The minimization of ac phase noise in interferometric systems
Filinski, Ignacy; Gordon, R A
1994-01-01
A simple step-by-step procedure, including several novel techniques discussed in the Appendices, is given for minimizing ac phase noise in typical interferometric systems such as two-beam interferometers, holographic setups, four-wave mixers, etc. Special attention is given to index of refraction...... fluctuations, direct mechanical coupling, and acoustic coupling, whose importance in determining ac phase noise in interferometric systems has not been adequately treated. The minimization procedure must be carried out while continuously monitoring the phase noise which can be done very simply by using...... with the optical table will also have to be carefully carried out regardless of the type of interferometric system employed.It is recommended that this be followed by a simple, inexpensive change to a novel type of interferometer discussed in Appendix A which is inherently less sensitive to mechanical vibration...
Single-Phase Direct AC-AC Boost Converter
LUCANU, M.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a single-phase direct AC-AC boost converter. The circuit of the converter is simple and it has good performances, irrespective of the load nature. The adequate functioning and high performance of the circuit (the efficiency and waveform of the absorbed input current were tested both by simulation and experimentally.
Noise-induced synchronization for phase turbulence
Sakaguchi, H.
2003-01-01
Phase turbulence is suppressed by applying common noise additively to the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky type equation, and the noise-induced phase synchronization is realized. The noise strength necessary for the suppression of phase turbulence is evaluated theoretically.
AC and Phase Sensing of Nanowires for Biosensing.
Crescentini, Marco; Rossi, Michele; Ashburn, Peter; Lombardini, Marta; Sangiorgi, Enrico; Morgan, Hywel; Tartagni, Marco
2016-04-19
Silicon nanowires are label-free sensors that allow real-time measurements. They are economical and pave the road for point-of-care applications but require complex readout and skilled personnel. We propose a new model and technique for sensing nanowire sensors using alternating currents (AC) to capture both magnitude and phase information from the sensor. This approach combines the advantages of complex impedance spectroscopy with the noise reduction performances of lock-in techniques. Experimental results show how modifications of the sensors with different surface chemistries lead to the same direct-current (DC) response but can be discerned using the AC approach.
Oscillator With Low Phase Noise
Kleinberg, Leonard L.
1987-01-01
Phase errors cancelled for high frequency stability. Radio-frequency oscillator achieves high stability of frequency through parallel, two-amplifier configuration in which effects cause phase noise tend to cancel each other. Circuit includes two amplifiers with resonating elements, each constitutes part of feedback loop of other. Generate same frequency because each circuit provides other with conditions necessary for oscillation.
A New Phase Noise Detection Method
Yan, Gangfeng
2015-01-01
Phase noise is one of the most important parameters in many oscillators. Detecting accurately phase noise for oscillators has importance significance. In this paper, based on correlation operation detection phase noise for oscillators was proposed. This method not only can save a high precision reference oscillator, but also can detect accurately the phase noise of measured oscillator in theory. Detected phase noise of oscillators using this method has very strong utility value.
Phase Noise in Photonic Phased-Array Antenna Systems
Logan, Ronald T., Jr.; Maleki, Lute
1998-01-01
The total noise of a phased-array antenna system employing a photonic feed network is analyzed using a model for the individual component noise including both additive and multiplicative equivalent noise generators.
Corona noise model of high-voltage AC transmission lines and engineering applications
Wu Jiuhui; Di Zelong
2013-01-01
In order to predict the levels of corona noise from high-voltage alternating current (AC) transmission lines,the mechanism of corona noise and the corresponding theoretical prediction model are investigated.On the basis of Drude model,the motion of positive and negative ions produced by high-voltage corona is analyzed,and the mechanism of corona noise is discovered.The theoretical prediction model is put forward by using Kirchhoff formula,which is verified by the well agreement between our result and others',considering the case of three-phase single lines.Moreover,the calculation results show that for both single and bundled lines,the sound pressure level of the typical frequency,i.e.twice the power frequency,attenuates slowly and leads to an obviously interferential phenomenon near the transmission lines,but the level of the bundled lines is smaller than that of the single ones under the same transmission voltage.Based on the mechanism of corona noise and the prediction model,it is obvious that bundled lines and/or increased line radius can be adopted to reduce corona noise in the practical engineering applications effectively.This model can also provide a theoretical guidance for the high-volt-age AC transmission line design.
Watabe, Ken-ichi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Ikegami, Takeshi; Iida, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yozo
2012-01-01
We have realized a phase noise standard of a signal with a -100 dBc/Hz flat phase noise at 10 MHz for Fourier frequencies of 1 Hz to 100 kHz, which ensures traceability to the International System of Units (SI). The flat phase noise signal is produced using a carrier combined with white noise. To ensure traceability, both the flat phase noise signal power and the power spectral density of white noise are determined with a calibrated power meter and the noise standard, respectively. The flatness of the phase noise standard is within ±0.7 dB.
Model of flicker noise effects on phase noise in oscillators
Centurelli, Francesco; Ercolani, Alessandro; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro
2003-05-01
Phase noise models that describe the near-carrier spectrum in an accurate but insightful way are needed, to better optimize the oscillator design. In this paper we present a model to describe the effect of flicker noise sources on the phase noise of an oscillator, that can be applied both to linear oscillators and to nonlinear structures like relaxation and ring oscillators, so extending previous works that considered only the effect of the flicker noise superimposed to the control voltage of a VCO. In the phase noise of an oscillator we can separate the effect of high frequency noise sources, that can be described by a short-time-constant system, and the effect of low frequency noises (mostly flicker sources), described by a system with time constants much slower than the oscillation period. Flicker noise has been considered to cause a change in the circuit bias point; this bias point change can be mapped in a shift of the oscillation frequency by exploiting Barkhausen conditions (for linear oscillators) or obtaining this link by simulations. The power spectral density of the oscillator can then be obtained as the probability distribution of the oscillation frequency, starting from the flicker noise probability distribution. If the effect of high frequency noise sources is also taken into account, the overall oscillator spectrum can be obtained as a convolution of the spectrum due to flicker sources with the Lorentzian-shaped spectrum due to white noise sources, in analogy with the description of inhomogeneous broadening of laser linewidth.
Modeling phase noise in multifunction subassemblies.
Driscoll, Michael
2012-03-01
Obtaining requisite phase noise performance in hardware containing multifunction circuitry requires accurate modeling of the phase noise characteristics of each signal path component, including both absolute (oscillator) and residual (non-oscillator) circuit contributors. This includes prediction of both static and vibration-induced phase noise. The model (usually in spreadsheet form) is refined as critical components are received and evaluated. Additive (KTBF) phase noise data can be reasonably estimated, based on device drive level and noise figure. However, accurate determination of component near-carrier (multiplicative) and vibration-induced noise usually must be determined via measurement. The model should also include the effects of noise introduced by IC voltage regulators and properly discriminate between common versus independent signal path residual noise contributors. The modeling can be easily implemented using a spreadsheet.
SINGLE PHASE HIGH FREQUENCY AC CONVERTER FOR INDUCTION HEATING APPLICATION
M.A INAYATHULLAAH,
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The proposed topology reduces the total harmonic distortion (THD of a high frequency AC/AC Converter well below the acceptable limit. This paper deals with a novel single phase AC/DC/AC soft switching utility frequency AC to high frequency AC converter. In this paper a single phase full bridge inverter with Vienna rectifier as front end is used instead of conventional diode bridge rectifier to provide continuous sinusoidal input current with nearly unity power factor at the source side with extremely low distortion.. This power converter is more suitable and acceptable for cost effective high frequency (HF consumer induction heating applications.
Phase Noise Influence in Optical OFDM Systems employing RF Pilot Tone for Phase Noise Cancellation
Jacobsen, Gunnar; Kazovsky, Leonid G.; Xu, TianHua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T.
2016-01-01
For coherent and direct-detection Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) systems employing radio frequency (RF) pilot tone phase noise cancellation the influence of laser phase noise is evaluated. Novel analytical results for the common phase error and for the (modulation dependent) inter carrier interference are evaluated based upon Gaussian statistics for the laser phase noise. In the evaluation it is accounted for that the laser phase noise is filtered in the correlation signal d...
The topological AC effect on noncommutative phase space
Li, K; Li, Kang; Wang, Jianhua
2006-01-01
The Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in non-commutative(NC) quantum mechanics is studied. Instead of using the star product method, we use a generalization of Bopp's shift method. After solving the Dirac equations both on noncommutative space and noncommutative phase space by the new method, we obtain the corrections to AC phase on NC space and NC phase space respectively.
Phase Noise Reduction of Laser Diode
Zhang, T. C.; Poizat, J.-Ph.; Grelu, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Levenson, M. D.; Giacobino, E.
1996-01-01
Phase noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using line narrowing technique at room temperature, namely injection-locking, has been investigated. It is shown that free-running diodes exhibit very large excess phase noise, typically more than 80 dB above shot-noise at 10 MHz, which can be significantly reduced by the above-mentioned technique.
Microwave Oscillator Would Have Reduced Phase Noise
Dick, G. John; Saunders, Jon
1991-01-01
Microwave oscillators of proposed new type incorporate suppressed-carrier/negative-feedback feature to reduce phase noise near their carrier frequencies. Concept results in phase noise less than achievable by cryogenically stabilized microwave components or by room-temperature oscillators stabilized by quartz crystals. Implemented in three different versions.
Transport, shot noise, and topology in AC-driven dimer arrays
Niklas, Michael; Benito, Mónica; Kohler, Sigmund; Platero, Gloria
2016-11-01
We analyze an AC-driven dimer chain connected to a strongly biased electron source and drain. It turns out that the resulting transport exhibits fingerprints of topology. They are particularly visible in the driving-induced current suppression and the Fano factor. Thus, shot noise measurements provide a topological phase diagram as a function of the driving parameters. The observed phenomena can be explained physically by a mapping to an effective time-independent Hamiltonian and the emergence of edge states. Moreover, by considering quantum dissipation, we determine the requirements for the coherence properties in a possible experimental realization. For the computation of the zero-frequency noise, we develop an efficient method based on matrix-continued fractions.
Phase noise suppression through parametric filtering
Cassella, Cristian; Strachan, Scott; Shaw, Steven W.; Piazza, Gianluca
2017-02-01
In this work, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a parametric phase noise suppression technique, which we call "parametric phase noise filtering." This technique is based on the use of a solid-state parametric amplifier operating in its instability region and included in a non-autonomous feedback loop connected at the output of a noisy oscillator. We demonstrate that such a system behaves as a parametrically driven Duffing resonator and can operate at special points where it becomes largely immune to the phase fluctuations that affect the oscillator output signal. A prototype of a parametric phase noise filter (PFIL) was designed and fabricated to operate in the very-high-frequency range. The PFIL prototype allowed us to significantly reduce the phase noise at the output of a commercial signal generator operating around 220 MHz. Noise reduction of 16 dB (40×) and 13 dB (20×) were obtained, respectively, at 1 and 10 kHz offsets from the carrier frequency. The demonstration of this phase noise suppression technique opens up scenarios in the development of passive and low-cost phase noise cancellation circuits for any application demanding high quality frequency generation.
Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators
Rubiola, Enrico
2009-01-01
Presenting a comprehensive account of oscillator phase noise and frequency stability, this practical text is both mathematically rigorous and accessible. An in-depth treatment of the noise mechanism is given, describing the oscillator as a physical system, and showing that simple general laws govern the stability of a large variety of oscillators differing in technology and frequency range. Inevitably, special attention is given to amplifiers, resonators, delay lines, feedback, and flicker (1/f) noise. The reverse engineering of oscillators based on phase-noise spectra is also covered, and end-of-chapter exercises are given. Uniquely, numerous practical examples are presented, including case studies taken from laboratory prototypes and commercial oscillators, which allow the oscillator internal design to be understood by analyzing its phase-noise spectrum. Based on tutorials given by the author at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, international IEEE meetings, and in industry, this is a useful reference for acade...
Olympus receiver evaluation and phase noise measurements
Campbell, Richard L.; Wang, Huailiang; Sweeney, Dennis
1990-01-01
A set of measurements performed by the Michigan Tech Sensing and Signal Processing Group on the analog receiver built by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute (VPI) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for propagation measurements using the Olympus Satellite is described. Measurements of local oscillator (LO) phase noise were performed for all of the LOs supplied by JPL. In order to obtain the most useful set of measurements, LO phase noise measurements were made using the complete VPI receiver front end. This set of measurements demonstrates the performance of the receiver from the Radio Frequency (RF) input through the high Intermediate Frequency (IF) output. Three different measurements were made: LO phase noise with DC on the voltage controlled crystal oscillator (VCXO) port; LO phase noise with the 11.381 GHz LO locked to the reference signal generator; and a reference measurement with the JPL LOs out of the system.
The topological AC effect on non-commutative phase space
Li, Kang [Hangzhou Teachers College, Department of Physics, Hangzhou (China); The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Wang, Jianhua [Shaanxi University of Technology, Department of Physics, Hanzhong (China); The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
2007-05-15
The Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in non-commutative (NC) quantum mechanics is studied. Instead of using the star product method, we use a generalization of Bopp's shift method. After solving the Dirac equations both on non-commutative space and non-commutative phase space by the new method, we obtain corrections to the AC phase on NC space and NC phase space, respectively. (orig.)
Multipurpose exciter with low phase noise
Conroy, B.; Le, D.
1989-01-01
Results of an effort to develop a lower-cost exciter with high stability, low phase noise, and controllable phase and frequency for use in Deep Space Network and Goldstone Solar System Radar applications are discussed. Included is a discussion of the basic concept, test results, plans, and concerns.
Oscillator Phase Noise: A Geometrical Approach
Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens
2009-01-01
We construct a coordinate-independent description of oscillator linear response through a decomposition scheme derived independently of any Floquet theoretic results. Trading matrix algebra for a simpler graphical methodology, the text will present the reader with an opportunity to gain an intuit...... an intuitive understanding of the well-known phase noise macromodel. The topics discussed in this paper include the following: orthogonal decompositions, AM–PM conversion, and nonhyperbolic oscillator noise response....
Phase Noise Tolerant QPSK Receiver Using Phase Sensitive Wavelength Conversion
Da Ros, Francesco; Xu, Jing; Lei, Lei
2013-01-01
A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated.......A novel QPSK receiver based on a phase noise reduction pre-stage exploiting PSA in a HNLF and balanced detection is presented. Receiver sensitivity improvement over a conventional balanced receiver is demonstrated....
Noise evaluation of automotive A/C compressor
Sameh M. Metwally, Mohamed I. Khalil, Shawki A. Abouel-seoud
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Passenger compartment's interior noise and thermal performance are essential criteria for the driving comfort of vehicles. The air-conditioning system influences both field of comfort. It creates comfortable thermal conditions. On the other hand, the noise radiation of the air-condition system's components can be annoying. The blower, the air distribution ducts and the registers affect air rush noise. In some cases, the refrigerant flow creates hissing noise. Such noise has a great influence on vehicle acoustical comfort and on overall quality perception of a vehicle Therefore, the acoustic performance of air-condition compressors become more important for passenger comfort. At engine idling and at extreme temperatures the air-condition compressor can be audible as the significant sound source. However, the aim of this paper is to quantify air-borne noise characteristics of vehicle air-condition compressor. A simulated experimental model comprises a small wooden box with dimensions of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m represented the principle of hemi-anechoic room was designed and acoustic characteristics of the sound field inside the box were determined. The air-condition compressor characteristics parameters considered in this paper are fan position and electric motor speed. In addition, a single number of the air column natural frequency is calculated. The results indicate that significant information can be obtained in order to investigate the vehicle air-condition compressor and consequently improve the vehicle interior quietness.
Hong, Jun; Liu, An-min; Guo, Jian
2013-08-01
An analytic model for an injection-locked dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) is proposed and verified by experiments in this paper. Based on this theoretical model, the effect of injection power on the single-sideband phase noise of the OEO is analyzed, and results suggest that moderate injection is one key factor for a balance between phase noise and spur for OEO. In order to measure superlow phase noise of OEOs, a cross-correlation measurement system based on the fiber delay line is built, in which high linear photodetector and low-phase-noise amplifier are used to improve systematic sensitivity. The cross-correlation measurement system is validated by experiments, and its noise floor for the X band is about -130 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -168 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz after a cross correlation of 200 times.
A Gaussian measure of quantum phase noise
Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Dowling, Jonathan P.
1992-01-01
We study the width of the semiclassical phase distribution of a quantum state in its dependence on the average number of photons (m) in this state. As a measure of phase noise, we choose the width, delta phi, of the best Gaussian approximation to the dominant peak of this probability curve. For a coherent state, this width decreases with the square root of (m), whereas for a truncated phase state it decreases linearly with increasing (m). For an optimal phase state, delta phi decreases exponentially but so does the area caught underneath the peak: all the probability is stored in the broad wings of the distribution.
Phase Noise Influence in Optical OFDM Systems employing RF Pilot Tone for Phase Noise Cancellation
Jacobsen, Gunnar; Kazovsky, Leonid G.; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yima; Friberg, Ari T.
2011-06-01
For coherent and direct-detection Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) systems employing radio frequency (RF) pilot tone phase noise cancellation the influence of laser phase noise is evaluated. Novel analytical results for the common phase error and for the (modulation dependent) inter carrier interference are evaluated based upon Gaussian statistics for the laser phase noise. In the evaluation it is accounted for that the laser phase noise is filtered in the correlation signal detection. Numerical results are presented for OFDM systems with 4 and 16 PSK modulation, 200 OFDM bins and baud rate of 1 GS/s. It is found that about 225 km transmission is feasible for the coherent 4PSK-OFDM system over normal (G.652) fiber.
Phase Noise Influence in Optical OFDM Systems employing RF Pilot Tone for Phase Noise Cancellation
Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T
2016-01-01
For coherent and direct-detection Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) systems employing radio frequency (RF) pilot tone phase noise cancellation the influence of laser phase noise is evaluated. Novel analytical results for the common phase error and for the (modulation dependent) inter carrier interference are evaluated based upon Gaussian statistics for the laser phase noise. In the evaluation it is accounted for that the laser phase noise is filtered in the correlation signal detection. Numerical results are presented for OFDM systems with 4 and 16 PSK modulation, 200 OFDM bins and baud rate of 1 GS/s. It is found that about 225 km transmission is feasible for the coherent 4PSK-OFDM system over normal (G.652) fiber.
Optical Heterodyne With Lower Phase Noise
Logan, Ronald T.
1994-01-01
Proposed improvement enhances utility of optical-heterodyne apparatus used to generate radio signal at chosen frequency between 1 and 1,000 GHz. Two lasers injection-locked to third, mode-locked laser. Beat-frequency heterodyne output contains much less phase noise if generated from outputs of two independent lasers, and phase-coherent with reference signal. Potential applications include phased-array radar, fiber-optic communication systems, fiber-optic stabilized oscillators, and other applications involving conversions between optical and millimeter-wave signals.
Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.
Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico
2012-12-01
Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase φ(t) is Sφ(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and
Shot noise in nano-electronic systems under the perturbation of ac fields
ZHAO Hong-kang
2007-01-01
Current noise exists in circuits and electronic devices generally, and it exhibits specific features as the system reaches nanometer size. The noise in the nano-system where external ac fields are applied plays an important role, since the properties of the fields and the nano-system together govern the resulting noise. In this paper, we present the derivation of shot noise by employing the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. The more general formulas for the current correlation and noise spectral density are given. The system is composed of a central nanosystem coupled to electrodes, and the obtained noise formulas are related to the Green's functions of detailed central regime and the terminals. As an example, we have performed the numerical calculation on a system with a toroidal carbon nanotube coupled to normal metal leads. The noise and Fano factor show intimate relation with the structure of the system and ac fields. The Aharonov-Bohm-like behaviors on the shot noise spectral density and Fano factor are observed to exhibit oscillation structures with period of quantum flux.
AC propulsion system for an electric vehicle, phase 2
Slicker, J. M.
1983-01-01
A second-generation prototype ac propulsion system for a passenger electric vehicle was designed, fabricated, tested, installed in a modified Mercury Lynx vehicle and track tested at the Contractor's site. The system consisted of a Phase 2, 18.7 kw rated ac induction traction motor, a 192-volt, battery powered, pulse-width-modulated, transistorized inverter packaged for under rear seat installation, a 2-axis, 2-speed, automatically-shifted mechanical transaxle and a microprocessor-based powertrain/vehicle controller. A diagnostics computer to assist tuning and fault finding was fabricated. Dc-to-mechanical-system efficiency varied from 78% to 82% as axle speed/torque ranged from 159 rpm/788 nm to 65 rpm/328 nm. Track test efficiency results suggest that the ac system will be equal or superior to dc systems when driving urban cycles. Additional short-term work is being performed under a third contract phase (AC-3) to raise transaxle efficiency to predicted levels, and to improve starting and shifting characteristics. However, the long-term challenge to the system's viability remains inverter cost. A final report on the Phase 2 system, describing Phase 3 modifications, will be issued at the conclusion of AC-3.
Advanced Phase noise modeling techniques of nonlinear microwave devices
Prigent, M.; J. C. Nallatamby; R. Quere
2004-01-01
In this paper we present a coherent set of tools allowing an accurate and predictive design of low phase noise oscillators. Advanced phase noise modelling techniques in non linear microwave devices must be supported by a proven combination of the following : - Electrical modeling of low-frequency noise of semiconductor devices, oriented to circuit CAD . The local noise sources will be either cyclostationary noise sources or quasistationary noise sources. - Theoretic...
POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IN THREE PHASE AC-AC CONVERTER THROUGH MODIFIED SPWM
P.VASUKI,
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new generation of ac-ac single-phase and three-phase power converters with more commutations per half cycle has been proposed for ac power due to the increasing availability and power capability of high frequency controlled-on and off power emiconductor switching devices. This paper presents three phase ac-acconverter whose control strategy is based on modified sinusoidal ulse-width modulation switching technique. As majority of the industrial loads are being inductive, the power factor is less. To improve the power factor, the delayed current is shifted to the input voltage, through a modification of the classical sinusoidal pulse width modulation switching technique. In this way, the decrease in the phase angle between the input current and voltage is feasible, and consequently, high cost compensation capacitors can be avoided. The improvement of power factor through this switching technique on the proposed converter is investigated and verified via simulation using the software Matlab/Simulink.
A general theory of phase noise in electrical oscillators
Hajimiri, Ali; Lee, Thomas H.
1998-01-01
A general model is introduced which is capable of making accurate, quantitative predictions about the phase noise of different types of electrical oscillators by acknowledging the true periodically time-varying nature of all oscillators. This new approach also elucidates several previously unknown design criteria for reducing close-in phase noise by identifying the mechanisms by which intrinsic device noise and external noise sources contribute to the total phase noise. In particular, it expl...
Phase noise reduction by self-phase locking in semiconductor lasers using phase conjugate feedback
Petersen, Lykke; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov
1994-01-01
A theoretical analysis of the behavior of the frequency/phase noise of semiconductor lasers with external phase conjugate feedback is presented. It is shown that the frequency noise is drastically reduced even for lasers with butt-coupled phase conjugate mirrors. In this laser system, the phase...
AC system stabilization via phase shift transformer with thyristor commutation
Oliveira, Jose Carlos de; Guimaraes, Geraldo Caixeta; Moraes, Adelio Jose [Uberlandia Univ., MG (Brazil); Abreu, Jose Policarpo G. de [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Edimar Jose de [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil)
1994-12-31
This article aims to present initially the constructive and operative forms of a phase-shift autotransformer which provides both magnitude and phase angle change through thyristor commutation, including a technic to reduce the number of thyristors. Following, it is proposed a control system to make such equipment an efficient AC system stabilizing tool. It is presented some simulation results to show the operation of this transformer in an electrical system. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Confidence estimates in simulation of phase noise or spectral density.
Ashby, Neil
2017-02-13
In this paper we apply the method of discrete simulation of power law noise, developed in [1],[3],[4], to the problem of simulating phase noise for a combination of power law noises. We derive analytic expressions for the probability of observing a value of phase noise L(f) or of any of the onesided spectral densities S(f); Sy(f), or Sx(f), for arbitrary superpositions of power law noise.
Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II
Kerr, James D; McClung, David W
2006-11-06
This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.
Three-Phase and Six-Phase AC at the Lab Bench
Caplan, George M.
2009-01-01
Utility companies generate three-phase electric power, which consists of three sinusoidal voltages with phase angles of 0 degrees, 120 degrees, and 240 degrees. The ac generators described in most introductory textbooks are single-phase generators, so physics students are not likely to learn about three-phase power. I have developed a simple way…
Noise Measurements Of Resistors With The Use Of Dual-Phase Virtual Lock-In Technique
Stadler Adam Witold
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.
Intrinsic 1/f device noise reduction and its effect on phase noise in CMOS ring oscillators
Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Wel, van der Arnoud P.; Hoogzaad, Gian; Tuijl, van Ed (A.J.M.); Nauta, Bram
1999-01-01
This paper gives experimental proof of an intriguing physical effect: periodic on-off switching of MOS transistors in a CMOS ring oscillator reduces their intrinsic 1/f noise and hence the oscillator's close-in phase noise. More specifically, it is shown that the 1/f3 phase noise is dependent on the
VARIANCE OF NONLINEAR PHASE NOISE IN FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM
RANJU KANWAR; SAMEKSHA BHASKAR
2013-01-01
In communication system, the noise process must be known, in order to compute the system performance. The nonlinear effects act as strong perturbation in long- haul system. This perturbation effects the signal, when interact with amplitude noise, and results in random motion of the phase of the signal. Based on the perturbation theory, the variance of nonlinear phase noise contaminated by both self- and cross-phase modulation, is derived analytically for phase-shift- keying system. Through th...
An analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators.
Agrawal, Deepak; Seshia, Ashwin
2014-12-01
In recent years, there has been much interest in the design of low-noise MEMS oscillators. This paper presents a new analytical formulation for noise in a MEMS oscillator encompassing essential resonator and amplifier nonlinearities. The analytical expression for oscillator noise is derived by solving a second-order nonlinear stochastic differential equation. This approach is applied to noise modeling of an electrostatically addressed MEMS resonator-based square-wave oscillator in which the resonator and oscillator circuit nonlinearities are integrated into a single modeling framework. By considering the resulting amplitude and phase relations, we derive additional noise terms resulting from resonator nonlinearities. The phase diffusion of an oscillator is studied and the phase diffusion coefficient is proposed as a metric for noise optimization. The proposed nonlinear phase noise model provides analytical insight into the underlying physics and a pathway toward the design optimization for low-noise MEMS oscillators.
Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Olsson, S L I; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M
2014-05-05
We investigate the beating of signal and idler waves, which have imbalanced signal to noise ratios, in a phase-sensitive parametric amplifier. Imbalanced signal to noise ratios are achieved in two ways; first by imbalanced noise loading; second by varying idler to signal input power ratio. In the case of imbalanced noise loading the phase-sensitive amplifier improved the signal to noise ratio from 3 to 6 dB, and in the case of varying idler to signal input power ratio, the signal to noise ratio improved from 3 to in excess of 20 dB.
Extra phase noise from thermal fluctuations in nonlinear optical crystals
César, J. E. S.; Coelho, A.S.; Cassemiro, K.N.
2009-01-01
We show theoretically and experimentally that scattered light by thermal phonons inside a second-order nonlinear crystal is the source of additional phase noise observed in optical parametric oscillators. This additional phase noise reduces the quantum correlations and has hitherto hindered...... the direct production of multipartite entanglement in a single nonlinear optical system. We cooled the nonlinear crystal and observed a reduction in the extra noise. Our treatment of this noise can be successfully applied to different systems in the literature....
Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs
S. A. Osmany
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO, the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we consider OFDM systems, where the PLL phase noise is reduced by digital signal processing after down-conversion of the RF signal to baseband. The rms phase error is discussed as a function of the loop parameters. Our model drastically simplifies the noise optimization of the PLL loop dynamics.
Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs
Osmany, S. A.; Herzel, F.; Schmalz, K.; Winkler, W.
2007-06-01
We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL) with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM) is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter) in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we consider OFDM systems, where the PLL phase noise is reduced by digital signal processing after down-conversion of the RF signal to baseband. The rms phase error is discussed as a function of the loop parameters. Our model drastically simplifies the noise optimization of the PLL loop dynamics.
Phase noise and jitter modeling for fractional-N PLLs
S. A. Osmany; Herzel, F.; Schmalz, K; Winkler, W.
2007-01-01
We present an analytical phase noise model for fractional-N phase-locked loops (PLL) with emphasis on integrated RF synthesizers in the GHz range. The noise of the crystal reference, the voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), the loop filter, the charge pump, and the sigma-delta modulator (SDM) is filtered by the PLL operation. We express the rms phase error (jitter) in terms of phase noise of the reference, the VCO phase noise and the third-order loop filter parameters. In addition, we conside...
Blaabjerg, Frede; Aquila, A. Dell; Liserre, Marco;
2004-01-01
A systematic approach to study dc/ac and ac/dc converters without the use of synchronous transformation is proposed. The use of a frequency-shift technique allows a straightforward analysis of single-phase and three-phase systems. The study of dc/ac and of ac/dc converters is reported to the study...... of dc/dc converters via a 50 Hz frequency-shift. The input admittance is calculated and measured for two study examples (a three-phase active rectifier and a single-phase photovoltaic inverter). These examples show that the purpose of a well designed controller for grid-connected converters...
An ultra low-noise AC beam transformer and digital signal processing system for CERN's ELENA ring
Angoletta, M E; Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Molendijk, J; Pedersen, F; Sanchez-Quesada, J
2013-01-01
CERN’s Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons coming from CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Essential longitudinal diagnostics required for commissioning and operation include the intensity measurement for bunched and debunched beams and the measurement of p/p for debunched beams to assess the electron cooling performance. The beam phase information is also needed by the Low-Level RF (LLRF) system. The baseline system for providing the required beam parameters and signals is based upon two ultra-low-noise AC beam transformers and associated digital signal processing. The AC beam transformers cover different frequency regions and are an adaptation to the ELENA layout of those used in the AD. Two AC beam transformers will also be installed in the extraction lines to provide beam intensity measurements. The digital signal processing will be carried out with the leadingedge hardware family used for ELENA’s L...
Phase noise of self-sustained optomechanical oscillators
Fong, King Yan; Poot, Menno; Han, Xu; Tang, Hong X.
2014-01-01
In this paper we present a theory that predicts the phase noise characteristics of self-sustained optomechanical oscillators. By treating the cavity optomechanical system as a feedback loop consisting of an optical cavity and a mechanical resonator, we analytically derive the transfer functions relating the amplitude/phase noise of all the relevant dynamical quantities from the quantum Langevin equations, and obtain a closed-form expressions for the phase noise spectral densities contributed ...
Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.
2004-01-01
This paper presents an alternative safe commutation principle for a single phase bidirectional bridge, for use in the new generation of direct single-stage AC-AC audio power amplifiers. As compared with the bridge commutation with load current or source voltage sensing, in this approach...
Huang, Xianhe; Chen, Pingping; Fu, Wei; Jiao, Junjie
2015-09-01
To predict the phase noise in an 80-MHz crystal oscillator, on the basis of the classical Leeson model, we analyzed and selected the oscillator noise figure F and transistor corner frequency fc reasonably, and then calculated the loaded Q (QL) value of the oscillator according to the parameters in the selected Butler oscillation circuit. Thus, we obtained the predicted phase noise in an 80-MHz crystal oscillator according to the Leeson phase noise formula. Next, the simulation curve of the phase noise in this 80-MHz low-phase-noise crystal oscillator was obtained by establishing a transistor nonlinear model using commercial design software. Then, we debugged the 80-MHz low-phase-noise crystal oscillator prototype under the guidance of the prediction and simulation results and tested it. The measured results show that the phase noise predicted after selecting reasonable parameters for the Leeson model and the ADS simulation curve of the phase noise obtained by using the nonlinear transistor model are both close to the actual measured result. This result may be beneficial in simplifying the design process for low-phase-noise crystal oscillators.
Turbo Receiver Design for Phase Noise Mitigation in OFDM Systems
Sridharan, Gokul
2010-01-01
This paper addresses the issue of phase noise in OFDM systems. Phase noise (PHN) is a transceiver impairment resulting from the non-idealities of the local oscillator. We present a case for designing a turbo receiver for systems corrupted by phase noise by taking a closer look at the effects of the common phase error (CPE). Using an approximate probabilistic framework called variational inference (VI), we develop a soft-in soft-out (SISO) algorithm that generates posterior bit-level soft estimates while taking into account the effect of phase noise. The algorithm also provides an estimate of the phase noise sequence. Using this SISO algorithm, a turbo receiver is designed by passing soft information between the SISO detector and an outer forward error correcting (FEC) decoder that uses a soft decoding algorithm. It is shown that the turbo receiver achieves close to optimal performance.
Nonlinear phase noise in coherent optical OFDM transmission systems.
Zhu, Xianming; Kumar, Shiva
2010-03-29
We derive an analytical formula to estimate the variance of nonlinear phase noise caused by the interaction of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with fiber nonlinearity such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The analytical results agree very well with numerical simulations, enabling the study of the nonlinear penalties in long-haul coherent OFDM systems without extensive numerical simulation. Our results show that the nonlinear phase noise induced by FWM is significantly larger than that induced by SPM and XPM, which is in contrast to traditional WDM systems where ASE-FWM interaction is negligible in quasi-linear systems. We also found that fiber chromatic dispersion can reduce the nonlinear phase noise. The variance of the total phase noise increases linearly with the bit rate, and does not depend significantly on the number of subcarriers for systems with moderate fiber chromatic dispersion.
Effect of phase noise in an OFDM／OQAM system
ChenQifan; WuBingyang; ChengShixin
2003-01-01
The performance of an OFDM/OQAM system under phase noise is analyzed. The analysis helps to direct the design of low cost tuners through specifying the required phase noise characteristics. Discrete time formulation of OFDM/OQAM is first derived with the square root raised cosine (SRRC) filter as the pulse-shaping filter. Then the effect of multiplicative phase noise is equivalently represented as additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), the variance of which is given analytically. We can observe that the same result as OFDM/QAM system is derived. Lastly, all the analytical results are verified by the bit error rate (BER) degradation through Monte Carlo simulation.
Phase-Noise and Amplitude-Noise Measurement of Low-Power Signals
Rubiola, Enrico; Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
Measuring the phase fluctuation between a pair of low-power microwave signals, the signals must be amplified before detection. In such cases the phase noise of the amplifier pair is the main cause of 1/f background noise of the instrument. this article proposes a scheme that makes amplification possible while rejecting the close in 1/f (flicker) noise of the two amplifiers. Noise rejection, which relies upon the understanding of the amplifier noise mechanism does not require averaging. Therefore, our scheme can also be the detector of a closed loop noise reduction system. the first prototype, compared to a traditional saturated mixer system under the same condition, show a 24 dB noise reduction of the 1/f region.
Rewari, Sonam; Nath, Vandana; Haldar, Subhasis; Deswal, S. S.; Gupta, R. S.
2016-12-01
In this paper for the first time, the noise immunity and analog performance of nanotube junctionless field effect transistor (NJLFET) has been investigated. Small signal AC performance metrics namely Scattering parameters (S-parameters) have been analyzed along with analog parameters to validate the suitability of NJLFET for RFIC design. NJLFET performance is examined by comparing its performance with junctionless gate-all-around (JLGAA) MOSFET. It has been inferred that NJLFET has improved I on/ I off ratio directing improved digital performance at higher channel lengths, reduced channel resistance ( R ch) which enables the MOSFET to provide a low resistance path to current and improved early voltage ( V EA) which shows the capability for high-gain amplification and higher g m/ g d directing high intrinsic dc gain. Higher f Tmax for NJLFET has been observed posing its potential for terahertz applications. Higher gain transconductance frequency product makes NJLFET an ultimate device for high-speed switching applications. Higher maximum transducer power gain in NJLFET implies higher power gain than JLGAA MOSFET. Also, NJLFET exhibits lower harmonic distortion and it has been explained by significant reduction in third-order derivative of transconductance, g m3. Reduction in g m3 shows that NJLFET provides better linearity over JLGAA and is more suitable for RFIC design. Also the S-parameters namely S11, S12, S21 and S22 have been analyzed to verify the small signal performance. A lower magnitude for reflection coefficients S11 and S22 depicts minimum reflection and higher matching between ports in NJLFET than JLGAA MOSFET. Higher voltage gains S12 and S21 are present in NJLFET than its counterpart which shows the higher gains that can be achieved using nanotube architecture. The noise metrics which are noise figure and noise conductance show significant reduction for NJLFET justifying its noise immunity.
Spectral Weighting Functions for Single-symbol Phase-noise Specifications in OFDM Systems
Hoeksema, Fokke; Schiphorst, Roel; Slump, Kees
2003-01-01
For the specification of phase-noise requirements for the front-end of a HiperLAN/2 system we investigated available literature on the subject. Literature differed in several aspects. One aspect is in the type of phase-noise used (Wiener phase-noise or small-angle phase noise). A Wiener phase-noise
Generic Electronic Board Design to Control 3-Phase Ac
RojasMolina A.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work presents the design and development of a low-cost power manager with controller for a 3-phase AC induction motor, with a wide range of industrial applications. The prototype drive design and development was made using the generic standard on printed board design IPC2221. Power manager consists of two stages. First is control stage, which includes an induction motor control-specific micro-controller. Second is power stage, with IGBTs as switching elements. This design is part of a wider project whose main objective is to advance a methodology to assist the quality improvement of academia-developed electronic prototypes. It is expected that these prototypes will be aligned with industrial standards, facilitating the industry-university connection regarding technological collaboration in the automation and control domain.
VARIANCE OF NONLINEAR PHASE NOISE IN FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEM
RANJU KANWAR
2013-04-01
Full Text Available In communication system, the noise process must be known, in order to compute the system performance. The nonlinear effects act as strong perturbation in long- haul system. This perturbation effects the signal, when interact with amplitude noise, and results in random motion of the phase of the signal. Based on the perturbation theory, the variance of nonlinear phase noise contaminated by both self- and cross-phase modulation, is derived analytically for phase-shift- keying system. Through this work, it is investigated that for longer transmission distance, 40-Gb/s systems are more sensitive to nonlinear phase noise as compared to 50-Gb/s systems. Also, when transmitting the data through the fiber optic link, bit errors are produced due to various effects such as noise from optical amplifiers and nonlinearity occurring in fiber. On the basis of the simulation results , we have compared the bit error rate based on 8-PSK with theoretical results, and result shows that in real time approach, the bit error rate is high for the same signal to noise ratio. MATLAB software is used to validate the analytical expressions for the variance of nonlinear phase noise.
Vibration induced phase noise in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers
Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J; Miffre, Alain; Jacquey, Marion; B\\"{u}chner, Matthias; Vigu\\'{e}, Jacques
2006-01-01
The high inertial sensitivity of atom interferometers has been used to build accelerometers and gyrometers but this sensitivity makes these interferometers very sensitive to the laboratory seismic noise. This seismic noise induces a phase noise which is large enough to reduce the fringe visibility in many cases. We develop here a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are thus able to explain the observed dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. The dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to further reduce this phase noise in atom interferometers and this reduction should open the way to improved interferometers.
Quantitative appraisal for noise reduction in digital holographic phase imaging.
Montresor, Silvio; Picart, Pascal
2016-06-27
This paper discusses on a quantitative comparison of the performances of different advanced algorithms for phase data de-noising. In order to quantify the performances, several criteria are proposed: the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio, the Q index, the standard deviation of the phase error, and the signal to distortion ratio. The proposed methodology to investigate de-noising algorithms is based on the use of a realistic simulation of noise-corrupted phase data. A database including 25 fringe patterns divided into 5 patterns and 5 different signal-to-noise ratios was generated to evaluate the selected de-noising algorithms. A total of 34 algorithms divided into different families were evaluated. Quantitative appraisal leads to ranking within the considered criteria. A fairly good correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio gain and the quality index has been observed. There exists an anti-correlation between the phase error and the quality index which indicates that the phase errors are mainly structural distortions in the fringe pattern. Experimental results are thoroughly discussed in the paper.
Phase Noise of Optically Generated Microwave Using Sideband Injection Locking
HUANG Jin; SUN Chang-Zheng; SONG Yu; XIONG Bing; LUO Yi
2008-01-01
Optically generated 20-GHz microwave carriers with phase noise lower than -75 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and lower than -90 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset are obtained using single- and double-sideband injection locking. Within the locking range, the effect of sideband injection locking can be regarded as narrow-band amplification of the modulation sidebands. Increasing the current of slave laser will increase the power of beat signal and reduce the phase noise to a certain extent. Double-sideband injection locking can increase the power of the generated microwave carrier while keeping the phase noise at a low level. It is also revealed that partially destruction of coherence between the two beating lights in the course of sideband injection locking would impair the phase noise performance.
Rescuing a Quantum Phase Transition with Quantum Noise
Zhang, Gu; Novais, E.; Baranger, Harold U.
2017-02-01
We show that placing a quantum system in contact with an environment can enhance non-Fermi-liquid correlations, rather than destroy quantum effects, as is typical. The system consists of two quantum dots in series with two leads; the highly resistive leads couple charge flow through the dots to the electromagnetic environment, the source of quantum noise. While the charge transport inhibits a quantum phase transition, the quantum noise reduces charge transport and restores the transition. We find a non-Fermi-liquid intermediate fixed point for all strengths of the noise. For strong noise, it is similar to the intermediate fixed point of the two-impurity Kondo model.
Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
ulation schemes can significantly change the performance of a power converter in steady state, and they have been extensively studied, but mostly directed to three-phase topologies, where triplen offsets are added. Single-phase systems, including ac-dc-ac systems, are less widely pursued, even...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances and hence verifying the idea....
PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS
Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn
2006-08-27
This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.
Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems
S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn
2006-12-01
This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.
Gierkink, S.L.J.; Wel, van der A.P.; Hoogzaad, G.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Tuijl, van A.J.M.
1998-01-01
Spectrum measurement results of a CMOS ring oscillator are presented that show a 10 dB decrease in 1/f noise induced phase noise at a 2 dB increase in carrier power. Simple ring oscillator theory predicts that the 1/f noise induced phase noise is independent of carrier power. It is shown that an inc
Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors.
Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy
2010-03-01
In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models.
Robustness of the geometric phase under parametric noise
Lupo, Cosmo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Aniello, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN - Sezione di Napoli and Facolta di Scienze Biotecnologiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: cosmo.lupo@unicam.it, E-mail: aniello@na.infn.it
2009-06-15
We study the robustness of the geometric phase in the presence of parametric noise. For this purpose we consider a simple case study, namely a semiclassical particle that moves adiabatically along a closed loop in a static magnetic field acquiring the Dirac phase. Parametric noise comes from the interaction with a classical environment, which adds a Brownian component to the path followed by the particle. After defining a gauge-invariant Dirac phase, we discuss the first and second moments of the distribution of the Dirac phase angle coming from the noisy trajectory.
Vector control of three-phase AC machines system development in the practice
Quang, Nguyen Phung
2008-01-01
Covers the area of vector control of 3-phase AC machines, in particular induction motors with squirrel-cage rotor, permanent excited synchronous motors and doubly-fed induction machines. This title summarizes the basic structure of a field-oriented controlled 3-phase AC drive and grid voltage orientated controlled wind power plant.
R. Ramesh,
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Single phase ac-dc converters having high frequency isolation are implemented in buck, boost, buck-boost configuration with improving the power quality in terms of reducing the harmonics of input current. The paperpropose the circuit configuration, control mechanism, and simulation result for the single phase ac-dc converter.
Ultralow-phase-noise oscillators based on BAW resonators.
Li, Mingdong; Seok, Seonho; Rolland, Nathalie; Rolland, Paul; El Aabbaoui, Hassan; de Foucauld, Emeric; Vincent, Pierre; Giordano, Vincent
2014-06-01
This paper presents two 2.1-GHz low-phase noise oscillators based on BAW resonators. Both a single-ended common base structure and a differential Colpitts structure have been implemented in a 0.25-μm BiCMOS process. The detailed design methods including the realization, optimization, and test are reported. The differential Colpitts structure exhibits a phase noise 6.5 dB lower than the single-ended structure because of its good performance of power noise immunity. Comparison between the two structures is also carried out. The differential Colpitts structure shows a phase noise level of -87 dBc/Hz at 1-kHz offset frequency and a phase noise floor of -162 dBc/Hz, with an output power close to -6.5 dBm and a core consumption of 21.6 mW. Furthermore, with the proposed optimization methods, both proposed devices have achieved promising phase noise performance compared with state-of-the-art oscillators described in the literature. Finally, we briefly present the application of the proposed BAW oscillator to a micro-atomic clock.
Analysis of MPN, MHN and Phase Noise of a Two-Mode Semiconductor Laser
Ebrahim Mortazy; Vahid Ahmadi; Mohammad Kazem Moravvej-Farshi; Abbas Zarifkar
2003-01-01
Intensity noise including Mode Partition Noise (MPN) and Mode Hopping Noise (MHN), and Phase/Frequency Noise Spectrum (FNS) are calculated for a two-mode semiconductor laser. RIN is derived considering of MPN and MHN effect.
Final Report on DE-FG02-04ER46107: Glasses, Noise and Phase Transitions
Yu, Clare C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2011-12-31
We showed that noise has distinct signatures at phase transitions in spin systems. We also studied charge noise, critical current noise, and flux noise in superconducting qubits and Josephson junctions.
Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I
Weir, Don (Editor)
2008-01-01
This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.
Simplified iterative algorithm for OFDM phase noise mitigation
Yang Jianhua; Zhao Danfeng; Yue Li; Zhao Chunhui
2007-01-01
OFDM has been widely adopted in several communication systems. However, OFDM systems are very sensitive to the phase noise, which causes the CPE (common phase error) and ICI (inter-carrier interference),and thus degrades the system performance significantly. Based on the IEEE 802.11a standard, a simplified iterative phase noise mitigation algorithm is proposed. The proposed algorithm has very low complexity, and requires no additional pilot information. The simulation result shows that good BER performance can be achieved through several few times of iteration.
Noise-powered probabilistic concentration of phase information
Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Muller, C. R.; Wittmann, C.
2010-01-01
Phase-insensitive optical amplification of an unknown quantum state is known to be a fundamentally noisy operation that inevitably adds noise to the amplified state(1-5). However, this fundamental noise penalty in amplification can be circumvented by resorting to a probabilistic scheme as recently...... shows, surprisingly, that the addition of incoherent noise leads to a noiselessly amplified output state with a phase uncertainty below the uncertainty of the state before amplification. This amplifier might become a valuable quantum tool in future quantum metrological schemes and quantum communication...... proposed and demonstrated in refs 6-8. These amplifiers are based on highly non-classical resources in a complex interferometer. Here we demonstrate a probabilistic quantum amplifier beating the fundamental quantum limit using a thermal-noise source and a photon-number-subtraction scheme(9). The experiment...
Noise-Enhanced Phase Synchronization in Excitable Media
Neiman, Alexander [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, Lutz [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115, Berlin, (Germany); Cornell-Bell, Ann [Viatech Laboratories/Cognetix, Inc., Ivoryton, Connecticut 06442 (United States); Moss, Frank [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States)
1999-12-06
We study the response of one- and two-dimensional excitable media to external spatiotemporal noise in terms of synchronization. The media are modeled by a finite-size lattice of locally coupled nonidentical units of the FitzHugh-Nagumo type driven by additive noise. We show that at nonzero noise level the behavior of the system becomes extremely ordered which is manifested by entrainment of the mean frequencies and by stochastic phase locking of distant oscillators in the lattice. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Pulse-Width Control in Ladder Structure Four-Phase Rectifier for AC-Electromotive
Ivanov, V. V.; Myatez, S. V.; Langeman, E. G.; Schurov, N. I.
2016-04-01
Based on these studies the ways of power factor of the single-phase rectifiers operating in a single-phase AC network improving are suggested. The ladder four-phase rectifier is offered as a technical mean using a pulse-width method of controlling the rectified voltage. The pulse-width control efficiency as a way of the power factor rectifier with a ladder structure for AC electromotive improving is evaluated.
Laser phase noise effects on the dynamics of optomechanical resonators
Phelps, Gregory A
2010-01-01
We investigate theoretically the influence of laser phase noise on the cooling and heating of a generic cavity optomechanical system. We derive the back-action damping and heating rates and the mechanical frequency shift of the radiation pressure-driven oscillating mirror, and derive the minimum phonon occupation number for small laser linewidths. We find that in practice laser phase noise does not pose serious limitations to ground state cooling. We then consider the effects of laser phase noise in a parametric cavity driving scheme that minimizes the back-action heating of one of the quadratures of the mechanical oscillator motion. Laser linewidths narrow compared to the decay rate of the cavity field will not pose any problems in an experimental setting, but broader linewidths limit the practicality of this back-action evasion method.
A uniform phase noise QVCO with a feedback current source
Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Lei; Qian He
2012-01-01
A novel integrated quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) with a feedback current source is presented in this paper.Benefiting from the current adjusting function of the feedback current source,the proposed QVCO exhibits a uniform phase noise over the entire tuning range.This QVCO is implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology.The measurement results show that it draws less than 3-mA average current from a 1.2-V supply and the phase noise is less than -110 dBc/Hz @1MHz offset over the entire tuning range.The fluctuation of phase noise @l MHz offset from the center frequency of 2 84-GHz to 3.27-GHz is less than 1 dBc/Hz,which validates the correctness of the proposed current source feedback technique.
Low bitrate system design in the presence of phase noise
Haugli, Hans-Christian
1995-01-01
There are a number of interesting mobile satellite applications that require the transmission of short packets of data. In the design of such systems one of the challenges is often to minimize the transmitted power to reduce cost, which implies using power efficient low bit-rate modulation and coding methods. PSK systems can be very power efficient, but at low bit-rates the carrier recovery circuits can be sensitive to oscillator phase noise. In this paper we address the problem of determining the lowest bit-rate that can be supported using PSK for a given level of system phase noise. The classical formulas are reviewed, and a method is derived to calculate the minimum C/N(sub 0) required to recover the carrier for CW, BPSK and QPSK signals for a given phase noise level.
Ma, Yonghua; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu
2016-04-20
We use a vector phase sensitive amplification (PSA) scheme, which can eliminate the inherent phase noise (PN) to amplitude noise (AN) conversion in a conventional PSA process. A dispersion-engineered silicon strip waveguide is used to investigate the vector PSA scheme at the telecom wavelengths. The phase-dependent gain and phase-to-phase transfer functions as well as constellation diagram at different signal polarization states (SPSs) are numerically analyzed. It is found that the PN to AN conversion is completely suppressed when the SPS is identical to one of the pump polarization states. Moreover, the binary phase shift keying signal is regenerated by the proposed vector PSA scheme, and the error vector magnitude is calculated to assess the regeneration capacity. Our results have potential application in all-optical signal processing.
Nature of noise in 2D phase unwrapping
Bamler, Richard; Davidson, Gordon W.; Adam, Nico
1996-12-01
This paper reviews the concept of noise in 2D phase unwrapping of SAR interferograms. It is shown that phase gradient estimates derived as wrapped phase differences of adjacent samples are biased, leading to an underestimation of phase slopes. Hence, linear estimators like least squares methods operating on such gradient estimates tend to globally distort the reconstructed terrain. The slope bias is quantified as a function of coherence and number of looks both theoretically and via simulations. The particular type of noise under discussion also may lead to impulse-like errors in the phase unwrapped by a linear method. In order to avoid these errors the support of reconstruction must be restricted in the same way as with so-called branch-cut methods.
Sanne Ten Oever
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In recent years it has become increasingly clear that both the power and phase of oscillatory brain activity can influence the processing and perception of sensory stimuli. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS can phase-align and amplify endogenous brain oscillations and has often been used to control and thereby study oscillatory power. Causal investigation of oscillatory phase is more difficult, as it requires precise real-time temporal control over both oscillatory phase and sensory stimulation. Here, we present hardware and software solutions allowing temporally precise presentation of sensory stimuli during tACS at desired tACS phases, enabling causal investigations of oscillatory phase. We developed freely available and easy to use software, which can be coupled with standard commercially available hardware to allow flexible and multi-modal stimulus presentation (visual, auditory, magnetic stimuli, etc. at pre-determined tACS-phases, opening up a range of new research opportunities. We validate that stimulus presentation at tACS phase in our setup is accurate to the sub-millisecond level with high inter-trial consistency. Conventional methods investigating the role of oscillatory phase such as magneto-/electroencephalography can only provide correlational evidence. Using brain stimulation with the described methodology enables investigations of the causal role of oscillatory phase. This setup turns oscillatory phase into an independent variable, allowing innovative and systematic studies of its functional impact on perception and cognition.
Ultra-low noise optical phase-locked loop
Ayotte, Simon; Babin, André; Costin, François
2014-03-01
The relative phase between two fiber lasers is controlled via a high performance optical phase-locked loop (OPLL). Two parameters are of particular importance for the design: the intrinsic phase noise of the laser (i.e. its linewidth) and a high-gain, low-noise electronic locking loop. In this work, one of the lowest phase noise fiber lasers commercially available was selected (i.e. NP Photonics Rock fiber laser module), with sub-kHz linewidth at 1550.12 nm. However, the fast tuning mechanism of such lasers is through stretching its cavity length with a piezoelectric transducer which has a few 10s kHz bandwidth. To further increase the locking loop bandwidth to several MHz, a second tuning mechanism is used by adding a Lithium Niobate phase modulator in the laser signal path. The OPLL is thus divided into two locking loops, a slow loop acting on the laser piezoelectric transducer and a fast loop acting on the phase modulator. The beat signal between the two phase-locked lasers yields a highly pure sine wave with an integrated phase error of 0.0012 rad. This is orders of magnitude lower than similar existing systems such as the Laser Synthesizer used for distribution of photonic local oscillator (LO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array radio telescope in Chile. Other applications for ultra-low noise OPLL include coherent power combining, Brillouin sensing, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), fiber optic gyroscopes, phased array antenna and beam steering, generation of LOs for next generation coherent communication systems, coherent analog optical links, terahertz generation and coherent spectroscopy.
Phase-Locked Loop Noise Reduction via Phase Detector Implementation for Single-Phase Systems
Thacker, Timothy [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Wang, Fei [ORNL
2011-01-01
A crucial component of grid-connected converters is the phase-locked loop (PLL) control subsystem that tracks the grid voltage's frequency and phase angle. Therefore, accurate fast-responding PLLs for control and protection purposes are required to provide these measurements. This paper proposes a novel feedback mechanism for single-phase PLL phase detectors using the estimated phase angle. Ripple noise appearing in the estimated frequency, most commonly the second harmonic under phase-lock conditions, is reduced or eliminated without the use of low-pass filters, which can cause delays to occur and limits the overall performance of the PLL response to dynamic changes in the system. The proposed method has the capability to eliminate the noise ripple entirely and, under extreme line distortion conditions, can reduce the ripple by at least half. Other modifications implemented through frequency feedback are shown to decrease the settling time of the PLL up to 50%. Mathematical analyses with the simulated and experimental results are provided to confirm the validity of the proposed methods.
Common mode noise rejection properties of amplitude and phase noise in a heterodyne interferometer
Hechenblaikner, Gerald
2013-01-01
High precision metrology systems based on heterodyne interferometry can measure position and attitude of objects to accuracies of picometer and nanorad, respectively. A frequently found feature of the general system design is the subtraction of a reference phase from the phase of the position interferometer, which suppresses low frequency common mode amplitude and phase fluctuations occurring in volatile optical path sections shared by both, the position and reference interferometer. Spectral components of the noise at frequencies around or higher than the heterodyne frequency, however, are generally transmitted into the measurement band and may limit the measurement accuracy. Detailed analytical calculations complemented with Monte Carlo simulations show that high frequency noise components may also be entirely suppressed, depending on the relative difference of measurement and reference phase, which may be exploited by corresponding design provisions. Whilst these results are applicable to any heterodyne in...
Noise-enhanced phase synchronization in time-delayed systems.
Senthilkumar, D V; Shrii, M Manju; Kurths, J
2012-02-01
We investigate the phenomenon of noise-enhanced phase synchronization (PS) in coupled time-delay systems, which usually exhibit non-phase-coherent attractors with complex topological properties. As a delay system is essentially an infinite dimensional in nature with multiple characteristic time scales, it is interesting and crucial to understand the interplay of noise and the time scales in achieving PS. In unidirectionally coupled systems, the response system adjust all its time scales to that of the drive, whereas both subsystems adjust their rhythms to a single (main time scale of the uncoupled system) time scale in bidirectionally coupled systems. We find similar effects for both a common and an independent additive Gaussian noise.
Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow
LI Ke-Ping; GAO Zi-You
2004-01-01
One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicledensity is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when thevehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficienttransient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from tree to synchronized flowoccurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstratethat there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.
Noise-Induced Phase Transition in Traffic Flow
LIKe-Ping; GAOZi-You
2004-01-01
One of the dynamic phases of the traffic flow is the traffic jam. It appears in traffic flow when the vehicle density is larger than the critical value. In this paper, a new method is presented to investigate the traffic jam when the vehicle density is smaller than the critical value. In our method, we introduce noise into the traffic system after sufficient transient time. Under the effect of noise, the traffic jam appears, and the phase transition from free to synchronized flow occurs in traffic flow. Our method is tested for the deterministic NaSch traffic model. The simulation results demonstrate that there exist a broad range of lower densities at which the noise effect leading to traffic jam can be observed.
Tanlock loop noise reduction using an optimised phase detector
Al-kharji Al-Ali, Omar; Anani, Nader; Al-Qutayri, Mahmoud; Al-Araji, Saleh
2013-06-01
This article proposes a time-delay digital tanlock loop (TDTL), which uses a new phase detector (PD) design that is optimised for noise reduction making it amenable for applications that require wide lock range without sacrificing the level of noise immunity. The proposed system uses an improved phase detector design which uses two phase detectors; one PD is used to optimise the noise immunity whilst the other is used to control the acquisition time of the TDTL system. Using the modified phase detector it is possible to reduce the second- and higher-order harmonics by at least 50% compared with the conventional TDTL system. The proposed system was simulated and tested using MATLAB/Simulink using frequency step inputs and inputs corrupted with varying levels of harmonic distortion. A hardware prototype of the system was implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The practical and simulation results indicate considerable improvement in the noise performance of the proposed system over the conventional TDTL architecture.
A Low Power Low Phase Noise Oscillator for MICS Transceivers.
Li, Dawei; Liu, Dongsheng; Kang, Chaojian; Zou, Xuecheng
2017-01-12
A low-power, low-phase-noise quadrature oscillator for Medical Implantable Communications Service (MICS) transceivers is presented. The proposed quadrature oscillator generates 349~689 MHz I/Q (In-phase and Quadrature) signals covering the MICS band. The oscillator is based on a differential pair with positive feedback. Each delay cell consists of a few transistors enabling lower voltage operation. Since the oscillator is very sensitive to disturbances in the supply voltage and ground, a self-bias circuit for isolating the voltage disturbance is proposed to achieve bias voltages which can track the disturbances from the supply and ground. The oscillation frequency, which is controlled by the bias voltages, is less sensitive to the supply and ground noise, and a low phase noise is achieved. The chip is fabricated in the UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) 0.18 μm CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) process; the core just occupies a 28.5 × 22 μm² area. The measured phase noise is -108.45 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset with a center frequency of 540 MHz. The gain of the oscillator is 0.309 MHz/mV with a control voltage from 0 V to 1.1 V. The circuit can work with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and the power consumption is only 0.46 mW at a 1.8 V supply voltage.
Contribution of off-resonant states to the phase noise of quantum dot lasers.
Wang, Cheng; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Grillot, Frédéric; Chan, Sze-Chun
2016-12-26
The phase noise of quantum dot lasers is investigated theoretically by coupling the Langevin noise sources into the rate equations. The off-resonant populations in the excited state and in the carrier reservoir contribute to the phase noise of ground-state emission lasers through the phase-amplitude coupling effect. This effect arises from the optical-noise induced carrier fluctuations in the off-resonant states. In addition, the phase noise has low sensitivity to the carrier scattering rates.
Xia, Haiting; Montresor, Silvio; Guo, Rongxin; Li, Junchang; Yan, Feng; Cheng, Heming; Picart, Pascal
2016-12-12
Robust phase unwrapping in the presence of high noise remains an open issue. Especially, when both noise and fringe densities are high, pre-filtering may lead to phase dislocations and smoothing that complicate even more unwrapping. In this paper an approach to deal with high noise and to unwrap successfully phase data is proposed. Taking into account influence of noise in wrapped data, a calibration method of the 1st order spatial phase derivative is proposed and an iterative approach is presented. We demonstrate that the proposed method is able to process holographic phase data corrupted by non-Gaussian speckle decorrelation noise. The algorithm is validated by realistic numerical simulations in which the fringe density and noise standard deviation is progressively increased. Comparison with other established algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm exhibits better accuracy and shorter computation time, whereas others may fail to unwrap. The proposed algorithm is applied to phase data from digital holographic metrology and the unwrapped results demonstrate its practical effectiveness. The realistic simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed unwrapping algorithm is robust and fast in the presence of strong speckle decorrelation noise.
Nonlinear phase noise mitigation in phase-sensitive amplified transmission systems.
Olsson, Samuel L I; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A
2015-05-04
We investigate the impact of in-line amplifier noise in transmission systems amplified by two-mode phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) and present the first experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) mitigation in a modulation format independent PSA-amplified transmission system. The NLPN mitigation capability is attributed to the correlated noise on the signal and idler waves at the input of the transmission span. We study a single-span system with noise loading in the transmitter but the results are expected to be applicable also in multi-span systems. The experimental investigation is supported by numerical simulations showing excellent agreement with the experiments. In addition to demonstrating NLPN mitigation we also present a record high sensitivity receiver, enabled by low-noise PSA-amplification, requiring only 4.1 photons per bit to obtain a bit error ratio (BER) of 1 × 10(-3) with 10 GBd quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) data.
Speckle phase noise in coherent laser ranging: fundamental precision limitations.
Baumann, Esther; Deschênes, Jean-Daniel; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Swann, William C; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R
2014-08-15
Frequency-modulated continuous-wave laser detection and ranging (FMCW LADAR) measures the range to a surface through coherent detection of the backscattered light from a frequency-swept laser source. The ultimate limit to the range precision of FMCW LADAR, or any coherent LADAR, to a diffusely scattering surface will be determined by the unavoidable speckle phase noise. Here, we demonstrate the two main manifestations of this limit. First, frequency-dependent speckle phase noise leads to a non-Gaussian range distribution having outliers that approach the system range resolution, regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio. These outliers are reduced only through improved range resolution (i.e., higher optical bandwidths). Second, if the range is measured during a continuous lateral scan across a surface, the spatial pattern of speckle phase is converted to frequency noise, which leads to additional excess range uncertainty. We explore these two effects and show that laboratory results agree with analytical expressions and numerical simulations. We also show that at 1 THz optical bandwidth, range precisions below 10 μm are achievable regardless of these effects.
Noise-induced phase transitions in neuronal networks
Lee, K -E; Goltsev, A V
2013-01-01
Using an exactly solvable cortical model of a neuronal network, we show that, by increasing the intensity of shot noise (flow of random spikes bombarding neurons), the network undergoes first- and second-order non-equilibrium phase transitions. We study the nature of the transitions, bursts and avalanches of neuronal activity. Saddle-node and supercritical Hopf bifurcations are the mechanisms of emergence of sustained network oscillations. We show that the network stimulated by shot noise behaves similar to the Morris-Lecar model of a biological neuron stimulated by an applied current.
Performance Analysis of Phase Controlled Unidirectional and Bidirectional AC Voltage Controllers
Abdul Sattar Larik
2011-01-01
Full Text Available AC voltage controllers are used to vary the output ac voltage from a fixed ac input source. They are also commonly called ac voltage regulators or ac choppers. The output voltage is either controlled by PAC (Phase Angle Control method or on-off control method. Due to various advantages of ac voltage controllers, such as high efficiency, simplicity, low cost and ability to control large amount of power they efficiently control the speed of ac motors, light dimming and industrial heating, etc. These converters are variable structure systems and generate harmonics during the operation which will affect the power quality when connected to system network. During the last couple of years, a number of new semiconductor devices and various power electronic converters has been introduced. Accordingly the subject of harmonics and its problems are of great concern to power industry and customers. In this research work, initially the simulation models of single phase unidirectional and bidirectional ac voltage controllers were developed by using MATLAB software. The harmonics of these models are investigated by simulation. In the end, the harmonics were also analyzed experimentally. The simulated as well as experimental results are presented.
Noise and Fano-Factor Control in AC-Driven Aharonov-Casher Ring
Zein W. A.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The spin dependent current and Fano factor of Aharonov-Casher semiconducting ring is investigated under the effect of microwave, infrared, ultraviolet radiation and magnetic field. Both the average current and the transport noise (Fano factor characteristics are expressed in terms of the tunneling probability for the respective scattering channels. For spin transport induced by microwave and infrared radiation, a random oscillatory behavior of the Fano factor is observed. These oscillations are due to constructive and destructive spin interference effects. While for the case of ultraviolet radiation, the Fano factor becomes constant. This is due to that the oscillations has been washed out by phase averaging (i.e. ensemble dephasing over the spin transport channels. The present investigation is very important for quantum computing and information processing.
Noise and Fano-factor Control in AC-Driven Aharonov-Casher Ring
Phillips A. H.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The spin dependent current and Fano factor of Aharonov-Casher semiconducting ring is investigated under the effect of microwave, infrared, ultraviolet radiation and magnetic field. Both the average current and the transport noise (Fano factor characteristics are expressed in terms of the tunneling probability for the respective scattering channels. For spin transport induced by microwave and infrared radiation, a random oscillatory behavior of the Fano factor is observed. These oscillations are due to constructive and destructive spin interference effects. While for the case of ultraviolet radiation, the Fano factor becomes constant. This is due to that the oscillations has been washed out by phase averaging (i.e. ensemble dephasing over the spin transport channels. The present investigation is very important for quantum computing and information processing.
Design & Implementation of High Switching & Low Phase Noise Frequency Synthesizer
Ali M. N. Hassan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This research describes the design & implementation of frequency synthesizer using single loop Phase lock loop with the following specifications: Frequency range (1.5 2.75 GHz,Step size (1 MHz, Switching time 36.4 µs, & phase noise @10 kHz = -92dBc & spurious -100 dBc The development in I.C. technology provide the simplicity in the design of frequency synthesizer because it implements the phase frequency detector(PFD , prescalar & reference divider in single chip. Therefore our system consists of a single chip contains (low phase noise PFD, charge pump, prescalar & reference divider, voltage controlled oscillator , loop filter & reference oscillator. The single chip is used to provide the following properties :Low power consumptionSmall size, light weight.Flexibility in selecting crystal oscillator frequencies to fit into the system frequency planning.High reliability.The application of this synthesizer in frequency hopping systems, satellite communications & radar because it has high switching speed ,low phase noise & low spurious level.
Phase-sensitive detection of both inductive and non-inductive ac voltages in ferromagnetic resonance
Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Schoen, Martin A.; Boone, Carl T.; Silva, Thomas J.
2014-03-01
Spin pumping causes significant damping in ultrathin ferromagnetic/normal metal (NM) multilayers via spin-current generation of both dc and ac character in the NM system. While the nonlinear dc component has been investigated in detail by utilization of the inverse spin Hall effect (iSHE) in NMs, much less is known about the linear ac component that is presumably much larger in the small-excitation limit. We measured generated ac voltages in a wide variety of Permalloy/NM multilayers via vector-network-analyzer ferromagnetic resonance. We employ a custom, impedance-matched, broadband microwave coupler that features a ferromagnetic thin film reference resonator to accurately compare ac voltage amplitudes and phases between varieties of multilayers. By use of the fact that inductive and ac iSHE signals are phase-shifted by π/2, we find that inductive signals are major contributors in all investigated samples. It is only by comparison of the phase and amplitude of the recorded ac voltages between multiple samples that we can extract the non-inductive contributions due to spin-currents. Voltages due to the ac iSHE in Permalloy(10nm)/platinum(5nm) bilayers are weaker than inductive signals, in agreement with calculations based upon recent theoretical predictions. M.W. acknowledges financial support by the German Academic Exchange service (DAAD).
A Carrier-Phase Control Suitable for Conducted EMI Noise Reduction in a Multiple-Converter System
Tamate, Michio; Toba, Akio; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Wada, Keiji; Shimizu, Toshihisa
Conducted EMI noise flowing from the power converters to AC utility line is regulated by international commissions such as International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). For adherence to the IEC regulations, EMI filters should be used in power electronics equipment. This paper proposes a method for analyzing the conducted EMI noise in multiple power converters connected to the same power line. In this method, the phase difference between sub-harmonic modulated carrier signals at each power converter is taken into account. The phase difference among the power converters determines the EMI noise level in a multiple-converter system, as is evident from the analysis of the waveform of the common-mode current. In addition, EMI noise suppression using a carrier-phase control is a proposed. In order to reduce volume of the EMI filter effectively, the phase difference θ should be set to 360/nN° here, n is a high-order harmonic component at around 150kHz, and N is the number of power converters. Therefore, the conducted EMI noise can be reduced effectively with the help of the proposed phase control.
Phase noise analysis of clock recovery based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2007-01-01
A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser....... It is shown that a large loop length results in a higher timing jitter of the recovered clock signal. The impact of the loop length on the clock signal jitter can be reduced by using a low-noise VCO and a low loop filter bandwidth. Using the model, the timing jitter of the recovered optical and electrical...
Phase noise reduction of a semiconductor laser in a composite optical phase-locked loop
Satyan, Naresh; Sendowski, Jacob; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; Yariv, Amnon
2010-12-01
The bandwidth and residual phase noise of optical phase-locked loops (OPLLs) using semiconductor lasers are typically constrained by the nonuniform frequency modulation response of the laser, limiting their usefulness in a number of applications. It is shown in this work that additional feedback control using an optical phase modulator improves the coherence between the master and slave lasers in the OPLL by achieving bandwidths determined only by the propagation delay in the loop. A phase noise reduction by more than a factor of two is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept experiment using a commercial distributed feedback semiconductor laser.
The role of amplitude-to-phase conversion in the generation of oscillator flicker phase noise
Hearn, C. P.
1985-01-01
The role of amplitude-to-phase conversion as a factor in feedback oscillator flicker phase noise is examined. A limiting stage consisting of parallel-connected opposite polarity diodes operating in a circuit environment contining reactance is shown to exhibit amplitude-to-phase conversion. This mechanism coupled with resistive upconversion provides an indirect route for very low frequency flicker noise to be transferred into the phase of an oscillator signal. It is concluded that this effect is more significant in the lower frequency regimes where the onlinear reactances associated with active devices are overwhelmed by linear reactive elements.
Wu, Yuefeng; Li, Fang; Zhang, Wentao; Xiao, Hao; Liu, Yuliang
2008-11-01
Polarization-induced phase noise in Michelson interferometer with imperfect Faraday rotator mirrors was investigated. This kind of noise generates from the rotation angle errors of Faraday rotator mirrors and external polarization perturbation. The conversion factor κ, representing the magnitude conversion ability from polarization-noise to polarization induced phase-noise, have been theoretically evaluated and experimentally investigated.
Noise robust linear dynamic system for phase unwrapping and smoothing.
Estrada, Julio C; Servin, Manuel; Quiroga, Juan A
2011-03-14
Phase unwrapping techniques remove the modulus ambiguities of wrapped phase maps. The present work shows a first-order feedback system for phase unwrapping and smoothing. This system is a fast sequential unwrapping system which also allows filtering some noise because in deed it is an Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) low-pass filter. In other words, our system is capable of low-pass filtering the wrapped phase as the unwrapping process proceeds. We demonstrate the temporal stability of this unwrapping feedback system, as well as its low-pass filtering capabilities. Our system even outperforms the most common and used unwrapping methods that we tested, such as the Flynn's method, the Goldstain's method, and the Ghiglia least-squares method (weighted or unweighted). The comparisons with these methods shows that our system filters-out some noise while preserving the dynamic range of the phase-data. Its application areas may cover: optical metrology, synthetic aperture radar systems, magnetic resonance, and those imaging systems where information is obtained as a demodulated wrapped phase map.
Phase-sensitive detection of spin pumping via the ac inverse spin Hall effect.
Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M; Nembach, Hans T; Silva, Thomas J
2014-10-10
We use a phase-sensitive, quantitative technique to separate inductive and ac inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltages observed in Ni(81)Fe(19)/normal metal multilayers under the condition of ferromagnetic resonance. For Ni(81)Fe(19)/Pt thin film bilayers and at microwave frequencies from 7 to 20 GHz, we observe an ac ISHE magnitude that is much larger than that expected from the dc spin Hall angle Θ(SH)(Pt) = 0.1. Furthermore, at these frequencies, we find an unexpected, ≈ 110° phase of the ac ISHE signal relative to the in-plane component of the resonant magnetization precession. We attribute our findings to a dominant intrinsic ac ISHE in Pt.
Phase-Sensitive Detection of Spin Pumping via the ac Inverse Spin Hall Effect
Weiler, Mathias; Shaw, Justin M.; Nembach, Hans T.; Silva, Thomas J.
2014-10-01
We use a phase-sensitive, quantitative technique to separate inductive and ac inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltages observed in Ni81Fe19/normal metal multilayers under the condition of ferromagnetic resonance. For Ni81Fe19/Pt thin film bilayers and at microwave frequencies from 7 to 20 GHz, we observe an ac ISHE magnitude that is much larger than that expected from the dc spin Hall angle ΘSHPt=0.1. Furthermore, at these frequencies, we find an unexpected, ≈110° phase of the ac ISHE signal relative to the in-plane component of the resonant magnetization precession. We attribute our findings to a dominant intrinsic ac ISHE in Pt.
Power Electronic Transformer based Three-Phase PWM AC Drives
Basu, Kaushik
A Transformer is used to provide galvanic isolation and to connect systems at different voltage levels. It is one of the largest and most expensive component in most of the high voltage and high power systems. Its size is inversely proportional to the operating frequency. The central idea behind a power electronic transformer (PET) also known as solid state transformer is to reduce the size of the transformer by increasing the frequency. Power electronic converters are used to change the frequency of operation. Steady reduction in the cost of the semiconductor switches and the advent of advanced magnetic materials with very low loss density and high saturation flux density implies economic viability and feasibility of a design with high power density. Application of PET is in generation of power from renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar. Other important application include grid tied inverters, UPS e.t.c. In this thesis non-resonant, single stage, bi-directional PET is considered. The main objective of this converter is to generate adjustable speed and magnitude pulse width modulated (PWM) ac waveforms from an ac or dc grid with a high frequency ac link. The windings of a high frequency transformer contains leakage inductance. Any switching transition of the power electronic converter connecting the inductive load and the transformer requires commutation of leakage energy. Commutation by passive means results in power loss, decrease in the frequency of operation, distortion in the output voltage waveform, reduction in reliability and power density. In this work a source based partially loss-less commutation of leakage energy has been proposed. This technique also results in partial soft-switching. A series of converters with novel PWM strategies have been proposed to minimize the frequency of leakage inductance commutation. These PETs achieve most of the important features of modern PWM ac drives including 1) Input power factor correction, 2) Common
Dual correlated pumping scheme for phase noise preservation in all-optical wavelength conversion.
Anthur, Aravind P; Watts, Regan T; Shi, Kai; Carroll, John O'; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P
2013-07-01
We study the effect of transfer of phase noise in different four wave mixing schemes using a coherent phase noise measurement technique. The nature of phase noise transfer from the pump to the generated wavelengths is shown to be independent of the type of phase noise (1 / f or white noise frequency components). We then propose a novel scheme using dual correlated pumps to prevent the increase in phase noise in the conjugate wavelengths. The proposed scheme is experimentally verified by the all-optical wavelength conversion of a DQPSK signal at 10.7 GBaud.
O. Baran
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Our work deals with studies of a noise behavior in space communication systems. Two most important noise types the additive thermal noise and the multiplicative phase noise, respectively, are included. A simple model of the narrowband communication system is created and simulated in the Ansoft Designer system simulator. The additive thermal noise is modeled as AWGN in a communication channel. The phase noise is produced in transmitter and receiver oscillators. The main intention is to investigate the receiver filter bandwidth decrease effect on powers of both noise types. Results proposed in this paper show that for defined system conditions and for a certain filter bandwidth value, the power of the multiplicative phase noise equals to the additive thermal noise power. Another decrease of the filter bandwidth causes the phase noise power exceeding. To demonstrate the noise behavior transparently, input system parameters are properly selected. All simulation results are documented by theoretical calculations. Simulation outcomes express a good coincidence with presumptions and calculations.
Relativistic dipole interaction and the topological nature for induced HMW and AC phases
He, Xiao-Gang
2016-01-01
In this work we construct relativistic Lagrangian density for the AC and HMW topological phases by induced electric and magnetic dipoles and clarify some of the conditions for producing topological phases which have not been properly discussed in previous studies. We also found that in both cases, the topological phases are induced by the cross product of electric and magnetic fields in the form $\\bm{B} \\times \\bm{E}$ which reinforces the dual nature of these two topological phases.
Nonlinear Phase Noise Compensation in Experimental WDM Systems with 256QAM
Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson
2016-01-01
Nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) is studied in an experimental wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system operating at 256QAM. Extremely narrow linewidth lasers (phase part of the nonlinear noise in a Raman amplified link. Based...
Quantum 1/f noise in GaN FETs, HFETs, MODFETs, and their oscillators' phase noise
Handel, Peter H.; Hall, Amanda M.; Morkoç, Hadis
2007-02-01
GaN-based FETs, HFETs and MODFETs are ideally suited for use in high-power amplifiers and oscillators, due to their large band gap and high operating voltages. According to the quantum 1/f theory, the larger effective mass implied for the carriers also leads to lower fundamental 1/f noise and to lower resulting phase noise close to the carrier frequency. We have therefore studied the quantum 1/f noise sources in the channel and in the gate insulation. For the channel, a combination of conventional and coherent Quantum 1/f Effect (Q1/fE) is present, with the conventional Q1/fE dominant in the sub-threshold part of the channel toward the drain. It turns out that the quantum 1/f parameter "s" that determines the fraction of the two forms of Q1/fE, is no longer increasing proportionally to the width of the device w, when the latter exceeds the length of the channel. A logarithmic dependence on w is obtained for s instead. This is why an extremely large width w does not automatically lead to coherent Q1/fE in HFETs. Conventional Q1/fE applies for the gate insulation, with contributions of the much larger piezoelectric Q1/fE in spontaneously polarized AlGaN, if gate leakage is present. The noise figure is calculated, including all contributions. Finally, the minimal expected oscillator phase noise is calculated from the Q1/fE in the dissipative elements, even for perfectly linear amplifiers, by multiplication with the inverse fourth power of the quality factor, as was first done by us for quartz in 1979.
Alpha phase determines successful lexical decision in noise.
Strauß, Antje; Henry, Molly J; Scharinger, Mathias; Obleser, Jonas
2015-02-18
Psychophysical target detection has been shown to be modulated by slow oscillatory brain phase. However, thus far, only low-level sensory stimuli have been used as targets. The current human electroencephalography (EEG) study examined the influence of neural oscillatory phase on a lexical-decision task performed for stimuli embedded in noise. Neural phase angles were compared for correct versus incorrect lexical decisions using a phase bifurcation index (BI), which quantifies differences in mean phase angles and phase concentrations between correct and incorrect trials. Neural phase angles in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz) over right anterior sensors were approximately antiphase in a prestimulus time window, and thus successfully distinguished between correct and incorrect lexical decisions. Moreover, alpha-band oscillations were again approximately antiphase across participants for correct versus incorrect trials during a later peristimulus time window (∼500 ms) at left-central electrodes. Strikingly, lexical decision accuracy was not predicted by either event-related potentials (ERPs) or oscillatory power measures. We suggest that correct lexical decisions depend both on successful sensory processing, which is made possible by the alignment of stimulus onset with an optimal alpha phase, as well as integration and weighting of decisional information, which is coupled to alpha phase immediately following the critical manipulation that differentiated words from pseudowords. The current study constitutes a first step toward characterizing the role of dynamic oscillatory brain states for higher cognitive functions, such as spoken word recognition.
Thermodynamics aspects of noise-induced phase synchronization
Pinto, Pedro D.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Penna, André L. A.
2016-05-01
In this article, we present an approach for the thermodynamics of phase oscillators induced by an internal multiplicative noise. We analytically derive the free energy, entropy, internal energy, and specific heat. In this framework, the formulation of the first law of thermodynamics requires the definition of a synchronization field acting on the phase oscillators. By introducing the synchronization field, we have consistently obtained the susceptibility and analyzed its behavior. This allows us to characterize distinct phases in the system, which we have denoted as synchronized and parasynchronized phases, in analogy with magnetism. The system also shows a rich complex behavior, exhibiting ideal gas characteristics for low temperatures and susceptibility anomalies that are similar to those present in complex fluids such as water.
Kongskov, Rasmus Dalgas; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Poulsen, Henning Friis
2016-01-01
Classical reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography consist of two stages: phase retrieval and tomographic reconstruction. A novel algebraic method combining the two was suggested by Kostenko et al. [Opt. Express 21, 12185 (2013) [CrossRef], and preliminary results demonstrated improved...... is substantially more robust toward noise; our simulations point to a possible reduction in counting times by an order of magnitude....
Numerical generation of laser-resonance phase noise for optical communication simulators.
Ó Dúill, Seán P; Anthur, Aravind P; Huynh, Tam N; Naimi, Sepideh T; Nguyen, Lim; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P
2015-04-10
We generate random numerical waveforms that mimic laser phase noise incorporating laser-resonance enhanced phase noise. The phase noise waveforms are employed in system simulators to estimate the resulting bit error rate penalties for differential quadrature phase shift keying signals. The results show that baudrate dependence of the bit error rate performance arises from laser-resonance phase noise. In addition, we show with supporting experimental results that the laser-resonance phase noise on the pumps in four-wave-mixing-based wavelength converters is responsible for large bit error rate floors.
Elschner, Robert; de Melo, Alessandro Marques; Bunge, Christian-Alexander; Petermann, Klaus
2007-01-15
We studied the amplitude and phase noise suppression properties of an all-optical regenerator for differential phase-shift keying data. A detailed analytical investigation is performed and compared with numerical simulations for different working points. The results show that both amplitude and phase can be regenerated. However, simultaneous amplitude and phase noise suppression is possible only if the phase degradation is stronger than the amplitude degradation, for instance, due to nonlinear phase noise.
Uncorrelated Phase Noise Analysis for Millimeter-Wave Radiometer Imager Frequency Synthesizer
Jin Zhang
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a nontrivial uncorrelated phase noise analysis is proposed for frequency synthesizer of a passive millimeter-wave Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer (SAIR imager named BHU-2D-U designed for concealed weapon detections on human bodies with high imaging rates. This synthesizer provides local oscillators both for millimeter-wave front-ends and intermediate frequency IQ demodulators for the receivers. The influence of synthesizer uncorrelated phase noise in different offset frequency ranges on the visibility phase errors have been systematically investigated with phase noise mismatch requirements drawn. Integrated RMS phase error has been applied to establish uncorrelated phase noise requirements for visibility error control. Measurement results have proved that uncorrelated phase noise does exist among synthesizer output pairs, and the previously defined requirements are achieved with imaging results proposed. In conclusion, the uncorrelated phase noise effects on SAIR visibility errors have been concretized to phase noise design requirements, which have been realized by synthesizer design.
Common mode noise rejection properties of amplitude and phase noise in a heterodyne interferometer.
Hechenblaikner, Gerald
2013-05-01
High precision metrology systems based on heterodyne interferometry can measure the position and attitude of objects to accuracies of picometer and nanorad, respectively. A frequently found feature of the general system design is the subtraction of a reference phase from the phase of the position interferometer, which suppresses low frequency common mode amplitude and phase fluctuations occurring in volatile optical path sections shared by both the position and reference interferometer. Spectral components of the noise at frequencies around or higher than the heterodyne frequency, however, are generally transmitted into the measurement band and may limit the measurement accuracy. Detailed analytical calculations complemented with Monte Carlo simulations show that high frequency noise components may also be entirely suppressed, depending on the relative difference of measurement and reference phase, which may be exploited by corresponding design provisions. While these results are applicable to any heterodyne interferometer with certain design characteristics, specific calculations and related discussions are given for the example of the optical metrology system of the LISA Pathfinder mission to space.
Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters
Qin, Zian
becomes a emerging challenge. Accordingly, installation of sustainable power generators like wind turbines and solar panels has experienced a large increase during the last decades. Meanwhile, power electronics converters, as interfaces in electrical system, are delivering approximately 80 % electricity...... aspects as: control methods, auxiliary circuits, and application criteria. The details are as follows: 1. new modulation schemes of single-phase B6 and H6 converters for improved performance, 2. an optimal active power decoupling approach for kW-scale single-phase converters to achieve high power density......After a century of fast developing, the society is facing energy issues again, e.g. the exhaustion of fossil fuel, emission caused air pollution, radiation leakage of nuclear generation, and so on. How to produce and use electricity in a more sustainable, efficient, and cost-effective way thus...
Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Loh, Poh Chiang
2011-01-01
This paper proposes an approach for DC-link second-order harmonic power cancellation in single-phase AC/DC/AC converter with reduced number of switches. The proposed six-switch converter has two bridges with three switches in each of them, where the middle switch in each bridge is shared by the AC...... on their modulation indices of the six-switch converter, and high modulation indices are proved to be feasible for second-order power cancellation in the DC-link based on the phase difference analysis. Both reduced switch numbers and DC electrolytic capacitor size can be achieved using the proposed converter...
Broadband phase noise suppression in a Yb-fiber frequency comb.
Cingöz, A; Yost, D C; Allison, T K; Ruehl, A; Fermann, M E; Hartl, I; Ye, J
2011-03-01
We report a simple technique to suppress high-frequency phase noise of a Yb-based fiber optical frequency comb using an active intensity noise servo. Out-of-loop measurements of the phase noise using an optical heterodyne beat with a cw laser show suppression of phase noise by ≥7 dB out to Fourier frequencies of 100 kHz with a unity-gain crossing of ∼700 kHz. These results are enabled by the strong correlation between the intensity and phase noise of the laser. Detailed measurements of intensity and phase noise spectra, as well as transfer functions, reveal that the dominant phase and intensity noise contribution above ∼100 kHz is due to amplified spontaneous emission or other quantum noise sources.
Amplitude and phase noises of a spin-transfer nano-oscillator synchronized by a phase-lock loop
Mitrofanov, A. A.; Safin, A. R.; Udalov, N. N.
2015-08-01
We have studied the amplitude and phase noises of a spin-transfer nano-oscillator (STNO) with a phase synchronization system (phase-lock loop, PLL). Spectral characteristics of the amplitude and phase noises of the isochronous and nonisochronous STNO are obtained and compared to the analogous characteristics of an autonomous (nonsynchronized) oscillator. The PLL bandwidth is determined.
Multiple Hypotheses Iterative Decoding of LDPC in the Presence of Strong Phase Noise
Shayovitz, Shachar; Raphaeli, Dan
2012-01-01
Many satellite communication systems operating today employ low cost upconverters or downconverters which create phase noise. This noise can severely limit the information rate of the system and pose a serious challenge for the detection systems. Moreover, simple solutions for phase noise tracking such as PLL either require low phase noise or otherwise require many pilot symbols which reduce the effective data rate. In the last decade we have witnessed a significant amount of research done on...
Phase noise approximation analysis for the OFDM system
无
2007-01-01
The influence of phase noise (PN) present at the access point (AP) and mobile terminator (MT) may degrade the performance in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system, because the OFDM system is sensitive to the PN.The method of PN approximation based on the PN power spectrum was proposed to combat the influence of the PN present.The idea of the PN cancellation is the PN is approximated for the sum of the different frequency between the AP and the MT as well as Doppler shift supposing that the fixed different frequency during several OFDM symbols are identical, so the variable phase may be considered as the combination of the fixed partition and the random partition.The approximation method is utilized to remove the fixed and the random phase partition so that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) may be improved.The analysis and the simulation proposed show that the method may effectively improve the performance of the OFDM system.
Phase Noise Monitor and Reduction by Parametric Saturation Approach in Phase Modulation Systems
XU Ming; ZHOU Zhen; PU Xiao; JI Jian-Hua; YANG Shu-Wen
2011-01-01
Nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) is investigated theoretically and numerically to be mitigated by parametric saturation approach in DPSK systems.The nonlinear propagation equation that incorporates the phase of linear and nonlinear is analyzed with parametric saturation processing (PSP).The NLPN is picked and monitored with the power change factors in the DPSK system.This process can be realized by an optical PSP limiter and a novel apparatus with feedback MZI.The monitor range of phase noise is 0°-90°, which may be reduced to 0°-45°if the monitor factor is about the Stockes wave but not an anti-Stockes wave.It is shown that DPSK signal performance can be improved based on the parametric saturation approach.%@@ Nonlinear phase noise (NLPN) is investigated theoretically and numerically to be mitigated by parametric saturation approach in DPSK systems.The nonlinear propagation equation that incorporates the phase of linear and nonlinear is analyzed with parametric saturation processing (PSP).The NLPN is picked and monitored with the power change factors in the DPSK system.This process can be realized by an optical PSP limiter and a novel apparatus with feedback MZI.The monitor range of phase noise is 0°-90°, which may be reduced to 0°-45° if the monitor factor is about the Stockes wave but not an anti-Stockes wave.It is shown that DPSK signal performance can be improved based on the parametric saturation approach.
On the phase-noise and phase-error performances of multiphase LC CMOS VCOs
Andreani, Pietro; Wang, Xiaoyan
2004-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of phase noise in multiphase LC oscillators, and measurement results for several CMOS quadrature-voltage-controlled-oscillators (QVCOs) working in the 2-GHz frequency range. The phase noise data for a so-called BS-QVCO (- 140 dBc/Hz or less at 3 MHz frequency offset...... from the carrier, for a power consumption of 20.8 mW and a figure-of-merit of 184 dBc/Hz) show that phase noise performances are close to the previously derived limits. A systematic cause of departure from ideal quadrature between QVCO signals is also analyzed and measured experimentally, and a compact...... LC-tank layout that removes this source of phase error is proposed. A TS-QVCO designed with this technique shows a phase-noise figure-of-merit improvement of 4 dB, compared to a previous implementation. The measured equivalent phase error for all QVCOs is between 0.6degrees and 1degrees....
Signal-to-noise ratio of phase sensing telescope interferometers
Henault, Francois
2008-01-01
This paper is the third part of a trilogy dealing with the principles, performance and limitations of what I named "Telescope-Interferometers" (TIs). The basic idea consists in transforming one telescope into a Wavefront Error (WFE) sensing device. This can be achieved in two different ways, namely the off axis and phase-shifting TIs. In both cases the Point-Spread Function (PSF) measured in the focal plane of the telescope carries information about the transmitted WFE, which is retrieved by fast and simple algorithms suitable to an Adaptive Optics (AO) regime. Herein are evaluated the uncertainties of both types of TIs, in terms of noise and systematic errors. Numerical models are developed in order to establish the dependence of driving parameters such as useful spectral range, angular size of the observed star, or detector noise on the total WFE measurement error. The latter is found particularly sensitive to photon noise, which rapidly governs the achieved accuracy for telescope diameters higher than 10 m...
A single-phase embedded Z-source DC-AC inverter.
Kim, Se-Jin; Lim, Young-Cheol
2014-01-01
In the conventional DC-AC inverter consisting of two DC-DC converters with unipolar output capacitors, the output capacitor voltages of the DC-DC converters must be higher than the DC input voltage. To overcome this weakness, this paper proposes a single-phase DC-AC inverter consisting of two embedded Z-source converters with bipolar output capacitors. The proposed inverter is composed of two embedded Z-source converters with a common DC source and output AC load. Though the output capacitor voltages of the converters are relatively low compared to those of a conventional inverter, an equivalent level of AC output voltages can be obtained. Moreover, by controlling the output capacitor voltages asymmetrically, the AC output voltage of the proposed inverter can be higher than the DC input voltage. To verify the validity of the proposed inverter, experiments were performed with a DC source voltage of 38 V. By controlling the output capacitor voltages of the converters symmetrically or asymmetrically, the proposed inverter can produce sinusoidal AC output voltages. The experiments show that efficiencies of up to 95% and 97% can be achieved with the proposed inverter using symmetric and asymmetric control, respectively.
Robust terahertz self-heterodyne system using a phase noise compensation technique.
Song, Hajun; Song, Jong-In
2015-08-10
We propose and demonstrate a robust terahertz self-heterodyne system using a phase noise compensation technique. Conventional terahertz self-heterodyne systems suffer from degraded phase noise performance due to phase noise of the laser sources. The proposed phase noise compensation technique uses an additional photodiode and a simple electric circuit to produce phase noise identical to that observed in the terahertz signal produced by the self-heterodyne system. The phase noise is subsequently subtracted from the terahertz signal produced by the self-heterodyne system using a lock-in amplifier. While the terahertz self-heterodyne system using a phase noise compensation technique offers improved phase noise performance, it also provides a reduced phase drift against ambient temperature variations. The terahertz self-heterodyne system using a phase noise compensation technique shows a phase noise of 0.67 degree in terms of a standard deviation value even without using overall delay balance control. It also shows a phase drift of as small as approximately 10 degrees in an open-to-air measurement condition without any strict temperature control.
Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Ziyadi, Morteza; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Shamee, Bishara; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Akasaka, Youichi; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Takasaka, Shigehiro; Sugizaki, Ryuichi; Touch, Joseph D; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E
2015-07-15
We demonstrate an all-optical phase noise mitigation scheme based on the generation, delay, and coherent summation of higher order signal harmonics. The signal, its third-order harmonic, and their corresponding delayed variant conjugates create a staircase phase-transfer function that quantizes the phase of quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal to mitigate phase noise. The signal and the harmonics are automatically phase-locked multiplexed, avoiding the need for phase-based feedback loop and injection locking to maintain coherency. The residual phase noise converts to amplitude noise in the quantizer stage, which is suppressed by parametric amplification in the saturation regime. Phase noise reduction of ∼40% and OSNR-gain of ∼3 dB at BER 10(-3) are experimentally demonstrated for 20- and 30-Gbaud QPSK input signals.
Residual phase noise measurements of the input section in a receiver
Mavric, Uros; Chase, Brian; /Fermilab
2007-10-01
If not designed properly, the input section of an analog down-converter can introduce phase noise that can prevail over other noise sources in the system. In the paper we present residual phase noise measurements of a simplified input section of a classical receiver that is composed of various commercially available mixers and driven by an LO amplifier.
Weng, Jing-Feng; Lo, Yu-Lung
2011-02-14
This paper proposes a robust noise and phase jump detection scheme for noisy phase maps containing height discontinuities. The detection scheme has two primary functions, namely to detect the positions of noise and to locate the positions of the phase jumps. Generally speaking, the removal of noise from a wrapped phase map causes a smearing of the phase jumps and therefore leads to a loss of definition in the unwrapped phase map. However, in the proposed scheme, the boundaries of the phase jump regions are preserved during the noise detection process. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated using the simulated and experimental wrapped phase maps of a 3D object containing height discontinuities, respectively. It is shown that the noise and phase jump detection scheme enables the precise and efficient detection of three different types of noise, namely speckle noise, residual noise, and noise at the lateral surfaces of the height discontinuities. Therefore, the proposed scheme represents an ideal solution for the pre-processing of noisy wrapped phase maps prior to their treatment using a filtering algorithm and phase unwrapping algorithm.
Kan WU; Shum, Ping
2010-01-01
The phase noise and intensity noise of a pulse train are theoretically analyzed in the demodulation measurement. The effect of pulse asymmetry is discussed for the first time using Fourier series. Experimentally, photodetectors with different bandwidth and incident power levels are compared to achieve minimum pulse distortion.
Theory of thermal phase noise in Michelson and Sagnac fiber interferometers
Wanser, Keith H.
1994-09-01
The intrinsic thermal phase noise spectra of the Michelson, Michelson with phase conjugate mirrors, and Sagnac fiber optic interferometers are presented. The thermal phase noise is maximum at dc and zero at the loop frequency for the Michelson with ordinary mirrors. Thermal phase noise eliminates the factor of two transducer phase sensitivity advantage of the Michelson over a comparable length Mach Zehnder. The Michelson with two phase conjugate mirrors exhibits identical noise to a Sagnac interferometer with the same total fiber length. The Sagnac exhibits common mode phase noise rejection at low frequencies and a broad maximum in the phase noise at the loop frequency of approximately 1 (mu) rad rms/(root)Hz for a 1 km fiber loop at 1319 nm.
Identification of the vortex glass phase by harmonics of the AC magnetic susceptibility
Adesso, M G; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.
2005-01-01
We compared the AC magnetic susceptibility behaviour for the vortex glass phase and for the creep phenomena with an inhomogeneous pinning potential. The temperature dependence of the harmonics of the susceptibility have been numerically simulated with these two models, and we studied them as a function of the frequency, in terms of Cole-Cole plots. From our analysis we show that it is possible to distinguish between the two different phases, because of their clear differences in the Cole-Cole...
Ban, S. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)]. E-mail: f060214d@mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Deguchi, K. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan); Aso, N. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8581 (Japan); Homma, Y. [Oarai Branch, Inst. for Mater. Research, University of Tohoku, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Shiokawa, Y. [Oarai Branch, Inst. for Mater. Research, University of Tohoku, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Sato, N.K. [Deptartment of Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya, 464-8602 (Japan)
2007-03-15
We report a superconducting phase diagram of the ferromagnetic superconductor UGe{sub 2} investigated by AC magnetic susceptibility measurements. In contrast to previous phase diagrams, we found that the superconducting transition temperature and volume fraction show a 'M-shaped' structure as a function of pressure. From this observation, we suggest that both of two critical points will play a crucial role in the occurrence of superconductivity in UGe{sub 2}.
Harmonic detection an AC excited generation system based on in-phase correlation filtering
贺益康; 孙丹; 王文举; 石赟
2002-01-01
The paper reports results of investigation on the harmonic detection technique of a complicated power supply system such as an AC excited generation system, which has a variable fundamental frequency and low order harmonics with rich sub-harmonics whose frequencies are lower than the fundamental one. The in-phase correlation filtering technique, based on the frequency shifting principle, is proposed in this paper.Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of this technique for the harmonic detections of AC excited generation systems.
Harmonic detection an AC excited generation system based on in-phase correlation filtering
无
2002-01-01
The paper reports results of investigation on the harmonic detection technique of a complicated power supply system such as an AC excited generation system, which has a variable fundamental frequency and low order harmonics with rich sub-harmonics whose frequencies are lower than the fundamental one. The in-phase correlation filtering technique, based on the frequency shifting principle, is proposed in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the effectiveness of this technique for the harmonic detections of AC excited generation systems.
Pnev, A B; Dvoretskiy, D A; Zhirnov, A A; Nesterov, E T; Sazonkin, S G; Chernutsky, A O; Shelestov, D A; Fedorov, A K; Svelto, C; Karasik, V E
2016-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for laser phase noise measurements with minimized sensitivity to external fluctuations including interferometer vibration, temperature instability, other low-frequency noise, and relative intensity noise. In order to minimize the effect of these external fluctuations, we employ simultaneous measurement of two spectrally separated channels in the scheme. We present an algorithm for selection of the desired signal to extract the phase noise. Experimental results demonstrate potential of the suggested scheme for a wide range of technological applications.
Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M
2014-11-17
We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.
Colored Noise in First-order-like Phase Transition of a Laser System
HE Ying; ZHU Shiqun; LING Yinsheng
2002-01-01
The decoupling theory is employed to analyze the multiplicative colored noise in a single mode laser system. Steady state intensity distribution function is derived when colored noise is included in the laser system. The first-order-like phase transition driven by multiplicative colored noise is investigated and compared with the case of multiplicative white noise. It is shown that the noise correlation time can affect the parameter plane of the first-order-like phase transition. The steady state intensity distributions in a laser system is changed greatly with noise correlation time τ.
Applying Closing Phase-Angle Control Technique in Bounce Reduction of AC Permanent Magnet Contactor
Chieh-Tsung Chi
2009-01-01
Full Text Available A new low-cost electronic control circuit actuator is proposed for minimizing the bouncing times of an AC permanent magnet (PM contactor after two contacts closing. The proposed new actuator overcomes the bouncing problem of an uncontrollable restrictions imposed by previously conventional AC electromagnetic (EM contactor based on the minimization of kinetic energy prior to two contacts impact. By choosing the closing phase angle of coil voltage on purpose, the bouncing problems of the movable contact during the closing process are then overcome. The using life of contacts is then prolonged and their operating reliability is improved as well. In order to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method here, several simulation and experimental procedures were performed on a prototype of AC PM contactor in the laboratory. Testing results actually showed that bouncing problem of contactor's contacts during the closing process was to be controlled by using the proposed technology.
Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source
Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrentt problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zero-sequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse conditions. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC sources....
Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source
Ma, Ke; Chen, Wenjie; Liserre, Marco;
2015-01-01
Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrent problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... currents. In this work a new series of control strategies which utilize the zerosequence components are proposed to enhance the power control ability under this adverse condition. It is concluded that by introducing proper zero sequence current controls and corresponding circuit configurations, the power...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC voltage....
Chan, Erwin H W
2010-10-11
A technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors is presented. It is based on phase modulation of the optical carrier to distribute the phase noise at the information band into a high frequency band which can be filtered out. This technique is suitable for suppressing the phase noise in various delay line structures and for integrating in the conventional fibre optic links. It can also suppress the coherent interference effect at the same time. A model for predicting the amount of phase noise reduction in various delay line structures using the optical phase modulation technique is presented for the first time and is experimentally verified. Experimental results demonstrate the technique can achieve a large phase noise reduction in various fibre optic delay line signal processors.
Tsujimoto, Tomiyuki; Nakade, Masahiko; Yagi, Yukihiro; Ishii, Noboru
Water tree is one of the degradation aspects of XLPE cables used for under-ground distribution or transmission lines. We have developed the loss current method using 3rd harmonic in AC loss current for cable diagnosis. Harmonic components in loss current arise as a result of the non-linear voltage-current characteristics of water trees. We confirmed that the 3rd harmonic in AC loss current had good correlation with water tree growth and break down strength. After that, we have applied this method to the actual 66kV XLPE cable lines. Up to now, the number of the application results is more than 120 lines. In this method, it is sometimes said that the degradation signal (3rd harmonic in loss current) is affected by the 3rd harmonic in the test voltage. To indicate and solve this problem, we investigated the extent of influence by 3rd harmonic in the test voltage, and found the rule of the influence. As a result, we developed a new technique of harmonic-noise reduction in loss current method that enabled a more highly accurate diagnosis and confirmed the effectiveness of this new technique by simulations and experiments with actual cables.
JPL pulsar timing observations. IV - Excess phase noise
Downs, G. S.; Krause-Polstorff, J.
1986-01-01
Previously published tables of geocentric arrival times for 24 pulsars covering a 12 year span are extended here to 14.5 years. The list of pulsars is extended by nine, most of which were observed for about 4 years. Known positins of these new objects are confirmed, and limits on the proper motions are obtained. Large phase excursions in PSR 0525 + 21 are found. The orbital parameters of the binary pulsar 0820 + 02 are tentatively confirmed. Short-term timing noise in excess of that expected from receiver considerations alone is established. Variations in the timing residuals for the original 24 pulsars are analyzed for correlations with other observable parameters. Little significant correlation with changes in pulse shape or energy or with the drift correction is found on time scales of 500 pulses or longer.
Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.
1994-10-01
A fringe analysis technique, which makes use of the spatial filtering property of the Fourier transform method, for the elimination of random impulsive noise in the wrapped phase maps obtained using the phase stepping technique, is presented. Phase noise is converted into intensity noise by transforming the wrapped phase map into a continuous fringe pattern inside the digital image processor. Fourier transform method is employed to filter out the intensity noise and recover the clean wrapped phase map. Computer generated carrier fringes are used to preserve the sign information. This technique makes the two dimensional phase unwrapping process less involved, because it eliminates the local phase fluctuations, which act as pseudo 2π discontinuities. The technique is applied for the elimination of noise in a phase map obtained using electro-optic holography.
A Non-linear Controller for Single-Phase AC-AC Power Converter to meet UPS Performance Index
Abdelhafid Ait Elmahjoub
2012-07-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on AC-AC power converter that can be used for uninterruptible power supply (UPS. The converter is built on two stages: a AC-DC input stage and a DC-AC output stage. The two blocks are connected by an intermediate DC bus. The aim of control is threefold: i power factor correction ii regulation of DC bus iii generating a sinusoidal voltage at the output. The synthesis of controllers has been achieved through the technique of nonlinear backstepping control. A detailed analysis of the stability control system is presented. The performances of regulators have been validated by numerical simulation in MATLAB / SIMULINK.
High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems
Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei
2012-01-01
In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...
单相直接AC-AC变换器的实现与分析%The Implementation and Analysis of Simple Phase Direct AC-AC Converter
万衡; 喻嬿; 黄道
2002-01-01
针对传统AC-DC-AC变换存在的缺陷,采用高频调制直接AC-AC变换技术,实现了两种不同结构的单相AC-AC直接变换器,对其特点和仿真结果进行了分析,并探讨了应用前景.
A 2.3GHz LC-tank CMOS VCO with optimal phase noise performance
Andreani, Pietro; Fard, Ali
2006-01-01
The phase-noise theory and design of a differential CMOS LC-tank VCO with double switch pair is presented. A formula for the minimum achievable phase noise in the 1/f2 region is derived. The 2.15 to 2.35GHz 0.3mum CMOS VCO has a phase noise of -143.9dBc/Hz at 3MHz offset and draws 4mA from a 2.5V...
Internal noise of a phase-locked receiver with a loop-controlled synthesizer
Greenhall, C. A.
1979-01-01
A local oscillator design that uses a digitally programmed frequency synthesizer instead of an analog VCO was proposed. The integral of the synthesizer input, the digital phase, is a convenient measure of integrated Doppler. The internal noise of such a receiver was examined. At high carrier margin, the local oscillator phase noise equals that of the Block IV receiver, about 2 deg rms at S-band, whereas the digital phase noise is about 0.5 deg rms.
A low-phase-noise 18 GHz Kerr frequency microcomb phase-locked over 65 THz
Huang, S -W; Zhou, H; Yu, M; Kwong, D -L; Wong, C W
2015-01-01
Laser frequency combs are coherent light sources that simultaneously provide pristine frequency spacings for precision metrology and the fundamental basis for ultrafast and attosecond sciences. Recently, nonlinear parametric conversion in high-Q microresonators has been suggested as an alternative platform for optical frequency combs, though almost all in 100 GHz frequencies or more. Here we report a low-phase-noise on-chip Kerr frequency comb with mode spacing compatible with high-speed silicon optoelectronics. The waveguide cross-section of the silicon nitride spiral resonator is designed to possess small and flattened group velocity dispersion, so that the Kerr frequency comb contains a record-high number of 3,600 phase-locked comb lines. We study the single-sideband phase noise as well as the long-term frequency stability and report the lowest phase noise floor achieved to date with -130 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset for the 18 GHz Kerr comb oscillator, along with feedback stabilization to achieve frequency Alla...
Gurpreet Kaur
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The two most important parameters to be considered while designing an OFDM based communication system are phase noise and carrier frequency offset (CFO. It has been observed that the OFDM systems are very sensitive to phase noise and CFO, and an accurate prediction of the tolerable values of theseparameters can help the system to relax the specifications. This paper analyses the performance of OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise and carrier frequency offset. Results clearly show the SINR penalty in the OFDM system due to phase noise and CFO.
Jia, Yanbing; Gu, Huaguang
2015-12-01
The effect of phase noise on the coherence dynamics of a neuronal network composed of FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons is investigated. Phase noise can induce dissimilar coherence resonance (CR) effects for different coupling strength regimes. When the coupling strength is small, phase noise can induce double CRs. One corresponds to the average frequency of phase noise, and the other corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, phase noise can only induce single CR, and the CR corresponds to the intrinsic firing frequency of the FHN neuron. The results show a transition from double CRs to single CR with the increase in the coupling strength. The transition can be well interpreted based on the dynamics of a single neuron stimulated by both phase noise and the coupling current. When the coupling strength is small, the coupling current is weak, and phase noise mainly determines the dynamics of the neuron. Moreover, the phase-noise-induced double CRs in the neuronal network are similar to the phase-noise-induced double CRs in an isolated FHN neuron. When the coupling strength is large enough, the coupling current is strong and plays a key role in the occurrence of the single CR in the network. The results provide a novel phenomenon and may have important implications in understanding the dynamics of neuronal networks.
Switching Correlation and Noise Level in Pr(3+):YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase.
Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-09-21
We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity noise correlation and the noise level of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity noise level between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity noise level and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other.
Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Yamashita, Shinji
2012-11-19
We theoretically and numerically explain the power saturation and the additional phase noise brought by the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). An equation to calculate an approximation to the saturated signal output power is presented. We also propose a scheme for alleviating the phase noise brought by the FOPA at the saturated state. In simulation, by controlling the decisive factor dispersion difference term Δk of the FOPA, amplitude-noise and additional phase noise reduction of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) based on the saturated FOPA is studied, which can provide promising performance to deal with PSK signals.
Phase noise analysis of voltage controlled oscillator used in cesium atomic clock
Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai
2017-03-01
Coherent population trapping (CPT) cesium frequency standard plays a significant role in precision guidance of missile and global positioning system (GPS). Low noise 4.596 GHz voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is an indispensable part of microwave signal source in cesium frequency standard. Low-phase noise is also the most important and difficult performance indicator of VCO. Starting from phase noise analysis method proposed by Leeson, the formulas about the relationship between phase noise of output signal of oscillator feedback model and phase fluctuation spectrum of amplifier, phase noise of oscillator are derived in this paper. Finally, the asymptote model of microwave oscillator is proposed based on the formula derivation. The experiment shows that when the reverse bias voltage of variode is 1.8 V, the designed oscillation frequency of VCO is 4.596 GHz, the power is ‑1 dBm and the DC power consumption is 19.6 mW. The tendency of phase noise simulation curve and actual test curve conform to asymptote model. The phase noise in 1 and 10 kHz is, respectively, ‑60.86 and ‑86.58 dBc/Hz. The significance of the paper lies in determining the main factors influencing oscillator phase noise and providing guiding direction for the design of low-phase noise VCO.
tACS phase locking of frontal midline theta oscillations disrupts working memory performance
Bankim Subhash Chander
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Frontal midline theta (FMT oscillations (4-8Hz are strongly related to cognitive and executive control during mental tasks such as memory processing, arithmetic problem solving or sustained attention. While maintenance of temporal order information during a working memory (WM task was recently linked to FMT phase, a positive correlation between FMT power, WM demand and WM performance was shown. However, the relationship between these measures is not well understood, and it is unknown whether purposeful FMT phase manipulation during a WM task impacts FMT power and WM performance. Here we present evidence that FMT phase manipulation mediated by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS can block WM demand-related FMT power increase and disrupt normal WM performance. Methods: 20 healthy volunteers were assigned to one of two groups (group A, group B and performed a 2-back task across a baseline block (block 1 and an intervention block (block 2 while 275-sensor magnetoencephalography (MEG was recorded. After no stimulation was applied during block 1, participants in group A received tACS oscillating at their individual FMT frequency over the prefrontal cortex (PFC while group B received sham stimulation during block 2. After assessing and mapping phase locking values (PLV between the tACS signal and brain oscillatory activity across the whole brain, FMT power and WM performance were assessed and compared between blocks and groups. Results: During block 2 of group A but not B, FMT oscillations showed increased PLV across task-related cortical areas underneath the frontal tACS electrode. While WM task-related FMT power increase (FMTpower and WM performance were comparable across groups in block 1, tACS resulted in lower FMTpower and WM performance compared to sham stimulation in block 2. Conclusion: tACS-related manipulation of FMT phase can disrupt WM performance and influence WM task-related FMT power increase. This finding may have
Phase noise characterization of sub-hertz linewidth lasers via digital cross correlation
Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Lours, Michel; Alexandre, Christophe; Le Coq, Yann
2017-04-01
Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metrics to evaluate the short term stability of a laser. This property is of a great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow line-width lasers. In this letter, we demonstrate a digital cross correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers. Three 1,542 nm ultra-stable lasers are used in this approach. For each measurement two lasers act as references to characterize a third one. Phase noise power spectral density from 0.5 Hz to 0.8 MHz Fourier frequencies can be derived for each laser by a mere change in the configuration of the lasers. This is the first time showing the phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers with no reference limitation. We also present an analysis of the laser phase noise performance.
Phase noise due to vibrations in Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers
Miffre, A; Büchner, M; Trénec, G; Vigué, J
2006-01-01
Atom interferometers are very sensitive to accelerations and rotations. This property, which has some very interesting applications, induces a deleterious phase noise due to the seismic noise of the laboratory and this phase noise is sufficiently large to reduce the fringe visibility in many experiments. We develop a model calculation of this phase noise in the case of Mach-Zehnder atom interferometers and we apply this model to our thermal lithium interferometer. We are able to explain the observed phase noise which has been detected through the rapid dependence of the fringe visibility with the diffraction order. We think that the dynamical model developed in the present paper should be very useful to reduce the vibration induced phase noise in atom interferometers, making many new experiments feasible.
Vector control of three-phase AC/DC front-end converter
J S Siva Prasad; Tushar Bhavsar; Rajesh Ghosh; G Narayanan
2008-10-01
A vector control scheme is presented for a three-phase AC/DC converter with bi-directional power ﬂow capability. A design procedure for selection of control parameters is discussed. A simple algorithm for unit-vector generation is presented. Starting current transients are studied with particular emphasis on high-power applications, where the line-side inductance is low. A starting procedure is presented to limit the transients. Simulation and experimental results are also presented.
Capacity of Discrete-Time Wiener Phase Noise Channels to Within a Constant Gap
Barletta, Luca; Rini, Stefano
2017-01-01
The capacity of the discrete-time channel affected by both additive Gaussian noise and Wiener phase noise is studied. Novel inner and outer bounds are presented, which differ of at most $6.65$ bits per channel use for all channel parameters. The capacity of this model can be subdivided in three regimes: (i) for large values of the frequency noise variance, the channel behaves similarly to a channel with circularly uniform iid phase noise; (ii) when the frequency noise variance is small, the e...
Tong, Zhi; Wiberg, Andreas O J; Myslivets, Evgeny; Huynh, Chris K; Kuo, Bill P P; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan
2013-07-29
Noise performance of dual-pump, multi-sideband parametric mixer operated in phase-insensitive mode is investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that, in case when a large number of multicasting idlers are generated, the noise performance is strictly dictated by the dispersion characteristics of the mixer. We find that the sideband noise performance is significantly degraded in anomalous dispersion region permitting nonlinear noise amplification. In contrast, in normal dispersion region, the noise performance converges to the level of four-sideband parametric process, rather than deteriorates with increased sideband creation. Low noise generation mandates precise dispersion-induced phase mismatch among pump and sideband waves in order to control the noise coupling. We measure the noise performance improvement for a many-sideband, multi-stage mixer by incorporating new design technique.
Processing of noised residual stress phase maps by using a 3D phase unwrapping algorithm
Viotti, Matias R.; Fantin, Analucia V.; Albertazzi, Armando; Willemann, Daniel P.
2013-07-01
The measurement of residual stress by using digital speckle pattern interferometry (DSPI) combined with the hole drilling technique is a valuable and fast tool for integrity evaluation of civil structures and mechanical parts. However, in some cases, measured phase maps are badly corrupted by noise which makes phase unwrapping a difficult and unsuccessful task. By following recommendations given by the ASTM E837 standard, 20 consecutive hole steps should be performed for the measurement of non-uniform stresses. As a consequence, 20 difference phase maps along the hole depth will be available for the DSPI technique. An adaptive phase unwrapping algorithm could be used in order to unwrap images following paths localized along well modulated pixels and performing two dimensional phase unwrapping (following paths inside a difference phase map corresponding to a hole step) or 3D phase unwrapping (similar to a temporal phase unwrapping following paths located at well-modulated pixels in a previous or a subsequent hole image). Non-corrupted and corrupted hole-drilling tests were processed with a traditional phase unwrapping algorithm as well as with the proposed 3D approach. Comparisons between unwrapped phase maps and simulated ones have shown that the proposed method gave results with best accordance than 2D results.
Trade-off between phase-noise and signal quadrature in unilaterally coupled oscillators
Djurhuus, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Vidkjær, Jens
2005-01-01
We present a comprehensive nonlinear analysis of coupled oscillators and examine the trade-off between phase-noise of the oscillator and the quadrature precision. We show that asymmetry gives rise to amplitude and phase imbalance which are proportional to the inverse and inverse square......, respectively, of the relative coupling strength. It is shown that the level of AM-PM is determined by the nonlinearity of the coupling transconductance. The 3dB noise reduction in close-to-carrier phase-noise in quadrature oscillators due to mutual coupling is lost to the extra AM-PM noise for large coupling...... strengths. The additional contribution of the internal noise sources in the coupling circuit together with the AM-PM noise contribution explains why the 3dB noise reduction is rarely seen in measurements of this particular circuit....
Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi
2016-08-01
Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise.
Enhancement of VCO Linearity and Phase Noise by Implementing Frequency Locked Loop
Ayranci, E; Christensen, K; Andreani, Pietro
2007-01-01
This paper investigates the on-chip implementation of a frequency locked loop (FLL) over a VCO that decreases the phase noise and linearizes the transfer function. Implementation of the FLL inside a PLL is also investigated and a possible application is highlighted. Design of a special kind of low...... noise frequency detector without a reference frequency (frequency-to-voltage converter), which is the most critical component of the FLL, is also presented in a 0.25 mum BiCMOS process. Linearization and approximately 15 dBc/Hz phase noise suppression is demonstrated over a moderate phase noise LC VCO...
郑诗程; 陈玲; 曹小虎
2011-01-01
A circuit topology of three-phase AC/AC system is presented,which needs only six power devices to realize the three-phase AC/AC frequency conversion. The traditional phase-shifted control strategy is replaced by the equal pulse width chopping control strategy based on plugged pulse principle to regulate the amplitude and frequency of output voltage separately or simultaneously. The equal pulse width chopping control strategy is analyzed in detail and the mathematic expression of duty cycle is deduced based on the area equivalent rule according to different frequency and amplitude of anticipant output voltage. Under the environment of PSPICE,the three-phase AC/AC system with the equal pulse width chopping control strategy is simulated. Its main circuit and FPGA-based control circuit are designed and tested. The experimental results are consistent with the simulative results,completely same as the theoretical analysis,which verifies the correctness and feasibility of the introduced control strategy.%针对传统的三相AC/AC变频电路特点,提出了一种新的电路拓扑,仅用6个功率器件即可实现三相AC/AC变频功能.提出基于脉冲阻塞原理的等脉宽斩波控制策略,取代传统的移相控制策略施加于该电路拓扑,实现了三相输出电压幅值、频率分别可调或同时可调.对等脉宽斩波控制策略进行了详细的理论分析.根据期望输出电压的不同频率和幅值.利用面积等效原则,推导出相应占空比的数学表达式.在PSPICE环境下根据脉冲阻塞原理.对三相AC/AC系统进行等脉宽斩波控制仿真.并设计了三相AC/AC系统主电路和基于FPGA的控制电路,完成了相关实验.仿真和实验结果一致,与文中的理论分析结果也完全一致,验证了该AC/AC变频控制策略的正确性及可行性.
Experimental demonstration of a noise-tunable delay line with applications to phase synchronization
Pessacg, F.; Taitz, A.; Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.
2015-05-01
In this paper we propose and demonstrate a discrete circuit capable of generating arbitrary time delays dependent on noise, either added externally or already present in the signal of interest due to a finite signal-to-noise ratio. We then go on to demonstrate an application to phase locking of signals by means of a standard Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) design, where the usual Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is replaced by the noise-tunable delay line.
Application of Machine Learning Techniques for Amplitude and Phase Noise Characterization
Zibar, Darko; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique Hecker; Piels, Molly
2015-01-01
In this paper, tools from machine learning community, such as Bayesian filtering and expectation maximization parameter estimation, are presented and employed for laser amplitude and phase noise characterization. We show that phase noise estimation based on Bayesian filtering outperforms...... conventional time-domain approach in the presence of moderate measurement noise. Additionally, carrier synchronization based on Bayesian filtering, in combination with expectation maximization, is demonstrated for the first time experimentally....
Estimation of MIMO channel capacity from phase-noise impaired measurements
Pedersen, Troels; Yin, Xuefeng; Fleury, Bernard Henri
2008-01-01
phase noise samples affecting measurement samples collected with real TDMMIMO channel sounders are correlated. In this contribution a capacity estimator that accounts for the phase noise correlation is proposed. The estimator is based on a linear minimum mean square error estimate of the MIMO channel...
French, Doug [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)], E-mail: french@purdue.edu; Huang Zun; Pao, H.-Y.; Jovanovic, Igor [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)
2009-03-02
A quantum phase amplifier operated in the spatial domain can improve the signal-to-noise ratio in imaging beyond the classical limit. The scaling of the signal-to-noise ratio with the gain of the quantum phase amplifier is derived from classical information theory.
单相电压型Z源AC/AC变流器电路%Single-Phase Voltage-Fed Z-Source AC/AC Converter
房绪鹏
2006-01-01
提出了一种新型AC/AC变流器电路--单相电压型Z源AC/AC变流器;介绍了其电路拓扑、工作原理、控制方法等;给出了相应的仿真和实验结果.仿真和实验证实了该电路拓扑的合理性和优越性.
Phase Noise Analysis of Clock Recovery Based on an Optoelectronic Phase-Locked Loop
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Katsuo Oxenløwe, Leif; Clausen, Anders T.
2007-03-01
A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser employed in the loop. The effects of loop time delay and the laser transfer function are included in the stochastic differential equations describing the system, and a detailed timing jitter analysis of this type of optoelectronic CR for high-speed optical-time-division-multiplexing systems is performed. It is shown that a large loop length results in a higher timing jitter of the recovered clock signal. The impact of the loop length on the clock signal jitter can be reduced by using a low-noise VCO and a low loop filter bandwidth. Using the model, the timing jitter of the recovered optical and electrical clock signal can be evaluated. We numerically investigate the timing jitter requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators, in order for the recovered clock signal to have less jitter than that of the input signal. The timing jitter requirements for the free-running laser and the VCO are more relaxed for the extracted optical clock (lasers's output) signal.
Experimental Investigations of Noise Control in Planetary Gear Set by Phasing
S. H. Gawande
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Now a days reduction of gear noise and resulting vibrations has received much attention of the researchers. The internal excitation caused by the variation in tooth mesh stiffness is a key factor in causing vibration. Therefore to reduce gear noise and vibrations several techniques have been proposed in recent years. In this research the experimental work is carried out to study the effect of planet phasing on noise and subsequent resulting vibrations of Nylon-6 planetary gear drive. For this purpose experimental set-up was built and trials were conducted for two different arrangements (i.e., with phasing and without phasing and it is observed that the noise level and resulting vibrations were reduced by planet phasing arrangement. So from the experimental results it is observed that by applying the meshing phase difference one can reduce planetary gear set noise and vibrations.
Phase noise estimation and mitigation for DCT-based coherent optical OFDM systems.
Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Wang, Ziyu
2009-09-14
In this paper, as an attractive alternative to the conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), discrete cosine transform (DCT) based OFDM which has certain advantages over its counterpart is studied for optical fiber communications. As is known, laser phase noise is a major impairment to the performance of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) systems. However, to our knowledge, detailed analysis of phase noise and the corresponding mitigation methods for DCT-based CO-OFDM systems have not been reported yet. To address these issues, we analyze the laser phase noise in the DCT-based CO-OFDM systems, and propose phase noise estimation and mitigation schemes. Numerical results show that the proposal is very effective in suppressing phase noise and could significantly improve the performance of DCT-based CO-OFDM systems.
T. Musch
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The generation of analogue frequency ramps with non-fractional phase-locked-loops (PLL is a cost effective way of linearising varactor controlled oscillators (VCO. In case that the VCO shows a high phase-noise level, a single non-fractional PLL is not able to suppress the phase-noise of the VCO sufficiently. The reason for this is the limited loopbandwidth of the PLL. In the field of precise measurements a high phase-noise level is mostly not tolerable. Examples of VCO-types with an extremely high phase noise level are integrated millimetre wave oscillators based on GaAs-HEMT technology. Both, a low quality factor of the resonator and a high flicker-noise corner frequency of the transistors are the main reason for the poor phase-noise behaviour. On the other hand this oscillator type allows a cost effective implementation of a millimetre-wave VCO. Therefore, a cascaded two-loop structure is presented that is able to linearise a VCO and additionally to reduce its phase-noise significantly.
Peijun, Gao; J, Oh N.; Hao, Min
2009-08-01
A differential LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) employing parasitic vertical-NPN (V-NPN) transistors as a negative gm-cell is presented to improve the close-in phase noise. The V-NPN transistors have lower flicker noise compared to MOS transistors. DC and AC characteristics of the V-NPN transistors are measured to facilitate the VCO design. The proposed VCO is implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS RF/mixed signal process, and the measurement results show the close-in phase noise is improved by 3.5-9.1 dB from 100 Hz to 10 kHz offset compared to that of a similar CMOS VCO. The proposed VCO consumes only 0.41 mA from a 1.5 V power supply.
Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...
Phase-noise-induced resonance in arrays of coupled excitable neural models.
Xiaoming Liang; Liang Zhao
2013-08-01
Recently, it is observed that, in a single neural model, phase noise (time-varying signal phase) arising from an external stimulating signal can induce regular spiking activities even if the signal is subthreshold. In addition, it is also uncovered that there exists an optimal phase noise intensity at which the spiking rhythm coincides with the frequency of the subthreshold signal, resulting in a phase-noise-induced resonance phenomenon. However, neurons usually do not work alone, but are connected in the form of arrays or blocks. Therefore, we study the spiking activity induced by phase noise in arrays of globally and locally coupled excitable neural models. We find that there also exists an optimal phase noise intensity for generating large neural response and such an optimal value is significantly decreased compared to an isolated single neuron case, which means the detectability in response to the subthreshold signal of neurons is sharply improved because of the coupling. In addition, we reveal two new resonance behaviors in the neuron ensemble with the presence of phase noise: there exist optimal values of both coupling strength and system size, where the coupled neurons generate regular spikes under subthreshold stimulations, which are called as coupling strength and system size resonance, respectively. Finally, the dependence of phase-noise-induced resonance on signal frequency is also examined.
Vanin, Evgeny; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2010-03-01
The Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) floor caused by the laser phase noise in the optical fiber communication system with differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) and coherent detection followed by digital signal processing (DSP) is analytically evaluated. An in-phase and quadrature (I&Q) receiver with a carrier phase recovery using DSP is considered. The carrier phase recovery is based on a phase estimation of a finite sum (block) of the signal samples raised to the power of four and the phase unwrapping at transitions between blocks. It is demonstrated that errors generated at block transitions cause the dominating contribution to the system BER floor when the impact of the additive noise is negligibly small in comparison with the effect of the laser phase noise. Even the BER floor in the case when the phase unwrapping is omitted is analytically derived and applied to emphasize the crucial importance of this signal processing operation. The analytical results are verified by full Monte Carlo simulations. The BER for another type of DQPSK receiver operation, which is based on differential phase detection, is also obtained in the analytical form using the principle of conditional probability. The principle of conditional probability is justified in the case of differential phase detection due to statistical independency of the laser phase noise induced signal phase error and the additive noise contributions. Based on the achieved analytical results the laser linewidth tolerance is calculated for different system cases.
Single-Phase Four Switch Z-Source AC-AC Converters%单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器
汤雨; 谢少军; 张超华
2007-01-01
提出了一种单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器,它包括电压型与电流型两类.与传统脉宽调制AC-AC变换器相比,它具有如下特点:输出电压范围宽且可升可降,输出电压与输入电压可同相或反相,冲击和谐波电流小,可靠性高.针对AC-AC变换器中固有的开关管换流问题,提出了一种适用于单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器的换流方案,无需外加缓冲吸收电路即可实现开关管的安全换流.以电压型单相四开关Z源AC-AC变换器为例,对其进行了理论分析、仿真和原理试验研究.实验结果证实了Z源变换器的特性及换流方案的可行性.
Dick, G. J.; Saunders, J.
1989-01-01
Oscillator configurations which reduce the effect of 1/f noise sources for both direct feedback and stabilized local oscillator (STALO) circuits are developed and analyzed. By appropriate use of carrier suppression, a small signal is generated which suffers no loss of loop phase information or signal-to-noise ratio. This small signal can be amplified without degradation by multiplicative amplifier noise, and can be detected without saturation of the detector. Together with recent advances in microwave resonator Qs, these circuit improvements will make possible lower phase noise than can be presently achieved without the use of cryogenic devices.
Measured Aperture-Array Noise Temperature of the Mark II Phased Array Feed for ASKAP
Chippendale, A P; Beresford, R J; Hampson, G A; Shaw, R D; Hayman, D B; Macleod, A; Forsyth, A R; Hay, S G; Leach, M; Cantrall, C; Brothers, M L; Hotan, A W
2015-01-01
We have measured the aperture-array noise temperature of the first Mk. II phased array feed that CSIRO has built for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. As an aperture array, the Mk. II phased array feed achieves a beam equivalent noise temperature less than 40 K from 0.78 GHz to 1.7 GHz and less than 50 K from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz for a boresight beam directed at the zenith. We believe these are the lowest reported noise temperatures over these frequency ranges for ambient-temperature phased arrays. The measured noise temperature includes receiver electronics noise, ohmic losses in the array, and stray radiation from sidelobes illuminating the sky and ground away from the desired field of view. This phased array feed was designed for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder to demonstrate fast astronomical surveys with a wide field of view for the Square Kilometre Array.
A New Transformerless Single-Phase Buck-Boost AC Voltage Regulator
YALCIN, F.
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Voltage regulation is one of the important goals for electrical sources and consumers. In this paper a new transformerless single-phase AC voltage regulator based on buck-boost converter topology is presented. The regulator circuit has a simple structure using only two bidirectional active switches, one inductor and one capacitor. A closed loop control system is implemented for the proposed regulator operation. A control law depending on the instantaneous values of the regulator's real input and desired output voltage is obtained and supports the PI controller. The control law allows the controller to obtain efficient pulse width modulation (PWM switching duty ratio for the desired output voltage when the input voltage has surges or fluctuations and the output load is changed. An experimental laboratory setup has been implemented for the proposed AC voltage regulator. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed topology is capable of and efficient for both bucking and boosting the input AC voltage to a high quality output voltage with a low total harmonic distortion (THD for different input voltage and load conditions.
AC-field-induced quantum phase transitions in density of states
Yang, Kai-Hua; Liu, Kai-Di; Wang, Huai-Yu; Qin, Chang-Dong
2016-02-01
We investigate the joint effects of the intralead electron interaction and an external alternating gate voltage on the time-averaged local density of states (DOSs) of a quantum dot coupled to two Luttinger-liquid leads in the Kondo regime. A rich dependence of the DOSs on the driving amplitude and intralead interaction is demonstrated. We show that the feature is quite different for different interaction strengths in the presence of the ac field. It is shown that the photon-assisted transport processes cause an additional splitting of the Kondo peak or dip, which exhibits photon-assisted single-channel (1CK) or two-channel Kondo (2CK) physics behavior. The phase transition between photon-assisted 1CK and 2CK physics occurs when the interaction strength is moderately strong. The inelastic channels associated with photon-assisted electron tunneling can dominate electron transport for weak interaction when the ac amplitude is greater than the frequency by one order of magnitude. In the limit of strong interaction the DOSs scale as a power-law behavior which is strongly affected by the ac field.
A method of measurement of the phase noise of stable oscillators by use of FFT technique
Hahn, Stefan; Hussain, Sabah
A method of measurement of the power density spectrum of phase noise of stable oscillators is presented. The oscillator under test and the reference are beating with a very low beat frequency. So the use of the phase locking loop is avoided. The time gated phase noise is converted into a digital signal and an FFT algoritm is used to compute the power spectrum. The experimental verification of the method is presented.
Design of Three Phase Solar-Based 4.5kw Ac Power Inverter Station
Dr.J.C. Onuegbu
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The design model of a 4.50Kilowatt, 3-phase, 50 hertz solar-based power generating station was examined by the paper. The power station is a dual source input generating station using 8 series connected 100A, 12V batteries per phase as backup, the solar panels being the main frame. An inverter of 12Volt direct current input voltage was incorporated to supply an output of 3-phase, 220Volts and 50 hertz alternating current. A charging circuit was installed to monitor charging level and to preserve the accumulator’s life span. The paper also looked into the solar-based power station component design model. The batteries therein are back-up and the system will ensure 24-hours reliable power supply. The setup has a normally closed switching relay ready to pickup the auxiliary battery supply within a few milliseconds after the solar source voltage drops below a stipulated level. The three phase a.c. voltage was achieved using standby on-line circuit with cascaded 741-based flip-flop at the base of the transistor drivers of the 3-phase power transformer. This model circuit reduced the load on each phase winding and facilitated reliable and uninterruptible power supply. The delta-wyeconnected transformer will guarantee proper phase shift of 120 degrees that will emulate alternating current voltage similar to the conventional generator voltage.
Phase noise modeling in LC oscillators implemented in SiGe technology
M.Bouhouche; S.Latreche; C.Gontrand
2013-01-01
This paper addresses phase noise analysis of a radiofrequency LC oscillator built around a SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) realized in a 0.35 μm BiCMOS process,as an active device.First,we give a brief background to SiGe HBT device physics.The key point is to initiate quantitative analysis on the influence of defects induced during extrinsic base implantation on electric performances of this device.These defects are responsible for the current fluctuations at the origin of low frequency noise in BiCMOS technologies.Next,we investigate the effect of implantation defects as a source of noise in semiconductors on the phase noise of a radiofrequency LC oscillator.We observe their influence on the oscillator phase noise,and we quantify the influence of their energy distribution in the semiconductor gap.Second,we give a behavioral model of an LC oscillator containing a SiGe HBT as an active device.The key goal is to study the susceptibility of a radiofrequency oscillator built around a SiGe HBT to phase noise disturbance sources.Based on the time variance behavior of phase noise in oscillators,transient simulations (in the time domain) were used to analyze the time-dependent noise sensitivity of the oscillator.
Microwave Oscillator Phase Noise Requirement for TD-SCDMA Wireless Communication Systems
Song-Bai HE; Xiao-Huan Yan; Jing-Fu Bao
2007-01-01
In time division synchronous code division multiple access (TD-SCDMA) wireless communication systems, QPSK or 8PSK has been employed to support high data rate services and high efficiency in available bandwidth. The performance of such systems is affected by the phase noise of the microwave local oscillator. The phase noise model of synthesizer and the RF transceiver model for the phase noise effect are proposed for applications of TD-SCDMA systems. The relationship between the power spectral density (PSD) and root mean square (RMS) phase error is given. Then, the error vector magnitude (EVM) performance is analytically evaluated by using the single side band (SSB) phase noise. Theoretical results show agreement with those obtained by measurement data and therefore can be used to derive the TD-SCDMA system performance.
Pagnanelli, Christopher J.; Cashin, William F.
1992-01-01
The characterization of precision frequency standard phase noise and spurious outputs is addressed, using the two-oscillator coherent downconversion technique. Focus is on techniques for making accurate measurements of phase noise and spurious outputs within 100 KHz of a carrier. Significant sources of measurement error related to hardware design problems and inadequate measurement procedures are discussed: measurement errors resulting from system noise sources, phase-locked loop effects, and system bandwidth limitations. In addition, methods and design considerations for minimizing the effects of such errors are presented. Analytic discussions and results are supplemented with actual test data and measurements made using measurement hardware developed at the Ball Corporation, Efratom Division.
Modeling and Measurement of Phase Noise in GaAs HBT Ka-Band Oscillators
Lenk, Friedrich; Schott, Matthias; Heinrich, Wolfgang
2001-01-01
Accurate oscillator phase-noise simulation is a key problem in MMIC design, which is not solved satisfactory so far and needs further investigation. In this paper, a Ka-band MMIC oscillator with GaInP/GaAs HBT and on-chip resonator is treated as an example. Measured phase noise reaches -90 dBc/Hz and below at 100 kHz offset. To evaluate phase-noise predic-tion, the circuit is simulated using different commercial simulation tools and HBT models. Con-siderable differences in simulation results ...
1/f noise in spatially extended systems with order-disorder phase transitions
Staliunas, K
1999-01-01
Noise power spectra in spatially extended dynamical systems are investigated, using as a model the Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with a stochastic term. Analytical and numerical investigations show that the temporal noise spectra are of 1/f^a form, where a=2-D/2 with D the spatial dimension of the system. This suggests that nonequilibrium order-disorder phase transitions may play a role for the universally observed 1/f noise.
Generalized phase-shifting algorithms: error analysis and minimization of noise propagation.
Ayubi, Gastón A; Perciante, César D; Di Martino, J Matías; Flores, Jorge L; Ferrari, José A
2016-02-20
Phase shifting is a technique for phase retrieval that requires a series of intensity measurements with certain phase steps. The purpose of the present work is threefold: first we present a new method for generating general phase-shifting algorithms with arbitrarily spaced phase steps. Second, we study the conditions for which the phase-retrieval error due to phase-shift miscalibration can be minimized. Third, we study the phase extraction from interferograms with additive random noise, and deduce the conditions to be satisfied for minimizing the phase-retrieval error. Algorithms with unevenly spaced phase steps are discussed under linear phase-shift errors and additive Gaussian noise, and simulations are presented.
Influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining system.
Ma, Pengfei; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Ma, Yanxing; Su, Rongtao; Liu, Zejin
2013-12-02
In this manuscript, the influence of perturbative phase noise on active coherent polarization beam combining (CPBC) system is studied theoretically and experimentally. By employing a photo-detector to obtain phase error signal for feedback loop, actively coherent polarization beam combining of two 20 W-level single mode polarization-maintained (PM) fiber amplifiers are demonstrated with more than 94% combining efficiency. Then the influence of perturbative phase noise on active CPBC system is illustrated by incorporating a simulated phase noise signal in one of the two amplifiers. Experimental results show that the combining efficiency of the CPBC system is susceptible to the frequency or amplitude of the perturbative phase noise. In order to ensure the combining efficiency of the unit of CPBC system higher than 90%, the competence of our active phase control module for high power operation is discussed, which suggests that it could be worked at 100s W power level. The relationship between residual phase noise of the active controller and the normalized voltage signal of the photo-detector is developed and validated experimentally. Experimental results correspond exactly with the theoretically analyzed combining efficiency. Our method offers a useful approach to estimate the influence of phase noise on CPBC system.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced phase noise in an interferometric fiber sensing system
Chen Wei; Meng Zhou; Zhou Hui-Juan; Luo Hong
2012-01-01
Stimulated Brillouin scattering-induced phase noise is harmful to interferometric fiber sensing systems. Thelocalized fluctuating model is used to study the intensity noise caused by the stimulated Brillouin scattering in a single-mode fiber.The phase noise structure is analyzed for an interferometric fiber sensing system,and an unbalanced Michelson interferometer with an optical path difference of 1 m,as well as the phase-generated carrier technique,is used to measure the phase noise.It is found that the phase noise is small when the input power is below the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold,increases dramatically at first and then gradually becomes fiat when the input power is above the threshold,which is similar to the variation in relative intensity noise.It can be inferred that the increase in phase noise is mainly due to the broadening of the laser linewidth caused by stimulated Brillouin scattering,which is verified through linewidth measurements in the absence and presence of the stimulated Brillouin scattering.
Reducing coherent noise in interference systems using the phase modulation technique.
Cui, Ji-Wen; Tao, Zhang; Liu, Zhao-Bo; Tan, Jiu-Bin
2015-08-20
The phase modulation technique is adopted to reduce the coherent noise that arises from spurious interference. By choosing an appropriate driving signal, the method can reduce the coherent function of coherent noise to a great degree while keeping the coherent function of a coherent signal nearly unchanged. Simulation results show that for the grating interferometer, the phase error caused by coherent noise is reduced by 81.53% on average. For the Twyman interferometer, the fringe quality and contrast deteriorated by coherent noise are significantly improved. Furthermore, an experiment is set up in the phase-modulated Twyman interferometer to verify the feasibility of the principle. It is concluded that the method is effective to reduce the coherent noise in interference systems.
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu
2013-01-01
We report on the transmission of 8 Gb/s 0 dB PAPR 16QAM-OFDM W-band (75-110 GHz) signals over 22.8km SMF without phase noise compensation by using a phase modulator in the optical heterodyne up-convertor.......We report on the transmission of 8 Gb/s 0 dB PAPR 16QAM-OFDM W-band (75-110 GHz) signals over 22.8km SMF without phase noise compensation by using a phase modulator in the optical heterodyne up-convertor....
Effect of thermal noise on the phase locking of a Josephson fluxon oscillator
Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1992-01-01
The influence of thermal noise on fluxon motion in a long Josephson junction is investigated when the motion is phase locked to an external microwave signal. It is demonstrated that the thermal noise can be treated theoretically within the context of a two-dimensional map that models the dynamics...
Frequency domain phase noise analysis of dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators.
Jahanbakht, Sajad
2016-10-01
Dual injection-locked optoelectronic oscillators (DIL-OEOs) have been introduced as a means to achieve very low-noise microwave oscillations while avoiding the large spurious peaks that occur in the phase noise of the conventional single-loop OEOs. In these systems, two OEOs are inter-injection locked to each other. The OEO with the longer optical fiber delay line is called the master OEO, and the other is called the slave OEO. Here, a frequency domain approach for simulating the phase noise spectrum of each of the OEOs in a DIL-OEO system and based on the conversion matrix approach is presented. The validity of the new approach is verified by comparing its results with previously published data in the literature. In the new approach, first, in each of the master or slave OEOs, the power spectral densities (PSDs) of two white and 1/f noise sources are optimized such that the resulting simulated phase noise of any of the master or slave OEOs in the free-running state matches the measured phase noise of that OEO. After that, the proposed approach is able to simulate the phase noise PSD of both OEOs at the injection-locked state. Because of the short run-time requirements, especially compared to previously proposed time domain approaches, the new approach is suitable for optimizing the power injection ratios (PIRs), and potentially other circuit parameters, in order to achieve good performance regarding the phase noise in each of the OEOs. Through various numerical simulations, the optimum PIRs for achieving good phase noise performance are presented and discussed; they are in agreement with the previously published results. This further verifies the applicability of the new approach. Moreover, some other interesting results regarding the spur levels are also presented.
Phase noise reveals early category-specific modulation of the event-related potentials.
Németh, Kornél; Kovács, Petra; Vakli, Pál; Kovács, Gyula; Zimmer, Márta
2014-01-01
Previous studies have found that the amplitude of the early event-related potential (ERP) components evoked by faces, such as N170 and P2, changes systematically as a function of noise added to the stimuli. This change has been linked to an increased perceptual processing demand and to enhanced difficulty in perceptual decision making about faces. However, to date it has not yet been tested whether noise manipulation affects the neural correlates of decisions about face and non-face stimuli similarly. To this end, we measured the ERPs for faces and cars at three different phase noise levels. Subjects performed the same two-alternative age-discrimination task on stimuli chosen from young-old morphing continua that were created from faces as well as cars and were calibrated to lead to similar performances at each noise-level. Adding phase noise to the stimuli reduced performance and enhanced response latency for the two categories to the same extent. Parallel to that, phase noise reduced the amplitude and prolonged the latency of the face-specific N170 component. The amplitude of the P1 showed category-specific noise dependence: it was enhanced over the right hemisphere for cars and over the left hemisphere for faces as a result of adding phase noise to the stimuli, but remained stable across noise levels for cars over the left and for faces over the right hemisphere. Moreover, noise modulation altered the category-selectivity of the N170, while the P2 ERP component, typically associated with task decision difficulty, was larger for the more noisy stimuli regardless of stimulus category. Our results suggest that the category-specificity of noise-induced modulations of ERP responses starts at around 100 ms post-stimulus.
Low-Complexity Tracking of Laser and Nonlinear Phase Noise in WDM Optical Fiber Systems
Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Fehenberger, Tobias; Barletta, Luca
2015-01-01
In this paper, the wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic channel is considered. It is shown that for ideal distributed Raman amplification (IDRA), the Wiener process model is suitable for the non-linear phase noise due to cross phase modulation from neighboring channels. Based...... compared to previous trellis-based approaches, which require numerical integration. Further, the proposed method performs very well in low-to-moderate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), where standard decision directed (DD) methods, especially for high-order modulation, fail. The proposed algorithm does not rely...... on this model, a phase noise tracking algorithm is presented. We approximate the distribution of the phase noise at each time instant by a mixture of Tikhonov distributions, and derive a closed form expression for the posterior probabilities of the input symbols. This reduces the complexity dramatically...
EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator and its phase noise
Salik, Ertan; Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
EDFA-based coupled opto-electronic oscillator (COEO), an integrated optical and microwave oscillator that can generate picosecond optical pulses, is presented. the phase noise measurements of COEO show better performance than synthesizer-driven mode-locked laser.
Phase-noise limitations in continuous-variable quantum key distribution with homodyne detection
Corvaja, Roberto
2017-02-01
In continuous-variables quantum key distribution with coherent states, the advantage of performing the detection by using standard telecoms components is counterbalanced by the lack of a stable phase reference in homodyne detection due to the complexity of optical phase-locking circuits and to the unavoidable phase noise of lasers, which introduces a degradation on the achievable secure key rate. Pilot-assisted phase-noise estimation and postdetection compensation techniques are used to implement a protocol with coherent states where a local laser is employed and it is not locked to the received signal, but a postdetection phase correction is applied. Here the reduction of the secure key rate determined by the laser phase noise, for both individual and collective attacks, is analytically evaluated and a scheme of pilot-assisted phase estimation proposed, outlining the tradeoff in the system design between phase noise and spectral efficiency. The optimal modulation variance as a function of the phase-noise amount is derived.
On the investigation of voltage controlled oscillator phase noise for IoT applications
Haddad F.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO is one of the key elements in radio frequency (RF transceivers. A VCO working at 2.4 GHz and designed in CMOS technology is presented. It is suitable for low-cost and low-noise applications using wireless standards such as ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network. The noise characteristics of this RF VCO are investigated. Noise measurements, especially, phase noise are achieved under different environmental conditions.
Frequency and Phase Noise in Non-Linear Microwave Oscillator Circuits
Tannous, C.
2003-01-01
We have developed a new methodology and a time-domain software package for the estimation of the oscillation frequency and the phase noise spectrum of non-linear noisy microwave circuits based on the direct integration of the system of stochastic differential equations representing the circuit. Our theoretical evaluations can be used in order to make detailed comparisons with the experimental measurements of phase noise spectra in selected oscillating circuits.
Novel BCH Code Design for Mitigation of Phase Noise Induced Cycle Slips in DQPSK Systems
Leong, M. Y.; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, G.
2014-01-01
We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead......We show that by proper code design, phase noise induced cycle slips causing an error floor can be mitigated for 28 Gbau d DQPSK systems. Performance of BCH codes are investigated in terms of required overhead...
Raman and loss induced quantum noise in a depleted phase-sensitive parametric amplifier
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Rottwitt, Karsten
We study the quantum noise properties of phase-sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers in deep pump depletion using a semiclassical approach. Amplified spontaneous emission and spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis.......We study the quantum noise properties of phase-sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers in deep pump depletion using a semiclassical approach. Amplified spontaneous emission and spontaneous Raman scattering are included in the analysis....
Measurement of Allan variance and phase noise at fractions of a millihertz
Conroy, Bruce L.; Le, Duc
1990-01-01
Although the measurement of Allan variance of oscillators is well documented, there is a need for a simplified system for finding the degradation of phase noise and Allan variance step-by-step through a system. This article describes an instrumentation system for simultaneous measurement of additive phase noise and degradation in Allan variance through a transmitter system. Also included are measurements of a 20-kW X-band transmitter showing the effect of adding a pass tube regulator.
Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results
Podboy, Gary
2012-01-01
Subsonic jets are relatively simple. The peak noise source location gradually moves upstream toward the nozzle as frequency increases. 2) Supersonic jets are more complicated. The peak noise source location moves downstream as frequency increases through a BBSN hump. 3) In both subsonic and supersonic jets the peak noise source location corresponding to a given frequency of noise moves downstream as jet Mach number increases. 4) The noise generated at a given frequency in a BBSN hump is generated by a small number of shocks, not from all the shocks at the same time. 5) Single microphone spectrum levels decrease when the noise source locations measured with the phased array are blocked by a shielding surface. This consistency validates the phased array data and the stationary monopole source model used to process it. 6) Reflecting surface data illustrate that the law of reflection must be satisfied for noise to reflect off a surface toward an observer. Depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface and the observer only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement. 7) The low frequency noise created when a jet flow impinges on a surface comes primarily from the trailing edge regardless of the axial extent impacted by the flow.
Intensity and phase noise correlations in a dual-frequency VECSEL operating at telecom wavelength
De, Syamsundar; Bouchoule, Sophie; Alouini, Mehdi; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-01-01
The amplitude and phase noises of a dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) operating at telecom wavelength are theoretically and experimentally investigated in detail. In particular, the spectral behavior of the correlation between the intensity noises of the two modes of the DF-VECSEL is measured. Moreover, the correlation between the phase noise of the radio-frequency (RF) beatnote generated by optical mixing of the two laser modes with the intensity noises of the two modes is investigated. All these spectral behaviors of noise correlations are analyzed for two different values of the nonlinear coupling between the laser modes. We find that to describe the spectral behavior of noise correlations between the laser modes, it is of utmost importance to have a precise knowledge about the spectral behavior of the pump noise, which is the dominant source of noise in the frequency range of our interest (10 kHz to 35 MHz). Moreover, it is found that the noise correlation also dep...
Asghari, Hossein; Hadar, Ofer; Jalali, Bahram
2016-09-01
This paper deals with implementing a new algorithm for edge detection based on the Phase Stretch Transform (PST) for purposes of car plate license recognition. In PST edge detection algorithm, the image is first filtered with a spatial kernel followed by application of a nonlinear frequency-dependent phase. The output of the transform is the phase in the spatial domain. The main step is the 2-D phase function which is typically applied in the frequency domain. The amount of phase applied to the image is frequency dependent with higher amount of phase applied to higher frequency features of the image. Since sharp transitions, such as edges and corners, contain higher frequencies, PST emphasizes the edge information. Features can be further enhanced by applying thresholding and morphological operations. Here we investigate the influence of noise and blur on the ability to recognize the characters in the plate license, by comparison of our suggested algorithm with the well known Canny algorithm. We use several types of noise distributions among them, Gaussian noise, salt and paper noise and uniform distributed noise, with several levels of noise variances. The simulated blur is related to the car velocity and we applied several filters representing different velocities of the car. Another interesting degradation that we intend to investigate is the cases that Laser shield license plate cover is used to distort the image taken by the authorities. Our comparison results are presented in terms of True positive, False positive and False negative probabilities.
Phase-field simulation of dendritic sidebranching induced by thermal noise
朱昌盛; 王智平; 荆涛; 柳百成
2004-01-01
The influence of undercooling and noise magnitude on dendritic sidebranching during crystal growth was investigated by simulation of a phase-field model which incorporates thermal noise. It is shown that, the sidebranching is not influenced with inclusion of the nonconserved noise, therefore, in order to save the computational costs it is often neglected; while conserved noise drives the morphological instability and is dominant origin of sidebranching. The dependence of temperature field on magnitude of thermal noise is apparent, when Fu gets an appropriate value, noise can induce sidebranching but not influence the dendritic tip operating state. In the small undercooled melt, the thermal diffusion layer collected around the dendrite is thick, which suppresses the growth of its sidebranching and makes the dendrite take on the morphology of no sidebranching, but when the undercooling is great,the thermal diffusion layer is thin, which is advantageous to the growth of the sidebranching and the dendrite presents the morphology of the developed sidebranching.
Atomic-ensemble-based quantum repeater against general polarization and phase noise
Zhang Binbin [Department of Electronical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Xu Yaqiong [Department of Electronical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)
2011-07-15
We present a quantum repeater architecture based on atomic ensembles, which is free of polarization and phase noise. With only simple optical elements, we can obtain the uncorrupted entanglement in the noisy channel. Even if the channel suffers from the general polarization and phase noise, the fidelity of transmitted qubits in our protocol can be stable and have no dependence on the noise parameter, which is a significant advantage compared with previous protocols. Moveover, we can even improve the fidelity by using time delayers. The proposed quantum repeater is feasible and useful in the long-distance quantum entanglement distribution and may be promising in other quantum-information applications.
Absence of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of impulsively excited phonons
Hussain, A.
2010-06-17
There have been several reports of phase-dependent noise in time-domain reflectivity studies of optical phonons excited by femtosecond laser pulses in semiconductors, semimetals, and superconductors. It was suggested that such behavior is associated with the creation of squeezed phonon states although there is no theoretical model that directly supports such a proposal. We have experimentally re-examined the studies of phonons in bismuth and gallium arsenide, and find no evidence of any phase-dependent noise signature associated with the phonons. We place an upper limit on any such noise at least 40–50 dB lower than previously reported.
An X-Band low-power and low-phase-noise VCO using bondwire inductor
Hu, K.; F. Herzel; Scheytt, J. C.
2009-01-01
In this paper a low-power low-phase-noise voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO) has been designed and, fabricated in 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS process. The resonator of the VCO is implemented with on-chip MIM capacitors and a single aluminum bondwire. A tail current filter is realized to suppress flicker noise up-conversion. The measured phase noise is −126.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from a 7.8 GHz carrier. The figure of merit (FOM) of the VCO is −192.5 dBc/Hz and the VCO cor...
Szczesniak, Pawel
2013-01-01
AC voltage frequency changes is one of the most important functions of solid state power converters. The most desirable features in frequency converters are the ability to generate load voltages with arbitrary amplitude and frequency, sinusoidal currents and voltages waveforms; the possibility of providing unity power factor for any load; and, finally, a simple and compact power circuit. Over the past decades, a number of different frequency converter topologies have appeared in the literature, but only the converters with either a voltage or current DC link are commonly used in industrial app
BAI Zhan-Wu
2008-01-01
@@ We study in phase space a zero-dimensional system of Brownian particles which move in a periodic potential and subject to an internal time derivative Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise. To resolve the Fokker-Planck equation in such a case, we propose an approximate analytical method. The theoretical predictions exhibit a second order noise-induced nonequilibrium phase transition, which is confirmed by numerical simulation results. The phase transition brings the system from an ergodicity to a nonergodicity phase as the potential barrier height decreases.
Eichinger, R. A.; Dachel, P.; Miller, W. H.; Ingold, J. S.
1982-01-01
Extremely low noise, high performance, wideband buffer amplifiers and buffered phase comparators were developed. These buffer amplifiers are designed to distribute reference frequencies from 30 KHz to 45 MHz from a hydrogen maser without degrading the hydrogen maser's performance. The buffered phase comparators are designed to intercompare the phase of state of the art hydrogen masers without adding any significant measurement system noise. These devices have a 27 femtosecond phase stability floor and are stable to better than one picosecond for long periods of time. Their temperature coefficient is less than one picosecond per degree C, and they have shown virtually no voltage coefficients.
Mitigating the effect of noise in the hybrid input-output method of phase retrieval.
Trahan, Russell; Hyland, David
2013-05-01
Here a modification to the hybrid input-output (HIO) method of phase retrieval is presented which aides in mitigating the negative effects of low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Various type of interferometers measure diffraction patterns which are used to determine the Fourier transform modulus of an objective. Interferometry often suffers from very low SNRs making phase retrieval difficult because of the sensitivity of most phase retrieval algorithms to local minima. Here we analyze the effect of noise on the HIO method. The result is used as a rationale for the proposed modification to the HIO method. The algorithm presented here introduces a filtering scheme which removes much of the Fourier modulus noise. Examples are shown and the results are compared to the HIO method with and without the proposed modification. Comparisons are also made to other methods of filtering the Fourier modulus noise.
An X-Band low-power and low-phase-noise VCO using bondwire inductor
K. Hu
2009-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a low-power low-phase-noise voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO has been designed and, fabricated in 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS process. The resonator of the VCO is implemented with on-chip MIM capacitors and a single aluminum bondwire. A tail current filter is realized to suppress flicker noise up-conversion. The measured phase noise is −126.6 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from a 7.8 GHz carrier. The figure of merit (FOM of the VCO is −192.5 dBc/Hz and the VCO core consumes 4 mA from a 3.3 V power supply. To the best of our knowledge, this is the best FOM and the lowest phase noise for bondwire VCOs in the X-band. This VCO will be used for satellite communications.
Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.
Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R
2014-01-13
A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase.
A Low Phase Noise CMOS Quadrature Voltage Control Oscillator Using Clock Gated Technique
Jothi Baskar A
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This project presents the low phase noise cmos quadrature voltage control oscillator using clock gating technique. Here the colpitts vco is used to split the capacitance in the Qvco circuit producing quadrature output. The startup condition in the oscillator is improved by using enhancement [12].This QVCO performs the operation anti phase injection locking fordevice reuse [8]. The new clock gating technique is used to reduce the power with thepower supply 1.5v. The QVCO uses a 0.5mwith phase error of 0.4 and exhibits a phase noise of -118dBc/HZ at 1MHZ offset at the centre frequency of 500MHZ. Index terms: current switching, clock gating, phase noise, Qvco
A Low-Noise Delta-Sigma Phase Modulator for Polar Transmitters
Bo Zhou
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A low-noise phase modulator, using finite-impulse-response (FIR filtering embedded delta-sigma (ΔΣ fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL, is fabricated in 0.18 μm CMOS for GSM/EDGE polar transmitters. A simplified digital compensation filter with inverse-FIR and -PLL features is proposed to trade off the transmitter noise and linearity. Experimental results show that the presented architecture performs RF phase modulation well with 20 mW power dissipation from 1.6 V supply and achieves the root-mean-square (rms and peak phase errors of 4° and 8.5°, respectively. The measured and simulated phase noises of −104 dBc/Hz and −120 dBc/Hz at 400-kHz offset from 1.8-GHz carrier frequency are observed, respectively.
Extended Kalman filtering for joint mitigation of phase and amplitude noise in coherent QAM systems.
Pakala, Lalitha; Schmauss, Bernhard
2016-03-21
We numerically investigate our proposed carrier phase and amplitude noise estimation (CPANE) algorithm using extend Kalman filter (EKF) for joint mitigation of linear and non-linear phase noise as well as amplitude noise on 4, 16 and 64 polarization multiplexed (PM) quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) 224 Gb/s systems. The results are compared to decision directed (DD) carrier phase estimation (CPE), DD phase locked loop (PLL) and universal CPE (U-CPE) algorithms. Besides eliminating the necessity of phase unwrapping function, EKF-CPANE shows improved performance for both back-to-back (BTB) and transmission scenarios compared to the aforementioned algorithms. We further propose a weighted innovation approach (WIA) of the EKF-CPANE which gives an improvement of 0.3 dB in the Q-factor, compared to the original algorithm.
A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in 87Rb
Chen, Zilong; Weiner, Joshua M; Thompson, James K; 10.1063/1.3700247
2012-01-01
We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of 87Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a non-linear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7x10^5 87Rb atoms.
ICI mitigation in concurrent multi-band receiver due to the phase noise and IQ imbalance
Lee, Hui-Kyu; Ryu, Heung-Gyoon
2012-06-01
For the next generation long-term evolution (LTE) advanced mobile communication system, 100 MHz bandwidth and 1 Gbit/s data speed are needed. However, there is not enough and wide vacant frequency band. Therefore, spectrum aggregation method has been studied to extend available frequency bands. Frequency synthesiser and power amplifier of transceiver should cover this wide bandwidth. The phase noise and In-phase and quadrature (IQ) imbalance would increase, which would be a serious problem in this transceiver. Also, signal-to-noise ratio becomes degraded because of nonlinearity and the quantisation noises of the Analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) in the receiver. Uplink of LTE-advanced uses Aggregated DFT-spread (NxDFT-S) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Since the effect of the phase noise and IQ imbalance are more serious in the multi-band Discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-spreading OFDM system, we like to analyse the effect of inter-carrier interference in frequency domain of receiver and the degradation of bit error rate (BER) performance. Also, by the channel response in frequency domain of the uplink system, we separate phase noise and IQ imbalance effect. Finally, we like to propose a compensation method that estimates the channel exactly and removes IQ imbalance and phase noise. Simulation result shows that the proposed method achieves the 2 dB performance gain of BER = 10-4.
Miller, Stephanie Katherine Teixeira
Of all the alternative and renewable energy sources, wind power is the fastest growing alternative energy source with a total worldwide capacity of over 93 GW as of the end of 2007. However, making wind energy a sustainable and reliable source of electricity doesn't come without its set of challenges. As the wind turbines increase in size and turbine technology moves towards off-shore wind farms and direct drive transmission, the need for a reliable and efficient power electronics interface to convert the variable-frequency variable-magnitude output of the wind turbine's generator into the fixed-frequency fixed-magnitude voltage of the utility grid is critical. This dissertation investigates a power electronics interface envisioned to operate with an induction generator-based variable-speed wind turbine. The research conclusions and the interface itself are applicable to a variety of applications, including uninterruptible power supplies, industrial drives, and power quality applications, among others. The three-phase PWM rectifiers with ac-side bidirectional switches are proposed as the rectification stage of the power electronics interface. Modulation strategies are proposed for the rectifiers and the operation of the rectifiers in conjunction with an induction generator is demonstrated. The viability of using these rectifiers in place of the standard three-phase voltage-source converter is analyzed by comparing losses and common-mode voltage generation of the two topologies. Parallel three-phase voltage-source converter modules operated in an interleaved fashion are proposed for the inversion stage of the power electronics interface. The interleaved three-phase voltage-source converters are analyzed by deriving analytical models for the common-mode voltage, ac phase current, and dc-link current to reveal their spectra and the harmonic cancellation effects of interleaving. The practical problem of low frequency circulating current in parallel voltage
Burgschat, H; Netter, K J
1977-01-01
Phase-sensitive ac polarography was applied to the simultaneous quantitative determination of 4-nitroanisole, 4-nitrophenol, and 4-nitrocatechol in alkaline solutions. Certain experimental precautions are necessary to determine each compound in the presence of the other two. Thus, 4-nitrocatechol is determined indirectly by forming a yellow ratio chelate with cupric ions, wheras 4-nitroansole is determined directly by the reduction waves of the nitro group. For the determination of 4-nitrophenol, the interferency by the simultaneously present 4-nitrocatechol must be eliminated by masking it by the addition of magnesium ions. The method described permits a qualitative and quantitative analysis of all three compounds in one solution since linear calibration curves are obtained.
Lassen, Mikael; Balslev-Harder, David; Petersen, Jan C
2014-01-01
A photoacoustic (PA) sensor based on higher order acoustic modes is demonstrated. The PA sensor is designed to enhance the gas-detection performance and simultaneously suppress ambient noise sources (e.g. flow noise, electrical noise and external acoustic noise). Two microphones are used and positioned such that the PA signals are ($\\pi$) out of phase. Ambient acoustic noise are approximately in the same phase and will be subtracted and thus improve the SNR. In addition, by placing the gas in- and outlets so that the gas flows through the node of the first higher order membrane mode the coupling of flow noise is approximately 20 dB lower compared with flow through the fundamental mode at 5 L/min. The noise reduction and thus the increase in sensitivity is demonstrated by measuring vibrational lines of methanol and methane using a broadband interband cascade laser emitting radiation at 3.38 $\\mu$m. A signal-to-noise improvement of 20 (26 dB) using higher order modes are demonstrated compared with the fundament...
Design and noise analysis of a fully-differential charge pump for phase-locked loops
Gong Zhichao; Lu Lei; Liao Youchun; Tang Zhangwen
2009-01-01
A fully-differential charge pump (FDCP) with perfect current matching and low output current noise is realized for phase-locked loops (PLLs). An easily stable common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit which can handle high input voltage swing is proposed. Current mismatch and current noise contribution from the CMFB circuit is minimized. In order to optimize PLL phase noise, the output current noise of the FDCP is analyzed in detail and calculated with the sampling principle. The calculation result agrees well with the simulation. Based on the noise analysis, many methods to lower output current noise of the FDCP are discussed. The fully-differential charge pump is integrated into a 1-2 GHz frequency synthesizer and fabricated in an SMIC CMOS 0.18 μm process. The measured output reference spur is -64 dBc to -69 dBc. The in-band and out-band phase noise is -95 dBc/Hz at 3 kHz frequency offset and -123 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz frequency offset respectively.
Experimental Investigations on PV Powered SVM-DTC Induction Motor without AC Phase Current Sensors
T. Muthamizhan
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a low-cost, phase-current reconstruction algorithm for space vector modulated direct torque controlled induction motor using the information obtained from only one shunt resistor which is in series with low side switches in a conventional three-phase inverter. The aim is to develop a low-cost high - performance induction motor drive. It uses the dc-link voltage and dc current to reconstruct the stator currents needed to estimate the motor flux and the electromagnetic torque. Photovoltaic arrays convert solar power to dc electric power; uses chopper and dc-ac inverter to fed three phase Induction Motor. The chopper used here is current fed full bridge boost dc-dc converter, which is preferred and extensively used in high voltage applications and advantageous over voltage fed converters. The inverter switches are controlled by PWM techniques obtained from SVM-DTC of IM. The experimental investigations are given to prove the ability of the proposed scheme of reproducing the performances of a SVM- DTC IM drive.
Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Almaiman, Ahmed; Daab, Wajih; Rogawski, Devora; Tur, Moshe; Touch, Joseph D; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E
2014-05-15
We propose and demonstrate an all-optical phase noise reduction scheme that uses optical nonlinear mixing and tunable optical delays to suppress the low-speed phase noise induced by laser linewidth. By utilizing the phase conjugate copy of the original signal and two narrow-linewidth optical pumps, the phase noise induced by laser linewidth can be reduced by a factor of ∼5 for a laser with 500-MHz phase noise bandwidth. The error-vector-magnitude can be improved from ∼30% to ∼14% for the same laser linewidth for 40-Gbit/s quadrature phase shift keying signal.
Xu, Dan; Yang, Fei; Chen, Dijun; Wei, Fang; Cai, Haiwen; Fang, Zujie; Qu, Ronghui
2015-08-24
A laser phase and frequency noise measurement method by an unbalanced Michelson interferometer composed of a 3 × 3 optical fiber coupler is proposed. The relations and differences of the power spectral density (PSD) of differential phase and frequency fluctuation, PSD of instantaneous phase and frequency fluctuation, phase noise and linewidth are derived strictly and discussed carefully. The method obtains the noise features of a narrow linewidth laser conveniently without any specific assumptions or noise models. The technique is also used to characterize the noise features of a narrow linewidth external-cavity semiconductor laser, which confirms the correction and robustness of the method.
King, E A; Murphy, E; Rice, H J
2011-03-01
The first phase of noise mapping and action planning in Ireland, in accordance with EU Directive 2002/49/EC, is now complete. In total this included one agglomeration, one airport and approximately 600 km of major roads outside the agglomeration. These noise maps describe the level of noise exposure of approximately 1.25 million people. The first phase of noise mapping was dealt with by five noise mapping bodies while 26 action planning authorities were involved in the development of the associated action plans. The second phase of noise mapping, due to be completed in 2012, sees a reduction in the defined thresholds describing the required agglomerations, roads and railways that have to be mapped. This will have a significant impact on the extent of mapping required. In Ireland this will result in an increased number of local authorities being required to develop strategic noise maps for their area along with the further development of associated action plans. It is appropriate at this point to review the work process and results from the first phase of noise mapping in Ireland in order to establish areas that could be improved, throughout the noise mapping project. In this paper a review of the implementation procedures focussing on (dominant) road traffic noise is presented. It is identified that more standardisation is needed and this could be achieved by the establishment of a national expert steering group.
Gottardi, Luciano; Gao, Jan-R; Hartog, Roland den; Hijmering, Richard; Hoevers, Henk; Khosropanah, Pourya; de Korte, Piet; van der Kuur, Jan; Lindeman, Mark; Ridder, Marcel
2016-01-01
SRON is developing the Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) readout and the ultra low NEP TES bolometers array for the infrared spectrometer SAFARI on board of the Japanese space mission SPICA. The FDM prototype of the instrument requires critical and complex optimizations. For single pixel characterization under AC bias we are developing a simple FDM system working in the frequency range from 1 to 5 MHz, based on the open loop read-out of a linearized two-stage SQUID amplifier and high Q lithographic LC resonators. We describe the details of the experimental set-up required to achieve low power loading (< 1 fW) and low noise (NEP $\\sim 10^{-19} W/Hz^{1/2}$) in the TES bolometers. We conclude the paper by comparing the performance of a $4 \\cdot 10^{-19} W/Hz^{1/2}$ TES bolometer measured under DC and AC bias.
M. Sandhya
2015-03-01
Full Text Available There is ever increasing interest in underwater noise control onboard ships as part of concerted efforts to reduce ship’s radiated noise. Reduction of radiated noise is considered important as it will affect the performance of hydro-acoustic systems such as sonars, echo sounders, towed systems, etc. Out of three major sources of noise onboard ships, viz., machinery, propeller, and hydrodynamic noise, propeller noise is considered a major source beyond certain speed at which propellers cavitate produces cavitation noise. The inception speed of propeller cavitation is generally accompanied by sudden increase in radiated noise level of 8-15 dB when measured using a hydrophone placed on the seabed. This paper attempts to establish the concept of quadratic phase coupling index as an indicator to detect inception of cavitation of ship propellers. This concept was tested on actual ship radiated noise data measured at sea for evaluating its effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 65, No. 1, January 2015, pp.53-62, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.65.7885
Photonic Delay-line Phase Noise Measurement System
2011-09-01
combined 500-m and 6-km delay-line measurement system. Noise floor data are shown for the system with and without an EDFA . The laser power was 10 dBm...The optical power into the photodiode was 0 dBm without the EDFA and 11 dBm with it...data are shown for the system with and without an EDFA as well as with a high-power laser. The output optical powers of the low and high-power
Low phase noise oscillator using two parallel connected amplifiers
Kleinberg, Leonard L.
1987-01-01
A high frequency oscillator is provided by connecting two amplifier circuits in parallel where each amplifier circuit provides the other amplifier circuit with the conditions necessary for oscillation. The inherent noise present in both amplifier circuits causes the quiescent current, and in turn, the generated frequency, to change. The changes in quiescent current cause the transconductance and the load impedance of each amplifier circuit to vary, and this in turn results in opposing changes in the input susceptance of each amplifier circuit. Because the changes in input susceptance oppose each other, the changes in quiescent current also oppose each other. The net result is that frequency stability is enhanced.
Numerical Verification of an Analytical Model for Phase Noise in MEMS Oscillators.
Agrawal, D K; Bizzarri, F; Brambilla, A; Seshia, A A
2016-08-01
A new analytical formulation for phase noise in MEMS oscillators was recently presented encompassing the role of essential nonlinearities in the electrical and mechanical domains. In this paper, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed analytical formulation with respect to the unified theory developed by Demir et al. describing phase noise in oscillators. In particular, it is shown that, over a range of the second-order mechanical nonlinear stiffness of the MEMS resonator, both models exhibit an excellent match in the phase diffusion coefficient calculation for a square-wave MEMS oscillator.
Low-Complexity Tracking of Laser and Nonlinear Phase Noise in WDM Optical Fiber Systems
Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Fehenberger, Tobias; Barletta, Luca;
2015-01-01
In this paper, the wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic channel is considered. It is shown that for ideal distributed Raman amplification (IDRA), the Wiener process model is suitable for the non-linear phase noise due to cross phase modulation from neighboring channels. Based...
Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun
2014-06-02
Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM).
Zibar, Darko; Carvalho, L.; Piels, Molly
2014-01-01
We show that phase noise estimation based on Bayesian filtering outperforms conventional time-domain approaches in the presence of moderate measurement noise. Additionally, carrier synchronization based on Bayesian filtering, in combination with expectation maximization, is demonstrated...
Mono-switch AC-DC/DC-DC converter for single-phase UPS%单相UPS的单开关AC-DC/DC-DC变换电路
李宋; 叶满园; 袁义生
2011-01-01
A mono-switch AC-DC/DC-DC converter used in single-phase UPS system is introduced,which consists of one power switch and six diodes. As both AC-DC rectifier and DC-DC booster,its operating modes and working principle are detailed. The single-cycle nonlinear control is adopted,which applies two low-speed PI regulators to control the voltage of two capacitors on DC link and a high-speed PI regulator to control the input current. Simulative results prove that,being simple and reliable,it outputs stable DC bus voltage with high input power factor and low THD.%介绍了一种应用在单相UPS系统中的新型单开关AC-DC/DC-DC变换电路,该电路由1个功率开关器件和6个二极管组成,能够实现AC/DC整流和DC/DC升压2种功能.在详细分析了该电路运行模式及工作原理的基础上,采用了单周期非线性控制理论对其进行控制,利于2个低速PI调节器对直流母线上的2个电容器电压进行控制,1个高速PI调节器对输入电流进行控制.仿真结果表明,该电路简单可靠,输入功率因数高,电流谐波失真小,可以获得稳定的正负直流母线电压.
A simple technique for high resolution time domain phase noise measurement
Reinhardt, V. S.; Donahoe, T.
1977-01-01
A new time domain phase comparator is described. The device uses a novel technique to allow time domain phase measurements to be made with period and time interval counters without the use of offset reference oscillators. The device uses a single reference oscillator and allows measurements with a phase resolution greater than the noise floor of the reference. Data is presented showing a phase resolution of 0.02ps at 5 MHz with a crystal reference. The device has application in measuring the phase stability of systems where approximate phase quadrature can be maintained.
Use of coherence and phase data between two receivers in evaluation of noise environments
Piersol, A. G.
1978-01-01
For certain types of noise control problems, where transducers cannot be mounted on suspected sources, valuable information can often be obtained by comparing the coherence and phase data measured between two closely spaced microphones with analytical models deduced from the physics of the problem. However, the application of such analysis techniques must be pursued with care, particularly when the measurements are made in a reverberant area. A simple illustration is presented where the acoustic field in the test section of a wind tunnel is evaluated by modelling the field as a combination of diffuse noise due to the boundary layer turbulence in the test section and propagating noise generated by the tunnel fan and possible flow disturbances outside the test section. The coherence and phase between two closely spaced microphones in the tunnel test section are predicted for various ratios of diffuse to propagating noise contributions and compared to actual measurements under several different tunnel operating conditions.
Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo
2016-01-01
The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...
The Noise-Sensitivity Phase Transition in Compressed Sensing
Donoho, David L; Montanari, Andrea
2010-01-01
Consider the noisy underdetermined system of linear equations: y=Ax0 + z0, with n x N measurement matrix A, n \\rhoMSE(\\delta). The phase boundary \\rho = \\rhoMSE(\\delta) is identical to the previously-known phase transition curve for equivalence of l1 - l0 minimization in the k-sparse noiseless case. Hence a single phase boundary describes the fundamental phase transitions both for the noiseless and noisy cases. Extensive computational experiments validate the predictions of this formalism, including the exis tence of game theoretical structures underlying it. Underlying our formalism is the AMP algorithm introduced earlier by the authors. Other papers by the authors detail expressions for the formal MSE of AMP and its close connection to l1-penalized reconstruction. Here we derive the minimax formal MSE of AMP and then read out results for l1-penalized reconstruction.
Phase noise measurement of high-power fiber amplifiers
Hu Xiao; Xiaolin Wang; Yanxing Ma; Bing He; Pu Zhou; Jun Zhou; Xiaojun Xu
2011-01-01
We measure the phase fluctuation in a high-power fiber amplifier using a multi-dithering technique. Its fluctuation property is qualitatively analyzed by the power spectral density and integrated spectral density.Low frequency fluctuations caused by the environment are dominant in the phase fluctuations in an amplifier, whereas the high frequency components related to laser power affect the control bandwidth. The bandwidth requirement of the active phase-locking is calculated to be 300 Hz, 670 Hz, 1.6 kHz, and 3.9 kHz under the output power of 25,55, 125, and 180W, respectively. The approximately linear relationship between the control bandwidth and laser power needs to be further investigated.%@@ We measure the phase fluctuation in a high-power fiber amplifier using a multi-dithering technique.Its fluctuation property is qualitatively analyzed by the power spectral density and integrated spectral density.Low frequency fluctuations caused by the environment are dominant in the phase fluctuations in an am-plifier, whereas the high frequency components related to laser power affect the control bandwidth.The bandwidth requirement of the active phase-locking is calculated to be 300 Hz, 670 Hz, 1.6 kHz, and 3.9kHz under the output power of 25, 55, 125, and 180 W, respectively.The approximately linear relationship between the control bandwidth and laser power needs to be further investigated.
Phase noise analysis for OFDM systems based on hot-carrier effects in synchronization electronics
Herlekar, Sameer R.; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Hsiao-Chun; Srivastava, Ashok
2005-05-01
Phase noise may be regarded as the most severe cause of performance degradation in OFDM systems. Hot carriers (HCs), found in the CMOS synchronization circuits, are high-mobility charge carriers that degrade the MOSFET devices" performance by increasing the threshold voltage required to operate the MOSFETs. The HC effect manifests itself as the phase noise, which increases with the continued MOSFET operation and results in the performance degradation of the Voltage-Controlled Oscillator (VCO) built on the MOSFET. The HC effect is particularly evident in the short-channel MOSFET devices. The MOSFET instability will impact on the OFDM system performance. The relationship between the OFDM system performance and the hot carrier effect can be analyzed in terms of a crucial parameter, the MOSFET threshold voltage. In this paper, we derive a general phase noise model for OFDM systems based on the Hot-carrier effect and the corresponding drifted threshold voltage in differential ring oscillators. The expected OFDM performance degradation due to the hot carrier effect is provided through our simulations. We show that the OFDM BER performance evaluation using the existing phase noise models can be upto three orders of magnitude different from the results obtained by using our phase noise model.
Zhu, Dengjian; Zhang, Fangzheng; Zhou, Pei; Pan, Shilong
2015-04-01
An approach for phase noise measurement of microwave signal sources based on a microwave photonic frequency down-converter is proposed. Using the same optical carrier, the microwave signal under test is applied to generate two +1st-order optical sidebands by two stages of electro-optical modulations. A time delay is introduced between the two sidebands through a span of fiber. By beating the two +1st-order sidebands at a photodetector, frequency down-conversion is implemented, and phase noise of the signal under test can be calculated thereafter. The system has a very large operation bandwidth thanks to the frequency conversion in the optical domain, and good phase noise measurement sensitivity can be achieved since the signal degradation caused by electrical amplifiers is avoided. An experiment is carried out. The phase noise measured by the proposed system agrees well with that measured by a commercial spectrum analyzer or provided by the datasheet. A large operation bandwidth of 5-40 GHz is demonstrated using the proposed system. Moreover, good phase noise floor is achieved (-123 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -137 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz at 10 GHz), which is nearly constant over the full measurement range.
QI Xin; HOU Zhi-ling; TIAN Jian-long
2005-01-01
Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is a phenomenon of electromagnetic energy emission due to the movement of magnetic domain walls inside ferromagnetic materials when they are locally magnetized by an altercoil attached to the surface of the material being magnetized and the noise carries the message of the characteristics of the material such as stresses, hardness, phase content, etc. Based on the characteristic of the noise, research about the relationship between the welding stresses in the welding assembly and the noise, the fatigue damage of the plate structure and the noise, and the influence of heat treatment and the variation of phase content to the noise are carried out in this paper.
Unscented Kalman filters for polarization state tracking and phase noise mitigation.
Jignesh, Jokhakar; Corcoran, Bill; Zhu, Chen; Lowery, Arthur
2016-09-19
Simultaneous polarization and phase noise tracking and compensation is proposed based on an unscented Kalman filter (UKF). We experimentally demonstrate the tracking under noise-loading and after 800-km single-mode fiber transmission with 20-Gbaud QPSK and 16-QAM signals. These experiments show that the proposed UKF outperforms both conventional blind tracing algorithms and a previously proposed extended Kalman filter, at the cost of higher complexity. Additionally, we propose and test modified Kalman filter algorithms to reduce computational complexity.
Noise-Induced Phase Locking and Frequency Mixing in an Optical Bistable System with Delayed Feedback
Misono, Masatoshi; Miyakawa, Kenji
2011-11-01
The interplay between stochastic resonance (SR) and coherence resonance (CR) is experimentally studied in an optical bistable system with a time-delayed feedback loop. We demonstrate that the phase of the noise-induced motion is locked to that of the periodic input when the ratio of their frequencies is a simple rational number. We also demonstrate that the interplay between SR and CR generates frequency-mixed modes, and that the efficiency of frequency mixing is enhanced by the optimum noise.
Low Phase Noise SiGe Push-Push Oscillators for Millimeter Wave Frequencies
2008-01-01
In this thesis low phase noise SiGe HBT monolithically integrated push-push oscillators for millimeter wave frequency generation are investigated. Nonlinear simulation methods for oscillator signal and noise analysis and device physics at high currents and high voltages are discussed. Push-push oscillators with output frequencies from 63 GHz up to 280 GHz were designed and after fabrication in an external foundry investigated experimentally. For automotive radar applications a VCO with a cent...
A Three-Phase Dual-Input Matrix Converter for Grid Integration of Two AC Type Energy Resources
Liu, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Chiang Loh, Poh
2013-01-01
This paper proposes a novel dual-input matrix converter (DIMC) to integrate two three-phase ac type energy resources to a power grid. The proposed matrix converter is developed based on the traditional indirect matrix converter under reverse power flow operation mode, but with its six...
Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming
2013-04-01
We show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that, in a coherent communication system that employs a phase-shift-keying signal and Raman amplification, besides the pump relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer to the amplitude, the signal's phase will also be affected by pump RIN through the pump-signal cross-phase modulation. Although the average pump power induced linear phase change can be compensated for by the phase-correction algorithm, a relative phase noise (RPN) parameter has been found to characterize pump RIN induced stochastic phase noise. This extra phase noise brings non-negligible system impairments in terms of the Q-factor penalty. The calculation shows that copumping leads to much more stringent requirements to pump RIN, and relatively larger fiber dispersion helps to suppress the RPN induced impairment. A higher-order phase-shift keying (PSK) signal is less tolerant to noise than a lower-order PSK.
Simulations of Noise in Phase-Separated Transition-Edge Sensors for SuperCDMS
Anderson, A J; Pyle, M; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; McCarthy, K; Doughty, T; Cherry, M; Young, B
2011-01-01
We briefly review a simple model of superconducting-normal phase-separation in transition-edge sensors in the SuperCDMS experiment. After discussing some design considerations relevant to the TES in the detectors, we study noise sources in both the phase-separated and phase-uniform cases. Such simulations are valuable for optimizing the critical temperature and TES length of future SuperCDMS detectors.
Phase noise effects on turbulent weather radar spectrum parameter estimation
Lee, Jonggil; Baxa, Ernest G., Jr.
1990-01-01
Accurate weather spectrum moment estimation is important in the use of weather radar for hazardous windshear detection. The effect of the stable local oscillator (STALO) instability (jitter) on the spectrum moment estimation algorithm is investigated. Uncertainty in the stable local oscillator will affect both the transmitted signal and the received signal since the STALO provides transmitted and reference carriers. The proposed approach models STALO phase jitter as it affects the complex autocorrelation of the radar return. The results can therefore by interpreted in terms of any source of system phase jitter for which the model is appropriate and, in particular, may be considered as a cumulative effect of all radar system sources.
Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki (Dept. of Radiology, Showa Univ. Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama (Japan)), email: momiji@mtc.biglobe.ne.jp; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu (Dept. of Radiology, Showa Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)) (and others)
2011-07-15
Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI{sub vol} demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 +- 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 +- 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 +- 5.1) and group B (16.6 +- 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise
Ultra-low phase noise all-optical microwave generation setup based on commercial devices
Didier, A; Grop, S; Dubois, B; Bigler, E; Rubiola, E; Lacroûte, C; Kersalé, Y
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a very simple design based on commercial devices for the all-optical generation of ultra-low phase noise microwave signals. A commercial, fibered femtosecond laser is locked to a laser that is stabilized to a commercial ULE Fabry-Perot cavity. The 10 GHz microwave signal extracted from the femtosecond laser output exhibits a single sideband phase noise $\\mathcal{L}(f)=-104 \\ \\mathrm{dBc}/\\mathrm{Hz}$ at 1 Hz Fourier frequency, at the level of the best value obtained with such "microwave photonics" laboratory experiments \\cite{Fortier2011}. Close-to-the-carrier ultra-low phase noise microwave signals will now be available in laboratories outside the frequency metrology field, opening up new possibilities in various domains.
Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
various topologies have since been proposed. The intention of this paper is, thus, to study two promising single-phase ac-dc-ac converters using reduced number of switches, and subsequently proposes modulation schemes for them. The proposed schemes help the converters to achieve better thermal spread...... among their switches, while keeping their dc-link voltages low. Single points of failure are thus minimized, allowing the converters to have longer lifetimes. Simulation and experimental results have demonstrated the intended performances, hence verifying the analyses presented in this paper....
Signal-to-noise-ratio analysis for nonlinear N-ary phase filters.
Miller, Paul C
2007-09-01
The problem of recognizing targets in nonoverlapping clutter using nonlinear N-ary phase filters is addressed. Using mathematical analysis, expressions were derived for an N-ary phase filter and the intensity variance of an optical correlator output. The N-ary phase filter was shown to consist of an infinite sum of harmonic terms whose periodicity was determined by N. For the intensity variance, it was found that under certain conditions the variance was minimized due to a previously undiscovered phase quadrature effect. Comparison showed that optimal real filters produced greater signal-to-noise-ratio values than the continuous phase versions as a consequence of this effect.
Schober, H.; Toelle, A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Gompf, F. [INFP, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany)
1997-09-01
We present inelastic neutron-scattering results for AC{sub 60} (A=K,Rb,Cs) compounds. The spectra of the high-temperature fcc phases strongly resemble the ones of pristine C{sub 60} in the plastic phase. At equal temperatures we find identical rotational diffusion constants for pristine C{sub 60} and Rb{sub 1}C{sub 60} (D{sub r}=2.4 10{sup 10} s{sup {minus}1} at 400 K). The changes taking place in the inelastic part of the spectra on cooling AC{sub 60} indicate the formation of strong intermolecular bonds. The buildup of intensities in the gap region separating internal and external vibrations in pure C{sub 60} is the most prominent signature of this transition. The spectra of the low-temperature phases depend on their thermal history. The differences can be explained by the formation of a polymer phase (upon slow cooling from the fcc phase) and a dimer phase (upon fast cooling), respectively. The experimental data are analyzed on the basis of lattice dynamical calculations. The density-of-states are well modeled assuming a [2+2] bond for the polymer and a single intercage bond for the dimer. Indications for different intercage bonding are also found in the internal mode spectra, which, on the other hand, react only weakly to the charge transfer. The dimer phase is metastable and converts into the polymer phase with a strongly temperature-dependent time constant. The transition from the polymer to the fcc phase is accompanied by inelastic precursor effects which are interpreted as the signature of inhomogeneities arising from plastic monomer regions embedded in the polymer phase. In the polymer phase AC{sub 60} compounds show strong anharmonic behavior in the low-temperature region. The possible connection with the metal-to-insulator transition is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Effects of laser phase noise on the performance of optical coherent receivers
LIU Ji-hong; LI Zhao-lin; LIANG Meng
2012-01-01
Laser phase noise (LPN) plays an important role in optical coherent systems.Based on the algorithm of Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase estimation (CPE),the effects of LPN imposed on the coherent receivers are investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK),8 phase shift keying (8PSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical coherent systems,respectively.The simulation results show that the optimal block length in the phase estimation algorithm is a tradeoff between LPN and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),and depends on the level of modulation formats.The resolution requirements of analog to digital converter (ADC) in the coherent receivers are independent of LPN or the level of modulation formats.For the bit error rate (BER) of 10-3,the required bit number of ADC is 6,and the gain is marginal for the higher resolution.
Zhao, Weichen; Sun, Zhuo; Kong, Song
2016-10-01
Wireless devices can be identified by the fingerprint extracted from the signal transmitted, which is useful in wireless communication security and other fields. This paper presents a method that extracts fingerprint based on phase noise of signal and multiple level wavelet decomposition. The phase of signal will be extracted first and then decomposed by multiple level wavelet decomposition. The statistic value of each wavelet coefficient vector is utilized for constructing fingerprint. Besides, the relationship between wavelet decomposition level and recognition accuracy is simulated. And advertised decomposition level is revealed as well. Compared with previous methods, our method is simpler and the accuracy of recognition remains high when Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) is low.
A 20MHz Low Phase-Noise 0.35μm CMOS Crystal Oscillator
GENG Jian-qiang; LAN Jia-long
2005-01-01
The design procedure of a CMOS process integrating Colpitts cr(ystal oscillator is described in detail by using the tools of Matlab and advanced design system (ADS). The small-signal analysis is performed both in the viewpoint of negative resistance and positive feedback. The analysis of condition for reliable start-up of oscillation and design guides for low phase noise is introduced. The measured phase noise is (172dBc/Hz@10 kHz and the power dissipation is 0.36 mW at power supply 3V.
Stefan Berger
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Channel estimation protocols for wireless two-hop networks with amplify-and-forward (AF relays are compared. We consider multiuser relaying networks, where the gain factors are chosen such that the signals from all relays add up coherently at the destinations. While the destinations require channel knowledge in order to decode, our focus lies on the channel estimates that are used to calculate the relay gains. Since knowledge of the compound two-hop channels is generally not sufficient to do this, the protocols considered here measure all single-hop coefficients in the network. We start from the observation that the direction in which the channels are measured determines (1 the number of channel uses required to estimate all coefficient and (2 the need for global carrier phase reference. Four protocols are identified that differ in the direction in which the first-hop and the second-hop channels are measured. We derive a sensible measure for the accuracy of the channel estimates in the presence of additive noise and phase noise and compare the protocols based on this measure. Finally, we provide a quantitative performance comparison for a simple single-user application example. It is important to note that the results can be used to compare the channel estimation protocols for any two-hop network configuration and gain allocation scheme.
High Resolution DOA Estimation Using Unwrapped Phase Information of MUSIC-Based Noise Subspace
Ichige, Koichi; Saito, Kazuhiko; Arai, Hiroyuki
This paper presents a high resolution Direction-Of-Arrival (DOA) estimation method using unwrapped phase information of MUSIC-based noise subspace. Superresolution DOA estimation methods such as MUSIC, Root-MUSIC and ESPRIT methods are paid great attention because of their brilliant properties in estimating DOAs of incident signals. Those methods achieve high accuracy in estimating DOAs in a good propagation environment, but would fail to estimate DOAs in severe environments like low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), small number of snapshots, or when incident waves are coming from close angles. In MUSIC method, its spectrum is calculated based on the absolute value of the inner product between array response and noise eigenvectors, means that MUSIC employs only the amplitude characteristics and does not use any phase characteristics. Recalling that phase characteristics plays an important role in signal and image processing, we expect that DOA estimation accuracy could be further improved using phase information in addition to MUSIC spectrum. This paper develops a procedure to obtain an accurate spectrum for DOA estimation using unwrapped and differentiated phase information of MUSIC-based noise subspace. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated through computer simulation in comparison with some conventional estimation methods.
A novel crystal-analyzer phase retrieval algorithm and its noise property.
Bao, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Li, Panyun; Wu, Zhao; Shao, Qigang; Gao, Kun; Wang, Zhili; Ju, Zaiqiang; Zhang, Kai; Yuan, Qingxi; Huang, Wanxia; Zhu, Peiping; Wu, Ziyu
2015-05-01
A description of the rocking curve in diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) is presented in terms of the angular signal response function and a simple multi-information retrieval algorithm based on the cosine function fitting. A comprehensive analysis of noise properties of DEI is also given considering the noise transfer characteristic of the X-ray source. The validation has been performed with synchrotron radiation experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 toolkit combined with the refractive process of X-rays, which show good agreement with each other. Moreover, results indicate that the signal-to-noise ratios of the refraction and scattering images are about one order of magnitude better than that of the absorption image at the edges of low-Z samples. The noise penalty is drastically reduced with the increasing photon flux and visibility. Finally, this work demonstrates that the analytical method can build an interesting connection between DEI and GDPCI (grating-based differential phase contrast imaging) and is widely suitable for a variety of measurement noise in the angular signal response imaging prototype. The analysis significantly contributes to the understanding of noise characteristics of DEI images and may allow improvements to the signal-to-noise ratio in biomedical and material science imaging.
Design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning for VCO
Nan, Chen; Shengxi, Diao; Lu, Huang; Xuefei, Bai; Fujiang, Lin
2013-09-01
To meet the requirements of the low power Zigbee system, VCO design optimizations of phase noise, power consumption and frequency tuning are discussed in this paper. Both flicker noise of tail bias transistors and up-conversion of flicker noise from cross-coupled pair are reduced by improved self-switched biasing technology, leading to low close-in phase noise. Low power is achieved by low supply voltage and triode region biasing. To linearly tune the frequency and get constant gain, distributed varactor structure is adopted. The proposed VCO is fabricated in SMIC 0.18-μm CMOS process. The measured linear tuning range is from 2.38 to 2.61 GHz. The oscillator exhibits low phase noise of -77.5 dBc/Hz and -122.8 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz and 1 MHz offset, respectively, at 2.55 GHz oscillation frequency while dissipating 2.7 mA from 1.2 V supply voltage, which well meet design specifications.
Research of Three-Phase AC/DC Converter Based on Matrix Converter%矩阵式AC/DC变换器研究
许柏宏; 葛红娟; 张文彬; 李后春
2013-01-01
A new type three-phase AC/DC converter topology is achieved by transforming 3-phase to 3-phase matrix converter. The current-source space vector modulation strategy is adopted to analyze in detail. Expressions of output voltage under this modulation strategy are derived. By adding a resonant inductor and a blocking capacitor, it is possible to a-chieve soft commutation for most of the semiconductor elements, and the process of commutation is given in detail. Meanwhile, the control method is proposed to be built in dq synchronous rotating frame based on the grid voltage vector , which increases power factor of input by changing the modulation vector. Simulation results validate correctness and feasibility of the theory and control strategy proposed in this paper.%对三相/三相矩阵变换器进行变换,得到一种衍生的AC/DC变换器拓扑.采用电流型空间矢量调制策略,推导出在该调制策略下的输出电压的表达式.通过在拓扑中加入一个谐振电感和隔直电容,使得双向开关器件可以实现软开关换流,并详细分析了换流过程.将控制算法建立在以电源电压矢量定向的dq同步旋转坐标系中,改变调制矢量实现功率因数调节.仿真结果验证了理论和控制方案的正确性和可行性.
The Single-Phase AC-DC Conversion Circuit with Power Factor Adjustable%功率因数可调单相AC-DC变换电路∗
杨力; 张师斌; 赵宁
2015-01-01
基于UCC28019A设计的功率因数可调单相AC-DC变换电路。 MSP430单片机作为其控制核心，使用高精度24 bitΣ-Δ型ADC采样，可完成对输入电压有效值、输入电流有效值、有功功率有效值、功率因数等参数的测量。由UCC28019A完成功率因数的校正，通过控制数字移相电路对外围电流反馈信号移相，实现功率因数在0.8~1.0范围内的调整。本设计还可通过对输出电流和电压的监测，实现2.5 A过流保护和36 V稳压输出的功能。%This design is a single-phase AC-DC conversion circuit with power factor adjustable based on UCC28019A. MSP430 is selected as the control core. We adopt the high precision 24-bitΣ-ΔADC to measure the input voltage RMS,the input current RMS,the active power RMS,the power factor and some other parameters. The power-factor correction is accomplished by UCC28019A. By controlling the digital phase shift circuit to shift the phase of the current feedback signal,the power factor can be set in the range of 0.8 to 1.0. By detecting the output current and voltage,the circuit has the function of 2.5A overcurrent protection and 36V regulated output.
Fundamental Noise-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light Levels
Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan
2008-01-01
We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt levels. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power levels. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency noise and white phase (photon) noise, and verified the software with a white phase noise model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt levels.
Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi
2016-04-01
People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.
Enbutsu, Koji; Umeki, Takeshi; Tadanaga, Osamu; Asobe, Masaki; Takenouchi, Hirokazu
2015-07-15
We propose a quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generator integrated with an electro-optic phase modulator in a directly bonded LiNbO3 (DB-LN) waveguide to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) pump light for a phase-sensitive amplifier (PSA). This integrated device exhibits 1-MHz modulation and 1-W second-harmonic-generation properties sufficient for phase-locking between the signal and pump and for PSA gain, respectively. A novel PSA configuration based on the high-input-power tolerance of the device helps to suppress the noise from the erbium-doped fiber amplifier used for pump-light generation and leads to an improvement of the SNR of the pump light. The SNR improvement was confirmed by comparing the noise figure of a PSA employing the DB-LN waveguide with that of a PSA using a Ti-diffused LN waveguide modulator.
Phase noise of whispering gallery photonic hyper-parametric microwave oscillators.
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Rubiola, Enrico; Matsko, Andrey B; Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Maleki, Lute
2008-03-17
We report on the experimental study of phase noise properties of a high frequency photonic microwave oscillator based on four wave mixing in calcium fluoride whispering gallery mode resonators. Specifically, the oscillator generates approximately 8.5 GHz signals with -120 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz from the carrier. The floor of the phase noise is limited by the shot noise of the signal received at the photodetector. We argue that the performance of the oscillator can be significantly improved if one uses extremely high finesse resonators, increases the input optical power, supersaturates the oscillator, and suppresses the residual stimulated Raman scattering in the resonator. We also disclose a method of extremely sensitive measurement of the integral dispersion of millimeter scale dielectric resonators.
A novel binaural pitch elicited by phase-modulated noise: MEG and psychophysical observations.
Witton, Caroline; Hillebrand, Arjan; Furlong, Paul L; Henning, G Bruce
2012-06-01
Binaural pitches are auditory percepts that emerge from combined inputs to the ears but that cannot be heard if the stimulus is presented to either ear alone. Here, we describe a binaural pitch that is not easily accommodated within current models of binaural processing. Convergent magnetoencephalography (MEG) and psychophysical measurements were used to characterize the pitch, heard when band-limited noise had a rapidly changing interaural phase difference. Several interesting features emerged: First, the pitch was perceptually lateralized, in agreement with the lateralization of the evoked changes in MEG spectral power, and its salience depended on dichotic binaural presentation. Second, the frequency of the pure tone that matched the binaural pitch lay within a lower spectral sideband of the phase-modulated noise and followed the frequency of that sideband when the modulation frequency or center frequency and bandwidth of the noise changed. Thus, the binaural pitch depended on the processing of binaural information in that lower sideband.
Experimental demonstration of a dual-frequency laser free from anti-phase noise
Amili, Abdelkrim El; De, Syamsundar; Schwartz, Sylvain; Feugnet, Gilles; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Bretenaker, Fabien; Alouini, Mehdi
2012-01-01
A reduction of more than 20 dB of the intensity noise at the anti-phase relaxation oscillation frequency is experimentally demonstrated in a two-polarization dual-frequency solid-state laser without any optical or electronic feedback loop. Such a behavior is inherently obtained by aligning the two orthogonally polarized oscillating modes with the crystallographic axes of a (100)-cut neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet active medium. The anti-phase noise level is shown to increase as soon as one departs from this peculiar configuration, evidencing the predominant role of the nonlinear coupling constant. This experimental demonstration opens new perspectives on the design and realization of extremely low noise dual-frequency solid-state lasers.
Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner
Müller, Mark, E-mail: mark-mueller@ph.tum.de; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bech, Martin [Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Barngatan 2:1, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander [Bruker microCT, Kartuizersweg 3B, B-2550 Kontich (Belgium); Pfeiffer, Franz [Lehrstuhl für Biomedizinische Physik, Physik-Department & Institut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, 81675 München (Germany); Institute for Advanced Study, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2015-12-15
In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.
Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner.
Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz
2015-12-01
In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.
Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Grandi, Gabriele; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
This paper considered a six-phase (asymmetrical) induction motor, kept 30 phase displacement between two set of three-phase open-end stator windings configuration. The drive system consists of four classical three-phase voltage inverters (VSIs) and all four dc sources are deliberately kept isolated......) by nearest three vectors (NTVs) approach is adopted to regulate each couple of VSIs. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified by complete numerical simulation modeling (Matlab/ Simulink-PLECS software) of whole ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviors in different designed condition. Set...
Michaud-Belleau, V.; Bergeron, H.; Light, P. S.; Hébert, N. B.; Deschênes, J. D.; Luiten, A. N.; Genest, J.
2016-10-01
The frequency noise and intensity noise of a laser set the performance limits in many modern photonics applications and, consequently, must often be characterized. As lasers continue to improve, the measurement of these noises however becomes increasingly challenging. Current approaches for the characterization of very high-performance lasers often call for a second laser with equal or higher performance to the one that is to be measured, an incoherent interferometer having an extremely long delay-arm, or an interferometer that relies on an active device. These instrumental features can be impractical or problematic under certain experimental conditions. As an alternative, this paper presents an entirely passive coherent interferometer that employs an optical 90° hybrid coupler to perform in-phase and quadrature detection. We demonstrate the technique by measuring the frequency noise power spectral density of a highly-stable 192 THz (1560 nm) fiber laser over five frequency decades. Simultaneously, we are able to measure its relative intensity noise power spectral density and characterize the correlation between its amplitude noise and phase noise. We correct some common misconceptions through a detailed theoretical analysis and demonstrate the necessity to account for normal imperfections of the optical 90° hybrid coupler. We finally conclude that this passive coherent discriminator is suitable for reliable and simple noise characterization of highly-stable lasers, with bandwidth and dynamic range benefits but susceptibility to additive noise contamination.
Noise-shaping all-digital phase-locked loops modeling, simulation, analysis and design
Brandonisio, Francesco
2014-01-01
This book presents a novel approach to the analysis and design of all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs), technology widely used in wireless communication devices. The authors provide an overview of ADPLL architectures, time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and noise shaping. Realistic examples illustrate how to analyze and simulate phase noise in the presence of sigma-delta modulation and time-to-digital conversion. Readers will gain a deep understanding of ADPLLs and the central role played by noise-shaping. A range of ADPLL and TDC architectures are presented in unified manner. Analytical and simulation tools are discussed in detail. Matlab code is included that can be reused to design, simulate and analyze the ADPLL architectures that are presented in the book. • Discusses in detail a wide range of all-digital phase-locked loops architectures; • Presents a unified framework in which to model time-to-digital converters for ADPLLs; • Explains a procedure to predict and simulate phase noise in oscil...
Contrast-to-noise in X-ray differential phase contrast imaging
Engel, K.J.; Geller, D.; Koehler, T.; Martens, G.; Schusser, S.; Vogtmeier, G.; Roessl, E.
2011-01-01
A quantitative theory for the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in differential phase contrast imaging (DPCI) is proposed and compared to that of images derived from classical absorption contrast imaging (ACI). Most prominently, the CNR for DPCI contains the reciprocal of thespatial wavelength to be ima
A study of phase noise in colpitts and LC-tank CMOS oscillators
Andreani, Pietro; Wang, Xiaoyan; Vandi, Luca
2005-01-01
This paper presents a study of phase noise in CMOS Colpitts and LC-tank oscillators. Closed-form symbolic formulas for the 1/f(2) phase-noise region are derived for both the Colpitts oscillator (either single-ended or differential) and the LC-tank oscillator, yielding highly accurate results under...... very general assumptions. A comparison between the differential Colpitts and the LC-tank oscillator is also carried out, which shows that the latter is capable of a 2-dB lower phase-noise figure-of-merit (FoM) when simplified oscillator designs and ideal MOS models are adopted. Several prototypes...... of both Colpitts and LC-tank oscillators have been implemented in a 0.35-mu m CMOS process. The best performance of the LC-tank oscillators shows a phase noise of -142 dBc/Hz at 3-MHz offset frequency from a 2.9-GHz carrier with a 16-mW power consumption, resulting in an excellent FoM of similar to 189 d...
Experimental Study of Nonlinear Phase Noise and its Impact on WDM Systems with DP-256QAM
Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson
2016-01-01
A probabilistic method for mitigating the phase noise component of the non-linear interference in WDM systems with Raman amplification is experimentally demonstrated. The achieved gains increase with distance and are comparable to the gains of single-channel digital back-propagation....
Makda, Ishtiyaq Ahmed; Nymand, Morten
2015-01-01
This paper presents the common-mode noise analysis and modeling of a phase-shifted full-bridge forward converter. The common-mode noise source due to a transformer inter-winding capacitance is considered for the case of study. The generated common-mode noise voltage-source in a converter...... is analytically determined, which then leads to a common-mode noise modeling of a phase-shifted converter. Using a proposed model, common-mode noise-current harmonics are calculated and a fully analytical filter design procedure is presented to comply with the CISPR-11 standard. Finally, a prototype phase......-shifted forward converter is built to verify the theoretical analysis. This study shows that the primary-to-secondary transformer winding capacitance creates a very significant amount of common-mode noise current in a phase-shifted forward converter....
Dual-phase-shift schemes for internal-reflection noise reduction in a Fizeau interferometer
Kumagai, Toshiki; Hibino, Kenichi; Nagaike, Yasunari
2016-08-01
A method to reduce the phase measurement errors generated from internal-reflection light noise in a Fizeau interferometer is proposed. In addition to an ordinary phase-shift by a mechanical translation of the reference surface, the test surface is also mechanically translated between each phase measurement to further modulate the signal phase. For spherical tests, a mechanical phase-shift generally generates a spatial non-uniformity in the phase increment across the observing aperture. It is shown that a minimum of three positional measurements is necessary to cancel out the systematic error caused by this non-uniformity. Linear combinations of the three measured phases can also cancel the additional primary spherical aberrations that occur when the test surface is out of the null position of the confocal configuration.
Hot carrier effects on jitter and phase noise in CMOS voltage-controlled oscillators
Zhang, Chi; Srivastava, Ashok
2005-05-01
The effects of hot carrier stress on CMOS voltage-controlled oscillators (VCO) are investigated. A model of the threshold voltage degradation in MOSFETs due to hot carrier stress has been used to model jitter and phase noise in voltage-controlled oscillators. The relation between the stress time which induces the hot carrier effects and the degradation of the VCO performance is presented. The VCO performance degradation takes into consideration decrease in operation frequency, increase in jitter and phase noise and decrease in tuning range. The experimental circuits have been designed in 0.5 μm n-well CMOS technology for operation at 3 V. It is shown that when the MOSFET threshold voltage, increases from 0.4 V to 0.9 V due to the hot carrier effect, for the single-ended ring oscillator, the oscillation frequency changes from 538 MHz to 360 MHz, and the phase noise changes from -104 dBc to -105 dBc at 1 MHz frequency offset with a power dissipation of 0.37 mW. For the current-starved VCO, the tuning range changes from 72 MHz - 287 MHz to 65.4 MHz - 201 MHz, and the phase noise changes from -109 dBc to -107 dBc at 1 MHz offset from the center frequency, 200 MHz; for the double-ended differential VCO, the tuning range changes from 32 MHz - 983 MHz to 26 MHz - 698 MHz, and phase noise changes from -86 dBc to -87 dBc at 1 MHz offset from the center frequency, 700 MHz.
李蔚; 梅君瑶; 韩庆生; 王腾
2009-01-01
The analytical expression of bit error probability in a balanced differential phase-shift keying(DPSK) optical receiver considering nonlinear phase noise and EDFA ASE noise is given,which is very useful to estimate the performance of DPSK balanced and unbalanced receiver in optical communication system.Through analysis,if only nonlinear phase noise is considered,both the balance and unbalanced receivers have the same performances.But if adding the ASE noise of EDFA,the balanced receiver is better.
Dimensioning BCH codes for coherent DQPSK systems with laser phase noise and cycle slips
Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Forward error correction (FEC) plays a vital role in coherent optical systems employing multi-level modulation. However, much of coding theory assumes that additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is dominant, whereas coherent optical systems have significant phase noise (PN) in addition to AWGN. Thi...... approach for a target post-FEC BER of 10-5. Codes dimensioned with our bivariate binomial model meet the target within 0.2-dB signal-to-noise ratio....... these statistics to parameterize a bivariate binomial model that describes the distribution of bit errors. In this way, we relate pre-FEC statistics to post-FEC BER and BCH codes. Our method is applicable to pre-FEC BER around 10-3 and any post-FEC BER. Using numerical simulations, we evaluate the accuracy of our......Forward error correction (FEC) plays a vital role in coherent optical systems employing multi-level modulation. However, much of coding theory assumes that additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is dominant, whereas coherent optical systems have significant phase noise (PN) in addition to AWGN...
Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine
Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba
2010-01-01
A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.
Harmonic analysis of AC/DC systems based on phase-domain multi-port network approach
Gutierrez, O.; Fuerte-Esquivel, C.R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ingenieria Electrica, Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Cuidad Universitaria, 58030 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Rubio, J.A.; Guardado, J.L. [Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Av. Tecnologico 1500, 58120 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)
2008-10-15
This paper describes a phase-domain frequency domain technique to the harmonic analysis of a three-phase AC/DC system. The methodology is based on the harmonic multi-port network concept, expressed in terms of an ABCD parameter matrix which links voltage and current harmonics of different orders on both sides of the converter. Since the commutation angles are unknown, the harmonic interactions are computed by a sequential solution of the AC/DC system state variables, related by the ABCD matrix, and the updating of the commutation periods. A set of analytical equations has been derived to compute commutation times taking place in the converter. Test results are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology to assess harmonic interactions on both balanced and unbalanced operating conditions. The results are validated to those obtained by a time domain simulation. (author)
Measuring Noise Temperatures of Phased-Array Antennas for Astronomy at CSIRO
Chippendale, Aaron; Hay, Stuart
2014-01-01
We describe the development of a noise-temperature testing capability for phased-array antennas operating in receive mode from 0.7 GHz to 1.8 GHz. Sampled voltages from each array port were recorded digitally as the zenith-pointing array under test was presented with three scenes: (1) a large microwave absorber at ambient temperature, (2) the unobstructed radio sky, and (3) broadband noise transmitted from a reference antenna centred over and pointed at the array under test. The recorded voltages were processed in software to calculate the beam equivalent noise temperature for a maximum signal-to-noise ratio beam steered at the zenith. We introduced the reference-antenna measurement to make noise measurements with reproducible, well-defined beams directed at the zenith and thereby at the centre of the absorber target. We applied a detailed model of cosmic and atmospheric contributions to the radio sky emission that we used as a noise-temperature reference. We also present a comprehensive analysis of measureme...
Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Alishahi, Fatemeh; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Fallahpour, Ahmad; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Shamee, Bishara; Akasaka, Youichi; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Touch, Joseph D; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E
2016-10-15
Simultaneous phase noise mitigation and automatic phase/frequency-locked homodyne reception is demonstrated for a 20-32 Gbaud QPSK signal. A phase quantization function is realized to squeeze the phase noise of the signal by optical wave mixing of the signal, its third-order harmonic, and their corresponding delayed variant conjugates, converting the noisy input into a noise-mitigated signal. In a simultaneous nonlinear process, the noise-mitigated signal is automatically phase- and frequency-locked with a "local" pump laser, avoiding the need for feedback or phase/frequency tracking for homodyne detection. Open eye-diagrams are obtained for in-phase and quadrature-phase components of the signal and ∼2 dB OSNR gain is achieved at BER 10-3.
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Analysis of a Phase-Sensitive Voltmeter for Electrical Impedance Tomography.
Murphy, Ethan K; Takhti, Mohammad; Skinner, Joseph; Halter, Ryan J; Odame, Kofi
2017-04-01
In this paper, thorough analysis along with mathematical derivations of the matched filter for a voltmeter used in electrical impedance tomography systems are presented. The effect of the random noise in the system prior to the matched filter, generated by other components, are considered. Employing the presented equations allow system/circuit designers to find the maximum tolerable noise prior to the matched filter that leads to the target signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the voltmeter, without having to over-design internal components. A practical model was developed that should fall within 2 dB and 5 dB of the median SNR measurements of signal amplitude and phase, respectively. In order to validate our claims, simulation and experimental measurements have been performed with an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) followed by a digital matched filter, while the noise of the whole system was modeled as the input referred at the ADC input. The input signal was contaminated by a known value of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) noise, and the noise level was swept from 3% to 75% of the least significant bit (LSB) of the ADC. Differences between experimental and both simulated and analytical SNR values were less than 0.59 and 0.35 dB for RMS values ≥ 20% of an LSB and less than 1.45 and 2.58 dB for RMS values phase, respectively. Overall, this study provides a practical model for circuit designers in EIT, and a more accurate error analysis that was previously missing in EIT literature.
A Comparison of De-noising Methods for Diff erential Phase Shift and Associated Rainfall Estimation
胡志群; 刘察平; 吴林林; 魏庆
2015-01-01
Measured diff erential phase shift Φ DP is known to be a noisy unstable polarimetric radar variable, such that the quality of Φ DP data has direct impact on specifi c diff erential phase shift KDP estimation, and subsequently, the KDP-based rainfall estimation. Over the past decades, many Φ DP de-noising methods have been developed; however, the de-noising eff ects in these methods and their impact on KDP-based rainfall estimation lack comprehensive comparative analysis. In this study, simulated noisy Φ DP data were generated and de-noised by using several methods such as fi nite-impulse response (FIR), Kalman, wavelet, traditional mean, and median fi lters. The biases were compared between KDP from simulated and observedΦ DP radial profi les after de-noising by these methods. The results suggest that the complicated FIR, Kalman, and wavelet methods have a better de-noising eff ect than the traditional methods. AfterΦ DP was de-noised, the accuracy of the KDP-based rainfall estimation increased signifi cantly based on the analysis of three actual rainfall events. The improvement in estimation was more obvious when KDP was estimated withΦ DP de-noised by Kalman, FIR, and wavelet methods when the average rainfall was heavier than 5 mm h−1. However, the improved estimation was not signifi cant when the precipitation intensity further increased to a rainfall rate beyond 10 mm h−1. The performance of wavelet analysis was found to be the most stable of these fi lters.
Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Tan, Xiaodi
2016-03-01
Partial differential equation (PDE)-based nonlinear diffusion processes have been widely used for image denoising. In the traditional nonlinear anisotropic diffusion denoising techniques, behavior of the diffusion depends highly on the gradient of image. However, it is difficult to get a good effect if we use these methods to reduce noise in optical coherence tomography images. Because background has the gradient that is very similar to regions of interest, so background noise will be mistaken for edge information and cannot be reduced. Therefore, nonlinear complex diffusion approaches using texture feature(NCDTF) for noise reduction in phase-resolved optical coherence tomography is proposed here, which uses texture feature in OCT images and structural OCT images to remove noise in phase-resolved OCT. Taking into account the fact that texture between background and signal region is different, which can be linked with diffusion coefficient of nonlinear complex diffusion model, we use NCDTF method to reduce noises of structure and phase images first. Then, we utilize OCT structure images to filter phase image in OCT. Finally, to validate our method, parameters such as image SNR, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL), and edge preservation were compared between our approach and median filter, Gaussian filter, wavelet filter, nonlinear complex diffusion filter (NCDF). Preliminary results demonstrate that NCDTF method is more effective than others in keeping edges and denoising for phase-resolved OCT.
A Method to Eliminate Effect of Phase Noise in OFDM Synchronization System
无
1999-01-01
OFDM (the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) and its variety DMT (the discrete multitone) as delegates of the multicarrier modulation technology have given a big impact on the conventional data communication applications. Based on the theoretic a analysis of the OFDM technology, the impact of phase noise that introduced by the bit and symbol timing mechanism is discussed. Then a pilot correction and the cyclic prefix protection method are put forwarded to deal with the problem. These methods have been used in our experimental OFDM cable modem system to cope with the impulse noise and narrow band interference in the HFC (hybrid fiber and coax) upstream channel.
Analysis and design of a low-power low-noise CMOS phase-locked loop
Zhang, Cheng
2012-01-01
This thesis covers the analysis, design and simulation of a low-power low-noise CMOS Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). Starting with the PLL basics, this thesis discussed the PLL loop dynamics and behavioral modeling. In this thesis, the detailed design and implementation of individual building blocks of the low-power low-noise PLL have been presented. In order to improve the PLL performance, several novel architectural solutions has been proposed. To reduce the effect of blind-zone and extend the det...
Wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on 40-GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers
Larsson, David; Hvam, Jørn Märcher
2005-01-01
We have performed wide-band residual phase-noise measurements on semiconductor 40-GHz mode-locked lasers by employing electrical waveguide components for the radio-frequency circuit. The intrinsic timing jitters of lasers with one, two, and three quantum wells (QW) are compared and our design...... prediction, concerning noise versus number of QWs, for the first time corroborated by experiments. A minimum jitter of 44 fs is found, by extrapolating to the Nyquist frequency, for the one-QW device having nearly transform-limited pulses of 1.2 ps. This jitter is nearly three times lower than for a three...
A low phase noise and low spur PLL frequency synthesizer for GNSS receivers
Sen, Li; Jinguang, Jiang; Xifeng, Zhou; Jianghua, Liu
2014-01-01
A low phase noise and low spur phase locked loop (PLL) frequency synthesizer for use in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers is proposed. To get a low spur, the symmetrical structure of the phase frequency detector (PFD) produces four control signals, which can reach the charge pump (CP) simultaneously, and an improved CP is realized to minimize the charge sharing and the charge injection and make the current matched. Additionally, the delay is controllable owing to the programmable PFD, so the dead zone of the CP can be eliminated. The output frequency of the VCO can be adjusted continuously and precisely by using a programmable LC-TANK. The phase noise of the VCO is lowered by using appropriate MOS sizes. The proposed PLL frequency synthesizer is fabricated in a 0.18 μm mixed-signal CMOS process. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz offset from the center frequency is -127.65 dBc/Hz and the reference spur is -73.58 dBc.
Optimized tracking of RF carriers with phase noise, including Pioneer 10 results
Vilnrotter, V. A.; Hurd, W. J.; Brown, D. H.
1987-01-01
The ability to track very weak signals from distant spacecraft is limited by the phase instabilities of the received signal and of the local oscillator employed by the receiver. These instabilities ultimately limit the minimum loop bandwidth that can be used in a phase-coherent receiver, and hence limit the ratio of received carrier power to noise spectral density which can be tracked phase coherently. A method is presented for near real time estimation of the received carrier phase and additive noise spectrum, and optimization of the phase locked loop bandwidth. The method was used with the breadboard Deep Space Network (DSN) Advanced Receiver to optimize tracking of very weak signals from the Pioneer 10 spacecraft, which is now more distant that the edge of the solar system. Tracking with bandwidths of 0.1 Hz to 1.0 Hz reduces tracking signal threshold and increases carrier loop signal to noise ratio (SNR) by 5 dB to 15 dB compared to the 3 Hz bandwidth of the receivers now used operationally in the DSN. This will enable the DSN to track Pioneer 10 until its power sources fails near the end of the century.
Low phase noise GaAs HBT VCO in Ka-band
Ting, Yan; Yuming, Zhang; Hongliang, Lü; Yimen, Zhang; Yue, Wu; Yifeng, Liu
2015-02-01
Design and fabrication of a Ka-band voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) using commercially available 1-μm GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor technology is presented. A fully differential common-emitter configuration with a symmetric capacitance with a symmetric inductance tank structure is employed to reduce the phase noise of the VCO, and a novel π-feedback network is applied to compensate for the 180° phase shift. The on-wafer test shows that the VCO exhibits a phase noise of -96.47 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset and presents a tuning range from 28.312 to 28.695 GHz. The overall dc current consumption of the VCO is 18 mA with a supply voltage of -6 V The chip area of the VCO is 0.7 × 0.7 mm2.
Simple digital phase-measuring algorithm for low-noise heterodyne interferometry
Kokuyama, Wataru; Ohta, Akihiro; Hattori, Koichiro
2016-01-01
We present a digital algorithm for measuring the phase difference between two sinusoidal signals that combines the modified fringe-counting method with two-sample zero crossing to enable sequential signal processing. This technique can be applied to a phase meter for measuring dynamic phase differences with high resolution, particularly for heterodyne interferometry. The floor noise obtained from a demonstration with an electrical apparatus is $5\\times10^{-8} \\mathrm{rad/\\sqrt{Hz}}$ at frequencies above approximately 0.1 Hz. In addition, by applying this method to a commercial heterodyne interferometer, the floor-noise level is confirmed to be $7\\times10^{-14} \\mathrm{m/\\sqrt{Hz}}$ from 4 kHz to 1 MHz. We also confirm the validity of the algorithm by comparing its results with those from a standard homodyne interferometer for measuring shock-motion peak acceleration greater than 5000 m/s^2 and a 10 mm stroke.
Allner, S.; Koehler, T.; Fehringer, A.; Birnbacher, L.; Willner, M.; Pfeiffer, F.; Noël, P. B.
2016-05-01
The purpose of this work is to develop an image-based de-noising algorithm that exploits complementary information and noise statistics from multi-modal images, as they emerge in x-ray tomography techniques, for instance grating-based phase-contrast CT and spectral CT. Among the noise reduction methods, image-based de-noising is one popular approach and the so-called bilateral filter is a well known algorithm for edge-preserving filtering. We developed a generalization of the bilateral filter for the case where the imaging system provides two or more perfectly aligned images. The proposed generalization is statistically motivated and takes the full second order noise statistics of these images into account. In particular, it includes a noise correlation between the images and spatial noise correlation within the same image. The novel generalized three-dimensional bilateral filter is applied to the attenuation and phase images created with filtered backprojection reconstructions from grating-based phase-contrast tomography. In comparison to established bilateral filters, we obtain improved noise reduction and at the same time a better preservation of edges in the images on the examples of a simulated soft-tissue phantom, a human cerebellum and a human artery sample. The applied full noise covariance is determined via cross-correlation of the image noise. The filter results yield an improved feature recovery based on enhanced noise suppression and edge preservation as shown here on the example of attenuation and phase images captured with grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography. This is supported by quantitative image analysis. Without being bound to phase-contrast imaging, this generalized filter is applicable to any kind of noise-afflicted image data with or without noise correlation. Therefore, it can be utilized in various imaging applications and fields.
Allner, S; Koehler, T; Fehringer, A; Birnbacher, L; Willner, M; Pfeiffer, F; Noël, P B
2016-05-21
The purpose of this work is to develop an image-based de-noising algorithm that exploits complementary information and noise statistics from multi-modal images, as they emerge in x-ray tomography techniques, for instance grating-based phase-contrast CT and spectral CT. Among the noise reduction methods, image-based de-noising is one popular approach and the so-called bilateral filter is a well known algorithm for edge-preserving filtering. We developed a generalization of the bilateral filter for the case where the imaging system provides two or more perfectly aligned images. The proposed generalization is statistically motivated and takes the full second order noise statistics of these images into account. In particular, it includes a noise correlation between the images and spatial noise correlation within the same image. The novel generalized three-dimensional bilateral filter is applied to the attenuation and phase images created with filtered backprojection reconstructions from grating-based phase-contrast tomography. In comparison to established bilateral filters, we obtain improved noise reduction and at the same time a better preservation of edges in the images on the examples of a simulated soft-tissue phantom, a human cerebellum and a human artery sample. The applied full noise covariance is determined via cross-correlation of the image noise. The filter results yield an improved feature recovery based on enhanced noise suppression and edge preservation as shown here on the example of attenuation and phase images captured with grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography. This is supported by quantitative image analysis. Without being bound to phase-contrast imaging, this generalized filter is applicable to any kind of noise-afflicted image data with or without noise correlation. Therefore, it can be utilized in various imaging applications and fields.
曾松; 张波; 丘东元; 马化盛
2007-01-01
为解决双向开关在电力电子器件中的换流问题,可采用"四象限换流"的换流策略,即"四步换流".该方法根据电压的相对大小或电流的方向将两个双向开关之间的换流过程分为四步进行,有效地避免了换流过程中的故障,实现了真正意义上的安全换流.本文以单相AC/AC Buck变换器为例,研究其中双向开关的四步换流控制策略,设计出具体的实现电路,并用实验加以验证.
Magnard, C.; Small, D.; Meier, E.
2015-03-01
The phase estimation of cross-track multibaseline synthetic aperture interferometric data is usually thought to be very efficiently achieved using the maximum likelihood (ML) method. The suitability of this method is investigated here as applied to airborne single pass multibaseline data. Experimental interferometric data acquired with a Ka-band sensor were processed using (a) a ML method that fuses the complex data from all receivers and (b) a coarse-to-fine method that only uses the intermediate baselines to unwrap the phase values from the longest baseline. The phase noise was analyzed for both methods: in most cases, a small improvement was found when the ML method was used.
Thermo-elastic induced phase noise in the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft
Gibert, F.; Nofrarias, M.; Karnesis, N.; Gesa, L.; Martín, V.; Mateos, I.; Lobo, A.; Flatscher, R.; Gerardi, D.; Burkhardt, J.; Gerndt, R.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; McNamara, P. W.; Guzmán, F.; Hewitson, M.; Diepholz, I.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.
2015-02-01
During the on-station thermal test campaign of the LISA Pathfinder, the diagnostics subsystem was tested in nearly space conditions for the first time after integration in the satellite. The results showed the compliance of the temperature measurement system, obtaining temperature noise around {{10}-4} K H{{z}-1/2} in the frequency band 1-30 mHz. In addition, controlled injection of heat signals to the suspension struts anchoring the LISA Technology Package (LTP) core assembly to the satellite structure allowed us to experimentally estimate, for the first time, the phase noise contribution through thermo-elastic distortion of the LTP interferometer, the satellite's main instrument. Such contribution was found to be at {{10}-12} mH{{z}-1/2}, a factor of 30 below the measured noise at the lower end of the measurement bandwidth (1 mHz).
Thermo-elastic induced phase noise in the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft
Gibert, Ferran; Karnesis, Nikolaos; Gesa, Lluís; Martín, Víctor; Mateos, Ignacio; Lobo, Alberto; Flatscher, Reinhold; Gerardi, Domenico; Burkhardt, Johannes; Guzmán, Felipe; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten
2014-01-01
During the On-Station Thermal Test campaign of the LISA Pathfinder the data and diagnostics subsystem was tested in nearly space conditions for the first time after integration in the satellite. The results showed the compliance of the temperature measurement system, obtaining temperature noise around $10^{-4}\\,{\\rm K}\\, {\\rm Hz}^{-1/2}$ in the frequency band of $1-30\\;{\\rm mHz}$. In addition, controlled injection of heat signals to the suspension struts anchoring the LISA Technology Package (LTP) Core Assembly to the satellite structure allowed to experimentally estimate for the first time the phase noise contribution through thermo-elastic distortion of the LTP interferometer, the satellite's main instrument. Such contribution was found to be at $10^{-12}\\,{\\rm m}\\, {\\rm Hz}^{-1/2}$, a factor of 30 below the measured noise at the lower end of the measurement bandwidth ($1\\,{\\rm mHz}$).
A High Power Factor Single-phase AC-DC Converter%一种高功率因数的单相AC-DC变换器
李雨; 丁志勇; 李鹏鹏
2014-01-01
设计了一种有源功率因数校正（APFC）的高功率因数单相AC-DC变换器。该系统以TI公司专用APFC控制芯片UCC28019为控制核心，实现BOOST式APFC，后级以高效控制芯片TPS54360为控制器，输出恒压36 V，最大输出电流为2.5 A。该系统采用STC12C5A60S2单片机为监测控制中心，具有输出过流保护和功率因数、输出电压、输出电流实时测量和显示功能。在设计时，该系统从布局布线和滤波等方面消除了电磁干扰，使电压调整率和负载调整率都在0.5%以下，工作性能稳定、可靠。%An active Power Factor Correction(APFC)high power factor single-phase AC-DC converter. The system is dedicated to TI’s UCC28019 APFC control chip to control the core, to achieve BOOST type APFC, after the class in an efficient control chip TPS54360 controller, constant voltage output 36 V, maximum output current of 2.5 A. The system uses STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller monitoring control center, with output overcurrent protection and power factor, output voltage, output current, real-time measurement and display functions. In the design, the system layout and filtering from the elimination of electromagnetic interference, voltage regulation and load regulation are 0.5%, stable performance, reliable.
Lardner, Timothy; Li, Minghui; Gachagan, Anthony
2014-02-01
Materials with a coarse grain structure are becoming increasingly prevalent in industry due to their resilience to stress and corrosion. These materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasound because reflections from the grains lead to high noise levels which hinder the echoes of interest. Spatially Averaged Sub-Aperture Correlation Imaging (SASACI) is an advanced array beamforming technique that uses the cross-correlation between images from array sub-apertures to generate an image weighting matrix, in order to reduce noise levels. This paper presents a method inspired by SASACI to further improve imaging using phase information to refine focusing and reduce noise. A-scans from adjacent array elements are cross-correlated using both signal amplitude and phase to refine delay laws and minimize phase aberration. The phase-based and amplitude-based corrected images are used as inputs to a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm that will output a weighting matrix that can be applied to any conventional image. This approach was validated experimentally using a 5MHz array a coarse grained Inconel 625 step wedge, and compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM). Initial results have seen SNR improvements of over 20dB compared to TFM, and a resolution that is much higher.
Phase Transitions on Fixed Connected Graphs and Random Graphs in the Presence of Noise
Liu, Jialing; Sehgal, Hullas; Olson, Joshua M; Liu, Haifeng; Elia, Nicola
2008-01-01
In this paper, we study the phase transition behavior emerging from the interactions among multiple agents in the presence of noise. We propose a simple discrete-time model in which a group of non-mobile agents form either a fixed connected graph or a random graph process, and each agent, taking bipolar value either +1 or -1, updates its value according to its previous value and the noisy measurements of the values of the agents connected to it. We present proofs for the occurrence of the following phase transition behavior: At a noise level higher than some threshold, the system generates symmetric behavior (vapor or melt of magnetization) or disagreement; whereas at a noise level lower than the threshold, the system exhibits spontaneous symmetry breaking (solid or magnetization) or consensus. The threshold is found analytically. The phase transition occurs for any dimension. Finally, we demonstrate the phase transition behavior and all analytic results using simulations. This result may be found useful in t...
Turbulent phase noise on asymmetric two-way ground-satellite coherent optical links
Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter
2015-10-01
Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end-to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. Simulations make use of the reciprocity principle to estimate both down and up link performance from wave-optics propagation of descending plane waves. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterising the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock transfer.
Wang, Kai; Luo, Yinhe; Yang, Yingjie
2016-05-01
We collect two months of ambient noise data recorded by 35 broad-band seismic stations in a 9 × 11 km area (1-3 km station interval) near Karamay, China, and do cross-correlation of noise data between all station pairs. Array beamforming analysis of the ambient noise data shows that ambient noise sources are unevenly distributed and the most energetic ambient noise mainly comes from azimuths of 40°-70°. As a consequence of the strong directional noise sources, surface wave components of the cross-correlations at 1-5 Hz show clearly azimuthal dependence, and direct dispersion measurements from cross-correlations are strongly biased by the dominant noise energy. This bias renders that the dispersion measurements from cross-correlations do not accurately reflect the interstation velocities of surface waves propagating directly from one station to the other, that is, the cross-correlation functions do not retrieve empirical Green's functions accurately. To correct the bias caused by unevenly distributed noise sources, we adopt an iterative inversion procedure. The iterative inversion procedure, based on plane-wave modeling, includes three steps: (1) surface wave tomography, (2) estimation of ambient noise energy and biases and (3) phase velocities correction. First, we use synthesized data to test the efficiency and stability of the iterative procedure for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The testing results show that: (1) the amplitudes of phase velocity bias caused by directional noise sources are significant, reaching ˜2 and ˜10 per cent for homogeneous and heterogeneous media, respectively; (2) phase velocity bias can be corrected by the iterative inversion procedure and the convergence of inversion depends on the starting phase velocity map and the complexity of the media. By applying the iterative approach to the real data in Karamay, we further show that phase velocity maps converge after 10 iterations and the phase velocity maps obtained using
SIMA Wenxia; ZHOU Yuan; YUAN Tao; YANG Qing; SUN Shujie; Gilles Tremouille
2012-01-01
For AC and DC hybrid transmission lines, the arrangement and transposition modes of AC conductors not only affect the unbalance factor of AC lines, but also influence the bias current of DC converter transformers by AC and DC coupling. Excessive bias current will influence the normal operation of converter transformers, thus the optimal AC phase arrangement and transposition mode of hybrid lines was studied to minimize the coupling effect between AC and DC lines to fit the requirements on both aspects. Based on the parameters of the Ximeng-Shanghai project in China, a detailed simulation model of the DC converter station and the hybrid transmission line with double- circuit AC 500 kV transmission lines and DC ± 800 kV transmission lines were presented in the software PSCAD- EMTDC, and the coupling effects of the hybrid transmission lines were elucidated. The fundamental frequency components of DC poles with different operation conditions, arrangements of conductors and operation modes were analyzed, and the effective arrangement and transposition limiting the fundamental frequency current component of the DC line were compared. Simulation results show that AC operating conditions can affect DC induced components while the DC system operation mode has no apparent effect. With compact arrangement and inconsistent transposition of AC lines, the fundamental frequency component on DC lines can be reduced effectively; the three transposed mode within the hybrid line is the optimal layout scheme, considering both the requirements of DC bias current and AC unbalance degree.
Dual transponder ranging performance in the presence of oscillator phase noise
赵明臣; 王春晖; 金小军; 金仲和
2015-01-01
A dual transponder carrier ranging method can be used to measure inter-satellite distance with high precision by combining the reference and the to-and-fro measurements. Based on the differential techniques, the oscillator phase noise, which is the main error source for microwave ranging systems, can be significantly attenuated. Further, since the range measurements are derived on the same satellite, the dual transponder ranging system does not need a time tagging system to synchronize the two satellites. In view of the lack of oscillator noise analysis on the dual transponder ranging model, a comprehensive analysis of oscillator noise effects on ranging accuracy is provided. First, the dual transponder ranging system is described with emphasis on the detailed analysis of oscillator noise on measurement precision. Then, a high-fidelity numerical simulation approach based on the power spectrum density of an actual ultra-stable oscillator is carried out in both frequency domain and time domain to support the presented theoretical analysis. The simulation results under different conditions are consistent with the proposed concepts, which makes the results reliable. Besides, the results demonstrate that a high level of accuracy can be achieved by using this oscillator noise cancelation-oriented ranging method.
Xiang Zheng; Zhang Taiyi; Sun Jiancheng
2006-01-01
A new strategy for noise reduction of fast fading channel is presented. Firstly, more information is acquired utilizing the reconstructed embedding phase space. Then, based on the Recurrent Least Squares Support Vector Machines (RLS-SVM), noise reduction of the fast fading channel is realized. This filtering technique does not make use of the spectral contents of the signal. Based on the stability and the fractal of the chaotic attractor, the RLS-SVM algorithm is a better candidate for the nonlinear time series noise-reduction. The simulation results shows that better noise-reduction performance is acquired when the signal to noise ratio is 12dB.
Noise and Vibration Monitoring for Premium Efficiency IE 3 Three-Phase Induction Motors
NISTOR, C. G.
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the original SV-100 platform that enables low-cost and very high accuracy determinations of noise and vibration levels. The aim of the proposed platform is to achieve an effective integration of the two topics of this analysis: vibrations and noises. To the best of our knowledge, no low price, dedicated compact platform with embedded measuring instruments exists. For proving the practical utility of the proposed platform, two induction motors of 7.5 kW and 11 kW, respectively, in single-layer winding, at 1000 rpm, with IE3 premium efficiency were analyzed. This analysis is required because, according to IEC60034-30 standard, the IE3 efficiency standard has become mandatory for induction motors of rated power greater than 7.5 kW. Therefore, in order to improve the motor operating efficiency, the power losses caused by noises and vibrations have to be reduced. Several variants of supply were studied, i.e., by the three-phase 50 Hz network and by a three-phase inverter at 40, 50 and 60 Hz, respectively. The experimental determinations of noises are presented comparatively, by using a Bruel&Kjaer sonometer and by using the new platform SV-100. The results are compared with the IEC60034 standard.
Residual Phase Noise and Time Jitters of Single-Chip Digital Frequency Dividers
Lu-Lu Yan; Sen Meng; Wen-Yu Zhao; Wen-Ge Guo; Hai-Feng Jiang; Shou-Gang Zhang
2015-01-01
Abstract-In this paper, we demonstrate the residual phase noise of a few microwave frequency dividers which usually limit the performance of frequency synthesizers. In order to compare these dividers under different operation frequencies, we calculate additional time jitters of these dividers by using the measured phase noise. The time jitters are various from ~0.1fs to 43fs in a bandwidth from 1Hz to 100Hz in dependent of models and operation frequencies. The HMC series frequency dividers exhibit outstanding performance for high operation frequencies, and the time jitters can be sub-fs. The time jitters of SP8401, MC10EP139, and MC100LVEL34 are comparable or even below that of HMC series for low operation frequencies.
A low-phase-noise digitally controlled crystal oscillator for DVB TV tuners
Zhao Wei; Lu Lei; Tang Zhangwen, E-mail: zwtang@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)
2010-07-15
This paper presents a 25-MHz fully-integrated digitally controlled crystal oscillator (DCXO) with automatic amplitude control (AAC). The DCXO is based on Colpitts topology for one-pin solution. The AAC circuit is introduced to optimize the phase noise performance. The automatic frequency control is realized by a 10-bit thermometer-code segmental tapered MOS capacitor array, ensuring a {approx} 35 ppm tuning range and {approx} 0.04 ppm frequency step. The measured phase noise results are -139 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -151 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz frequency offset, respectively. The chip consumes 1 mA at 1.8V supply and occupies 0.4 mm{sup 2} in a 0.18-{mu}m CMOS process.
A low-phase-noise digitally controlled crystal oscillator for DVB TV tuners
Wei, Zhao; Lei, Lu; Zhangwen, Tang
2010-07-01
This paper presents a 25-MHz fully-integrated digitally controlled crystal oscillator (DCXO) with automatic amplitude control (AAC). The DCXO is based on Colpitts topology for one-pin solution. The AAC circuit is introduced to optimize the phase noise performance. The automatic frequency control is realized by a 10-bit thermometer-code segmental tapered MOS capacitor array, ensuring a ~ 35 ppm tuning range and ~ 0.04 ppm frequency step. The measured phase noise results are -139 dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -151 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz frequency offset, respectively. The chip consumes 1 mA at 1.8V supply and occupies 0.4 mm2 in a 0.18-μm CMOS process.
Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor
Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario
2006-01-01
A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.
On estimating the phase of a periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise, part 3
Rauch, L. L.
1991-01-01
Motivated by advances in signal processing technology that support more complex algorithms, researchers have taken a new look at the problem of estimating the phase and other parameters of a nearly periodic waveform in additive Gaussian noise, based on observation during a given time interval. Parts 1 and 2 are very briefly reviewed. In part 3, the actual performances of some of the highly nonlinear estimation algorithms of parts 1 and 2 are evaluated by numerical simulation using Monte Carlo techniques.
Llopis, Francisco
2013-01-01
The circuit presented in this paper aims at providing three 40 Vpp 50Hz AC voltages sources with 120-degree phase separation between them. This is a fully analogue circuit that uses standard, low-cost electronic components without resorting to a microcontroller as previously proposed by Shirvasar et al [1]. This circuit may serve as a basis for a low-voltage 3P-AC power supply that students may safely use to realize experiments, i.e. about the principles and applications of three-phase AC power lines, without the risk of electric shocks.
Mizan, Muhammad; Higgins, Thomas; Sturzebecher, Dana
1993-01-01
EPSD has designed, fabricated and tested, ultra-stable, low phase noise microwave dielectric resonator oscillators (DRO's) at S, X, Ku, and K-bands, for potential application to high dynamic range and low radar cross section target detection radar systems. The phase noise and the temperature stability surpass commercially available DROs. Low phase noise signals are critical for CW Doppler radars, at both very close-in and large offset frequencies from the carrier. The oscillators were built without any temperature compensation techniques and exhibited a temperature stability of 25 parts per million (ppm) over an extended temperature range. The oscillators are lightweight, small and low cost compared to BAW & SAW oscillators, and can impact commercial systems such as telecommunications, built-in-test equipment, cellular phone and satellite communications systems. The key to obtaining this performance was a high Q factor resonant structure (RS) and careful circuit design techniques. The high Q RS consists of a dielectric resonator (DR) supported by a low loss spacer inside a metal cavity. The S and the X-band resonant structures demonstrated loaded Q values of 20,300 and 12,700, respectively.
SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A 0.8 V low power low phase-noise PLL
Yan, Han; Xiao, Liang; Haifeng, Zhou; Yinfang, Xie; Waisum, Wong
2010-08-01
A low power and low phase noise phase-locked loop (PLL) design for low voltage (0.8 V) applications is presented. The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) operates from a 0.5 V voltage supply, while the other blocks operate from a 0.8 V supply. A differential NMOS-only topology is adopted for the oscillator, a modified precharge topology is applied in the phase-frequency detector (PFD), and a new feedback structure is utilized in the charge pump (CP) for ultra-low voltage applications. The divider adopts the extended true single phase clock DFF in order to operate in the high frequency region and save circuit area and power. In addition, several novel design techniques, such as removing the tail current source, are demonstrated to cut down the phase noise. Implemented in the SMIC 0.13 μm RF CMOS process and operated at 0.8 V supply voltage, the PLL measures a phase noise of-112.4 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz from the carrier and a frequency range of 3.166-3.383 GHz. The improved PFD and the novel CP dissipate 0.39 mW power from a 0.8 V supply. The occupied chip area of the PFD and CP is 100 × 100 μm2. The chip occupies 0.63 mm2, and draws less than 6.54 mW from a 0.8 V supply.
Phase noise from aircraft motion: Compensation and effect on synthetic aperture radar images
Gabriel, Andrew K.; Goldstein, Richard M.
1986-01-01
Image degradation of airborne SAR imagery caused by phase errors introduced in the received signal by aircraft motion is discussed. Mechanical motion has a small bandwidth and does not affect the range signal, where the total echo time is typically 60 microsec. However, since the aperture length can be several seconds, the synthesized azimuth signal can have significant errors of which phase noise is the most important. An inertial navigation system can be used to compensate for these errors when processing the images. Calculations to evaluate how much improvement results from compensation are outlined.
杜丹
2015-01-01
针对深空测控系统高精度测量对于信道附加相噪的要求,采用直接数字频率合成( DDS )正交调制方法设计频率综合器。通过巧妙的试验和外推方法,择优选取电压型鉴相器,在锁相环相噪模型的基础上,全面分析各部分相噪的贡献,综合设计环路带宽,有效控制附加相噪,实现低相噪频综器最理想的目标,即环路带内的相噪完全由参考决定,带外的相噪由压控振荡器( VCO)决定,并采用两源互比的方法完成1 Hz极低相位噪声的测试,测试结果为-73 dBc/Hz,与设计结果完全一致。该方法对于测控站极低相噪的设计具有一定参考价值。%For the additional phase noise requirements on channels in deep space TT&C system with high ac-curacy measurement,a frequency synthesizer is designed using direct digital synthesizing(DDS) quadrature modulation. A voltage-type phase discriminator is selected by smart test and extrapolation method. Based on phase noise model of phase locked loop,contributions from all parts of phase noise are analyzed. So the idea-lest performance of frequency synthesizer with low phase noise,i. e. loop in-band phase noise is depended on reference frequency,and out-band phase noise is determined by voltage-controlled oscillator(VCO),is implemented by loop bandwidth integrated design and efficient additional phase noise control. The 1 Hz low phase noise is tested through comparing two sources and it is-73 dBc/Hz,which is consistent with design re-sult. This method is valuable to low phase noise design in deep space TT&C ground station.
A Low Phase Noise Fully Monolithic 6 GHz Differential Coupled NMOS LC-VCO
Moalla, Dorra Mellouli; Cordeau, David; Mnif, Hassene; Paillot, Jean-Marie; Loulou, Mourad
2016-01-01
A fully monolithic 6 GHz low-phase noise Voltage-Controlled-Oscillator (VCO) is presented in this paper. It consists in two LC-NMOS differential VCOs coupled through a resistive network and is implemented on a 0.25 µm BiCMOS SiGe process. This proposed integrated VCO can be used also for phased-array applications to steer the beam over the entire spatial range. In this case, the radiation pattern of the phased antenna array is steered in a particular direction by establishing a constant phase progression in the oscillator chain which can be obtained by detuning the free-running frequencies of the two oscillators in the array. At 2.5 V power supply voltage and a power dissipation of 62.5 mW, the coupled VCO array features a measured worst case phase noise of -102.4 dBc/Hz and -125.64 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz and 1 MHz frequency offset respectively from a 6 GHz carrier. The tuning range is about 400 MHz, from 5.85 to 6.25 GHz, for a tuning voltage varying from 0 to 2.5 V.
A time-variant analysis of the 1/f^(2) phase noise in CMOS parallel LC-Tank quadrature oscillators
Andreani, Pietro
2006-01-01
This paper presents a study of 1/f2 phase noise in quadrature oscillators built by connecting two differential LC-tank oscillators in a parallel fashion. The analysis clearly demonstrates the necessity of adopting a time-variant theory of phase noise, where a more simplistic, time......-invariant approach fails to explain numerical simulation results even at the qualitative level. Two topologies of 5-GHz parallel quadrature oscillators are considered, and compact but nevertheless highly general, closed-form formulas are derived for the phase noise caused by the losses in the LC...
Phase noise measurements of the 400-kW, 2.115-GHz (S-band) transmitter
Boss, P.; Hoppe, D.; Bhanji, A.
1987-01-01
The measurement theory is described and a test method to perform phase noise verification using off-the-shelf components and instruments is presented. The measurement technique described consists of a double-balanced mixer used as phase detector, followed by a low noise amplifier. An FFT spectrum analyzer is then used to view the modulation components. A simple calibration procedure is outlined that ensures accurate measurements. A block diagram of the configuration is presented as well as actual phase noise data from the 400 kW, 2.115 GHz (S-band) klystron transmitter.
Song, Insang; Kim, Chungwoo; Kwon, Youngwoo; Cheon, Changyul; Song, Cimoo
1999-06-01
We introduce a new structure of the micromachined cavity resonator coupled GaAs-based oscillator to enhance the phase noise and the frequency stability. The oscillator and the cavity are designed for Ka-band applications. Compared to the free running oscillator, the cavity resonator coupled oscillator showed the phase noise enhancement of about 20 dB. The phase noises of about -110 and -85 dBc/Hz are obtained at 1 MHz and 100 kHz offset frequency, respectively. The frequency pushing for the gate bias of the cavity coupled oscillator is about two order of magnitude less than that of the free running oscillator.
Fard, A.; Andreani, Pietro
2007-01-01
This work presents an analysis of phase noise in the $1/f^{2}$ region displayed by both single-ended and differential bipolar Colpitts oscillators. Very accurate and rigorous symbolic phase noise expressions are derived, enabling a deeper insight into the major mechanisms of phase noise generation......, and providing new tools for design optimization. Phase noise expressions for the cross-coupled differential-pair LC-tank oscillator are derived as well....
Ishizawa, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Mizutori, Akira; Takara, Hidehiko; Takada, Atsushi; Sogawa, Tetsuomi; Koga, Masafumi
2013-12-02
We investigated phase-noise characteristics of both a phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and a mode-locked fiber laser with carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) locking. As the separation from the frequency of the continuous wave (CW) laser diode (LD) for a seed light source increases, the integrated phase noise of each comb mode of both the phase/intensity-modulated laser and supercontinuum light originating from it increases with the same slope as a function of mode number. The dependence of the integrated phase noise on mode number with the phase/intensity-modulated laser is much larger than with the mode-locked fiber laser of the CEO locking. However, the phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser is extremely lower than that of the mode-locked fiber laser with CEO locking in the frequency region around the CW LD. The phase noise of the phase/intensity-modulated laser with 25-GHz mode spacing and that of the mode-locked fiber laser with the CEO locking could be estimated and were found to be almost the same at the wavelengths required in an f-to-2f self-referencing interferometer. Our experimental results indicate the possibility of achieving an offset-frequency-locked frequency comb with the phase/intensity-modulated laser.
Ma, Chun-hui; Zu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Lei; Li, Jian
2015-01-22
In this study, two solid-phase recycling method for basic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim]Ac) were studied through a digestion extraction system of extracting biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis. The RP-HPLC detection method for [C4mim]Ac was established in order to investigate the recovery efficiency of IL. The recycling method of [C4mim]Ac is divided into two steps, the first step was the separation of lignans from the IL solution containing HPD 5000 macroporous resin, the recovery efficiency and purity of [C4mim]Ac achieved were 97.8% and 67.7%, respectively. This method cannot only separate the lignans from [C4mim]Ac solution, also improve the purity of lignans, the absorption rate of lignans in [C4mim]Ac solution was found to be higher (69.2%) than that in ethanol solution (57.7%). The second step was the purification of [C4mim]Ac by the SK1B strong acid ion exchange resin, an [C4mim]Ac recovery efficiency of 55.9% and the purity higher than 90% were achieved. Additionally, [C4mim]Ac as solvent extraction of lignans from S. chinensis was optimized, the hydrolysis temperature was 90°C and the hydrolysis time was 2h.
Ishizawa, A; Nishikawa, T; Goto, T; Hitachi, K; Sogawa, T; Gotoh, H
2016-05-17
Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise "booster" for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz).
Chen, R C; Rigon, L; Longo, R
2013-03-25
Phase retrieval is a technique for extracting quantitative phase information from X-ray propagation-based phase-contrast tomography (PPCT). In this paper, the performance of different single distance phase retrieval algorithms will be investigated. The algorithms are herein called phase-attenuation duality Born Algorithm (PAD-BA), phase-attenuation duality Rytov Algorithm (PAD-RA), phase-attenuation duality Modified Bronnikov Algorithm (PAD-MBA), phase-attenuation duality Paganin algorithm (PAD-PA) and phase-attenuation duality Wu Algorithm (PAD-WA), respectively. They are all based on phase-attenuation duality property and on weak absorption of the sample and they employ only a single distance PPCT data. In this paper, they are investigated via simulated noise-free PPCT data considering the fulfillment of PAD property and weakly absorbing conditions, and with experimental PPCT data of a mixture sample containing absorbing and weakly absorbing materials, and of a polymer sample considering different degrees of statistical and structural noise. The simulation shows all algorithms can quantitatively reconstruct the 3D refractive index of a quasi-homogeneous weakly absorbing object from noise-free PPCT data. When the weakly absorbing condition is violated, the PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA obtain better result than PAD-BA and PAD-MBA that are shown in both simulation and mixture sample results. When considering the statistical noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio values decreases as the photon number is reduced. The structural noise study shows that the result is progressively corrupted by ring-like artifacts with the increase of structural noise (i.e. phantom thickness). The PAD-RA and PAD-PA/WA gain better density resolution than the PAD-BA and PAD-MBA in both statistical and structural noise study.
Critical phenomena and noise-induced phase transitions in neuronal networks.
Lee, K-E; Lopes, M A; Mendes, J F F; Goltsev, A V
2014-01-01
We study numerically and analytically first- and second-order phase transitions in neuronal networks stimulated by shot noise (a flow of random spikes bombarding neurons). Using an exactly solvable cortical model of neuronal networks on classical random networks, we find critical phenomena accompanying the transitions and their dependence on the shot noise intensity. We show that a pattern of spontaneous neuronal activity near a critical point of a phase transition is a characteristic property that can be used to identify the bifurcation mechanism of the transition. We demonstrate that bursts and avalanches are precursors of a first-order phase transition, paroxysmal-like spikes of activity precede a second-order phase transition caused by a saddle-node bifurcation, while irregular spindle oscillations represent spontaneous activity near a second-order phase transition caused by a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Our most interesting result is the observation of the paroxysmal-like spikes. We show that a paroxysmal-like spike is a single nonlinear event that appears instantly from a low background activity with a rapid onset, reaches a large amplitude, and ends up with an abrupt return to lower activity. These spikes are similar to single paroxysmal spikes and sharp waves observed in electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements. Our analysis shows that above the saddle-node bifurcation, sustained network oscillations appear with a large amplitude but a small frequency in contrast to network oscillations near the Hopf bifurcation that have a small amplitude but a large frequency. We discuss an amazing similarity between excitability of the cortical model stimulated by shot noise and excitability of the Morris-Lecar neuron stimulated by an applied current.
Shagam, R.N.
1998-09-01
A novel method for the measurement of the change in index of refraction vs. temperature (dn/dT) of fused silica and calcium fluoride at the 193 nm wavelength has been developed in support of thermal modeling efforts for the development of 193 nm-based photolithographic exposure tools. The method, based upon grating lateral shear interferometry, uses a transmissive linear grating to divide a 193 nm laser beam into several beam paths by diffraction which propagate through separate identical material samples. One diffracted order passing through one sample overlaps the undiffracted beam from a second sample and forms interference fringes dependent upon the optical path difference between the two samples. Optical phase delay due to an index change from heating one of the samples causes the interference fringes to change sinusoidally with phase. The interferometer also makes use of AC phase measurement techniques through lateral translation of the grating. Results for several samples of fused silica and calcium fluoride are demonstrated.
Ac losses and mechanical stability in 630 kV A three-phase HTS transformer windings
Wang Yinshun [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhao Xiang [Tebian Electric Apparatus Stock Co., LTD, Changji 83100, Xinjiang (China); Han Junjie [Tebian Electric Apparatus Stock Co., LTD, Changji 83100, Xinjiang (China); Dai Shaotao [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xiao, Liye [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lin Liangzhen [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)
2007-05-15
Analyses on ac losses and mechanical stability for three-phase HTS power transformer windings of 630 kV A operated at 77 K in rated operation and sudden short-circuit conditions, respectively, are presented in this paper. The primary winding of the HTS transformer is a solenoid and the secondary one is a double pancake; both of them were wound by hermetic multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag tapes with reinforcing stainless steel sheath. Ac losses induced in the windings are estimated based on the Bean model and magnetic field distribution, and are in qualitative agreement with the actual ones measured by conventional electrical methods at rated current operation and power frequency of 50 Hz at 77 K. It is shown that hysteresis loss in the windings is dominant in the total ac losses. On the other hand, the current and voltage profiles are analysed and the electromagnetic stress in the windings are simulated by the finite element method (FEM) in a sudden short-circuit fault based on the impulse current characteristics of the tape. Results show that the windings are stably safe according to the stress critical criteria of the tape in a sudden short-circuit accident.
Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper considered a six-phase (asymmetrical induction motor, kept 30° phase displacement between two set of three-phase open-end stator windings configuration. The drive system consists of four classical three-phase voltage inverters (VSIs and all four dc sources are deliberately kept isolated. Therefore, zero-sequence/homopolar current components cannot flow. The original and effective power sharing algorithm is proposed in this paper with three variables (degree of freedom based on synchronous field oriented control (FOC. A standard three-level space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM by nearest three vectors (NTVs approach is adopted to regulate each couple of VSIs. The proposed power sharing algorithm is verified by complete numerical simulation modeling (Matlab/Simulink-PLECS software of whole ac drive system by observing the dynamic behaviors in different designed condition. Set of results are provided in this paper, which confirms a good agreement with theoretical development.
Low-complexity BCH codes with optimized interleavers for DQPSK systems with laser phase noise
Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar
2017-01-01
The presence of high phase noise in addition to additive white Gaussian noise in coherent optical systems affects the performance of forward error correction (FEC) schemes. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme for such systems, using block interleavers and binary Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (...... simulations. For a target post-FEC BER of 10−6, codes selected using our method result in BERs around 3× target and achieve the target with around 0.2 dB extra signal-to-noise ratio....... very low implementation complexity. In addition, our approach is straightforward, requiring only short pre-FEC simulations to parameterize a model, based on which we select codes analytically. We aim to correct a pre-FEC BER of around 10−3. We evaluate the accuracy of our approach using numerical......–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem (BCH) codes. The block interleavers are specifically optimized for differential quadrature phase shift keying modulation. We propose a method for selecting BCH codes that, together with the interleavers, achieve a target post-FEC bit error rate (BER). This combination of interleavers and BCHcodes has...
Effect of phase noise on quantum correlations in Bose-Josephson junctions
Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Spehner, D. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Institut Fourier UMR5582, B.P. 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)
2011-10-15
In a two-mode Bose-Josephson junction the dynamics induced by a sudden quench of the tunnel amplitude leads to the periodic formation of entangled states. For instance, squeezed states are formed at short times and macroscopic superpositions of phase states at later times. In atom interferometry, the two modes of the junction play the role of the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer; use of multiparticle entangled states allows the enhancement of phase sensitivity with respect to that obtained from uncorrelated atoms. Decoherence due to the presence of noise degrades quantum correlations between atoms, thus reducing phase sensitivity. We consider decoherence due to stochastic fluctuations of the energies of the two modes of the junction. We analyze its effect on squeezed states and macroscopic superpositions and calculate the squeezing parameter and the quantum Fisher information during the quenched dynamics. The latter quantity measures the amount of quantum correlations useful in interferometry. For moderate noise intensities, we show that it increases on time scales beyond the squeezing regime. This suggests multicomponent superpositions of phase states as interesting candidates for high-precision atom interferometry.
Design of the Low Phase Noise VCO%低相位噪声VCO的设计
向永波; 阎跃鹏; 高海飞
2012-01-01
A low phase noise phase voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) for mobile communication repeater station was designed. Colpitts structure was adopted for the VCO, LC components was used as the resonator and BJT was used as the amplifier component. The frequency tuning range is from 730 MHz to 840 MHz with the output power of 10.7 dBm and the pressure control sensitivity of 22 MHz/V. At 800 MHz central frequency, the phase noise is -99. 42 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset, - 116. 44 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset and - 135. 06 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset separately. A low frequency filtering method at the base electrode was proposed to eliminate the spur, and no obvious spur was observed within the full test frequency band. The major phase noise source of the VCO was summarized, and the design method for the low noise VCO was given. The calculation result, simulation result and test result match well, which provides some references for the design of the low noise VCO.%设计了一个用于移动通信中继站的低相位噪声压控振荡器(VCO).该VCO采用了考皮兹结构,谐振器使用LC器件,放大器件使用双极结型晶体管(BJT).其频率调动范围为730～840MHz,压控灵敏度为22MHz/V,输出功率为10.7 dBm.在800MHz中心频率处,其实测相位噪声分别为-99.42dBc/Hz@10kHz,-116.44 dBc/Hz@100kHz,-135.06dBc/Hz@1 MHz.提出了一种采用基极低频滤波的办法消除VCO的杂散频率,整个测试频段内观察不到明显的杂散.阐述了VCO相位噪声的主要来源,给出了低噪声VCO的设计方法.理论计算,仿真结果和实物测试取得了一致的结论,对低噪声VCO的设计提供了一定的参考.
An, Yatong; Liu, Ziping; Zhang, Song
2016-12-01
This paper evaluates the robustness of our recently proposed geometric constraint-based phase-unwrapping method to unwrap a low-signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) phase. Instead of capturing additional images for absolute phase unwrapping, the new phase-unwrapping algorithm uses geometric constraints of the digital fringe projection (DFP) system to create a virtual reference phase map to unwrap the phase pixel by pixel. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that this new phase-unwrapping method can even successfully unwrap low-SNR phase maps that bring difficulties for conventional multi-frequency phase-unwrapping methods.
巫付专; 侯婷婷; 韩梁; 冯占伟
2015-01-01
针对输入侧采用不可控整流AC／DC／AC结构的单相动态电压恢复器（ DVR ）输入侧功率因数低，谐波含量高等问题，提出了一种基于PWM斩波变换器的动态电压恢复器来补偿负载两端电压的跌落。该新型拓扑结构采用PWM斩波控制节省了直流侧电容，简化了滤波器设计，使输入侧线路中谐波含量降低，同时达到单位功率因数；电压检测采用单相信号构造成两相信号，利用瞬时无功理论对信号进行检测与处理，实时性高；搭建MATLAB／Simulink仿真和系统实验平台，验证其合理性和可行性。%In view of such problems as the low input side power factor of the single-phase dynamic voltage restorer ( DVR) with the structure of uncontrolled rectifier AC/DC/AC and high harmonic content , this paper proposed a DVR based on the PWM chopper to compensate for the voltage drop at the two load ends .The new topology , which a-dopted the PWM chopper control , saved the DC capacitor and simplified the filter design so that the harmonic content in the input-side circuit was reduced and the input side achieved the unit power factor .Single-phase signals were con-structed into two-phase signals to detect voltage and the instantaneous reactive power theory was used to detect and process the signals , which attained high real time .Finally, a MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experimental plat-form was constructed to verify the rationality and feasibility of the new structure .
Noise-induced absorbing phase transition in a model of opinion formation
Vieira, Allan R
2016-01-01
In this work we study a 3-state ($+1$, $-1$, $0$) opinion model in the presence of noise and disorder. We consider pairwise competitive interactions, with a fraction $p$ of those interactions being negative (disorder). Moreover, there is a noise $q$ that represents the probability of an individual spontaneously change his opinion to the neutral state. Our aim is to study how the increase/decrease of the fraction of neutral agents affects the critical behavior of the system and the evolution of opinions. We derive analytical expressions for the order parameter of the model, as well as for the stationary fraction of each opinion, and we show that there are distinct phase transitions. One is the usual ferro-paramagnetic transition, that is in the Ising universality class. In addition, there are para-absorbing and ferro-absorbing transitions, presenting the directed percolation universality class. Our results are complemented by numerical simulations.
Noise-induced absorbing phase transition in a model of opinion formation
Vieira, Allan R.; Crokidakis, Nuno
2016-08-01
In this work we study a 3-state (+1, -1, 0) opinion model in the presence of noise and disorder. We consider pairwise competitive interactions, with a fraction p of those interactions being negative (disorder). Moreover, there is a noise q that represents the probability of an individual spontaneously change his opinion to the neutral state. Our aim is to study how the increase/decrease of the fraction of neutral agents affects the critical behavior of the system and the evolution of opinions. We derive analytical expressions for the order parameter of the model, as well as for the stationary fraction of each opinion, and we show that there are distinct phase transitions. One is the usual ferro-paramagnetic transition, that is in the Ising universality class. In addition, there are para-absorbing and ferro-absorbing transitions, presenting the directed percolation universality class. Our results are complemented by numerical simulations.
Noise-induced phase transition in the model of human virtual stick balancing
Zgonnikov, Arkady
2016-01-01
Humans face the task of balancing dynamic systems near an unstable equilibrium repeatedly throughout their lives. Much research has been aimed at understanding the mechanisms of intermittent control in the context of human balance control. The present paper deals with one of the recent developments in the theory of human intermittent control, namely, the double-well model of noise-driven control activation. We demonstrate that the double-well model can reproduce the whole range of experimentally observed distributions under different conditions. Moreover, we show that a slight change in the noise intensity parameter leads to a sudden shift of the action point distribution shape, that is, a phase transition is observed.
Impact of laser phase and amplitude noises on streak camera temporal resolution
Wlotzko, V., E-mail: wlotzko@optronis.com [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany); Uhring, W. [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Summ, P. [Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany)
2015-09-15
Streak cameras are now reaching sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In cumulative acquisition mode, this resolution does not entirely rely on the electronic or the vacuum tube performances but also on the light source characteristics. The light source, usually an actively mode-locked laser, is affected by phase and amplitude noises. In this paper, the theoretical effects of such noises on the synchronization of the streak system are studied in synchroscan and triggered modes. More precisely, the contribution of band-pass filters, delays, and time walk is ascertained. Methods to compute the resulting synchronization jitter are depicted. The results are verified by measurement with a streak camera combined with a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid state laser oscillator and also a fiber oscillator.
Yeh, Yen-Liang; Chang, Hong-Yeh
2014-12-01
In this paper, we present design and analysis of a K-band (18 to 26.5 GHz) low-phase-noise phase-locked loop (PLL) with the subharmonically injection-locked (SIL) technique. The phase noise of the PLL with subharmonic injection is investigated, and a modified phase noise model of the PLL with SIL technique is proposed. The theoretical calculations agree with the experimental results. Moreover, the phase noise of the PLL can be improved with the subharmonic injection. To achieve K-band operation with low dc power consumption, a divide-by-3 injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) is used as a frequency prescaler. The measured phase noise of the PLL without injection is -110 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset at the operation frequency of 23.08 GHz. With the subharmonic injection, the measured phase noises at 1 MHz offset are -127, -127, and -119 dBc/Hz for the subharmonic injection number NINJ = 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Moreover, the performance of the proposed PLL with and without SIL technique can be compared with the reported advanced CMOS PLLs.
Noise texture and signal detectability in propagation-based x-ray phase-contrast tomography
Chou, Cheng-Ying; Anastasio, Mark A. [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Imaging Research Center, Illinois Institute of Technology, 3440 S. Dearborn Street, E1-116, Chicago, Illinois 60616 (United States)
2010-01-15
Purpose: X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality for reconstructing estimates of an object's three-dimensional x-ray refractive index distribution. Unlike conventional x-ray computed tomography methods, the statistical properties of the reconstructed images in PCT remain unexplored. The purpose of this work is to quantitatively investigate noise propagation in PCT image reconstruction. Methods: The authors derived explicit expressions for the autocovariance of the reconstructed absorption and refractive index images to characterize noise texture and understand how the noise properties are influenced by the imaging geometry. Concepts from statistical detection theory were employed to understand how the imaging geometry-dependent statistical properties affect the signal detection performance in a signal-known-exactly/background-known-exactly task. Results: The analytical formulas for the phase and absorption autocovariance functions were implemented numerically and compared to the corresponding empirical values, and excellent agreement was found. They observed that the reconstructed refractive images are highly spatially correlated, while the absorption images are not. The numerical results confirm that the strength of the covariance is scaled by the detector spacing. Signal detection studies were conducted, employing a numerical observer. The detection performance was found to monotonically increase as the detector-plane spacing was increased. Conclusions: The authors have conducted the first quantitative investigation of noise propagation in PCT image reconstruction. The reconstructed refractive images were found to be highly spatially correlated, while absorption images were not. This is due to the presence of a Fourier space singularity in the reconstruction formula for the refraction images. The statistical analysis may facilitate the use of task-based image quality measures to further develop and optimize this emerging
Lloret, Juan; Ramos, Francisco; Xue, Weiqi
2011-01-01
Different optical filtering scenarios involving microwave photonic phase shifters based on semiconductor optical amplifiers are investigated numerically as well as experimentally with respect to noise performance. Investigations on the role of the modulation depth and number of elements in cascaded...... shifting stages are also carried out. Suppression of the noise level by more than 5 dB has been achieved in schemes based on band-pass optical filtering when three phase shifting stages are cascaded....
A Phase Noise Analysis Method for Millimeter-Wave Passive Imager BHU-2D-U Frequency Synthesizer
Jin Zhang; Cheng Zheng; Xianxun Yao; Baohua Yang
2013-01-01
A nontrivial phase noise analysis method is proposed for frequency synthesizer of a passive millimeter-wave synthetic aperture interferometric radiometer (SAIR) imager for concealed weapon detections on human bodies with high imaging rates. The frequency synthesizer provides local oscillator signals for both millimeter-wave front ends and intermediate frequency IQ demodulators for the SAIR system. The influence of synthesizer phase noise in different offset frequency ranges on the visibility ...
特高压交流变电站噪声测量与分析%Measurement and Analysis of Noise in UHV AC Substation
周兵; 裴春明; 倪园; 张建功
2013-01-01
为掌握特高压交流变电站厂界噪声水平,测量了站内变压器与电抗器的噪声水平及其频谱特性、衰减特性以及与功率负荷之间的关系.测量试验在正常运行及大负荷调试期间的特高压试验示范工程变电站进行,并对测量结果进行了进一步分析.结果表明,变压器噪声以中低频噪声为主,受冷却风扇影响较大,且与功率负荷近似正相关.电抗器噪声能量集中在中心频率为100 Hz的1/3倍频带上,与功率负荷关系较小.变压器和电抗器噪声随距离增加而较慢衰减,因此变压器和电抗器应远离声环境敏感区域.另外,通过该研究,确定了正常负荷下特高压变压器和电抗器的A计权声功率级分别约为103 dB和97 dB,并获得了声源的1/3倍频带声功率级参数,为变电站噪声预测评价提供了基础数据.%In order to obtain the boundary noise level in ultra-high voltage(UHV) AC substation,we measured the noise levels of transformer and reactor in station,as well as their spectral characteristics,attenuation characteristics and relationship to the power load.The measurement was mainly performed in a substation of UHV Test & Demonstration Project in China,in its normal operation and load commissioning period,respectively.The measurement results were further analyzed.It is concluded that the noise of transformer is mainly at low and medium frequencies,it is more influenced by cooling fan,and it has an approximate positive correlation with the power load.The energy of reactor noise concentrates on the 1/3 octave band centered at 100 Hz,while has little correlation with the power load.The noise of transformer and reactor slowly decreases with increasing the distance from equipment,so the transformer and reactor should not be placed close to environmentally-sensitive sound areas.In addition,we verified the A-weighted sound power levels of UHV transformers and reactors under normal load to be approximately 103 dB and
Tong, Zhi; Bogris, Adonis; Lundström, Carl; McKinstrie, C J; Vasilyev, Michael; Karlsson, Magnus; Andrekson, Peter A
2010-07-01
Semi-classical noise characteristics are derived for the cascade of a non-degenerate phase-insensitive (PI) and a phase-sensitive (PS) fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). The analysis is proved to be consistent with the quantum theory under the large-photon number assumption. Based on this, we show that the noise figure (NF) of the PS-FOPA at the second stage can be obtained via relative-intensity-noise (RIN) subtraction method after averaging the signal and idler NFs. Negative signal and idler NFs are measured, and 16 dB PS gain is estimated when considering the combined signal and idler input, which is believed to be the lowest measured NF of a non-degenerate PS amplifier to this date. The limitation of the RIN subtraction method attributed to pump transferred noise and Raman phonon induced noise is also discussed.
Wavelet-Fuzzy Speed Indirect Field Oriented Controller for Three-Phase AC Motor Drive
Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Daya, Febin; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
wavelet transform and the fuzzy logic controller, to generate the scaled gains for the indirect FOC induction motor. Complete model of the proposed ac motor drive is developed with numerical simulation Matlab/Simulink software and tested under different working conditions. For experimental verification......, a hardware prototype was implemented and the control algorithm is framed using TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (dsp). Both simulation and hardware results presented in this paper are shown in close agreement and conformity about the suitability for industrial applications....
Simple digital phase-measuring algorithm for low-noise heterodyne interferometry
Kokuyama, Wataru; Nozato, Hideaki; Ohta, Akihiro; Hattori, Koichiro
2016-08-01
We present a digital algorithm for measuring the phase of a sinusoidal signal that combines the modified digital fringe-counting method with two-sample zero crossing to enable sequential signal processing. This technique can be applied to a phase meter for measuring dynamic phase differences between two sinusoidal signals with high resolution, particularly for heterodyne interferometry. The floor noise obtained from a demonstration with an electrical apparatus is 5× {{10}-8} \\text{rad}\\text{/}{{\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}}{}} at frequencies above approximately 0.1 Hz for 80 kHz signal frequency. In addition, by applying this method to a commercial heterodyne interferometer with a modulation frequency of 80 MHz, the floor-noise level is confirmed to be 7× {{10}-14}\\text{m}\\text{/}{{\\sqrt{\\text{Hz}}}{}} from 4 kHz to 1 MHz. We also confirm the validity of the algorithm by comparing its results with those from a standard homodyne interferometer for measuring shock-motion peak acceleration greater than 5000 \\text{m} {{\\text{s}}-2} and a 10 mm stroke.
Tunnelling magnetoresistance and 1/f noise in phase-separated manganites
Sboychakov, A O; Kugel, K I; Kagan, M Y; Brodsky, I V
2003-01-01
The magnetoresistance and the noise power of non-metallic phase-separated manganites are studied. The material is modelled by a system of small ferromagnetic metallic droplets (magnetic polarons or ferrons) in an insulating matrix. The concentration of metallic phase is assumed to be far from the percolation threshold. The electron tunnelling between ferrons causes the charge transfer in such a system. The magnetoresistance is determined both by the increase in the volume of the metallic phase and by the change in the electron hopping probability. In the framework of such a model, the low-field magnetoresistance is proportional to H sup 2 and decreases with temperature as T sup - sup n , where n can vary from 1 to 5, depending on the parameters of the system. In the high-field limit, the tunnelling magnetoresistance grows exponentially. Different mechanisms of the voltage fluctuations in the system are analysed. The noise spectrum generated by the fluctuations of the number of droplets with extra electrons ha...
The Single-phase AC Regulator on Base of Bidirectional IGBT Switches
Cimanis, Vladimirs; Hramcovs, Vladimirs; Rankis, Ivars
2010-01-01
In the work one of the methods for regulation of sinus shape AC voltage for middle-power loads with activeinductive character is observed. Such a regulator keeping output voltage of sinus shape must be fast-reacting and work in closed-loop system. It's shown, that for providing such features Buck and Boost pulse regulators can be applied. The only difference from DC pulse converters is that electronic switches in the system must be with bidirectional conductivity. For this reason an IGBT transistors can be applied with implemented in structure reverse diodes and if such two transistors are connected in series and with contrary conductivity then at activating both one of them will be in on-state. Realization of AC regulators with such switches is described in the work. Results of computer modeling also are given. Output voltage ripples are investigated on subject of their range and efficiency of filtering equipment on LC base. Such regulators can be applied for instance in electrical transport self supply systems.
Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This research article exploits the power management algorithm in post-fault conditions for a six-phase (quad multilevel inverter. The drive circuit consists of four 2-level, three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI supplying a six-phase open-end windings motor or/impedance load, with circumstantial failure of one VSI investigated. A simplified level-shifted pulse-width modulation (PWM algorithm is developed to modulate each couple of three-phase VSI as 3-level output voltage generators in normal operation. The total power of the whole ac drive is shared equally among the four isolated DC sources. The developed post-fault algorithm is applied when there is a fault by one VSI and the load is fed from the remaining three healthy VSIs. In faulty conditions the multilevel outputs are reduced from 3-level to 2-level, but still the system propagates with degraded power. Numerical simulation modelling and experimental tests have been carried out with proposed post-fault control algorithm with three-phase open-end (asymmetrical induction motor/R-L impedance load. A complete set of simulation and experimental results provided in this paper shows close agreement with the developed theoretical background.
Zhao, Kaifeng; Luo, Yinhe; Xie, Jun
2017-02-01
In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of imaging broad-band (10-150 s) Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps on a continental scale using ambient noise tomography (ANT). We obtain broad-band Rayleigh waves from cross-correlations of ambient noise data between all station pairs of USArray and measure the dispersion curves from these cross-correlations at a period band of 10-150 s. The large-scale dense USArray enables us to obtain over 500 000 surface wave paths which cover the contiguous United States densely. Using these paths, we generate Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps at 10-150 s periods. Our phase velocity maps are similar to other reported phase velocity maps based on ambient noise data at short periods (phase velocity maps from ANT can be used to construct 3-D lithospheric and asthenospheric velocity structures.
More on the 1/f(2) phase noise performance of CMOS differential-pair LC-tank oscillators
Andreani, Pietro; Fard, Ali
2006-01-01
This paper presents a rigorous phase noise analysis in the 1/f2 region for the differential CMOS LC-tank oscillator with both nMOS and pMOS switch pairs. A compact, closed-form phase noise equation is obtained, accounting for the noise contributions from both tank losses and transistors currents......, which allows a robust comparison between LC oscillators built with either one or two switch pairs. The fabricated oscillator prototype is tunable between 2.15 and 2.35 GHz, and shows a phase noise of -144 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset from the 2.3 GHz carrier for a 4 mA bias current. The phase noise figure......-of-merit is practically constant across the tuning range, with a minimum of 191.5 dBc/Hz. A reference single-switch-pair oscillator has been implemented and tested as well, and the difference between the phase noise levels displayed by the two oscillators is very nearly the one expected from theory...
The Design of a Single-Phase AC-DC Converter Circuit%单相 AC-DC 变换电路设计
张凤运; 段书凯; 王丽丹; 钟宇平; 李波
2015-01-01
Taking into consideration the fact that it is difficult to further improve the power conversion effi‐ciency with the current AC‐DC switching power supply based on the transformer ,a new type of AC‐DC conversion circuit is designed in the present study .A single‐phase AC‐DC conversion circuit designed by us combines the power factor measurement with compensation circuit and realizes highly efficient AC ‐DC con‐version through the MCU (Microcontroller Unit)control system .The ideal diode bridge controller LT 4320 and the efficient switching regulator controller LTC 3789 realize the conversion of 36V AC input to 24 DC output .Through the Atmega128 MCU control system combined with the measurement circuit of power factor which is based on the comparator LM393 ,the measurement and compensation of the power factor are accomplished .In addition ,by using the N M OSFET with 15 m Ω's resistance as the power device ,the efficiency of the switching power supply is improved .This design has advantages over the traditional trans‐former‐based AC‐DC conversion circuit by its high conversion efficiency ,strong applicability and good de‐sign plan .%针对当前基于变压器的 ACDC 开关电源很难进一步提高电源转换效率的问题，设计了一个新型的变换电路。本次设计的单相 AC‐DC 变换电路结合了功率因素测量和补偿电路，通过单片机控制系统实现 AC‐DC 的高效转换。理想二极管桥控制器 LT4320与高效开关稳压控制器 LTC3789实现24 V 的交流输入到36 V 的直流输出，通过 Atmega128单片机控制系统结合基于比较器 LM393的功率因素测量电路，完成电源功率因数的测量与补偿；另外，以导通电阻为15 m Ω的 N 型 MOSFET 作为功率器件，最大限度地提高了电源的转换效率。本设计方案优于传统的基于变压器的 AC‐DC 变换，具有转换效率高、应用性强和设计方案完善等特点。
Phase noise in pulsed Doppler lidar and limitations on achievable single-shot velocity accuracy
Mcnicholl, P.; Alejandro, S.
1992-01-01
The smaller sampling volumes afforded by Doppler lidars compared to radars allows for spatial resolutions at and below some sheer and turbulence wind structure scale sizes. This has brought new emphasis on achieving the optimum product of wind velocity and range resolutions. Several recent studies have considered the effects of amplitude noise, reduction algorithms, and possible hardware related signal artifacts on obtainable velocity accuracy. We discuss here the limitation on this accuracy resulting from the incoherent nature and finite temporal extent of backscatter from aerosols. For a lidar return from a hard (or slab) target, the phase of the intermediate frequency (IF) signal is random and the total return energy fluctuates from shot to shot due to speckle; however, the offset from the transmitted frequency is determinable with an accuracy subject only to instrumental effects and the signal to noise ratio (SNR), the noise being determined by the LO power in the shot noise limited regime. This is not the case for a return from a media extending over a range on the order of or greater than the spatial extent of the transmitted pulse, such as from atmospheric aerosols. In this case, the phase of the IF signal will exhibit a temporal random walk like behavior. It will be uncorrelated over times greater than the pulse duration as the transmitted pulse samples non-overlapping volumes of scattering centers. Frequency analysis of the IF signal in a window similar to the transmitted pulse envelope will therefore show shot-to-shot frequency deviations on the order of the inverse pulse duration reflecting the random phase rate variations. Like speckle, these deviations arise from the incoherent nature of the scattering process and diminish if the IF signal is averaged over times greater than a single range resolution cell (here the pulse duration). Apart from limiting the high SNR performance of a Doppler lidar, this shot-to-shot variance in velocity estimates has a
Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard
2015-01-01
We discuss about digital signal processing approaches that can enable coherent links based on semiconductor lasers. A state-of-the art analysis on different carrier-phase recovery (CPR) techniques is presented. We show that these techniques are based on the assumption of lorentzian linewidth, which...... does not hold for monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers. We investigate the impact of such lineshape on both 3 and 20 dB linewidth and experimentally conduct a systematic study for 56-GBaud DP-QPSK and 28-GBaud DP-16QAM systems using a decision directed phase look loop algorithm. We show how...... carrier induced frequency noise has no impact on linewidth but a significant impact on system performance; which rises the question on whether 3-dB linewidth should be used as performance estimator for semiconductor lasers....
Dynamical responses in a new neuron model subjected to electromagnetic induction and phase noise
Wu, Fuqiang; Wang, Chunni; Jin, Wuyin; Ma, Jun
2017-03-01
Complex electrical activities in neuron can induce time-varying electromagnetic field and the effect of various electromagnetic inductions should be considered in dealing with electrical activities of neuron. Based on an improved neuron model, the effect of electromagnetic induction is described by using magnetic flux, and the modulation of magnetic flux on membrane potential is realized by using memristor coupling. Furthermore, additive phase noise is imposed on the neuron to detect the dynamical response of neuron and phase transition in modes. The dynamical properties of electrical activities are detected and discussed, and double coherence resonance behavior is observed, respectively. Furthermore, multiple modes of electrical activities can be observed in the sampled time series for membrane potential of the neuron model.
Peng, Yu; Jun, Yan; Yin, Shi; Foster, Dai Fa
2010-09-01
A wide-band frequency synthesizer with low phase noise is presented. The frequency tuning range is from 474 to 858 MHz which is compatible with U-band CMMB application while the S-band frequency is also included. Three VCOs with selectable sub-band are integrated on chip to cover the target frequency range. This PLL is fabricated with 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The measured result shows that the RMS phase error is less than 1° and the reference spur is less than -60 dBc. The proposed PLL consumes 20 mA current from a 2.8 V supply. The silicon area occupied without PADs is 1.17 mm2.
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a complete noise analysis of a ΣΔ -based fractional- N phase-locked loop (PLL based frequency synthesizer. Rigorous analytical and empirical formulas have been given to model various phase noise sources and spurious components and to predict their impact on the overall synthesizer noise performance. These formulas have been applied to an integrated multiband WLAN frequency synthesizer RFIC to demonstrate noise minimization through judicious choice of loop parameters. Finally, predicted and measured phase jitter showed good agreement. For an LO frequency of 4.3 GHz, predicted and measured phase noise was 0.50 ° rms and 0.535 ° rms, respectively.
Gourash, F.
1984-02-01
The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.
AC Windings Groups the Three-Phase Based on the Winding and Research%基于三相交流绕组的布线与研究
王恒; 张扬; 万玉吉
2015-01-01
三相交流绕组是电机设计及电机维修人员必须掌握的技术环节。为了掌握其布线规律，从参数的设计→划分电流的瞬时方向→一相绕组最佳形式的确定→画三相布线图，形象直观地研究了三相交流绕组的形成过程。在画布线图的过程中，只要遵守布线图的四点原则，就能设计出最佳的三相交流绕组。%Three-phase AC windings groups which is technological link is grasped by machine maintenance personnel. In order to grasp the three-phase AC windings groups of winding discipline, from designing parameter,dividing the instantaneous direction of electric current, defining the best formation of one phase and drawing three-phase wiring diagram,it researches vividly the formal process of three-phase AC windings groups.In the process of painting wiring diagram,it can be designed best Three-Phase AC as follow four principles of wiring diagram.
Sobreviela, Guillermo; Riverola, Martin; Canals, Francesc; Del Monte, Arantxa; Beumala, Nuria
2017-02-13
In this paper, the phase noise of a 24-MHz CMOSMEMS oscillator with zero-level vacuum package is studied. We characterize and analyze the nonlinear regime of each one of the modules that compose the oscillator (CMOS sustaining-amplifier and MEMS resonator). As we show, the presented resonator exhibits a high nonlinear behavior. Such fact is exploited as a mechanism to stabilize the oscillation amplitude, allowing to maintain the sustaining-amplifier working in the linear regime. Consequently, the nonlinear resonator becomes the main closeto- carrier phase noise source. The sustaining amplifier, which functions as a phase shifter, was developed such that MEMS operation point optimization could be achieved without an increase in circuitry modules. Therefore, the system saves on area and power, and is able to improve the phase noise 26 dBc/Hz (@1 kHz carrier frequency offset).
Phase effects in masking by harmonic complexes: detection of bands of speech-shaped noise.
Deroche, Mickael L D; Culling, John F; Chatterjee, Monita
2014-11-01
When phase relationships between partials of a complex masker produce highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane, listeners may detect speech information from temporal dips in the within-channel masker envelopes. This source of masking release (MR) is however located in regions of unresolved masker partials and it is unclear how much of the speech information in these regions is really needed for intelligibility. Also, other sources of MR such as glimpsing in between resolved masker partials may provide sufficient information from regions that disregard phase relationships. This study simplified the problem of speech recognition to a masked detection task. Target bands of speech-shaped noise were restricted to frequency regions containing either only resolved or only unresolved masker partials, as a function of masker phase relationships (sine or random), masker fundamental frequency (F0) (50, 100, or 200 Hz), and masker spectral profile (flat-spectrum or speech-shaped). Although masker phase effects could be observed in unresolved regions at F0s of 50 and 100 Hz, it was only at 50-Hz F0 that detection thresholds were ever lower in unresolved than in resolved regions, suggesting little role of envelope modulations for harmonic complexes with F0s in the human voice range and at moderate level.
Kikuchi, Kazuro
2012-02-27
We develop a systematic method for characterizing semiconductor-laser phase noise, using a low-speed offline digital coherent receiver. The field spectrum, the FM-noise spectrum, and the phase-error variance measured with such a receiver can completely describe phase-noise characteristics of lasers under test. The sampling rate of the digital coherent receiver should be much higher than the phase-fluctuation speed. However, 1 GS/s is large enough for most of the single-mode semiconductor lasers. In addition to such phase-noise characterization, interpolating the taken data at 1.25 GS/s to form a data stream at 10 GS/s, we can predict the bit-error rate (BER) performance of multi-level modulated optical signals at 10 Gsymbol/s. The BER degradation due to the phase noise is well explained by the result of the phase-noise measurements.
FAN JianXing; YANG HuaZhong; WANG Hui; YAN XiaoLang; HOU ChaoHuan
2007-01-01
Phase noise analysis of an oscillator is implemented with its periodic time-varying small signal state equations by perturbing the autonomous large signal state equations of the oscillator. In this paper, the time domain steady solutions of oscillators are perturbed with traditional regular method; the periodic time-varying Jocobian modulus matrices are decomposed with Sylvester theorem, and on the resulting space spanned by periodic vectors, the conditions under which the oscillator holds periodic steady states with any perturbations are analyzed. In this paper, stochastic calculus is applied to disclose the generation process of phase noise and calculate the phase jitter of the oscillator by injecting a pseudo sinusoidal signal in frequency domain, representing the white noise, and a δ correlation signal in time domain into the oscillator. Applying the principle of frequency modulation, we learned how the power-law and the Lorentzian spectrums are formed. Their relations and the Lorentzian spectrums of harmonics are also worked out. Based on the periodic Jacobian modulus matrix, the simple algorithms for Floquet exponents and phase noise are constructed, as well as a simple case is demonstrated. The analysis difficulties and the future directions for the phase noise of oscillators are also pointed out at the end.
Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.
Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H
2015-02-23
The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other.
Sugioka, Hideyuki
2016-08-01
The standard theory of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) often overpredicts experimental values of ICEO velocities. Using a nonsteady direct multiphysics simulation technique based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Stokes equations for an electrolyte around a conductive cylinder subject to an ac electric field, we find that a phase delay effect concerning an ion response provides a fundamental mechanism for electrokinetic suppression. A surprising aspect of our findings is that the phase delay effect occurs even at much lower frequencies (e.g., 50 Hz) than the generally believed charging frequency of an electric double layer (typically, 1 kHz) and it can decrease the electrokinetic velocities in one to several orders. In addition, we find that the phase delay effect may also cause a change in the electrokinetic flow directions (i.e., flow reversal) depending on the geometrical conditions. We believe that our findings move toward a more complete understanding of complex experimental nonlinear electrokinetic phenomena.
Stability and Phase Noise Tests of Two Cryo-Cooled Sapphire Oscillators
Dick, G. John; Wang, Rabi T.
1998-01-01
A cryocooled Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (CSO), developed for the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment, and operating in the 8K - 10K temperature range was previously demonstrated to show ultra-high stability of sigma(sub y) = 2.5 x 10 (exp -15) for measuring times 200 seconds less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 600 seconds using a hydrogen maser as reference. We present here test results for a second unit which allows CSO short-term stability and phase noise to be measured for the first time. Also included are design details of a new RF receiver and an intercomparison with the first CSO unit. Cryogenic oscillators operating below about 10K offer the highest possible short term stability of any frequency sources. However, their use has so far been restricted to research environments due to the limited operating periods associated with liquid helium consumption. The cryocooled CSO is being built in support of the Cassini Ka-band Radio Science experiment and is designed to operate continuously for periods of a year or more. Performance targets are a stability of 3-4 x 10 (exp -15) (1 second less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 100 seconds) and phase noise of -73dB/Hz @ 1Hz measured at 34 GHz. Installation in 5 stations of NASA's deep space network (DSN) is planned in the years 2000 - 2002. In the previous tests, actual stability of the CSO for measuring times tau less than or equal to 200 seconds could not be directly measured, being masked by short-term fluctuations of the H-maser reference. Excellent short-term performance, however, could be inferred by the success of an application of the CSO as local oscillator (L.O.) to the JPL LITS passive atomic standard, where medium-term stability showed no degradation due to L.O. instabilities at a level of (sigma)y = 3 x 10 (exp -14)/square root of tau. A second CSO has now been constructed, and all cryogenic aspects have been verified, including a resonator turn-over temperature of 7.907 K
Hagberg, Gisela E; Bianciardi, Marta; Brainovich, Valentina; Cassara, Antonino Mario; Maraviglia, Bruno
2012-02-15
Although the majority of fMRI studies exploit magnitude changes only, there is an increasing interest regarding the potential additive information conveyed by the phase signal. This integrated part of the complex number furnished by the MR scanners can also be used for exploring direct detection of neuronal activity and for thermography. Few studies have explicitly addressed the issue of the available signal stability in the context of phase time-series, and therefore we explored the spatial pattern of frequency specific phase fluctuations, and evaluated the effect of physiological noise components (heart beat and respiration) on the phase signal. Three categories of retrospective noise reduction techniques were explored and the temporal signal stability was evaluated in terms of a physiologic noise model, for seven fMRI measurement protocols in eight healthy subjects at 3T, for segmented CSF, gray and white matter voxels. We confirmed that for most processing methods, an efficient use of the phase information is hampered by the fact that noise from physiological and instrumental sources contributes significantly more to the phase than to the magnitude instability. Noise regression based on the phase evolution of the central k-space point, RETROICOR, or an orthonormalized combination of these were able to reduce their impact, but without bringing phase stability down to levels expected from the magnitude signal. Similar results were obtained after targeted removal of scan-to-scan variations in the bulk magnetic field by the dynamic off-resonance in k-space (DORK) method and by the temporal off-resonance alignment of single-echo time series technique (TOAST). We found that spatial high-pass filtering was necessary, and in vivo a Gaussian filter width of 20mm was sufficient to suppress physiological noise and bring the phase fluctuations to magnitude levels. Stronger filters brought the fluctuations down to levels dictated by thermal noise contributions, and for 62
单相有源AC-DC变换器的统一算法及其应用%Unified algorithm of single-phase active AC-DC converters and its applications
杨喜军; 凌志斌; 龚幼民; 叶芃生
2006-01-01
This paper discusses a novel boost single-phase active AC-DC converters, named low-end semi-controlled bridge AC-DC converter. By analysis, its topology and principle can be derived from the conventional single-phase power factor corrector (PFC). But it has also some differences, such as power device positions, inductor type, input voltage waveform detection and induction current detection, so its design is also different. The converter is implemented by employing two current detection approaches, i.e., current transformer detection and shunt resistor detection. Consequently, it can provide a steady DC output voltage with a low voltage ripple, approximately unitary input power factor and 2.5 kW output power. The experimental results show validity of the theoretical analysis.
Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo
2014-01-01
Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945
Suzanne eHoogstrate
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.
An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset.
Luan, Xingsheng; Huang, Yongjun; Li, Ying; McMillan, James F; Zheng, Jiangjun; Huang, Shu-Wei; Hsieh, Pin-Chun; Gu, Tingyi; Wang, Di; Hati, Archita; Howe, David A; Wen, Guangjun; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wong, Chee Wei
2014-10-30
High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f × Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59 th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to -125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~400 μW dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical oscillators to date and in room-temperature and atmospheric non-vacuum operating conditions. These characteristics enable optomechanical oscillators as a frequency reference platform for radio-frequency-photonic information processing.
An integrated low phase noise radiation-pressure-driven optomechanical oscillator chipset
Luan, X; Li, Y; McMillan, J F; Zheng, J; Huang, S -W; Hsieh, P -C; Gu, T; Wang, D; Hati, A; Howe, D A; Wen, G; Yu, M; Lo, G; Kwong, D -L; Wong, C W
2014-01-01
High-quality frequency references are the cornerstones in position, navigation and timing applications of both scientific and commercial domains. Optomechanical oscillators, with direct coupling to continuous-wave light and non-material-limited f Q product, are long regarded as a potential platform for frequency reference in radio-frequency-photonic architectures. However, one major challenge is the compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication processes while maintaining optomechanical high quality performance. Here we demonstrate the monolithic integration of photonic crystal optomechanical oscillators and on-chip high speed Ge detectors based on the silicon CMOS platform. With the generation of both high harmonics (up to 59th order) and subharmonics (down to 1/4), our chipset provides multiple frequency tones for applications in both frequency multipliers and dividers. The phase noise is measured down to -125 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset at ~ 400 {\\mu}W dropped-in powers, one of the lowest noise optomechanical o...
Signal-to-noise ratio in parametrically driven oscillators.
Batista, Adriano A; Moreira, Raoni S N
2011-12-01
We report a theoretical model based on Green's functions and averaging techniques that gives analytical estimates to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) near the first parametric instability zone in parametrically driven oscillators in the presence of added ac drive and added thermal noise. The signal term is given by the response of the parametrically driven oscillator to the added ac drive, while the noise term has two different measures: one is dc and the other is ac. The dc measure of noise is given by a time average of the statistically averaged fluctuations of the displacement from equilibrium in the parametric oscillator due to thermal noise. The ac measure of noise is given by the amplitude of the statistically averaged fluctuations at the frequency of the parametric pump. We observe a strong dependence of the SNR on the phase between the external drive and the parametric pump. For some range of the phase there is a high SNR, while for other values of phase the SNR remains flat or decreases with increasing pump amplitude. Very good agreement between analytical estimates and numerical results is achieved.
2007-11-02
Further, since the samev alue of P, is obtained for both curves, this statement ap- Here, keg and iAeg are the transition wavelength and dipole pears to be...pressure to have no effect on the signal-to- 1 noise ratio and to simply increase Av, thereby degrading A 10-4 spectroscopic sensitivity. However, as shown...and evaluation. Space Materials Laboratory: Evaluation and characterizations of new materials and processing techniques: metals, alloys , ceramics
V. N. Senthil Kumaran
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the performance of OFDM based bidirectional relay network which employs Physical Layer Network Coding (PLNC is analyzed in the presence of phase noise. The bidirectional relay network is assumed to consist of two sources and a relay, where each node has a single antenna and operates in half duplex mode. The PLNC based OFDM system transmits high data streams over numerous sub channels in frequency domain. Each sub channel is a narrow band flat fading channel, thereby achieving high spectral efficiency over wide band channels. In practice, phase noise is introduced with the information symbols transmitted on all subcarriers in OFDM transceiver. The influence of phase noise on the received signals are analyzed at both the Multiple Access Channel (MAC and at the Broadcast Channel (BC environments.
Voss, P L; Kumar, P; Voss, Paul L.; K\\"{o}pr\\"{u}l\\"{u}, Kahraman G.; Kumar, Prem
2004-01-01
We present a quantum theory of nondegenerate phase-sensitive parametric amplification in a $\\chi^{(3)}$ nonlinear medium. The non-zero response time of the Kerr $(\\chi^{(3)})$ nonlinearity determines the quantum-limited noise figure of $\\chi^{(3)}$ parametric amplification, as well as the limit on quadrature squeezing. This non-zero response time of the nonlinearity requires coupling of the parametric process to a molecular-vibration phonon bath, causing the addition of excess noise through spontaneous Raman scattering. We present analytical expressions for the quantum-limited noise figure of frequency non-degenerate and frequency degenerate $\\chi^{(3)}$ parametric amplifiers operated as phase-sensitive amplifiers. We also present results for frequency non-degenerate quadrature squeezing. We show that our non-degenerate squeezing theory agrees with the degenerate squeezing theory of Boivin and Shapiro as degeneracy is approached. We have also included the effect of linear loss on the phase-sensitive process.
Noise-induced dynamical phase transitions in long-range systems.
Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Baldovin, Fulvio; Orlandini, Enzo
2011-04-01
In the thermodynamic limit, the time evolution of isolated long-range interacting systems is properly described by the Vlasov equation. This equation admits nonequilibrium dynamically stable stationary solutions characterized by a zero order parameter. We show that the presence of external noise sources, such as a heat bath, can reduce their lifetime and induce at a specific time a dynamical phase transition marked by a nonzero order parameter. This transition may be used as a distinctive experimental signature of the temporary existence of nonequilibrium Vlasov-stable states. In particular, we present evidence of a regime characterized by an order parameter pulse. Our analytical results are corroborated by numerical simulations of a paradigmatic long-range model.
Arnaud, N.; Balembois, L.; Bizouard, M. A.; Brisson, V.; Casanueva, J.; Cavalier, F.; Davier, M.; Frey, V.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Leroy, N.; Loriette, V.; Maksimovic, I.; Robinet, F.
2017-02-01
The second generation of Gravitational waves detectors are kilometric Michelson interferometers with additional recycling Fabry-Perot cavities on the arms and the addition of two more recycling cavities to enhance their sensitivity, with the particularity that all the mirrors are suspended. In order to control them a new technique, based on the use of auxiliary lasers, has been developed to bring the interferometer to its working point, with all the cavities on their resonance, in an adiabatic way. The implementation of this technique in Advanced Virgo is under preparation and the propagation of a stable laser through a 3-km optical fibre is one of the most problematic issues. A new technique of active phase noise cancellation based on the use of Electro Optical Modulators has been developed, and a first prototype has been successfully tested.
François, B; Calosso, C E; Danet, J M; Boudot, R
2014-09-01
We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192 GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192 GHz output signal are measured to be -42, -100, -117 dB rad(2)/Hz and -129 dB rad(2)/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10(-14) at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.
Phase modulation mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy
Li, Peng; Zhang, Changlin [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Lianqing, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu; Wang, Yuechao; Yang, Yang [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Li, Guangyong, E-mail: lqliu@sia.cn, E-mail: gli@engr.pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261 (United States)
2014-08-04
This Letter reports a phase modulation (PM) mode of scanning ion conductance microscopy. In this mode, an AC current is directly generated by an AC voltage between the electrodes. The portion of the AC current in phase with the AC voltage, which is the current through the resistance path, is modulated by the tip-sample distance. It can be used as the input of feedback control to drive the scanner in Z direction. The PM mode, taking the advantages of both DC mode and traditional AC mode, is less prone to electronic noise and DC drift but maintains high scanning speed. The effectiveness of the PM mode has been proven by experiments.
Analysis and simulation of the three-phase AC voltage regulation circuit%三相交流调压电路的分析与仿真
李衍孜
2012-01-01
Based on the analysis of the operation principle and mode of the single-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit, the voltage-regulating rule and effect of three-phase AC voltage-regulation was studied deeply in the paper. The theory of the three-phase star-style AC voltage-regulation circuit was tested in matlab/simulink, the simulation result proved the analysis of the theory of the three-phase AC voltage-regulation circuit was correct.%在分析单相交流调压电路运行原理和工作方式的基础上，深入研究了三相交流调压电路的调压规律和调压效果，并在Matlab／simulink仿真平台上对三相星形无中线交流调压电路的理论部分进行了验证，结果表明：三相交流调压电路的分析是正确的．
鲍园; 王研; 高昆; 王志立; 朱佩平; 吴自玉
2015-01-01
The relationship between noise variance and spatial resolution in grating-based x-ray phase computed tomography (PCT) imaging is investigated with reverse projection extraction method, and the noise variances of the reconstructed absorption coefficient and refractive index decrement are compared. For the differential phase contrast method, the noise variance in the differential projection images follows the same inverse-square law with spatial resolution as in conventional absorption-based x-ray imaging projections. However, both theoretical analysis and simulations demonstrate that in PCT the noise variance of the reconstructed refractive index decrement scales with spatial resolution follows an inverse linear relationship at fixed slice thickness, while the noise variance of the reconstructed absorption coefficient conforms with the inverse cubic law. The results indicate that, for the same noise variance level, PCT imaging may enable higher spatial resolution than conventional absorption computed tomography (ACT), while ACT benefits more from degraded spatial resolution. This could be a useful guidance in imaging the inner structure of the sample in higher spatial resolution.
BCH Codes for Coherent Star DQAM Systems with Laser Phase Noise
Leong, Miu Yoong; Larsen, Knud J.; Jacobsen, Gunnar; Zibar, Darko; Sergeyev, Sergey; Popov, Sergei
2017-03-01
Coherent optical systems have relatively high laser phase noise, which affects the performance of forward error correction (FEC) codes. In this paper, we propose a method for selecting Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes for coherent systems with star-shaped constellations and M-ary differential quadrature amplitude modulation (DQAM). Our method supports constellations of any order M which is a power of 2, and includes differential M-ary phase shift keying as a special case. Our approach is straightforward, requiring only short pre-FEC simulations to parameterize a statistical model, based on which we select codes analytically. It is applicable to pre-FEC bit error rates (BERs) of around 10-3. We evaluate the accuracy of our approach using numerical simulations. For a target post-FEC BER of 10-5, codes selected with our method yield BERs within 2× target. Lastly, we extend our method to systems with interleaving, which enables us to use codes with lower overhead.
Phase transitions in the q -voter model with noise on a duplex clique
Chmiel, Anna; Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna
2015-11-01
We study a nonlinear q -voter model with stochastic noise, interpreted in the social context as independence, on a duplex network. To study the role of the multilevelness in this model we propose three methods of transferring the model from a mono- to a multiplex network. They take into account two criteria: one related to the status of independence (LOCAL vs GLOBAL) and one related to peer pressure (AND vs OR). In order to examine the influence of the presence of more than one level in the social network, we perform simulations on a particularly simple multiplex: a duplex clique, which consists of two fully overlapped complete graphs (cliques). Solving numerically the rate equation and simultaneously conducting Monte Carlo simulations, we provide evidence that even a simple rearrangement into a duplex topology may lead to significant changes in the observed behavior. However, qualitative changes in the phase transitions can be observed for only one of the considered rules: LOCAL&AND. For this rule the phase transition becomes discontinuous for q =5 , whereas for a monoplex such behavior is observed for q =6 . Interestingly, only this rule admits construction of realistic variants of the model, in line with recent social experiments.
Phase transitions in the $q$-voter model with noise on a duplex clique
Chmiel, Anna
2015-01-01
We study a nonlinear $q$-voter model with the stochastic noise, interpreted as an independence in social psychology, on a duplex network. To study the role of the multiplex topology, we consider two criteria of level dependence -- first related to the peer pressure (\\texttt{AND} and \\texttt{OR}) and the second to the status of independence (\\texttt{LOCAL} and \\texttt{GLOBAL}). In order to examine the influence of the presence of more than one level in the social network, we perform simulations on a particularly simple multiplex -- a duplex clique, which consists of two fully overlapped complete graphs (cliques). Solving numerically the rate equation and simultaneously conducting Monte Carlo simulations, we give an evidence that even a simple rearrangement into a duplex topology leads to the significant changes in observed phase transition, in particular for the \\texttt{GLOBAL&AND} rule. In this case, which is also the most suitable from the social point of view, the phase transition becomes discontinuous ...
Heterogeneous Integration for Reduced Phase Noise and Improved Reliability of Semiconductor Lasers
Srinivasan, Sudharsanan
Significant savings in cost, power and space are possible in existing optical data transmission networks, sensors and metrology equipment through photonic integration. Photonic integration can be broadly classified into two categories, hybrid and monolithic integration. The former involves assembling multiple single functionality optical devices together into a single package including any optical coupling and/or electronic connections. On the other hand monolithic integration assembles many devices or optical functionalities on a single chip so that all the optical connections are on chip and require no external alignment. This provides a substantial improvement in reliability and simplifies testing. Monolithic integration has been demonstrated on both indium phosphide (InP) and silicon (Si) substrates. Integration on larger 300mm Si substrates can further bring down the cost and has been a major area of research in recent years. Furthermore, with increasing interest from industry, the hybrid silicon platform is emerging as a new technology for integrating various active and passive optical elements on a single chip. This is both in the interest of bringing down manufacturing cost through scaling along with continued improvement in performance and to produce multi-functional photonic integrated circuits (PIC). The goal of this work is twofold. First, we show four laser demonstrations that use the hybrid silicon platform to lower phase noise due to spontaneous emission, based on the following two techniques, viz. confinement factor reduction and negative optical feedback. The first two demonstrations are of mode-locked lasers and the next two are of tunable lasers. Some of the key results include; (a) 14dB white frequency noise reduction of a 20GHz radio-frequency (RF) signal from a harmonically mode-locked long cavity laser with greater than 55dB supermode noise suppression, (b) 8dB white frequency noise reduction from a colliding pulse mode-locked laser by
FPGA Based Optimized Discontinuous SVPWM Algorithm for Three Phase VSI in AC Drives
Tole Sutikno
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The discontinuous space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM has well-known that can reduce switching losses. By simplifying the thermal management issues, the discontinuous SVPWM can potentially reduce the inverter size and cost. However, using the modulation due to different time interval equations for each sector can introduce glitches at the points when the sector is changed. The more main problem, it can increase unwanted harmonic content and current ripple. Consider the decrease in switching losses associated with discontinuous modulation allows the system to utilize a higher switching frequency, this paper present high frequency switching of optimized discontinuous SVPWM based on FPGA to overcome the problems above. The proposed SVPWM has been successfully implemented by using APEX20KE Altera FPGA to drive on a three phase inverter system with 1.5 kW induction machine as load. The results have proved that the method can reduce harmonic content and current ripple without glitches.
A 6 GHz high power and low phase noise VCO using an InGaP/GaAs HBT
王显泰; 申华军; 金智; 陈延湖; 刘新宇
2009-01-01
A 6 GHz voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) optimized for power and noise performance was designed and characterized. This VCO was designed with the negative-resistance (Neg-R) method, utilizing an InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor in the negative-resistance block. A proper output matching network and a high Q stripe line resonator were used to enhance output power and depress phase noise. Measured central frequency of the VCO was 6.008 GHz. The tuning range was more than 200 MHz. At the central frequency, an output power of 9.8 dBm and phase noise of -122.33 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset were achieved, the calculated RF to DC efficiency was about 14%, and the figure of merit was -179.2 dBc/Hz.
A Ka-band monolithic low phase noise coplanar waveguide oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HBT
Cui, Delong; Hsu, Shawn; Pavlidis, Dimitris; Chin, Patrick; Block, Tom
2002-02-01
A Ka-band oscillator has been designed, fabricated and tested using InAlAs/InGaAs HBTs. Coplanar waveguide technology has been employed to improve the Q-factor of the circuit. An output power of 2.6 dBm with DC to RF conversion efficiency of 7.8% was measured at 31.7 GHz. Low phase noise of -87 and -112 dBc/Hz were achieved at an offset frequency of 100 kHz and 1 MHz respectively. These low phase noise values can be attributed to the low 1/ f noise of the InAlAs/InGaAs HBT devices and the coplanar design used for the circuit.
HEYing; ZHUShi-Qun
2003-01-01
With unified colored noise approximation, the steady state distribution function in dispersive optical bistability including both intensity and phase fluctuations is obtained. The parameter plane of the first-order-like phase transition is a/so derived with numerical method. It is found that the number of extremes at non-zero values of the output field in the steady state distribution function is changed from zero, two to four. It is shown that the strengths of the intensity fluctuation and the phase fluctuation have great effect on the first-order-fike phase transition.
Kästle, Emanuel D.; Soomro, Riaz; Weemstra, Cornelis; Boschi, Lapo; Meier, Thomas
2016-12-01
Phase velocities derived from ambient-noise cross-correlation are compared with phase velocities calculated from cross-correlations of waveform recordings of teleseismic earthquakes whose epicentres are approximately on the station-station great circle. The comparison is conducted both for Rayleigh and Love waves using over 1000 station pairs in central Europe. We describe in detail our signal-processing method which allows for automated processing of large amounts of data. Ambient-noise data are collected in the 5-80 s period range, whereas teleseismic data are available between about 8 and 250 s, resulting in a broad common period range between 8 and 80 s. At intermediate periods around 30 s and for shorter interstation distances, phase velocities measured from ambient noise are on average between 0.5 per cent and 1.5 per cent lower than those observed via the earthquake-based method. This discrepancy is small compared to typical phase-velocity heterogeneities (10 per cent peak-to-peak or more) observed in this period range.We nevertheless conduct a suite of synthetic tests to evaluate whether known biases in ambient-noise cross-correlation measurements could account for this discrepancy; we specifically evaluate the effects of heterogeneities in source distribution, of azimuthal anisotropy in surface-wave velocity and of the presence of near-field, rather than far-field only, sources of seismic noise. We find that these effects can be quite important comparing individual station pairs. The systematic discrepancy is presumably due to a combination of factors, related to differences in sensitivity of earthquake versus noise data to lateral heterogeneity. The data sets from both methods are used to create some preliminary tomographic maps that are characterized by velocity heterogeneities of similar amplitude and pattern, confirming the overall agreement between the two measurement methods.
Cristofori, Valentina; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Peucheret, Christophe
2011-01-01
This paper presents a detailed experimental characterization of the relative intensity noise (RIN) transferred from the pump to the signal in one-pump phase insensitive fibre optic parametric amplifiers. We extend an existing experimental and theoretical work towards higher frequencies, showing...
A low-phase-noise wide-band CMOS quadrature VCO for multi-standard RF front-ends
Fard, Ali; Andreani, Pietro
2005-01-01
A low phase noise CMOS LC quadrature VCO (QVCO) with a wide frequency range of 3.6-5.6 GHz, designed in a standard 0.18 μm process for multi-standard front-ends, is presented. A significant advantage of the topology is the larger oscillation amplitude when compared to other conventional QVCO...... structures. The QVCO is compared to a double cross-coupled LC-tank differential oscillator, both in theory and experiments, for evaluation of its phase noise, providing a good insight into its performance. The measured data displays up to 2 dBc/Hz lower phase noise in the 1/f2 region for the QVCO, when...... consuming twice the current of the differential VCO, based on an identical LC-tank. Experimental results on the QVCO show a phase noise level of -127.5 dBc/Hz at 3 MHz offset from a 5.6 GHz carrier while dissipating 8 mA of current, resulting in a figure of merit of 181.3 dBc/Hz....
[Adsorption and removal of gas-phase Hg(0) over a V2O5/AC catalyst in the presence of SO2].
Wang, Jun-wei; Yang, Jian-li; Liu, Zhen-yu
2009-12-01
The adsorption and removal behaviors of gas-phase Hg(0) over V2O5/AC and AC were studied under a simulated flue gas (containing N2, SO2, O2) in a fixed-bed reactor. The influences of the V2O5, loading, SO2 concentration and adsorption temperature on Hg0 adsorption were investigated. The speciation of mercury adsorbed was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the V2O5/AC catalyst has a much higher capability than AC for Hg(0) adsorption and removal, mainly because of the catalytic oxidation activity of V2O5. The Hg(0) adsorption capability depends on the V2O5 content of the V2O5/AC catalyst. The amounts of mercury adsorbed increase from 75.9 microg x g(-1) to 89.6 microg x g(-1) (in the absence of O2) and from 115.9 microg x g(-1) to 185.5 microg x g(-1) (in the presence of O2) as the V2O5 loading increases from 0.5% to 1.0%, which are much higher than those over AC under the same conditions (9.6 microg x g(-1) and 23.3 microg x g(-1)). SO2 in the flue gas enhances Hg(0) adsorption over the V2O5/AC catalyst, which is due to the reaction of SO2 and Hg(0) on V2O3/AC. But as the SO2 concentration increases from 500 x 10(-6) to 2000 x 10(-6), the amount of mercury adsorbed has only a slight increase. The optimal temperature for Hg(0) adsorption over the V2O5/AC catalyst is around 150 degrees C, at which the amounts of mercury adsorbed are up to 98.5 microg x g(-1) (in the absence of O2) and 187.7 microg x g(-1) (in the presence of O2). The XPS results indicate the formation of Hg(0) and HgSO4 on the surface of the V2O5/AC catalyst, which confirms the role of V2O5 and SO2.
Design of Low Phase-Noise Integrated Broadband VCO%集成宽带VCO的低相噪设计
姚立华; 郭文胜
2009-01-01
The design methods and ideas of the low phase-noise integrated broadband VCO was presented by analyzing the concept and principle of VCO phase noise. Theoretical analysis was made and mathematical model was established, and it was realized through simulation and optimization design by related software. The obtained phase-noise index of the entire frequency band of the integrated broadband VCO was given. The series of the low phase-noise integrated VCO is of great benefit to system engineers in circuit design. Currently, the designed low phase-noise VCO is widely used in various electronic systems. It plays a significant role in domestic manufacturing key circuit for electronic systems with high performance.%从VCO的相位噪声概念及原理分析入手,论述了集成宽带压控振荡器低相噪的设计方法和设计思路,进行了理论分析和数学模拟,并通过利用相关软件进行仿真、优化设计.获得了低相噪声的宽带振荡器,并给出了各频段集成宽带VCO最终达到的相位噪声指标.低相噪声集成VCO系列产品的成功研制极大地方便了系统设计师的电路设计,该自主研制的低相噪VCO已广泛应用于多种电子系统中,对系统关键电路的国产化、高性能化有着重要意义.
Ilias Chlis
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper reports comparative analyses of phase noise in Hartley, Colpitts, and common-source cross-coupled differential pair LC oscillator topologies in 28 nm CMOS technology. The impulse sensitivity function is used to carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phase noise exhibited by each circuit component in each circuit topology with oscillation frequency ranging from 1 to 100 GHz. The comparative analyses show the existence of four distinct frequency regions in which the three oscillator topologies rank unevenly in terms of best phase noise performance, due to the combined effects of device noise and circuit node sensitivity.
Chlis, Ilias; Pepe, Domenico; Zito, Domenico
2014-01-01
This paper reports comparative analyses of phase noise in Hartley, Colpitts, and common-source cross-coupled differential pair LC oscillator topologies in 28 nm CMOS technology. The impulse sensitivity function is used to carry out both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the phase noise exhibited by each circuit component in each circuit topology with oscillation frequency ranging from 1 to 100 GHz. The comparative analyses show the existence of four distinct frequency regions in which the three oscillator topologies rank unevenly in terms of best phase noise performance, due to the combined effects of device noise and circuit node sensitivity.
Koerner, Tess K; Zhang, Yang
2015-10-01
This study investigated the effects of a speech-babble background noise on inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC, also referred to as phase locking value (PLV)) and auditory event-related responses (AERP) to speech sounds. Specifically, we analyzed EEG data from 11 normal hearing subjects to examine whether ITPC can predict noise-induced variations in the obligatory N1-P2 complex response. N1-P2 amplitude and latency data were obtained for the /bu/syllable in quiet and noise listening conditions. ITPC data in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands were calculated for the N1-P2 responses in the two passive listening conditions. Consistent with previous studies, background noise produced significant amplitude reduction and latency increase in N1 and P2, which were accompanied by significant ITPC decreases in all the three frequency bands. Correlation analyses further revealed that variations in ITPC were able to predict the amplitude and latency variations in N1-P2. The results suggest that trial-by-trial analysis of cortical neural synchrony is a valuable tool in understanding the modulatory effects of background noise on AERP measures.
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2014-01-01
We propose a nonlinearity and phase noise tolerant orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) W-band signal over fiber system based on phase modulation and photonic heterodyne up-conversion techniques. By heterodyne mixing the phase-modulated optical OFDM signal with a free-running laser...... in the photodiode, the constant envelope OFDM W-band wireless signal is obtained to suppress the nonlinear impairments. Moreover, the phase noises of the beating lasers appear as additive terms to the desired signal, and could be easily filtered out without complex phase noise estimation and compensation algorithms...
Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian
2010-03-01
Optimization of signal-to-noise ratio is an important aspect in the design of optical heterodyne detection systems such as a coherent Doppler lidar (CDL). In a CDL, optimal performance is achieved when the noise in the detector signal is dominated by local oscillator shot-noise. Most modern CDL systems are built using rugged and cost-efficient fiber optic components. Unfortunately, leakage signals such as residual reflections inherent within fiber components (e.g. circulator) can introduce phase-induced intensity noise (PIIN) to the Doppler spectrum in a CDL. Such excess noise may be a few orders of magnitude above the shot-noise level within the relevant CDL frequency bandwidth--corrupting the measurement of typically weak backscattered signals. In this study, observation of PIIN in a fiber-based CDL with a master-oscillator power-amplifier tapered semiconductor laser source is reported. Furthermore, we experimentally demonstrate what we believe is a newly proposed method using a simple polarization scheme to reduce PIIN by more than an order of magnitude.
Harmon, Nicholas; Rychert, Catherine A.
2016-08-01
We present a method for joint inversion of teleseismic and ambient noise Rayleigh wave data for phase velocity maps from 18 to 50 s period. We adapt the two-plane wave method for teleseismic data to include ambient noise phase data. We apply the method to data from Iceland's ICEMELT and HOTSPOT arrays. Checkerboard tests show that the joint inversion improves phase velocity model recovery over methods that use the data sets independently, particularly at 18 s period. The addition of ambient noise data also extends resolution to shallower depths and shorter periods in comparison to previous teleseismic results beneath Iceland. We show there are significant differences in the phase velocity maps from the joint approach in comparison to other approaches, for instance, using only teleseismic data, only ambient noise data, or the mean of the two. The difference in phase velocities in turn affects the resulting shear velocity models. The advantage of the joint inversion is that it produces a single phase velocity map that satisfies both data sets simultaneously. Our phase velocity maps show a transition from low velocities centered beneath the main volcanic centers in Iceland at 18-25 s period, primarily crustal depths, to a low-velocity region that traces the rift zones from the Reykjanes Ridge in the south to the Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north at 29-50 s period, greater depths. These results are consistent with previous studies, although with an extended and improved region of resolution, which extends further into the Atlantic and Arctic Ocean.
全数字控制单相AC-DC功率电路设计%Digital Control Single Phase AC-DC Converter Design
郑建福; 陈伟凡; 毛行奎
2014-01-01
针对功率因数、效率、电压、电流等关键指标,以dsPIC33FJ16GS502单片机为控制器,采用单相全桥PWM整流和Buck两级拓扑结构,设计了全数字控制单相AC-DC功率电路.同时具有测量功率因数和输出电流大于2.5A时过载保护功能,还能实现输入功率因数可调.通过试验测试结果证明系统指标满足设计要求.
Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.
2014-01-01
This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.
Rusalin Lucian R. Păun
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase AC – AC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.
Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
. With the SVPWM or DPWM proposed in literatures, the generation of the references is phase voltage based. But the phase voltages actually cannot be controlled directly by the PWM converter, since they can be influenced by both of terminal voltages and the load network while the PWM converter can only control...
ZHANG Wenliang; JIANG Jun; GUO Jian; LU Jiayu
2012-01-01
There will be more and more AC transmission lines near oil/gas pipelines in the future.So in order to determine the safe distance between them,simple and effective methods are required for engineers to efficiently evaluate the electromagnetic effect on oil/gas pipelines due to faults of AC transmission lines.In this paper,an easily handled fitting formula is obtained based on multiple calculation results,which is the maximum voltage on the pipeline anticorrosive coating produced by 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single phase ground fault.Although the calculation results obtained from the fitting formula differ from those gained by precise calculation with softwares,the verification of the formula shows that it is applicable for engineering calculation.This research could be applied to evaluate the electromagnetic effect of 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single-phase ground fault on nearby pipelines,as well as to determine the safe distance or the maximum parallel length.
王建国
2001-01-01
介绍一种单片机控制的三相电压型交-交变频器，论述了交-交变频器的系统组成、控制方案及有关难点问题的解决%This paper introduces a kind of three phase voltage model AC-ACfrequency-variable inverter controlled by single-chip microcomputer control. Construction of the system ,controlling program and solution of some difficult problems are described
Blasche, P. R.
1980-01-01
Specific configurations of first and second order all digital phase locked loops are analyzed for both ideal and additive white gaussian noise inputs. In addition, a design for a hardware digital phase locked loop capable of either first or second order operation is presented along with appropriate experimental data obtained from testing of the hardware loop. All parameters chosen for the analysis and the design of the digital phase locked loop are consistent with an application to an Omega navigation receiver although neither the analysis nor the design are limited to this application.
HE Ying; ZHU Shi-Qun
2003-01-01
With unified colored noise approximation, the steady state distribution function in dispersive opticalbistability including both intensity and phase fluctuations is obtained. The parameter plane of the first-order-like phasetransition is also derived with numerical method. It is found that the number of extremes at non-zero values of theoutput field in the steady state distribution function is changed from zero, two to four. It is shown that the strengths of the intensity fluctuation and the phase fluctuation have great effect on the first-order-like phase transition.
Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David
1991-01-01
The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.
Robert, Clélia; Conan, Jean-Marc; Wolf, Peter
2016-06-01
Bidirectional ground-satellite laser links suffer from turbulence-induced scintillation and phase distortion. We study how turbulence impacts on coherent detection capacity and on the associated phase noise that restricts clock transfer precision. We evaluate the capacity to obtain a two-way cancellation of atmospheric effects despite the asymmetry between up and down link that limits the link reciprocity. For ground-satellite links, the asymmetry is induced by point-ahead angle and possibly the use, for the ground terminal, of different transceiver diameters, in reception and emission. The quantitative analysis is obtained thanks to refined end- to-end simulations under realistic turbulence and wind conditions as well as satellite cinematic. These temporally resolved simulations allow characterizing the coherent detection in terms of time series of heterodyne efficiency for different system parameters. We show that Tip/Tilt correction on ground is mandatory at reception for the down link and as a pre-compensation of the up link. Good correlation between up and down phase noise is obtained even with asymmetric apertures of the ground transceiver and in spite of pointing ahead angle. The reduction to less than 1 rad2 of the two-way differential phase noise is very promising for clock comparisons.
Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.
2013-01-01
A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.
Kang, Ning; Seoane, Jorge; Rottwitt, Karsten
2012-01-01
Flat-top gain responses can be obtained together with two-level flat phase responses in fiber phase sensitive amplifiers by introducing moderate saturation together with dispersion engineering, resulting in an improved phase regeneration performance.......Flat-top gain responses can be obtained together with two-level flat phase responses in fiber phase sensitive amplifiers by introducing moderate saturation together with dispersion engineering, resulting in an improved phase regeneration performance....
Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Zhang, Yimo
2016-01-01
In this paper we present a comparative study in order to specify the influence of equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) for pre- and post-compensation of chromatic dispersion in high capacity and high constellation systems. This is - to our knowledge - the first detailed study in this area for pre-compensation systems. Our main results show that the local oscillator phase noise determines the EEPN influence in post-compensation implementations whereas the transmitter laser determines the EEPN in pre-compensation implementations. As a result of significance for the implementation of practical longer-range systems it is to be emphasized that the use of chromatic dispersion equalization in the optical domain - e.g. by the use of dispersion compensation fibers - eliminates the EEPN entirely. Thus, this seems a good option for such systems operating at high constellations in the future.
A low-phase-noise ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning in a standard CMOS process
Haijun, Gao; Lingling, Sun; Xiaofei, Kuang; Liheng, Lou
2012-07-01
A low-phase-noise wideband ring oscillator with coarse and fine tuning techniques implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process is presented. Direct frequency modulation in the ring oscillator is analyzed and a switched capacitor array is introduced to produce the lower VCO gain required to suppress this effect. A two-dimensional high-density stacked MOM-capacitor was adopted as the switched capacitor to make the proposed ring VCO compatible with standard CMOS processes. The designed ring VCO exhibits an output frequency from 480 to 1100 MHz, resulting in a tuning range of 78%, and the measured phase noise is -120 dBc/Hz @ 1 MHz at 495 MHz output. The VCO core consumes 3.84 mW under a 1.2 V supply voltage and the corresponding FOM is -169 dBc/Hz.
Hsu, Chang-Hung; Liu, Jui-Jung; Fu, Chao-Ming; Huang, Yi-Mei; Chang, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Shan-Jen
2015-05-01
This study investigated the effect of magnetostriction-induced core magnetomechanical vibrations and noise on the magnetic properties of power transformers. The magnetostriction of grain-oriented Si steels was found to be extremely sensitive to compressive stress applied along the rolling direction and to tensile stress applied along the transverse direction. The compressive stress increased the variation in the magnitude of magnetostriction, which is correlated with core vibration and noise. A 2D model of the power transformer was used to simulate the noise and vibration variables through a finite element analysis.
A fully integrated W-band push-push CMOS VCO with low phase noise and wide tuning range.
Wang, To-Po
2011-07-01
A circuit topology suitable for a low-phase-noise wide-tuning-range push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this paper. By applying varactors connected between drain and source terminations of the cross-coupled pair, the tuning range is effectively increased and the phase noise is improved. Moreover, a small capacitor is inserted between the VCO core and testing buffer to reduce loading effects on the VCO core. Furthermore, the enhanced second-harmonic output signal is extracted at middle of the varactors, leading to the elimination of RF choke at VCO's second-harmonic output port and a reduced chip size. Based on the proposed architecture, this VCO fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS exhibits a measured 6.35% tuning range. Operating at a supply voltage of 1.2 V, the VCO core consumes 7.5-mW dc power, and the measured phase noise is -75 dBc/Hz and -91.5 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz and 1-MHz offsets from the 77.8-GHz carrier, respectively. Compared with previously published silicon-based VCOs over 70 GHz, this work can simultaneously achieve low phase noise, wide tuning range, and low dc power consumption, leading to a superior figure of merit (FOM), and better figure of merit considering the tuning range (FOM(T)). In addition, this fully integrated VCO also demonstrates the highest operation frequency among previously published 0.18-μm CMOS VCOs.
A PLL Exploiting Sub-Sampling of the VCO Output to Reduce In-band Phase Noise
Gao, Xiang; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Boshali, Mounir; Nauta, Bram
2009-01-01
Abstract— In this paper, we present a 2.2-GHz low jitter PLL based on sub-sampling. It uses a phase-detector/charge-pump (PD/CP) that sub-samples the VCO output with the reference clock. In contrast to what happens in a classical PLL, the PD/CP noise is not multiplied by N2 in this sub-sampling PLL.
Wang, Danshi; Zhang, Min; Cai, Zhongle; Cui, Yue; Li, Ze; Han, Huanhuan; Fu, Meixia; Luo, Bin
2016-06-01
An effective machine learning algorithm, the support vector machine (SVM), is presented in the context of a coherent optical transmission system. As a classifier, the SVM can create nonlinear decision boundaries to mitigate the distortions caused by nonlinear phase noise (NLPN). Without any prior information or heuristic assumptions, the SVM can learn and capture the link properties from only a few training data. Compared with the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) algorithm, a lower bit-error rate (BER) is achieved by the SVM for a given launch power; moreover, the launch power dynamic range (LPDR) is increased by 3.3 dBm for 8 phase-shift keying (8 PSK), 1.2 dBm for QPSK, and 0.3 dBm for BPSK. The maximum transmission distance corresponding to a BER of 1 ×10-3 is increased by 480 km for the case of 8 PSK. The larger launch power range and longer transmission distance improve the tolerance to amplitude and phase noise, which demonstrates the feasibility of the SVM in digital signal processing for M-PSK formats. Meanwhile, in order to apply the SVM method to 16 quadratic amplitude modulation (16 QAM) detection, we propose a parameter optimization scheme. By utilizing a cross-validation and grid-search techniques, the optimal parameters of SVM can be selected, thus leading to the LPDR improvement by 2.8 dBm. Additionally, we demonstrate that the SVM is also effective in combating the laser phase noise combined with the inphase and quadrature (I/Q) modulator imperfections, but the improvement is insignificant for the linear noise and separate I/Q imbalance. The computational complexity of SVM is also discussed. The relatively low complexity makes it possible for SVM to implement the real-time processing.
2014-06-08
Based Parametric Bifurcation Tracking of Mip -Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for TNT Explosive Gas Sensing See Attached The views, opinions and/or...2050 1 ABSTRACT Phase Noise-Squeezing-Based Parametric Bifurcation Tracking of Mip -Coated Microbeam MEMS Sensor for TNT Explosive Gas Sensing...SQUEEZING BASED PARAMETRIC BIFURCATION TRACKING OF MIP -COATED MICROBEAM MEMS SENSOR FOR TNT EXPLOSIVE GAS SENSING L. L. Li1*, E. L. Holthoff2, L. A
Howard, R. L.; Belcher, M. L.; Corey, L. E.
This paper examines how the phased-array antenna affects a radar's performance when pseudorandom noise (PRN)-coded waveforms are used. Dispersion loss, compressed pulse shapes, and suppression of wideband sidelobes or grating lobes are examined, and their interdependencies for systems using PRN-coded waveforms are considered. It is shown that these performance characteristics are a function of signal bandwidth, subarray size, and antenna scan angle. The choice of filtering schemes in the receiver can also impact the performance.
Quasi-Coherent Noise Jamming to LFM Radar Based on Pseudo-random Sequence Phase-modulation
2015-01-01
A novel quasi-coherent noise jamming method is proposed against linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal and pulse compression radar. Based on the structure of digital radio frequency memory (DRFM), the jamming signal is acquired by the pseudo-random sequence phase-modulation of sampled radar signal. The characteristic of jamming signal in time domain and frequency domain is analyzed in detail. Results of ambiguity function indicate that the blanket jamming effect along the range direction wi...
P. Gopal,
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this concept is to examine the operation of fundamental buck-based three-phase singlestage ac–dc full-bridge converters. In this concept, the operation of this fundamental converter is explained and analyzed, and a procedure for the design of its key components is derived and demonstrated with an example and general concluding remarks comparing Buck-Based and Boost Based three Phase single-stage AC to DC full Bridge converters are made.
A 2.4 GHz high-linearity low-phase-noise CMOS LC-VCO based on capacitance compensation
Li Zhenrong; Zhuang Yiqi; Li Bing; Jin Gang; Jin Zhao, E-mail: allen_lzr@126.co [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)
2010-07-15
A 2.4 GHz high-linearity low-phase-noise cross-coupled CMOS LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is implemented in standard 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology. An equalization structure for tuning sensitivity base on the three-stage distributed biased switched-varactor bank and the differential switched-capacitor bank is adopted to reduce the variations of the VCO gain, achieve high linearity, and optimize the phase-noise performance. Compared to the conventional VCO, the proposed VCO has more constant gain over the entire tuning range. The tuning range is about 18.7% from 2.23 to 2.69 GHz, and the phase noise is -95 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz offset and -117 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset from the carrier frequency of 2.42 GHz. The power dissipation is 2.1 mW from a 1.8 V power supply. The active area of this VCO is 500 x 810 {mu}m{sup 2}.
Liu, Yue; Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Li, Hongbin
2014-03-24
Digital coherent passive optical network (PON), especially the coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing PON (OFDM-PON), is a strong candidate for the 2nd-stage-next-generation PON (NG-PON2). As is known, OFDM is very sensitive to the laser phase noise which severely limits the application of the cost-effective distributed feedback (DFB) lasers and more energy-efficient vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) in the coherent OFDM-PON. The current long-reach coherent OFDM-PON experiments always choose the expensive external cavity laser (ECL) as the optical source for its narrow linewidth (usuallyOFDM-PON and study the possibility of the application of the DFB lasers and VCSEL in coherent OFDM-PON. A typical long-reach coherent ultra dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) OFDM-PON has been set up. The numerical results prove that the OBE method can stand severe phase noise of the lasers in this architecture and the DFB lasers as well as VCSEL can be used in coherent OFDM-PON. In this paper, we have also analyzed the performance of the RF-pilot-aided (RFP) phase noise suppression method in coherent OFDM-PON.
Design of a High Power Factor Single-phase AC-DC Regulated Power Supply%一种高功率因数单相AC-DC稳压电源的设计
谭洁; 李恒; 沐润志
2015-01-01
针对目前AC-DC稳压电源转换率、稳压效果不理想，提出了一种高功率因数单相AC-DC稳压电源设计方案。以UCC28019芯片为校正核心实现有源功率因数校正，通过对BOOST主电路拓扑结构的升压电路的输入电流进行控制，使其达到与输入电压相位差为0，功率因数接近于1。本设计以单片机为控制核心，通过按键设置输出电压给定值，实时比较输出电压实测值与给定值，自动调节PWM波形占空比，进而控制MOS管的关断频率使输出电压稳定。%Aiming at the present AC-DC, the regulated power supply conversion rate and the regulated effect of it are not satisfied. This paper puts forward a kind of design scheme with high power factor single-phase AC-DC regulated power supply. The UCC28019 correction chip is the core of this design to realize the active power factor correction. In order to make the input current and the input voltage phase difference reach 0 and the power factor is close to 1, this paper uses the topology of BOOST circuit as main circuit to control the input current. At the same time, this design takes SCM as the core of the control to set up the output voltage by the button. Then, through comparing the actual output voltage and the output voltage, the waveform of PWM will be automatically adjusted and the cut-off frequency of MOS tube is controlled to ensure the stabilization of the output voltage.
顾玲; 金科; 周慧龙
2015-01-01
为了同时实现升降压AC/DC变换和高功率因数控制，提出一种单级式隔离型三相双向AC/DC变换器及其改进型空间矢量脉宽调制(space vector pulse width modulation，SVPWM)策略。该拓扑具有功率因数高、升降压输出、高频电气隔离以及电能双向流动的优点，适合作为380 V直流微网与电网之间的接口变换器。它与传统的三相电压型脉宽调制整流器相比，不需要外加工频变压器或者DC/DC降压变换环节，具有功率密度更高、成本更低的优点。给出变换器的推导过程以及工作原理，提出基于该拓扑的 SVPWM 调制策略，并分析变换器的直通问题。最后，在实验室研制一台由DSP TMS320F2812控制的3kW原理样机，实验结果验证了所提出的拓扑及其SVPWM算法的可行性。%To achieve buck-boost AC/DC conversion and high power factor as well, this paper proposes a single-stage three-phase isolated bidirectional AC/DC converter based on the modified space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) algorithm. The converter can achieve high power factor, buck-boost output voltage, high-frequency electrical isolation and bidirectional energy flow with single-stage structure. It is suitable as the grid-connected converter of 380V DC microgrid. Compared with the three-phase voltage-type PWM rectifier, the proposed converter has larger power density and lower cost, as it doesn’t need extra industrial frequency transformer or DC/DC buck converter. The converter’s derivation and operation principles are presented, and its SVPWM algorithm is proposed. The shoot-through problem of the converter is analyzed as well. A 3kW hardware based on the proposed converter was built in the lab with the digital controller TMS320F2812. And the experimental results verified the theoretical analysis well.
Subtraction of temperature induced phase noise in the LISA frequency band
Nofrarias, M; Karnesis, N; Garcia, A F; Hewitson, M; Heinzel, G; Danzmann, K
2013-01-01
Temperature fluctuations are expected to be one of the limiting factors for gravitational wave detectors in the very low frequency range. Here we report the characterisation of this noise source in the LISA Pathfinder optical bench and propose a method to remove its contribution from the data. Our results show that temperature fluctuations are indeed limiting our measurement below one millihertz, and that their subtraction leads to a factor 5.6 (15 dB) reduction in the noise level at the lower end of the LISA measurement band 10^{-4} Hz, which increases to 20.2 (26 dB) at even lower frequencies, i.e., 1.5x10^{-5} Hz. The method presented here can be applied to the subtraction of other noise sources in gravitational wave detectors in the general situation where multiple sensors are used to characterise the noise source.
Pham, T. M.; Virchenko, Yu. P.
2016-08-01
We completely investigate the stationary distribution density in the space of relative concentrations for the three-parameter stochastic Horsthemke-Lefever model of a binary self-catalyzed cyclic chemical reaction with perturbations produced by thermal fluctuations of reagents taken into account. This model is a stationary diffusion random process generated by a stochastic equation with the Stratonovich differential, whose marginal distribution density admits a bifurcation restructuring from the unimodal to the bimodal phase with increasing noise intensity, which is interpreted physically as a dynamical phase transition induced by fluctuations in the system.
Clutter noise reduction for phased array imaging using frequency-spatial polarity coherence
Gongzhang, Rui; Gachagan, Anthony; Xiao, Bo
2015-03-01
A number of materials used in industry exhibit highly-scattering properties which can reduce the performance of conventional ultrasonic NDE approaches. Moving Bandwidth Polarity Thresholding (MBPT) is a robust frequency diversity based algorithm for scatter noise reduction in single A-scan waveforms, using sign coherence across a range of frequency bands to reduce grain noise and improve Signal to Noise Ratio. Importantly, for this approach to be extended to array applications, spatial variation of noise characteristics must also be considered. This paper presents a new spatial-frequency diversity based algorithm for array imaging, extended from MBPT. Each A-scan in the full matrix capture array dataset is partitioned into a serial of overlapped frequency bands and then undergoes polarity thresholding to generate sign-only coefficients indicating possible flaw locations within each selected band. These coefficients are synthesized to form a coefficient matrix using a delay and sum approach in each frequency band. Matrices produced across the frequency bands are then summed to generate a weighting matrix, which can be applied on any conventional image. A 5MHz linear array has been used to acquire data from both austenitic steel and high nickel alloy (HNA) samples to validate the proposed algorithm. Background noise is significantly suppressed for both samples after applying this approach. Importantly, three side drilled holes and the back wall of the HNA sample are clearly enhanced in the processed image, with a mean 133% Contrast to Noise Ratio improvement when compared to a conventional TFM image.
罗超; 查智明; 姚为方
2015-01-01
Several audible corona noise predicting formulas of UHA transmission lines,founded by BPA from the U. S. A. ,ENEL from Italy and EPRI from China etc. ,were introduced. Based on the conductor parameter of Huannan-Shanghai 1 000 kV UHV AC double-circuit transmission line,four formulas were presented for pre-dicting the audible noise of the same type transmission lines exactly. The factors resulting in audible noise of UHV AC transmission line are analyzed,including the structure,design and construction of the transmission line, as wel as the atmosphere and environments. The measures to reduce audible noise of transmission line were summed up,and such engineering solutions to reduce the audible noise as increasing the diameter of bundled conductors,increasing the bundle numbers and changing the interval between bundled conductors are consid-ered applicable. Some preventive suggestions ale provided in the hope of supporting on-site operation data for designs of 1000kV UHVAC transmission lines,operation and maintenance.%介绍了几家国内外研究机构建立的用来计算预测输电线路电晕可听噪声的模式，针对皖电东送淮南至上海1000 kV特高压交流示范工程输电线路的实际参数，建立了相应的计算公式，可以较为准确的预测该类型输电线路可听噪声的大小；交流输电线路电晕产生可听噪声的影响因素众多，根据是否可控将这些因素分为两大类，并分析了单个因素对可听噪声预测值的影响程度，针对输电电路导线参数、杆塔型式和附加材料三个方面的内容，提出了几类切实可行的输电线路可听噪声减缓措施，为后续1000 kV交流输电线路的设计和建设提供参考。
Noise performance of frequency modulation Kelvin force microscopy.
Diesinger, Heinrich; Deresmes, Dominique; Mélin, Thierry
2014-01-02
Noise performance of a phase-locked loop (PLL) based frequency modulation Kelvin force microscope (FM-KFM) is assessed. Noise propagation is modeled step by step throughout the setup using both exact closed loop noise gains and an approximation known as "noise gain" from operational amplifier (OpAmp) design that offers the advantage of decoupling the noise performance study from considerations of stability and ideal loop response. The bandwidth can be chosen depending on how much noise is acceptable and it is shown that stability is not an issue up to a limit that will be discussed. With thermal and detector noise as the only sources, both approaches yield PLL frequency noise expressions equal to the theoretical value for self-oscillating circuits and in agreement with measurement, demonstrating that the PLL components neither modify nor contribute noise. Kelvin output noise is then investigated by modeling the surrounding bias feedback loop. A design rule is proposed that allows choosing the AC modulation frequency for optimized sharing of the PLL bandwidth between Kelvin and topography loops. A crossover criterion determines as a function of bandwidth, temperature and probe parameters whether thermal or detector noise is the dominating noise source. Probe merit factors for both cases are then established, suggesting how to tackle noise performance by probe design. Typical merit factors of common probe types are compared. This comprehensive study is an encouraging step toward a more integral performance assessment and a remedy against focusing on single aspects and optimizing around randomly chosen key values.
但星亭; 董晖; 孟颖悟
2004-01-01
分析与设计基于一种实用的三相高频斩波式AC/AC变换器的研制,以高频脉宽调制(PWM)技术取代了传统的基频电压补偿技术,不仅减小了体积和重量,且提高了效率和响应速度.主要对控制电路进行了分析与设计,其中包括输出采样电路、闭环反馈电路以及驱动电路;并对控制电路的稳定性进行了分析,给出了系统框图、传递函数以及波特图.在分析与设计中,通过稳定RMS值实现输出电压的稳定;采用有源滤波技术,减小了控制电路中的高次谐波干扰;利用齐纳二极管正温度特性,减小了系统的温度漂移,较好地补偿了采样电路中整流二极管的负温度特性;采用可编程调节死区的驱动电路,完全满足三相斩波式AC/AC变换器四路驱动信号的电器隔离和时序要求.
Jacobsen, Gunnar; Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Friberg, Ari T; Zhang, Yimo
2012-04-09
A radio frequency (RF) carrier can be used to mitigate the phase noise impact in n-level PSK and QAM systems. The systems performance is influenced by the use of an RF pilot carrier to accomplish phase noise compensation through complex multiplication in combination with discrete filters to compensate for the chromatic dispersion (CD). We perform a detailed study comparing two filters for the CD compensation namely the fixed frequency domain equalizer (FDE) filter and the adaptive least-mean-square (LMS) filter. The study provides important novel physical insight into the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN) influence on the system bit-error-rate (BER) versus optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) performance. Important results of the analysis are that the FDE filter position relative to the RF carrier phase noise compensation module provides a possibility for choosing whether the EEPN from the Tx or the LO laser influences the system quality. The LMS filter works very inefficiently when placed prior to the RF phase noise compensation stage of the Rx whereas it works much more efficiently and gives almost the same performance as the FDE filter when placed after the RF phase noise compensation stage.
De, Syamsundar; Baili, Ghaya; Bouchoule, Sophie; Alouini, Mehdi; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-05-01
The amplitude and phase noises of a dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) operating at telecom wavelength are theoretically and experimentally investigated in detail. In particular, the spectral behavior of the correlation between the intensity noises of the two modes of the DF-VECSEL is measured. Moreover, the correlation between the phase noise of the radio-frequency beat note generated by optical mixing of the two laser modes with the intensity noises of the two modes is investigated. All these spectral behaviors of noise correlations are analyzed for two different values of the nonlinear coupling between the laser modes. We find that to describe the spectral behavior of noise correlations between the laser modes, it is of utmost importance to have precise knowledge about the spectral behavior of the pump noise, which is the dominant source of noise in the frequency range of interest (10 kHz to 35 MHz). Moreover, it is found that the noise correlation also depends on how the spatially separated laser modes of the DF-VECSEL intercept the noise from a multimode fiber-coupled laser diode used for pumping both the laser modes. To this aim, a specific experiment is reported which aims at measuring the correlations between different spatial regions of the pump beam. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with a theoretical model based on modified rate equations.
Coronel, Juan; Varón, Margarita; Rissons, Angélique
2016-09-01
The optical injection locking (OIL) technique is proposed to reduce the phase noise of a carrier generated for a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL)-based optoelectronic oscillator. The OIL technique permits the enhancement of the VCSEL direct modulation bandwidth as well as the stabilization of the optical noise of the laser. A 2-km delay line, 10-GHz optical injection-locked VCSEL-based optoelectronic oscillator (OILVBO) was implemented. The internal noise sources of the optoelectronic oscillator components were characterized and analyzed to understand the noise conversion of the system into phase noise in the oscillator carrier. The implemented OILVBO phase noise was -105.7 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz from the carrier; this value agrees well with the performed simulated analysis. From the computed and measured phase noise curves, it is possible to infer the noise processes that take place inside the OILVBO. As a second measurement of the oscillation quality, a time-domain analysis was done through the Allan's standard deviation measurement, reported for first time for an optoelectronic oscillator using the OIL technique.
Podboy, Gary G.; Bridges, James E.; Henderson, Brenda S.
2010-01-01
A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire jet noise source localization data on both a full-scale F404-GE-F400 engine and on a 1/4th scale model of a F400 series nozzle. The full-scale engine test data show the location of the dominant noise sources in the jet plume as a function of frequency for the engine in both baseline (no chevron) and chevron configurations. Data are presented for the engine operating both with and without afterburners. Based on lessons learned during this test, a set of recommendations are provided regarding how the phased array measurement system could be modified in order to obtain more useful acoustic source localization data on high-performance military engines in the future. The data obtained on the 1/4th scale F400 series nozzle provide useful insights regarding the full-scale engine jet noise source mechanisms, and document some of the differences associated with testing at model-scale versus fullscale.
Liu, Jianxing; Laghrouche, Salah; Wack, Maxime
2014-06-01
In this paper, a full-bridge boost power converter topology is studied for power factor control, using output higher order sliding mode control. The AC/DC converters are used for charging the battery and super-capacitor in hybrid electric vehicles from the utility. The proposed control forces the input currents to track the desired values, which can control the output voltage while keeping the power factor close to one. Super-twisting sliding mode observer is employed to estimate the input currents and load resistance only from the measurement of output voltage. Lyapunov analysis shows the asymptotic convergence of the closed-loop system to zero. Multi-rate simulation illustrates the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed controller in the presence of measurement noise.
Fault Tolerant Three-Phase AC Motor Drive Topologies：A Comparison of Features, Cost, and Limitations
无
2005-01-01
THE RELIABILITY of adjustables peed ac motor drives is an area of great interest for all members of the drives community and marketplace. This is particularly the case for the military, aerospace and automotive industries that are increasingly adopting variable speed drives in order to improve overall system efficiency and performance. There are certain safety critical applications such as steering, fuel pumps,
Lu, Guo-Wei; Albuquerque, André; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Sakamoto, Takahide; Drummond, Miguel; Nogueira, Rogério; Kanno, Atsushi; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya; Kawanishi, Tetsuya
2016-02-22
An important challenge for implementing optical signal processing functions such as wavelength conversion or wavelength data exchange (WDE) is to avoid the introduction of linear and nonlinear phase noise in the subsystem. This is particularly important for phase noise sensitive, high-order quadrature-amplitude modulation (QAM) signals. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical data exchange scheme through cascaded 2nd-order nonlinearities in periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguides using coherent pumping. The proposed coherent pumping scheme enables noise from the coherent pumps to be cancelled out in the swapped data after WDE, even with broad linewidth distributed feedback (DFB) pump lasers. Hence, this scheme allows phase noise tolerant processing functions, enabling the low-cost implementation of WDE for high-order QAM signals. We experimentally demonstrate WDEs between 10-Gbaud 4QAM (4QAM) signal and 12.5-Gbaud 4QAM (16QAM) signal with 3.5-MHz linewidth DFB pump lasers and 50-GHz channel spacing. Error-free operation is observed for the swapped QAM signals with coherent DFB pumping whilst use of free-running DFB pumps leads to visible error floors and unrecoverable phase errors. The phase noise cancellation in the coherent pump scheme is further confirmed by study of the recovered carrier phase of the converted signals. In addition to pump phase noise, the influence of crosstalk caused by the finite extinction ratio in WDE is also experimentally investigated for the swapped QAM signals.
Jiang, Y; Poggiolini, P; Forghieri, F
2014-01-01
We accurately characterize nonlinear phase noise in uncompensated coherent optical systems. We find that, though present, its impact on system performance is typically negligible in a wide range of practical system scenarios.
Long Fei; Du Lu-Chun; Mei Dong-Cheng
2009-01-01
The nonequilibrium phase transition and the symmetry revival induced by time delay in a bistable system are investigated. The stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) of the bistable system with time delay and correlated noises are calculated by an analytical method and stochastic simulation respectively. The analytical and simulative results indicate that: (1) There is a certain value of λ(λ denotes the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and additive noises) to make the SPDF symmetric under some time delay; however, above or below the given value, the symmetry will be broken; (2) With the monotonic change of λ, the unimodal peak structure of SPDF becomes bimodal at the beginning, then it becomes unimodal again; this means that there is a reentrance phenomenon in the process; (3) There is a critical value of delay time, which makes the lower peak of SPDF equal to the higher one under the critical condition. This means that the symmetry revival phenomenon emerges.
Optimum vector sequence for 3-phase AC/DC soft-switch converter control%三相AC/DC软开关变流器的最优矢量控制
孙孝峰; 刘裕华; 李长吾
2001-01-01
分析了矢量控制在三相变流器的应用,比较矢量圆的3种合成方式,得出了矢量控制的优化发波方式.考虑了开关信号中的谐振区间,以减小谐振环节对有效开关信号占空比丢失的影响.%This paper analysis the application of vector width pulse modulation in the paral- lel resonant DC link circuit control. Comparing three different synthesis methods of the vector circle, we have derived the optimum vector sequence for controlling the 3-phase AC/DC soft-switch converter, considering the resonant region in the switch signal to re- duce the influence of resonance to the lose of effective switch signal ratio.
Rajeev Kumar Mishra
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Delhi has a population of 16.75 million and is increasing at a rapid rate. This increase in population has enhanced the need for public transport. In Delhi, this need for public transport is served mainly by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways. Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and the Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. By the application of various data and public response, the paper accentuates the qualitative discussion on impacts of mass rapid transit system (MRTS corridor on land use and social aspects of lives of residents and road users. It also proposes certain mitigating measures for that meticulous condition. The analysis and survey outcome explain about the exceeded level of noise level as compared to CPCB standards. The share of public transport in total noise pollution is smaller than private but still exceeds the standards. Such problem demands the design of noise barrier along the corridor to curb the noise pollution.
National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.
Noise-related training programs were reviewed in nine degree-granting institutions in seven states. These programs represent a sample, only, of the various programs available nationwide. The enrollment profile and average number of graduates by degree level for the past three years are given, as well as the apparent enrollment trends by degree…
Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Nakamura, Yuko; Yamagami, Takuji; Date, Shuji; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiology, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Kihara, Yasuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Minami-ku, Hiroshima (Japan)
2015-01-15
To investigate the feasibility of a newly developed noise reduction technique at coronary CT angiography (CTA) that uses multi-phase data-averaging and non-rigid image registration. Sixty-five patients underwent coronary CTA with prospective ECG-triggering. The range of the phase window was set at 70-80 % of the R-R interval. First, three sets of consecutive volume data at 70 %, 75 % and 80 % of the R-R interval were prepared. Second, we applied non-rigid registration to align the 70 % and 80 % images to the 75 % image. Finally, we performed weighted averaging of the three images and generated a de-noised image. The image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the proximal coronary arteries between the conventional 75 % and the de-noised images were compared. Two radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point scale (1, poor; 5, excellent). On de-noised images, mean image noise was significantly lower than on conventional 75 % images (18.3 HU ± 2.6 vs. 23.0 HU ± 3.3, P < 0.01) and the CNR was significantly higher (P < 0.01). The mean image quality score for conventional 75 % and de-noised images was 3.9 and 4.4, respectively (P < 0.01). Our method reduces image noise and improves image quality at coronary CTA. (orig.)
Pan Yaohua; Mei Niansong; Chen Hu; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang
2012-01-01
A low-phase-noise ∑-△ fractional-N frequency synthesizer for GSM/PCS/DCS/WCDMA transceivers is presented.The voltage controlled oscillator is designed with a modified digital controlled capacitor array to extend the tuning range and minimize phase noise.A high-resolution adaptive frequency calibration technique is introduced to automatically choose frequency bands and increase phase-noise immunity.A prototype is implemented in 0.13 μm CMOS technology.The experimental results show that the designed 1.2 V wideband frequency synthesizer is locked from 3.05 to 5.17 GHz within 30μs,which covers all five required frequency bands.The measured in-band phase noise are -89,-95.5 and -101 dBc/Hz for 3.8 GHz,2 GHz and 948 MHz carriers,respectively,and accordingly the out-of-band phase noise are -121,-123 and -132 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset,which meet the phase-noise-mask requirements of the above-mentioned standards.
Valenzuela, Raul W [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Galindo, Marta [Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization, IMS, Vienna (Austria); Pacheco, Javier F; Iglesias, Arturo; Teran, Luis F [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barreda, Jose L; Coba, Carlos [Facultad de Ingenieria, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)
2005-01-15
We carried out a seismic survey and installed five portable, broadband seismometers in the southeastern corner of Socorro Island during June 1999. Power spectral densities for all five sites were relatively noisy when compared to reference curves around the world. Power spectral densities remain constant regardless of the time of day, or the day of the week. Cultural noise at the island is very small. Quiet and noisy sites were identified to determine the best location of the T phase station to be installed jointly by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. During the survey six earthquakes were recorded at epicentral distances between 42 km and 2202 km, with magnitudes between 2.8 and 7.0. Two small earthquakes (M{sub c} = 2.8 and 3.3) occurred on the Clarion Fracture Zone. The four largest and more distant earthquakes produced T waves. One T wave from an epicenter near the coast of Guatemala had a duration of about 100 s and a frequency content between 2 and 8 Hz, with maximum amplitude at about 4.75 Hz. The Tehuacan earthquake of June 15, 1999 (M{sub w} = 7.0) produced arrivals of P {yields} T and S {yields} T waves, with energy between 2 Hz and 3.75 Hz. The earthquake occurred inland within the subducted Cocos plate at a depth of 60 km; a significant portion of the path was continental. Seismic P and S waves probably propagated upward in the subducted slab, and were converted to acoustic energy at the continental slope. Total duration of the T phase is close to 500 s and reaches its maximum amplitude about 200 s after the P {yields} T arrival. The T wave contains energy at frequencies between 2 and 10 Hz and reaches its maximum amplitude at about 2.5 Hz. T phases were also recorded from two earthquakes in Guerrero, Mexico and in the Rivera Fracture Zone. [Spanish] En junio de 1999 instalamos cinco sismometros portatiles de banda ancha en el sureste de la Isla Socorro. Se encontro que las densidades
Paul, R. N.; Arya, L. D.; Verma, H. K.
2012-09-01
In three-phase squirrel-cage ac traction motor, temperature-rise calculation during variable-voltage and variable-frequency starting is of vital importance and has to be predicted and critically examined. Under voltage source inverter supply with PWM, the generation of harmonics by inverter supply reduces the output during starting due to higher harmonic losses, thereby reducing the starting tractive effort in kN on locomotive wheel. Stator and rotor temperature-rises during starting have been determined for average acceleration torque in segmental zone (calculated from variable acceleration) which have been presented in the paper with both copper and aluminium alloy rotor bars.
Vitos, Levente; Kollár, J.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1997-01-01
We have used a full charge-density technique based on the linear muffin-tin orbitals method in first-principles calculations of the atomic volumes of the light actinides including Fr, Ra, and Ac in their low-temperature crystallographic phases. The good agreement between the theoretical and exper...... and experimental values along the series support the picture of itinerant 5f electronic states in Th to Pu. The increased deviation between theory and experiment found in Np and Pu may be an indication of correlation effects not included in the local density approximation....
Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Lavery, Domaniç; Thomsen, Benn C; Savory, Seb J; Killey, Robert I; Bayvel, Polina
2015-09-14
Superchannel transmission spaced at the symbol rate, known as Nyquist spacing, has been demonstrated for effectively maximizing the optical communication channel capacity and spectral efficiency. However, the achievable capacity and reach of transmission systems using advanced modulation formats are affected by fibre nonlinearities and equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN). Fibre nonlinearities can be effectively compensated using digital back-propagation (DBP). However EEPN which arises from the interaction between laser phase noise and dispersion cannot be efficiently mitigated, and can significantly degrade the performance of transmission systems. Here we report the first investigation of the origin and the impact of EEPN in Nyquist-spaced superchannel system, employing electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and multi-channel DBP (MC-DBP). Analysis was carried out in a Nyquist-spaced 9-channel 32-Gbaud DP-64QAM transmission system. Results confirm that EEPN significantly degrades the performance of all sub-channels of the superchannel system and that the distortions are more severe for the outer sub-channels, both using EDC and MC-DBP. It is also found that the origin of EEPN depends on the relative position between the carrier phase recovery module and the EDC (or MC-DBP) module. Considering EEPN, diverse coding techniques and modulation formats have to be applied for optimizing different sub-channels in superchannel systems.
Phase noise tolerant carrier recovery scheme for 28 Gbaud circular 16QAM
Navarro, Jaime Rodrigo; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Kakkar, Aditya
2015-01-01
We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (......We propose a novel carrier phase recovery scheme for circular 16QAM coherent transmission systems. Experimental results show low penalties (...
一种改进的相位噪声抑制方法%An improved phase noise suppression method
王赓浡; 战勇杰; 陈昕; 陈茹梅
2015-01-01
随着卫星数传容量急剧增加，高阶调制解调方式在实际中被广泛采用，卫星通信系统的性能有了更高的要求。针对这一现状，给出一种基于最小均方根的相位噪声抑制算法，能够通过对相位噪声的抑制来有效地提高高阶调制解调系统误码性能。 MATLAB仿真证明，改进的噪声抑制算法相比之前的基本噪声补偿算法对高阶调制解调系统的相位噪声有更好的抑制能力，能够进一步提高系统信噪比，降低系统误码率。%With the increasing capacity of remote sensing satellite data transmission, when high order modulation and demodulation is widely used, the request of the system performance is much higher. According this situation, this paper proposes an improved method to reduce phase noise. This paper improved the performance of system with reducing the affect of phase noise. Through the MATLAB simulation, the method have a better performance of reducing the phase noise and the system has better performance and lower BER.
The Optimum Design Methodology of Low-Phase-Noise LC-VCO Using Multiple-Divide Technique
Hara, Shoichi; Murakami, Rui; Okada, Kenichi; Matsuzawa, Akira
The multiple-divide technique, using the multi-ratio frequency divider, has a possibility to improve FoM of VCO. This paper proposes a design optimization of LC-VCO using the multiple-divide technique. In the simulated results using 90-nm CMOS model parameters, the optimum frequency range, achieving better than -187.0dBc/Hz of FoM, can be extended from 6.5-12.5GHz to 1.5-12.5GHz. The proposed multiple-divide technique can provide a lower phase-noise, lower power consumption, smaller layout area of LC-VCO.
Tsvelykh, I. S.; B. A. Kotserzhynskyi
2016-01-01
This work demonstrates push-push VCOs in K-band (with second harmonic output at 24 GHz) and in Ka-band (with third harmonic output at 36 GHz), and PLL synthesizers on their basis. Oscillators are stabilized by a rectangular resonant metallic cavity. Output signal power within the frequency tuning range changes in the limits of -11,5 -7,6 dBm and -11,8 -10,9 dBm for 24 GHz and 36 GHz oscillators respectively. Single sideband (SSB) phase noise spectral densities of -91 dBc/Hz for 24 GHz oscilla...
Quantum phase noise and field correlation in single frequency semiconductor laser systems
Gallion, P.; Debarge, G.
1984-04-01
The influence of quantum phase fluctuations which affect single frequency semiconductor lasers in various coherent detection systems is discussed in terms of photocurrent autocorrelation and spectral density functions. The general treatment given in this paper can be applied in diverse practical cases and points out the problems of phase correlation and phase matching between the two mixed optical beams. In the more general case the photocurrent spectrum is found to be composed of discrete and quasi-Lorentzian parts whose energies and spectral spreads are discussed as a function of the laser line width, the phase matching and the phase correlation between the two coherently combined fields.
Yi, Xingwen; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Kun
2014-12-15
Digital coherent superposition (DCS) of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry can reduce the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) noise resulted from phase noise. In this paper, we show two different implementations of DCS-OFDM that have the same performance in the presence of laser phase noise. We complete the theoretical calculation on ICI reduction by using the model of pure Wiener phase noise. By Taylor expansion of the ICI, we show that the ICI power is cancelled to the second order by DCS. The fourth order term is further derived out and only decided by the ratio of laser linewidth to OFDM subcarrier symbol rate, which can greatly simplify the system design. Finally, we verify our theoretical calculations in simulations and use the analytical results to predict the system performance. DCS-OFDM is expected to be beneficial to certain optical fiber transmissions.
刘爱芳; 来弛攀; 仇光锋
2012-01-01
在相位噪声理论模型的基础上,推导出反映相位噪声导致的相参积累损失因子和信噪比.结合单/双基地合成孔径雷达(SAR)的信号收发关系,给出了单/双基地条件下回波相位噪声的关系式,并以典型机载SAR参数进行相噪对聚焦性能的仿真分析.结果表明,相位噪声对双基地SAR的影响明显大于单基地.该分析方法也可应用于其他类型相参雷达的积累性能分析.%Based on the analysis of phase noise model,the expression of integration loss factor (ILF) which is denote to evaluate the effect of phase noise on coherent integration and signal noise ratio (SNR) are given.Using the character of phase noise,the phase noise model of the monostatic and bistatic radar are analyzed and discussed.The simulation experiments of typical airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system have been carried out and the results verify that phase noise has more remarkable effect for bistatic SAR.The approach can be applied to performance analysis of other kind of coherent radar.
Wu, Kan; Li, Xiaohui; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Qi Jie; Shum, Perry Ping; Chen, Jianping
2015-01-12
We investigate the timing phase noise of fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), respectively, integrated in a linear cavity fiber laser in the reflecting operation. Due to the shorter decay time of the GO and CNTs, weaker slow saturable absorber effects are expected and mode-locked lasers based on these two saturable absorbers exhibit low excess timing phase noise coupled from the laser intensity noise. Compared with a reference laser mode locked by semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), GO based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 7 dB at 1 kHz and a timing jitter reduction of 45% experimentally whereas CNTs based laser obtains a timing phase noise reduction of 3 dB and a timing jitter reduction of 29%. This finding suggests that saturable absorbers with short decay time have the potential for achieving mode locking operation with low timing phase noise, which is important for applications including frequency metrology, high-precision optical sampling, clock distribution and optical sensing.
Li, Xiaohui; Wu, Kan; Sun, Zhipei; Meng, Bo; Wang, Yonggang; Wang, Yishan; Yu, Xuechao; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Shum, Perry Ping; Wang, Qi Jie
2016-04-29
Low phase noise mode-locked fiber laser finds important applications in telecommunication, ultrafast sciences, material science, and biology, etc. In this paper, two types of carbon nano-materials, i.e. single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) and graphene oxide (GO), are investigated as efficient saturable absorbers (SAs) to achieve low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers. Various properties of these wall-paper SAs, such as saturable intensity, optical absorption and degree of purity, are found to be key factors determining the performance of the ultrafast pulses. Reduced-noise femtosecond fiber lasers based on such carbon-based SAs are experimentally demonstrated, for which the phase noise has been reduced by more than 10 dB for SWNT SAs and 8 dB for GO SAs at 10 kHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on the relationship between different carbon material based SAs and the phase noise of mode-locked lasers. This work paves the way to generate high-quality low phase noise ultrashort pulses in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.
Direct Power Control Based Single-Phase AC-DC Converter Controller Design%基于直接功率控制的单相AC-DC变流器控制器设计
马庆安; 李群湛; 邱大强; 徐英雷; 张丽艳
2012-01-01
Single-phase AC-DC full-bridge converter is popular in industry. The aβ-coordinate model was setup for the single-phase system via delaying variables by 90°. Controller was designed based on direct power control. The two-degree-of-freedom PI controller was utilized in this paper to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the overshoot, and sampled voltages were modified to improve the performance. Simulation was conducted based on PSCAD/EMTDC, the results verify the feasibility.%将单相系统延迟90°得到αβ坐标系二相系统,并由此建立了单相变流器的数学模型。基于直接功率控制设计了单相变流器控制系统。提出电压外环使用二自由度PI控制器以提高控制系统的鲁棒性并降低系统启动过程中的超调量,对可能影响系统性能的采样电压进行了修正。最后基于PSCAD/EMTDC的仿真分析验证了方案的可行性。
Sanjeevikumar, P.; Grandi, Gabriele; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
This research article exploits the power management algorithm in post-fault conditions for a six-phase (quad) multilevel inverter. The drive circuit consists of four 2-level, three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) supplying a six-phase open-end windings motor or/impedance load, with circumstan......This research article exploits the power management algorithm in post-fault conditions for a six-phase (quad) multilevel inverter. The drive circuit consists of four 2-level, three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI) supplying a six-phase open-end windings motor or/impedance load...
Lopes, Leonard; Redonnet, Stephane; Imamura, Taro; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Zawodny, Nikolas; Cunha, Guilherme
2015-01-01
The usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in noise prediction typically has been a two part process: accurately predicting the flow conditions in the near-field and then propagating the noise from the near-field to the observer. Due to the increase in computing power and the cost benefit when weighed against wind tunnel testing, the usage of CFD to estimate the local flow field of complex geometrical structures has become more routine. Recently, the Benchmark problems in Airframe Noise Computation (BANC) workshops have provided a community focus on accurately simulating the local flow field near the body with various CFD approaches. However, to date, little effort has been given into assessing the impact of the propagation phase of noise prediction. This paper includes results from the BANC-III workshop which explores variability in the propagation phase of CFD-based noise prediction. This includes two test cases: an analytical solution of a quadrupole source near a sphere and a computational solution around a nose landing gear. Agreement between three codes was very good for the analytic test case, but CFD-based noise predictions indicate that the propagation phase can introduce 3dB or more of variability in noise predictions.
Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Culliton, William G.; McSwain, Robert G.; Ravetta, Patricio A.; Johns, Zachary
2016-01-01
A new aeroacoustic measurement capability has been developed consisting of a large channelcount, field-deployable microphone phased array suitable for airframe noise flyover measurements for a range of aircraft types and scales. The array incorporates up to 185 hardened, weather-resistant sensors suitable for outdoor use. A custom 4-mA current loop receiver circuit with temperature compensation was developed to power the sensors over extended cable lengths with minimal degradation of the signal to noise ratio and frequency response. Extensive laboratory calibrations and environmental testing of the sensors were conducted to verify the design's performance specifications. A compact data system combining sensor power, signal conditioning, and digitization was assembled for use with the array. Complementing the data system is a robust analysis system capable of near real-time presentation of beamformed and deconvolved contour plots and integrated spectra obtained from array data acquired during flyover passes. Additional instrumentation systems needed to process the array data were also assembled. These include a commercial weather station and a video monitoring / recording system. A detailed mock-up of the instrumentation suite (phased array, weather station, and data processor) was performed in the NASA Langley Acoustic Development Laboratory to vet the system performance. The first deployment of the system occurred at Finnegan Airfield at Fort A.P. Hill where the array was utilized to measure the vehicle noise from a number of sUAS (small Unmanned Aerial System) aircraft. A unique in-situ calibration method for the array microphones using a hovering aerial sound source was attempted for the first time during the deployment.
Tubon Usca, G., E-mail: gabriela.tubon@fis.unical.it [Surface Nanoscience Group, Department of Physics, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 33C, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); DIMES - University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 42C, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Hernandez-Ambato, J., E-mail: jhernandez@dimes.unical.it [DIMES - University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 42C, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Pace, C., E-mail: calogero.pace@unical.it [DIMES - University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 42C, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Caputi, L.S., E-mail: lorenzo.caputi@fis.unical.it [Surface Nanoscience Group, Department of Physics, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci cubo 33C, 87036, Rende, Cosenza (Italy); Tavolaro, A., E-mail: a.tavolaro@itm.cnr.it [Research Institute on Membrane Technology (ITM-CNR), cubo 17C, 87036 University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Cosenza (Italy)
2016-09-01
Highlights: • Graphene was exfoliated in liquid phase also in the presence of zeolite 4A. • Films were obtained by drop-casting. • SEM, Raman, low-frequency noise and thermal electric measurements show that the presence of zeolite improves the quality of the FLG films. - Abstract: In few years, graphene has become a revolutionary material, leading not only to applications in various fields such as electronics, medicine and environment, but also to the production of new types of 2D materials. In this work, Liquid Phase Exfoliation (LPE) was applied to natural graphite by brief sonication or mixer treatment in suitable solvents, in order to produce Few Layers Graphene (FLG) suspensions. Additionally, zeolite 4A (Z4A) was added during the production of FLG flakes-based inks, with the aim of aiding the exfoliation process. Conductive films were obtained by drop casting three types of suspensions over Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates with interdigitated electrodes, with total channel surface of 1.39 mm{sup 2}. The morphology characterization resulted in the verification of the presence of thin self-assembled flakes. Raman studies gave evidence of 4 to 10 layers graphene flakes. Electrical measurements were performed to state the Low-Frequency Noise and Thermal-Electric characteristics of the samples. We observe interesting relations between sample preparation procedures and electrical properties.
Xiushan, Wu; Zhigong, Wang; Zhiqun, Li; Jun, Xia; Qing, Li
2010-08-01
A fully integrated cross-coupled LC tank voltage-controlled oscillator (LC-VCO) using transformer feedback is proposed to achieve a low phase noise and ultra-low-power design even at a supply below the threshold voltage. The ultra-low-power VCO is implemented in the mixed-signal and RF 1P6M 0.18-μm CMOS technology of SMIC. The measured phase noise is -125.3 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 1 MHz from a carrier of 2.433 GHz, while the VCO core circuit draws only 640 μW from a 0.4-V supply. The designed VCO can cover a frequency range from 2.28 to 2.48 GHz. The tuning range of the circuit is 200 MHz (8.7%) and the FOM is -195.7 dB, which is suitable for an IEEE 802.11b receiver.
Thermo-elastic induced phase noise in the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft
Gibert, F; Nofrarias, M; Karnesis, N; Gesa, L.; Martín, V.; Mateos, I; Lobo, A; Flatscher, R.; Gerardi, D; Burkhardt, J.; Gerndt, R.; Robertson, D; Ward, H; McNamara, P; Guzman, F.
2014-01-01
During the On-Station Thermal Test campaign of the LISA Pathfinder the data and diagnostics subsystem was tested in nearly space conditions for the first time after integration in the satellite. The results showed the compliance of the temperature measurement system, obtaining temperature noise around $10^{-4}\\,{\\rm K}\\, {\\rm Hz}^{-1/2}$ in the frequency band of $1-30\\;{\\rm mHz}$. In addition, controlled injection of heat signals to the suspension struts anchoring the LISA Technology Package ...
Jettanasen, C.; Ngaopitakkul, A.
2010-10-01
Conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated by PWM inverter-fed induction motor drive systems, which are currently widely used in many industrial and/or avionic applications, causes severe parasitic current problems, especially at high frequencies (HF). These restrict power electronic drive's evolution. In order to reduce or minimize these EMI problems, several techniques can be applied. In this paper, insertion of an optimized passive EMI filter is proposed. This filter is optimized by taking into account real impedances of each part of a considered AC motor drive system contrarily to commercial EMI filters designed by considering internal impedance of disturbance source and load, equal to 50Ω. Employing the latter EMI filter would make EMI minimization less effective. The proposed EMI filter optimization is mainly dedicated to minimize common mode (CM) currents due to its most dominant effects in this kind of system. The efficiency of the proposed optimization method using two-port network approach is deduced by comparing the minimized CM current spectra to an applied normative level (ex. DO-160D in aeronautics).
Kallman, Robert R.
1986-12-01
Phase-only (PO) and binary phase only (BPO) versions of recently developed Synthetic Discriminant Filters, SDFs, (Kallman, 1986) are discussed which are potentially useful for threshold optical correlation detectors. A formulation of the performance or SNR of a filter against a training set is first presented which takes into account the POF or BPOF, unlike the SDF, being unable to control the actual size of the recognition spike of the output correlation plane when a valid target is centered in the filter input plane. Numerical tests of the present recipes for POFs and BPOFs have been carried out on four SDFs made from tank imagery, and the SNR for 12 POFs and 24 BPOFs were computed.
RFID阅读器相位噪声的距离相关效应研究%Study of range correlation effect for RFID reader phase noise
杨海; 何怡刚; 余波; 郭凤鸣
2012-01-01
相位噪声是设计射频系统时的一个重要参数,它对系统性能有很大影响.对于射频识别(RFID)系统,距离相关效应对其相位噪声有重要影响.研究了无源超高频(UHF)RFID阅读器相位调制(PSK)信号的相位噪声表达式,导出距离相关效应时的相位噪声功率谱密度(PSD)和通信误符号率(SER)计算式.距离相关效应下相位噪声的测量和仿真表明,解析结果与测量、仿真结果一致.%Phase noise is an important parameter in designing Radio Frequency(RF) systems since it can have large influence on system performance. In RF Identification (RFID) systems, phase noise is significantly influenced by the range correlation effect. This paper studies the expressions of phase noise for PSK modulation in the passive UHF RFID reader. And the equations of Power Spectra Density(PSD) of phase noise with range correlation effect and Symbol Error Rate(SER) are derived. Measurements and simulation of phase noise with range correlation effect agree well with the computation results of the equations.
Mathews, Douglas; Bock, Larry A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Dougherty, R. P.; Premo, John W.; Scharpf, Dan F.; Yu, Jia
2014-01-01
Major airports in the world's air transportation systems face a serious problem in providing greater capacity to meet the ever increasing demands of air travel. This problem could be relieved if airports are allowed to increase their operating time, now restricted by curfews and by relaxing present limits on takeoffs and landings. The key operational issue in extending the present curfews is noise. In response to these increasing restrictive noise regulations, NASA has launched a program to validate through engine testing, noise reduction concepts and technologies that have evolved from the Advanced Subsonic Technologies (AST) Noise Reduction Program. The goal of this AST program was to develop and validate technology that reduces engine noise and improves nacelle suppression effectiveness relative to 1992 technology. Contract NAS3-97144 titled "Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts" (EVNRC) was awarded to P&W on August 12, 1997 to conduct full scale noise reduction tests in two Phases on a PW4098 engine. The following Section 1.2 provides a brief description of the overall program. The remainder of this report provides a detailed documentation of Phase I of the program.
无
2005-01-01
C. Phase-Redundant Topology The ability to isolate a faulty phase-leg opens the possibility of introducing a spare inverter leg for improved fault tolerance as shown in Fig.8. The configuration will be referred to as the phase-redundant topology. This circuit topology incorporates the fault isolating SCRs and fuses in only the three active legs of the inverter. A spare fourth leg of the inverter is connected in place of the faulty phase-leg after the fault isolating devices have removed that leg from the system.
薛鹏; 彭黎辉
2011-01-01
The noise induced by stray capacitance in an AC-based capacitance measurement circuit for tomography application is studied. Using the noise model of Op-AMP, the effects of voltage noise, current noise and resistance noise on the output of AC-based capacitance measurement circuit are analyzed. A calculation formula for the estimation of peak to peak noise value of AC-based capacitance measurement circuit is presented and verified through experiments. Theoretical analysis and experimental result both demonstrate that the voltage noise of Op-AMp plays dominant role in the output noises of an AC-based capacitance measurement circuit. Finally proposes a selection guide for the Op-AMp in AC-based capacitance measurement circuit for tomography application.%对电容成像交流法微电容测量电路由杂散电容导致的测量噪声进行了研究.利用运算放大器的噪声模型,对运算放大器输入电压噪声、输人电流噪声以及周边电阻元件的热噪声通过杂散电容作用于交流法微电容测量电路输出的影响进行了理论分析,给出了测量电路输出中噪声峰峰值的理论计算公式并进行了实验验证.理论分析及实验结果表明:交流法微电容测量电路前级运算放大器输入电压噪声通过测量端与地之间的杂散电容形成的噪声是该微电容测量电路输出噪声的主要来源.最后给出了电容成像系统前级运算放大器选型的指导原则.