31}p and {sup 51}v and volume magnetic susceptibility measurements were used as local microscopic probes of the presence of V{sup 5+}, V{sup 4+}, V{sup 3+} species in the model compounds: {beta}-VOPO{sub 4}, {beta}-VOPO{sub 4} treated with n-butane/1-butene, (VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} treated with n-butane/1-butene; and industrial catalysts with P/V (phosphorus to vanadium) ratio of 0.9, 1.0 and 1.1, before and after treatment with n-butane and 1-butene. The NMR spectra provide a picture of how the oxidation states of vanadium are distributed in these catalysts. 73 refs., 32 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Magnetic susceptibility as a direct measure of oxidation state in LiFePO4 batteries and cyclic water gas shift reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadyk, Thomas; Eikerling, Michael

    2015-08-14

    The possibility of correlating the magnetic susceptibility to the oxidation state of the porous active mass in a chemical or electrochemical reactor was analyzed. The magnetic permeability was calculated using a hierarchical model of the reactor. This model was applied to two practical examples: LiFePO4 batteries, in which the oxidation state corresponds with the state-of-charge, and cyclic water gas shift reactors, in which the oxidation state corresponds to the depletion of the catalyst. In LiFePO4 batteries phase separation of the lithiated and delithiated phases in the LiFePO4 particles in the positive electrode gives rise to a hysteresis effect, i.e. the magnetic permeability depends on the history of the electrode. During fast charge or discharge, non-uniform lithium distributionin the electrode decreases the hysteresis effect. However, the overall sensitivity of the magnetic response to the state-of-charge lies in the range of 0.03%, which makes practical measurement challenging. In cyclic water gas shift reactors, the sensitivity is 4 orders of magnitude higher and without phase separation, no hysteresis occurs. This shows that the method is suitable for such reactors, in which large changes of the magnetic permeability of the active material occurs.

  5. Inheritance Patterns, Dominance and Cross-Resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-Selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantao Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively, indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.

  6. AcEST: DK947950 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10071|GLI3_HUMAN Zinc finger protein GLI3 OS=Homo sapiens GN... 31 4.9 sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism suscepti...FSPPHPYINPYMDYIRSLHSSPSLSMI 216 >sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism susceptibility gene 2 protein OS=Homo sapiens

  7. AcEST: DK948707 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GN=Syn1 PE=1 SV=2 31 5.2 sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism susceptibility gene 2 protein OS=Ho... 31 6.7 sp|Q9UZW...ASQAGPGPRTGPPTT-QQPRPSGPGPAGRPAKPQLAQKPSQDVPPPIT 650 Query: 533 SLWG 544 + G Sbjct: 651 AAAG 654 >sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism

  8. AcEST: DK961757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available otein FLJ22184 ... 37 0.095 sp|Q01205|ODO2_RAT Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransfera... 33 1.4 sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism...202 >sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism susceptibility gene 2 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=AUTS2 PE=2 SV=1 Length =

  9. High-resolution characterisation of the aging brain using simultaneous quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* measurements at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew J; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Nestor, Peter J; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has recently emerged as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method to detect non-haem iron deposition, calcifications, demyelination and vascular lesions in the brain. It has been suggested that QSM is more sensitive than the more conventional quantifiable MRI measure, namely the transverse relaxation rate, R2*. Here, we conducted the first high-resolution, whole-brain, simultaneously acquired, comparative study of the two techniques using 7Tesla MRI. We asked which of the two techniques would be more sensitive to explore global differences in tissue composition in elderly adults relative to young subjects. Both QSM and R2* revealed strong age-related differences in subcortical regions, hippocampus and cortical grey matter, particularly in superior frontal regions, motor/premotor cortices, insula and cerebellar regions. Within the basal ganglia system-but also hippocampus and cerebellar dentate nucleus-, QSM was largely in agreement with R2* with the exception of the globus pallidus. QSM, however, provided superior anatomical contrast and revealed age-related differences in the thalamus and in white matter, which were otherwise largely undetected by R2* measurements. In contrast, in occipital cortex, age-related differences were much greater with R2* compared to QSM. The present study, therefore, demonstrated that in vivo QSM using ultra-high field MRI provides a novel means to characterise age-related differences in the human brain, but also combining QSM and R2* using multi-gradient recalled echo imaging can potentially provide a more complete picture of mineralisation, demyelination and/or vascular alterations in aging and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility of Inconel alloys 718, 625, and 600 at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira B.; Mitchell, Michael R.; Murphy, Allan R.; Goldfarb, Ronald B.; Loughran, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    After a hydrogen fuel bleed valve problem on the Discovery Space Shuttle was traced to the strong magnetization of Inconel 718 in the armature of the linear variable differential transformer near liquid hydrogen temperatures, the ac magnetic susceptibility of three samples of Inconel 718 of slightly different compositions, one sample of Inconel 625, and on sample of Inconel 600 were measured as a function of temperature. Inconel 718 alloys are found to exhibit a spin glass state below 16 K. Inconel 600 exhibits three different magnetic phases, the lowest-temperature state (below 6 K) being somewhat similar to that of Inconel 718. The magnetic states of the Inconel alloys and their magnetic susceptibilities appear to be strongly dependent on the exact composition of the alloy.

  11. Dor muscular em cabeça e pescoço e medidas vocais acústicas de fonte glótica Head and neck muscles pain and glottic source acoustical vocal measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luane de Moraes Boton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre a presença de dor na musculatura da cabeça, face, boca e pescoço envolvidos no processo fisiológico da função mastigatória e nos aspectos lateral e posterior da articulação temporomandibular (ATM e medidas vocais acústicas da fonte glótica. MÉTODO: amostra de 24 mulheres com idades entre 16 e 56 anos com queixas e sintomatologia de Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM. Aplicação de um questionário de anamnese, exame clínico específico para verificação da presença de dor na musculatura da cabeça, face, boca e pescoço e nas ATM; avaliações otorrinolaringológica, do sistema estomatognático, audiológica e gravação digital da voz com análise vocal acústica da fonte glótica por meio do software Multi Dimensional Voice Program Advanced da KayPENTAX. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente pelo teste do qui-quadrado ao nível de significância de 0,05. RESULTADOS: houve significância estatística entre: ausência de dor no masseter superficial e alteração do índice de turbulência vocal (VTI; ausência de dor no aspecto posterior da ATM e alteração do coeficiente de perturbação do pitch (PPQ e alteração da variação da frequência fundamental (vf0; presença de dor no pterigóideo medial e normalidade do grau de quebra vocal (DVB. CONCLUSÃO: verificou-se que não houve relação entre as medidas de voz alteradas e a presença de dor nos músculos avaliados, mas algumas medidas alteradas se relacionaram com a ausência de dor muscular, sugerindo que outros aspectos da DTM, que não a dor, podem ocasionar alteração de medidas vocais acústicas.PURPOSE: to check the relationship between pain presence in head, face, mouth and neck muscles involved in the physiological process of chewing function and in the lateral and posterior aspects of temporomandibular joint (ATM and acoustical glottic source vocal measures. METHOD: 24 women with ages varying between 16 and

  12. Frequency-dependent tACS modulation of BOLD signal during rhythmic visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yuhui; Sheng, Jingwei; Bandettini, Peter A; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) has emerged as a promising tool for modulating cortical oscillations. In previous electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, tACS has been found to modulate brain oscillatory activity in a frequency-specific manner. However, the spatial distribution and hemodynamic response for this modulation remains poorly understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has the advantage of measuring neuronal activity in regions not only below the tACS electrodes but also across the whole brain with high spatial resolution. Here, we measured fMRI signal while applying tACS to modulate rhythmic visual activity. During fMRI acquisition, tACS at different frequencies (4, 8, 16, and 32 Hz) was applied along with visual flicker stimulation at 8 and 16 Hz. We analyzed the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal difference between tACS-ON vs tACS-OFF, and different frequency combinations (e.g., 4 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker vs 8 Hz tACS, 8 Hz flicker). We observed significant tACS modulation effects on BOLD responses when the tACS frequency matched the visual flicker frequency or the second harmonic frequency. The main effects were predominantly seen in regions that were activated by the visual task and targeted by the tACS current distribution. These findings bridge different scientific domains of tACS research and demonstrate that fMRI could localize the tACS effect on stimulus-induced brain rhythms, which could lead to a new approach for understanding the high-level cognitive process shaped by the ongoing oscillatory signal. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Introducing AC Inductive Reactance with a Power Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Wesley; Baker, Blane

    2016-01-01

    The concept of reactance in AC electrical circuits is often non-intuitive and difficult for students to grasp. In order to address this lack of conceptual understanding, classroom exercises compare the predicted resistance of a power tool, based on electrical specifications, to measured resistance. Once students discover that measured resistance…

  14. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  15. Differential osmotic pressure measurements of the concentration susceptibility of liquid 3He/4He mixtures near the lambda curve and tricritical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gearhart, C.A. Jr.; Zimmermann, W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Values of the concentration susceptibility (partial x/partial Δ)/sub T/,P of liquid 3 He/ 4 He mixtures have been determined near the lambda curve and tricritical point from measurements of the differential osmotic pressure as a function of temperature T at four values of the 3 He mole fraction, x = 0.594, x = 0.644, x = 0.680, and x = 0.706. Here Δ = μ 3 - μ 4 is the difference between molar chemical potentials and P is the pressure. Our results for the two values of x less than the tricritical value x/sub t/ = 0.675 show pronounced peaks at the lambda transition. For 3 x 10 -4 -2 , where t equals [T - T/sub lambda/(x)]/T/sub lambda/(x), these peaks may be characterized both above and below the transition by the form (A/sub plus-or-minus//α/sub plus-or-minus/) (vertical-bart vertical-bar/sup -alpha/ +- - 1) + B/sub plus-or-minus/, with exponents α/sub plus-or-minus/ lying in the range from approx. 0.0 to approx. 0.2. Except perhaps for x -1 [T-T/sub t//T/sub t/)/vertical-barx-x/sub t//x/sub t/vertical-bar], where f and Ψ are functions determined by experiment and T/sub t/ = 0.867 K is the tricritical value of T. With the aid of this scaling relationship, the behavior of (partialx/partialΔ)/sub T/,P along curves of constant Δ near the lambda curve has been constucted from our data at constant x

  16. Detection the changes of hippocampal volume and the lateral ventricle vein in the patients with depression with susceptibility weighted imaging and morphological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Huihui; Li Yuefeng; Wang Dongqing; Wei Chuanshe; Duan Ruigen; Zhao Tian; Zhao Liang; Jiang Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the hippocampal structure in the patients with depression in varying degrees of severity with the combination of the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and morphological measurement. Methods: Sixty patients (divided equally into mild, moderate and major group as the conditions of the severity of depression) and 20 healthy controls were scanned using the three dimensional fast low angle shot imaging sequence (3D-FLASH) and SWI. Then the morphological images were manually segmented and delineated by three doctors. The hippocampal volumes were calculated and standardized. The maximum diameter, length and the branching numbers of the Inferior ventricular vein which were clear demonstrated in the SWI were measured. The changes in the venous system and morphology among the three different degrees of severity in depression and the healthy controls were contrastively analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance. Results: Left and right hippocampal volumes: the mild group were 2246 ± 147, 2271 ± 151; the moderate group were 2028 ± 65, 2038 ± 57; the major group were 1965 ± 129, 1962 ± 110; the healthy control were 2287 ± 160, 2305 ± 171. There were statistically significant differences among the four groups (F = 7.45, 8.55, P 0.05). The diameter,length and branch numbers of the lateral ventricle vein: the mild group were (0.94 ± 0.09) mm, (12.0 ± 1.07) mm and 3.67 ± 1.03 ; the moderate group were (0.81 ± 0.04) mm, (10.2 ± 1.25) mm and 2.00 ± 0.89 ; the major group were (0.70 ± 0.08) mm, (8.6 ± 1.40) mm and 1.83 ± 0.75 ; the healthy control were (1.15 ± 0.14) mm, (14.2 ± 0.90) mm and 3.33 ± 0.82. There were statistically significant differences among the four groups (F = 17.07, 25.20, 6.65, P 0.05). As the progressive of the depression, the reduction in the length, diameter and branch numbers of the lateral ventricle vein showed more evident (the Dunnett-t of the moderate were -10.20, -11.50, -2.88, P < 0.05 ; the Dunnett-t of the

  17. Study of the Effect of Transport Current and Combined Transverse and Longitudinal Fields on the AC Loss in NET Prototype Conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1994-01-01

    AC losses in cables carrying DC as well as AC transport currents at different DC background fields up to 2T have been measured on three types of Nb3Sn subcables in a new test facility. In this facility it is possible to apply sinusoidal transverse AC fields up to dB/dt=5T/s and longitudinal AC

  18. AcEST: DK955250 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S=Myxococcus xan... 31 5.1 sp|Q5QXV0|RL17_IDILO 50S ribosomal protein L17 OS=Idiomarina loi... 31 5.1 sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism...APMAYIELVGRP 119 >sp|Q8WXX7|AUTS2_HUMAN Autism susceptibility gene 2 protein OS=Homo sapiens GN=AUTS2 PE=2 S

  19. AcEST: DK963038 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr_hit_id A5WW09 Definition tr|A5WW09|A5WW09_DANRE Novel protein similar to autism susceptibility candidate ... Novel protein similar to autism susceptib... 42 0.028 tr|A9H6U3|A9H6U3_GLUDA Put...Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Planc... 33 9.9 >tr|A5WW09|A5WW09_DANRE Novel protein similar to autism

  20. AcEST: DK945557 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S=Mus mus... 32 0.77 sp|Q7YR45|PS1C2_PANTR Psoriasis susceptibility 1 candidate g...ene ... 32 0.77 sp|Q9Y6Y8|S23IP_HUMAN SEC23-interacting protein OS=Homo sapiens ... 32 1.3 sp|Q9UIG4|PS1C2_HUMAN Psoriasis

  1. Simultaneous distribution of AC and DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile

    2015-09-15

    A system and method for the transport and distribution of both AC (alternating current) power and DC (direct current) power over wiring infrastructure normally used for distributing AC power only, for example, residential and/or commercial buildings' electrical wires is disclosed and taught. The system and method permits the combining of AC and DC power sources and the simultaneous distribution of the resulting power over the same wiring. At the utilization site a complementary device permits the separation of the DC power from the AC power and their reconstruction, for use in conventional AC-only and DC-only devices.

  2. A.C. losses in current-carrying superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuver, J.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of superconductors for alternating current use depends on successful reduction of losses. Moreover, the demand for large field amplitudes is a stimulation for investigating the nature of a.c. losses (e.g. in the set of poloidal coils in a TOKAMAK). In this thesis, measurements are performed at a.c. superconductivity. Attention is given to various external field conditions as well as to self-field instability. Measurements are performed on different types of wires. A type of wire is searched for with both low losses and a good stabilization under self-field conditions. (G.J.P.)

  3. Low-field susceptibilities of rare earth spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.

    1977-01-01

    Static susceptibility in various applied fields and AC susceptibility data on Sc 13% Gd and Sc 4.5% Tb spin glass alloys are reported. The data show that the sharp peak at the freezing temperature, Tsub(g), normally observed in the low-field susceptibility of spin glasses containing 3d magnetic impurities is observed here in the case of Gd, which is an S state solute, but not for Tb. On the contrary, for the Sc-Tb alloy a rather rounded maximum is observed which becomes slightly sharper with increasing applied magnetic fields. (author)

  4. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  5. Seven harmonic susceptibility in oxygen and hydrogen loading of sintered YBCO by μs pulsed electrolysis in an aqueous solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripodi, P.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Celani, F.

    1996-09-01

    The complex AC susceptibility of high T c superconducting materials has been described in terms of the first seven harmonic component of Fourier series. Has been measured the χ' n and χ n (n=1,7) of sintered YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) bulk oxygen and hydrogen loaded samples versus amplitude and frequency of AC magnetic field at fixed temperature. The sample have been loaded by μs current pulses electrolysis in an aqueous solution (0.3N LiOH+H 2 O) at room temperature. In addition to the simplicity of the experimental setup, this procedure allows to obtain extremely high equivalent hydrogen/oxygen gas pressure on the surface of the electrodes. The YBCO electrode is polarized by short pulse width (0.5-10 μs) and high power (120 W) peaks with a variable repetition rate (0.1-10000 Hz). The pulses are obtained by an home.made pulse generator. The difference in the behavior of the susceptibilities harmonic component between the deficiency and oxygen or hydrogen loaded samples give us the possibility to connect the susceptibilities with variations of the flux pinning in respect to normal losses in the superconducting materials. The loading can be a good probe to have information on the mechanism of the processes that sustain the critical current density Jc in this situation these affects appear strongly dependent on the loading conditions. By comparison of this measurements has been observed drastic change in behavior of susceptibility

  6. Topological Susceptibility from Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Gerber, Urs

    2015-01-01

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility chi_t. In principle it seems straightforward to measure chi_t by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure chi_t even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of chi_t, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear sigma-models.

  7. Topological susceptibility from slabs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Forcrand, Philippe de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); CERN, Physics Department, TH Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gerber, Urs [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-543, Distrito Federal, C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Apdo. Postal 2-82, Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58040 (Mexico)

    2015-12-14

    In quantum field theories with topological sectors, a non-perturbative quantity of interest is the topological susceptibility χ{sub t}. In principle it seems straightforward to measure χ{sub t} by means of Monte Carlo simulations. However, for local update algorithms and fine lattice spacings, this tends to be difficult, since the Monte Carlo history rarely changes the topological sector. Here we test a method to measure χ{sub t} even if data from only one sector are available. It is based on the topological charges in sub-volumes, which we denote as slabs. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of these charges, this method enables the evaluation of χ{sub t}, as we demonstrate with numerical results for non-linear σ-models.

  8. SNS AC Power Distribution and Reliability of AC Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. A design description under the Construction Design and Maintenance (CDM) with regard to regulations (OSHA, NFPA, NEC), reliability issues and maintenance of the AC power distribution system are herewith presented. The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. The Accelerator Systems are Front End (FE)and LINAC KLYSTRON Building (LK), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), Accumulator Ring and Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) Support Buildings have 30MW installed power. FELK has 16MW installed, majority of which is klystron and magnet power supply system. CHL, supporting the super conducting portion of the accelerator has 7MW installed power and the RING Systems (HEBT, RING and RTBT) have also 7MW installed power.*

  9. AcEST: DK946835 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available HPH 650 >tr|A5WW09|A5WW09_DANRE Novel protein similar to autism susceptibility candidate 2 (Auts2) (Fragment...024 tr|B3NTG0|B3NTG0_DROER GG18108 OS=Drosophila erecta GN=GG18108 P... 42 0.031 tr|A5WW09|A5WW09_DANRE Novel protein similar to auti...sm susceptib... 41 0.041 tr|B4P3G9|B4P3G9_DROYA GE17462 OS=Drosophila yakuba GN=GE1

  10. Measuring enzymatic HIV-1 susceptibility to two reverse transcriptase inhibitors as a rapid and simple approach to HIV-1 drug-resistance testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Simple and cost-effective approaches for HIV drug-resistance testing are highly desirable for managing increasingly expanding HIV-1 infected populations who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART, particularly in resource-limited settings. Non-nucleoside reverse trancriptase inhibitor (NNRTI-based regimens with an NRTI backbone containing lamivudine (3TC or emtricitabine (FTC are preferred first ART regimens. Failure with these drug combinations typically involves the selection of NNRTI- and/or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses. Therefore, the availability of simple assays to measure both types of drug resistance is critical. We have developed a high throughput screening test for assessing enzymatic resistance of the HIV-1 RT in plasma to 3TC/FTC and NNRTIs. The test uses the sensitive "Amp-RT" assay with a newly-developed real-time PCR format to screen biochemically for drug resistance in single reactions containing either 3TC-triphosphate (3TC-TP or nevirapine (NVP. Assay cut-offs were defined based on testing a large panel of subtype B and non-subtype B clinical samples with known genotypic profiles. Enzymatic 3TC resistance correlated well with the presence of M184I/V, and reduced NVP susceptibility was strongly associated with the presence of K103N, Y181C/I, Y188L, and G190A/Q. The sensitivity and specificity for detecting resistance were 97.0% and 96.0% in samples with M184V, and 97.4% and 96.2% for samples with NNRTI mutations, respectively. We further demonstrate the utility of an HIV capture method in plasma by using magnetic beads coated with CD44 antibody that eliminates the need for ultracentifugation. Thus our results support the use of this simple approach for distinguishing WT from NNRTI- or 3TC/FTC-resistant viruses in clinical samples. This enzymatic testing is subtype-independent and can assist in the clinical management of diverse populations particularly in resource-limited settings.

  11. Antifungal susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Lennox K; Tuohy, Marion J; Wilson, Deborah A; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Kazembe, Peter N; Tansuphasawadikul, Somsit; Eampokalap, Boonchuay; Chaovavanich, Achara; Reller, L Barth; Jarvis, William R; Hall, Gerri S; Procop, Gary W

    2004-01-01

    Susceptibility profiles of medically important fungi in less-developed countries remain uncharacterized. We measured the MICs of amphotericin B, 5-flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole for Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from Thailand, Malawi, and the United States and found no evidence of resistance or MIC profile differences among the countries.

  12. Experimental infection with Escherichia coli 0149 : F4ac in weaned piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gerda M.; Frydendahl, Kai; Svendsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    adhesion test made after slaughter of piglets. However, in an experimental infection study with the purpose to obtain diarrhoeic piglets, it would be an advantage to test for susceptibility prior to experimentation. The Mucin 4 gene on porcine chromosome 13 has been proposed as a candidate gene...... for the production of the specific ETEC F4ab/ac receptor, and a DNA marker-based test has been developed to allow genotyping for ETEC F4ab/ac resistance/susceptibility [Jorgensen, C.B., Cirera, S., Archibald, A.L., Anderson, L., Fredholm, M., Edfors-Lilja, I., 2004. Porcine polymorphisms and methods for detecting...... them. International application published under the patent cooperation treaty (PCT). PCT/DK2003/000807 or WO2004/048606-A2]. The aim of this study was to test an experimental model for ETEC O149:F4ac-induced diarrhoea in piglets, selected for susceptibility towards ETEC O149:F4ac adhesion prior...

  13. Development of low AC loss windings for superconducting traction transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamijo, H; Hata, H; Fukumoto, Y; Tomioka, A; Bohno, T; Yamada, H; Ayai, N; Yamasaki, K; Kato, T; Iwakuma, M; Funaki, K

    2010-01-01

    We have been developing a light weight and high efficiency superconducting traction transformer for railway rolling stock. We designed and fabricated a prototype superconducting traction transformer of a floor-mount type for Shinkansen rolling stock in 2004. We performed the type-test, the system-test, and the vibration-test. Consequently, we could verify that the transformer satisfied the requirement almost exactly as initially planned. However, there have been raised some problems to be solved to put superconducting traction transformer into practical use such that AC loss of the superconducting tape must be lower and the capacity of the refrigerator must be larger. Especially it is the most important to reduce the AC loss of superconducting windings for lightweight and high efficiency. The AC loss must be reduced near the theoretical value of superconducting tape with multifilament. In this study, we fabricated and evaluated the Bi2223 tapes as introduced various measures to reduce the AC loss. We confirmed that the AC loss of the narrow type of Bi2223 tapes with twist of filaments is lower, and we fabricated windings of this tape for use in superconducting traction transformer.

  14. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  15. The AC photovoltaic module is here!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Steven J.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Wills, Robert H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and performance results of a large-area photovoltaic module whose electrical output is ac power suitable for direct connection to the utility grid. The large-area ac PV module features a dedicated, integrally mounted, high-efficiency dc-to-ac power inverter with a nominal output of 250 watts (STC) at 120 Vac, 60 H, that is fully compatible with utility power. The module's output is connected directly to the building's conventional ac distribution system without need for any dc wiring, string combiners, dc ground-fault protection or additional power-conditioning equipment. With its advantages, the ac photovoltaic module promises to become a universal building block for use in all utility-interactive PV systems. This paper discusses AC Module design aspects and utility interface issues (including islanding).

  16. AC losses in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Although in principle the AC losses in high Tc superconductors can be calculated from the critical current density, a number of complications make this difficult. The Jc is very field dependent, there are intergranular and intragranular critical currents, the material is anisotropic and there is usually a large demagnetising factor. Care must be taken in interpreting electrical measurements since the voltage depends on the position of the contacts. In spite of these complications the simple theory of Norris has proved surprisingly successful and arguments will be presented as to why this is the case. Results on a range of tapes will be compared with theory and numerical methods for predicting losses discussed. Finally a theory for coupling losses will be given for a composite conductor with high resistance barriers round the filaments

  17. Evaluation of ac conductivity behaviour of graphite filled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Composites of epoxy resin having different amounts of graphite particles have been prepared by solution casting method. Temperature dependence of dielectric constant, tan and a.c. conductivity was measured in the frequency range, 1–20 kHz, temperature range, 40–180°C for 0.99, 1.96 and 2.91 wt% graphite filled ...

  18. Structural, ac conductivity and dielectric properties of 3-formyl chromone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. A. M.

    2017-07-01

    The structure for the powder of 3-formyl chromone was examined by X-ray diffraction technique in the 2θ° range ( 4° - 60° . The configuration of Al/3-formyl chromone/Al samples was designed. The electrical and dielectric properties were studied as a function of frequency (42- 5 × 106 Hz) and temperature (298-408K). The ac conductivity data of bulk of 3-formyl chromone varies as a power law with the frequency at different temperatures. The predominant mechanism for ac conduction was deduced. The ac conductivity shows a thermally activated process at different frequencies. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were determined using the capacitance and dissipation factor measurements at different temperatures. The dielectric loss shows a peak of relaxation time that shifted to higher frequency with an increase in the temperature. The activation energy of the relaxation process was estimated.

  19. Study on ac losses of HTS coil carrying ac transport current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Taozhen; Tang Yuejin; Li Jingdong; Zhou Yusheng; Cheng Shijie; Pan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Ac loss has an important influence on the thermal performances of HTS coil. It is necessary to quantify ac loss to ascertain its impact on coil stability and for sizing the coil refrigeration system. In this paper, we analyzed in detail the ac loss components, hysteresis loss, eddy loss and flux flow loss in the pancake HTS coil carrying ac transport current by finite element method. We also investigated the distribution of the ac losses in the coil to study the effects of magnetic field distribution on ac losses

  20. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  1. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  2. Identification of highly susceptible individuals in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shaoting; Teng, Xian; Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-08-01

    Identifying highly susceptible individuals in spreading processes is of great significance in controlling outbreaks. In this paper, we explore the susceptibility of people in susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and rumor spreading dynamics. We first study the impact of community structure on people's susceptibility. Although the community structure can reduce the number of infected people for same infection rate, it will not significantly affect nodes' susceptibility. We find the susceptibility of individuals is sensitive to the choice of spreading dynamics. For SIR spreading, since the susceptibility is highly correlated to nodes' influence, the topological indicator k-shell can better identify highly susceptible individuals, outperforming degree, betweenness centrality and PageRank. In contrast, in rumor spreading model, where nodes' susceptibility and influence have no clear correlation, degree performs the best among considered topological measures. Our finding highlights the significance of both topological features and spreading mechanisms in identifying highly susceptible population.

  3. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  4. Self-field AC losses in Bi-2223 superconducting tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K. H.; Leslie, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The self-field AC loss in Bi-2223 silver sheathed tapes for AC currents of up to 100 A was measured at 77 K and frequencies of 60 Hz and 600 Hz using a lock-in amplifier. The frequency dependence indicated a purely hysteretic loss which can be well described in terms of the critical state model for a flat superconducting strip. The only parameter needed to predict the self-field AC loss is the critical current of the critical state. Because the loss voltage is extremely small compared with the inductive voltage, a very high accuracy of the lock-in amplifier phase setting is required. Unlike in loss measurements on cylindrical superconducting samples, in the case of the tape the measuring circuit leads have to be brought out from the surface forming a loop where the changing magnetic field induces an additional voltage. Only if the loop formed by the leads at the voltage tabs is large enough will the apparent power dissipation approach the real AC loss associated with the length of the sample probed

  5. Cosmic Shear With ACS Pure Parallels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason

    2002-07-01

    Small distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass provide a powerful method of directly measuring the amount and distribution of dark matter. Several groups have recently detected this weak lensing by large-scale structure, also called cosmic shear. The high resolution and sensitivity of HST/ACS provide a unique opportunity to measure cosmic shear accurately on small scales. Using 260 parallel orbits in Sloan textiti {F775W} we will measure for the first time: beginlistosetlength sep0cm setlengthemsep0cm setlengthopsep0cm em the cosmic shear variance on scales Omega_m^0.5, with signal-to-noise {s/n} 20, and the mass density Omega_m with s/n=4. They will be done at small angular scales where non-linear effects dominate the power spectrum, providing a test of the gravitational instability paradigm for structure formation. Measurements on these scales are not possible from the ground, because of the systematic effects induced by PSF smearing from seeing. Having many independent lines of sight reduces the uncertainty due to cosmic variance, making parallel observations ideal.

  6. Low frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in poly(N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ac conductivity and dielectric constant of poly(N-methyl pyrrole) thin films have been investigated in the temperature range 77–350 K and in the frequency range 102–106 Hz. The well defined loss peaks have been observed in the temperature region where measured ac conductivity approaches dc conductivity.

  7. AC power losses in Bi-2223/Ag HTS tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvides, N.; Reilly, D.; Mueller, K.-H.; Herrmann, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: We report measurements at 77 K of the transport ac losses of Bi-2223/Ag composite tapes. The investigated tapes vary from single filament to multifilament construction and include both conventional tapes and other conductor shapes with twisted filaments. The self-field ac losses were determined at 77 K and 60 Hz as a function of ac current amplitude (0 - 100 A). We observe different behaviour among tapes depending on their quality and strain history. For 'good' virgin tapes the experimental data are well described by the Norris equations for the dependence of power loss P on the amplitude I m of the transport current. The data of good monofilament tapes are fitted to the Norris equation P ∼ I m n for an elliptical cross section (ie. n = 3) and the data of good multifilament tapes are fitted to the Norris equation for a rectangular strip (ie. n = 4). Many specimens, however, show a range of behaviour with lower values of n. Based on our work on the effect of strain on the dc transport properties of tapes, we carried out detailed investigations of the effect of controlled applied bend strain on the ac loss. Our results show that irreversible damage to superconducting filaments (ie. cracks) cause the ac loss to rise and n to decrease with increasing strain. In addition, applied strains much greater than the irreversible strain limit cause the ac loss to increase by several orders of magnitude and become ohmic in character with n = 2. Theoretical work is in progress to model the observed behaviour

  8. Bioinformatics and Astrophysics Cluster (BinAc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jens; Lutz, Volker; Bartusch, Felix; Dilling, Werner; Gorska, Anna; Schäfer, Christoph; Walter, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    BinAC provides central high performance computing capacities for bioinformaticians and astrophysicists from the state of Baden-Württemberg. The bwForCluster BinAC is part of the implementation concept for scientific computing for the universities in Baden-Württemberg. Community specific support is offered through the bwHPC-C5 project.

  9. The Effects of Theta and Gamma tACS on Working Memory and Electrophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Pahor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A single blind sham-controlled study was conducted to explore the effects of theta and gamma transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS on offline performance on working memory tasks. In order to systematically investigate how specific parameters of tACS affect working memory, we manipulated the frequency of stimulation (theta frequency vs. gamma frequency, the type of task (n-back vs. change detection task and the content of the tasks (verbal vs. figural stimuli. A repeated measures design was used that consisted of three sessions: theta tACS, gamma tACS and sham tACS. In total, four experiments were conducted which differed only with respect to placement of tACS electrodes (bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left fronto-parietal and right-fronto parietal. Healthy female students (N = 72 were randomly assigned to one of these groups, hence we were able to assess the efficacy of theta and gamma tACS applied over different brain areas, contrasted against sham stimulation. The pre-post/sham resting electroencephalogram (EEG analysis showed that theta tACS significantly affected theta amplitude, whereas gamma tACS had no significant effect on EEG amplitude in any of the frequency bands of interest. Gamma tACS did not significantly affect working memory performance compared to sham, and theta tACS led to inconsistent changes in performance on the n-back tasks. Active theta tACS significantly affected P3 amplitude and latency during performance on the n-back tasks in the bilateral parietal and right-fronto parietal protocols.

  10. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  11. Effect of AC electric fields on the stabilization of premixed bunsen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The stabilization characteristics of laminar premixed bunsen flames have been investigated experimentally for stoichiometric methane-air mixture by applying AC voltage to the nozzle with the single-electrode configuration. The detachment velocity either at blowoff or partial-detachment has been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC. The result showed that the detachment velocity increased with the applied AC electric fields, such that the flame could be nozzle-attached even over five times of the blowoff velocity without having electric fields. There existed four distinct regimes depending on applied AC voltage and frequency. In the low voltage regime, the threshold condition of AC electric fields was identified, below which the effect of electric fields on the detachment velocity is minimal. In the moderate voltage regime, the flame base oscillated with the frequency synchronized to AC frequency and the detachment velocity increased linearly with the applied AC voltage and nonlinearly with the frequency. In the high voltage regime, two different sub-regimes depending on AC frequency were observed. For relatively low frequency, the flame base oscillated with the applied AC frequency together with the half frequency and the variation of the detachment velocity was insensitive to the applied voltage. For relatively high frequency, the stabilization of the flame was significantly affected by the generation of streamers and the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of a flow generated by IR laser and AC electric field in micropumping and micromixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M; Mizuno, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, it is described that measurement of fluid flow generated by simultaneous operation of an infrared (IR) laser and AC electric field in a microfabricated channel. When an IR laser (1026 nm) was focused under an intense AC electric field, a circulating flow was generated around the laser focus. The IR laser and the electric field generate two flow patterns of the electrohydrodynamicss. When the laser focus is placed at the center of the gap between electrodes, the flow pattern is parallel to the AC electric field toward electrodes from the centre. On the other hand, when the laser focus is placed close to one of the electrodes, one directional flow is generated. First flow pattern can be used as a micromixer and the second one as a micropump. Flow velocity profiles of the two flow patterns were measured as a function of the laser power, intensity of the AC electric field and AC frequency.

  13. Self-discharge of AC/AC electrochemical capacitors in salt aqueous electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Cruz, L.; Ratajczak, P.; Iniesta, J.; Montiel, V.; Béguin, F.

    2016-01-01

    The self-discharge (SD) of electrochemical capacitors based on activated carbon electrodes (AC/AC capacitors) in aqueous lithium sulfate was examined after applying a three-hour cell potential hold at U i values from 1.0 to 1.6 V. The leakage current measured during the potentiostatic period as well as the amplitude of self-discharge increased with U i ; the cell potential drop was approximately doubled by 10 °C increase of temperature. The potential decay of both negative and positive electrodes was explored separately, by introducing a reference electrode and it was found that the negative electrode contributes essentially to the capacitor self-discharge. A diffusion-controlled mechanism was found at U i ≤ 1.4 V and U i ≤ 1.2 V for the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. At higher U i of 1.6 V, both electrodes display an activation-controlled mechanism due to water oxidation and subsequent carbon oxidation at the positive electrode and water or oxygen reduction at the negative electrode.

  14. Solid-liquid transition in Nb powder determined by third harmonic susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.A.M.; Lisboa-Filho, P.N.; Ortiz, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the third harmonic of the AC-susceptibility were employed to determine the boundaries of the linear regime of the magnetic response of Nb powder. Non-linear contributions to the magnetic response reveal the occurrence of a structured phase, disappearing as the vortex lattice melts to the liquid state. A systematic study of the third harmonic was conducted to determine how its onset temperature depends on experimental parameters, such as the frequency and amplitude of the excitation field. The melting line (ML) has been extracted from the onset temperature measured at low-frequencies and low-excitation fields in the presence of DC magnetic fields. The study indicates that the ML can be described by a 3D vortex-glass model, except at lower fields, where the system experiences a depinning crossover, and the best description of the experimental data is provided by a 3D Bose-glass model

  15. Solid-liquid transition in Nb powder determined by third harmonic susceptibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: ana@df.ufscar.br; Lisboa-Filho, P.N. [Laboratorio de Materiais Supercondutores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    Measurements of the third harmonic of the AC-susceptibility were employed to determine the boundaries of the linear regime of the magnetic response of Nb powder. Non-linear contributions to the magnetic response reveal the occurrence of a structured phase, disappearing as the vortex lattice melts to the liquid state. A systematic study of the third harmonic was conducted to determine how its onset temperature depends on experimental parameters, such as the frequency and amplitude of the excitation field. The melting line (ML) has been extracted from the onset temperature measured at low-frequencies and low-excitation fields in the presence of DC magnetic fields. The study indicates that the ML can be described by a 3D vortex-glass model, except at lower fields, where the system experiences a depinning crossover, and the best description of the experimental data is provided by a 3D Bose-glass model.

  16. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+ and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. a.c. conductance study of polycrystal C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Feng; Wang Yening; Huang Yineng; Gu Min; Zhang Qingming; Shen Huimin

    1995-01-01

    The a.c. (1 60 polycrystal (grain size 30 nm) has been studied from 100 to 350 K. Below 150 K, the a.c. conductance is nearly proportional to the temperature and frequency. This is proposed to be due to the hopping of localized states around the Fermi level. Above 200 K, the a.c. conductance exhibits a rapid increase with temperature, and shows a thermally activated behaviour with an activation energy of 0.389 eV below a certain temperature and 0.104 eV above it. A frequency dependent conductance at a fixed temperature is also obtained with a power law σ similar ω s (s∼0.8). For a sample of normal grain size, we have measured a peak near 250 K and a much smaller conductance. These results indicate that the defective na ture of our sample (small grain size, disorder or impurities) plays an important role for the transport properties. The existence of nanocrystals in the sample may give rise to localized states and improve its a.c. conductance. The two activation energies can be attributed to the coexistence of the crystalline and amorphous phases of C 60 . ((orig.))

  18. Physical aspects of magnetic hyperthermia: Low-frequency ac field absorption in a magnetic colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikher, Yu. L.; Stepanov, V.I.

    2014-01-01

    A uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic particle suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to an ac field is considered. Consistently taking into account both internal (Néel) and external (Brownian) magnetic relaxations, a simple expression for the dynamic susceptibility is obtained. This result, with regard to the ac field energy absorption, is compared to the common heuristic approach. This is done for a model polydisperse colloid containing maghemite nanoparticles, which are assumed to posses either bulk or surface magnetic anisotropy. It is shown that viscous losses caused by the particle motion in a fluid matrix make important contribution to the full magnetic response of a ferrocolloid and, thus, its ability to absorb the ac field energy. The obtained exact expression, which takes in both dissipation mechanisms, paves the way to correct optimization of the nanoparticle-mediated heating effect. - Highlights: • A uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic particle suspended in a viscous fluid and subjected to an ac field is considered. • Consistently taking into account both internal (Néel) and external (Brownian) magnetic relaxations, a simple expression for the dynamic susceptibility is obtained. • This result, with regard to the ac field energy absorption, is compared to the common heuristic approach using as a benchmark a model polydisperse colloid containing maghemite nanoparticles, which are assumed to posses either bulk or surface magnetic anisotropy. • It is shown that viscous losses caused by the particle motion in a fluid matrix make important contribution to the full magnetic response of a ferrocolloid and, thus, its ability to absorb the ac field energy. • The obtained exact expression, which takes in both dissipation mechanisms, paves the way to correct optimization of the nanoparticle-mediated heating effect

  19. Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Joller, David

    2011-01-01

    by haplotype sharing to a 2.5 Mb region on pig chromosome 13, a region containing 18 annotated genes. FINDINGS: The coding regions of five candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection (TFRC, ACK1, MUC20, MUC4 and KIAA0226), all located in the 2.5 Mb region, were investigated for the presence...... polymorphism in exon 22 of KIAA0226. Transcriptional profiles of the five genes were investigated in a porcine tissue panel including various intestinal tissues. All five genes were expressed in intestinal tissues at different levels but none of the genes were found differentially expressed between ETEC F4ab/ac...... of the amino acids composition. However, we cannot exclude that the five tested genes are bona fide candidate genes for susceptibility to ETEC F4ab/ac infection since the identified polymorphism might affect the translational apparatus, alternative splice forms may exist and post translational mechanisms might...

  20. 78 FR 49318 - Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20-167A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ...] Availability of Draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A and AC 20- 167A AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... of draft Advisory Circular (AC) 90-106A, Enhanced Flight Vision Systems and draft AC 20- 167A... Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical questions concerning draft AC 90-106A...

  1. AC distribution system for TFTR pulsed loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.F.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lemmon, G.N.; Moo, W.I.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines the AC distribution system associated with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and discusses the significant areas related to design, protection, and equipment selection, particularly where there is a departure from normal utility and industrial applications

  2. Logistics Reduction: Advanced Clothing System (ACS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project's Advanced Clothing System (ACS) is to use advanced commercial off-the-shelf...

  3. Analytical solution of the PNP equations at AC applied voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnev, Anatoly; Trimper, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    A symmetric binary polymer electrolyte subjected to an AC voltage is considered. The analytical solution of the Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations (PNP) is found and analyzed for small applied voltages. Three distinct time regimes offering different behavior can be discriminated. The experimentally realized stationary behavior is discussed in detail. An expression for the external current is derived. Based on the theoretical result a simple method is suggested of measuring the ion mobility and their concentration separately. -- Highlights: ► Analytical solution of Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations. ► Binary polymer electrolyte subjected to an external AC voltage. ► Three well separated time scales exhibiting different behavior. ► The experimentally realized stationary behavior is discussed in detail. ► A method is proposed measuring the mobility and the concentration separately.

  4. Marketingová komunikace AC Sparta Praha

    OpenAIRE

    Fanta, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing communications of AC Sparta Praha Objectives: The main objective of this thesis is to analyze contemporary state of marketing communications with the audience of AC Sparta Praha, identify deficiencies and develop a proposal to improve the marketing communications with fans of this club. Methods: In this thesis have been used methods of case study, analysis of available documents and texts, structured interview with director od marketing, and director of communications and pub...

  5. The effect of ac magnetic fields on the lifting power of levitating superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyak, B M; Ermakov, G V; Chubraeva, L I

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the decrease in the levitation force under the action of an ac field up to the frequency at which oscillations of the superconducting suspension are limited by inertia. The lifting force was measured as a function of the ac field amplitude and the exposure time. It was shown that the force quickly decreased at the moment the ac field was applied and then continued diminishing, but at a lower rate. A qualitative model was proposed, taking into account two effects of the ac field on the magnetization of the levitating superconductor: a complete destruction of the critical state in some section of the superconductor (to a depth λ ac ) and the initiation of a faster magnetic relaxation in the region where the induction gradient is preserved

  6. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.

    2017-07-21

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field applied, the flame spread rate and the flame width of downwardly spreading flames (DSFs) decreased from the horizontal case for −20° ≤ θ < 0° and maintained near constant values for −90° ≤ θ < −20°, while the flame spread rate increased appreciably as the inclination angle of upwardly spreading flames (USFs) increased. When an AC electric field was applied, the behavior of flame spread rate in DSFs (USFs) could be classified into two (three) sub-regimes characterized by various functional dependences on VAC, fAC, and θ. In nearly all cases of DSFs, a globular molten polyethylene formed ahead of the spreading flame edge, occasionally dripping onto the ground. In these cases, an effective flame spread rate was defined to represent the burning rate by measuring the mass loss due to dripping. This effective spread rate was independent of AC frequency, while it decreased linearly with voltage and was independent of the inclination angle. In DSFs, when excessively high voltage and frequency were applied, the dripping led to flame extinction during propagation and the extinction frequency correlated well with applied voltage. In USFs, when high voltage and frequency were applied, multiple globular molten PEs formed at several locations, leading to ejections of multiple small flame segments from the main flame, thereby reducing the flame spread rate, which could be attributed to the electrospray phenomenon.

  7. n value and Jc distribution dependence of AC transport current losses in HTS conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Jun; Sawai, Yusuke; Nakayama, Haruki; Tsukamoto, Osami; Miyagi, Daisuke

    2004-01-01

    Compared with LTS materials, HTS materials have some peculiarities affecting AC loss characteristics of the conductors. We measured the AC transport current losses in YBCO thin film coated conductors and a Bi2223/Ag sheathed tape. Comparing the measured data with analytical calculations, the dependence of the AC transport current losses on the n value and critical current density distributions are studied. It is shown that, considering the n values and J c distributions, the peculiarities in the HTS materials can be taken into consideration and the transport current losses in HTS conductors can be calculated by the same analytical method used for LTS

  8. Water calorimetry with thermistor bridge operated in DC and AC mode: comparative results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, A S; Laitano, R F; Petrocchi, A [Ist. Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, ENEA, Roma (Italy)

    1997-09-01

    An experimental study was carried out to find out the optimal conditions for measuring the output signal in a water calorimeter. To this end the thermistor bridge of the calorimeter was operated in AC and in DC mode, respectively. A comparative analysis of these two alternative methods was the made. In the AC mode measurement a lock-in amplifier based experimental assembly was used and compared to the more conventional system based on a high-sensitivty DC amplifier. The AC system resulted to be preferable as far as the short term and long term reproducibility is concerned. (orig.)

  9. Water calorimetry with thermistor bridge operated in DC and AC mode: comparative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, A.S.; Laitano, R.F.; Petrocchi, A.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to find out the optimal conditions for measuring the output signal in a water calorimeter. To this end the thermistor bridge of the calorimeter was operated in AC and in DC mode, respectively. A comparative analysis of these two alternative methods was the made. In the AC mode measurement a lock-in amplifier based experimental assembly was used and compared to the more conventional system based on a high-sensitivty DC amplifier. The AC system resulted to be preferable as far as the short term and long term reproducibility is concerned. (orig.)

  10. Proportional-Integral-Resonant AC Current Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an improved stationary-frame AC current controller based on the proportional-integral-resonant control action (PIR is proposed. Namely, the novel two-parameter PIR controller is applied in the stationary-frame AC current control, accompanied by the corresponding parameter-tuning procedure. In this way, the proportional-resonant (PR controller, common in the stationary-frame AC current control, is extended by the integral (I action in order to enable the AC current DC component tracking, and, also, to enable the DC disturbance compensation, caused by the voltage source inverter (VSI nonidealities and by nonlinear loads. The proposed controller parameter-tuning procedure is based on the three-phase back-EMF-type load, which corresponds to a wide range of AC power converter applications, such as AC motor drives, uninterruptible power supplies, and active filters. While the PIR controllers commonly have three parameters, the novel controller has two. Also, the provided parameter-tuning procedure needs only one parameter to be tuned in relation to the load and power converter model parameters, since the second controller parameter is directly derived from the required controller bandwidth value. The dynamic performance of the proposed controller is verified by means of simulation and experimental runs.

  11. Insecticide susceptibility status of human biting mosquitoes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matowo Pc

    91.5% (n=483) and An. funestus group was 8.5% (n=45). ..... Chitnis, N., Churcher, T., Donnelly, M.J., Ghani, A.C., Godfray, H.C.J., Gould, F., Hastings, ... Efficacy, persistence and vector susceptibility to pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) insecticide ... Macoris, M.L., Andrighetti, M.T.M., Wanderley, D.M.V. & Ribolla, P.E.M. ...

  12. AC electrical conductivity in amorphous indium selenide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, H.; Rella, R.; Tepore, A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to obtain additional information about the nature of the conduction mechanism in amorphous InSe films results of an experimental study concerning the frequency and temperature dependence of the ac conductivity are reported. The measurements were performed on specimens of different thickness and different electrode contact areas. The results can be explained assuming that conduction occurs by phonon-assisted hopping between localized states near the Fermi level

  13. MD 349: Impedance Localization with AC-dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, Nicolo; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Papotti, Giulia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this MD is to measure the distribution of the transverse impedance of the LHC by observing the phase advance variation with intensity between the machine BPMs. Four injected bunches with different intensities are excited with an AC dipole and the turn by turn data is acquired from the BPM system. Through post-processing analysis the phase variation along the machine is depicted and, from this information, first conclusions of the impedance distribution can be drawn.

  14. Complex study of transport AC loss in various 2G HTS racetrack coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiran, E-mail: yc315@cam.ac.uk [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Zhang, Min; Chudy, Michal; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, Tim [University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Comparing transport AC losses of two types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. ► The magnetic substrate in the MAG RABITS coil is the main difference. ► Experimental data agree well with simulation results. ► The transport AC loss in the MAG RABITS coil is 36% higher than that in the IBAD coil. ► It is better to keep all the substrate non-magnetic. -- Abstract: HTS racetrack coils are becoming important elements of an emerging number of superconducting devices such as generators or motors. In these devices the issue of AC loss is crucial, as performance and cooling power are derived from this quantity. This paper presents a comparative study of transport AC loss in two different types of 2G HTS racetrack coils. In this study, both experimental measurements and computer simulation approaches were employed. All the experiments were performed using classical AC electrical method. The finite-element computer model was used to estimate electromagnetic properties and calculate transport AC loss. The main difference between the characterized coils is covered inside tape architectures. While one coil uses tape based on RABITS magnetic substrate, the second coil uses a non-magnetic tape. Ferromagnetic loss caused by a magnetic substrate is an important issue involved in the total AC loss. As a result, the coil with the magnetic substrate surprised with high AC loss and rather low performance.

  15. The Effect of the Feedback Controller on Superconducting Tokamak AC Losses + AC-CRPP user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaerz, B.; Bruzzone, P.; Favez, J.Y.; Lister, J.B.; Zapretilina, E.

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting coils in a Tokamak are subject to AC losses when the field transverse to the coil current varies. A simple model to evaluate the AC losses has been derived and benchmarked against a complete model used in the ITER design procedure. The influence of the feedback control strategy on the AC losses is examined using this model. An improved controller is proposed, based on this study. (author)

  16. Changes in stimulus and response AC/A ratio with vision therapy in Convergence Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Mani, Revathy; Hussaindeen, Jameel Rizwana

    To evaluate the changes in the stimulus and response Accommodative Convergence to Accommodation (AC/A) ratio following vision therapy (VT) in Convergence Insufficiency (CI). Stimulus and response AC/A ratio were measured on twenty five CI participants, pre and post 10 sessions of VT. Stimulus AC/A ratio was measured using the gradient method and response AC/A ratio was calculated using modified Thorington technique with accommodative responses measured using WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor. The gradient stimulus and response AC/A cross-link ratios were compared with thirty age matched controls. Mean age of the CI and control participants were 23.3±5.2 years and 22.7±4.2 years, respectively. The mean stimulus and response AC/A ratio for CI pre therapy was 2.2±0.72 and 6.3±2.0 PD/D that changed to 4.2±0.9 and 8.28±3.31 PD/D respectively post vision therapy and these changes were statistically significant (paired t-test; paccommodation parameters in subjects with convergence insufficiency. This represents the plasticity of the AC/A crosslink ratios that could be achieved with vision therapy in CI. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A.; Heller, R.; Goldacker, W.; Kling, A.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-02-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability.

  18. Roebel assembled coated conductor cables (RACC): Ac-Losses and current carrying potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A; Heller, R; Goldacker, W; Kling, A; Schmidt, C

    2008-01-01

    Low ac-loss HTS cables for transport currents well above 1 kA are required for application in transformers and generators and are taken into consideration for future generations of fusion reactor coils. Coated conductors (CC) are suitable candidates for high field application at an operation temperature in the range 50-77 K. Ac-field applications require cables with low ac-losses and hence twisting of the individual strands. We solved this problem using the Roebel technique. Short lengths of Roebel bar cables were prepared from industrial DyBCO and YBCO-CC. Meander shaped tapes of 4 or 5 mm width with twist pitches of 123 or 127 mm were cut from the 10 or 12 mm wide CC tapes using a specially designed tool. Eleven or twelve of these strands were assembled to a cable. The electrical and mechanical connection of the tapes was achieved using a silver powder filled conductive epoxy resin. Ac-losses of a short sample in an external ac-field were measured as a function of frequency and field amplitude as well as the coupling current decay time constant. We discuss the results in terms of available theories and compare measured time constants in transverse field with measured coupling losses. Finally the potential of this cable type for ac-use is discussed with respect to ac-losses and current carrying capability

  19. Low-field susceptibilities of rare-earth spin glass alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissian, B.V.B.

    1978-01-01

    The low-field AC susceptibilities of the dilute rare-earth spin glass alloys Sc-Gd, Sc-Tb, Pr-Tb and Pr-Gd are reported and compared with low-field DC susceptibilities of the same samples. The similarities between their behaviour and that of Au-Fe spin glass alloys is also considered. When single-ion anisotropy is important, this can cause a dramatic broadening of the sharp peak. Broadening in the AC peak has also observed as the frequency of the deriving field is increased. These data can be qualitatively discussed in terms of a recent magnetic-cluster model for spin glasses. (author)

  20. Construction and characterisation of near-isogenic Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) strains resistant to Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Lei, Yanyuan; Yang, Yanjv; Baxter, Simon W; Li, Jianhong; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-02-01

    Resistance to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has arisen in multiple populations of the worldwide Brassica pest Plutella xylostella (L.). To help elucidate the mechanism of resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in a population from Florida, two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed. NILs were generated using either backcross or recombinant inbred line methodologies and evaluated for near-isogenicity with inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) markers. Backcross line BC6F4 maintained a similar level of Cry1Ac resistance to parental strain DBM1Ac-R (>5000-fold) yet showed 98.24% genetic similarity to the susceptible parental strain DBM1Ac-S. Single-pair backcrosses between DBM1Ac-S and BC6F4 revealed that Cry1Ac resistance was controlled by one recessive autosomal locus. BC6F4 exhibited high levels of cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah but not to Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Near-isogenic strains were constructed to provide a reliable biological system to investigate the mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. These data suggest that resistance to Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah is probably caused by the alteration of a common receptor not recognised by Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Understanding Bt toxin cross-resistance provides valuable information to consider when developing pest control strategies to delay resistance evolution. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Small-Signal Analysis of Single-Phase and Three-phase DC/AC and AC/DC PWM Converters with the Frequency-Shift Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Aquila, A. Dell’; Liserre, Marco

    2004-01-01

    of dc/dc converters via a 50 Hz frequency-shift. The input admittance is calculated and measured for two study examples (a three-phase active rectifier and a single-phase photovoltaic inverter). These examples show that the purpose of a well designed controller for grid-connected converters......A systematic approach to study dc/ac and ac/dc converters without the use of synchronous transformation is proposed. The use of a frequency-shift technique allows a straightforward analysis of single-phase and three-phase systems. The study of dc/ac and of ac/dc converters is reported to the study...... is to minimize the input admittance in order to make the grid converter more robust to grid disturbance....

  2. Ac losses of transposed superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, D.; Enderlein, G.; Lange, F.

    1975-01-01

    Eastham and Rhodes published results of loss measurements on transposed superconducting NbTi cables and concluded basing on an extrapolation to very large numbers of wires that transposed superconductors could be used favorably in cables for power transmission. There are some reasons to question the correctness of their extrapolation. Losses were calculated for transposed superconductors in self field and got results different from those of Eastham and Rhodes. Loss measurements were performed the results of which give evidence for the correctness of our calculations. The results lead to the conclusion that the use of transposed cables of irreversible type 2 superconductors for power transmission is not advantageous

  3. Probable alpha and 14C cluster emission from hyper Ac nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic study on the probability for the emission of 4 He and 14 C cluster from hyper Λ 207-234 Ac and non-strange normal 207-234 Ac nuclei are performed for the first time using our fission model, the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The predicted half lives show that hyper Λ 207-234 Ac nuclei are unstable against 4 He emission and 14 C emission from hyper Λ 217-228 Ac are favorable for measurement. Our study also show that hyper Λ 207-234 Ac are stable against hyper Λ 4 He and Λ 14 C emission. The role of neutron shell closure (N = 126) in hyper Λ 214 Fr daughter and role of proton/neutron shell closure (Z ∼ 82, N = 126) in hyper Λ 210 Bi daughter are also revealed. As hyper-nuclei decays to normal nuclei by mesonic/non-mesonic decay and since most of the predicted half lives for 4 He and 14 C emission from normal Ac nuclei are favourable for measurement, we presume that alpha and 14 C cluster emission from hyper Ac nuclei can be detected in laboratory in a cascade (two-step) process. (orig.)

  4. Design and synthesis of 225Ac radioimmunopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, Michael R.; Ma, Dangshe; Simon, Jim; Frank, R. Keith; Scheinberg, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides 213 Bi, 211 At, 224 Ra are under investigation for the treatment of leukemias, gliomas, and ankylosing spondylitis, respectively. 213 Bi and 211 At were attached to monoclonal antibodies and used as targeted immunotherapeutic agents while unconjugated 224 Ra chloride selectively seeks bone. 225 Ac possesses favorable physical properties for radioimmunotherapy (10 d half-life and 4 net alpha particles), but has a history of unfavorable radiolabeling chemistry and poor metal-chelate stability. We selected functionalized derivatives of DOTA as the most promising to pursue from out of a group of potential 225 Ac chelate compounds. A two-step synthetic process employing either MeO-DOTA-NCS or 2B-DOTA-NCS as the chelating moiety was developed to attach 225 Ac to monoclonal antibodies. This method was tested using several different IgG systems. The chelation reaction yield in the first step was 93±8% radiochemically pure (n=26). The second step yielded 225 Ac-DOTA-IgG constructs that were 95±5% radiochemically pure (n=27) and the mean percent immunoreactivity ranged from 25% to 81%, depending on the antibody used. This process has yielded several potential novel targeted 225 Ac-labeled immunotherapeutic agents that may now be evaluated in appropriate model systems and ultimately in humans

  5. Binding and Oligomerization of Modified and Native Bt Toxins in Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Ocelotl

    Full Text Available Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are used extensively in sprays and transgenic crops for pest control, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Better understanding of the mode of action of Bt toxins and the mechanisms of insect resistance is needed to enhance the durability of these important alternatives to conventional insecticides. Mode of action models agree that binding of Bt toxins to midgut proteins such as cadherin is essential for toxicity, but some details remain unresolved, such as the role of toxin oligomers. In this study, we evaluated how Bt toxin Cry1Ac and its genetically engineered counterpart Cry1AcMod interact with brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV from resistant and susceptible larvae of Pectinophora gossypiella (pink bollworm, a global pest of cotton. Compared with Cry1Ac, Cry1AcMod lacks 56 amino acids at the amino-terminus including helix α-1; previous work showed that Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in vitro without cadherin and killed P. gossypiella larvae harboring cadherin mutations linked with >1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac. Here we found that resistance to Cry1Ac was associated with reduced oligomer formation and insertion. In contrast, Cry1AcMod formed oligomers in BBMV from resistant larvae. These results confirm the role of cadherin in oligomerization of Cry1Ac in susceptible larvae and imply that forming oligomers without cadherin promotes toxicity of Cry1AcMod against resistant P. gossypiella larvae that have cadherin mutations.

  6. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...

  7. Advanced reliability improvement of AC-modules (ARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooij, P.; Real, M.; Moschella, U.; Sample, T.; Kardolus, M.

    2001-09-01

    are fully or partially shaded. Alpha Real has conducted considerable testing of shading and temperature rises of up to 180C have been observed. Such a temperature rise will influence the lifetime and reliability of the module, and it is therefore common practice to protect modules from these conditions by using by-pass diodes. Having now an active element on the back of the module, such as a module integrated inverter, new possibilities are offered for new concepts for hot-spot prevention. The main conclusions of the ARIA project are: Both the AC module inverters, Sunmaster 130S and Edisun E230721G, withstood the electrical immunity tests successfully; The Sunmaster 130S passed the accelerated reliability tests with good results; The Edisun E230721G passed the temperature cycling test and a humidity-freezing test; The ANIT s.r.l. ARIA modules met all requirements of the CEI/IEC 61215 standard; The voltage comparison method is a most promising principle for hot spot detection. It is implemented into both the Solcolino E230721G and the Sunmaster 130S. The costs for a 200W module are about $1. to $2.5, where the costs for by-pass diodes are $4 to $15; Measurements at different locations in three countries have shown that the new Hot Spot Detector (HSD) by comparing the voltages operates. Computer simulations show that if the current through the shaded cell is less than or equal to the current generated by the shaded cell, the shaded cell will not become reverse biased. 10 refs

  8. Suitability of magnetic single- and multi-core nanoparticles to detect protein binding with dynamic magnetic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmer, Hilke; Dieckhoff, Jan; Schilling, Meinhard; Ludwig, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the binding of biotinylated proteins to various streptavidin functionalized magnetic nanoparticles with different dynamic magnetic measurement techniques to examine their potential for homogeneous bioassays. As particle systems, single-core nanoparticles with a nominal core diameter of 30 nm as well as multi-core nanoparticles with hydrodynamic sizes varying between nominally 60 nm and 100 nm were chosen. As experimental techniques, fluxgate magnetorelaxometry (MRX), complex ac susceptibility (ACS) and measurements of the phase lag between rotating field and sample magnetization are applied. MRX measurements are only suited for the detection of small analytes if the multivalency of functionalized nanoparticles and analytes causes cross-linking, thus forming larger aggregates. ACS measurements showed for all nanoparticle systems a shift of the imaginary part's maximum towards small frequencies. In rotating field measurements only the single-core nanoparticle systems with dominating Brownian mechanism exhibit an increase of the phase lag upon binding in the investigated frequency range. The coexistence of Brownian and Néel relaxation processes can cause a more complex phase lag change behavior, as demonstrated for multi-core nanoparticle systems. - Highlights: • Cealization of homogeneous magnetic bioassays using different magnetic techniques. • Comparison of single- and multi-core nanoparticle systems. • ac Susceptibility favorable for detection of small analytes. • Magnetorelaxometry favorable for detection of large analytes or cross-linking assays

  9. ac propulsion system for an electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, S.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that dc drives will be the logical choice for current production electric vehicles (EV). However, by the mid-80's, there is a good chance that the price and reliability of suitable high-power semiconductors will allow for a competitive ac system. The driving force behind the ac approach is the induction motor, which has specific advantages relative to a dc shunt or series traction motor. These advantages would be an important factor in the case of a vehicle for which low maintenance characteristics are of primary importance. A description of an EV ac propulsion system is provided, taking into account the logic controller, the inverter, the motor, and a two-speed transmission-differential-axle assembly. The main barrier to the employment of the considered propulsion system in EV is not any technical problem, but inverter transistor cost.

  10. Superconducting three element synchronous ac machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, L.; Chabrerie, J.P.; Mailfert, A.; Renard, M.

    1975-01-01

    There is a growing interest in ac superconducting machines. Of several new concepts proposed for these machines in the last years one of the most promising seems to be the ''three elements'' concept which allows the cancellation of the torque acting on the superconducting field winding, thus overcoming some of the major contraints. This concept leads to a device of induction-type generator. A synchronous, three element superconducting ac machine is described, in which a room temperature, dc fed rotating winding is inserted between the superconducting field winding and the ac armature. The steady-state machine theory is developed, the flux linkages are established, and the torque expressions are derived. The condition for zero torque on the field winding, as well as the resulting electrical equations of the machine, are given. The theoretical behavior of the machine is studied, using phasor diagrams and assuming for the superconducting field winding either a constant current or a constant flux condition

  11. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and remove...

  12. The Use of AC-DC-AC Methods in Assessing Corrosion Resistance Performance of Coating Systems for Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Robert C.; Upadhyay, Vinod; Wang, Yar-Ming; Battocchi, Dante

    The potential utility of AC-DC-AC electrochemical methods in comparative measures of corrosion-resisting coating system performance for magnesium alloys under consideration for the USAMP "Magnesium Front End Research and Development" project was previously shown in this forum [1]. Additional studies of this approach using statistically-designed experiments have been conducted with focus on alloy types, pretreatment, topcoat material and topcoat thickness as the variables. Additionally, sample coupons made for these designed experiments were also subjected to a typical automotive cyclic corrosion test cycle (SAE J2334) as well as ASTM B117 for comparison of relative performance. Results of these studies are presented along with advantages and limitations of the proposed methodology.

  13. Lack of fitness costs and inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in a near-isogenic strain of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Yang, Yanjv; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Xia, Jixing; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations in insects may be associated with fitness costs. A lack of costs enables resistance alleles to persist, which may contribute to the rapid development and spread of resistance in populations. To assess the fitness costs associated with Bt Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella, life tables were constructed for a near-isogenic resistant strain (NIL-R) and a susceptible strain in this study. No fitness costs associated with Cry1Ac resistance in NIL-R were detected, based on the duration of egg and larval stages, the survival of eggs and larvae, adult longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, gross reproduction rate, finite rate of increase and mean generation time. Based on log dose-probit lines, resistance in NIL-R is incompletely recessive and results from a single, autosomal, recessive locus; the degree of dominance was estimated to be -0.74 and -0.71 for F1 (resistant ♀ × susceptible ♂) and F1 ' (susceptible ♀ × resistant ♂) progeny respectively. Assessment of near-isogenic Cry1Ac-resistant and Cry1Ac-susceptible strains of P. xylostella indicated that resistance is not accompanied with fitness costs, and that resistance is incompletely recessive. These findings should be useful in managing the development of Bt Cry1Ac resistance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The midgut cadherin-like gene is not associated with resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-03-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins that have been used to control important agricultural pests. Evolution of resistance in target pests threatens the effectiveness of these toxins when used either in sprayed biopesticides or in Bt transgenic crops. Although alterations of the midgut cadherin-like receptor can lead to Bt Cry toxin resistance in many insects, whether the cadherin gene is involved in Cry1Ac resistance of Plutella xylostella (L.) remains unclear. Here, we present experimental evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac or Bt var. kurstaki (Btk) in P. xylostella is not due to alterations of the cadherin gene. The bona fide P. xylostella cadherin cDNA sequence was cloned and analyzed, and comparisons of the cadherin cDNA sequence among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains confirmed that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of mutations in this gene. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that cadherin transcript levels did not significantly differ among susceptible and resistant P. xylostella strains. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of cadherin gene expression did not affect larval susceptibility to Cry1Ac toxin. Furthermore, genetic linkage assays using four cadherin gDNA allelic biomarkers confirmed that the cadherin gene is not linked to resistance against Cry1Ac in P. xylostella. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Cry1Ac resistance of P. xylostella is independent of the cadherin gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AC conductivity for a holographic Weyl semimetal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grignani, Gianluca; Marini, Andrea; Peña-Benitez, Francisco; Speziali, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia,I.N.F.N. Sezione di Perugia,Via Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2017-03-23

    We study the AC electrical conductivity at zero temperature in a holographic model for a Weyl semimetal. At small frequencies we observe a linear dependence in the frequency. The model shows a quantum phase transition between a topological semimetal (Weyl semimetal phase) with a non vanishing anomalous Hall conductivity and a trivial semimetal. The AC conductivity has an intermediate scaling due to the presence of a quantum critical region in the phase diagram of the system. The phase diagram is reconstructed using the scaling properties of the conductivity. We compare with the experimental data of https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.93.121110 obtaining qualitative agreement.

  16. Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser

    OpenAIRE

    MORILLA CASTELLANOS, EMILIO

    2012-01-01

    Se establece el mapa de ruido del municipio de Benetússer para evaluar y conocer su exposición al ruido ambiental y así poder dar cumplimiento a la Directiva Europea sobre Gestión y Evaluación de Ruido Ambiental (2002/49/CE) y a la Ley nacional 37/2003 del Ruido. Los mapas estratégicos de ruido nos aportan la información fundamental para diagnosticar la situación acústica y para la gestión del ruido ambiental. Morilla Castellanos, E. (2012). Mapa acústico parcial de Benetusser. http://h...

  17. Preliminary study on AC superconducting machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Ishigohka, T.; Shimohka, T.; Mizukami, N.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the issues involved in developing AC superconducting machines. In the first phase, as a preliminary experiment, a 4kVa AC superconducting coil which employs 100A class 50/60Hz superconductors is made and tested. And, in the second phase, as an extension of the 4kVa coil, a model superconducting transformer is made and examined. The transformer has a novel quench protection system with an auxiliary coil only in the low voltage side. The behavior of the overcurrent protection system is confirmed

  18. Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocabert, Joan; Luna, Alvaro; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability of the ele......The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability...

  19. AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kováč, J., E-mail: elekjkov@savba.sk; Šouc, J.; Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • AC losses in single-core MgB{sub 2} wires with different metallic sheaths have been measured. • It has been shown that metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. • GlidCop and Stainless Steel have negligible effect to the overall loss. • Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. • Due to Monel sheath AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is not visible. - Abstract: AC losses of single-core MgB{sub 2} superconductors with different metallic sheaths (Cu, GlidCop, stainless steel and Monel) have been measured and analyzed. These wires were exposed to external magnetic field with frequencies 72 and 144 Hz and amplitudes up to 0.1 T at temperatures ranged from 18 to 40 K. The obtained results have shown that applied metallic sheath can affect the measured AC loss considerably. In the case of GlidCop and Stainless Steel a negligible small effect of metallic sheath was observed. Strong contribution of eddy currents has been found in the wire with well conductive copper sheath. In the case of Monel sheath, the hysteresis loss of magnetic sheath is dominated and AC loss of MgB{sub 2} core is practically not visible.

  20. System and method for monitoring and controlling stator winding temperature in a de-energized AC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bin [Kenosha, WI; Luebke, Charles John [Sussex, WI; Habetler, Thomas G [Snellville, GA; Zhang, Pinjia [Atlanta, GA; Becker, Scott K [Oak Creek, WI

    2011-12-27

    A system and method for measuring and controlling stator winding temperature in an AC motor while idling is disclosed. The system includes a circuit having an input connectable to an AC source and an output connectable to an input terminal of a multi-phase AC motor. The circuit further includes a plurality of switching devices to control current flow and terminal voltages in the multi-phase AC motor and a controller connected to the circuit. The controller is configured to activate the plurality of switching devices to create a DC signal in an output of the motor control device corresponding to an input to the multi-phase AC motor, determine or estimate a stator winding resistance of the multi-phase AC motor based on the DC signal, and estimate a stator temperature from the stator winding resistance. Temperature can then be controlled and regulated by DC injection into the stator windings.

  1. Geometry dependence of magnetic and transport AC losses in Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Luo, X M [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, D X [ICREA and Grup Electromagnetisme, Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Alamgir, A K M [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Collings, E W [MSE, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Lee, E [MSE, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sumption, M D [MSE, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Fang, J G [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yi, H P [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, X H [Innova Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd, 7 Rongchang Dongjie, Longsheng Industrial Park, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, 100176 (China); Guo, S Q [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, M L [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xin, Y [Innopower Superconductor Cable Co., Ltd, 7 Rongchang Dongjie, Longsheng Industrial Park, Beijing Economic and Technological Development Area, 100176 (China); Han, Z [Applied Superconductivity Research Center, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2004-10-01

    On five Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios from 5 to 26, AC losses have been measured at 77 K while a parallel AC magnetic field or a perpendicular AC magnetic field or a longitudinal AC transport current is applied. It has been found that at any frequency the perpendicular magnetic losses per cycle increase, but the parallel magnetic losses per cycle and the transport losses per cycle decrease as the aspect ratio increases. These experimental results are in accord with theoretical results. Meanwhile, we investigated the geometry dependence of the decay time constant of coupling current and that of full penetration field.

  2. Geometry dependence of magnetic and transport AC losses in Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J; Luo, X M; Chen, D X; Alamgir, A K M; Collings, E W; Lee, E; Sumption, M D; Fang, J G; Yi, H P; Song, X H; Guo, S Q; Liu, M L; Xin, Y; Han, Z

    2004-01-01

    On five Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios from 5 to 26, AC losses have been measured at 77 K while a parallel AC magnetic field or a perpendicular AC magnetic field or a longitudinal AC transport current is applied. It has been found that at any frequency the perpendicular magnetic losses per cycle increase, but the parallel magnetic losses per cycle and the transport losses per cycle decrease as the aspect ratio increases. These experimental results are in accord with theoretical results. Meanwhile, we investigated the geometry dependence of the decay time constant of coupling current and that of full penetration field

  3. Determination of input/output characteristics of full-bridge AC/DC/DC converter for arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Karadzinov, Ljupco; Sarac, Vasilija; Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and practical implementation of AC/DC/DC converter in mode of arc welding. An analysis of the operation of AC/DC/DC converter and its input/output characteristics are determined with computer simulations. The practical part is consisted of AC/DC/DC converter prototype for arc welding with output power of 3 kW and switching frequency of 64 kHz. The operation of AC/DC/DC converter is validated with experimental measurements.

  4. AC Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Borotellurite Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, T. A.; Azab, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Borotellurite glasses with formula 60B2O3-10ZnO-(30 - x)NaF- xTeO2 ( x = 0 mol.%, 5 mol.%, 10 mol.%, and 15 mol.%) have been synthesized by thermal melting. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the glasses were amorphous. The glass density ( ρ) was determined by the Archimedes method at room temperature. The density ( ρ) and molar volume ( V m) were found to increase with increasing TeO2 content. The direct-current (DC) conductivity was measured in the temperature range from 473 K to 623 K, in which the electrical activation energy of ionic conduction increased from 0.27 eV to 0.48 eV with increasing TeO2 content from 0 mol.% to 15 mol.%. The dielectric parameters and alternating-current (AC) conductivity ( σ ac) were investigated in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and temperature range from 300 K to 633 K. The AC conductivity and dielectric constant decreased with increasing TeO2 content from 0 mol.% to 15 mol.%.

  5. Genetic susceptibility of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Loos, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    In this systematic review, we explore and summarize the peer-reviewed literature on putative genetic risk factors for susceptibility to aggressive and chronic periodontitis. A comprehensive literature search on the PubMed database was performed using the keywords ‘periodontitis’ or ‘periodontal

  6. AC Loss Reduction in Filamentized YBCO Coated Conductors with Virtual Transverse Cross-cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; X, Xiong, [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    While the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-based coated conductors under dc currents has improved significantly in recent years, filamentization is being investigated as a technique to reduce ac loss so that the 2nd generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires can also be utilized in various ac power applications such as cables, transformers and fault current limiters. Experimental studies have shown that simply filamentizing the superconducting layer is not effective enough to reduce ac loss because of incomplete flux penetration in between the filaments as the length of the tape increases. To introduce flux penetration in between the filaments more uniformly and further reduce the ac loss, virtual transverse cross-cuts were made in superconducting filaments of the coated conductors fabricated using the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The virtual transverse cross-cuts were formed by making cross-cuts (17 - 120 {micro}m wide) on the IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition)-MgO templates using laser scribing followed by depositing the superconducting layer ({approx} 0.6 {micro}m thick). AC losses were measured and compared for filamentized conductors with and without the cross-cuts under applied peak ac fields up to 100 mT. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of filament decoupling and the feasibility of using this method to achieve ac loss reduction.

  7. Transmission Technologies and Operational Characteristic Analysis of Hybrid UHV AC/DC Power Grids in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhang; Yanfeng, Gong

    2017-05-01

    In order to solve the contradiction between demand and distribution range of primary energy resource, Ultra High Voltage (UHV) power grids should be developed rapidly to meet development of energy bases and accessing of large-scale renewable energy. This paper reviewed the latest research processes of AC/DC transmission technologies, summarized the characteristics of AC/DC power grids, concluded that China’s power grids certainly enter a new period of large -scale hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids and characteristics of “strong DC and weak AC” becomes increasingly pro minent; possible problems in operation of AC/DC power grids was discussed, and interaction or effect between AC/DC power grids was made an intensive study of; according to above problems in operation of power grids, preliminary scheme is summarized as fo llows: strengthening backbone structures, enhancing AC/DC transmission technologies, promoting protection measures of clean energ y accessing grids, and taking actions to solve stability problems of voltage and frequency etc. It’s valuable for making hybrid UHV AC/DC power grids adapt to operating mode of large power grids, thus guaranteeing security and stability of power system.

  8. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A; Yeom, Kristen W; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-07-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunlei; Li, Wei; Tong, Karen A.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Kuzminski, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enhances image contrast by using the susceptibility differences between tissues. It is created by combining both magnitude and phase in the gradient echo data. SWI is sensitive to both paramagnetic and diamagnetic substances which generate different phase shift in MRI data. SWI images can be displayed as a minimum intensity projection that provides high resolution delineation of the cerebral venous architecture, a feature that is not available in other MRI techniques. As such, SWI has been widely applied to diagnose various venous abnormalities. SWI is especially sensitive to deoxygenated blood and intracranial mineral deposition and, for that reason, has been applied to image various pathologies including intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, and multiple sclerosis. SWI, however, does not provide quantitative measures of magnetic susceptibility. This limitation is currently being addressed with the development of quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI). While QSM treats susceptibility as isotropic, STI treats susceptibility as generally anisotropic characterized by a tensor quantity. This article reviews the basic principles of SWI, its clinical and research applications, the mechanisms governing brain susceptibility properties, and its practical implementation, with a focus on brain imaging. PMID:25270052

  10. Magnetization reversal of Co-based amorphous wires induced by longitudinal AC magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perov, N.S.; Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B. E-mail: granov@magn.ru; Iakubov, I.T.; Kartashov, M.A.; Rakhmanov, A.A

    2004-05-01

    The remagnetization process in CoFeSiB amorphous wires under influence of a high-amplitude AC longitudinal magnetic field is studied. The frequency spectra of the voltage at the wire ends are measured as a function of a longitudinal DC magnetic field and the AC field amplitude. A high sensitivity of the voltage harmonics to the DC magnetic field is demonstrated. The experimental results are interpreted within a simple rotational model.

  11. Magnetization reversal of Co-based amorphous wires induced by longitudinal AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perov, N.S.; Antonov, A.S.; Buznikov, N.A.; Granovsky, A.B.; Iakubov, I.T.; Kartashov, M.A.; Rakhmanov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The remagnetization process in CoFeSiB amorphous wires under influence of a high-amplitude AC longitudinal magnetic field is studied. The frequency spectra of the voltage at the wire ends are measured as a function of a longitudinal DC magnetic field and the AC field amplitude. A high sensitivity of the voltage harmonics to the DC magnetic field is demonstrated. The experimental results are interpreted within a simple rotational model

  12. Measurement of the Four-Point Susceptibility of an Out-of-Equilibrium Colloidal Solution of Nanoparticles Using Time-Resolved Light Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Claudio; Di Leonardo, Ricardo; ruocco, giancarlo

    2012-01-01

    The spatial fluctuations of the dynamics of a colloidal system composed of nanoparticles are probed by a novel experimental setup, which combines homodyne and heterodyne dynamic light scattering focused onto a micron-sized volume via a microscope objective. The technique is used to measure the four-point...

  13. Measures of caution undertaken in Germany in case of accident or incidents susceptible to bear upon humans and environment due to a radioactivity release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, Dieter

    1997-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident a low concerning the population protection against the effects of ionizing radiation has been promulgated in Germany (Strahlenschutzvorsorgegesetz) in order to unify on a federal scale the radiation protection legislation. A Land can make recommendations and actuate measures only when radioactivity levels concern zones placed under its jurisdiction. Special stipulations concerning the roles of Land and Federal Government are specified for the case of severe accidents at nuclear power plants followed by catastrophic consequences in the nearby areas. The measures and intervention thresholds are based on the publication No. 40 of CIPR. These actions are contained in a catalogue currently under revision. All the measures indicated aim at avoiding any contamination in the agricultural sector and bock or diminish as much as possible the radionuclide transfer in food stuffs and forages. A table is presented indicating the limit doses relative to whole body, thyroid or lung exposure requiring accordingly sealing of dwelling houses, iodine addition or population evacuation. Also doses indicating renouncement to direct use of the food stuffs and reinstalling the population previously relocated are presented. Finally two tables are given, one containing caution measures of protection before radioactive cloud passage and the other the threshold values of the atmospheric concentration for cereal, milk, fruit and vegetable storages corresponding to the radionuclides 131 I, 137 Cs and 90 Sr

  14. Field evolved resistance in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Cry1Ac in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwaar H K Alvi

    Full Text Available Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests of several field and vegetable crops, with indiscriminate use of insecticides contributing to multiple instances of resistance. In the present study we assessed whether H. armigera had developed resistance to Bt cotton and compared the results with several conventional insecticides. Furthermore, the genetics of resistance was also investigated to determine the inheritance to Cry1Ac resistance. To investigate the development of resistance to Bt cotton, and selected foliar insecticides, H. armigera populations were sampled in 2010 and 2011 in several cotton production regions in Pakistan. The resistance ratios (RR for Cry1Ac, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin and deltamethrin were 580-fold, 320-, 1110-, 1950-, 200-, 380, 690, and 40-fold, respectively, compared with the laboratory susceptible (Lab-PK population. Selection of the field collected population with Cry1Ac in 2010 for five generations increased RR to 5440-fold. The selection also increased RR for deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, cypermethrin, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin to 125-folds, 650-, 2840-, 9830-, 370-, 3090-, 1330-fold. The estimated LC(50s for reciprocal crosses were 105 µg/ml (Cry1Ac-SEL female × Lab-PK male and 81 g µg/ml (Lab-PK female × Cry1Ac-SEL male suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac was autosomal; the degree of dominance (D(LC was 0.60 and 0.57 respectively. Mixing of enzyme inhibitors significantly decreased resistance to Cry1Ac suggesting that the resistance to Cry1Ac and other insecticides tested in the present study was primarily metabolic. Resistance to Cry1Ac was probably due to a single but unstable factor suggesting that crop rotation with non-Bt cotton or other crops could reduce the selection pressure for H. armigera and improve the sustainability of Bt cotton.

  15. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  16. Moment measurements in dynamic and quasi-static spine segment testing using eccentric compression are susceptible to artifacts based on loading configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those

  17. Review of the system compatibility and ride-through options for AC and DC drives including multilevel inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouanne, A. von [Power Electronics Lab. - Elect. and Compt. Engineering Dept. - Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Ben Banerjee, B. [Electric Power Research Inst. - Power Electronics, Energy Delivery, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) compatibility and ride-through issues have caused increased concerns due to the susceptibility of AC and DC drives to power disturbances, and the costly results of process disruptions. These losses can be avoided for critical production processes by using ASDs with ride-through capabilities. This paper assesses industrial ride-through requirements and application issues for AC and DC drives, including medium voltage (2300/4160 V) multi-level inverter topologies. Ride-through alternatives are evaluated based on design, implementation and cost considerations in order to determine the most suitable solutions for various kVA ratings and time duration requirements. (orig.)

  18. Multi-phase AC/AC step-down converter for distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeloiza, Eddy C.; Burgos, Rolando P.

    2017-10-25

    A step-down AC/AC converter for use in an electric distribution system includes at least one chopper circuit for each one of a plurality of phases of the AC power, each chopper circuit including a four-quadrant switch coupled in series between primary and secondary sides of the chopper circuit and a current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch coupled between the secondary side of the chopper circuit and a common node. Each current-bidirectional two-quadrant switch is oriented in the same direction, with respect to the secondary side of the corresponding chopper circuit and the common node. The converter further includes a control circuit configured to pulse-width-modulate control inputs of the switches, to convert a first multiphase AC voltage at the primary sides of the chopper circuits to a second multiphase AC voltage at the secondary sides of the chopper circuits, the second multiphase AC voltage being lower in voltage than the first multiphase AC voltage.

  19. Effects of AC Electric Field on Small Laminar Nonpremixed Flames

    KAUST Repository

    Xiong, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    baseline case, leading to the formation of toroidal vortices. Increased residence time and heat recirculation inside the vortex resulted in appreciable formation of PAHs and soot near the nozzle exit. Decreased residence time along the jet axis through flow acceleration by the vortex led to a reduction in the soot volume fraction in the downstream sooting zone. Electromagnetic force generated by AC was proposed as a viable mechanism for the formation of the toroidal vortex. By varying applied AC in a wide range of frequency and voltage, several insta- bility modes were observed, including flicking flames, partial pinch-off of flames, and spinning flames. High speed imaging together with Mie scattering techniques were combined to reveal the flame dynamics as well as the flow structure inside the flames. Original steady toroidal vortices triggered by AC were noted to exhibit axisymmetric axial instability in the flicking and partial pinch-off modes and non-axisymmetric azimuthal instability in the spinning mode. Electrical measurements were also conducted simultaneously to identify the voltage, current, and electrical power responses. Integrated power was noted to be sensitive to indicate subtle variation of flames properties and to the occurrence of axial instability. Under low frequency AC forcing with electrical conditions not generating toroidal vortices, responses of flames were further investigated. Several nonlinear flame responses, including frequency doubling and tripling phenomena, were identified. Spectral analysis revealed that such nonlinear responses were attributed to the combined effects of triggering buoyancy-induced oscillation of the flame as well as the Lorenz force generated by applying AC. Phase delay behaviors between the applied voltage and the heat release rate (or flame size) were also studied to explore the potential of applying AC in controlling flame instability. It was found that the phase delay had large variations for AC frequency smaller than

  20. Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jixing; Guo, Zhaojiang; Yang, Zezhong; Zhu, Xun; Kang, Shi; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostella resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostella and also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Seven harmonic susceptibility in oxygen and hydrogen loading of sintered YBCO by {mu}s pulsed electrolysis in an aqueous solution at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripodi, P.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Celani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-09-01

    The complex AC susceptibility of high T{sub c} superconducting materials has been described in terms of the first seven harmonic component of Fourier series. Has been measured the {chi}{sub n} (n=1,7) of sintered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulk oxygen and hydrogen loaded samples versus amplitude and frequency of AC magnetic field at fixed temperature. The sample have been loaded by {mu}s current pulses electrolysis in an aqueous solution (0.3N LiOH+H{sub 2}O) at room temperature. In addition to the simplicity of the experimental setup, this procedure allows to obtain extremely high equivalent hydrogen/oxygen gas pressure on the surface of the electrodes. The YBCO electrode is polarized by short pulse width (0.5-10 {mu}s) and high power (120 W) peaks with a variable repetition rate (0.1-10000 Hz). The pulses are obtained by an home.made pulse generator. The difference in the behavior of the susceptibilities harmonic component between the deficiency and oxygen or hydrogen loaded samples give us the possibility to connect the susceptibilities with variations of the flux pinning in respect to normal losses in the superconducting materials. The loading can be a good probe to have information on the mechanism of the processes that sustain the critical current density Jc in this situation these affects appear strongly dependent on the loading conditions. By comparison of this measurements has been observed drastic change in behavior of susceptibility.

  2. AC loss in superconducting tapes and cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The present study discusses the AC loss in high-temperature superconductors. Superconducting materials with a relatively high critical temperature were discovered in 1986. They are presently developed for use in large-scale power-engineering devices such as power-transmission cables, transformers

  3. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  4. Ac-dc converter firing error detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, O.L.

    1996-01-01

    Each of the twelve Booster Main Magnet Power Supply modules consist of two three-phase, full-wave rectifier bridges in series to provide a 560 VDC maximum output. The harmonic contents of the twelve-pulse ac-dc converter output are multiples of the 60 Hz ac power input, with a predominant 720 Hz signal greater than 14 dB in magnitude above the closest harmonic components at maximum output. The 720 Hz harmonic is typically greater than 20 dB below the 500 VDC output signal under normal operation. Extracting specific harmonics from the rectifier output signal of a 6, 12, or 24 pulse ac-dc converter allows the detection of SCR firing angle errors or complete misfires. A bandpass filter provides the input signal to a frequency-to-voltage converter. Comparing the output of the frequency-to-voltage converter to a reference voltage level provides an indication of the magnitude of the harmonics in the ac-dc converter output signal

  5. Predicting AC loss in practical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemoery, F; Souc, J; Vojenciak, M; Seiler, E; Klincok, B; Ceballos, J M; Pardo, E; Sanchez, A; Navau, C; Farinon, S; Fabbricatore, P

    2006-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of methods used to predict AC loss in superconducting conductors is summarized. It is underlined that the loss is just one of the electromagnetic characteristics controlled by the time evolution of magnetic field and current distribution inside the conductor. Powerful methods for the simulation of magnetic flux penetration, like Brandt's method and the method of minimal magnetic energy variation, allow us to model the interaction of the conductor with an external magnetic field or a transport current, or with both of them. The case of a coincident action of AC field and AC transport current is of prime importance for practical applications. Numerical simulation methods allow us to expand the prediction range from simplified shapes like a (infinitely high) slab or (infinitely thin) strip to more realistic forms like strips with finite rectangular or elliptic cross-section. Another substantial feature of these methods is that the real composite structure containing an array of superconducting filaments can be taken into account. Also, the case of a ferromagnetic matrix can be considered, with the simulations showing a dramatic impact on the local field. In all these circumstances, it is possible to indicate how the AC loss can be reduced by a proper architecture of the composite. On the other hand, the multifilamentary arrangement brings about a presence of coupling currents and coupling loss. Simulation of this phenomenon requires 3D formulation with corresponding growth of the problem complexity and computation time

  6. Meso Mechanical Analysis of AC Mixture Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldekidan, M.F.; Huurman, M.; Vaccari, E.; Poot, M.

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing research into performance modeling of Asphalt Concrete (AC) mixtures using meso mechanics approaches is being undertaken at Delft University of Technology (TUD). The approach has already been successfully employed for evaluating the long term performance of porous asphalt concrete. The work

  7. AC characterization of bulk organic solar cell in the dark and under illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Váry, Michal; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Packa, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A study of organic bulk photovoltaic (PV) solar cell. • Current–voltage characteristics in the dark and under illumination. • AC measurements, both under illumination and in the dark conditions. • Equivalent AC circuit. • Effective lifetime assigned with electron–hole recombination and diffusion time of the electron was estimated. - Abstract: Impedance spectroscopy has been used widely to evaluate the transport processes in photovoltaic, mainly based on inorganic semiconductors, structures – solar cells. The aim of this research was to characterize improved organic bulk photovoltaic (PV) solar cells exploiting this method. Progress in technology of investigated organic solar cell involves the use of an active layer based on low band gap type of polymer. The organic PV cell with front transparent electrode and rear metal electrode and active layer produced by Konarka Technologies was analyzed by electrical DC and AC measurements. Current–voltage (I–V) characteristics in the dark and under illumination were measured and basic PV parameters were calculated. AC measurements, both under illumination and in the dark conditions, were processed in order to identify electronic behavior using equivalent AC circuit which was suggested by fitting of measured impedance data. Circuit with the best correlation to measured data is analyzed in details. Voltage and frequency dependences of fitted equivalent circuit components and calculated parameters are explained and presented in the paper

  8. Research on the Plasma Anemometer Based on AC Glow Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new plasma anemometer based on AC glow discharge is designed in this article. Firstly, theoretical analysis of plasma anemometer working principle is introduced to prove the feasibility of the experimental measurement method. Then the experiments are carried out to study the effects of different parameters on the static discharge characteristics of the plasma anemometer system, by which the system optimization methods are obtained. Finally, several groups of appropriate parameters are selected to build the plasma anemometer system based on resistance capacitance coupling negative feedback AC glow discharge, and different airflow speeds are applied to obtain the achievable velocity measurement range. The results show that there is a linear relationship between airflow velocity and discharge current in an allowable error range, which can be applied for airflow velocity measurement. Negative feedback coupling module, which is composed of the coupling resistance and the coupling capacitance, has good effects on improving the system stability. The measurement range of the airflow velocity is significantly increased when the electrode gap is 3 mm, coupling resistance is 470 Ω, and coupling capacitance is 220 pF.

  9. AC magnetic losses in Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.; Luo, X.M.; Chen, D.X.; Collings, E.W.; Lee, E.; Sumption, M.D.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Yi, H.P.; Fang, J.G.; Gu, C.; Guo, S.Q.; Liu, M.L.; Xin, Y.; Han, Z

    2004-10-01

    AC losses in multi-filamentary tapes depend on various parameters. Among them, the overall tape width and thickness are expected to have an important influence. In order to study this geometrical effect, five Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios from 5 to 26 have been prepared. AC losses have been measured at 77 K when a perpendicular AC magnetic field is applied. It has been found that at any frequencies the magnetic loss per cycle increases as the aspect ratio increases. For AC magnetic loss, with increasing frequency from 3 to 9000 Hz the losses as a function of frequency show a maximum if the field amplitude is much less than the full penetration field or increase continuously if the field amplitude is larger.

  10. AC magnetic losses in Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, J.; Luo, X.M.; Chen, D.X.; Collings, E.W.; Lee, E.; Sumption, M.D.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Yi, H.P.; Fang, J.G.; Gu, C.; Guo, S.Q.; Liu, M.L.; Xin, Y.; Han, Z.

    2004-01-01

    AC losses in multi-filamentary tapes depend on various parameters. Among them, the overall tape width and thickness are expected to have an important influence. In order to study this geometrical effect, five Bi-2223/Ag tapes with different aspect ratios from 5 to 26 have been prepared. AC losses have been measured at 77 K when a perpendicular AC magnetic field is applied. It has been found that at any frequencies the magnetic loss per cycle increases as the aspect ratio increases. For AC magnetic loss, with increasing frequency from 3 to 9000 Hz the losses as a function of frequency show a maximum if the field amplitude is much less than the full penetration field or increase continuously if the field amplitude is larger

  11. Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Jin-Ping [Satellite Venture Business Laboratory, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Sato, Hisao; Mizobuchi, Takashi; Morioka, Kenji; Kawano, Shunsuke; Muramoto, Yoshihiko; Sato, Daisuke; Sakai, Shiro [Nitride Semiconductor Co. Ltd., Naruto, Tokushima 771-0360 (Japan); Lee, Young-Bae; Ohno, Yasuo [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2002-12-16

    Design and fabrication of monolithic blue LED series arrays that can be operated under high ac voltage are described. Several LEDs, such as 3, 7, and 20, are connected in series and in parallel to meet ac operation. The chip size of a single device is 150 {mu}m x 120 {mu}m and the total size is 1.1 mm x 1 mm for a 40(20+20) LED array. Deep dry etching was performed as device isolation. Two-layer interconnection and air bridge are utilized to connect the devices in an array. The monolithic series array exhibit the expected operation function under dc and ac bias. The output power and forward voltage are almost proportional to LED numbers connected in series. On-wafer measurement shows that the output power is 40 mW for 40(20+20) LED array under ac 72 V. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Isolated PDM and PWM DC-AC SICAMs[Pulse Density Modulated; Pulse Width Modulated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2004-03-15

    In this report a class of isolated PDM and PWM DC-AC SICAMs is described, which introduce the audio reference only in the output stage. AC-DC power supply is implemented in its simplest form: diode rectifier followed by a medium-size charge-storage capacitor. Isolation from the AC mains is achieved using a high frequency (HF) transformer, receiving the HF voltage pulses from the input 'inverter' stage and transferring them to the output 'rectifier+inverter' stage, which can use either PDM or PWM. The latter stage is then interfaced to the load using an output low-pass filter. Each of the dedicated stages is discussed in detail. Measurements on the master/slave PWM DC-AC SICAM prototype are presented to help benchmarking the performance of this class of SICAMs and identify the advantages and drawbacks. (au)

  13. Ac, La, and Ce radioimpurities in {sup 225}Ac produced in 40-200 MeV proton irradiations of thorium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, Jonathan W.; Ballard, Beau D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Weidner, John W. [Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Accelerator production of {sup 225}Ac addresses the global supply deficiency currently inhibiting clinical trials from establishing {sup 225}Ac's therapeutic utility, provided that the accelerator product is of sufficient radionuclidic purity for patient use. Two proton activation experiments utilizing the stacked foil technique between 40 and 200 MeV were employed to study the likely co-formation of radionuclides expected to be especially challenging to separate from {sup 225}Ac. Foils were assayed by nondestructive γ-spectroscopy and by α-spectroscopy of chemically processed target material. Nuclear formation cross sections for the radionuclides {sup 226}Ac and {sup 227}Ac as well as lower lanthanide radioisotopes {sup 139}Ce, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 143}Ce, and {sup 140}La whose elemental ionic radii closely match that of actinium were measured and are reported. The predictions of the latest MCNP6 event generators are compared with measured data, as they permit estimation of the formation rates of other radionuclides whose decay emissions are not clearly discerned in the complex spectra collected from {sup 232}Th(p,x) fission product mixtures. (orig.)

  14. High voltage AC/AC electrochemical capacitor operating at low temperature in salt aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Qamar; Béguin, François

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate that an activated carbon (AC)-based electrochemical capacitor implementing aqueous lithium sulfate electrolyte in 7:3 vol:vol water/methanol mixture can operate down to -40 °C with good electrochemical performance. Three-electrode cell investigations show that the faradaic contributions related with hydrogen chemisorption in the negative AC electrode are thermodynamically unfavored at -40 °C, enabling the system to work as a typical electrical double-layer (EDL) capacitor. After prolonged floating of the AC/AC capacitor at 1.6 V and -40°C, the capacitance, equivalent series resistance and efficiency remain constant, demonstrating the absence of ageing related with side redox reactions at this temperature. Interestingly, when temperature is increased back to 24 °C, the redox behavior due to hydrogen storage reappears and the system behaves as a freshly prepared one.

  15. Digital model for harmonic interactions in AC/DC/AC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarini, A P; Rangel, R D; Pilotto, L A.S.; Pinto, R J; Passos, Junior, R [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The main purpose of this paper is to present a model for calculation of HVdc converter harmonics taking into account the influence of the harmonic interactions between the ac systems in dc link transmissions. The ideas and methodologies used in the model development take into account the dc current ripple and ac voltage distortion in the ac systems. The theory of switching functions is applied to contemplate for the frequency conversions between the ac and dc sides, in an iterative process. It is possible then to obtain, even in balanced situations, non-characteristic harmonics that are produced by frequencies originated in the other terminal, which can be significant in a strongly coupled system, such as back-to-back configuration. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion will provide better efficiency and higher level of integration, leading to lower component count, volume and cost, but at the expense of a minor performance deterioration. (au)

  17. Magnetic susceptibility characterisation of superparamagnetic microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, David Tim; Wise, Naomi; Oduwole, Olayinka; Sheard, Steve

    2018-04-01

    The separation of magnetic materials in microsystems using magnetophoresis has increased in popularity. The wide variety and availability of magnetic beads has fuelled this drive. It is important to know the magnetic characteristics of the microspheres in order to accurately use them in separation processes integrated on a lab-on-a-chip device. To investigate the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic microspheres, the magnetic responsiveness of three types of Dynabeads microspheres were tested using two different approaches. The magnetophoretic mobility of individual microspheres is studied using a particle tracking system and the magnetization of each type of Dynabeads microsphere is measured using SQUID relaxometry. The magnetic beads' susceptibility is obtained at four different applied magnetic fields in the range of 38-70 mT for both the mobility and SQUID measurements. The susceptibility values in both approaches show a consistent magnetic field dependence.

  18. Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Oskarsdottir, Nina Dora; Brychta, Robert J; Koster, Annemarie; van Domelen, Dane R; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna E; Johannsson, Erlingur; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Chen, Kong Y; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2017-10-21

    In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (β = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in ≥5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data.

  19. Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Yr Arnardottir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA and sedentary behavior (SB. Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (β = 0.36. Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA, and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA was accumulated in ≥5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data.

  20. Introduction to electronic relaxation in solids: mechanisms and measuring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonville, P.

    1983-01-01

    The fluctuations of electronic magnetic moments in solids may be investigated by several techniques, either electronic or nuclear. This paper is an introduction of the most frequently encountered paramagnetic relaxation mechanisms (phonons, conduction electrons, exchange or dipolar interactions) in condensed matter, and to the different techniques used for measuring relaxation frequencies: electronic paramagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance, Moessbauer spectroscopy, inelastic neutron scattering, measurement of longitudinal ac susceptibility and γ-γ perturbed angular correlations. We mainly focus our attention on individual ionic fluctuation spectra, the majority of the experimental work refered to concerning rare earth systems [fr

  1. Increased frequency of pink bollworm resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt kill some key insect pests, but evolution of resistance by pests can reduce their efficacy. The main approach for delaying pest adaptation to Bt crops uses non-Bt host plants as "refuges" to increase survival of susceptible pests. To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac, the United States and some other countries have required refuges of non-Bt cotton, while farmers in China have relied on "natural" refuges of non-Bt host plants other than cotton. The "natural" refuge strategy focuses on cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera, the primary target of Bt cotton in China that attacks many crops, but it does not apply to another major pest, pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, which feeds almost entirely on cotton in China. Here we report data showing field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac by pink bollworm in the Yangtze River Valley of China. Laboratory bioassay data from 51 field-derived strains show that the susceptibility to Cry1Ac was significantly lower during 2008 to 2010 than 2005 to 2007. The percentage of field populations yielding one or more survivors at a diagnostic concentration of Cry1Ac increased from 0% in 2005-2007 to 56% in 2008-2010. However, the median survival at the diagnostic concentration was only 1.6% from 2008 to 2010 and failure of Bt cotton to control pink bollworm has not been reported in China. The early detection of resistance reported here may promote proactive countermeasures, such as a switch to transgenic cotton producing toxins distinct from Cry1A toxins, increased planting of non-Bt cotton, and integration of other management tactics together with Bt cotton.

  2. Measurement of the parity-violation parameters Ab and Ac from the left-right forward-backward asymmetry of leptons in hadronic events at the Z0 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.; Abt, I.; Ahn, C.J.; Akagi, T.; Ash, W.W.; Aston, D.; Bacchetta, N.; Baird, K.G.; Baltay, C.; Band, H.R.; Barakat, M.B.; Baranko, G.; Bardon, O.; Barklow, T.; Bazarko, A.O.; Ben-David, R.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Bienz, T.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Blaylock, G.; Bogart, J.R.; Bolton, T.; Bower, G.R.; Brau, J.E.; Breidenbach, M.; Bugg, W.M.; Burke, D.; Burnett, T.H.; Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Calcaterra, A.; Caldwell, D.O.; Calloway, D.; Camanzi, B.; Carpinelli, M.; Cassell, R.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Church, E.; Cohn, H.O.; Coller, J.A.; Cook, V.; Cotton, R.; Cowan, R.F.; Coyne, D.G.; D'Oliveira, A.; Damerell, C.J.S.; Dasu, S.; De Sangro, R.; De Simone, P.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dima, M.; Du, P.Y.C.; Dubois, R.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Elia, R.; Falciai, D.; Fan, C.; Fero, M.J.; Frey, R.; Furuno, K.; Gillman, T.; Gladding, G.; Gonzalez, S.; Hallewell, G.D.; Hart, E.L.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hedges, S.; Hertzbach, S.S.; Hildreth, M.D.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.E.; Hughes, E.W.; Hwang, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Jaros, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Johnson, J.R.; Johnson, R.A.; Junk, T.; Kajikawa, R.; Kalelkar, M.; Karliner, I.; Kawahara, H.; Kendall, H.W.; Kim, Y.; King, M.E.; King, R.; Kofler, R.R.; Krishna, N.M.; Kroeger, R.S.; Labs, J.F.; Langston, M.; Lath, A.; Lauber, J.A.; Leith, D.W.G.; Liu, X.; Loreti, M.; Lu, A.; Lynch, H.L.; Ma, J.; Mancinelli, G.; Manly, S.; Mantovani, G.; Markiewicz, T.W.; Maruyama, T.; Massetti, R.; Masuda, H.; Mazzucato, E.; McKemey, A.K.; Meadows, B.T.; Messner, R.; Mockett, P.M.; Moffeit, K.C.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Neal, H.; Nussbaum, M.; Ohnishi, Y.; Osborne, L.S.; Panvini, R.S.; Park, H.; Pavel, T.J.; Peruzzi, I.; Pescara, L.; Piccolo, M.; Piemontese, L.; Pieroni, E.; Pitts, K.T.; Plano, R.J.; Prepost, R.; Prescott, C.Y.; Punkar, G.D.; Quigley, J.; Ratcliff, B.N.; Reeves, T.W.; Rensing, P.E.; Rochester, L.S.; Rothberg, J.E.; Rowson, P.C.; Russell, J.J.; Saxton, O.H.; Schalk, T.

    1995-01-01

    The parity-violating parameters A b and A c are directly measured by the SLD experiment at the SLAC Linear Collider in e + e - collisions with polarized electrons at the Z 0 resonance. Leptons with distinctive total and transverse momenta are used to select and analyze Z 0 →bcbar events. A b and A c are extracted by forming the left-right forward-backward asymmetry in electron beam polarization and quark polar angle. From our 1993 sample of 1.8 pb --1 of Z 0 decay data with an average electron beam polarization of 63% we find A b =0.91±0.14 (stat) ±0.07 (syst) and A c =0.37±0.23 (stat) ±0.21 (syst)

  3. Faradaic AC Electrokinetic Flow and Particle Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Yuxing; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2004-11-01

    Faradaic reaction at higher voltages can produce co-ion polarization at AC electrodes instead of counter-ion polarization due to capacitive charging from the bulk. The Faradaic co-ion polarization also does not screen the external field and hence can produce large net electro-kinetic flows at frequencies lower than the inverse RC time of the double layer. Due to the opposite polarization of capacitve and Faradaic charging, we can reverse the direction of AC flows on electrodes by changing the voltage and frequency. Particles and bacteria are trapped and then dispersed at stagnation lines, at locations predicted by our theory, by using these two flows sequentially. This technique offers a good way to concentrate and detect bacteria.

  4. AC application of second generation HTS wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, C. L. H.; Gagnon, K.; Voccio, J.; Aized, D.; Claassen, J.

    2008-02-01

    For the production of Second Generation (2G) YBCO High Temperature Superconductor wire American Superconductor uses a wide-strip MOD-YBCO/RABiTSTM process, a low-cost approach for commercial manufacturing. It can be engineered with a high degree of flexibility to manufacture practical 2G conductors with architectures and properties tailored for specific applications and operating conditions. For ac applications conductor and coil design can be geared towards low hysteretic losses. For applications which experience high frequency ac fields, the stabilizer needs to be adjusted for low eddy current losses. For these applications a stainless-steel laminate is used. An example is a Low Pass Filter Inductor which was developed and built in this work.

  5. Brain Potentials and Personality: A New Look at Stress Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    disinhibition (Dis) measures a hedonistic , extraverted lifestyle including drinking, parties, sex, and gambling; boredom susceptibility (BS) indicates an...adventure seeking; ES = Experience seeking; Dis = Disinhibition; BS = Boredom susceptibility. 1 14 I N i*5’ Table 4 Correlation of Auditory Evoked...20. aTAS = Thrill and adventure seeking; ES = Experience seeking; Dis = Disinhibition; BS = Boredom susceptibility. < .05. 15 I The present study

  6. The LHC AC Dipole system: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The LHC AC Dipole is an instrument to study properties of the LHC lattice by inducing large transverse displacements in the beam. These displacements are generated by exciting the beam with an oscillating magnetic field at a frequency close to the tune. This paper presents the system requirements and the technical solution chosen to meet them, based of high-power audio amplifiers and a resonant parallel RLC circuit.

  7. Modeling photovoltaic systems for AC appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maria Neaca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is described the development of a model which can simulate the performance of a photovoltaic (PV system under specific meteorological conditions and transforming the DC current into AC current. In this model, the accent stands on the design of a series charge regulator. It is treated also the benefit of creating a circuit, with different methods, that can test the maximum power point trackers (MPPT for different photovoltaic applications.

  8. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, distributed energy resources (DER) technology has undergone a fast development. Increased penetration of DER units and wide spread use of renewable energy sources challenge the entire architecture of traditional power system. Microgrid, characterizing higher flexibility......, microgrid controls and power management strategies are presented. Future trends of microgrid are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible AC grid....

  9. CTE Corrections for WFPC2 and ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2003-07-01

    The error budget for optical broadband photometry is dominated by three factors: CTE corrections, long-short anomaly corrections, and photometric zero points. Questions about the dependencies of the CTE have largely been resolved, and my CTE corrections have been included in the WFPC2 handbook and tutorial. What remains to be done is the determination of the "final" CTE correction at the end of the WFPC2 mission, which will increase the accuracy of photometry obtained in the final few cycles. The long-short anomaly is still the subject of much debate, as it remains unclear whethere or not this effect is real and, if so, what its size and nature is. Photometric zero points have likewise varied by over 0.05 magnitudes in the literature, and will likely remain unresolved until the long-short anomaly is addressed {given that most calibration exposures are short while most science exposures are long}. It is also becoming apparent that similar issues will affect the accuracy of ACS photometry, and consequently that an ACS CTE study analogous to my WFPC2 work would significantly improve the calibration of ACS. I therefore propose to use archival WFPC2 images of omega Cen and ACS images of 47 Tuc to continue my HST calibration work. I also propose to begin work on "next-generation" CTE corrections, in which corrections are applied to the images based on accurate charge-trapping models rather than to the reduced photometry. This technique will allow for more accurate CTE corrections in certain cases {such as a star above a bright star or on a variable background}, improved PSF-fitting photometry of faint stars, and image restoration for accurate analysis of extended objects.

  10. Flame spread over inclined electrical wires with AC electric fields

    KAUST Repository

    Lim, Seung J.; Park, Sun H.; Park, Jeong; Fujita, Osamu; Keel, Sang I.; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Flame spread over polyethylene-insulated electrical wires was studied experimentally with applied alternating current (AC) by varying the inclination angle (θ), applied voltage (VAC), and frequency (fAC). For the baseline case with no electric field

  11. The Hubble Legacy Archive ACS grism data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, M.; Rosati, P.; Fosbury, R.; Haase, J.; Hook, R. N.; Kuntschner, H.; Lombardi, M.; Micol, A.; Nilsson, K. K.; Stoehr, F.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    A public release of slitless spectra, obtained with ACS/WFC and the G800L grism, is presented. Spectra were automatically extracted in a uniform way from 153 archival fields (or "associations") distributed across the two Galactic caps, covering all observations to 2008. The ACS G800L grism provides a wavelength range of 0.55-1.00 μm, with a dispersion of 40 Å/pixel and a resolution of ~80 Å for point-like sources. The ACS G800L images and matched direct images were reduced with an automatic pipeline that handles all steps from archive retrieval, alignment and astrometric calibration, direct image combination, catalogue generation, spectral extraction and collection of metadata. The large number of extracted spectra (73,581) demanded automatic methods for quality control and an automated classification algorithm was trained on the visual inspection of several thousand spectra. The final sample of quality controlled spectra includes 47 919 datasets (65% of the total number of extracted spectra) for 32 149 unique objects, with a median iAB-band magnitude of 23.7, reaching 26.5 AB for the faintest objects. Each released dataset contains science-ready 1D and 2D spectra, as well as multi-band image cutouts of corresponding sources and a useful preview page summarising the direct and slitless data, astrometric and photometric parameters. This release is part of the continuing effort to enhance the content of the Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) with highly processed data products which significantly facilitate the scientific exploitation of the Hubble data. In order to characterize the slitless spectra, emission-line flux and equivalent width sensitivity of the ACS data were compared with public ground-based spectra in the GOODS-South field. An example list of emission line galaxies with two or more identified lines is also included, covering the redshift range 0.2 - 4.6. Almost all redshift determinations outside of the GOODS fields are new. The scope of science projects

  12. Alpha decay 225 Ac → 221Fr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, K. Ya.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Malov, L.A.; Fominykh, V.I.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.V.; Chumin, V.G.; Jakushev, E.A.; Kudrya, S.A.; Sergienko, V.A.; Malikov, Sh.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Considerable attention has been given to nuclei with A = 220 - 230 recently. In this region there occurs transition from the spherical to the deformed nuclear shape, which gives rise to some specific features in the nuclear structure. In particular, negative parity levels with low excitation energies have been found in even-even nuclei from this region [1, 2]. One of the nuclei allowing experimental investigation of the above properties is 221 Fr. The nuclide 221 Fr is from the region of isotopes which does not include stable nuclei and thus it cannot be studied in several-nucleon transfer reactions. In addition, the neutron excess in this nucleus makes it impossible to study the nucleus in reactions with heavy ions. Experimental information on the 221 Fr level structure can only be gained from investigation of the 225 Ac (T 1/2 = 10 days) alpha decay or the 221 Rn (T 1/2 = 25 min) beta decay. In the latter case the possibilities of the investigation are restricted by difficulties in making of 221 Rn sources. Therefore, most information on the structure and properties of 221 Fr is derived from investigation of the 225 Ac α -decay [3]. In-depth investigation of ( α - γ )- coincidences at the 225 Ac decay is carried out. Twenty-one new weak γ - rays are found; 18 γ-rays earlier ascribed to the 225 Ac decay are not confirmed. The quantitative analysis of the ( α - γ )- coincidences makes it possible to find the intensity of 221 Fr levels by the decay and multipolarities of five weak γ -transitions. The conversion electron spectrum is investigated in the range of 5 † 24 keV with a high (some 20 eV) energy resolution. A new M1 type 10.6-keV γ-transition is found. The proposed 225 Ac decay scheme includes 31 excited 221 Fr states. Parities are established for 16 of them. Possible spin values are proposed for 221 Fr levels. Properties of excited 221 Fr states are satisfactorily described by the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model without the

  13. Electrical actuation of electrically conducting and insulating droplets using ac and dc voltages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, N; Bahadur, V; Garimella, S V

    2008-01-01

    Electrical actuation of liquid droplets at the microscale offers promising applications in the fields of microfluidics and lab-on-chip devices. Much prior research has targeted the electrical actuation of electrically conducting liquid droplets using dc voltages (classical electrowetting). Electrical actuation of conducting droplets using ac voltages and the actuation of insulating droplets (using dc or ac voltages) has remained relatively unexplored. This paper utilizes an energy-minimization-based analytical framework to study the electrical actuation of a liquid droplet (electrically conducting or insulating) under ac actuation. It is shown that the electromechanical regimes of classical electrowetting, electrowetting under ac actuation and insulating droplet actuation can be extracted from the generic electromechanical actuation framework, depending on the electrical properties of the droplet, the underlying dielectric layer and the frequency of the actuation voltage. This paper also presents experiments which quantify the influence of the ac frequency and the electrical properties of the droplet on its velocity under electrical actuation. The velocities of droplets moving between two parallel plates under ac actuation are experimentally measured; these velocities are then related to the actuation force on the droplet which is predicted by the electromechanical model developed in this work. It is seen that the droplet velocities are strongly dependent on the frequency of the ac actuation voltage; the cut-off ac frequency, above which the droplet fails to actuate, is experimentally determined and related to the electrical conductivity of the liquid. This paper then analyzes and directly compares the various electromechanical regimes for the actuation of droplets in microfluidic applications

  14. Magnetic susceptibility of 244Cm metal and 249Cf metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, D.K.; Parsons, T.C.; Edelstein, N.; Noe, M.; Peterson, J.R.

    1975-07-01

    The first magnetic susceptibility measurements made on the expanded fcc phase of 249 Cf metal are reported. Further measurements are needed on other Cf metal phases. Another measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of 244 Cm metal in a limited temperature range has been reported. The result does not agree with previously reported values. Further work is continuing on the synthesis of 244 Cm metal and 248 Cm metal and magnetic measurements on these samples. (auth)

  15. Utilização de medidas antropométricas para a avaliação do acúmulo de gordura visceral The use of anthropometric measures to assess visceral fat accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques

    2010-02-01

    accurate and precise measurement of visceral fat. However, both are costly and inapplicable in routine clinical practice and epidemiological studies. Anthropometric parameters are an option for visceral fat assessment in these situations, since they are innocuous, easy to use and inexpensive. In this context, this work aimed to critically analyze studies that assessed anthropometric parameters as indicators of visceral fat. A bibliographic review of domestic and international articles found in the databases Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Science Direct and Pubmed, published from 1947 to 2007 was done. Emphasis was given to anthropometric parameters, such as body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and sagittal abdominal diameter.

  16. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTATION IN AC ELECTROGRAVIMETRY II: IMPLEMENTED DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Torres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed description of the electronic system designed to improve the measurements in an experimental AC electrogravimetry setup is presented. This system is committed to acquire appropriated data for determining the Electrogravimetric Transfer Function (EGTF and provide information regarding the mass transfer in an electrochemical cell in the AC Electrogravimetry Technique, but maintaining a good trade-off between the locking frequency bandwidth and the resolution in the frequency tracking, that is, enlarging the bandwidth of the system to follow signals with frequency as higher as 1 kHz, but maintaining an accurate and continuous tracking of this signal. The enlarged bandwidth allows the study of fast kinetic process in electrochemical applications and the continuous tracking let to achieve a precise measurement with good resolution rather than average frequency records obtained by conventional frequency meters. The system is based on an Analogue-Digital Phase Locked Loop (A-D PLL.En este artículo se presenta una descripción detallada del sistema electrónico diseñado para mejorar las medidas en un sistema experimental de electrogravimetría AC. El sistema diseñado se encarga de adquirir los datos adecuados para determinar la función de transferencia electrogravimétrica (EGTF y proveer información relacionada con la transferencia de masa en una celda electroquímica en la técnica de electrogravimetría AC, pero manteniendo un buen compromiso entre el ancho de banda de enganche y la resolución en el seguimiento de la frecuencia, es decir, el sistema incrementa el ancho de banda para permitir el seguimiento de señales con frecuencias hasta de 1 kHz, pero conservando un exacto y continuo seguimiento de esta señal. El aumento del ancho de banda permite el estudio de procesos con una cinética rápida en aplicaciones electroquímicas y el seguimiento continuo de la señal permite la obtención de medidas precisas con buena resoluci

  17. Study of the electric Held in HTS tape caused by perpendicular AC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roiberg, V; Kopansky, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: In a previous work we studied the influence of AC magnetic fields on voltage-currents (V-I) characteristics of high temperature superconducting (HTS) multi filament BSCC0-2223 tapes. It was found that AC magnetic fields perpendicular to the ab plane (the wide surface of the tape) cause a linear decrease of the critical current (IC) with amplitude of the AC magnetic field. The degradation of IC in .AC field was explained by the geometrical model according to which the transport current floe: is confined to the central zone of the tape where .AC field does not penetrate. For deeper understanding of the observed phenomena we carried out a study of the time dependence of the electric field during the cycle of AC field. At the same time we expanded the frequency range to low frequencies down to 1 Hz. The main results of the work are as following. 1. The time modulation of the electric field E in the HTS tape carrying transport DC current has the double frequency relating to AC magnetic field. 2. In field amplitudes less than 70 G the electric field modulation decreases with increasing frequency in opposite to its well-pronounced increase in higher AC field amplitudes. Alcove 70 G, the electric field increases with increasing the frequency of the external magnetic field. The wave forms of the electric field are different in both amplitudes ranges. 3. E-I curves of the tape in low amplitudes are frequency independent and coincide with E-l curves in AC field with intensity equal to the AC field amplitude. 4. In high AC field amplitudes, a strong dependence of the E-I curves on frequency is observed in the frequency range of 1-40 Hz and no dependence is observed in higher frequencies. Our results suggest that a combination of the geometrical model with flux creep concepts is necessary for a better understanding of the electric field behavior in our measurement conditions

  18. Importance of Attenuation Correction (AC) for Small Animal PET Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ali, Henrik H.; Bodholdt, Rasmus Poul; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær

    2012-01-01

    was performed. Methods: Ten NMRI nude mice with subcutaneous implantation of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were scanned consecutively in small animal PET and CT scanners (MicroPETTM Focus 120 and ImTek’s MicroCATTM II). CT-based AC, PET-based AC and uniform AC methods were compared. Results: The activity...

  19. Updating the HST/ACS G800L Grism Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathi, Nimish P.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman A.; Chiaberge, Marco; ACS Team

    2018-06-01

    We present results from our ongoing work on obtaining newly derived trace and wavelength calibrations of the HST/ACS G800L grism and comparing them to previous set of calibrations. Past calibration efforts were based on 2003 observations. New observations of an emission line Wolf-Rayet star (WR96) were recently taken in HST Cycle 25 (PID: 15401). These observations are used to analyze and measure various grism properties, including wavelength calibration, spectral trace/tilt, length/size of grism orders, and spacing between various grism orders. To account for the field dependence, we observe WR96 at 3 different observing positions over the HST/ACS field of view. The three locations are the center of chip 1, the center of chip 2, and the center of the WFC1A-2K subarray (center of WFC Amp A on chip 1). This new data will help us to evaluate any differences in the G800L grism properties compared to previous calibration data, and to apply improved data analysis techniques to update these old measurements.

  20. SQUIDs De-fluxing Using a Decaying AC Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlashov, Andrei Nikolaevich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Semenov, Vasili Kirilovich [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Anderson, Bill [Senior Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Flux trapping is the Achilles’ heel of all superconductor electronics. The most direct way to avoid flux trapping is a prevention of superconductor circuits from exposure to magnetic fields. Unfortunately this is not feasible if the circuits must be exposed to a strong DC magnetic field even for a short period of time. For example, such unavoidable exposures take place in superparamagnetic relaxation measurements (SPMR) and ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging (ULF MRI) using unshielded thin-film SQUID-based gradiometers. Unshielded SQUIDs stop working after being exposed to DC magnetic fields of only a few Gauss in strength. In this paper we present experimental results with de-fluxing of planar thin-film LTS SQUID-based gradiometers using a strong decaying AC magnetic field. We used four commercial G136 gradiometers for SPMR measurements with up to a 10 mT magnetizing field. Strong 12.9 kHz decaying magnetic field pulses reliably return SQUIDs to normal operation 50 ms after zeroing the DC magnetizing field. This new AC de-fluxing method was also successfully tested with seven other different types of LTS SQUID sensors and has been shown to dissipate extremely low energy.

  1. Development of a hardware-based AC microgrid for AC stability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Robert R.

    As more power electronic-based devices enable the development of high-bandwidth AC microgrids, the topic of microgrid power distribution stability has become of increased interest. Recently, researchers have proposed a relatively straightforward method to assess the stability of AC systems based upon the time-constants of sources, the net bus capacitance, and the rate limits of sources. In this research, a focus has been to develop a hardware test system to evaluate AC system stability. As a first step, a time domain model of a two converter microgrid was established in which a three phase inverter acts as a power source and an active rectifier serves as an adjustable constant power AC load. The constant power load can be utilized to create rapid power flow transients to the generating system. As a second step, the inverter and active rectifier were designed using a Smart Power Module IGBT for switching and an embedded microcontroller as a processor for algorithm implementation. The inverter and active rectifier were designed to operate simultaneously using a synchronization signal to ensure each respective local controller operates in a common reference frame. Finally, the physical system was created and initial testing performed to validate the hardware functionality as a variable amplitude and variable frequency AC system.

  2. Pixel-based CTE Correction of ACS/WFC: Modifications To The ACS Calibration Pipeline (CALACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda J.; Anderson, J.; Armstrong, A.; Avila, R.; Bedin, L.; Chiaberge, M.; Davis, M.; Ferguson, B.; Fruchter, A.; Golimowski, D.; Grogin, N.; Hack, W.; Lim, P. L.; Lucas, R.; Maybhate, A.; McMaster, M.; Ogaz, S.; Suchkov, A.; Ubeda, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) nearly ten years ago. Over the last decade, continuous exposure to the harsh radiation environment has degraded the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) of the CCDs. The worsening CTE impacts the science that can be obtained by altering the photometric, astrometric and morphological characteristics of sources, particularly those farthest from the readout amplifiers. To ameliorate these effects, Anderson & Bedin (2010, PASP, 122, 1035) developed a pixel-based empirical approach to correcting ACS data by characterizing the CTE profiles of trails behind warm pixels in dark exposures. The success of this technique means that it is now possible to correct full-frame ACS/WFC images for CTE degradation in the standard data calibration and reduction pipeline CALACS. Over the past year, the ACS team at STScI has developed, refined and tested the new software. The details of this work are described in separate posters. The new code is more effective at low flux levels (repair ACS electronics) and pixel-based CTE correction. In addition to the standard cosmic ray corrected, flat-fielded and drizzled data products (crj, flt and drz files) there are three new equivalent files (crc, flc and drc) which contain the CTE-corrected data products. The user community will be able to choose whether to use the standard or CTE-corrected products.

  3. Tobacco Marketing, E-cigarette Susceptibility, and Perceptions among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Snell, L Morgan; Rudy, Alyssa K; Cobb, Caroline O; Barnes, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the impact of tobacco marketing on e-cigarette (EC) susceptibility and perceptions is essential to inform efforts to mitigate tobacco product burden on public health. Data were collected online in 2016 from 634 conventional cigarette (CC) smokers and 393 non-smokers using a convenience sample from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Logistic regression models, stratified by smoking status and adjusted for socio-demographics, examined the relationship among tobacco advertisements and coupons, EC and CC susceptibility, and EC perceptions. Among non-smokers, increased exposure to tobacco advertising and receiving tobacco coupons was significantly related to measures of EC and CC susceptibility (p marketing reduce EC use by decreasing susceptibility.

  4. Loss optimizing low power 50 Hz transformers intended for AC/DC standby power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the measured efficiency on selected low power conventional 50 Hz/230 V-AC transformers. The small transformers are intended for use in 1 W@5 V-DC series- or buck-regulated power supplies for standby purposes. The measured efficiency is compared for cheap off-the-self transformer...

  5. Comparison of AC electronic monitoring and field data for estimating tolerance to Empoasca kraemeri (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) in common bean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, M S; Backus, E A; Cardona, C

    2000-12-01

    Two methods for estimating the tolerance of common bean genotypes to Empoasca kraemeri Ross & Moore were compared, using a yield trial carried out at Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT), Cali, Colombia, versus stylet penetration tactics measured by AC electronic feeding monitors. A stylet penetration index was devised based on principal component scores of three penetration tactics identified (pulsing laceration, cell rupturing, and lancing sap ingestion), combined with knowledge of the hopperburn symptoms caused by each tactic. Tolerant genotypes, as classified by the CIAT yield index, showed significantly more unprotected yield and lower hopperburn scores than the susceptible control. They also induced performance of less pulsing laceration (the tactic considered most damaging to the plant), and more of the other two, mitigating tactics, especially cell rupturing. When index values were calculated for each genotype, stylet penetration index values matched those of the yield index for three out of five genotypes: two EMP-coded tolerant lines ('EMP 385' and 'EMP 392') and the susceptible control 'BAT 41'. Thus, for these three genotypes, all subsequent hoppereburn symptoms are predictable by the type of feeding behavior performed on them. 'Porrillo Sintético' and 'EMP 84', considered borderline genotypes by the yield index, were overestimated and underestimated respectively, by the stylet penetration index. We postulate that, for these two genotypes, plant physiological responses to feeding (either compensatory or heightened sensitivity, respectively) synergize with type of feeding performed to generate the overall hopperburn condition. This multivariate analysis of electronic monitoring data was successfully used to devise an index of resistance. The implications of using the stylet penetration index and the advantages of using electronic monitoring in a bean-breeding program are discussed.

  6. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langkammer, Christian; Pirpamer, Lukas; Seiler, Stephan; Deistung, Andreas; Schweser, Ferdinand; Franthal, Sebastian; Homayoon, Nina; Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Koegl-Wallner, Mariella; Pendl, Tamara; Stoegerer, Eva Maria; Wenzel, Karoline; Fazekas, Franz; Ropele, Stefan; Reichenbach, Jürgen Rainer; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schwingenschuh, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and R2* relaxation rate mapping have demonstrated increased iron deposition in the substantia nigra of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the findings in other subcortical deep gray matter nuclei are converse and the sensitivity of QSM and R2* for morphological changes and their relation to clinical measures of disease severity has so far been investigated only sparsely. The local ethics committee approved this study and all subjects gave written informed consent. 66 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 58 control subjects underwent quantitative MRI at 3T. Susceptibility and R2* maps were reconstructed from a spoiled multi-echo 3D gradient echo sequence. Mean susceptibilities and R2* rates were measured in subcortical deep gray matter nuclei and compared between patients with PD and controls as well as related to clinical variables. Compared to control subjects, patients with PD had increased R2* values in the substantia nigra. QSM also showed higher susceptibilities in patients with PD in substantia nigra, in the nucleus ruber, thalamus, and globus pallidus. Magnetic susceptibility of several of these structures was correlated with the levodopa-equivalent daily dose (LEDD) and clinical markers of motor and non-motor disease severity (total MDS-UPDRS, MDS-UPDRS-I and II). Disease severity as assessed by the Hoehn & Yahr scale was correlated with magnetic susceptibility in the substantia nigra. The established finding of higher R2* rates in the substantia nigra was extended by QSM showing superior sensitivity for PD-related tissue changes in nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways. QSM additionally reflected the levodopa-dosage and disease severity. These results suggest a more widespread pathologic involvement and QSM as a novel means for its investigation, more sensitive than current MRI techniques.

  7. Susceptibility for thin ideal media and eating styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    This study examined the relations between susceptibility for thin ideal media and restrained, emotional and external eating, directly and indirectly through body dissatisfaction. Thin ideal media susceptibility, body dissatisfaction and eating styles were measured in a sample of 163 female students.

  8. Self-field ac losses in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tape conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Y.; Hosaka, M.; Sadakata, N.; Saitoh, T.; Kohno, O.; Takeda, K.

    1997-01-01

    Self-field ac losses were measured by the conventional ac four-probe method in biaxially aligned Y endash Ba endash Cu endash O tapes using polycrystalline Hastelloy tapes with textured yttria-stabilized-zirconia buffer layers. The ac losses increased in proportion to the fourth power of transport current in the high J c sample, and agreed well with Norris close-quote equation for thin strip conductors. However, the low J c sample had rather higher losses than Norris close-quote prediction, suggesting excessive magnetic flux penetration caused by percolated current paths. The results confirmed Norris close-quote prediction of the low ac losses for thin strip conductors, and indicated the importance of removing percolated structures of current paths to avoid higher ac losses than the theoretical predictions based on uniform conductors. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF AC ELECTRIC POINT MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. YU. Buryak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In order to ensure reliability, security, and the most important the continuity of the transportation process, it is necessary to develop, implement, and then improve the automated methods of diagnostic mechanisms, devices and rail transport systems. Only systems that operate in real time mode and transmit data on the instantaneous state of the control objects can timely detect any faults and thus provide additional time for their correction by railway employees. Turnouts are one of the most important and responsible components, and therefore require the development and implementation of such diagnostics system.Methodology. Achieving the goal of monitoring and control of railway automation objects in real time is possible only with the use of an automated process of the objects state diagnosing. For this we need to know the diagnostic features of a control object, which determine its state at any given time. The most rational way of remote diagnostics is the shape and current spectrum analysis that flows in the power circuits of railway automatics. Turnouts include electric motors, which are powered by electric circuits, and the shape of the current curve depends on both the condition of the electric motor, and the conditions of the turnout maintenance. Findings. For the research and analysis of AC electric point motor it was developed its mathematical model. The calculation of parameters and interdependencies between the main factors affecting the operation of the asynchronous machine was conducted. The results of the model operation in the form of time dependences of the waveform curves of current on the load on engine shaft were obtained. Originality. During simulation the model of AC electric point motor, which satisfies the conditions of adequacy was built. Practical value. On the basis of the constructed model we can study the AC motor in various mode of operation, record and analyze current curve, as a response to various changes

  10. First thin AC-coupled silicon strip sensors on 8-inch wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergauer, T., E-mail: thomas.bergauer@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Dragicevic, M.; König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, 1050 Wien (Vienna) (Austria); Hacker, J.; Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach (Austria)

    2016-09-11

    The Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna and the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies Austria AG developed a production process for planar AC-coupled silicon strip sensors manufactured on 200 μm thick 8-inch p-type wafers. In late 2015, the first wafers were delivered featuring the world's largest AC-coupled silicon strip sensors. Detailed electrical measurements were carried out at HEPHY, where single strip and global parameters were measured. Mechanical studies were conducted and the long-term behavior was investigated using a climate chamber. Furthermore, the electrical properties of various test structures were investigated to validate the quality of the manufacturing process.

  11. A simple technique for a.c. conductivity measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    This study also gives information on electrical properties of materials and their ... these functions in the complex plane which is known as. Nyquist diagrams. .... plished with a low noise precision difet Op. Amp. OPA111. (Burr-Brown 1998).

  12. Magnetic measurements under pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zentková, M.; Arnold, Zdeněk; Mihalik, M.; Mihalik, M.; Zentko, A.; Kamarád, Jiří; Mitróová, Z.; Mat`aš, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 57, 8/S (2006), s. 29-32 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : hydrostatic pressure * Prussian blue analogues * AC susceptibility * intermetallic compound * ferromagnetism * errimagnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  13. Protection of AC and DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beheshtaein, Siavash; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    and DC microgrids, and then investigates the existing and promising solutions for the corresponding challenges. To the authors’ knowledge, three parts of smart grids are required to be developed to facilitate implementation of protection scheme in microgrids. The main requirements and open issues......In future, distributed energy resources (RESs) will be utilized at consumption points. As a consequence, power flow and fault current would be bidirectional and topologydependent; and hence the conventional protection strategies would be inefficient. This paper categorizes the main challenges in AC...

  14. Flexible AC transmission systems modelling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Pal, Bikash

    2012-01-01

    The extended and revised second edition of this successful monograph presents advanced modeling, analysis and control techniques of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS). The book covers comprehensively a range of power-system control problems: from steady-state voltage and power flow control, to voltage and reactive power control, to voltage stability control, to small signal stability control using FACTS controllers. In the six years since the first edition of the book has been published research on the FACTS has continued to flourish while renewable energy has developed into a mature and

  15. Comparative Genomics of Two ST 195 Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with Different Susceptibility to Polymyxin Revealed Underlying Resistance Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Soo-Sum; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Suhaili, Zarizal; Thong, Kwai-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen of importance due to its uncanny ability to acquire resistance to most antimicrobials. These include carbapenems, which are the drugs of choice for treating A. baumannii infections, and polymyxins, the drugs of last resort. Whole genome sequencing was performed on two clinical carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii AC29 and AC30 strains which had an indistinguishable ApaI pulsotype but different susceptibilities to polymyxin. Both genomes consisted of an approximately 3.8 Mbp circular chromosome each and several plasmids. AC29 (susceptible to polymyxin) and AC30 (resistant to polymyxin) belonged to the ST195 lineage and are phylogenetically clustered under the International Clone II (IC-II) group. An AbaR4-type resistance island (RI) interrupted the comM gene in the chromosomes of both strains and contained the blaOXA−23 carbapenemase gene and determinants for tetracycline and streptomycin resistance. AC29 harbored another copy of blaOXA−23 in a large (~74 kb) conjugative plasmid, pAC29b, but this gene was absent in a similar plasmid (pAC30c) found in AC30. A 7 kb Tn1548::armA RI which encodes determinants for aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance, is chromosomally-located in AC29 but found in a 16 kb plasmid in AC30, pAC30b. Analysis of known determinants for polymyxin resistance in AC30 showed mutations in the pmrA gene encoding the response regulator of the two-component pmrAB signal transduction system as well as in the lpxD, lpxC, and lpsB genes that encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Experimental evidence indicated that impairment of LPS along with overexpression of pmrAB may have contributed to the development of polymyxin resistance in AC30. Cloning of a novel variant of the blaAmpC gene from AC29 and AC30, and its subsequent expression in E. coli also indicated its likely function as an extended-spectrum cephalosporinase. PMID:26779129

  16. Three-Level AC-DC-AC Z-Source Converter Using Reduced Passive Component Count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, Feng; Tan, Pee-Chin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a three-level ac-dc-ac Z-source converter with output voltage buck-boost capability. The converter is implemented by connecting a low-cost front-end diode rectifier to a neutral-point-clamped inverter through a single X-shaped LC impedance network. The inverter is controlled...... to switch with a three-level output voltage, where the middle neutral potential is uniquely tapped from the star-point of a wye-connected capacitive filter placed before the front-end diode rectifier for input current filtering. Through careful control, the resulting converter can produce the correct volt...

  17. Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens display different susceptibility responses to Cry1A insecticidal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Xu, Yangyang; Han, Cao; Han, Lanzhi; Hou, Maolin; Peng, Yufa

    2015-10-01

    Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens are important lepidopteran rice pests that occur concurrently in rice-growing areas of China. The development of transgenic rice expressing Cry1A insecticidal proteins has provided a useful strategy for controlling these pests. This study evaluated the baseline susceptibilities of C. suppressalis and S. inferens to Cry1A, as well as their responses to selection with Cry1A. Wide geographic variation in susceptibility was observed across all field populations. Within a given population, the LC50 of both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac against S. inferens was drastically higher than that of C. suppressalis. Large LC50 differences (74.6-fold) were detected between the two species for Cry1Ab in the Poyang population, while small differences (3.6-fold) were detected for Cry1Ac in the Changsha population. The Cry1Ac LC50 of C. suppressalis and S. inferens increased 8.4- and 4.4-fold after 21 and eight selection generations respectively. Additionally, the estimated realised heritabilities (h(2) ) of Cry1Ac tolerance were 0.11 in C. suppressalis and 0.292 in S. inferens. S. inferens exhibited a significantly lower susceptibility and more rapidly evolved resistance to Cry1A compared with C. suppressalis. Therefore, S. inferens is more likely to evolve increased resistance, which threatens the sustainability of rice expressing Cry1A protein. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A catechol oxidase AcPPO from cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) is localized to the Golgi apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Patricio; Moreno, Adrián A; Sanhueza, Dayan; Balic, Iván; Silva-Sanzana, Christian; Zepeda, Baltasar; Verdonk, Julian C; Arriagada, César; Meneses, Claudio; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo

    2018-01-01

    Cherimoya (Annona cherimola) is an exotic fruit with attractive organoleptic characteristics. However, it is highly perishable and susceptible to postharvest browning. In fresh fruit, browning is primarily caused by the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of o-diphenols to quinones, which polymerize to form brown melanin pigment. There is no consensus in the literature regarding a specific role of PPO, and its subcellular localization in different plant species is mainly described within plastids. The present work determined the subcellular localization of a PPO protein from cherimoya (AcPPO). The obtained results revealed that the AcPPO- green fluorescent protein co-localized with a Golgi apparatus marker, and AcPPO activity was present in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions. Likewise, transient expression assays revealed that AcPPO remained active in Golgi apparatus-enriched fractions obtained from tobacco leaves. These results suggest a putative function of AcPPO in the Golgi apparatus of cherimoya, providing new perspectives on PPO functionality in the secretory pathway, its effects on cherimoya physiology, and the evolution of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS Mechanisms and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir V. Tavakoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception, cognition and consciousness can be modulated as a function of oscillating neural activity, while ongoing neuronal dynamics are influenced by synaptic activity and membrane potential. Consequently, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS may be used for neurological intervention. The advantageous features of tACS include the biphasic and sinusoidal tACS currents, the ability to entrain large neuronal populations, and subtle control over somatic effects. Through neuromodulation of phasic, neural activity, tACS is a powerful tool to investigate the neural correlates of cognition. The rapid development in this area requires clarity about best practices. Here we briefly introduce tACS and review the most compelling findings in the literature to provide a starting point for using tACS. We suggest that tACS protocols be based on functional brain mechanisms and appropriate control experiments, including active sham and condition blinding.

  20. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  1. High-field susceptibility in ferromagnetic NpOs2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Aldred, A.T.; Lam, D.J.; Davidson, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    NpOs 2 is known to be a ferromagnet with a Curie temperature of 7.5 0 K. Previous bulk magnetization measurements indicated a field-induced magnetization even well below the transition temperature. By a measurement of the local high-field susceptibility, using the Moessbauer effect in 237 Np, a susceptibility of (1.2 +- 0.2) x 10 -2 emu/mole at 1.6 0 K is obtained, in general agreement with the bulk measurement. Such a large susceptibility is best understood by a model f itinerant magnetism, although other properties of the material indicate localized behavior

  2. Development of Electromechanical Architectures for AC Voltage Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre BOUNOUH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of work undertaken for exploring MEMS capabilities to fabricate AC voltage references for electrical metrology and high precision instrumentation through the mechanical-electrical coupling in MEMS. From first MEMS test structures previously realized, a second set of devices with improved characteristics has been developed and fabricated with Silicon on Insulator (SOI Surface Micromachining process. These MEMS exhibit pull-in voltages of 5 V and 10 V to match with the best performance of the read-out electronics developed for driving the MEMS. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy measurements carried out on the new design show resonance frequencies of about only some kHz, and the stability of the MEMS output voltage measured at 100 kHz has been found very promising for the best samples where the relative deviation from the mean value over almost 12 hours showed a standard deviation of about 6.3 ppm.

  3. Dielectric behavior and ac electrical conductivity of nanocrystalline nickel aluminate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurien, Siby; Mathew, Jose; Sebastian, Shajo; Potty, S.N.; George, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel aluminate was prepared by chemical co-precipitation, and nanoparticles having different particle size were obtained by annealing the precursor at different temperatures. The TG/DTA measurements showed thermal decomposition was a three-step process with crystallisation of the spinel phase started at a temperature 420 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the specimen began to crystallise on annealing above 420 deg. C and became almost crystalline at about 900 deg. C. The particle sizes were calculated from XRD. Dielectric properties of nickel aluminate were studied as a function of the frequency of the applied ac signal at different temperatures. It was seen the real dielectric constant ε', and dielectric loss tan δ decreased with frequency of applied field while the ac conductivity increased as the frequency of the applied field increased. The dielectric relaxation mechanism is explained by considering nanostructured NiAl 2 O 4 as a carrier-dominated dielectric with high density of hopping charge carriers. The variation of ε' with different particle size depends on several interfacial region parameters, which change with the average particle size

  4. Bifurcation theory of ac electric arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christen, Thomas; Peinke, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    The performance of alternating current (ac) electric arcing devices is related to arc extinction or its re-ignition at zero crossings of the current (so-called ‘current zero’, CZ). Theoretical investigations thus usually focus on the transient behaviour of arcs near CZ, e.g. by solving the modelling differential equations in the vicinity of CZ. This paper proposes as an alternative approach to investigate global mathematical properties of the underlying periodically driven dynamic system describing the electric circuit containing the arcing device. For instance, the uniqueness of the trivial solution associated with the insulating state indicates the extinction of any arc. The existence of non-trivial attractors (typically a time-periodic state) points to a re-ignition of certain arcs. The performance regions of arcing devices, such as circuit breakers and arc torches, can thus be identified with the regions of absence and existence, respectively, of non-trivial attractors. Most important for applications, the boundary of a performance region in the model parameter space is then associated with the bifurcation of the non-trivial attractors. The concept is illustrated for simple black-box arc models, such as the Mayr and the Cassie model, by calculating for various cases the performance boundaries associated with the bifurcation of ac arcs. (paper)

  5. A nonlinear model for AC induced corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ida

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of corrosion poses particular difficulties. The understanding of corrosion as an electrochemical process has led to simple capacitive-resistive models that take into account the resistance of the electrolytic cell and the capacitive effect of the surface potential at the interface between conductors and the electrolyte. In some models nonlinear conduction effects have been added to account for more complex observed behavior. While these models are sufficient to describe the behavior in systems with cathodic protection, the behavior in the presence of induced AC currents from power lines and from RF sources cannot be accounted for and are insufficient to describe the effects observed in the field. Field observations have shown that a rectifying effect exists that affects the cathodic protection potential and this effect is responsible for corrosion in the presence of AC currents. The rectifying effects of the metal-corrosion interface are totally missing from current models. This work proposes a nonlinear model based on finite element analysis that takes into account the nonlinear behavior of the metal-oxide interface and promises to improve modeling by including the rectification effects at the interface.

  6. Deletion of the AcMNPV core gene ac109 results in budded virions that are non-infectious

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Minggang; Nie, Yingchao; Theilmann, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac109 is a core gene and its function in the virus life cycle is unknown. To determine its role in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac109 deletion virus (vAc 109KO ). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that transfection of vAc 109KO results in a single-cell infection phenotype. Viral DNA replication is unaffected and the development of occlusion bodies in vAc 109KO -transfected cells evidenced progression to the very late phases of viral infection. Western blot and confocal immunofluorescence analysis showed that AC109 is expressed in the cytoplasm and nucleus throughout infection. In addition, AC109 is a structural protein as it was detected in both budded virus (BV) and occlusion derived virus in both the envelope and nucleocapsid fractions. Titration assays by qPCR and TCID 50 showed that vAc 109KO produced BV but the virions are non-infectious. The vAc 109KO BV were indistinguishable from the BV of repaired and wild type control viruses as determined by negative staining and electron microscopy.

  7. Characterization of fine particles using optomagnetic measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Jonasson, Christian; Johansson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    The remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size are important parameters for the synthesis and applications of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). We present the theoretical basis for the determination of the remanent magnetic moment and the hydrodynamic size of MNPs with a narrow size...... distribution using optomagnetic measurements. In these, the 2nd harmonic variation of the intensity of light transmitted through an MNP suspension is measured as a function of an applied axial oscillating magnetic field. We first show how the measurements of the optomagnetic signal magnitude at a low frequency...... vs. magnetic field amplitude can be used to determine the MNP moment. Subsequently, we use linear response theory to describe the dynamic non-equilibrium response of the MNP suspension at low magnetic field amplitudes and derive a link between optomagnetic measurements and magnetic AC susceptibility...

  8. Modeling and reliability analysis of three phase z-source AC-AC converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Hanuman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the small signal modeling using the state space averaging technique and reliability analysis of a three-phase z-source ac-ac converter. By controlling the shoot-through duty ratio, it can operate in buck-boost mode and maintain desired output voltage during voltage sag and surge condition. It has faster dynamic response and higher efficiency as compared to the traditional voltage regulator. Small signal analysis derives different control transfer functions and this leads to design a suitable controller for a closed loop system during supply voltage variation. The closed loop system of the converter with a PID controller eliminates the transients in output voltage and provides steady state regulated output. The proposed model designed in the RT-LAB and executed in a field programming gate array (FPGA-based real-time digital simulator at a fixedtime step of 10 μs and a constant switching frequency of 10 kHz. The simulator was developed using very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL, making it versatile and moveable. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results are presented to justify the MATLAB simulation results during supply voltage variation of the three phase z-source ac-ac converter. The reliability analysis has been applied to the converter to find out the failure rate of its different components.

  9. Magnetism of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy: Magnetic susceptibilities and magnetocaloric effect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bałanda, Maria [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland); Dubiel, Stanisław M., E-mail: Stanislaw.Dubiel@fis.agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, PL-30-059 Kraków (Poland); Pełka, Robert [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Science, PL-31-342 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} alloy was studied by means of AC and DC magnetic susceptibilities. • Re-entrant character of the magnetism has been evidenced. • Curie temperature was found as ∼169 K and the spin-freezing temperature as ∼164 K. • Critical exponents β = 0.6, γ = 1.0 and Δ = 1.6 were determined. • Magnetocaloric effect was investigated. - Abstract: Magnetic properties of a sigma-phase Fe{sub 60}V{sub 40} intermetallic compound were studied by means of ac and dc magnetic susceptibility and magnetocaloric effect measurements. The compound is a soft magnet yet it was found to behave like a re-entrant spin-glass system. The magnetic ordering temperature was found to be T{sub C} ≈ 170 K, while the spin-freezing temperature was ∼164 K. Its relative shift per decade of ac frequency was 0.002, a value smaller than that typical of canonical spin-glasses. Magnetic entropy change, ΔS, in the vicinity of T{sub C} was determined for magnetic field, H, ranging between 5 and 50 kOe. Analysis of ΔS in terms of the power law yielded the critical exponent, n, vs. temperature with the minimum value of 0.75 at T{sub C}, while from the analysis of a relative shift of the maximum value of ΔS with the field a critical exponent Δ = 1.7 was obtained. Based on scaling laws relationships values of other two exponents viz. β = 0.6 and γ = 1 were determined.

  10. The relationship of normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and BAC/BrAC ratio in 98 physically fit human test subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J Mack; Burris, James M; Hughes, James R; Cunningham, Margaret P

    2010-06-01

    The relationship between normal body temperature, end-expired breath temperature, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC)/breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) ratio was studied in 98 subjects (84 men, 14 women). Subjects consumed alcohol sufficient to produce a BrAC of at least 0.06 g/210 L 45-75 min after drinking. Breath samples were analyzed using an Intoxilyzer 8000 specially equipped to measure breath temperature. Venous blood samples and body temperatures were then taken. The mean body temperature of the men (36.6 degrees C) was lower than the women (37.0 degrees C); however, their mean breath temperatures were virtually identical (men: 34.5 degrees C; women: 34.6 degrees C). The BAC exceeded the BrAC for every subject. BAC/BrAC ratios were calculated from the BAC and BrAC analytical results. There was no difference in the BAC/BrAC ratios for men (1:2379) and women (1:2385). The correlation between BAC and BrAC was high (r = 0.938, p body temperature and end-expired breath temperature, body temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio, and breath temperature and BAC/BrAC ratio were much lower. Neither normal body temperature nor end-expired breath temperature was strongly associated with BAC/BrAC ratio.

  11. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAntal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS seems likely to open a new era of the field of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the human brain by directly interfering with cortical rhythms. It is expected to synchronize (by one single resonance frequency or desynchronize (e.g. by the application of several frequencies cortical oscillations. If applied long enough it may cause neuroplastic effects. In the theta range it may improve cognition when applied in phase. Alpha rhythms could improve motor performance, whereas beta intrusion may deteriorate them. TACS with both alpha and beta frequencies has a high likelihood to induce retinal phosphenes. Gamma intrusion can possibly interfere with attention. Stimulation in the ripple range induces intensity dependent inhibition or excitation in the motor cortex most likely by entrainment of neuronal networks, whereas stimulation in the low kHz range induces excitation by neuronal membrane interference. TACS in the 200 kHz range may have a potential in oncology.

  12. Fast-ion losses induced by ACs and TAEs in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GarcIa-Munoz, M.; Hicks, N.; Classen, I.G.J.; Bilato, R.; Bobkov, V.; Brambilla, M.; Bruedgam, M.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Sassenberg, K.; Van Voornveld, R.; Jaemsae, S.

    2010-01-01

    The phase-space of convective and diffusive fast-ion losses induced by shear Alfven eigenmodes has been characterized in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Time-resolved energy and pitch-angle measurements of fast-ion losses correlated in frequency and phase with toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and Alfven cascades (ACs) have allowed to identify both loss mechanisms. While single ACs and TAEs eject resonant fast-ions in a convective process, the overlapping of AC and TAE spatial structures leads to a large fast-ion diffusion and loss. The threshold for diffusive fast-ion losses depends on the ion energy (gyroradius). Diffusive fast-ion losses with gyroradius ∼70 mm have been observed with a single TAE for local radial displacements of the magnetic field lines larger than ∼2 mm. Multiple frequency chirping ACs cause an enhancement of the diffusive losses. The ACs and TAEs radial structures have been reconstructed by means of cross-correlation techniques between the fast-ion loss detector and the electron cyclotron emission radiometer.

  13. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y., E-mail: xuyinghust@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D. [Yunnan Electric Power Research Institute, Kunming City 650217 (China); Wang, L.; Dong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We present a model to calculate the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet. •Comparative analysis of AC loss with different operating conditions has done. •The nonuniform distribution factor “d” is proposed to estimate the inhomogeneity of a storage magnet. •The model predicts the loss distribution and crucial areas which are suffering from the high AC loss. This is significant for the conduction-cooled structure design. -- Abstract: The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  14. Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in Control Structure of Induction Motor A.C. Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANDSTETTER, P.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern concepts of control systems with digital signal processors allow the implementation of time-consuming control algorithms in real-time, for example soft computing methods. The paper deals with the design and technical implementation of a genetic algorithm for setting proportional and integral gain of the speed controller of the A.C. drive with the vector-controlled induction motor. Important simulations and experimental measurements have been realized that confirm the correctness of the proposed speed controller tuned by the genetic algorithm and the quality speed response of the A.C. drive with changing parameters and disturbance variables, such as changes in load torque.

  15. Bean model and ac losses in Bi2Ca2Cu3O10/Ag tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Chiba, T.; Wiesmann, H.J.; Haldar, P.

    1997-01-01

    The Bean model is almost solely used to interpret ac losses in the powder-in-tube processed composite conductor, Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 /Ag. In order to examine the limits of the applicability of the model, a detailed comparison was made between the values of critical current density J c for Bi(2223)/Ag tapes which were determined by standard four-probe-dc measurement, and which were deduced from the field dependence of the ac losses utilizing the model. A significant inconsistency between these values of J c were found, particularly at high fields. Possible sources of the discrepancies are discussed

  16. Internal Heating of an IGBT module in a System With a Regenerative AC Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Mabano, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to understand the internal heating of an IGBT module inside an AC drive in a system with a regenerative unit to it. During the implementation of the lab, various approaches were taken in an effort to collect measurements appropriate to the topic of investigation. The IGBT junction temperature was recorded over a sustained period of time at various speed of the induction motor. The braking torque applied through a second AC drive was varied in order to study...

  17. Cosmic shear analysis of archival HST/ACS data. I. Comparison of early ACS pure parallel data to the HST/GEMS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrabback, T.; Erben, T.; Simon, P.; Miralles, J.-M.; Schneider, P.; Heymans, C.; Eifler, T.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Freudling, W.; Hetterscheidt, M.; Hildebrandt, H.; Pirzkal, N.

    2007-06-01

    Context: This is the first paper of a series describing our measurement of weak lensing by large-scale structure, also termed “cosmic shear”, using archival observations from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Aims: In this work we present results from a pilot study testing the capabilities of the ACS for cosmic shear measurements with early parallel observations and presenting a re-analysis of HST/ACS data from the GEMS survey and the GOODS observations of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). Methods: We describe the data reduction and, in particular, a new correction scheme for the time-dependent ACS point-spread-function (PSF) based on observations of stellar fields. This is currently the only technique which takes the full time variation of the PSF between individual ACS exposures into account. We estimate that our PSF correction scheme reduces the systematic contribution to the shear correlation functions due to PSF distortions to MUSIC sample, we determine a local single field estimate for the mass power spectrum normalisation σ8, CDFS=0.52+0.11-0.15 (stat) ± 0.07(sys) (68% confidence assuming Gaussian cosmic variance) at a fixed matter density Ω_m=0.3 for a ΛCDM cosmology marginalising over the uncertainty of the Hubble parameter and the redshift distribution. We interpret this exceptionally low estimate to be due to a local under-density of the foreground structures in the CDFS. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility and the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. Susceptibility of pathogenic and nonpathogenic Naegleria ssp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, L.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The susceptibility of four species of Naegleria amoebae to complement-mediated lysis was determined. The amoebicidal activity of normal human serum (NHS) and normal guinea pig serum (NGPS) for Naegleria amoebae was measured by an in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Release of radioactivity from amoebae labeled with 3 H-uridine and visual observation with a compound microscope were used as indices of lysis. Susceptibility or resistance to complement-mediated lysis in vitro correlated with the in vivo pathogenic potential. Nonpathogenic Naegleria amoebae were lysed at a faster rate and at higher cell concentrations than were pathogenic amoebae. Electrophoretic analysis of NHS incubated with pathogenic or nonpathogenic Naegleria spp. demonstrated that amoebae activate the complement cascade resulting in the production of C3 and C5 complement cleavage products. Treatment with papain or trypsin for 1 h, but not with sialidase, increase the susceptibility of highly pathogenic, mouse-passaged N. fowleri to lysis. Treatment with actinomycin D, cycloheximide or various protease inhibitors for 4 h did not increase susceptibility to lysis. Neither a repair process involving de novo protein synthesis nor a complement-inactivating protease appear to account for the increase resistance of N. fowleri amoebae to complement-mediated lysis. A binding study with 125 I radiolabeled C9 indicated that the terminal complement component does not remain stably bound to the membrane of pathogenic amoebae

  19. AC conductivity and dielectric behavior of bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2012-06-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric behavior for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile have been studied over a temperature range (293-333 K) and frequency range (50-5×106 Hz). The frequency dependence of ac conductivity, σac, has been investigated by the universal power law, σac(ω)=Aωs. The variation of the frequency exponent (s) with temperature was analyzed in terms of different conduction mechanisms, and it was found that the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model is the predominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of σac(ω) showed a linear increase with the increase in temperature at different frequencies. The ac activation energy was determined at different frequencies. Dielectric data were analyzed using complex permittivity and complex electric modulus for bulk Furfurylidenemalononitrile at various temperatures.

  20. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with AC Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  1. High Voltage AC underground cable systems for power transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    researching electrical engineering topics related to using underground cables for power transmission at EHV level and including the 420 kV level. The research topics were laid down by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk in the DANPAC (DANish Power systems with Ac Cables) research project. The main topics are discussed...... on the basis of 39 references published by ET/AAU and Energinet.dk. Part I of the paper explains the events that lead to the research project, reactive power compensation, modelling for transient studies, including field measurements and improvements to the existing models, and temporary overvoltages due...... to resonances. Part II covers transient phenomena, harmonics in cables, system modelling for different phenomena, main and backup protections in cable-based networks, online fault detection and future trends....

  2. Watts Up? Pro AC Power Meter for Automated Energy Recording: A Product Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hirst, Jason M.; Miller, Jonathan R.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Reed, Derek D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to review the Watts up? Pro AC power meter. Evaluations of the meter's reliability for measuring energy consumption by consumer electronics yielded acceptable levels of reliability. Implications and limitations for the use of this product in behavior analytic research and practice are discussed.

  3. AC impedance behaviour and state-of-charge dependence of Zr0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    measurement encompasses a wide range of AC signal frequencies, various characteristic parameters of the electrochemical cell and kinetics of the associated reactions can be evaluated. Metal-hydride (MH) electrodes form the anode or the negative plate of a nickel-metal- hydride battery. However, the development of MH ...

  4. Computer soundcard as an AC signal generator and oscilloscope for the physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinlapanuntakul, Jinda; Kijamnajsuk, Puchong; Jetjamnong, Chanthawut; Chotikaprakhan, Sutharat

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop both an AC signal generator and a dual-channel oscilloscope based on standard personal computer equipped with sound card as parts of the laboratory of the fundamental physics and the introduction to electronics classes. The setup turns the computer into the two channel measured device which can provides sample rate, simultaneous sampling, frequency range, filters and others essential capabilities required to perform amplitude, phase and frequency measurements of AC signal. The AC signal also generate from the same computer sound card output simultaneously in any waveform such as sine, square, triangle, saw-toothed pulsed, swept sine and white noise etc. These can convert an inexpensive PC sound card into powerful device, which allows the students to measure physical phenomena with their own PCs either at home or at university attendance. A graphic user interface software was developed for control and analysis, including facilities for data recording, signal processing and real time measurement display. The result is expanded utility of self-learning for the students in the field of electronics both AC and DC circuits, including the sound and vibration experiments.

  5. An ac impedance study of the corrosion behaviour of mild steel coated with electrochemically synthesized polyoxyphenylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musiani, M.M.; Mengoli, G.; Pagura, C.

    1985-04-01

    Electrochemically synthesized polyoxphenylene coatings on mild steel exposed to NaCl or H2SO4 solutions were investigated by ac impedance measurements. The influence of coating cohesion, adhesion to substrate, and surface pretreatment on the corrosion behaviour of the samples is clarified.

  6. AC loss in superconducting wires operating in a wind turbine like generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seiler, Eugen; Zirngibl, Thomas; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2010-01-01

    We have manufactured a small circular superconducting coil impregnated with epoxy fibreglass. The coil was wound from a Bi-2223/Ag superconducting wire and it was tested in liquid nitrogen at 77 K. Current-voltage characteristic and the AC losses of the coil were measured and compared...

  7. Extraction and purification of {sup 227}Ac and development of solid {sup 219}Rn source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Quan; Qiu, Shoukang; Xiao, Detao; Zhou, Yaohui; An, Xiaogang [University of South China, Hengyang (China). Radon Key Laboratory of Hunan Province/School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2014-04-01

    The method of {sup 227}Ac extraction and purification from high-grade uranium ore and the test results of solid {sup 219}Rn source made from {sup 227}Ac are reported in this paper. With five years of follow-up monitoring, radiochemical purity of {sup 227}Ac and the emanation power of solid {sup 219}Rn source has been checked by emanation method and γ-spectrometry, the results showed that {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Pa and {sup 226}Ra have been effectively removed and the emanation power of {sup 219}Rn source is about 80%. The long-term test results also showed that the {sup 219}Rn emanation rate remains stable in a wide air humidity range (40% ∝ 90%). Though the {sup 219}Rn source has not been accurately calibrated yet, it has been applied in the research for delay coincidence measurement of {sup 223}Ra. (orig.)

  8. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of bulk tungsten trioxide (WO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Ali, H. A. M.; Saadeldin, M.; Zaghllol, M.

    2012-11-01

    AC conductivity and dielectric properties of tungsten trioxide (WO3) in a pellet form were studied in the frequency range from 42 Hz to 5 MHz with a variation of temperature in the range from 303 K to 463 K. AC conductivity, σac(ω) was found to be a function of ωs where ω is the angular frequency and s is the frequency exponent. The values of s were found to be less than unity and decrease with increasing temperature, which supports the correlated barrier hopping mechanism (CBH) as the dominant mechanism for the conduction in WO3. The dielectric constant (ε‧) and dielectric loss (ε″) were measured. The Cole-Cole diagram determined complex impedance for different temperatures.

  9. A numerical method to estimate AC loss in superconducting coated conductors by finite element modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Pei, R; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    A finite element method code based on the critical state model is proposed to solve the AC loss problem in YBCO coated conductors. This numerical method is based on a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable. The AC loss problems have been investigated both in self-field condition and external field condition. Two numerical approaches have been introduced: the first model is configured on the cross-section plane of the YBCO tape to simulate an infinitely long superconducting tape. The second model represents the plane of the critical current flowing and is able to simulate the YBCO tape with finite length where the end effect is accounted. An AC loss measurement has been done to verify the numerical results and shows a good agreement with the numerical solution.

  10. Transition towards DC micro grids: From an AC to a hybrid AC and DC energy infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Ploumpidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our electricity is predominantly powered by alternating current (AC, ever since the War of Currents ended in the favor of Nicola Tesla at the end of the 19th century. However, lots of the appliances we use, such as electronics and lights with light-emitting diode (LED technology, work internally on direct current (DC and it is projected that the number of these appliances will increase in the near future. Another contributor to the increase in DC consumption is the ongoing electrification of mobility (Electric Vehicles (EVs. At the same time, photovoltaics (PV generate DC voltages, while the most common storage technologies also use DC. In order to integrate all these appliances and technologies to the existing AC grid, there is a need for converters which introduce power losses. By distributing DC power to DC devices instead of converting it to AC first, it is possible to avoid substantial energy losses that occur every time electricity is converted. This situation initiated the concept for the implementation of the DC-Flexhouse project. A prototype DC installation will be developed and tested in one of the buildings of the developing living lab area called the District of Tomorrow (De Wijk van Morgen which is located in Heerlen, the Netherlands. A neighborhood cooperative (Vrieheide cooperatie is also part of the consortium in order to address the aspect of social acceptance. Although DC seems to be a promising solution for a more sustainable energy system, the business case is still debatable due to both technology- and market-related challenges. The current energy infrastructure is predominantly based on AC, manufacturers produce devices based on AC standards and people are using many AC products across a long life span. This Smart Energy Buildings & Cities (SEB&C PDEng project is a contribution to the DC-Flexhouse project. The aim is to analyze the challenges in the transition to DC micro grids, assess the market potential of DC

  11. Soil magnetic susceptibility as indicator of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic susceptibility is a method, which is used in many areas of research. The locality Ak-Tjuz is typical example of old ecological load. One of the negative effects represents radioactive contamination. This situation is caused by environmental disaster in 1964. For useful reparation it is really necessary to determinate the surface range of contamination. And measurement of the magnetic susceptibility could be the suitable method for that kind of monitoring. (author)

  12. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  13. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojiang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L., was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1. Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella.

  14. International comparison of AC-DC current transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, G.; Garcocz, M.; Waldmann, W.

    2017-01-01

    The measurements of the international comparison of ac-dc current transfer standards identified as EURAMET.EM-K12 started in June 2012 and were completed in December 2014. Twenty NMIs in the EURAMET region and one NMI in the AFRIMET region took part: BEV (Austria), CMI (Czech Republic), PTB (Germany), METAS (Switzerland), JV (Norway), UME (Turkey), GUM (Poland), IPQ (Portugal), CEM (Spain), INRIM (Italy), SP (Sweden), DANIAmet-MI-Trescal (Denmark), BIM (Bulgaria), MKEH (Hungary), SIQ (Slovenia), LNE (France), NSAI NML (Ireland), VSL (The Netherlands), NPL (United Kingdom), Metrosert (Estonia), NIS (Egypt). The comparison was proposed to link the National Metrology Institutes organised in EURAMET to the key comparison CCEM-K12. The ac-dc current transfer difference of each travelling standard had been measured at its nominal current 10 mA and 5 A at the following frequencies: 10 Hz, 55 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz, 20 kHz, 50 kHz, 100 kHz. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparison (CCEM-K12), through five NMIs participating in both EURAMET and CCEM key comparisons (PTB, JV, NPL, SP and BEV). The report shows the degree of equivalence in the EURAMET region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. The magnetic susceptibility of soils in Krakow, southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojas, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Studies into the magnetic susceptibility have been used to assess the soils contamination in the Krakow area. The results of topsoil (over a 2 × 2 km grid), subsoil (37 shallow holes) and soil samples (112) measurements were presented as maps of soil magnetic susceptibility (both volume and mass) illustrating the distribution of parameters in topsoil horizon (0-10 cm) and differential magnetic susceptibility maps between topsoil horizon and subsoil (40-60 cm). All evidence leads to the finding that the highest values of magnetic susceptibility of soil are found exclusively in industrial areas. Taking into consideration the type of land use, the high median value (89.8 × 10-8 m3kg-1) was obtained for samples of cultivated soils and is likely to be connected with occurrence of fertile soil (chernozem). Moreover, enrichment of soils with Pb and Zn accompanies magnetic susceptibility anomalies in the vicinity of the high roads and in the steelworks area, respectively.

  16. AC Own Motion Percentage of Randomly Sampled Cases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Longitudinal report detailing the numbers and percentages of Appeals Council (AC) own motion review actions taken on un-appealed favorable hearing level decisions...

  17. AC electric motors control advanced design techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Giri, Fouad

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of AC motor control lies in the multivariable and nonlinear nature of AC machine dynamics. Recent advancements in control theory now make it possible to deal with long-standing problems in AC motors control. This text expertly draws on these developments to apply a wide range of model-based control designmethods to a variety of AC motors. Contributions from over thirty top researchers explain how modern control design methods can be used to achieve tight speed regulation, optimal energetic efficiency, and operation reliability and safety, by considering online state var

  18. Clinical significance of determination of serum hypersensitive C reactive protein (HS-CRP) levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chunxi; Zhang Fengju; Wang Kejun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between changes in serum HS-CRP levels and the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. Methods: Serum HS-CRP levels were measured in 35 patients with ACS at admission, 1 week and 1 month later as well as in 30 controls without recent infection. Results: HS-CRP levels in patients with ACS were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). The levels were highest at admission and fell gradually. Conclusion: HS-CRP could be a marker reflecting the status of atherosclerotic plaques in patients with ACS. (authors)

  19. Nature of the magnetic susceptibility of dysprosium. Paramagnetic susceptibility of dysprosium - yttrium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, V.G.; Levitin, R.Z.; Chistyakov, O.D.

    1976-01-01

    The paramagnetic susceptibility of single crystals of dysprosium-yttirum alloys is measured in the basal plane and along the hexagonal axis. It is shown that the susceptibility of the alloys obeys the Curie-Weiss law, the effective magnetic moments allong the different directions being the same and the paramagnetic Curie temperatures being different. The difference between the paramagnetic Curie temperatures in the basal plane and along the hexagonal axis is independent of the dysprosium concentration in the alloy. As a comparison with the theoretical models of magnetic anisotropy shows, this is an indication that the magnetic anisotropy of dysprosium - yttrium alloys is of a single-ion nature

  20. MAPC transplantation confers a more durable benefit than AC133+ cell transplantation in severe hind limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranguren, Xabier L; Pelacho, Beatriz; Peñuelas, Ivan; Abizanda, Gloria; Uriz, Maialen; Ecay, Margarita; Collantaes, María; Araña, Miriam; Beerens, Manu; Coppiello, Giulia; Prieto, Inés; Perez-Ilzarbe, Maitane; Andreu, Enrique J; Luttun, Aernout; Prósper, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for comparative studies to determine which cell types are better candidates to remedy ischemia. Here, we compared human AC133(+) cells and multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPC) in a mouse model reminiscent of critical limb ischemia. hMAPC or hAC133(+) cell transplantation induced a significant improvement in tissue perfusion (measured by microPET) 15 days posttransplantation compared to controls. This improvement persisted for 30 days in hMAPC-treated but not in hAC133(+)-injected animals. While transplantation of hAC133(+) cells promoted capillary growth, hMAPC transplantation also induced collateral expansion, decreased muscle necrosis/fibrosis, and improved muscle regeneration. Incorporation of differentiated hAC133(+) or hMAPC progeny into new vessels was limited; however, a paracrine angio/arteriogenic effect was demonstrated in animals treated with hMAPC. Accordingly, hMAPC-conditioned, but not hAC133(+)-conditioned, media stimulated vascular cell proliferation and prevented myoblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle cell apoptosis in vitro. Our study suggests that although hAC133(+) cell and hMAPC transplantation both contribute to vascular regeneration in ischemic limbs, hMAPC exert a more robust effect through trophic mechanisms, which translated into collateral and muscle fiber regeneration. This, in turn, conferred tissue protection and regeneration with longer term functional improvement. © 2011 Cognizant Comm. Corp.

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of free charge carriers in bismuth tellurides (Bi2Te3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, S.R.; Dutta, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Principal magnetic susceptibilities of both p- and n-type Bi 2 Te 3 crystals have been measured over the range of temperature 90 deg K to 650 deg K. The observed susceptibilities are diamagnetic and temperature dependent. This temperature dependence has been attributed to the contribution of the free charge carriers to the susceptibilities. From the observed susceptibilities the carrier-susceptibilities have been separately obtained which are found to be paramagnetic. From the total carrier-susceptibilities, the susceptibilities of the carriers which are thermally liberated in the intrinsic region have been separated. From an analysis of the carrier-susceptibilities the band gap and its temperature coefficient have been found out and these compare favourably with those obtained from electrical measurements. (author)

  2. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    . The approaches for improving their performance, in terms of the voltage stress, efficiency, power density, cost, loss distribution, and temperature, will be studied. The structure of the thesis is as follows, Chapter 1 presents the introduction and motivation of the whole project as well as the background...... becomes a emerging challenge. Accordingly, installation of sustainable power generators like wind turbines and solar panels has experienced a large increase during the last decades. Meanwhile, power electronics converters, as interfaces in electrical system, are delivering approximately 80 % electricity...... back-to-back, and meanwhile improve the harmonics, control flexibility, and thermal distribution between the switches. Afterwards, active power decoupling methods for single-phase inverters or rectifiers that are similar to the single-phase ac-dc-ac converter, are studied in Chapter 4...

  3. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  4. Transport ac loss studies of YBCO coated conductors with nickel alloy substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R C; Thompson, J R; Gouge, M J; Lue, J W; Ijaduola, A O; Yu, D; Verebelyi, D T

    2003-01-01

    Transport alternating current (ac) loss measurements were performed on a series of rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) processed YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (YBCO) coated conductors at 77 K. While each sample possessed a 1 μm layer of YBCO and a 3 μm silver cap layer, two different nickel alloy substrates were used and their impact on the ac loss was examined. Both substrates possessed a 75 μm Ni-5 at%W base, but one substrate also had a 2 μm nickel overlayer as part of the buffer layer architecture. The ac losses, which were determined by thermal and electrical measurements, contained two dominant contributions: superconductive hysteresis in the YBCO and ferromagnetic hysteresis in the substrates. The superconductive component followed the Norris elliptic model for the substrate with the nickel overlayer and the Norris thin strip model for the substrate without the nickel overlayer. The substrates' ferromagnetic loss was determined separately through magnetization measurements, which showed that this loss contribution was independent of the presence of the nickel overlayer for effective ac currents less than 50 A. While the overall loss was lower for the thin-strip-like conductor with no nickel overlayer, further research is necessary to strengthen this connection

  5. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, James M.; Trump, Darryl D.; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2006-10-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s-1. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ~3 × 1015 cm-3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ~8.5 × 1015 cm-3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  6. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, James M [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Trump, Darryl D [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Bletzinger, Peter [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Dayton, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States); Ganguly, Biswa N [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

    2006-10-21

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s{sup -1}. The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of {approx}3 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was {approx}8.5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level.

  7. Comparison of high-voltage ac and pulsed operation of a surface dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, James M; Trump, Darryl D; Bletzinger, Peter; Ganguly, Biswa N

    2006-01-01

    A surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in atmospheric pressure air was excited either by low frequency (0.3-2 kHz) high-voltage ac or by short, high-voltage pulses at repetition rates from 50 to 600 pulses s -1 . The short-pulse excited discharge was more diffuse and did not have the pronounced bright multiple cathode spots observed in the ac excited discharge. The discharge voltage, current and average power deposited into the discharge were calculated for both types of excitation. As a measure of plasma-chemical efficiency, the ozone number density was measured by UV absorption as a function of average deposited power. The density of ozone produced by ac excitation did not increase so rapidly as that produced by short-pulse excitation as a function of average power, with a maximum measured density of ∼3 x 10 15 cm -3 at 25 W. The maximum ozone production achieved by short-pulse excitation was ∼8.5 x 10 15 cm -3 at 20 W, which was four times greater than that achieved by ac excitation at the same power level

  8. Cosmic Shear With ACS Pure Parallels. Targeted Portion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Jason

    2002-07-01

    Small distortions in the shapes of background galaxies by foreground mass provide a powerful method of directly measuring the amount and distribution of dark matter. Several groups have recently detected this weak lensing by large-scale structure, also called cosmic shear. The high resolution and sensitivity of HST/ACS provide a unique opportunity to measure cosmic shear accurately on small scales. Using 260 parallel orbits in Sloan i {F775W} we will measure for the first time: the cosmic shear variance on scales Omega_m^0.5, with signal-to-noise {s/n} 20, and the mass density Omega_m with s/n=4. They will be done at small angular scales where non-linear effects dominate the power spectrum, providing a test of the gravitational instability paradigm for structure formation. Measurements on these scales are not possible from the ground, because of the systematic effects induced by PSF smearing from seeing. Having many independent lines of sight reduces the uncertainty due to cosmic variance, making parallel observations ideal.

  9. Nonlinearity exponent of ac conductivity in disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, U N; Sircar, S; Karmakar, A; Giri, S

    2012-01-01

    We measured the real part of ac conductance Σ(x,f) or Σ(T,f) of iron-doped mixed-valent polycrystalline manganite oxides LaMn 1-x Fe x O 3 as a function of frequency f by varying initial conductance Σ 0 by quenched disorder x at a fixed temperature T (room) and by temperature T at a fixed quenched disorder x. At a fixed temperature T, Σ(x,f) of a sample with fixed x remains almost constant at its zero-frequency dc value Σ 0 at lower frequency. With increase in f, Σ(x,f) increases slowly from Σ 0 and finally increases rapidly following a power law with an exponent s at high frequency. Scaled appropriately, the data for Σ(T,f) and Σ(x,f) fall on the same universal curve, indicating the existence of a general scaling formalism for the ac conductivity in disordered systems. The characteristic frequency f c at which Σ(x,f) or Σ(T,f) increases for the first time from Σ 0 scales with initial conductance Σ 0 as f c ∼ Σ 0 x f , where x f is the onset exponent. The value of x f is nearly equal to one and is found to be independent of x and T. Further, an inverse relationship between x f and s provides a self-consistency check of the systematic description of Σ(x,f) or Σ(T,f). This apparent universal value of x f is discussed within the framework of existing theoretical models and scaling theories. The relevance to other similar disordered systems is also highlighted. (paper)

  10. AC losses for the various voltage-leads in a semi-triple layer BSCCO conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Ryu, K.; Hwang, S.D.; Cha, G.; Song, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer. Voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses. In order to investigate the AC loss of the multilayer conductor in a high temperature superconductor cable, a voltage-lead was generally attached to the outermost layer of the conductor. But the conductor's AC loss has not been completely cleared due to the various contact positions and arrangements of the voltage-lead. In this paper, we prepared a semi-triple layer conductor consisting of an inner layer and an outer layer with double layer structure. To measure the AC loss of the conductor, two voltage-leads (inner-lead, outer-lead) were soldered to the wires in each layer and arranged along their surfaces, as well as another voltage-lead (total-lead) was soldered to the inner layer and arranged on the surface of the outer layer. The results show that the AC losses for each layer measured from the inner-lead and the outer-lead, respectively, are identical to the sum of the wire losses. The AC losses in the semi-triple layer conductor measured from the total-lead and the outer-lead are identical for the uniform layer current density, and similar to the sum of the wire losses in both layers. However, the losses measured for the non-uniform layer current density from three voltage-leads are unequal to each other, and the loss from the total-lead significantly differs from the sum of the wire losses.

  11. Magnetic susceptibility correlation of km-thick Eifelian–Frasnian sections (Ardennes and Moravia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boulvain, F.; da Silva, A.C.; Mabille, C.; Hladil, Jindřich; Geršl, M.; Koptíková, Leona; Schnabl, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2010), s. 309-318 ISSN 1374-8505 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130702; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Devonian limestone * magnetic susceptibility * Moravian Karst * Ardennes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2010 http://popups.ulg.ac.be/Geol/docannexe.php?id=3181

  12. Ancestral susceptibility to colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huhn, S.; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Vodička, Pavel (ed.); Hemminki, K.; Försti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2012), s. 197-204 ISSN 0267-8357 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430; GA ČR GAP304/10/1286 Grant - others:EU FP7(XE) HEALTH-F4-2007-200767 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cancer susceptibility * molecular epidemiology * genetic susceptibility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.500, year: 2012

  13. Effect of structural transition on magnetic susceptibility of tantalum carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipatnikov, V.N.; Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.; Shvejkin, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Ordering of carbon atoms and vacancies in nonmetal sublattice of TaC y is investigated for the first time by methods of magnetic susceptibility and structural neutron diffraction analysis. Measurements of magnetic susceptibility were conducted on high-sensitive magnetic scales in temperature interval of 300 - 1300 K with holding at each temperature up to the establishment of constant, nonchanging in the course of time value of susceptibility x. When investigating x-hardened tantalum carbide within the interval of TaC 0.82 - TaC 0.85 compositions under the conditions of slow heating, it was observed nonrecorded earlier irreversible decrease of susceptibility at temperature of 960 - 1000 K. With further temperature increase T>T tr it was observed at first even and than uneven increase of x value at a temperature of T tr equal to 1090, 1130 and 1150 K for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 respectively. The measuring of magnetic susceptibility of the same samples at temperature decrease reveals the presence of susceptibility temperature hysteresis in the interval of 1070 - 1090, 1100 - 1130 and 1120 - 1150 for TaC 0.82 , TaC 0.83 and TaC 0.85 . Reversible susceptibility jump corresponding to the temperature hysteresis range at dependences of x(T), is connected with equilibrium structural phase transition of order-disorder

  14. Ac and dc motor flooding times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, D.A.; Hinton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Reactor safety studies, such as the emergency cooling system (ECS) limits analyses and the probabilistic risk assessment, require that the flood-out times be calculated for the ac and dc motors at the -40 foot level. New calculations are needed because dams of an improved design have been installed between the pump room and motor room, and because updated leak rate calculations have shown that the maximum possible leak rate is larger than that which had been previously calculated. The methodology for calculating the motor flood-out times has also been improved. A computer program has been written to calculate flood-out times for various leak rates and sump pump operabilities. For ECS limits analyses, the worst case dc motor flood-out times are 161 and 297 seconds in LKC and P-areas, respectively. These times are for a 135,468 gpm leak that first flows to the motor room and all of the sump pumps are off

  15. Improving Power Quality in AC Supply Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Fabijański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a digital and actual model of the UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated system for power quality improvement. The UPQC’s design and its connection to an AC supply grid, 1-phase and 3-phase alike, provide effective compensation of unwanted interferences in the waveforms of load supply voltages and non-linear load currents. This article presents an overview of topologies and control strategies. The study of the UPQC confirmed its positive impact on the power quality. The electricity parameters were significantly improved. Total harmonic distortion in supply voltage THDu decreased six-fold to 1.89%, and total harmonic distortion in load current THDi decreased more than ten-fold to 2.38% for a non-linear load (uncontrolled bridge rectifier with load L. Additionally, symmetrisation of supply voltages and reactive power compensation Q of linear load was obtained. The UPQC integrated system for power quality improvement can be used wherever high-quality and PN-EN 50160 standard – compliant electricity is required.

  16. Neurinoma central do nervo acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pinto Pupo

    1950-03-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta o caso de uma paciente com 45 anos, com hipertensão arterial, queixando-se de tonturas e surdez progressiva à esquerda que, ao exame neurológico, apresentava síndrome protuberancial, com hemi-anestesia táctil e dolorosa à direita respeitando a face, hemiparesia direita, ataxia de tipo sensitivo nos membros da direita, paralisia facial de tipo periférico, hipoacusia, paresia de motor ocular externo à esquerda, síndrome vertiginosa e nistagmo horizontal ao olhar para a direita. À necrópsia foi encontrado um tumor na hemicalota protuberancial esquerda e foco malácico adjacente, secundário a distúrbio circulatório. O tumor, intimamente dependente das raízes intraprotuberanciais do nervo acústico, se apresentava com as características histológicas dos neurinomas. Além dessas particularidades, a lesão do feixe central da calota e conseqüente degeneração "hipertrófica" da oliva bulbar constituem outro aspecto de grande interêsse dêste caso.

  17. Introduction of hvdc transmission into a predominantly ac network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, W; Last, F H; Huddart, K W

    1966-02-01

    Methods for reinforcing the supply network, including systems employing dc links, without introducing a new primary network are briefly described. The arrangement for dc links is outlined and the application to an existing ac system is considered. The economics of ac and dc for reinforcement schemes are briefly mentioned.

  18. Flexible AC transmission systems: the state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edris, Abdel-Aty [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Electric Systems Division

    1994-12-31

    Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) is a concept promoting the use of power electronic controllers to enhance the controllability and usable capacity of AC transmission. This paper presents the state of the art of FACTS and the status of the current projects for the application of the FACTS controllers in transmission systems. (author) 8 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Ammonia treated Mo/AC catalysts for CO hydrogenation with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHARIF F ZAMAN

    the influence of acid treated AC as a support with K-Ni-. Mo active ... K-Ni-Mo/AC catalyst was more selective to oxygenates. (>40% ... mineral impurities (K, Si, Sn and Fe) <1%. ...... edge technical support with thanks Science and Technology.

  20. ELECTRONIC SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTATION IN AC ELECTROGRAVIMETRY I: TECHNIQUE FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbinson Torres

    Full Text Available Basic fundamentals of AC electrogravimetry are introduced. Their main requirements and characteristics are detailed to establish the design of an electronic system that allows the appropriate extraction of data needed to determine the electrogravimetric transfer function (EGTF and electrochemical impedance (EI, in an experimental set-up for the AC electrogravimetry technique.