WorldWideScience

Sample records for ac line conditioners

  1. A new low cost single phase ac-ac power line conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Sonar 1, Tanmoy Maity

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of three topologies of recently developed voltage-fed z-source inverter (ZSI such as simple ZSI, quasi-ZSI and trans-ZSI. Different control techniques, proposed earlier for simple ZSI such as simple boost control, maximum boost control and constant boost control, have been applied here for all type of ZSI topologies. The detailed comparative evaluation of all topologies under different PWM techniques is done as power line conditioner. For the common boost factor and modulation index, the output voltage, line harmonics profile of all ZSIs powered by same source and load are evaluated. The operating principles are analysed and the boost factor, voltage gain, duty ratio and voltage stress across the switches are derived. Also the relationships among them are compared even under variable circuit parameters and switch frequency. The results would help to select suitable topology and PWM switching method for power line conditioner application.

  2. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Rong-Hwa Yang [National Taipei University of Technology (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 1 00% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional unloading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter. (author)

  3. Development and testing of a multi-type air conditioner without using AC inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Yang, R.-H

    2005-02-01

    This paper reports the results from the development and performance testing of a cost effective, energy efficient, multi-type air conditioner that connected five indoor units (evaporators) to one outdoor unit (condenser) with a digital scroll compressor. Instead of using inverter technology, which has a potential risk of harmonic current emissions, this study used a digital scroll compressor, which provided the variable refrigerant volumes. The measured results for this innovative design showed: (1) The relationship between the degree of opening of the electronic expansion valves (s) and the compressor output ratio (%) could be represented by regression functions, which formed the basic parameters of the system control. (2) The developed system provided true zoning capability because it could run indoor units under part load conditions, therefore wasting little energy. The power consumption of the developed system was reduced from 100% to 25% when the full load was reduced to a partial load of 17%, saving more than 75% of the work required using a conventional un-loading method. (3) The developed system has a broader range of capacity output (from 17% to 100%) than that of an AC variable frequency control system (from 48% to 104%). The developed system cost 20% less than a comparable system with an AC inverter.

  4. Active power line conditioners design, simulation and implementation for improving power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, Patricio Salmeron; Litrán, Salvador Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Active Power Line Conditioners: Design, Simulation and Implementation for Improving Power Quality presents a rigorous theoretical and practical approach to active power line conditioners, one of the subjects of most interest in the field of power quality. Its broad approach offers a journey that will allow power engineering professionals, researchers, and graduate students to learn more about the latest landmarks on the different APLC configurations for load active compensation. By introducing the issues and equipment needs that arise when correcting the lack of power quality in power grids

  5. Intelligent neural-network-based adaptive power-line conditioner for real-time harmonics filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H.C. [Chien Kuo Institute of Technology (China). Dept. of Automation Engineering

    2004-09-01

    Conventional approaches for harmonic filtering usually employ either passive or active filtering techniques or a combination of both. The paper proposes an alternative intelligent adaptive power line conditioner (I-APLC), which. is a form of neural-network- based adaptive harmonic filtering. The I-APLC makes use of one supervised learning rule (backpropagation) which underlies the adaptive self-learning in realising the optimal filter weight vector. Experimental. results obtained via a prototype model of the DC variable-speed motor verified that I-APLC is feasible in terms of real-time tracking, adaptive harmonic filtering, faster training mid convergence speeds, and simplicity in the online hardware implementation. (author)

  6. Composite Based EHV AC Overhead Transmission Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard

    Overhead lines at transmission level are the backbone of any national power grid today. New overhead line projects however are at the same time subject to ever greater public resistance due to the lines environmental impact. As full undergrounding of transmission lines at extra high voltage (EHV...... and analysed with regard to the possibilities, limitations and risks widespread application of composite materials on EHV AC overhead transmission lines may present. To form the basis for evaluation of the useability of composite materials, dierent overhead line projects aimed at reducing the environmental...

  7. ac transmission line field measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, F.R.; Misakian, M.

    1977-11-01

    The concern in recent years over the environmental effects of electric and magnetic fields from high voltage transmission lines has also focused attention on the accuracy of measurements of these fields. Electric field meters are discussed in terms of theory of operation, parameters affecting performance, meter performance under field and laboratory conditions, and calibration procedures. The performance and calibration of magnetic field meters is described. (LCL)

  8. Adaptive-Fuzzy Controller Based Shunt Active Filter for Power Line Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KamalaKanta Mahapatra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC in conjunction with Phase Locked Loop (PLL based shunt active filter for Power Line Conditioners (PLCs to improve the power quality in the distribution system. The active filter is implemented with current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI for compensating current harmonics and reactive power at the point of common coupling. The VSI gate control switching pulses are derived from proposed Adaptive-Fuzzy-Hysteresis Current Controller (HCC and this method calculates the hysteresis bandwidth effectively using fuzzy logic. The bandwidth can be adjusted based on compensation current variation, which is used to optimize the required switching frequency and improves active filter substantially. These shunt active power filter system is investigated and verified under steady and transient-state with non-linear load conditions. This shunt active filter is in compliance with IEEE 519 and IEC 61000-3 recommended harmonic standards.

  9. Automatic line of high speed air-conditioner wing of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing%YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周富才

    2001-01-01

    Construction and action principle of automatic line of high speed punching production of Model YKC-12 air-conditioner wing have been introduced in details.%介绍了YKC-12空调翅片高速冲压自动生产线的结构及其动作原理。

  10. An experimental investigation of compressor stall using an on-line distortion indicator and signal conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costakis, W. G.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the steady-state and dynamic distortions and the stall margin of a J85-13 turbojet engine was investigated. A distortion indicator capable of computing two distortion indices was used. A special purpose signal conditioner was also used as an interface between transducer signals and distortion indicator. A good correlation of steady-state distortion and stall margin was established. The prediction of stall by using the indices as instantaneous distortion indicators was not successful. A sensitivity factor that related the loss of stall margin to the turbulence level was found.

  11. Harmonic-free line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villablanca, Miguel E. [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Santiago, P.O. Box 10233, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper both a method and apparatus are applied to different configurations of line-commutated ac/dc rectifiers to reduce the distortion of currents flowing from the ac supply. The load may be either inductive or capacitive. The technology involves an accurate shaping of the dc current by using two self-commutated switches. This dc-current shaping is reflected back into the shaping of the ac input currents, which become pure sine waves. Thyristor-based rectifying operation is possible with a simple control circuit, which is able to deal with both rapid load variations and failures in the self-commutated switches. Furthermore, the overlap conduction of bridge thyristors is eliminated completely. Experimental verification is provided from a 400-V 30-kVA 50-Hz laboratory prototype. (author)

  12. 一种空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料的研究%AgNi Contact Material for AC Contactor of Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    AgNi contact materials used in AC contactors of air conditioners were introduced. Proper-ties of AgNi contact materials with different Ni contents and different types of additives were com-pared, including the physical properties, material losses, arc energy and welding force. Results show that, because of the requirements of high rated current and long service life, the optimum Ni content in AgNi contact materials for AC contactors of air conditioners is 15%. Meanwhile the addition of trace amounts of brittle substance will improve the electrical properties of AgNi materi-als.%  介绍了空调交流接触器用AgNi触点材料,比较了不同Ni含量和不同类型添加物的AgNi触点材料的力学物理性能、烧损量、燃弧能量以及熔焊力等。结果表明,对于额定电流大、电寿命要求高的空调接触器用AgNi触点材料,其最佳Ni含量为15%左右;添加微量脆性物质能改善AgNi触点材料的电性能。

  13. Cytotoxicity test of 40, 50 and 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner by using MTT assay on culture cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Khoswanto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Open dentin is always covered by smear layer, therefore before restoration is performed, cavity or tooth which has been prepared should be clean from dirt. The researchers suggested that clean dentin surface would reach effective adhesion between resin and tooth structure, therefore dentin conditioner like citric acid was used to reach the condition. Even though citric acid is not strong acid but it can be very erosive to oral mucous. Several requirements should be fulfilled for dental product such as non toxic, non irritant, biocompatible and should not have negative effect against local, systemic or biological environment. Cytotoxicity test was apart of biomaterial evaluation and needed for standard screening. Purpose: This study was to know the cytotoxicity of 40, 50, 60% citric acid as dentin conditioner using MTT assay. Method: This study is an experimental research using the Post-Test Only Control Group Design. Six samples of each 40, 50 and 60% citric acid for citotoxicity test using MTT assay. The density of optic formazan indicated the number of living cells. All data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA. Result: The percentage of living cells in 40, 50 and 60% citric acid were 95.14%, 93.42% and 93.14%. Conclusion: Citric acid is non toxic and safe to be used as dentine conditioner.

  14. Research on Function Specifications for Flow Conditioner in AC/DC Hybrid Microgrid%交直流混合微电网潮流控制器功能规范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞生; 李献伟; 毋炳鑫; 马凯琪

    2016-01-01

    AC/DC hybrid microgrid is an organism made up of AC microgrid and DC microgrid,with advantages of both AC microgrid and DC microgrid. Itis an effective way to solve the problem of high density distributed generation’s access to distribution network. HMFC(hybrid microgrid flow conditioner) is the key equipment for connecting with AC bus and DC bus, meanwhile, it can realize bidirectional transformation and power flow control of AC microgrid and DC microgrid.This paper analyzes the operating characteristics of AC/DC hybrid microgrid,defines the structure of AC/DC hybrid microgrid, proposes the functional specification of HMFC with different bus dominant operation in two modes,and uses the DIgSILENT/PowerFactory simulation to verify the stability of the function.%交直流混合微电网是交流微电网与直流微电网的有机融合体,兼具交流微电网和直流微电网的优点,并为解决高密度分布式发电接入配电网的有效途径,交直流混合微电网潮流控制器(hybrid microgrid flow conditioner,HMFC)是其中的关键设备,用于连接交直流混合微电网的交流母线和直流母线,实现交流微电网和直流微电网的电能双向变换与潮流控制。该文分析了交直流混合微电网的运行特征,明确了交直流混合微电网体系结构,提出并网和离网2种模式下HMFC以不同母线占优运行的功能规范,并采用DIgSILENT/PowerFactory仿真验证其功能的稳定性。

  15. Stability Enhancement of Power System by Controlling Hvdc Power Flow through the Same Ac Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Upendra Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Long extra high voltage (EHV ac lines cannot be loaded to their thermal limits in order to keep sufficient margin against transient instability. With the scheme proposed in this paper, it is possible to load these lines very close to their thermal limits. The conductors are allowed to carry usual ac along with dc superimposed on it. The added dc power flow does not cause any transient instability. This paper presents the feasibility of converting a double circuit ac line into composite ac–dc power transmission line to get the advantages of parallel ac–dc transmission to improve stability and damping out oscillations. Simulation and experimental studies are carried out for the coordinated control as well as independent control of ac and dc power transmissions. No alterations of conductors, insulator strings, and towers of the original line are needed. Substantial gain in the loadability of the line is obtained. Master current controller senses ac current and regulates the dc current orders for converters online such that conductor current never exceeds its thermal limit. The present paper is implemented by using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  16. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  17. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  18. Stick-slip to sliding transition of dynamic contact lines under AC electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannetje, 't D.J.C.M.; Mugele, F.; Ende, van den D.

    2013-01-01

    We show that at low velocities the dynamics of a contact line of a water drop moving over a Teflon-like surface under ac electrowetting must be described as stick–slip motion, rather than one continuous movement. At high velocities we observe a transition to a slipping regime. In the slipping regime

  19. Artificial Cooperative Search Algorithm based Load Frequency Control of Interconnected Power Systems with AC-DC Tie-lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramesh kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A maiden effort for optimal tuning of load frequency controller parameters using Artificial Cooperative Search (ACS algorithm for a two area interconnected power system with AC-DC parallel tie-lines has been presented in this paper. ACS is a recent swarm intelligence algorithm developed for solving numerical optimization problems. The swarm intelligence philosophy behind ACS algorithm is based on the migration of two artificial superorganisms as they biologically interact to achieve the global minimum value pertaining to the problem. The HVDC link in parallel with AC tie-line is used as system interconnection to effectively damp the frequency oscillations of the AC system. An integral square error criterion (ISE has been used as performance index to design the optimal parameters. A comparative study of tuned values has been presented to show the effectiveness of the Artificial Cooperative Search algorithm. The results demonstrate the success of ACS algorithm in solving Load frequency control (LFC optimization problem.

  20. Corona noise model of high-voltage AC transmission lines and engineering applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jiuhui; Di Zelong

    2013-01-01

    In order to predict the levels of corona noise from high-voltage alternating current (AC) transmission lines,the mechanism of corona noise and the corresponding theoretical prediction model are investigated.On the basis of Drude model,the motion of positive and negative ions produced by high-voltage corona is analyzed,and the mechanism of corona noise is discovered.The theoretical prediction model is put forward by using Kirchhoff formula,which is verified by the well agreement between our result and others',considering the case of three-phase single lines.Moreover,the calculation results show that for both single and bundled lines,the sound pressure level of the typical frequency,i.e.twice the power frequency,attenuates slowly and leads to an obviously interferential phenomenon near the transmission lines,but the level of the bundled lines is smaller than that of the single ones under the same transmission voltage.Based on the mechanism of corona noise and the prediction model,it is obvious that bundled lines and/or increased line radius can be adopted to reduce corona noise in the practical engineering applications effectively.This model can also provide a theoretical guidance for the high-volt-age AC transmission line design.

  1. Pulmonary functions in air conditioner users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip M Hulke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In the modern lifestyle, use of air conditioner (AC has become very common. Aims: The present study was planned to assess the effect of ACs on pulmonary functions in young healthy non-smoker adults. Settings and Design: This study was a cross-sectional observational study. Sixty-six young adults (40 males and 26 females using ACs were compared with 70 non-AC users (young adults, 40 males and 30 females. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary function test was done using medical international research (MIR Spirolab II during home visits. Statistical Analysis Used: GraphPad Prism 5 software was used for analysis. Unpaired t test was used for lung function parameter. Chi- square test was used for the comparison of respiratory symptoms. Results: The results showed significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC (P < 0.05, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (P < 0.05, FEV1 as percentage of FVC in % [FEV1 (%] (P < 0.05, peak expiratory flow rate in L/s (PEFR (P < 0.05, forced expiratory flow rate in L/s in 25% of FVC (FEF25% (P < 0.05, and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV (P < 0.01. Frequency of respiratory symptoms was higher in AC users. Conclusions: The results are suggestive of predisposition of AC users toward respiratory disorders in the form of mild airflow obstruction.

  2. Adapting AC Lines to DC Grids for Large-Scale Renewable Power Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Marene Larruskain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, governments of different countries are nowadays promoting the use of clean energies in order to achieve sustainable energy systems. In this scenario, since the installed capacity is continuously increasing, renewable sources can play an important role. Notwithstanding that, some important problems may appear when connecting these sources to the grid, being the overload of distribution lines one of the most relevant. In fact, renewable generation is usually connected to the nearest AC grid, although this HV system may not have been designed considering distributed generation. In the particular case of large wind farms, the electrical grid has to transmit all the power generated by wind energy and, as a consequence, the AC system may get overloaded. It is therefore necessary to determine the impact of wind power transmission so that appropriate measures can be taken. Not only are these measures influenced by the amount of power transmitted, but also by the quality of the transmitted power, due to the output voltage fluctuation caused by the highly variable nature of wind. When designing a power grid, although AC systems are usually the most economical solution because of its highly proven technology, HVDC may arise in some cases (e.g. offshore wind farms as an interesting alternative, offering some added values such as lower losses and better controllability. This way, HVDC technology can solve most of the aforementioned problems and has a good potential for future use. Additionally, the fast development of power electronics based on new and powerful semiconductor devices allow the spread of innovative technologies, such as VSC-HVDC, which can be applied to create DC grids. This paper focuses on the main aspects involved in adapting the existing overhead AC lines to DC grids, with the objective of improving the transmission of distributed renewable energy to the centers of consumption.

  3. Establishment, Growth kinetics, and Susceptibility to AcMNPV of Heat Tolerant Lepidop teran Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-lei Wu; Lei Jiang; Yoshifumi Hashimoto; Robert R.Granados; Guo-xun Li

    2011-01-01

    Lepidopteran heat-tolerant(ht)cell lines have been obtained with sf-9,sf-21 and several Bombyx cells.They have a distinct karyotype,membrane lipid composition,morphology and growth kinetics from the parental cell lines.In this paper,we report the development of ht cell lines from other insect species and examination of their growth characteristics and virus susceptibility.Adaptation of cell lines sf-9,BTI-TN-5131-4(High5)and BTI-TN-MG1(MG 1)to 33℃ and 35℃ was carried out by shifting the culture temperature between 28℃ and higher temperatures by a gradual stepwise increase in temperature.The process of adaption to a higher culture temperature was accomplished over a period of 2 months.The cell lines with the temperature adaption were designated as sf9-ht33,sf9-ht35,High5-ht33,High5-ht35,MG1-ht33,MG1-ht35.These cell lines have been subcultured over 70 passages.Adaption to high temperatures was confirmed by a constant population doubling time with individual cell lines.The population doubling time of heat adapted cell lines were 1-4 h less than these of parental cell lines.Cell shapes did not show obvious change,however,the cell size of sf9-ht cells was enlarged and those of High5 and MG1 ht cells were reduced after heat adaption.When the cell lines were infected with Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus(AcMNPV)at 28℃,33℃,35℃ and 37℃,production of budded virus and occlusion bodies in each cell line was optimum at its own adapted temperature.

  4. Stick-Slip to Sliding Transition of Dynamic Contact Lines under AC Electrowetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, D J C M; Mugele, F; van den Ende, D

    2013-12-03

    We show that at low velocities the dynamics of a contact line of a water drop moving over a Teflon-like surface under ac electrowetting must be described as stick-slip motion, rather than one continuous movement. At high velocities we observe a transition to a slipping regime. In the slipping regime the observed dependence of the contact angle is well described by a linearization of both the hydrodynamic and the molecular-kinetic model for the dynamic contact line behavior. The overall geometry of the drop also has a strong influence on the contact angle: if the drop is confined to a disk-like shape with radius R, much larger than the capillary length, and height h, smaller than the capillary length, the advancing angle increases steeper with velocity as the aspect ratio h/R is smaller. Although influence of the flow field near a contact line on the contact angle behavior has also been observed in other experiments, these observations do not fit either model. Finally, in our ac experiments no sudden increase of the hysteresis beyond a certain voltage and velocity was observed, as reported by other authors for a dc voltage, but instead we find with increasing voltage a steady decrease of the hysteresis.

  5. Statistical evaluation of telephone noise interference caused by AC power line harmonic currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuussaari, M. (Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    A statistical approach is applied for the evaluation of the limits for harmonic currents in AC power lines, the goal being to prevent excessive telephone noise interference voltages in subscriber cables in rural areas. The analysis is based on Monte-Carlo simulation which takes into account the effect of the experiental probability distributions of the relevant parameters. In the Finnish conditions, the properties of communication cables permit equivalent disturbing phase currents of 8 to 10 A. The digital exchanges permit approximately the same currents. Some new telephone types that have a low balance may make it necessary to limit the currents to a level that is somewhat lower.

  6. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  7. Analysis on Phase Arrangement and Transposition Modes for UHV DC and Double-circuit EHV AC Transmission Line Built on the Same Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SIMA Wenxia; ZHOU Yuan; YUAN Tao; YANG Qing; SUN Shujie; Gilles Tremouille

    2012-01-01

    For AC and DC hybrid transmission lines, the arrangement and transposition modes of AC conductors not only affect the unbalance factor of AC lines, but also influence the bias current of DC converter transformers by AC and DC coupling. Excessive bias current will influence the normal operation of converter transformers, thus the optimal AC phase arrangement and transposition mode of hybrid lines was studied to minimize the coupling effect between AC and DC lines to fit the requirements on both aspects. Based on the parameters of the Ximeng-Shanghai project in China, a detailed simulation model of the DC converter station and the hybrid transmission line with double- circuit AC 500 kV transmission lines and DC ± 800 kV transmission lines were presented in the software PSCAD- EMTDC, and the coupling effects of the hybrid transmission lines were elucidated. The fundamental frequency components of DC poles with different operation conditions, arrangements of conductors and operation modes were analyzed, and the effective arrangement and transposition limiting the fundamental frequency current component of the DC line were compared. Simulation results show that AC operating conditions can affect DC induced components while the DC system operation mode has no apparent effect. With compact arrangement and inconsistent transposition of AC lines, the fundamental frequency component on DC lines can be reduced effectively; the three transposed mode within the hybrid line is the optimal layout scheme, considering both the requirements of DC bias current and AC unbalance degree.

  8. Micromorphology of pelletized soil conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Soil conditioners produced by anaerobic digestion and subsequent composting of organic household waste, bear the potential to improve unproductive farmland together with a reduced input risk of unwanted pollutants into the soils. Within the VeNGA project (http://www.biogas-network.de/venga), soil conditioners from anaerobically digested organic household waste are tested for their potential to increase plant growth in glasshouse and field experiments. Because the production techniques of these soil conditioners may influence their physical and chemical behaviour in the soil, two different techniques for pelletizing the soil conditioners where applied. We present findings from a pot experiment with cereal that has been sampled after two months for micromorphological analyses. We visualize the decomposition and the physical behaviour of the soil conditioners. Pellets produced in an agglomeration mixer result in dense balls, that are only slightly decomposed after the trial. But the soil conditioners created under pressure in a screw extruder are rich in voids and have the potential of retaining more soil water.

  9. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  10. Modeling and Simulation Analysis of Power Frequency Electric Field of UHV AC Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Han

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the power frequency electric field of UHV AC transmission lines, this paper which models and calculates using boundary element method simulates various factors influencing the distribution of the power frequency electric field, such as the conductor arrangement, the over-ground height, the split spacing and the sub conductor radius. Different influence of various factors on the electric field distribution will be presented. In a single loop, using VVV triangular arrangement is the most secure way; in a dual loop, the electric field intensity using reverse phase sequence is weaker than that using positive phase sequence. Elevating the over-ground height and reducing the conductor split spacing will both weaken the electric field intensity, while the change of sub conductor radius can hardly cause any difference. These conclusions are important for electric power company to detect circuit.

  11. Power conditioner without isolation transformer; Toransuresu power conditioner no shohin kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okado, C.; Itami, T.; Kimoto, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A light-weight downsized and high efficiency transformer-less type 4 kW power conditioner (inverter) has been developed. This power conditioner insures the system interconnection protection by monitoring the voltage of two single-phase three-line circuits. The power conditioner has weight of 17.5 kg and efficiency of 94%. Potential fluctuation of photovoltaic cells due to the switching of power devices at the inverter was reduced. Output capacity was reduced in the low input voltage range. Outflow of DC component was prevented in high accuracy by usually correcting the zero point drift of detector, and by using the current detector with excellent linearity. To detect the DC ground fault, and to trip the output side breaker locating at the ground fault current pass, a zero phase converter detection circuit has been developed, by which the DC component can be detected at the DC input side. As a result of performance verification, the efficiency, power factor, EMI level, protection of outflow of DC component, protection of ground fault, protection of single operation detection, and noise level were satisfied. This system is prospective for the diffusion of photovoltaic power generation in the future. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evaluation of genetically modified sugarcane lines carrying Cry 1AC gene using molecular marker techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Roba M

    2013-01-01

    Five genetically modified insect resistant sugarcane lines harboring the Bt Cry 1AC gene to produce insecticidal proteins were compared with non-transgenic control by using three types of molecular marker techniques namely, RAPD, ISSR and AFLP. These techniques were applied on transgenic and non-transgenic plants to investigate the genetic variations, which may appear in sugarcane clones. This variation might demonstrate the genomic changes associated with the transformation process, which could change important molecular basis of various biological phenomena. Genetic variations were screened using 22 different RAPD primers, 10 ISSR primers and 13 AFLP primer combinations. Analysis of RAPD and ISSR banding patterns gave no exclusive evidence for genetic variations. Meanwhile, the percentage of polymorphic bands was 0.45% in each of RAPD and ISSR, while the polymorphism generated by AFLP analysis was 1.8%. The maximum percentage of polymorphic bands was 1.4%, 1.1% and 5.5% in RAPD, ISSR and AFLP, respectively. These results demonstrate that most transgenic lines showed genomic homogeneity and verified minor genomic changes. Dendrograms revealing the relationships among the transgenic and control plants were developed from the data of each of the three marker types.

  13. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsinsky Ivan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public access defibrillators (PADs are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed. This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  14. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  15. Shampoos, conditioners, and camouflage techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2013-01-01

    This article examines hair care in persons with hair loss. The use of shampoos, conditioners, and hair styling products to camouflage hair loss is discussed. Because hair is nonliving, medical treatments are limited to only inducing change in the follicles within the scalp skin and do not improve the hair loss actually witnessed by the patient. There is therefore a need to accompany medical treatment of hair loss with cosmetic hair treatment to optimize patient satisfaction.

  16. Experimental Analysis on Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, C. M. Singh, A. B. Biswas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment investigated and evaluated the feasibility of an solar desiccant air conditioner. Its effectiveness as a possible air conditioner option used in household air conditioner or as an energy efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional air conditioning units used in houses are evaluated. A solar water heater was used as heat gain. The model utilizes the technology of solar air conditioner system. The purpose in the long term would be reduced the consumption of electricity used for air conditioning, reduce harmful emission and hence saving money.

  17. Development of 2.8 V Ketjen black supercapacitors with high rate capabilities for AC line filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yongju; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Min-Seop; Kim, Woong

    2017-08-01

    Supercapacitors are generally more compact than conventional bulky aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs). Replacement of AECs with supercapacitors can lead to miniaturization of electronic devices. However, even state-of-the-art supercapacitors developed in laboratories are superior to or competitive with AECs only in low voltage applications (values of ∼574 μF cm-2, 2.8 V, and ∼-80°, respectively. In addition, we demonstrate that an AC line filtering circuit with three supercapacitors connected in series can extend the application voltage without significant sacrifice in rate capability (ϕ ∼ -77° at 120 Hz). On the other hand, KBs are much less expensive than carbon materials previously demonstrated for AC line filtering and hence are very attractive for practical applications. We believe that this demonstration of high-performance supercapacitors made from low-cost carbon materials is both scientifically interesting and important for practical applications.

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity of Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules against neoplastic cell lines under AC magnetic field activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falqueiro, A. M.; Siqueira-Moura, M. P.; Jardim, D. R.; Primo, F. L.; Morais, P. C.; Mosiniewicz-Szablewska, E.; Suchocki, P.; Tedesco, A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The goals of this study are to evaluate invitro compatibility of magnetic nanomaterials and their therapeutic potential against cancer cells. Highly stable ionic magnetic fluid sample (maghemite, γ-Fe2O3) and Selol were incorporated into polymeric nanocapsules by nanoprecipitation method. The cytotoxic effect of Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules was assessed on murine melanoma (B16-F10) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines following AC magnetic field application. The influence of different nanocapsules on cell viability was investigated by colorimetric MTT 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. In the absence of AC magnetic field Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules, containing 100 µg/mL Selol plus 5 × 1012 particle/mL, showed antitumoral activity of about 50% on B16-F10 melanoma cells while OSCC carcinoma cells demonstrated drug resistance at all concentrations of Selol and magnetic fluid (range of 100-500 µg/mL Selol and 5 × 1012-2.5 × 1013 particle/mL). On the other hand, under AC applied fields (1 MHz and 40 Oe amplitude) B16-F10 cell viability was reduced down to 40.5% (±3.33) at the highest concentration of nanoencapsulated Selol. The major effect, however, was observed on OSCC cells since the cell viability drops down to about 33.3% (±0.38) under application of AC magnetic field. These findings clearly indicate that the Selol-loaded magnetic nanocapsules present different toxic effects on neoplastic cell lines. Further, the cytotoxic effect was maximized under AC magnetic field application on OSCC, which emphasizes the effectiveness of the magnetohyperthermia approach.

  19. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  20. Deaths Due to Accidental Air Conditioner Compressor Explosion: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Bodwal, Jatin; Sikary, Asit K; Chauhan, Mohit Singh; Bijarnia, Manjul

    2017-01-01

    In an air-conditioning system, the compressor is a large electric pump that pressurizes the refrigerant gas as part of the process of turning it back into a liquid. The explosion of an air conditioner (AC) compressor is an uncommon event, and immediate death resulted from the blast effect is not reported in forensic literature. We report three such cases in which young AC mechanics were killed on the spot due to compressor blast, while repairing the domestic split AC unit. The autopsy findings, the circumstances leading to the explosion of the compressor, are discussed in this study. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Low-noise pulse conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.

    1981-06-16

    A low-noise pulse conditioner is provided for driving electronic digital processing circuitry directly from differentially induced input pulses. The circuit uses a unique differential-to-peak detector circuit to generate a dynamic reference signal proportional to the input peak voltage. The input pulses are compared with the reference signal in an input network which operates in full differential mode with only a passive input filter. This reduces the introduction of circuit-induced noise, or jitter, generated in ground referenced input elements normally used in pulse conditioning circuits, especially speed transducer processing circuits. This circuit may be used for conditioning the sensor signal from the Fidler coil in a gas centrifuge for separation of isotopic gaseous mixtures.

  2. 3-V Solid-State Flexible Supercapacitors with Ionic-Liquid-Based Polymer Gel Electrolyte for AC Line Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu Jin; Yoo, Yongju; Kim, Woong

    2016-06-08

    State-of-the-art solid-state flexible supercapacitors with sufficiently fast response speed for AC line filtering application suffer from limited energy density. One of the main causes of the low energy density is the low cell voltage (1 V), which is limited by aqueous-solution-based gel electrolytes. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a 3-V flexible supercapacitor for AC line filtering based on an ionic-liquid-based polymer gel electrolyte and carbon nanotube electrode material. The flexible supercapacitor exhibits an areal energy density that is more than 20 times higher than that of the previously demonstrated 1-V flexible supercapacitor (0.66 vs 0.03 μWh/cm(2)) while maintaining excellent capacitive behavior at 120 Hz. The supercapacitor shows a maximum areal power density of 1.5 W/cm(2) and a time constant of 1 ms. The improvement of the cell voltage while maintaining the fast-response capability greatly improves the potential of supercapacitors for high-frequency applications in wearable and/or portable electronics.

  3. Design of 1000-kV AC Single-Circuit Overhead Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li

    2010-01-01

    The UHVAC 1 000-kV transmission system is so far the one with the most advanced transmission technique applied and highest operation voltage. There are no guidelines or standards available for the design of 1 000-kV overhead transmission line in China. Study on key technologies and design schemes shall be carried out to ascertain the technical principles and construction standards for project construction, which are presented in this paper based on the Southeast Shanxi-Nanyang-Jingmen test and demonstration transmission line. A comparison and analysis of technical data and economic indices between UHV line and other lines are also described.

  4. Energy performance and consumption for biogas heat pump air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenjun [Architectural Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266109 (China); Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China); Wu, Huaizhi; Wu, Meiling [Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101 (China); Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner is a new-style system which includes biogas engine-driven heat pump, primary heat exchanger, second heat exchanger, sprayed room and fans, pumps, etc. In summertime, the air can be reheated by the waste heat water from the biogas engine in the system, while the air can be reheated and humidified by the waste heat water in winter. Reducing or displacing electrical heating requirements can achieve the great opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the AC system by using the waste heat from the biogas engine. The mathematic model was used to research the BHPAC. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the outdoor air temperature and humidity in summer and winter. Results show that the biogas engine-driven heat pump air conditioner can save more energy than the electrical power heat pump. In summer, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is over 25%. With the outdoor air dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity rises, the saving energy percentage rises. In winter, the minimum for percentage of primary energy saving for BHPAC is 37%. The more the outdoor air relative humidity of the outdoor air decreases, the more the BHPAC saves energy. It is proved that the system which is a highly actively fully utilizing energy technology has good partial load characteristic and good effects of energy saving. (author)

  5. Optimal PowerFlow (OPF) Model with Unified AC-DC Load Flow and Optimal Commitmentfor an AC-catenary Railway Power Supply System (RPSS) fed by aHigh Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission line

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, Lars; Östlund, Stefan; Söder, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an alternative railway power systems design based on an HVDC feeder is studied. The HVDC feeder is connected to the catenary by converters. Such an HVDC line is also appropriate for DC-fed railways and AC-fed railways working at public frequency. A unit commitment optimal power flow model has been developed and is applied on a test system. In this paper, the model is presented in detail. The model, in the form of an MINLP program, uses unified AC-DC power flow to minimize the en...

  6. Harmonic content in the variable-frequency ac power line of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabar, Z.; Bronner, G.; McMurray, S.; Karady, G.

    1979-12-01

    Studies were made of the harmonic content of the current and voltage at the generator bus of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. Out of numerous load scenarios, one case was considered in detail. The harmonics were found acceptable for the generator; however, control problems and substantial telecommunications interference may result, requiring appropriate control measures and shielded telecommunication lines.

  7. 神经导航测量大脑前、后联合线的颅外平行线%Measurement of extracranial line parallel to intracranial AC-PC line by neuronavigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锐; 常亮; 谭春雷; 吕中华; 王洪滨; 张磊; 金华; 苏君; 张学新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation between extracranial reference line and intracranial AC -PC line for finding an extracranial scan basic line and using it as reference line before stereotactic intracranial neurosurgery.Methods Brain MRI images neuronavigation data of 39 patients of intracranial tumors admitted to our hospital from Nov.2005 to March 2010 were analyzed.The data were treated by GE Insta Trak 3500 navigation workstation.The AC - PC line was moved to extracranial surface parallelly in sagittal plane and axial plane.The distances from these lines to the center of external mestus were measured.Results The distance from the parallel line of AC - PC line in the same axial plane to the central of external mestus in males and females were ( 49.31 ± 6.28 ) mm and ( 46.60 ± 6.13 ) mm respectively and the general average was (47.71 ± 6.26 )mm.There was no difference between males and females.The distance from the line , being the parallel line of AC - PC line and outer canthus, to the central of external mestus in males and females were (32.23 ± 6.32 )mm and (27.41 ± 5.79)mm respectively .The results showed statistical difference.Conclusion Using neuronavigation to measure extral cranial line of AC - PC line is direct and reliable.The distances from the line , being the parallel line of AC - PC line and crossing outer canthus, to the central of external mestus in males and females are different.%目的 探讨颅外体表参考线与大脑前、后联合(AC-PC)线之间的关系.为脑功能性立体定向手术的颅内靶点定位提供可靠、准确的体表参考线.方法 收集我院2005年11月至2010年3月39例颅内肿瘤患者的头颅MRI神经导航资料,在GE Insta Trak 3500导航工作站中打开,在轴面与矢状面上将AC-PC线通过一系列的水平移动移至颅外并通过眼外眦,测量该线到外耳门中心的距离.结果 AC-PC线同一轴面体表平行线距离外耳门中心点的距离:男(49.31±6.28)mm,女(46.60±6

  8. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device used to provide the excitation energy for the transducer and to amplify or condition...

  9. Stirling Air Conditioner for Compact Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Infinia is developing a compact air conditioner that uses an unconventional high efficient Stirling cycle system (vs. conventional vapor compression systems) to produce cool air that is energy efficient and does not rely on polluting refrigerants. The Stirling cycle system is a type of air conditioning system that uses a motor with a piston to remove heat to the outside atmosphere using a gas refrigerant. To date, Stirling systems have been expensive and have not had the right kind of heat exchanger to help cool air efficiently. Infinia is using chip cooling technology from the computer industry to make improvements to the heat exchanger and improve system performance. Infinia’s air conditioner uses helium gas as refrigerant, an environmentally benign gas that does not react with other chemicals and does not burn. Infinia’s improvements to the Stirling cycle system will enable the cost-effective mass production of high-efficiency air conditioners that use no polluting refrigerants.

  10. 机车空调电源的比较与分析%Comparison and Analysis of Locomotive Air-conditioner Power Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈泽武

    2013-01-01

    总结了内燃机车、电力机车常用的空调电源的电路结构形式,简单探讨了空调电源电路的设计要点,并对电力机车的交直交与直交2种形式的空调电源电路进行了较为详细的对比分析,指出了各自的优点与不足;同时,介绍了机车空调电源变频调速的一般性原理,比较了定频与变频机车空调电源各自的优缺点.%Circuit structures of air-conditioner power supply for diesel locomotive and electric locomotive were summarized,and key points of air-conditioner power supply design were discussed.Two types of air-conditioner power supply circuit i.e.AC/DC/AC and DC/AC convert circuit were compared in detail,advantages and defects of which were pointed out.At the same time,principle of air-conditioner variable frequency speed regulation was introduced,as well as the characteristics of fix-frequency and vari-frequency air-conditioner was compared.

  11. Engineering Calculation Method of Electromagnetic Effect on Oil/Gas Pipelines from 1 000 kV AC Transmission Line Having Single-phase Ground Fault

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenliang; JIANG Jun; GUO Jian; LU Jiayu

    2012-01-01

    There will be more and more AC transmission lines near oil/gas pipelines in the future.So in order to determine the safe distance between them,simple and effective methods are required for engineers to efficiently evaluate the electromagnetic effect on oil/gas pipelines due to faults of AC transmission lines.In this paper,an easily handled fitting formula is obtained based on multiple calculation results,which is the maximum voltage on the pipeline anticorrosive coating produced by 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single phase ground fault.Although the calculation results obtained from the fitting formula differ from those gained by precise calculation with softwares,the verification of the formula shows that it is applicable for engineering calculation.This research could be applied to evaluate the electromagnetic effect of 1 000 kV AC transmission line under single-phase ground fault on nearby pipelines,as well as to determine the safe distance or the maximum parallel length.

  12. A Flexible Load Control Strategy for Distribution Network to Reduce the Line Losses and to Eliminate the Transmission Congestion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... Air conditioners (ACs) account for a great proportion of all loads. In this paper, the model of dispatching AC loads in the regional power grid is constructed, and the direct load control (DLC...

  13. Effects of Air Conditioner Use on Real-World Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Shean P [ORNL; West, Brian H [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Vehicle data were acquired on-road and on a chassis dynamometer to assess fuel consumption under several steady cruise conditions and at idle. Data were gathered for various air conditioner (A/C) settings and with the A/C off and the windows open. Two vehicles were used in the comparisonstudy: a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. At steady speeds between 64.4 and 112.7 kph (40 and 70 mph), both vehicles consumed more fuel with the A/C on at maximum cooling load (compressor at 100% duty cycle) than when driving with the windows down. The Explorer maintained this trend beyond 112.7 kph (70 mph), while the Corolla fuel consumption with the windows down matched that of running the A/C at 120.7 kph (75 mph), and exceeded it at 128.7 kph (80 mph). The largest incremental fuel consumption rate penalty due to air conditioner use occurred was nearly constant with a weakslight trend of increasing consumption with increasing compressor (and vehicle) speed. Lower consumption is seenobserved at idle for both vehicles, likely due to the low compressor speed at this operating point

  14. Feasibility analysis of solar air conditioner for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Yongwang; Ma, Weibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). Guangzhou Inst. of Energy Conversion; Wu, Guoxiang [Guangzhou City Construction and Development Co. Ltd. (China)

    2008-07-01

    Technical and economic feasibility analysis on solar air conditioner for buildings is made in this paper, including the analysis of scientific and technological situation and development on solar air conditioner, the comparison on the technological characteristics among several styles of solar air conditioner, the analysis on the several ways of integration for solar air conditioners and buildings, energy consumption of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner that supplied with fossil energy and solar energy are compared. A theoretical analysis on solar air conditioner driven by high temperature solar energy is presented. The conclusion is that the way of domestic hot water, winter heating and summer air conditioner for buildings supplied with one solar collector system is technical and economic feasible. (orig.)

  15. Carbon Nanotube-Based Supercapacitors with Excellent ac Line Filtering and Rate Capability via Improved Interfacial Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangom, Yverick; Tang, Xiaowu Shirley; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-07-28

    We report the fabrication of high-performance, self-standing composite sp(2)-carbon supercapacitor electrodes using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as conductive binder. The 3-D mesoporous mesh architecture of CNT-based composite electrodes grants unimpaired ionic transport throughout relatively thick films and allows superior performance compared to graphene-based devices at an ac line frequency of 120 Hz. Metrics of 601 μF/cm(2) with a -81° phase angle and a rate capability (RC) time constant of 199 μs are obtained for thin carbon films. The free-standing carbon films were obtained from a chlorosulfonic acid dispersion and interfaced to stainless steel current collectors with various surface treatments. CNT electrodes were able to cycle at 200 V/s and beyond, still showing a characteristic parallelepipedic cyclic votammetry shape at 1 kV/s. Current densities are measured in excess of 6400 A/g, and the electrodes retain more than 98% capacity after 1 million cycles. These promising results are attributed to a reduction of series resistance in the film through the CNT conductive network and especially to the surface treatment of the stainless steel current collector.

  16. Conventional P-ω/Q-V Droop Control in Highly Resistive Line of Low-Voltage Converter-Based AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaochao; Sun, Yao; Yuan, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    In low-voltage converter-based alternating current (AC) microgrids with resistive distribution lines, the P-V droop with Q-f boost (VPD/FQB) is the most common method for load sharing. However, it cannot achieve the active power sharing proportionally. To overcome this drawback, the conventional P......-ω/Q-V droop control is adopted in the low-voltage AC microgrid. As a result, the active power sharing among the distributed generators (DGs) is easily obtained without communication. More importantly, this study clears up the previous misunderstanding that conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is only applicable...... to microgrids with highly inductive lines, and lays a foundation for the application of conventional droop control under different line impedances. Moreover, in order to guarantee the accurate reactive power sharing, a guide for designing Q-V droop gains is given, and virtual resistance is adopted to shape...

  17. Energy Impacts of Oversized Residential Air Conditioners -- Simulation Study of Retrofit Sequence Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This research addresses the question of what are the energy consequences for oversizing of an air conditioner in a home. Conventional wisdom holds that oversizing the AC results in significant energy penalties. However, the reason for this was shown to be due to crankcase heaters and not due to cycling performance of the AC, and is only valid for a particular set of assumptions. Adding or removing individual characteristics, such as ducts or crankcase heaters, can have measurable impacts on energy use. However, with all other home characteristics held constant, oversizing the AC generally has a small effect on cooling energy use, even if the cycling performance of the unit is poor. The relevant aspects of air conditioner modeling are discussed to illustrate the effects of the cycling loss coefficient, Cd, capacity, climate, ducts and parasitic losses such as crankcase heaters. A case study of a typical 1960's vintage home demonstrates results in the context of whole building simulations using EnergyPlus.

  18. Conventional P-ω/Q-V Droop Control in Highly Resistive Line of Low-Voltage Converter-Based AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochao Hou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In low-voltage converter-based alternating current (AC microgrids with resistive distribution lines, the P-V droop with Q-f boost (VPD/FQB is the most common method for load sharing. However, it cannot achieve the active power sharing proportionally. To overcome this drawback, the conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is adopted in the low-voltage AC microgrid. As a result, the active power sharing among the distributed generators (DGs is easily obtained without communication. More importantly, this study clears up the previous misunderstanding that conventional P-ω/Q-V droop control is only applicable to microgrids with highly inductive lines, and lays a foundation for the application of conventional droop control under different line impedances. Moreover, in order to guarantee the accurate reactive power sharing, a guide for designing Q-V droop gains is given, and virtual resistance is adopted to shape the desired output impedance. Finally, the effects of power sharing and transient response are verified through simulations and experiments in converter-based AC Microgrid.

  19. Composite hydrophilic coating for conditioner aluminum fins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To solve the so-called "white rust" and 'water bridge" problems of the aluminum fins for heat exchanger of automobile air conditioner, aimed at nationalizing the art of hydrophilic coating technology, the choice of coating forming and curing materials was investigated. By measuring the water contact angle, SEM surface scanning and ingredients analysis of the coating, optimal parameters and composition are acquired. The coating forming mechanisms of the composition was also expatiated. The coating obtained has good hydrophilic and other properties.

  20. Cytotoxicity and binding profiles of activated Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab to three insect cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    While Cry1Ac has been known to bind with larval midgut proteins cadherin, APN (amino peptidase N), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and ABCC2 (ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C2), little is known about the receptors of Cry2Ab. To provide a clue to the receptors of Cry2Ab, we tested the baselin...

  1. Development of an in-line filter to prevent intrusion of NO2 toxic vapors into A/C systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Mcnulty, R. J.; Springer, Mike; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    The hypergolic propellant nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4 or NTO) is routinely used in spacecraft launched at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). In the case of a catastrophic failure of the spacecraft, there would be a release of the unspent propellant in the form of a toxic cloud. Inhalation of this material at downwind concentrations which may be as high as 20 parts per million (ppm) for 30 minutes in duration, may produce irritation to the eyes, nose and respiratory tract. Studies at both KSC and CCAS have shown that the indoor concentrations of N2O4 during a toxic release may range from 1 to 15 ppm and depend on the air change rate (ACR) for a particular building and whether or not the air conditioning (A/C) system has been shut down or left in an operating mode. This project was initiated in order to assess how current A/C systems could be easily modified to prevent personnel from being exposed to toxic vapors. A sample system has been constructed to test the ability of several types of filter material to capture the N2O4 vapors prior to their infiltration into the A/C system. Test results will be presented which compare the efficiencies of standard A/C filters, water wash systems, and chemically impregnated filter material in taking toxic vapors out of the incoming air stream.

  2. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinze LV; Lizhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control,which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors.To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants,a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants.During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period),concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels,due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (rp > 0.769,p < 0.05),and the slopes (1.2-4.54) indicated that ventilating like the model supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs.During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period),although the total levels of PAHs were increased,the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly.The BaP equivalency (BaPeq concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  3. Effect of central ventilation and air conditioner system on the concentration and health risk from airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-03-01

    Central ventilation and air conditioner systems are widely utilized nowadays in public places for air exchange and temperature control, which significantly influences the transfer of pollutants between indoors and outdoors. To study the effect of central ventilation and air conditioner systems on the concentration and health risk from airborne pollutants, a spatial and temporal survey was carried out using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as agent pollutants. During the period when the central ventilation system operated without air conditioning (AC-off period), concentrations of 2-4 ring PAHs in the model supermarket were dominated by outdoor levels, due to the good linearity between indoor air and outdoor air (r(p) > 0.769, p supermarket increased the potential health risks from low molecular weight PAHs. During the period when the central ventilation and air conditioner systems were working simultaneously (AC-on period), although the total levels of PAHs were increased, the concentrations and percentage of the particulate PAHs indoors declined significantly. The BaP equivalency (BaPeq) concentration indicated that utilization of air conditioning reduced the health risks from PAHs in the model supermarket.

  4. ACAC Converters for UPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusalin Lucian R. Păun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a new control technique forsingle – phase ACAC converters used for a on-line UPSwith a good dynamic response, a reduced-partscomponents, a good output characteristic, a good powerfactorcorrection(PFC. This converter no needs anisolation transformer. A power factor correction rectifierand an inverter with the proposed control scheme has beendesigned and simulated using Caspoc2007, validating theconcept.

  5. Simplification Study of FE Model for 1000kV AC Transmission Line Insulator String Voltage and Grading Ring Surface Electric Field Distribution Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The finite element model of the 1000kV Ultra High Voltage (UHV AC transmission line porcelain insulator string voltage distribution and grading ring surface electric field distribution calculation has the characteristics of large size, complicated structure and various mediums. To insure the accuracy, related influencing factors should be considered to simplify the model reasonably for improving computational efficiency. A whole model and a simplified 3D finite element model of UHV AC transmission line porcelain insulator string were built. The influencing factors including tower, phase conductors, hardware fittings, yoke plate and phase interaction were considered in the analysis. And finally, the rationality of the simplified model was validated. The results comparison show that building a simplified model of three-phase bundled conductors within a certain length, simplifying the tower reasonably, omitting the hardware fittings and yoke plate and containing only single-phase insulator string model is feasible. The simplified model could replace the whole model to analyze the voltage distribution along the porcelain insulator string and the electric field distribution on the grading ring surface, and it can reduce the calculation scale, improve optimization efficiency of insulators string and grading ring parameters.

  6. EFFECT OF AIR CONDITIONER ON PULMONARY FUNCTIONS IN HEALTHY MALES IN AND AROUND RAICHUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Air conditioner by lowering temperature may affect human health since it has profound effect on our environment. Modern styles of living in urban areas have been considered potentially responsible for the development of airway allergic diseases due to pro liferating house dust mites & increasing concentration of indoor air pollutants, which lead to the elevation of serum Ig E levels or the enhancement of eosinophil activity. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of air conditioners (AC on pulmonary func tions in young healthy non - smoker male. MATERIALS AND METHOD S : The study group comprised of 20 male subjects who were using AC’s in their cars for at least 1 hr daily since last 6 months. While 20 male subjects who did not use AC at all served as controls. The pulmonary functions were assessed using Power lab 8/30 series with dual bio Amp/stimulator, manufactured by AD instruments, Australia, in a closed room the outcome of pulmonary function tests was presented as a mean ± SD for each of the parameter. The two groups were compared by applying unpaired ‘t’ test and P value of less than 0.05 was considered as significant . RESULTS: The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR and Forced expiratory flow between 25 – 75% of vital capacity(FEF25 – 75 were significantly redu ced in subjects using car AC’s. CONCLUSION: In the presence of normal FEV1, reduced FEF 25 – 75%, which is the flow rate over the middle half of vital capacity, is an evidence of mild airflow limitation. The result is suggestive of predisposition of AC users towards respiratory disorders in form of mild airflow restriction

  7. Alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, National Chemical Lab., Pune (India); Waghmare, A.V.; Domkundwar, B.M. [College of Engineering, Pune (India); Sawant, N.N. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Some selected fluids have been assessed for their suitability as alternatives to HCFC-22 for air conditioners. Only those refrigerants with zero ozone depletion potential are considered. NIST CYCLE{sub D} has been used for the comparative thermodynamic analysis. Among the refrigerants studied (HFC-134a, HC-290, R-407C, R-410A, and three blends of HFC-32, HFC-134a and HFC-125), HFC-134a offers the highest COP, but its capacity is the lowest and requires much larger compressors. The characteristics of HC-290 are very close to those of HCFC-22, and compressors require very little modification. Therefore, HC-290 is a potential candidate provided the risk concerns are mitigated as had been accomplished for refrigerators. For retrofitting, R-407C is probably the best candidate. (Author)

  8. A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. U. V. Kongre, D. P. Mahure, P. A. Zamre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a detailed study and description of a new solar-based air-conditioning technique. It uses solar energy to produce cold or hot air. This technology can be used to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impact of mechanical cooling system. The use of Desiccant cooling is used to perform air dehumidification operation by utilizing low grade heat source. The solar desiccant air conditioner uses solar power as the main energy source to help in the thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. With our constructed design we have seen temperature as well as humidity level drops throughout the desiccant cooling system. A significant advantage of this system is, it have no moving parts consequently they are noiseless, non-corrosive, cheap to maintain, long lasting in addition to being environmentally friendly with zero ozone depletion as well as zero global warming potentials.

  9. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 < z < 2.4

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Lifang; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Kümmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A; O'Connell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 < M_B < -19, which have [OII], H\\beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (\\piMC^2) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M_*/M_\\sun) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metallicity (M-L) and Lumin...

  10. EnerGuide room air conditioner directory 2004 : energy ratings for room air conditioners[Includes Energy Star qualified room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    This guide lists all room air conditioners sold in Canada and offers advice on how to buy an energy efficient model as labelled under the EnerGuide rating system. The EnerGuide label is regulated under Canada's Energy Efficiency Regulations and is designed to help consumers estimate the annual electricity cost of running an appliance. The EnerGuide compares the energy consumption or energy efficiency of major household appliances and room air conditioners. The EnerGuide label displays a bar scale with an arrow that positions the model compared to the most energy-efficient and least energy efficient models in the same class. The EnerGuide concept uses standardized methods, in which all models of appliances sold in Canada are tested to determine their yearly energy use. The EnerGuide program was developed to protect the environment by reducing the demand for energy in Canada and to help consumers spend less money on energy. This simple guide allows consumers to determine the exact size of room air conditioner they need to meet their cooling needs. It was noted that the operating cost of a room air conditioner will vary depending on the climate, the energy efficiency rating of the air conditioner, temperature setting of the unit, fan operation and the local cost of electricity. The guide includes tables which reveal the energy consumption in kWh by province during the cooling season. tabs.

  11. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  12. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-03-02

    This presentation describes a new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps, which allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted “behind-the-scenes” without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  13. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    OpenAIRE

    P.Annapandi; Dr.M.Rajaram

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs) to a common DC link voltage, which compe...

  14. In vitro examination of oral tissue conditioners potential toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral tissue conditioners are applied temporarily to the gingival surface of a denture for the purpose of reconditioning the abused denture supporting tissues, allowing them to return to a normal, healthy state. According to chemical composition they can be classified into methacrylic and silicon conditioners. The objective of this research was to examine the potential toxicity of one, seven and thirty day extracts of different concentrations. Different effective concentrations (5, 12.5, 25 and 50% of two silicone and four methacrylic conditioners extracts were used after extraction period of one, seven and thirty days. Amount of toxic substances and dynamics of their release were monitored by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC analysis could not be applied to the silicone conditioners because they consist of polymeric and inorganic 19 substances. Evaluation of cell proliferation, as cytotoxic parameters, was done by Mosmann’s MTT assay based on reduction of yellow tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide - MTT to purple formazan by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase of metabolic active cells. With increasing of extraction period, the amount of released potential toxic substances increased. The cytotoxicity of tested materials significantly increased with extract concentration increase and duration of extraction period. To improve the biological characteristics of mobile dentures relined by soft materials, soaking in water the day before insertion into patient’s mouth was recommended. Silicone conditioners showed less cytotoxicity compared to the methacrylic conditioners, so they are more appropriate for daily dental practice.

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Refrigerants for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    The phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerants in developing countries is currently underway according to the Montreal Protocol. R-22 is one of the most commonly used HCFCs in the developing nations. It is extremely well suited for air conditioning and refrigeration (AC&R) in high ambient temperature environments. Non-Article 5 countries have already gone through the phase-out of HCFCs and settled on using R-410A as the refrigerant of choice for AC applications. Previous studies have shown that R-410A results in significant capacity and performance degradation at higher ambient temperature conditions. As such, there is a growing concern on finding alternative refrigerants to R-22 that would have zero ODP, lower GWP, and at the same time maintain acceptable performance at higher ambient temperatures. Furthermore, the developed world s transition through higher global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants like HFC and HFC blends resulted in significant direct CO2 equivalent emissions. It is imperative to develop a bridge for developing nations to avoid the transition from HCFC to HFC and then from HFC to alternative lower GWP refrigerants. This paper summarizes data from an experimental campaign on alternative refrigerant evaluation for R-22 and R-410A substitutes for mini-split air conditioners designed for high ambient environments. The experimental evaluation was performed according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 37 and the performance was rated at test conditions specified by ANSI/AHRI 210-240 and ISO 5151. Additional tests were conducted at outdoor ambient temperatures of 52 C (125.6 F) and 55 C (131 F) to evaluate their performance at high ambient conditions. Alternative refrigerants, some of which are proprietary, included R-444B, DR-3, N-20b, ARM-20b, R-290, and DR-93 as alternatives to R-22 and R-32, DR-55, L41-2, ARM-71A, and HPR-2A as alternatives to R-410A. The units performances were first verified using the baseline refrigerant and then drop

  16. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States.

  17. Vortex dynamics and irreversibility line in optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 from ac susceptibility and magnetization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, G.; Carretta, P.; de Renzi, R.; Sanna, S.; Palenzona, A.; Putti, M.; Tropeano, M.

    2011-05-01

    Ac susceptibility and static magnetization measurements were performed in the optimally doped SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 superconductor. The field-temperature phase diagram of the superconducting state was drawn, and, in particular, the features of the flux lines were derived. The dependence of the intragrain depinning energy on the magnetic field intensity was derived in the thermally activated flux-creep framework, enlightening a typical 1/H dependence in the high-field regime. The intragrain critical current density was extrapolated in the zero-temperature and zero-magnetic-field limit, showing a remarkably high value Jc0(0)~2×107 A/cm2, which demonstrates that this material is rather interesting for potential future technological applications.

  18. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Haoxi; Li, Qingmin; Xing, Jinyuan; Li, Jinsong; Chen, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277061 and 51420105011)

  19. Field and laboratory studies on the impact of two Bt rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac on aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongmo; Huang, Jiacheng; Hu, Huawei; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Biao; Zhang, Guoan

    2013-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice expressing Bt toxins is at the edge of commercial release in China. However, little information is available concerning the impact of Bt rice on aquatic organisms which are abundant in paddy field. A two-year study was conducted to assess the effects of two GM rice lines expressing a fusion protein Cry1Ab/1Ac (Bt rice) on three groups of zooplankton, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in field conditions. Multi-factor ANOVA revealed that the population densities of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in paddy field varied significantly between years and rice developmental stages, but did not differ significantly between Bt and non-Bt rice treatments. In all the field investigations, only one significant difference was found on copepods in the tillering stage of 2009, but the difference was not related to the presence of the Cry toxin. Under open-air conditions, we simulated the farming practice of straw mulch, using Bt rice straw as a food source for the water flea Daphnia hyalina. After one and two months of culture, the density of D. hyalina did not differ between Bt rice treatments and non-Bt rice treatments. A laboratory experiment found that purified Bt toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac had no toxic effect on D. hyalina even in the treatment in which the Bt toxin concentration was as high as 2500ng/ml. Those above results indicate that the two Bt rice lines have no negative effect on the three groups of zooplankton. However, further studies are needed to compare the effects of Bt rice and non-Bt rice on the paddy zooplankton community in the context of integrated pest management which includes the use of pesticides.

  20. Girth welding system for vortex type refrigeration compressor of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xiaowen; Ma Caixia; Yang Siqian; Hu Jisheng

    2006-01-01

    According to the requirements of welding process for vortex type compressor of air conditioner manufactured in product line, a special girth welding machine with PLC as control core was developed, which had both upright and 45 ° incline service positions. And some key technologies were researched, such as structural design of machine body, reliable conduction of rotary weldments and quality control of welding process and so on. The experimental results showed that this machine could satisfy the requirements of welding quality and girth welding technology, results also proved the machine was a high-efficiency and low-cost automatic welding device.

  1. Uncertainty evaluation in the measurement of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from AC overhead power lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ztoupis, I N; Gonos, I F; Stathopulos, I A

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of power frequency electric and magnetic fields from alternating current power lines are carried out in order to evaluate the exposure levels of the human body on the general public. For any electromagnetic field measurement, it is necessary to define the sources of measurement uncertainty and determine the total measurement uncertainty. This paper is concerned with the problems of measurement uncertainty estimation, as the measurement uncertainty budget calculation techniques recommended in standardising documents and research studies are barely described. In this work the total uncertainty of power frequency field measurements near power lines in various measurement sites is assessed by considering not only all available equipment data, but also contributions that depend on the measurement procedures, environmental conditions and characteristics of the field source, which are considered to increase the error of measurement. A detailed application example for power frequency field measurements is presented here by accredited laboratory.

  2. Embedding quantum into classical: contextualization vs conditionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtibar N Dzhafarov

    Full Text Available We compare two approaches to embedding joint distributions of random variables recorded under different conditions (such as spins of entangled particles for different settings into the framework of classical, Kolmogorovian probability theory. In the contextualization approach each random variable is "automatically" labeled by all conditions under which it is recorded, and the random variables across a set of mutually exclusive conditions are probabilistically coupled (imposed a joint distribution upon. Analysis of all possible probabilistic couplings for a given set of random variables allows one to characterize various relations between their separate distributions (such as Bell-type inequalities or quantum-mechanical constraints. In the conditionalization approach one considers the conditions under which the random variables are recorded as if they were values of another random variable, so that the observed distributions are interpreted as conditional ones. This approach is uninformative with respect to relations between the distributions observed under different conditions because any set of such distributions is compatible with any distribution assigned to the conditions.

  3. Control Method for Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Fuzzy Based Nine-Switch Power Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Gowthami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A nine-switch power converter having two sets of out-put terminals was recently proposed in place of the traditional back-to-back power converter that uses 12 switches in total. The nine-switch converter has already been proven to have certain advantages, in addition to its component saving topological feature. Despite these advantages, the nine-switch converter has so far found limited applications due to its many perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring an oversized dc-link capacitor, limited amplitude sharing, and constrained phase shift between its two sets of output terminals. Instead of accepting these tradeoffs as limitations, a nineswitch power conditioner is proposed here that virtually “converts” most of these topological short comings into interesting performance advantages. Aiming further to reduce its switching losses, an appropriate discontinuous modulation scheme is proposed and studied here in detail to doubly ensure that maxi-mal reduction of commutations is achieved. With an appropriately designed control scheme then incorporated, the nine-switch converter is shown to favorably raise the overall power quality in experiment, hence justifying its role as a power conditioner at a reduced semiconductor cost.

  4. A Novel Control Method for Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Nine-Switch Power Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Narendra,

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A nine-switch power converter having two sets of out-put terminals was recently proposed in place of the traditional back-to-back power converter that uses 12 switches in total. The nine-switch converter has already been proven to have certain advantages, in addition to its component saving topological feature. Despite these advantages, the nine-switch converter has so far found limited applications due to its many perceived performance tradeoffs like requiring an oversized dc-link capacitor, limited amplitude sharing, and constrained phase shift between its two sets of output terminals. Instead of accepting these tradeoffs as limitations, a nineswitch power conditioner is proposed here that virtually “converts” most of these topological short comings into interesting performance advantages. Aiming further to reduce its switching losses, an appropriate discontinuous modulation scheme is proposed and studied here in detail to doubly ensure that maxi-mal reduction of commutations is achieved. With an appropriately designed control scheme then incorporated, the nine-switch converter is shown to favorably raise the overall power quality in experiment, hence justifying its role as a power conditioner at a reduced semiconductor cost.

  5. The System Impact of Air-Conditioner Under-voltage Protection Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ning; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhenyu; Bravo, Richard

    2009-03-31

    This paper presents simulation results of evaluating an under-voltage protection scheme designed to take stalled air-conditioner (a/c) units offline such that the slow voltage recovery phenomena can be solved on areas heavily loaded with a/c motors during summer peak periods. A three feeder test-bed has been first used to quantify the effectiveness of the protection scheme and the sensitivity of the under-voltage relay settings. Then two real system events of the Western US power grid have been studied to evaluate the area impact of the protection scheme proposed by Southern California Edison. The study demonstrates that by taking all or most of the stalled a/c unit offline, the feeder voltage will recover in a few seconds, much quicker than the tens of seconds that the standard thermal relays imbedded in the motors need to trip the units. The drawback of the control scheme is that after the voltage recover, it settled at a higher voltage than before the faults because a large chuck of load has been shed.

  6. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  7. 77 FR 8178 - Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 Test Procedures for Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public... discuss methodologies and gather comments on testing residential central air conditioners and heat pumps... residential central air conditioners and heat pumps that are single phase with rated cooling capacities less...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3750 - Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. 872... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3750 Bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner. (a) Identification. A bracket adhesive resin and tooth conditioner is a...

  9. Control Technologies for Room Air-conditioner and Packaged Air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Nobuhisa

    Trends of control technologies about air-conditioning machineries, especially room or packaged air conditioners, are presented in this paper. Multiple air conditioning systems for office buildings are mainly described as one application of the refrigeration cycle control technologies including sensors for thermal comfort and heating/ cooling loads are also described as one of the system control technologies. Inverter systems and related technologies for driving variable speed compressors are described in both case of including induction motors and brushless DC motors. Technologies for more accurate control to meet various kind of regulations such as ozone layer destruction, energy saving and global warming, and for eliminating harmonic distortion of power source current, as a typical EMC problem, will be urgently desired.

  10. 1000 kV 交流特高压输电线路运行特性分析%Analysis of 1 000 kV AC Ultra High Voltage Power Transmission Line Operation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹旭佳

    2015-01-01

    1000 kV 交流特高压输电线路是解决我国电力能源分布不均匀,降低电力负荷的有效手段。1000 kV 交流特高压线路的维护工作也开始受到社会各界的广泛关注。为了保障交流特高压线路能够安全运行,文章分析了1000 kV 交流特高压输电线路运行特性,借鉴了国外先进经验,总结了其中的关键技术。%1 000 kV AC UHV transmission line is an effective means of uneven distribution of electric energy,reduce the power load solutions,the maintenance work of 1 000 kV AC UHV line has begun to attract widespread concern in the community,in order to protect AC UHV safe operation,we must summarize the key technologies,learn from foreign ad-vanced experience,this paper analyzes the operating characteristics of 1 000 kV UHV AC transmission lines.

  11. Enhancement of Power Quality in Transmission Line Using Flexible Ac Transmission System Device U.P.F.C (Unified Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Divya Lakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Present scenario states that power demand has been increased in a rapid and random manner. Hence power generated is unable to meet the power demand so power scarcity exists. There is an approximate loss of (20 - 40 % of power generated during its transmission. Hence there is a need for enhancing the power quality in transmission lines. In order to improve the power quality our paper make use of FACTS DEVICES. FACTS devices can be added to power transmission and distribution systems at appropriate locations to improve system performance. The real and reactive powers can be easily controlled in a power system with FACTS devices. Flexible AC Transmission System creates a tremendous quality impact on power system stability. This paper describes the basic principle of operation of UPFC, its advantages and to compare its performance with the various FACTS equipment available. The objective of this paper is to keep the power system to remain in voltage stable condition when it experiences a load change and contingency, also deals with the simulation of various FACTS controllers using simulation program with MATLAB/SIMULINK

  12. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  13. Design of direct solar PV driven air conditioner

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-12-05

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Solar air conditioning system directly driven by stand-alone solar PV is studied. The air conditioning system will suffer from loss of power if the solar PV power generation is not high enough. It requires a proper system design to match the power consumption of air conditioning system with a proper PV size. Six solar air conditioners with different sizes of PV panel and air conditioners were built and tested outdoors to experimentally investigate the running probabilities of air conditioning at various solar irradiations. It is shown that the instantaneous operation probability (OPB) and the runtime fraction (RF) of the air conditioner are mainly affected by the design parameter rpL (ratio of maximum PV power to load power). The measured OPB is found to be greater than 0.98 at instantaneous solar irradiation IT > 600 W m-2 if rpL > 1.71 RF approaches 1.0 (the air conditioner is run in 100% with solar power) at daily-total solar radiation higher than 13 MJ m-2 day-1, if rpL > 3.

  14. Evaluation of ERINA Plus as a coat conditioner in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava

    Full Text Available Coat conditioning, deodorant and cleansing properties of ERINA Plus were evaluated in fifty-one dogs of different breeds. More than 80% of dogs showed good to excellent conditioning, deodorant and cleansing effects supported ERINA Plus as safe conditioner shampoo. [Vet. World 2008; 1(12.000: 361-362

  15. Contraction pre-conditioner in finite-difference electromagnetic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavich, Nikolay; Zhdanov, Michael S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to constructing an effective pre-conditioner for finite-difference (FD) electromagnetic modelling in geophysical applications. This approach is based on introducing an FD contraction operator, similar to one developed for integral equation formulation of Maxwell's equation. The properties of the FD contraction operator were established using an FD analogue of the energy equality for the anomalous electromagnetic field. A new pre-conditioner uses a discrete Green's function of a 1-D layered background conductivity. We also developed the formulae for an estimation of the condition number of the system of FD equations pre-conditioned with the introduced FD contraction operator. Based on this estimation, we have established that the condition number is bounded by the maximum conductivity contrast between the background conductivity and actual conductivity. When there are both resistive and conductive anomalies relative to the background, the new pre-conditioner is advantageous over using the 1-D discrete Green's function directly. In our numerical experiments with both resistive and conductive anomalies, for a land geoelectrical model with 1:10 contrast, the method accelerates convergence of an iterative method (BiCGStab) by factors of 2-2.5, and in a marine example with 1:50 contrast, by a factor of 4.6, compared to direct use of the discrete 1-D Green's function as a pre-conditioner.

  16. Development of vehicle magnetic air conditioner (VMAC) technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschneidner, Karl A., Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.; Jiles, David; Zimm, Carl B.

    2001-08-28

    The objective of Phase I was to explore the feasibility of the development of a new solid state refrigeration technology - magnetic refrigeration - in order to reduce power consumption of a vehicle air conditioner by 30%. The feasibility study was performed at Iowa State University (ISU) together with Astronautics Corporation of America Technology Center (ACATC), Madison, WI, through a subcontract with ISU.

  17. Effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-LiLu; Jun-QingWu; Qiu-YingYang; Wei-JinZhou; Er-ShengGao

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of air-conditioner exposure on semen quality. Methods: The data came from the healthy male volunteers, aged 22 to 30 years, who went to centers for maternity and children health for premarital physical examination in Shanghai,Henan, Zbejiang and Hebei from December 1998 to February 2000.

  18. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.

    2012-10-01

    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  19. Cooling the Planet: Opportunities for Deployment of Superefficient Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Waide, Paul [Navigant Consulting Inc., Chicago, IL (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report presents the results of an analysis, commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy, of Air Conditioner (AC) efficiency in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative.1 The International Energy Studies group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in collaboration with Navigant Consulting Inc. performed the analysis. SEAD aims to transform the global market by increasing the penetration of highly efficient equipment and appliances. SEAD partners work together in voluntary activities to: (1) “raise the efficiency ceiling” by pulling superefficient appliances and equipment into the market through cooperation on measures like incentives, procurement, awards, and research and development (R&D) investments; (2) “raise the efficiency floor” by working together to bolster national or regional policies like minimum efficiency standards; and (3) “strengthen the efficiency foundations” of programs by coordinating technical work to support these activities.2 The objective of this analysis is to provide the background technical information necessary to improve the efficiency of ACs and to provide a foundation for the activities of SEAD participating countries. We find that even the best currently available technology offers large efficiency improvement opportunities (35% to 50% reduction in energy consumption from the market average) in most SEAD countries. The cost effective efficiency improvements range from 20% to 30% reduction in energy consumption based on a consumer perspective.

  20. Separation sections AC 25kV/DC 1,5 kV in overhead contact lines of Netherlands' Railways; Trennstellen AC 25 kV/DC 1,5 kV im Oberleitungsnetz der Niederlaendischen Bahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, G.; Roehlig, S. [Eisenbahn-Bundesamt, Dresden (Germany); Groeman, F.; Bogaerts, T. [KEMA Niederlande BV, Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2002-06-01

    At interfaces between traction energy supply systems, several and partly controversial requirements are encountered regarding the separation of line voltages, return currents, control of stray currents, control and command technology, length of trains and traffic technology. In Netherlands, local constraints forced to design very short transition sections at the separations of the high performance freight railway Betuweroute which becomes electrified with AC 25 kV 50 Hz against the existing contact line network operated with DC 1,5 kV. (orig.) [German] Schnittstellen zwischen Bahnstromversorgungssystemen stellen mehrere, teils gegensaetzliche Anforderungen hinsichtlich Trennung der Fahrleitungsspannungen und Rueckstroeme, Beherrschung von Streustroemen, Signal- und Sicherungstechnik, Zuglaengen und Verkehrstechnologie. Bei der mit AC 25 kV 50 Hz elektrifizierten Hochleistungs-Gueterbahn Betuweroute in den Niederlanden zwangen oertliche Gegebenheiten dazu, sehr kurze Trennstellen zum mit DC 1,5 kV betriebenen bestehenden Oberleitungsnetz zu entwickeln. (orig.)

  1. AC Test Chambers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Psychrometric Test Chamber’s primary purpose is to evaluate the performance of split type central air conditioners and heat pumps in the cooling capacity range...

  2. Irreversibility line of Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (T{sub c} = 36.9 K) superconductor studied with ac-susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissas, M., E-mail: mpissas@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR, Demokritos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Zeibekis, M.; Stamopoulos, D. [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR, Demokritos, 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Wang Chunlei; Ma Yanwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Superconductivity, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 2703, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-06-15

    We have studied the phase diagram of a Ba{sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (T{sub c} = 36.9 K) single crystal superconductor by employing ac-susceptibility measurements, both as a function of temperature for constant external magnetic field and of magnetic dc-field for constant temperature for angles {Theta} = Angle (H, c-axis) = 0 Degree-Sign , 30 Degree-Sign , 45 Degree-Sign , 60 Degree-Sign , 75 Degree-Sign and 90 Degree-Sign , between the c-axis and the magnetic field. The irreversibility lines (H{sub irr}(T, {Theta})) are estimated from the onset of non-zero values of the amplitude of the third harmonic susceptibility. H{sub irr}-lines for all the studied angles can be reproduced from the equation H{sub irr} = H{sub 0}({Theta})(1 - T/T{sub c}){sup n}, with n Almost-Equal-To 4/3. From the angular dependence of H{sub 0}({Theta}) parameter, we estimated the anisotropy of the irreversibility lines. In the temperature interval [35, T{sub c}] the anisotropy parameter was estimated {gamma}=H{sub irr}{sup ab}/H{sub irr}{sup c}=2.2{+-}0.1. The measurements of the real part of the fundamental (first harmonic) ac-susceptibility {chi} Prime (T) for constant temperature as a function of dc-magnetic field revealed, for high values of the ac-field amplitude, a second peak in the critical current. The second peak line is located far from H{sub irr}-line and exists up to T{sub c}. Although the particular sample has high critical densities, contrary to the predictions of the Bean's model, the maximum of the imaginary part of the fundamental ac-susceptibility {chi} Double-Prime exhibits lower values. This behavior could be explained by assuming a reversible motion of the flux lines around the pinning centers for low values of the ac-magnetic field amplitude.

  3. Active Participation of Air Conditioners in Power System Frequency Control Considering Users’ Thermal Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxiang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioners have great potential to participate in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a control strategy to facilitate the active participation of air conditioners. For each air conditioner, a decentralized control law is designed to adjust its temperature set point in response to the system frequency deviation. The decentralized control law accounts for the user’s thermal comfort that is evaluated by a fuzzy algorithm. The aggregation of air conditioners’ response is conducted by using the Monte Carlo simulation method. A structure preserving model is applied to the multi-bus power system, in which air conditioners are aggregated at certain load buses. An inner-outer iteration scheme is adopted to solve power system dynamics. An experiment is conducted on a test air conditioner to examine the performance of the proposed decentralized control law. Simulation results on a test power system verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy for air conditioners participating in frequency control.

  4. Effect of conditioner load on the polishing pad surface during chemical mechanical planarization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Cheol Min; Qin, Hong Yi; Hong, Seok Jun; Jeon, Sang Hyuk; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Tae Sun [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    During the Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP), the pad conditioning process can affect the pad surface characteristics. Among many CMP process parameters, the improper applied load on the conditioner arm may have adverse effects on the polyurethane pad. In this work, we evaluated the pad surface properties under the various conditioner arm applied during pad conditioning process. The conditioning pads were evaluated for surface topography, surface roughness parameters such as Rt and Rvk and Material removal rate (MRR) and within-wafer non-uniformity after wafer polishing. We observed that, the pad asperities were collapsed in the direction of conditioner rotation and blocks the pad pores applied conditioner load. The Rvk value and MRR were founded to be in relation with 4 > 1 > 7 kgF conditioner load. Hence, this study shows that, 4 kgF applied load by conditioner is most suitable for the pad conditioning during CMP.

  5. Installation Specifications of Air-Conditioners for Household and Similar Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    Background An air-conditioner known as "30% quality and 70% installation",the quality of its installation is closely related to its service life and application effect.Although air-conditioner manufacturers attach high importance to installation,and there are often the installation requirements specified in the product manual or instructions for installation,there are still no unified,scientific and complete national standards and corresponding regulations for household air-conditioner,which results in the less standardized installation of air-conditioner and the unacceptable quality of installation,and also leaves a lot of hidden quality and safety problems.By means of extensive market survey and the after-sale information statistical analysis of air-conditioner,it is discovered that the nonstandard installation of air-conditioner may lead to the following problems and accidents.

  6. Research on a Micro-Grid Frequency Modulation Strategy Based on Optimal Utilization of Air Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhu Wan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the proportion of air conditioners increasing gradually, they can provide a certain amount of frequency-controlled reserves for a micro-grid. Optimizing utilization of air conditioners and considering load response characteristics and customer comfort, the frequency adjustment model is a quadratic function model between the trigger temperature of the air conditioner compressor, and frequency variation is provided, which can be used to regulate the trigger temperature of the air conditioner when the micro-grid frequency rises and falls. This frequency adjustment model combines a primary frequency modulation method and a secondary frequency modulation method of the energy storage system, in order to optimize the frequency of a micro-grid. The simulation results show that the frequency modulation strategy for air conditioners can effectively improve the frequency modulation ability of air conditioners and frequency modulation effects of a micro-grid in coordination with an energy storage system.

  7. Unified Power Quality Conditioner for voltage and current compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Annapandi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC for load balancing, power factorcorrection, voltage regulation, voltage and current harmonics mitigation, mitigation of voltage sag, swelland voltage dip in a three-phase three-wire distribution system for different combinations of linear and nonlinear loads.The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC is a combination of back to back connected shunt and series active power filters (APFs to a common DC link voltage, which compensates voltage and current based distortions, independently.Using instantaneous active and reactive Power theory ,harmonic detection, reactive power compensation, voltage sag and swell have been simulated and the results are analyzed. The operation and capability of the proposed system was analyzed through simulations with MATLAB / SIMULINK.

  8. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-01-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each condi...

  9. Laboratory Performance Testing of Residential Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Booten, C.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2013-03-01

    Window air conditioners are the dominant cooling product for residences, in terms of annual unit sales. They are inexpensive, portable and can be installed by the owner. For this reason, they are an attractive solution for supplemental cooling, for retrofitting air conditioning into a home which lacks ductwork, and for renters. Window air conditioners for sale in the United States are required to meet very modest minimum efficiency standards. Four window air conditioners' performance were tested in the Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory on NREL's campus in Golden, CO. In order to separate and study the refrigerant system's performance, the unit's internal leakage pathways, the unit's fanforced ventilation, and the leakage around the unit resulting from installation in a window, a series of tests were devised that focused on each aspect of the unit's performance. These tests were designed to develop a detailed performance map to determine whole-house performance in different climates. Even though the test regimen deviated thoroughly from the industry-standard ratings test, the results permit simple calculation of an estimated rating for both capacity and efficiency that would result from a standard ratings test. Using this calculation method, it was found that the three new air conditioners' measured performance was consistent with their ratings. This method also permits calculation of equivalent SEER for the test articles. Performance datasets were developed across a broad range of indoor and outdoor operating conditions, and used them to generate performance maps.

  10. LDDX: A High Efficiency Air Conditioner for DOD Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    remove moisture by overcooling the process air and so is expected to use 30% less electricity than conventional systems in applications with very...that are wetted with a liquid desiccant, move moisture from the process air to the cooling air . The pressure drop through the desiccant-wetted pads...as a conventional DX air conditioner (with slightly higher fan power due to the pressure drops across the inactive absorber and desorber pads). The

  11. China’s Three Giants in Air Conditioner Manufacturing Reduced Production to Cut Excessive Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Midea,Haier and Gree,China’s three giants in air conditioner manufacturing who have been troubled by an excessive inventory due to a cool summer this year,have cut their produc- tions,marking a premature end to the huge de- mand in China’s air conditioner market lasting for three consecutive years.Currently the whole industry has an inventory of more than 10 million air conditioners.

  12. Dimensional stability and weight changes of tissue conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, H; Kawamura, M; Hamada, T; Saleh, S; Kresnoadi, U; Toki, K

    2001-10-01

    The dimensional stability of tissue conditioners characterizes the ability of the materials to yield accurate functional impressions of oral mucosa. This study evaluated the linear dimensional changes with time of six tissue conditioners (COE Comfort, FITT, GC Soft-Liner, Hydro-Cast, SR-Ivoseal and Visco-Gel) using a travelling microscope, and relationship between these changes and weight changes. The absorption and solubility of these materials were also determined. The percentage changes in dimension and weight in water storage were measured at 2 (baseline), 8 and 24 h, and 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days after specimen preparation. All materials except SR-Ivoseal exhibited shrinkage and weight loss during water storage, whilst SR-Ivoseal exhibited expansion and an increase in weight. The percentage solubility for all materials except SR-Ivoseal was higher than the percentage absorption. A positive linear relationship was found between the percentage changes in linear dimension and those in weight (r=0.797 - 0.986, P forming functional impressions would be 24 h after insertion in the mouth. In addition, it is important to select tissue conditioners suitable for functional impressions because of the wide ranges of dimensional stability among the materials.

  13. Methodology for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca Diaz, Nestor [Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica, Pereira (Colombia); University of Liege, Campus du Sart Tilman, Bat: B49, P33, B-4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2009-09-15

    This article presents the general procedure for uncertainty calculation of net total cooling effect estimation for rating room air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners, by means of measurements carried out in a test bench specially designed for this purpose. The uncertainty analysis presented in this work looks for establishing a confidence degree or certainty of experimental results. It is particularly important considering that international standards related to this type of analysis are too ambiguous when treating this subject. The uncertainty analysis is on the other hand an indispensable requirement to international standard ISO 17025 [ISO, 2005. International Standard. 17025. General Requirement to Test and Calibration Laboratories Competences. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.], which must be applied to obtain the required quality levels according to the Word Trade Organization WTO. (author)

  14. Ao38, a new cell line from eggs of the black witch moth, Ascalapha odorata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is permissive for AcMNPV infection and produces high levels of recombinant proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Sheng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The insect cell line is a critical component in the production of recombinant proteins in the baculovirus expression system and new cell lines hold the promise of increasing both quantity and quality of protein production. Results Seventy cell lines were established by single-cell cloning from a primary culture of cells derived from eggs of the black witch moth (Ascalapha odorata; Lepidoptera, Noctuidae. Among 8 rapidly growing lines, cell line 38 (Ao38 was selected for further analysis, based on susceptibility to AcMNPV infection and production of secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP from a baculovirus expression vector. In comparisons with low-passage High Five (BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, infected Ao38 cells produced β-galactosidase and SEAP at levels higher (153% and 150%, respectively than those measured from High Five cells. Analysis of N-glycans of SEAP produced in Ao38 cells revealed two N-glycosylation sites and glycosylation patterns similar to those reported for High Five and Sf9 cells. Glycopeptide isoforms consisted of pauci- or oligomannose, with and without fucose on N-acetylglucosamine(s linked to asparagine residues. Estimates of Ao38 cell volume suggest that Ao38 cells are approximately 2.5× larger than Sf9 cells but only approximately 74% of the size of High Five cells. Ao38 cells were highly susceptible to AcMNPV infection, similar to infectivity of Sf9 cells. Production of infectious AcMNPV budded virions from Ao38 cells peaked at approximately 4.5 × 107 IU/ml, exceeding that from High Five cells while lower than that from Sf9 cells. Ao38 cells grew rapidly in stationary culture with a population doubling time of 20.2 hr, and Ao38 cells were readily adapted to serum-free medium (Sf-900III and to a suspension culture system. Analysis of Ao38 and a parental Ascalapha odorata cell line indicated that these lines were free of the alphanodavirus that was recently identified as an adventitious agent in High Five cell

  15. 厂外排水管道交流稳态干扰防护设计%Protection Design against AC Steady-state Interference for Water Pipeline near High-voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明; 牟华; 黄春蓉; 张平

    2013-01-01

    AC steady-state interference may affect the water pipeline near high-voltage transmission lines. Referring to some related standards, the mitigation objective and protection effect of the AC interference were analyzed, and the Right of Way (ROW) package was used to build modeling and calculation around the mitigation. The calculation results can guide the engineering design.%高压输电线路附近的厂外排水管道可能面临交流稳态干扰影响.结合相关标准要求,对交流干扰缓解目标和防护效果进行探讨分析,并利用自动计算软件包(ROW)分别对缓解前后进行建模计算分析.计算分析结果可以指导工程设计.

  16. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Diddi, Saurabh [Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Government of India (India); Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant,and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one-star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security, and environment

  17. Cost-Benefit of Improving the Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (Inverter and Fixed Speed) in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Division; Diddi, Saurabh [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Bureau of Energy Efficiency; Ahuja, Deepanshu [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Mukherjee, P. K. [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States); Walia, Archana [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Improving efficiency of air conditioners (ACs) typically involves improving the efficiency of various components such as compressors, heat exchangers, expansion valves, refrigerant and fans. We estimate the incremental cost of improving the efficiency of room ACs based on the cost of improving the efficiency of its key components. Further, we estimate the retail price increase required to cover the cost of efficiency improvement, compare it with electricity bill savings, and calculate the payback period for consumers to recover the additional price of a more efficient AC. We assess several efficiency levels, two of which are summarized below in the report. The finding that significant efficiency improvement is cost effective from a consumer perspective is robust over a wide range of assumptions. If we assume a 50% higher incremental price compared to our baseline estimate, the payback period for the efficiency level of 3.5 ISEER is 1.1 years. Given the findings of this study, establishing more stringent minimum efficiency performance criteria (one star level) should be evaluated rigorously considering significant benefits to consumers, energy security and environment.

  18. Evaluation of environmental and physiological factors of a whole ceiling-type air conditioner using a salivary biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Morito, Naomi; Nishimiya, Hajime; Yamagishi, Hideyuki [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    In order to improve environmental condition such as humidity and airflow in living spaces, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner is proposed. This novel air conditioner exhaust dispersed airflow from the whole ceiling by using a 3-dimensional knit fabric. The purpose of this paper is to reveal the effects when controlling humidity and airflow using the whole ceiling-type air conditioner compared to a commercialized concentrated exhaust air conditioner (normal-type air conditioner) under the same temperature. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) was used as an index of sympathetic nervous activity. An acute experiment for a 15 min period was conducted using 12 healthy young female adults. No significant differences in room and skin temperatures were observed between the whole ceiling-type air conditioner and the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed 11.1% lower humidity than the normal-type air conditioner. The whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed one-thirteenth the airflow of the normal-type air conditioner. As a result, the PMV of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner was more comfortable level than the normal one. Moreover, subjective evaluation questionnaire revealed a significant difference was observed in wind perception (windy). The SAA of subjects under the whole ceiling-type air conditioner showed significantly low values compared with the normal-type air conditioner. It was found that the subject's sympathetic nervous activity has been inactivated under the conditions of the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. Thus, it was revealed that the whole ceiling-type air conditioner provides a more comfortable air environment by reducing physical stimulations to humans. (author)

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-12 - Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refrigeration Equipment... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-12 Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners. As prescribed in 23.804(b), insert the following clause: Refrigeration Equipment and Air Conditioners (MAY 1995) The Contractor...

  20. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-16

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  1. 10 CFR 431.92 - Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... heat pumps. 431.92 Section 431.92 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps § 431.92 Definitions concerning commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. The following definitions apply...

  2. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and... air conditioners and heat pumps. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated in the prototype and sample.... (ii) Each heat pump label, except as noted in paragraph (g)(4)(iii) of this section, shall contain two...

  3. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  4. Conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy and autonomic nervous system conditionability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrikson, M; Hursti, T; Salmi, P; Börjeson, S; Fürst, C J; Peterson, C; Steineck, G

    1993-12-01

    There are marked individual differences in conditioned nausea after cancer chemotherapy. To examine if part of this variation is associated with individual differences in autonomic nervous system conditionability, the present study addressed whether patients with conditioned nausea acquired conditioned heart rate and electrodermal responses at a different rate than patients without conditioned nausea. Of 28 relapse-free patients who had completed cisplatinum treatment for testicular cancer between 1981 and 1986, 10 reported persistent conditioned nausea, 8 extinguished conditioned nausea and 10 no conditioned nausea. These three groups were subjected to a differential conditioning paradigm with 8 sec pictorial stimuli (circles and triangles) serving as conditioned stimuli for an unconditioned electric shock while heart rate and electrodermal activity was monitored. There were 4 habituation, 8 acquisition and 8 extinction trials with each of the two cues. Analyses of variance using nausea status as the independent variable and physiological responses as the dependent lended some support to the notion that conditioned heart rate deceleration developed in response to the reinforced compared to the nonreinforced cue during acquisition in the two groups with persistent or extinguished conditioned nausea but not in the group with no conditioned nausea. In addition, patients that displayed good, as compared to poor heart rate conditionability during acquisition, were more likely to have persistent conditioned nausea, whereas those who showed poor heart rate conditioning mostly were those without conditioned nausea. Electrodermal variables revealed no systematic differences between groups. This tentatively supports that individual differences in parasympathetic but not sympathetic nervous system conditionability may be associated with individual differences in conditioned nausea resulting from cancer chemotherapy.

  5. Locally produced natural conditioners for dewatering of faecal sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moritz; Dayer, Pauline; Faye, Marie Christine Amie Sene; Clair, Guillaume; Seck, Alsane; Niang, Seydou; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Strande, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In urban areas of low-income countries, treatment of faecal sludge (FS) is insufficient or non-existent. This results in large amounts of FS being dumped into the environment. Existing treatment technologies for FS, such as settling-thickening tanks and drying beds, are land intensive which is limiting in urban areas. Enhanced settling and dewatering by conditioning was evaluated in order to reduce the treatment footprint (or increase treatment capacity). Conventional wastewater conditioners, such as commercially available lime and polymers, are expensive, and commonly rely on complex supply chains for use in low-income countries. Therefore, the treatment performance of five conditioners which could be produced locally was evaluated: Moringa oleifera seeds and press cake, Jatropha curcas seeds, Jatropha Calotropis leaves and chitosan. M. oleifera seeds and press cake, and chitosan improved settling and dewatering and had a similar performance compared to lime and polymers. Optimal dosages were 400–500 kg M. oleifera/t TS, 300–800 kg lime/t TS and 25–50 kg polymer solution/t TS. In comparison, chitosan required 1.5–3.75 kg/t TS. These dosages are comparable to those recommended for wastewater (sludge). The results indicate that conditioning of FS can reduce total suspended solids (TSS) in the effluent of settling-thickening tanks by 22–81% and reduce dewatering time with drying beds by 59–97%. This means that the area of drying beds could be reduced by 59–97% with end-use as soil conditioner, or 9–26% as solid fuel. Least expensive options and availability will depend on the local context. In Dakar, Senegal, chitosan produced from shrimp waste appears to be most promising. PMID:26984372

  6. Research on Corona Loss of UHV AC Double Circuits Test Line on the Same Tower Under Rain%特高压交流同塔双回试验线段雨天电晕损失研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤少华; 刘云鹏; 律方成; 万晓东; 万启发; 吴湘源

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain key data of corona loss of UHV AC double circuits transmission line under rain,two methods,namely,double circuits test line and UHV corona cage,were adopted,moreover,the optical fiber data measurement method was applied to monitor rainy corona loss of UHV AC double circuits test line in UHV corona cage,and 8×LGJ-630 bundle conductors' corona loss was measured under artificial rainfall rates of 12mm/h,16mm/h,and 20mm/h.Then the reduced corona loss equivalent calculation method was used based on the test results of corona cage and test line.The corona loss results of corona cage and test line were basically equivalent,and corona loss equivalent error was controlled in ±6.5% range.The research results verify that,the test results of bundle conductors' corona loss in corona cage are consistent with monitoring rainy corona loss of UHV AC double circuits test line,and the reduced corona loss equivalent calculation method is an effective way to convert bundle conductors' rainy corona loss in corona cage into the one of UHV AC line.The research results can provide a reference for UHV AC double circuits transmission line's corona loss evaluation.%为了获得特高压交流同塔双回输电线路雨天电晕损失评估的关键数据,采用特高压交流同塔双回试验线段、特高压电晕笼两种试验手段,应用光纤数字化测量方法监测雨天气象条件下特高压交流同塔双回试验线段电晕损失,测量特高压电晕笼人工淋雨降雨率为12、16、20 mm/h条件下8×LGJ-630分裂导线电晕损失。并采用有效电晕损失等效计算方法,对电晕笼与试验线段试验结果进行等效计算分析。电晕笼与试验线段电晕损失基本等效,其误差在±6.5%范围内。研究结果验证了电晕笼分裂导线电晕损失试验结果与特高压交流同塔双回试验线段雨天监测结果的一致性,同时证明了有效电晕损失等效计算方法可以较为准确地将淋雨条

  7. Susceptibility to AcMNPV and Expression of Recombinant Proteins by a Novel Cell Clone Derived from a Trichoplusia ni QAU-BTI-Tn9-4s Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Shan; Shi-ying Zhang; Lei Jiang; Ming Ma; Guo-xun Li

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that Tn5B1-4(commercially known as the High Five)cell line is highly susceptible to baculovirus and provides superior production of recombinant proteins when compared to other insect cell lines.But the characteristics of the cell line do not always remain stable and may change upon continuous passage.Recently an alphanodavirus,named Tn5 Cell Line Virus(or TNCL Virus),was identified in High Five cells in particular. Therefore,we established a new cell line,QB-Tn9-4s,from Trichoplusia ni,which was determined to be free of TNCL virus by RT-PCR analysis. In this paper,we describe the development of a novel cell clone,QB-CL-B,from a low passage QB-Tn9-4s cell line and report its susceptibility to ACMNPV,and the level of recombinant protein production. This cell clone was similar to its parental cells QB-Tn9-4s and Tn5B 1-4 cells in morphology and growth rate;although it also showed approximately the same responses to AcMNPV infection and production of occlusion bodies,there were higher levels of recombinant protein production in comparison to QB-Tn9-4s(parental cells)and High5 cells.

  8. Optimal Design of Automotive Thermoelectric Air Conditioner (TEAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung; Weera, Sean

    2014-06-01

    The present work is an analytical study of the optimal design of an automotive thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) using a new optimal design method with dimensional analysis that has been recently developed by our research group. The optimal design gives not only the optimal current but also the optimal geometry (i.e., the number of thermocouples, the geometric factor, or the hot fluid parameters). The optimal design for the TEAC is carried out with two configurations: air-to-liquid and air-to-air heat exchangers.

  9. Experimental investigation on thermoelectric air conditioner driven by solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Lizhen; Li Yan; Qin Feng; Chen Changhe [Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering, Ministry of Education of China, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua Univ., BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The thermoelectric devices can convert solar energy into a temperature difference to act as coolers or heater with the help of PV arrays, especially in the remote area without power network. The experiment device is composed of thermoelectric refrigeration modules, fan, air channel, cooling cabinet and temperature measurement system. The thermoelectric air conditioner (TEAC) system is tested with different working electric voltage of thermopile; its operational parameters are obtained for different operational conditions. The Coefficient of Performance (COP) is analyzed in experimental ways. The factors that affect the efficiency of TEAC are discussed on the basis of experimental investigation by air-cooled thermoelectric module and water-cooled thermoelectric module. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of Eco friendly Refrigerants Usage in Air-Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chinnaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are two types of global warming contributions through refrigeration and air conditioning systems. The first one is the Direct Global Warming Potential (DGWP due to the emission of refrigerants and their interaction with heat radiation. The second one is the Indirect Global Warming Potential (IDGWP due to the emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2 by consuming the energy that is generated through the combustion of fossil fuels. Most of refrigerants used in vapor Compression system were Chlorofluorocarbon (CFCs and Hydro Chlorofluorocarbon (HCFCs which contains chlorine and if any leakage in the system, these gases will go up and reach stratosphere. The chlorine atoms in the gases will act as a catalyst to destroy ozone layer and cause ozone depletion which causes health hazards, global warming, melting of polar ice caps and drought. Hence, it is necessary to minimize the Global warming and Ozone depletion. The refrigerant R22 widely used in the air-conditioners is a major Contributor of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs which cause irreparable loss to the ozone layer and has to be replaced. Approach: To conserve the energy and minimize the global warming, the systems should be designed as more energy efficient and also to minimize Ozone depletion, the eco friendly refrigerants are to be selected and tested as alternative refrigerants to R22. Hence, a window air conditioner of 3.5 kW capacity fitted with Electronic Expansion Valve (EEV instead of capillary tube as an expansion device, was tested for its performance with the selected eco friendly refrigerants R407C and R290 as an alternative to R22 under fixed indoor and outdoor chamber temperatures in the experimental set up and varying the EEV opening. Results: It has been observed from the experimental studies that when the smaller capacity R22 window air conditioner with EEV is retrofitted with R407C and R290, compared to the performance given by R22, the Coefficient Of Performance

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis from carvone in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quertermous, James; Fowler, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    Carvone has occasionally been reported as an allergen, usually in flavorings. Isomers of carvone have been either a mint or a rye flavor and aroma. We report a woman with positive patch-test reactions to carvone (newly added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group standard series) and dermatitis on the head. She had used a hair conditioner with a "mint" scent, and the dermatitis resolved when she discontinued using this product. While the manufacturer would not confirm carvone as an ingredient, the clinical course, patch-test results, and ingredient list strongly suggest that this was a relevant allergen in this case of allergic contact dermatitis.

  12. Influence of AC line faults on HVDC commutation failure transient characteristics in DC/AC interconnected power grid%直流馈入后交流线路故障对换相失败瞬态特征的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝莲; 赵成勇; 卫鹏杰

    2011-01-01

    高压直流(HVDC)输电系统故障会使交流系统电气故障特性复杂化.在PSCAD/EMTDC环境下,基于含宁东--山东直流输电系统的山东电网的电磁暂态模型,研究当青岛换流站附近交流线路不同位置发生不同故障时,直流系统换相失败对交流系统电气瞬态特征的影响.直流系统换相失败对故障线路的平行线路影响最为严重,重点研究交流线路不同故障引一起直流换相失败对平行线路电气特性的影响.仿真分析结果表明,平行线路的故障相电流畸变程度随着故障位置和故障类型的不同而不同,在线路中间发生故障比线路两端故障时畸变严重,发生单相接地短路故障比三相接地短路故障时崎变严重,故在线路中间发生单相接地短路故障时畸变最严重.%The faults of HVDC power transmission system make the electrical characteristics of AC system more complex. In PSCAD/EMTDC environment,based on the electromagnetic transient model of Shandong grid containing Ningdong-Shandong DC transmission system,the influence of HVDC commutation failure on the electrical transient characteristics of AC system is studied for different faults occurring at different positions of AC line near Qingdao substation. During the period of commutation failure,the parallel line of the faulty line is most affected. The influence of commutation failure,caused by different faults of AC line,on the electrical transient characteristics of parallel line is detailed. According to the comparative analysis of simulative results ,the current distortion of the faulty phase of parallel line varies with the fault positions and fault types. It is more serious when the fault occurs in the middle of the line than that when the fault occurs at terminals;it is more serious during single-phase grounding fault than that during three-phase grounding fault. When single-phase grounding fault occurs in the middle of the line ,the current distortion of the

  13. Research on a compact adsorption room air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, G.Z.; Xia, Z.Z.; Wang, R.Z.; Keletigui, Daou; Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Dong, Z.H.; Yang, X. [Panasonic R and D Center, Suzhou Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2006-09-15

    A novel compact adsorption room air conditioner with a cooling capacity of 1kW has been designed, and two prototypes have been built. A two bed, continuous adsorption refrigeration cycle with heat recovery and mass recovery is adopted. Micropore spherical silica gel and water are selected as the working pair. A gravity heat pipe with methanol as working medium is designed to output the cooling. Experimental investigations have indicated that under typical air conditioning conditions, for the first prototype, a cooling capacity of 687W and a COP (coefficient of performance) of 0.307 can be obtained. However, for the improved one, a cooling capacity of 790W and a COP of 0.446 can be reached. It is also proved that the operating temperatures have strong influences on the performance. The designed room air conditioner can be driven by a low grade heat source (<90{sup o}C) and has small dimensions of 300mm (depth), 500mm (width) and 950mm (height). (author)

  14. Contact urticaria from protein hydrolysates in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinimäki, A; Niinimäki, M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Hannuksela, M

    1998-11-01

    Protein hydrolysates (PHs) are added to hair-care products (to "repair" broken hair), soaps, bath gels, creams, etc. From one to 22 PHs used in hair-care products (collagen, keratin, elastin, milk, wheat, almond, and silk) were tested in three patient groups: A) 11 hairdressers with hand dermatitis B) 2160 consecutive adults with suspected allergic respiratory disease subjected to routine skin prick tests C) 28 adults with atopic dermatitis. In group A, all the 22 PHs were tested with scratch and patch tests. In groups B and C, one to three PHs were tested with prick tests. Positive scratch/prick test reactions were seen in 12 patients from three PHs altogether. All were women with atopic dermatitis, and all reacted to at least hydroxypropyl trimonium hydrolyzed collagen (Crotein Q). In three patients, prick and open tests with a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q were performed with positive results. One patient reported contact urticaria on her hands, and two reported acute urticaria on their head, face, and upper body from a hair conditioner containing Crotein Q. In seven of the eight studied sera, specific IgE to Crotein Q was detected. In conclusion, PHs of hair cosmetics can cause contact urticaria, especially in patients with atopic dermatitis.

  15. Shampoo and conditioners: What a dermatologist should know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  16. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  17. A New and Accurate Fault Location Method in Three-Terminal Transmission Lines Compensated by Series-Connected Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haniyeh Marefatjou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to fault location in the three terminals transmission line compensated with series FACTS Devices. This method is based on the converting three line networks to two line networks after recognizing the faulty section and solving accessing the fault distance. So to solve the problem of fault location before determining distance to faulty section, new method to determine faulty section is proposed and then by converting three line networks to two line networks, the location of fault is determined using the proposed algorithm. In this method distributed transmission line model in time domain has been used which is another advantage of the proposed method compared to previous methods. This method for determining the faulty section used simultaneous voltage and current of all three terminals as input data. Due to problems in the modeling of FACTS devices during fault location, our proposed method does not used modeling series FACTS devices. Our proposed algorithm is not sensitive to the resistance of fault, the fault inception angle and fault type and do not dependent on compensator device location and its parameters. This method is good for all transmission lines compensated with any type of series compensator. Different types of fault in any different distance and situation simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK software on compensated three line network with Thyristor Control Series Capacitor(TCSC. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated under different structural and fault conditions. The simulation results confirm the high accuracy of the proposed algorithm

  18. Audible noise predicting formulas and reduction measures for 1 000 kV UHV AC transmission lines%1000 kV交流输电线路噪声的计算模式和减缓措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗超; 查智明; 姚为方

    2015-01-01

    Several audible corona noise predicting formulas of UHA transmission lines,founded by BPA from the U. S. A. ,ENEL from Italy and EPRI from China etc. ,were introduced. Based on the conductor parameter of Huannan-Shanghai 1 000 kV UHV AC double-circuit transmission line,four formulas were presented for pre-dicting the audible noise of the same type transmission lines exactly. The factors resulting in audible noise of UHV AC transmission line are analyzed,including the structure,design and construction of the transmission line, as wel as the atmosphere and environments. The measures to reduce audible noise of transmission line were summed up,and such engineering solutions to reduce the audible noise as increasing the diameter of bundled conductors,increasing the bundle numbers and changing the interval between bundled conductors are consid-ered applicable. Some preventive suggestions ale provided in the hope of supporting on-site operation data for designs of 1000kV UHVAC transmission lines,operation and maintenance.%介绍了几家国内外研究机构建立的用来计算预测输电线路电晕可听噪声的模式,针对皖电东送淮南至上海1000 kV特高压交流示范工程输电线路的实际参数,建立了相应的计算公式,可以较为准确的预测该类型输电线路可听噪声的大小;交流输电线路电晕产生可听噪声的影响因素众多,根据是否可控将这些因素分为两大类,并分析了单个因素对可听噪声预测值的影响程度,针对输电电路导线参数、杆塔型式和附加材料三个方面的内容,提出了几类切实可行的输电线路可听噪声减缓措施,为后续1000 kV交流输电线路的设计和建设提供参考。

  19. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  20. 交流线路与+800 kV直流线路同走廊时的地面混合电场研究%Study on the Hybrid Electric Field Over the Ground Surface Under AC Lines and ±800 kV DC Lines in the Same Corridor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 陆家榆; 鞠勇

    2009-01-01

    交流线路与±800 kV直流线路共用走廊的情况将在我困出现,因此需要研究该种线路地面混合电场的计算方法,以满足工程设计和环境保护需要.在分析同走廊架设的交流线路与±800 kV直流线路相互影响的基础上,提出了一种计算该类线路地面混合电场的方法.通过对比使用该方法得到的计算结果与不考虑两种线路相互影响时的计算结果,得到如下结论:相对于忽略交直流线路的相互影响,当考虑其相互影响时,在同走廊交直流线路中心附近,地面混合电场的瞬时最大值横向分布有波动;两种计算方法得到的地面混合电场有效值分布曲线基本重合;在一个交流周期内,同走廊线路地面混合电场的最大值与单独±800 kV直流线路地面合成电场的最大值差别很小.%Parallel adjacent erection of AC transmission lines and ±800 kV DC transmission lines in the same corridor will occur in China, so the calculation method for the hybrid electric field over the ground under this type of lines should be studied so as to satisfy the requirements of engineering design and environmental protection. Based on the analysis of mutual influences between AC transmission lines and ±800 kV DC transmission lines in the same corridor, a calculation method is proposed. Through the comparison between the calculation results achieved with this method and the corresponding calculation results obtained when the mutual influences between AC transmission lines and ±800 kV DC transmission lines are neglected, some conclusions can be drawn as follows: compared with the calculation results obtained when the mutual influences are neglected, near the center of AC transmission lines and ±800 kV DC transmission lines in the same corridor, the lateral distribution of the instantaneous maximal values of the hybrid electric field obtained with the proposed method fluctuates;the lateral distributions of the virtual values of the

  1. Artificial Intelligence Based Three-Phase Unified Power Quality Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moleykutty George

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power quality is an important measure of the performance of an electrical power system. This paper discusses the topology, control strategies using artificial intelligent (AI based controllers and the performance of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC for power quality improvement. UPQC is an integration of shunt and series compensation to limit the harmonic contamination within 5 %, the limit imposed by IEEE-519 standard. The novelty of this paper lies in the application of neural network control (NNC algorithms such as model reference control (MRC, and nonlinear autoregressive-moving average (NARMA–L2 control to generate switching signals for the series compensator of the UPQC system. The entire system has been modeled using MATLAB 7.0 toolbox. Simulation results demonstrate the applicability of MRC and NARMA-L2 controllers for the control of UPQC.

  2. Improvement of Soil Physical Properties with Soil Conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOBING-ZI; XUFU-AN

    1995-01-01

    Effects of non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM),anionic polyacrylamide(PHP),cationic polyacrylamide(PCAM),non-ionic polyvinylalcohol(PVA),anionic hydrolyzed polyacrylonitrile(HPAN)and polyethleneoxide(PEO)on the physical properties of three different soil stpes were studied.content of water-stable aggregates larger than 0.25mm increased to varying extents for different soils and soil conditioners,Among the six kinds of condiftioners,non-ionic polyacrylamide(PAM) was the most effective for red soil while polyethyleneoxide(PEO)the least effective for Chao soil,red soil and yellow-brown soil.Water-stable aggregates with the molecular weight of PEO within a certain range.Only evaporation rate of Chao soil decreased after aplication of PAM and HPAN to Chao soil and red soil.

  3. Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdal, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Fuzzy Inference Systems for Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati R. Chaudhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world there is exponential increase in the use of air conditioning devices. The enhancement in utilization of such devices makes it essential for them to work with their full capability and efficiency. The fuzzy inference systems are best suited for the applications requiring easy interpretation, human reasoning, accurate decision making and control. The fuzzy inference systems resemble human decision making and generate precise solutions from approximate information. A comprehensive review of fuzzy inference systems with weighted average and defuzzification is covered in this paper. The objective of the paper is to provide the comparative analysis of fuzzy inference systems. This paper is a quick reference for the researchers in studying the characteristics of fuzzy inference system in air conditioner.

  5. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  6. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner...

  8. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

    2006-07-01

    A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

  9. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  10. Effects of conditioners on surface hardness of hair fibers: an investigation using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruetsch, S B; Kamath, Y K; Kintrup, L; Schwark, H-J

    2003-01-01

    Conditioners are known to have a prophylactic effect on hair damage caused by cosmetic chemical treatments or mechanical grooming procedures. They are known to impart softness and smoothness to hair by moisturizing the fiber. Since the amount of conditioners deposited on the fiber is very small in quantity, it is conceivable that mainly the surface is moisturized. This is especially true of polymeric conditioners, which deposit preferentially on the surface of the fiber, rather than penetrate into the cortex. Therefore, this study strictly investigates whether cationic polymeric conditioners impart softness to the surface cuticle cell as a result of their hydrophilicity, with no regard to its applicability to cosmetic effects. Such softening can be detected by indentation of the surface and can be quantified by measuring the depth of the indent in real time. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), equipped with nano-indentation capability, is ideally suited for this purpose. In this work it was used to determine changes in the microhardness (micromechanical properties) of the hair fiber surface as a result of fiber/conditioner/moisture interactions. In a preliminary study, we observed that the scale faces of hair treated with Polyquaternium 10 (PQ-10) conditioner gave deeper indents, while scale edges yielded shallower ones in comparison to cuticle cells of untreated hair. This suggests that the conditioner softens the scale face and hardens the scale edges. However, because of significant amounts of conditioner residues left on the scale face, this conclusion was rather ambiguous. Therefore, the study was repeated in which multiple indentations were made on the surface cuticle cells of a larger number of the same hair fibers before and after multiple applications of the conditioner. This reduces errors due to fiber-to-fiber variation in pre-existing microhardness differences in surface cuticle cells. Also, the larger number of fibers investigated in the current work

  11. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)).

  12. Influences of Oyster Shell Soil Conditioner on Soil and Plant Rhizospheric Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guoliang; LIU Yun; DING Mingyu; KONG Xiuqin

    2003-01-01

    Oyster shell soil conditioner had significant influence on soil and rhizospheric microorganisms in their biomass,respiratory intensity and nutritional requirement. It could stimulate growth of soil and rhizospheric microorganisms, especially nitrogen-fixers, and intensify soil respiration in proportion to the dose and fertilizing time of the conditioner, leading to the increase in the number of nitrogen fixing bacteria and the decrease in the number of bacteria with special nutrition demands.

  13. Effect of addition of ethyl alcohol on gelation and viscoelasticity of tissue conditioners

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Hiroshi; Hamada, Taizo; Harshini,; Toki, Kazuhito; Nikawa, Hiroki

    2001-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness of tissue conditioners is influenced by their gelation characteristics and viscoelastic properties after gelation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) on these properties, and to compare the effect of EtOH with that of the powder/liquid (P/L) ratio. Three tissue conditioners were used in this study. The gelation times were obtained with an oscillating rheometer. The viscoelastic properties after gelation were also...

  14. Effect of Tower Shadow and Wind Shear in a Wind Farm on AC Tie-Line Power Oscillations of Interconnected Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Jin; Hu, Weihao; Wang, Xiaoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency domain approach for evaluating the impact of tower shadow and wind shear effects (TSWS) on tie-line power oscillations. A simplified frequency domain model of an interconnected power system with a wind farm is developed. The transfer function, which relates the ti...

  15. Application of evaporative cooling on the condenser of window-air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajidavalloo, Ebrahim [Shahid Chamran University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Golestan St., Ahwaz, Khoozestan 61355 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: hajidae_1999@yahoo.com

    2007-08-15

    Reduction of energy consumption is a major concern in the vapor compression refrigeration cycle especially in the area with very hot weather conditions (about 50 deg. C), where window-air-conditioners are usually used to cool homes. In this weather condition performance of air condenser window-air-conditioners decrease sharply and electrical power consumption increase considerably. These problems have activated the research programs in order to improve the performance of window-air-conditioners by enhancing heat transfer rate in the condenser. In this article, a new design with high commercialization potential for incorporating of evaporative cooling in the condenser of window-air-conditioner is introduced and experimentally investigated. A real air conditioner is used to test the innovation by putting two cooling pads in both sides of the air conditioner and injecting water on them in order to cool down the air before it passing over the condenser. The experimental results show that thermodynamic characteristics of new system are considerably improved and power consumption decreases by about 16% and the coefficient of performance increases by about 55%.

  16. AC 410 AC410 AC410 Unit 7 Homework Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

    AC 410 AC410 AC410 Unit 7 Homework Assignment Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/ac410-unit-7-homework-assignment/    Questions Requiring Analysis 14-30   Early in your first audit of Star Corporation, you notice that sales and year-end inventory are almost unchanged from the prior year. However, cost of goods sold is less than in the preceding year, and accounts payable also are down substantially. Gross profit has increased, but this increase has not c...

  17. EXPRESIÓN DE LA PROTEÍNA Cry1Ac EN TEJIDOS DE LÍNEASTRANSGÉNICAS DE PAPA (Solanum tuberosum spp. ANDÍGENAVAR. DIACOL CAPIRO. Cry1Ac Protein Expression in Tissues of Potato (Solanumtuberosum spp. Andígena Transgenic Lines Var. Diacol Capiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO ANDRÉS VANEGAS ARAUJO

    genetic plant breeding related to the introduction of Cry genes which codify insecticidal crystal proteins is an alternative for reducing the insect attack in commercial crops. In this work, the insertion, transcription and expression of Cry1Ac gen was characterized in different tissues and three development stages of two transgenic lines of Solanum tuberosum variety Diacol Capiro that were previously transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens method. The characterization was realized by PCR, RT-PCR and ELISA techniques. The gen insertion and transcription was confirmed using primers for Cry1Ac gen that amplified a specific band of 766 bp. The protein expression levels were higher than 45 µg/g and were not significantly different between the analyzed lines nor the three development stages. Furthermore, taking into account some relevant phenotypic features, no significant differences were found between transgenic lines and controls. The results suggest that monitoring and biosecurity assays are necessary with this vegetal material because their high level expression inside all the tissues analyzed that could affect non-targeted insects.

  18. 带弧垂特高压交流输电线路的电磁剂量学分析%Analysis of electromagnetic dosimetry by ultra high voltage AC transmission line with belt sag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利航; 逯迈; 陈小强; 侯立伟

    2016-01-01

    采用Comsol仿真软件和人体模型计算分析倒三角较贴近实际的带弧垂特高压交流输电线路对人体产生的电场效应,并与理想直导线的结果进行对比。结果表明,人体以及人体附近电场和感应电流分布不均匀,体外电场最大值集中于人体头部表面上方,关节连接处和端部的电场、感应电流密度较大。带弧垂特高压输电线路在人体各组织产生的电场和感应电流密度均较理想笔直导线线路下高约17%~19%;与国际非电离辐射防护委员会(International commission on non-ionizing radiation protection, ICNIRP)导则限值相比较,电场强度无论是对专业人员还是普通民众均在 ICNIRP 导则限值范围内;而感应电流密度除人体腿部下部、头皮与颈部连接处附近的略高于ICNIRP导则中普通民众的限值外,其他均在ICNIRP导则限值范围内。两种类型特高压输电线路所产生的电磁辐射对专业人员是安全的,对普通民众应注意适当的防护。%The aim is to investigate the electric field effect produced by the ultra high voltage (UHV) AC transmission lines with belt sag on the human body. A simulation software named Comsol and a human body model were used to calculate and analyze the electric field effect caused by the nabla UHV AC transmission lines closely to the reality, and then the result was compared with the one produced by ideal straight lines. The results indicated that in the human and the near-field region, the distribution of electric field and induced current was nonuniform. The maximum electric field focused on the above region of human head surface. The value of electric field intensity and  induced current density in the joints of the body were high. Below the actual and ideal straight UHV transmission lines, the electric field intensity and induced current density produced by the belt sag wire in all tissues including central nervous system of human was 17

  19. METALLICITIES OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES FROM HST ACS PEARS AND HST WFC3 ERS GRISM SPECTROSCOPY AT 0.6 < z < 2.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Lifang; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Pirzkal, Nor [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Straughn, Amber [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kuntschner, Harald; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); O' Connell, Robert, E-mail: lifang.xia@asu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission-line strength show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 < z < 2.4, selected by their prominent emission lines in low-resolution grism spectra in the optical with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3. Using a sample of 11 emission-line galaxies at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -19 which have [O II], H{beta}, and [O III] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 < 12 + log (O/H) < 8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian-based Markov Chain Monte Carlo ({pi}MC{sup 2}) fitting of their spectral energy distribution, and span the mass range 8.1 < log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} ) < 10.1. These galaxies show mass-metallicity (M-Z) and luminosity-metallicity (L-Z) relations, which are offset by -0.6 dex in metallicity at given absolute magnitude and stellar mass relative to the local Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, as well as continuum-selected DEEP2 samples at similar redshifts. The emission-line-selected galaxies most resemble the local 'green peas' galaxies and Ly{alpha} galaxies at z {approx_equal} 0.3 and z {approx_equal} 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M{sub 20} morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  20. Metallicities of Emission-Line Galaxies from HST ACS PEARS and HST WFC3 ERS Grism Spectroscopy at 0.6 is less than z is less than 2.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lifang; Malhotra, Sangetta; Rhoads, James; Pirzkal, Nor; Straughn, Amber; Finkelstein, Steven; Cohen, Seth; Kuntschner, Harald; Walsh, Jeremy; Windhorst, Rogier A.; O'Connell, Robert; Kuemmel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Galaxies selected on the basis of their emission line strength. show low metallicities, regardless of their redshifts. We conclude this from a sample of faint galaxies at redshifts between 0.6 ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and in the near-infrared using Wide-Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Using a sample of 11 emission line galaxies (ELGs) at 0.6 < z < 2.4 with luminosities of -22 approx < MB approx -19 which have [OII], H-Beta, and [OIII] line flux measurements from the combination of two grism spectral surveys, we use the R23 method to derive the gas-phase oxygen abundances: 7.5 <12+log(0/H)<8.5. The galaxy stellar masses are derived using Bayesian based Markov Chain Monte Carlo (pi MC(exp 2)) fitting of their Spectral Energy Distribution (SED), and span the mass range 8.1 < log(M(stellar)/M(solar)) < 10.1. These galaxies show a mass-metal1icity (M-L) and Luminosity-Metallicity (LZ) relation, which is offset by -line selected galaxies most resemble the local "green peas" galaxies and Lyman-alpha galaxies at z approx = 0.3 and z approx = 2.3 in the M-Z and L-Z relations and their morphologies. The G - M(sub 20) morphology analysis shows that 10 out of 11 show disturbed morphology, even as the star-forming regions are compact. These galaxies may be intrinsically metal poor, being at early stages of formation, or the low metallicities may be due to gas infall and accretion due to mergers.

  1. Incorporating residential AC load control into ancillary service markets: Measurement and settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Josh L.; Sullivan, Michael J.; Berghman, Dries; Eto, Joseph H.

    2013-05-01

    Many pre-existing air conditioner load control programs can provide valuable operational flexibility but have not been incorporated into electricity ancillary service markets or grid operations. Multiple demonstrations have shown that residential air conditioner (AC) response can deliver resources quickly and can provide contingency reserves. A key policy hurdle to be overcome before AC load control can be fully incorporated into markets is how to balance the accuracy, cost, and complexity of methods available for the settlement of load curtailment. Overcoming this hurdle requires a means for assessing the accuracy of shorter-term AC load control demand reduction estimation approaches in an unbiased manner. This paper applies such a method to compare the accuracy of approaches varying in cost and complexity ? including regression analysis, load matching and control group approaches ? using feeder data, household data and AC end-use data. We recommend a practical approach for settlement, relying on an annually updated set of tables, with pre-calculated reduction estimates. These tables allow users to look up the demand reduction per device based on daily maximum temperature, geographic region and hour of day, simplifying settlement and providing a solution to the policy problem presented in this paper.

  2. AC Optimal Power Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-10-04

    In this work, we have implemented and developed the simulation software to implement the mathematical model of an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem. The objective function is to minimize the total cost of generation subject to constraints of node power balance (both real and reactive) and line power flow limits (MW, MVAr, and MVA). We have currently implemented the polar coordinate version of the problem. In the present work, we have used the optimization solver, Knitro (proprietary and not included in this software) to solve the problem and we have kept option for both the native numerical derivative evaluation (working satisfactorily now) as well as for analytical formulas corresponding to the derivatives being provided to Knitro (currently, in the debugging stage). Since the AC OPF is a highly non-convex optimization problem, we have also kept the option for a multistart solution. All of these can be decided by the user during run-time in an interactive manner. The software has been developed in C++ programming language, running with GCC compiler on a Linux machine. We have tested for satisfactory results against Matpower for the IEEE 14 bus system.

  3. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift

  4. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. V. The full ACS strong-lens sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Wayth, Randall; Schlegel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    We present the definitive data for the full sample of 131 strong gravitational lens candidates observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope by the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey. All targets were selected for higher redshift emission lines and lower redshift c

  5. Using Field-Metered Data to Quantify Annual Energy Use of Portable Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Chen, Yuting [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ganeshalingam, Mohan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept., Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2014-12-12

    As many regions of the United States experience rising temperatures, consumers have come to rely increasingly on cooling appliances (including portable air conditioners) to provide a comfortable indoor temperature. Home occupants sometimes use a portable air conditioner (PAC) to maintain a desired indoor temperature in a single room or enclosed space. Although PACs in residential use are few compared to centrally installed and room air conditioning (AC) units, the past few years have witnessed an increase of PACs use throughout the United States. There is, however, little information and few research projects focused on the energy consumption and performance of PACs, particularly studies that collect information from field applications of PACs. The operation and energy consumption of PACs may differ among geographic locations and households, because of variations in cooling load, frequency, duration of use, and other user-selected settings. In addition, the performance of building envelope (thermal mass and air leakage) as well as inter-zonal mixing within the building would substantially influence the ability to control and maintain desirable indoor thermal conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an initial field-metering study aimed at increasing the knowledge and data related to PAC operation and energy consumption in the United States. LBNL performed its field-metering study from mid-April to late October 2014. The study, which monitored 19 sites in the Northeastern United States (4 in upstate New York and 15 near Philadelphia), collected real-time data on PAC energy consumption along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and environmental conditions that were expected to affect PAC performance. Given the limited number of test sites, this study was not intended to be statistically representative of PAC users in the United States but rather to understand the system response to the cooling demand and to

  6. Thermoeconomic optimization of small size central air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, L.; Wang, Z. [Hunan University (China). College of Civil Engineering

    2004-03-01

    The application of thermoeconomic optimization design in an air-conditioning system is important in achieving economical life cycle cost. Previous work on thermoeconomic optimization mainly focused on directly calculating exergy input into the system. However, it is usually difficult to do so because of the uncertainty of input power of fan on the air side of the heat-exchanger and that of pump in the system. This paper introduces a new concept that exergy input into the system can be substituted for the sum of exergy destruction and exergy output from the system according to conservation of exergy. Although it is also difficult for a large-scale system to calculate exergy destruction, it is feasible to do so for a small-scale system, for instance, villa air conditioner (VAC). In order to perform thermoeconomic optimization, a program is firstly developed to evaluate the thermodynamic property of HFC 134a on the basis of Martin-Hou state equation. Authors develop thermodynamic and thermoeconomic objective functions based on second law and thermoeconomic analysis of VAC system. Two optimization results are obtained. The design of VAC only aimed at decreasing the energy consumption is not comprehensive. Life cycle cost at thermoeconomic optimization is lower than that at thermodynamic optimization. (author)

  7. Dirty air conditioners: Energy implications of coil fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Jeffrey; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2002-03-01

    Residential air conditioning is responsible for a substantial amount of peak electrical demand and energy consumption throughout most of the United States. Coil fouling, the deposition of indoor dusts and other particulate matter on evaporator heat exchangers, increases system pressure drop and, correspondingly, decreases system air flow and air conditioner performance. In this paper, we apply experimental and simulation results describing particle deposition on evaporator coils as well as research about indoor particle and dust concentrations to determine coil fouling rates. The results suggest that typical coils foul enough to double evaporator pressure drop in about 7.5 years, much sooner than the expected 15-30 year life time for an evaporator coil. The most important parameters in determining coil fouling times are the efficiency of the filter and indoor particle concentrations, although filter bypass and duct and coil design are important as well. The reduced air flows that result from coil fouling cause typical efficiency and capacity degradations of less than 5%, however they can be much greater for marginal systems or extreme conditions. These energy issues, as well as possible indoor air quality issues resulting from fouling by biological aerosols, suggest that regular coil cleaning to ameliorate low flow and the elimination of filter bypass should be an important part of residential air conditioning commissioning and maintenance practices.

  8. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2017-04-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  9. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  10. Electronic Power Conditioner for Ku-band Travelling Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowstubha, Palle; Krishnaveni, K.; Ramesh Reddy, K.

    2016-07-01

    A highly sophisticated regulated power supply is known as electronic power conditioner (EPC) is required to energise travelling wave tubes (TWTs), which are used as RF signal amplifiers in satellite payloads. The assembly consisting of TWT and EPC together is known as travelling wave tube amplifier (TWTA). EPC is used to provide isolated and conditioned voltage rails with tight regulation to various electrodes of TWT and makes its RF performance independent of solar bus variations which are caused due to varying conditions of eclipse and sunlit. The payload mass and their power consumption is mainly due to the existence of TWTAs that represent about 35 % of total mass and about 70-90 % (based on the type of satellite application) of overall dc power consumption. This situation ensures a continuous improvement in the design of TWTAs and their associated EPCs to realize more efficient and light products. Critical technologies involved in EPCs are design and configuration, closed loop regulation, component and material selection, energy limiting of high voltage (HV) outputs and potting of HV card etc. This work addresses some of these critical technologies evolved in realizing and testing the state of art of EPC and it focuses on the design of HV supply with a HV and high power capability, up to 6 kV and 170 WRF, respectively required for a space TWTA. Finally, an experimental prototype of EPC with a dc power of 320 W provides different voltages required by Ku-band TWT in open loop configuration.

  11. 500 kV交流线路复合绝缘子并联间隙应用研究*%Research on the Application of Composite Insulator Parallel Gap in 500 kV AC Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永力; 杨庆; 罗兵; 司马文霞

    2013-01-01

      为了设计和开发性能优良的的超高压输电线路并联间隙防雷保护装置,开展了绝缘子串并联间隙的相关研究,包括其雷电冲击放电特性试验、操作冲击放电特性试验、工频短路电流试验和工频电压分布研究。提出了一种兼具绝缘子防雷保护和工频电场均压功能的环形并联间隙,并评估了加装并联间隙后的500 kV交流线路的耐雷性能。研究结果表明,所设计的并联间隙具有绝缘子雷击闪络保护、转移疏导工频电弧和均匀电场分布的功能,使得平原地区架空线路加装并联间隙后雷击跳闸率低于0.14次/(100 km·a)。%In order to design and develop parallel gap lightning protection devices with high performance, the related studies of insulator string with parallel gap are carried out in this paper, including its lightning impulse performance test, switching impulse performance test, power frequency short circuit current test and power frequency voltage distribution. A ring type parallel gap is proposed, which has the functions of both lightning protection and electric field voltage equalizing. The lightning performance of 500 kV transmission lines with the ring type parallel gap is evaluated. The research results show that the designed parallel gap has functions of lightning flashover protection, AC arc transfer and AC voltage equalizing, and thus the annual rate of lightning trip-out of 500 kV lines with parallel gap can be lower than 0.14 times/(100 km·a) in plain regions.

  12. Implementing method of optimum front-end conditioner based on Butterworth filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The front-end conditioner is an essential part of digital systems of nuclear spectrometer, which functions in two ways: (1) prevents saturation of the subsequent ADC; (2) limits the bandwidth of frequency to realize anti-aliasing. To realize the above-mentioned functions, an optimum front-end conditioner for a resistive feedback charge-sensitive preamplifier is designed. In the conditioner, the pole-zero compensation (P/Z compensation) technique was used to effectively filter signals from the preamplifier. The Butterworth filter was improved after the pole-zero position was optimally set up to shape the wave of output, which tallied with the whole system. The front-end conditioner can resolve the aberration of waveform of nuclear signals in a regular Butterworth filter. Compared with the traditional triple-pole filtering circuitry, the circuitry of this conditioner is more compact and flexible.Moreover, its output waveform is more symmetrical and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is higher. The improvement in the resolution of spectrometer is also significant.

  13. Preliminary report of a gas conditioner to improve operational reliability of cryotherapy in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broekhuizen Fredrik

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryotherapy is a safe, affordable, and effective method of treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. In some low-resource settings, environmental conditions or qualities of the refrigerant gas can lead to blockage of cryotherapy equipment, terminating treatment. A prototype of a gas conditioner to prevent operational failure was designed, built, and field tested. Methods The prototype conditioner device consists of an expansion chamber that filters and dries the refrigerant gas. Users in Peru and Kenya reported on their experience with the prototype conditioner. In Ghana, simulated cryotherapy procedures were used to test the effects of the prototype conditioner, as well as the commonly used "cough technique." Results Anecdotal reports from field use of the device were favorable. During simulated cryotherapy, the prevalence of blockage during freezing were 0% (0/25 with the device alone, 23.3% (7/30 with the cough technique alone, 5.9% (1/17 with both, and 55.2% (16/29 with neither (Pearson's Chi square = 26.6, df = 3, p Conclusion This prototype design of a cryotherapy gas conditioner is a potential solution for low-resource settings that are experiencing cryotherapy device malfunction.

  14. An assessment of energy benefits of efficient household air-conditioners in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbino Cardoso, R.; Horta Nogueira, L.A.; Palhares de Souza, E.; Haddad, J. [EXCEN Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica, Universidade Federal de Itajuba-UNIFEI, Av. BPS 1303, CEP 37.500-903, Itajuba, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Increasing efficiency of electrical equipment is essential to national energy rationality, enabling energy consumption reduction and postponing inversion in distribution, transmission and generation, as well as mitigating environmental impacts associated with such activities. Considering such purposes, two actions have been promoted in Brazil: (a) minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have been required for some appliances and (b) consumers have been informed about the most efficient products by 'endorsement labeling'. The purpose of this study is to assess window and split air-conditioners with Brazilian MEPS. To evaluate the impact of efficient air-conditioners in this market, a model was developed based on estimates for quantity of equipment in operation and unitary consumption, as determined by local temperature records. From this model, it was deduced that using only efficient conditioners (class A for Brazilian Labeling Program/INMETRO, with PROCEL Label) an annual saving of 322 GWh and a reduction in demand of 109 MW could be obtained in 2007. Furthermore, it was observed that the current MEPS established by Brazilian legislation for air-conditioners may be considered relatively low. Considering that MEPS are similar to those observed in China (the main exporter of air-conditioners to the Brazil), an energy saving of roughly 222 GWh could be achieved in the same year. Impacts on emission of greenhouse gases are also estimated.

  15. Prospect of Gas Air-conditioners Development%燃气空调器的发展前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金佳宾; 焦文玲

    2000-01-01

    分析了燃气空调器的发展前景,提出了推广使用燃气空调器的途径。%In the paper, the wide prospect of gas air-conditioners development are analyzed, the way to popularize and use of gas air-conditioners are proposed.

  16. Peltier ac calorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, D. H.; Moon, I. K.; Jeong, Y. H.

    2001-01-01

    A new ac calorimeter, utilizing the Peltier effect of a thermocouple junction as an ac power source, is described. This Peltier ac calorimeter allows to measure the absolute value of heat capacity of small solid samples with sub-milligrams of mass. The calorimeter can also be used as a dynamic one with a dynamic range of several decades at low frequencies.

  17. High efficiency and long life of a three-phase power conditioner via interleave control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Amei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the high efficiency and long life of three-phase power conditioners of a photovoltaic (PV system. The current PV system, which is widely spread, has two problems. The first problem is the lifetime of a power conditioner, whereas the other problem is the drop in the efficiency of the conversion because of the characteristics of the solar cell. For those problems, the solar panel and boost chopper circuit were divided into a plurality to configure a power conditioner, and an electrolytic capacitor-less driver with interleave control was realized. The drop in the current generated by the solar cell was suppressed, and an improvement in power generation efficiency was expected. The configuration and principle of a proposed circuit were explained, and results of simulation and experiment were reported.

  18. Analysis and optimization of an adsorption air conditioner for electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceves, S.M.

    1994-07-27

    This paper shows an analysis of the applicability of an adsorption system for electric vehicle (EV) air conditioning. Adsorption systems are designed and optimized to provide the required cooling for four combinations of vehicle characteristics and driving cycles. The resulting adsorption systems are compared with vapor compression air conditioners that can satisfy the cooling load. The objective function is the overall system weight, which includes the cooling system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for air conditioner operation. The system with the minimum overall weight is considered to be the best. The results show the optimum values of all the variables, as well as temperatures and amounts adsorbed, for the adsorption and desorption processes. The results indicate that, for the conditions analyzed in this paper, vapor compression air conditioners are superior to adsorption systems, not only because they are lighter, but also because they have a higher COP and are more compact.

  19. An Application of Green Quality Function Deployment to Designing an Air Conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peetam Kumar Dehariya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles a systematic and operational approach to Green Quality Function Deployment (GQFD, a customer oriented survey based quality management system with regular improvement in product development. GQFD shows balance between product development and environmental protection. GQFD is not used to determine their attributes and their levels. GQFD captures what product developers “think” would best satisfy customer needs considering Environmental factor. This research used Air Conditioner as a case study for implementation of GQFD. In the design of a new Air Conditioner, apply GQFD to find out the most important parameter and functions from customer point of view and then find out Technical Characteristics. These important parameters are then put into house of quality and make relation matrix between voice of customer and Technical Characteristics. From the result of QFD applied to Air Conditioner are short out the parameter which are require modification according to voice of customer and the result has used for new design.

  20. Characterization of the coal derived humic acids from Mukah, Sarawak as soil conditioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Sim Siong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, abundant coal resources were found in Sarawak and Sabah. The utilization of coal resources, to date, is emphasized on the energy productions. The non-energy utilization as soil conditioner is unexplored. Therefore, this study attempted to characterize the coal humic acids extracted from Mukah coal and to evaluate its properties as soil conditioner. The coal humic acids from the regenerated sample were also assessed. The results revealed that different extractants and concentrations influenced the properties of humic acids. The extraction with KOH at 0.5 mol L-1 produced humic acids with low ash content and high acidic functional groups, which are substantial as soil conditioner. However, the yield was low. Regeneration of coal sample with 10% nitric acids improved the yield to an average of 83.45%. The acidic functional groups of nitrohumic acids were improved with the ash content remained at a low level.

  1. 基于SINDA/FLUINT平台的R290房间空调器仿真%R290 room air- conditioner simulation based on SINDA/FLUINT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁杰荣; 李廷勋

    2011-01-01

    R290 is environment -friendly natural refrigerant, but it is flammable. According to IEC 60335 the charge is limited strictly in room air conditioner (RAC). In this paper, simulating models of R290 room air conditioner were developed based on SINDA/FLUINT, and the models were verified by comparing the simulated temperature distribution and system performance like COP and indoor air humidity with experiment results. With the models, the R290 mass distribution and pressure drop among the RAC components were calculated. It is found that refrigerant concentrates in condenser (62%), while pressure drop is mainly produced in evaporator, liquid line and vapor line.%R290制冷剂是环保自然工质,但具有可燃性,在空调中对充注量要求非常严格.基于SINDA/FLUINT仿真平台对R290系统进行建模,通过与温度和运行性能的实验数据对比,检验了模型的可靠性;计算分析了R290空调器内各部件的制冷剂分布及沿程压损.计算结果表明,冷媒主要集中在冷凝器(62%);沿程压损主要集中在蒸发器,液相管和气相管.

  2. Completion of the 200kW power conditioner for Miyakojima battery energy storage system of Okinawa Electric Power Co; Okinawa Denryoku (kabu) Miyakojima 200kW denchi denryoku chozoyo denryoku henkan sochi no kansei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Toshiba delivered the 200kW power conditioner for a Na-S (NAS) battery energy storage system (BESS) to Miyako PV generation demonstration research laboratory of Okinawa Electric Power Co. This power conditioner performs charge/discharge of the NAS battery and additional static var control (SVC) and governor-free control under a condition where both PV cell and NAS battery are connected with a DC circuit. Operation control of the whole BESS and data collection can be carried out by commands from Okinawa island through PHS telephone line. The demonstration study of this system on load leveling by BESS and output fluctuation control for new energy generation is in joint promotion by Toshiba and Okinawa Electric Power Co. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Research and Evaluation for a Bed Air-conditioner by Semiconductor Thermoelectric Effect%一种利用半导体热电效应的空调床的性能研究及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敬雯; 邓帅; 代彦军; 王如竹

    2012-01-01

    为了降低夜间空调能耗,基于帕尔帖效应设计了一种床体局部空调,简称空调床.空调床由床头制冷装置和床尾供暖装置构成,在满足床内舒适温度需求的同时,可以实现“头凉脚暖”的局部温度场.测试结果表明:冬季空调床维持床内温度为22℃时,功率为0.1 kW~0.2kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高6℃;夏季当室温低于30℃,床内维持28℃时,功率为0.06kW至0.12kW,脚部空气温度比头部约高1.5℃.此外,通过系统模拟分析可知,一定条件下,空调床的使用可在冬季夜间节约空调耗电约52%,夏季节约42%.%In order to reduce energy consumption of air-conditioner during night, one zoning air-conditioner fixed on the bed, namely bed AC, is developed based on peltier effect. The bed AC is equipped with a heating unit on the foot part and a cooling unit on the head part. It not only meets the thermal comfort of a bed, but also can create a comfortable environment about "warm foot and cool head". In winter, bed AC can maintain bed air temperature at 22℃, and its power is about 0.1kW~0.2kW, and foot air temperature is approximately 6℃ higher than that of head. In summer, if room temperature is lower than 30 ℃, bed AC can keep bed air temperature at 28℃, and its power varies from 0.06kW to 0.12kW, and head air temperature is nearly 1.5℃ lower than that of foot. By system simulation, the energy-saving performance is also studied. It can be found that energy saving rate of bed AC in winter and summer sleeping time is 52% and 42% respectively, compared with traditional split air-conditioner.

  4. Study on AC short -circuited ice melting plan for 35kV main transformer on lines%35kV变对线路交流短路融冰的方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘旭辉

    2011-01-01

    By means of reducing voltage for 35kV main transformer, short - circuited ice melting for lines is carried out using 10kV AC power source, by simple linking devices which are in 35kV substation can reclaim to safest ice melting device, upon completion of ice melting, normal power supply can be achieved, dispense with other inputs, the plan makes good use of the currently existing power transformation resource, furthermore, it can thoroughly resolve ice melting problem for rural power network without larger investment.%利用10kV交流电源通过35kV主变降压后在对线路进行短路融冰的方法,现有35kV变电站内的设备进行简单连接后即可改造为安全可靠的融冰装置,在融完冰之后立即可恢复正常供电,无需其他投入,非常好的利用了现有变电资源,既不需对较大投入又能彻底的解决农网覆冰线路融冰问题。

  5. Chemical Risk Evaluation: A Case Study in an Automotive Air Conditioner Production Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been limited knowledge on worker’s exposure to chemicals used in the automotive industries. The purpose of this study is to assess chemical risk and to determine the adequacy of the existing control measures to reduce chemical exposure. A cross sectional survey was conducted in a factory involving installation and servicing of automotive air conditioner units. Qualitative exposure assessment was carried out following the Malaysian Chemical Health Risk Assessment Manual (CHRA. There were 180 employees, 156 workers worked in the production line, which constitutes six work units Tube fin pressed, Brazing, Welding, Final assembly, Piping and Kit II. From the chemical risk evaluation for each work unit, 26 chemical compounds were used. Most of the chemicals were irritants (eye and skin and some were asphyxiants and sensitizers. Based on the work assignment, 93 out of 180 (51.67% of the workers were exposed to chemicals. The highest numbers of workers exposed to chemicals were from the Brazing section (22.22% while the Final Assembly section was the lowest (1.67%. Health survey among the workers showed occurrence of eye irritation, skin irritation, and respiratory irritation, symptoms usually associated with chemical exposure. Using a risk rating matrix, several work process were identified as having ‘significant risk’. For these areas, the workers are at risk of adverse health effects since chemical exposure is not adequately controlled. This study recommends corrective actions be taken in order to control the level of exposure and to provide a safe work environment for workers.

  6. 基于瞬时值解析的交流输电路径电气份额计算%Electrical Shares Calculation of AC Transmission Line Based on Instantaneous Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于继来

    2014-01-01

    多个电气用户共用交流输电路径时,能否正确计算各自对输电路径的使用份额系数,关乎电力系统许多技术和经济问题的客观公正解决。然而,该问题目前尚未取得达成共识的解决方法。经重新审视发现,现有方法的研究思路普遍基于交流电路有关物理量的平均值、从相量分析的角度构造电气份额(electrical share,ES)计算关系,该思路可能从一开始就为方法存在理论缺陷埋下了隐患。文中回归到从交流电路瞬时值角度探讨问题的解决之道:先由交流电气用户和输电路径上的瞬时功率或瞬时电流的实际分布(包括方向和数值)情况,定义瞬时ES系数,再对瞬时ES系数求特定时间周期内的平均值。先求待研究物理量的瞬时值再求其平均值的计算方式,符合对任意连续时间过程相关物理量的一般评估思路。在此基础上,针对交流输电路径受端节点联接等效负荷用户(或送端节点联接等效电源用户)、送端节点联接电源和负荷用户、受端节点联接电源和负荷用户几种方式,给出了不同用户使用输电路径的瞬时ES系数和平均ES系数解析计算关系。理论检验和数值算例对比分析结果表明,源于瞬时值解析得出的ES系数计算方法,更具理论正确性,有可能尽早使问题取得共识性成果。%ABSTRACT:The correct calculation of multi-electrical-user’s share coefficients on the AC transmission line is about the objective and fair solutions for many power system’s technical and economic issues. However, the problem has not yet reached a consensus on computation method. This paper reviewed and found that the research ideas of the existed methods were generally based on the mean values of AC circuit physical quantities and established calculation formula of electrical shares from the phasor analysis. These ideas might store up method’s theoretical defect from

  7. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shah, Nihar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  8. 交流输电线路模型在山火条件下的击穿机理%Air Gap Breakdown Mechanism of Model AC Transmission Line Under Forest Fires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴田; 胡毅; 阮江军; 刘凯; 刘庭; 陈成

    2011-01-01

    With the development transmission system construction in China, many power transmission channels are across mountain areas and occurrence of fire under transmission lines is responsible for a great number of line trips and interruptions. Consequently, the influences of electrode, flame temperature, alkali metal salts KC1, solid particle and air gap filled with smoke and flame on the conductor-plane gap breakdown features are studied by fire of crib. Experimental results show that, AC breakdown voltage is reduced to one-third that of conductor plane gaps under standard conditions; when particles are on the surface of conductor, the breakdown voltage is reduced; the flame conductivity is increased after alkali metal salts are added into the flame and flashover voltage is 33% lower than that in the flame. So transmission line forest fire induced flashover is attributed to flame temperature, electrons and ions and solid particles.%近年来我国电网建设得到了长足发展,越来越多的线路经过山区,而在输电线路附近发生的林火常常引发线路发生跳闸或停运事故,严重威胁到电力系统的安全和可靠性.为了分析交流输电线路在山火条件下的击穿机理,采用导线-板间隙模拟输电线路的相地间隙和模拟山火的方法研究了电极、温度、碱金属盐KCl、导体表面的颗粒以及烟气与火焰混合区对导线-板间隙绝缘的影响.试验结果表明:在山火条件下,击穿电压出现明显降低,特别是火焰的高温和颗粒会导致间隙的绝缘强度发生剧烈降低.由输电线路因山火闪络的分析得到,线路间隙绝缘强度剧烈降低是火焰温度、电子和离子以及固体颗粒共同作用的结果,单一因素的作用不足以导致输电线路绝缘发生明显下降而引发跳闸事故.

  9. 交流输电线路交叉跨越区域空间电场计算方法%Calculation Method of Electric Field Intensity for AC Crossing Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓燕; 赵建国; 邬雄; 张广洲; 裴春明

    2011-01-01

    随着输电线路电压等级的升高,电磁环境问题受到越来越多的关注.目前的交流输电线路地面电场的计算方法主要针对一条输电线路,采用的是二维计算模型,这种模型采用的是解析方法,可以求解二维空间内无限远处的电场强度.而交义跨越区域电场强度的计算需要建立三维模型,针对三维空间的电场计算尚未有成熟的解析方法,较为常见的是利用数值方法.以有限元为原理的ansys仿真软件计算三维空间场强,但是必须已知求解区域和边界条件且细分网格以满足计算精度.为了解决这一问题,推导了两种无限长直导线三维空间电场强度计算公式,在确定求解区域和求解边界后,先利用公式计算三维截面上各点的场强值,然后将计算结果作为边界条件代入软件仿真.与交叉线路实地测量结果对比证明该方法可以应用于工程计算.并用这种方法计算了导线不同对地高度和不同相序情况下的电场分布,计算结果表明,提高导线对地高度和采用合理的相序排列可以有效地降低交叉线路线下电场强度.%More attentions are paid on electromagnetic environment with higher voltage level for transmission lines. At present, the calculation method for electric field intensity of AC transmission line, which is a two-dimension model, apply to single transmission line. This kind of typical method in two-dimension can calculate electric field intensity in infinite boundary. Electric field intensity calculation of crossing transmission lines requires three-dimension model, however, there is on famous analytic method to calculate it in three dimension space. Usually numerical method is proposed to reach the conclusion for finite area. Some commercial software based on finite-element method, like ansys, can calculate electric field intensity in three-dimension space with definite boundary condition and solution region. For ansys, the

  10. 16 CFR Appendix H to Part 305 - Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners H Appendix H to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated cooling capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of SEER's Low High Single Package Units Central Air...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix I to Part 305 - Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heating Performance and Cost for Central Air Conditioners I Appendix I to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC... Manufacturer's rated heating capacity (Btu's/hr.) Range of HSPF's Low High Single Package Units Heat Pumps...

  12. Experimental Study of Energy-Saving Air-Conditioner with Hot Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-bo; CHEN Dan; LU Ying

    2009-01-01

    Energy-saving air-conditioner with hot water is an air source heat pump air-conditioner,which can also supply hot water.The hot water is heated by a double pipe condenser connected with an air-cooled condenser in series in the system.This experiment of the energy-saving air-conditioner was carried out in the enthalpy-dif-ference air-conditioner laboratory.The hot water temperature and the compressor'S discharge and suction pres.sure were recorded in the working condition,where the ambient temperature was at 43℃,35℃,21℃,7℃,and 2℃separately.The results showed that the system operated stably and reliably. This system can supply 240 L hot water at 50℃in the whole year,and its coefficience of performance(COP)is much higher than the conventional air source heat pump system.Its energy conservation WaS proved by comparing the thermal effi.ciency with other sourece water heaters.

  13. Simulation Models of Leaf Area Index and Yield for Cotton Grown with Different Soil Conditioners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Su

    Full Text Available Simulation models of leaf area index (LAI and yield for cotton can provide a theoretical foundation for predicting future variations in yield. This paper analyses the increase in LAI and the relationships between LAI, dry matter, and yield for cotton under three soil conditioners near Korla, Xinjiang, China. Dynamic changes in cotton LAI were evaluated using modified logistic, Gaussian, modified Gaussian, log normal, and cubic polynomial models. Universal models for simulating the relative leaf area index (RLAI were established in which the application rate of soil conditioner was used to estimate the maximum LAI (LAIm. In addition, the relationships between LAIm and dry matter mass, yield, and the harvest index were investigated, and a simulation model for yield is proposed. A feasibility analysis of the models indicated that the cubic polynomial and Gaussian models were less accurate than the other three models for simulating increases in RLAI. Despite significant differences in LAIs under the type and amount of soil conditioner applied, LAIm could be described by aboveground dry matter using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Moreover, the simulation model for cotton yield based on LAIm and the harvest index presented in this work provided important theoretical insights for improving water use efficiency in cotton cultivation and for identifying optimal application rates of soil conditioners.

  14. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that the simulated data agreed quite well with the experimental result at the discrepant around 2–4%. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result which was found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased 3.09 kW h/d. The electrical power consumption of the modified unit was 36.27 kW h/d at the operating time 15 h/d compared with 39.36 kW h/d of the normal unit at the operating time 12 h/d. The saving cost of the PCM bed could be 9.10% or 170.03 USD and the payback period was 4.15 y.

  15. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  16. Variable Frequency Air Conditioner is Expected to Become Mainstream Product in Rural Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>If it can be argued that in 2011 the rural market played a crucial role in the development of air conditioner industry,judging from the present growth trend,in the 2012 refrigeration year the rural market will play an even more important

  17. 2-in-1 shampoo technology: state-of-the-art shampoo and conditioner in one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, H; Gummer, C L; Flasch, H

    1994-01-01

    Consumers have expressed a need for cleaning and conditioning in one step. Conventional shampoo technology using anionic surfactants and cationic conditioners results in charge interaction and complexing of the ingredients. Neither shampoo nor conditioners achieves the desired result. The successful solution was to incorporate charge neutral dimethicone conditioning ingredients, suspended as microfine droplets within complex crystal lattices, into anionic surfactant shampoo technology. The same solution has also been applied to amphoteric surfactant systems. This provides complete cleaning, and hair conditioning fully equal to separate conditioners without the problems of sebum interactions and conditioner build-up. This was achieved by keeping the dimethicone in suspension throughout the shampoo process. During rinsing, excess water breaks the crystalline lattice and allows deposition of the dimethicone droplets onto the hair. Full cleaning and conditioning are, therefore, achieved in one application. Dimethicone build-up is not encountered as subsequent washes first remove soil and previously deposited dimethicone. Neither do neutral dimethicones show any reactions with sebum. The development of effective 2-in-1 technology has had a major impact on shampoo technology and consumer habits and practices. This has significantly changed the way consumers care for their hair.

  18. Product lifetime, energy efficiency and climate change: A case study of air conditioners in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    This study proposed a modelling technique for estimating life-cycle CO2 emissions of durable goods by considering changes in product lifetime and energy efficiency. The stock and flow of durable goods was modelled by Weibull lifetime distributions and the trend in annual energy efficiency (i.e., annual electricity consumption) of an "average" durable good was formulated as a reverse logistic curve including a technologically critical value (i.e., limit energy efficiency) with respect to time. I found that when the average product lifetime is reduced, there is a trade-off between the reduction in emissions during product use (use phase), due to the additional purchases of new, more energy-efficient air conditioners, and the increase in emissions arising from the additional production of new air conditioners stimulated by the reduction of the average product lifetime. A scenario analysis focused on residential air conditioners in Japan during 1972-2013 showed that for a reduction of average lifetime of 1 year, if the air conditioner energy efficiency limit can be improved by 1.4% from the estimated current efficiency level, then CO2 emissions can be reduced by approximately the same amount as for an extension of average product lifetime of 1 year.

  19. Technical and economic analysis of energy efficiency of Chinese room air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridley, David G.; Rosenquist, Gregory; Jiang, Lin; Li, Aixian; Xin, Dingguo; Cheng, Jianhong

    2001-02-01

    China has experienced tremendous growth in the production and sales of room air conditioners over the last decade. Although minimum room air conditioner energy efficiency standards have been in effect since 1989, no efforts were made during most of the 1990's to update the standard to be more reflective of current market conditions. In 1999, China's State Bureau of Technical Supervision (SBTS) included in their annual plan the development and revision of the 1989 room air conditioner standard, and experts from SBTS worked together with LBNL to analyze the new standards. Based on the engineering and life cycle-cost analyses performed, the most predominant type of room air conditioner in the Chinese market (split-type with a cooling capacity between 2500 and 4500 W (8500 Btu/h and 15,300Btu/h)) can have its efficiency increased cost-effectively to an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of 2.92 W/W (9.9 Btu/hr/W). If an EER standard of 2.92 W/W became effective in 2001, Chinese consumers would be estimated to save over 3.5 billion Yuan (420 million U.S. dollars) over the period of 2001-2020. Carbon emissions over the same period would be reduced by approximately 12 million metric tonnes.

  20. 75 FR 14368 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... and heat pumps; the analytical framework, models, and tools that DOE is using to evaluate amended... Heat Pumps, EERE-2008-BT- STD-0006, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone... industrial equipment, including residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. (42 U.S.C. 6292(3)) In...

  1. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kruis, N. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brandemuehl, M. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  2. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  3. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henrique Susin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  4. Comparative scanning electron microscopic study of the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Alexandre Henrique; Alves, Luana Severo; Melo, Gliciana Piovesan de; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated comparatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the effect of different dental conditioners on dentin micromorphology, when used according to the same protocol. Forty dentin sticks were obtained from 20 caries-free third human molars and were assigned to 4 groups corresponding to 3 conditioners (phosphoric acid 37%, Clearfil SE Bond and iBond) and an untreated control group. After application of the conditioners, the specimens were immersed in 50% ethanol solution during 10 s, chemically fixed and dehydrated to prepare them to SEM analysis. In the control group, dentin surface was completely covered by smear layer and all dentinal tubules were occluded. In the phosphoric acid-etched group, dentin surface was completely clean and presented exposed dentinal tubule openings; this was the only group in which the tubules exhibited the funnel-shaped aspect. In the groups conditioned with Clearfil SE Bond primer and iBond, which are less acidic than phosphoric acid, tubule openings were occluded or partially occluded, though smear layer removal was observed. SE Bond was more efficient in removing the smear layer than iBond. In the Clearfil SE Bond group, the cuff-like aspect of peritubular dentin was more evident. It may be concluded all tested conditioners were able to change dentin morphology. However, it cannot be stated that the agent aggressiveness was the only cause of the micromorphological alterations because a single morphological pattern was not established for each group, but rather an association of different aspects, according to the aggressiveness of the tested conditioner.

  5. An Ac transposon system based on maize chromosome 4S for isolating long-distance-transposed Ac tags in the maize genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Zhaoying; Fan, Jun; Li, Pengfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Gang; Xu, Zhengkai; Song, Rentao

    2010-12-01

    Transposon tagging is an important tool for gene isolation and functional studies. In maize, several transposon-tagging systems have been developed, mostly using Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) and Mutator systems. Here, we establish another Ac-based transposon system with the donor Ac tightly linked with sugary1 (su1) on maize chromosome 4S. Newly transposed Ac (tr-Acs) were detected based on a negative dosage effect, and long-distance-transposed Ac events were identified and isolated from the donor Ac by a simple backcross scheme. In this study, we identified 208 independent long-distance-transposed Ac lines. Thirty-one flanking sequences of these tr-Acs were isolated and localized in the maize genome. As found in previous studies, the tr-Acs preferentially inserted into genic sequences. The distribution of tr-Acs is not random. In our study, the tr-Acs preferentially transposed into chromosomes 1, 2, 9 and 10. We discuss the preferential distribution of tr-Acs from Ac systems. Our system is complementary to two other Ac-based regional-mutagenesis systems in maize, and the combined use of these systems will achieve an even and high-density distribution of Ac elements throughout the maize genome for functional-genomics studies.

  6. INTEGRATED ENGINEERING - SERVICE TEST OF AIR CONDITIONERS, COMPACT VERTICAL, 60,000 BTU/HR, 60- AND 400-CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary is presented of the engineering test of 60,000 Btu/hr compact vertical air conditioners. The purpose of the test was to determine conformance of the test items to required performance characteristics. (Author)

  7. Operating experience with factory-made air-insulated 1AC/2AC switchgear systems; Erste Betriebserfahrungen mit fabrikgefertigten, luftisolierten 1AC-/2AC-Schaltanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northe, J. [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Loenard, D. [Bombardier Transportation GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Today, factory-made air-insulated switchgear systems of the type TracFeed {sup registered} are available for all supply versions of 16.7 Hz and 50 Hz a.c. railways. These are supported by auxiliary equipment to ensure reliable railway operation through specific protective functions and a simplified line test. (orig.)

  8. 浅谈纺织空调节能设计%Discussion on Energy Saving Design of Textile Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭兴霞; 贺晋; 李淑萍

    2012-01-01

    文章从纺织空调系统的设计角度,提出几种行之有效的节能措施,为纺织空调设计提供几种节能方案。%Several effective energy saving measures were put forward from the aspects of design of air-conditioner system, and several energy saving methods were provided for the design of air-conditioner.

  9. Solar Application in Air Conditioner Field%太阳能在空调领域的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, the background of solar application in air conditioner field was introduced, in other words, century conundrum of energy crisis and environmental pollution gave birth to solar research and develop-ment of air conditioner. Secondly, from view of technology, the author review solar air conditionerindustry sta-tus in photothermal utilization and photovoltaic utilization. Thirdly, from view of human sustainable develop-ment and market demand, solar air conditioner application prospect was analyzed. Finally, combined with the solar energy and air conditioner industry technical development direction, the author analyze future development trend of solar air conditioner, and on this basis , the author put forward effective popularizing ways of solar air conditioner.%  本文介绍了太阳能在空调领域应用背景,从技术层面对太阳能空调的光热和光电利用现状进行了回顾和分析,并从人类可持续发展和市场需求角度对太阳能空调的应用前景做出分析。结合太阳能和空调行业的技术发展方向研究,分析了太阳能空调的未来发展趋势,并在此基础上提出太阳能空调推广的有效途径。

  10. Variable transposition of eight maize activator (ac) elements located on the short arm of chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, William F

    2011-09-01

    Eight Activator (Ac) transposable elements mapped to the maize chromosome arm 1S were assessed for Ac transposition rates. For each of the Ac stocks, plants homozygous for the single Ac element and the Ds reporter r1-sc:m3 on chromosome 10 were crossed as females by a homozygous r1-sc:m3 tester color-converted W22 line. The resulting ears produced mostly coarsely spotted kernels and a low frequency of either near-colorless fine-spotted kernels or nonspotted kernels. The relative frequency of these two types of near-colorless kernels differed among the eight Ac stocks. The extent to which increased Ac dosage results in nonspotted kernels may be Ac-specific. Although all of the Ac elements are in near-isogenic inbred W22 lines, they varied to a large extent in their transposition frequency. These differences might possibly result from structural differences among the Ac elements. Because one pair of Ac elements derived from Ac33 on chromosome arm 5S differed about 13-fold in transposition frequency and a second pair of Ac elements derived from Ac12 on chromosome arm 1S differed about 3-fold in transposition frequency, this is not a likely explanation for all eight Ac elements. The data presented here support the notion that the differences in transposition frequency of the eight Ac elements may be a reflection of variability in Ac transcription or accessibility of the transposase to the Ac element, resulting from differences in the chromatin environments wherein the Ac elements are located. This is the first report of variability in transposition rates among different Ac donor lines.

  11. Experimental Investigation on Surface Conditions of Conductors in AC Power Transmission Lines%交流输电线路导线表面状态的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞星明; 杨文言; 赵磊; 王黎明; 关志成

    2011-01-01

    导线表面状态是影响其电晕特性的重要因素,研究实际运行后导线的表面状态对输电线路的设计、运行都有着重要的理论意义.为此,选取了华北、华中和华南典型地区的500 kV交流输电线路导线及新导线样本进行了表面状态的研究.场发射环境扫描电子显微镜的实验结果表明:实际运行后导线的表面物质成分比新导线大大增加,表面形貌更加凹凸不平;非金属元素主要含有碳、氧、硅、硫,金属元素主要含有铝、铁、钙、钾、钠、镁.表面形貌仪的实验结果表明:与新导线相比,运行后导线的粗糙度增加,同一地区的导线表面粗糙度相差不大,随着运行时间的增加,导线表面粗糙程度有所提高.%The influence of conductor surface conditions on corona discharge is of great value to the design and operation of power transmission lines in power system. Six strands of the aged conductors acquired from 500 kV AC transmission lines in northern, central, southern China respectively and two strands of the new conductors China were used. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) showed that the morphologies of the aged strands were greatly different from the new ones. The aged strands had been corrupted in the ambient atmospheric conditions during their long-term operating in power grid; many substances in the neighborhood of the conductors were also adhered to the surfaces as a result of the strong electric field and gravitational force. Therefore, the surfaces of the aged strands are much coarser and more uneven than the new ones. For the new strands, aluminum is the main component, there are few impurities. However, in the surface layer of the aged strands, there are many other elements, such as oxygen, carbon, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, kalium, calcium, zincum, natrium, iron, magnesium etc. Two basic roughness parameters Ra and Rq were introduced to express

  12. 雨雪天气下特高压交流单回试验线段电晕损失实测分析%Analysis on Corona Loss Measurement of Ultra High Voltage AC Single Circuit Test Line in Rain and Snow Weather Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    律方成; 尤少华; 刘云鹏; 万启发

    2011-01-01

    In order to research corona loss characteristic of ultra high voltage(UHV) AC power transmission line in rain and snow weather conditions,UHV AC test base single circuit test lines were experimentally studied.Optical-electric digital corona loss monitoring system of transmission line was applied to realize the real-time online measurement of UHV AC test line corona loss wholly of the day,and to analyze corona losses under different rain rates and heavy snow atmosphere conditions according to monitoring results.The research results show that single phase corona loss per meter of UHV AC single circuit test line under rain is 20~60 W/m,under heavy rain the monitored maximum results per meter of the test line are 53.54 W/m for the side phase,62.95 W/m for the middle phase,which was fit to the estimate values as adopting equivalent rainfall rate.Corona loss increases nonlinearly as rainfall rate increases,and saturates gradually,thus a abecedarian fitting model between rainfall rate and corona loss of 8×LGJ-500/35 bundle conductors is obtained.Corona loss measurements of UHV AC single circuit test line in the test provide a reference for UHV AC transmission line conductors mode selection,design,and economy characteristic evaluation.%为了研究特高压交流输电线路在雨天、雪天气象条件下的电晕损失特性,基于我国特高压交流试验基地单回试验线段展开实测研究,采用研制的光电数字化输电线路电晕损失监测系统,实现了试验线段电晕损失全天候条件下实时在线测量,根据监测结果分析不同降雨率及大雪气象条件下电晕损失。研究结果表明,正常运行电压下,特高压交流单回试验线段雨天单相单位长度电晕损失约为20~60 W/m,在大雪气象条件下,根据监测结果,特高压交流单回试验线段单位长度电晕损失最大值为:边相达到53.54 W/m,中相达到62.95 W/m,与等值降雨率推算结果较为符合。电晕损失随降雨率增

  13. 基于STC90C58的单相交流供电线路漏电流监测装置%STC90C58-based Device to Monitor Leakage Current of Single-phase AC Power Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关旭俊; 谢力扬

    2014-01-01

    基于STC90C58设计了一种监测单相交流供电线路漏电流的装置。采用了微控制器和电能计量器件,可同时采集并显示单相交流供电线路相线电流、中性线电流和相线对地漏电流的幅值。可为判断漏电性质和排查漏电点提供数据支持,对提高漏电保安器的投入率、提高用电安全性、降低线损有一定的积极意义。%A device based on STC90C58 to monitor the leakage current of single-phase AC power line is designed .The device uses a micro-controller and a power energy IC ,it can simultaneously capture and display the amplitudes of the phase line current ,the neutral current and the phase-to-ground leakage current of the single-phase AC supply line .The device can determine the nature of leakage points and provide data to support the investigation ,it will have some positive significance to improve the input rate of leakage protectors and improve the security for using electricity and reduce line losses .

  14. Study on Variable Capacity Control Mechanism of Scroll Compressor for Automotive Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takahisa; Shigeoka, Tetsuo

    As for the automotive air conditioner, (1) to keep the automotive cabin temperature in a comfortable region, (2) to improve driving feeling, (3) to drive the air conditioning system economically through all seasons, are universally required. Recently, from these points, compressors with variable capacity control mechanism for automotive air conditioners have been remarkably requested. We have developed a scroll comoressor with variable capacity control mechanism. The capacity control mechanism, which changes the channel area of the bypass hole continuously, according to the suction gas pressure and the discharge gas pressure, has been developed. In this report, we describe the mechanism of variable capacity control and the performance simulation program that has been developed for the scroll compressor. Further, we describe the measuring results of cylinder pressure behavior, the results of energy loss analysis and the effect of comfort, drivability, power saving in the refrigerating cycle using the developed capacity control compressor.

  15. Technical development of electric power storage system. Development of load conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    1988-07-01

    The load conditioner heightens the utilization ratio of facilities by the stardardization of load for the suppliers and has the consumers advantageously utilize cheap electric power. The domestic facilities are basically composed of charging rectifier, discharging self-exciting inverter and secondary battery. As there presently exists lead battery as a secondary battery, the Electric Power Research Center developed a load conditioner system by using lead battery and is making its operational study. As a secondary lithium battery satisfying the compactness of further particular importance, there are high molecule battery using high molecule compounds such as polyaniline and polyacene, intercaration type battery using vanadium oxide or molybdenum disulfide, etc. Then, in order to materialize the enlargement and life lengthening of those batteries, the steady study of all of negative electrode, positive electrode, electrolyte, battery structure. (3 figs, 2 tabs)

  16. Techno-Economic Analysis of Indian Draft Standard Levels for RoomAir Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2007-03-01

    The Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) finalized its first set of efficiency standards and labels for room air conditioners in July of 2006. These regulations followed soon after the publication of levels for frost-free refrigerators in the same year. As in the case of refrigerators, the air conditioner program introduces Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) and comparative labels simultaneously, with levels for one to five stars. Also like the refrigerator program, BEE defined several successive program phases of increasing stringency. In support of BEE's refrigerator program, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produced an analysis of national impacts of standards in collaboration with the Collaborative Labeling and Standards Program (CLASP). That analysis drew on LBNL's experience with standards programs in the United States, as well as many other countries. Subsequently, as part of the process for setting optimal levels for air conditioner regulations, CLASP commissioned LBNL to provide support to BEE in the form of a techno-economic evaluation of air conditioner efficiency technologies. This report describes the methodology and results of this techno-economic evaluation. The analysis consists of three components: (1) Cost effectiveness to consumers of efficiency technologies relative to current baseline. (2) Impacts on the current market from efficiency regulations. (3) National energy and financial impacts. The analysis relied on detailed and up-to-date technical data made available by BEE and industry representatives. Technical parameters were used in conjunction with knowledge about air conditioner use patterns in the residential and commercial sectors, and prevailing marginal electricity prices, in order to give an estimate of per-unit financial impacts. In addition, the overall impact of the program was evaluated by combining unit savings with market forecasts in order to yield national impacts. LBNL presented

  17. Low GWP Refrigerants Modelling Study for a Room Air Conditioner Having Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Bhandari, Mahabir S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Microchannel heat exchangers (MHX) have found great successes in residential and commercial air conditioning applications, being compact heat exchangers, to reduce refrigerant charge and material cost. This investigation aims to extend the application of MHXs in split, room air conditioners (RAC), per fundamental heat exchanger and system modelling. For this paper, microchannel condenser and evaporator models were developed, using a segment-to-segment modelling approach. The microchannel heat exchanger models were integrated to a system design model. The system model is able to predict the performance indices, such as cooling capacity, efficiency, sensible heat ratio, etc. Using the calibrated system and heat exchanger models, we evaluated numerous low GWP (global warming potential) refrigerants. The predicted system performance indices, e.g. cooling efficiency, compressor discharge temperature, and required compressor displacement volume etc., are compared. Suitable replacements for R22 and R-410A for the room air conditioner application are recommended.

  18. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei-Jiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Chun-Lu [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed. (author)

  19. Performance Analysis of Electronic Expansion Valve in 1 TR Window Air Conditioner using Various Refrigerants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENNUCHETTY CHINNARAJ,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A window air conditioner of 3.5 K.W capacity fitted with expansion devices such as capillary tube, thermostatic expansion valve and Electronic expansion valve was tested for its coefficient of performance, power required and refrigeration effect with respect to the refrigerants R22 and R407C under different operating conditions .Initially evaporator temperature was maintained at 279 K and condenser temperature was varied and then the test was conducted again in the same window air conditioner with electronic expansion valve alone as expansion device and by varying the refrigerant super heat temperature at inlet to the compressor from 273K to 293K for the refrigerants R 22, R 407C and R 290 The performance of electronic expansion valve with eco friendly refrigerants shows a positive effect and enable the industry to favorably displace the R22 and other types of expansion devices.

  20. Transient modeling of an air conditioner with a rapid cycling compressor and multi-indoor units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Weijiang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Chunlu, E-mail: chunlu.zhang@carrier.utc.co [College of Mechanical Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 Cao An Highway, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor is an alternative of the variable speed compressor to modulate the capacity of refrigeration systems for the purpose of energy saving at part-load conditions. The multi-evaporator air conditioner combined with the rapid cycling compressor brings difficulties in control design because of the sophisticated system physics and dynamics. In this paper the transient model of a multi-split air conditioner with a digital scroll compressor is developed for predicting the system transients under performance modulations. The predicted cycling dynamics are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validated model, the impact of compressor idle power and cycle period to the part load performance is discussed.

  1. 电子机柜空调器%Electronic Control Cabinet Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强

    2014-01-01

    该文介绍了一种小型电子机柜空调器的设计方案,该空调器解决了密闭电子机柜散热的问题,能够在较小尺寸下达到1000W的制冷量,实现对相对密闭电子机柜小环境内温湿度的有效控制,提高机柜内电子设备的可靠性。%This paper introduces the design of a small electronic cabinet air-conditioner, the air-conditioner solves the sealed electronic cabinet cooling problems, have the cooling capacity of 1000W at a smaller size, realize the effective control of the rela-tive closed electronic cabinet small environment temperature and humidity, to improve the reliability of electronic equipment cabinet.

  2. Experimental Study of the Controlling Characteristics of Inverter-Driven Multi-type Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金纪峰; 陈江平; 陈芝久

    2004-01-01

    The controlling algorithm was studied for the inverter-driven multi-type air conditioner using electronic expansion valve(EEV) in outdoor unit. The performance of inverter-driven air conditioner with two different units was investigated by varying the outdoor ambient temperature and compressor speed. Based on the test results, the effect of EEV opening on the indoor unit exit superheat was discussed. For the specified outdoor ambient temperature scope and the EEV opening, the superheats of indoor units decrease with the outdoor ambient temperature rising. Improper distribution of refrigerant into each indoor unit will causes excessive superheat difference between two indoor units. Suggestions were then given for the controlling of the superheat.

  3. Economical and environmental impact of room air conditioners energy labels in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Choudhury, I.A.; Ghazali, N.N.N. [University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-12-01

    The usage of residential electrical appliances for the last two decades has increased rapidly in Malaysia together with the increasing income per capita. Like other developing countries with hot and humid climates, Malaysia has been experiencing dramatic growth in the number of use of air conditioners, and the usage will be higher in the future. In order to reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, the Department of Electricity and Gas Supply considers implementing energy labels for room air conditioners sometime in the coming year. This study attempts to calculate the economical and environmental impact of implementing this program in Malaysia. The study found the savings has exceeded the investment cost and the program has reduced the emissions caused by burning fossil fuel. (author)

  4. Dynamic modeling of brushless dc motor-power conditioner unit for electromechanical actuator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, N. A.; Nehl, T. W.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive digital model for the analysis of the dynamic-instantaneous performance of a power conditioner fed samarium-cobalt permanent magnet brushless DC motor is presented. The particular power conditioner-machine system at hand, for which this model was developed, is a component of an actual prototype electromechanical actuator built for NASA-JSC as a possible alternative to hydraulic actuators as part of feasibility studies for the shuttle orbiter applications. Excellent correlation between digital simulated and experimentally obtained performance data was achieved for this specific prototype. This is reported on in this paper. Details of one component of the model, its applications and the corresponding results are given in this paper.

  5. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  6. Solar Powered Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    manufacturers in the United States. The first demonstration of a commercial LDAC system is being evaluated at the Coral Reef Fitness and Sports...LDAC systems is being installed at the Coral Reef Fitness and Sports Center on Andersen AFB in Guam. A 6000-cfm conditioner was designed for this...demand is highest, leading to increased pollution , excessive investment in standby generation capacity, and poor utilization of peaking assets. This

  7. Band extension in digital methods of transfer function determination – signal conditioners asymmetry error corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Staroszczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. In the paper, the calibrating method for error correction in transfer function determination with the use of DSP has been proposed. The correction limits/eliminates influence of transfer function input/output signal conditioners on the estimated transfer functions in the investigated object. The method exploits frequency domain conditioning paths descriptor found during training observation made on the known reference object.[b]Keywords[/b]: transfer function, band extension, error correction, phase errors

  8. Comparative Research on Air Conditioner with Gas-injected Rotary Compressor through Injection Port on Blade

    OpenAIRE

    Xingru, Liu; Baolong, Wang; Wenxing, Shi

    2016-01-01

    Rotary compressors are widely utilized in air conditionders and heat pumps. However, when rotary compressors were applied in room air conditioners, VRFs and domestic water heaters, the systems will experience heavily degradation of the heating capacity and COP as the ambient temperature goes low. Aimed at these problems, considerable research has been carried out to raise a series of solutions, such as economizer technology, cascade-type vapor compression heat pump system and two stage coupli...

  9. AcEST: DK950971 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GN=... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis ... 37 0.66 tr|B1ACS3|B1ACS3...todon GN=DM... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACT4|B1ACT4_LISBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Lissodelphis borealis ... 37 1.1 tr|B1ACS2|B...SSSEEEIQSKNTEMESRRLTVDAY 160 >tr|B1ACS4|B1ACS4_BALBO DMP1 (Fragment) OS=Balaenoptera borealis GN=DMP1 PE=4 S

  10. Starting and stopping control on power conditioner in photovoltaic power system; Taiyoko hatsuden system ni okeru power conditioner no kido teishi seigyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, M.; Ishihara, Y.; Todaka, T.; Harada, K. [Doshisha University, Kyoto (Japan); Oshiro, H.; Nakamura, H. [Japan Quality Assurance Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Studies are made about the control of the power conditioner over the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) function in a photovoltaic power generation system. The analysis is conducted by means of computer simulation into the effect of a start/stop function added to the control of MPPT and the effect on the generation of power of the setting of parameters in the start/stop function. The reduction in output power due to difference between the actual operation point and the optimum operation point is evaluated by use of a load matching correction factor. In this simulation, it is assumed that the solar cell array consists of 13 rows in 5 parallel columns, is capable of a normal output of 3.149kW, has a panel tilted at 30 degrees, and faces due south. The power conditioner is assumed to be a system rated at 3kVA, equipped with system interconnection and back flow features. As a result, it is learned that the stop voltage should be set at 180V or lower and the steady voltage near 185.5V for a good result and that there is not much need after all for the start/stop technique. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Isolation of sequences flanking Ac insertion sites by Ac casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dafang; Peterson, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Localizing Ac insertions is a fundamental task in studying Ac-induced mutation and chromosomal rearrangements involving Ac elements. Researchers may sometimes be faced with the situation in which the sequence flanking one side of an Ac/Ds element is known, but the other flank is unknown. Or, a researcher may have a small sequence surrounding the Ac/Ds insertion site and needs to obtain additional flanking genomic sequences. One way to rapidly clone unknown Ac/Ds flanking sequences is via a PCR-based method termed Ac casting. This approach utilizes the somatic transposition activity of Ac during plant development, and provides an efficient means for short-range genome walking. Here we describe the principle of Ac casting, and show how it can be applied to isolate Ac macrotransposon insertion sites.

  12. The effectiveness of magnesium oxide combined with tissue conditioners in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Kanathila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : The presence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of the denture is a major causative factor in denture stomatits. A treatment method is by combining tissue conditioner and antifungal agents. Aims : The main objective of this study is to test the efficacy of magnesium oxide combined with two tissue conditioners (Viscogel and GC Soft, in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans. Settings and Design : Microbiological study was done in the Department of Microbiology, K S Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte University, Mangalore. Materials and Methods : A total of 154 plates were prepared using Muller Hilton with Glucose and Methylene Blue dye medium and inoculated with 24-hr old standard Candida culture. Plates were divided into control and combination. Test discs with different concentrations of MgO were equidistantly placed in MgO Control, while sterile discs embedded with respective tissue conditioner were equidistantly placed in Viscogel and GC Soft controls. For combination groups, the tissue conditioners were mixed and the discs with MgO (1%, 3%, 5%, and 7% were embedded in the mix. After 24 h of incubation, inhibition diameters were noted. Statistical Analysis Used : The data was analysed using Mann Whitney U Test, ANOVA, Tukey HSD test. Results : The inhibition effect of magnesium oxide 1% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC is not significant in both the groups. The inhibition effect of MgO 5% and 7% combined with tissue conditioners (VGC and GCC is very highly significant ( P < 0.001. Conclusions : Magnesium oxide in combination with tissue conditioners are effective against Candida albicans; GC soft with magnesium oxide showed a better result than Viscogel with magnesium oxide; Increasing the concentration of magnesium oxide increases the zone of inhibition of Candida albicans.

  13. Simulation Analysis on Electrical Characteristics of 1 000 kV AC Double-Circuit Transmission Lines on the Same Tower%1000kV交流同塔双回输电线路的电气特性仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丁香; 周泽昕; 李岩军; 李仲青

    2011-01-01

    为研究1000kV同塔双回输电对继电保护装置的影响,需要首先对其电气特性进行深入研究.根据工程设计参数,在实时数字仿真器中建立仿真系统,进行有关模拟试验,将其主要电气特性与1000 kV单回输电系统和500 kV同塔双回输电系统进行比较.主要针对互感的影响、谐波含量、非周期分量衰减时间、充电电流、恢复电压、高阻接地故障电流水平等进行分析和比较.从研究对继电保护装置影响的角度,分析特高压同塔双回输电系统的电气特征及其对保护装置产生的影响.特高压同塔双回线间的互感影响接地距离保护范围的准确性,故障电流中的非整数次谐波及衰减非周期分量影响继电保护装置的速动性,经高阻接地故障时,故障电流减小影响继电保护装置的灵敏性.继电保护生产厂商需针对这些新电气特征进行深入研究和改进.%To analyze the influences of the 1 000 kV AC double-circuit transmission line on the same tower on the protective relayings, a simulation system is built in the real-time digital simulator to perform related simulative tests.The principal electrical characteristics of above-mentioned transmission line are compared with those of 1 000 kV AC single-circuit transmission line and those of 500 kV double-circuit transmission line on the same tower respectively.The analysis and comparison of following electrical characteristics in the above-mentioned three kinds of ultra high voltage AC transmission lines, i.e., the influence of mutual inductance, harmonic content, attenuation time of aperiodic component, charging current, restore voltage and current level under high resistance grounding fault, are performed. In the viewpoint of the influences on protective relayings, the electrical characteristics of 1 000 kV AC double-circuit transmission line on the same tower as well as its influences on protection devices are analyzed. The mutual inductance

  14. AC-3 audio coder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Craig

    1995-12-01

    AC-3 is a system for coding up to 5.1 channels of audio into a low bit-rate data stream. High quality may be obtained with compression ratios approaching 12-1 for multichannel audio programs. The high compression ratio is achieved by methods which do not increase decoder memory, and thus cost. The methods employed include: the transmission of a high frequency resolution spectral envelope; and a novel forward/backward adaptive bit allocation algorithm. In order to satisfy practical requirements of an emissions coder, the AC-3 syntax includes a number of features useful to broadcasters and consumers. These features include: loudness uniformity between programs; dynamic range control; and broadcaster control of downmix coefficients. The AC-3 coder has been formally selected for inclusion of the U.S. HDTV broadcast standard, and has been informally selected for several additional applications.

  15. Tevatron AC dipole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; Kopp, S.E.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; Syphers, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The AC dipole is an oscillating dipole magnet which can induce large amplitude oscillations without the emittance growth and decoherence. These properties make it a good tool to measure optics of a hadron synchrotron. The vertical AC dipole for the Tevatron is powered by an inexpensive high power audio amplifier since its operating frequency is approximately 20 kHz. The magnet is incorporated into a parallel resonant system to maximize the current. The use of a vertical pinger magnet which has been installed in the Tevatron made the cost relatively inexpensive. Recently, the initial system was upgraded with a more powerful amplifier and oscillation amplitudes up to 2-3{sigma} were achieved with the 980 GeV proton beam. This paper discusses details of the Tevatron AC dipole system and also shows its test results.

  16. AC/RF Superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB

    2015-02-01

    This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.

  17. Experimental Study of the Effects of the Cycle Characteristics on the Refrigerant-Induced Noise in System Air-Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Weui Bong [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Hyung Suk; Mo, Jin Yong; Lee, Jae Kwon [Samsung Electronics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    The main sources of the refrigerant-induced noise can be classified 2 types according to its characteristics. One is due to the cyclic characteristics such as quality, velocity of the refrigerant, pressure drop and mass flow rate. The other is due to the structural characteristics such as distributed path pipe layout, distributor and expansion device. In this paper, the effects of cycle characteristics on the noise of multi-type system air-conditioner are investigated experimentally. In the indoor unit of multi-type air-conditioner, the variation of noise is examined when the in-flowing and out-flowing refrigerant to the indoor unit are 2-phase state according to its cycle control. And several factors are recommended in order to reduce the refrigerant-induced noise of the air-conditioner.

  18. Analysis for SEER of variable speed room air conditioner in China. Paper no. IGEC-1-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yitai, M.; Shengchun, L.; Lirong, M. [Tianjin Univ., Thermal Energy Research Inst., Tianjin (China)]. E-mail: liushch@tju.edu.cn

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, the calculation method for seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) given in Standard JRA4046-1999 is analyzed and further modified. Based on temperature zone map of U.S., Japan and China and detailed weather data of eight Chinese cities in last 30 years, regional seasonal energy efficiency ratio (RSEER) and energy saving percentage of variable speed room air conditioner are analyzed and compared with various geographical regions in China. It is concluded that RSEER presents the associated effect of season, climate and geography, and therefore should be taken as an evaluation standard for room air conditioner, especially variable speed room air conditioner. Experimental measurements are conducted in the analysis to investigate the effect of energy efficiency ratio (EER) on the improvement of energy saving percentage and SEER. (author)

  19. Study on Water Treatment Technology of Central Air Conditioner%中央空调水处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎代华

    2015-01-01

    随着国家提倡节能减排,空调系统的节能越发引起人们的重视。文章通过介绍南博中央空调水处理,分析中央空调水系统中存在的问题,通过中央空调水处理提高中央空调制冷效率,从而实现节能的效果。%Due to the advocation of “energy saving and emission reduction” of Chinese government,more and more people pay attention to air conditioners energy conservation. This article analyzes the problems of central air conditioner water system,and discovers that the central air conditioner refrigeration efficiency will be improved through water treatment technology, and plenty of energy will be saved.

  20. Incidence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in central air conditioner filter dust from a new office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Honggang; Cao Shanping; Chang Wenjing [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zeng Hui, E-mail: huizeng0608@gmail.com [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Circular Economy, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This study examined polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air conditioner filter (CACF) dust from a new office building in Shenzhen, China. Human exposure to PBDE via dust inhalation and ingestion were also estimated. PBDEs level in CACF dust was lower than those in the other countries and regions. Approximately 0.671 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 2.5} (Particulate Matter up to 2.5 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs can be inhaled deep into the lungs and 4.123 pg/kg bw/day PM{sub 10} (Particulate Matter up to 10 {mu}m in size) bounded {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs tend to be deposited in the upper parts of the respiratory system. The average total intake of {Sigma}{sub 15}PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion for adults reached {approx}141 pg/kg bw/day in this building. This value was far below the reference dose (RfD) recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency. Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than the old ones. - Highlights: > Human exposure to PBDEs via dust inhalation and ingestion in the new building is less than that in the old ones. > PBDE emissions from indoor sources can be expected to continue for a long time as the PBDE-containing products in offices were to be kept many years. > The household consumer products, especially computers, are the main sources of PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust. > Further studies are needed to fully understand the emission mechanism of PBDE from indoor consumer products. - PBDEs in central air conditioner filter dust from a new building were investigated

  1. Performance Characteristics of Cross-Fin-Tube-Type Heat Exchanger for Air Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoe; Kakiyama, Shiro; Sanuki, Noriyoshi

    The effects of enhanced heat transfer tube with ability to control the heat transfer disturbance by mechanical tube expanding were experimentally investigated on the performance characteristics of air-cooled cross-fin-tube-type heat exchanger for air conditioner. Three kinds of the enhanced heat transfer tube were developed and used in the experiment. The enhanced heat transfer tube was a kind of spirally grooved tube and composed with the fins smaller than those of the conventional spirally grooved tube excepting four fins located in orthogonal position on the tube circumference. The optimum groove number to enhance the performance of heat exchanger was also shown.

  2. Efficacy of tissue conditioner acting as effective fungicidal drug delivery sysytem - An Invitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giju George Baby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of disorders like infections, inflammatory diseases, trauma, allergicmanifestations,neoplasia etc. may affect the tissues and structures of the mouth, jaw bones andteeth. Treatment of candidal infection in denture wearers has always been a challenging task tothe Prosthodontist. There are various treatment procedures for candidal infections. Threedifferent drug delivery systems for the treatment of denture stomatitis were observed. The studyproved that the tissue conditioner (Viscogel can be used as a delivery system for the antifungaldrugs like Nystatin, Clotrimazol and Ketoconazole.

  3. RESOLVEMENT OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS BY UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER (UPQC)

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Rohini. R. Dabhade*, Prof. C. Veeresh

    2016-01-01

    In this project presents a Design of a Unified Power Quality conditioner (UPQC) connected to three phase four wire system (3P4W). The neutral of series transformer used in the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. The series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. In this simulation we observe the power...

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Modular Railway Power Conditioner for High-Speed Railway Traction System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Qianming; Ma, Fujun; He, Zhixing

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern electrified railway, negative sequence current (NSC) minimization is one of the most important considerations in the high-speed railway traction system. In the past, many multiple or multilevel topologies with high compensation capacity have been introduced...... for railway power conditioner (RPC). This paper presents a simplified quantitative comparison of five previous modular RPC topologies for negative sequence compensation in V/V and SCOTT traction systems, aiming for an optimal selection of the compensators. Performance criteria such as transformer requirement...

  5. An analog modulation and demodulation method employing LVDT signal conditioner for fiber-optic interferometric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kejiang; Rao, Qi; Zhang, Minjie; Hu, Keke; Ruan, Yefeng

    2017-09-01

    An analog method to modulate and demodulate fiber-optic interferometric sensors employing a linear variable differential transformer signal conditioner to generate sine modulation wave and demodulate phase-modulated signal from the photodetector’s output is presented in this letter. No external lock-in amplifiers or digital components are used in this design. All the necessary components for signal processing are integrated in a single analog electronic microchip AD698, which reduces the system’s complexity significantly. After implementation on an interferometric fiber-optic gyroscope as an example, this method demonstrates a bias stability of 0.063 deg h-1 (i.e. 0.220 µrad).

  6. Select Components and Finish System Design of a Window Air Conditioner with Propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report describes the technical targets for developing a high efficiency window air conditioner (WAC) using propane (R-290). The baseline unit selected for this activity is a GE R-410A WAC. We established collaboration with a Chinese rotary compressor manufacturer, to select an R-290 compressor. We first modelled and calibrated the WAC system model using R-410A. Next, we applied the calibrated system model to design the R-290 WAC, and decided the strategies to reduce the system charge below 260 grams and achieve the capacity and efficiency targets.

  7. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  8. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  9. Development of 100-W High-Efficiency MPPT Power Conditioner and Evaluation of TEG System with Battery Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroshi; Nakabayashi, Tatsuya; Maiwa, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Takenobu

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes a practical high-efficiency thermoelectric (TE) power conditioner with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control for thermoelectric generators and the operation results for a battery load system. This power conditioner comprises a high-frequency step-up/step-down switching converter and a microcontroller; a synchronized switching circuit is introduced to achieve high conversion efficiency. Furthermore, it is equipped with a battery charge control program and has a maximum conversion efficiency of 96.7%. An impedance matching method developed for MPPT control showed excellent response against a change in the TEG output, making it suitable for solar TEGs as well as general applications.

  10. Recurrent Security Gaps In 802.11ac Routers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Farik; ABM Shawkat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In comparison to earlier IEEE 802.11 standard abgn routers todays popular 802.11ac standard routers have enhanced security. However 802.11ac router still has major security vulnerabilities. The novelty of this paper is that we not only highlight multiple security vulnerabilities in 802.11ac router technologies that still have not been secured since the earlier standards but also present some new ideas with solutions. We believe that our line of thoughts on security vulnerabilities ga...

  11. An Improved AC-BM Algorithm for Monitoring Watch List

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Yiwen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the expanding of database of the watch list of anti-money laundering, improving the speed in matching between the watch list and the database of account holders and clients’ transaction is especially important. This paper proposes an improved AC-BM Algorithm, a matching algorithm of subsection, to improve the speed of matching. Experiment results show the time performance of the improved algorithm is better than traditional BM algorithm, AC algorithm and the AC-BM algorithm. It can improve the efficiency of on-line monitoring of anti-money laundering.  

  12. A Proposal for the Time Domain Modeling of Split Air Conditioners for Consumer Reimbursement Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Paulo Henrique Oliveira; Almeida Junior, Afonso Bernardino; Gondim, Isaque Nogueira; Oliveira, José Carlos

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with computer application procedures for the evaluation of the causal consistency between anomalous phenomena manifested in electrical networks, along with the physical damage associated with electrical equipment and possible reimbursement requests. The focus is on the development of an air conditioner appliance model of the type known as split founded upon a representation, in the time domain, in accordance with the Alternative Transients Program (ATP) simulator requirements. This approach permits investigations concerning the performance of the product when submitted to ideal and non-ideal supply conditions. Once the equipment model is implemented in the program, a set of investigative studies are carried out to show the device performance under specific energy quality disturbance conditions. In addition, there are still the results for the validation of the process established through the correlation between computational performance of the air conditioner with corresponding studies carried out experimentally, which are presented herein. Moreover, once the effectiveness of the developed model is verified, it is implemented into the Requests for Reimbursement Software. Investigations related to the correlation between disturbances and the levels of thermal and dielectric tolerance are then performed aiming at illustrating the use of the research results for the reimbursement analyzes purposes.

  13. Design of heat recovery system for a split air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, R.; Pundoor, M. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Miri, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2007-07-01

    The growth in demand for electrical energy is far exceeding the growth of the power supply. There is a significant demand to reduce energy consumption by all means. There is also a greater demand for energy efficient equipment. Although most houses have separate cooling and water heating systems, this paper demonstrated that air conditioning units and a water heaters can be combined. For example, the heat recovered from the condenser of an air-conditioner can be effectively used to heat water which can offer significant savings in electricity consumption. With the design of a heat recovery system, a percentage of heat rejected from an air conditioning unit can be reclaimed for heating. The paper presented the working principles including a system diagram of a combined air conditioner and hot water generation system. It also discussed the conceptual designs of a heat reclaim module. The six different design concepts were then presented. Design selection and criteria for design selection were also identified along with the advantages and limitations of each concept. Based on a comprehensive analysis and research with the help of a Pugh chart of convergence matrix, the final concept was chosen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  14. Small fan assisted air conditioner for thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atthajariyakul, Surat; Lertsatittanakorn, Charoenporn [Faculty of Engineering, Mahasarakham University, Khamriang, Kantaravichai, Mahasarakham 44150 (Thailand)

    2008-10-15

    From the fact that Thai people have a tolerance to high air temperature and are accustomed to high air movement from electric fans in non-air conditioned space, this paper proposes the use of small fan assisted air conditioners for human thermal comfort and energy saving in Thailand. In the study, a total 15 students were tested in a 2.5 x 3.5 x 2.5 m{sup 3} test room equipped with a 12,000 Btu/h split type air conditioner. During the tests, the room air temperature was varied from 25, 26, 27 and 28{sup o}C every 1 h. A small fan with 15 cm diameter was placed in front of each subject. In each hour, the small fan was varied to supply a small area with velocity from 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 m/s. In each condition, the subjects were asked to vote for their thermal sensation. The results showed that the temperature set point could be increased up to 28{sup o}C when a small fan was used to supply local air velocity from 0.5 to 2 m/s according to individual preference. This would reduce the electricity consumption of the air conditioning unit. According to the proposed method, this can save energy for office buildings in the commercial sector as high as 1959.51 GWh/year. (author)

  15. Development of light-weight Al scroll compressor for car air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.; Park, Y. [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering, Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea); Choi, I. [Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Korea Maritime Univ., Pusan (Korea)

    2004-07-01

    The scroll compressor with high cooling efficiency and lower oscillating noise can be a candidate material for a part of car air conditioner, household air conditioner and so on. When Al alloy with high strength is used for scroll compressor instead of cast iron, rotation speed can be increased by weight reduction. To design Al alloy which has enough mechanical properties to replace cast iron, the effect of alloying elements, such as Si(13-15%), Cu(4-5%), and Mg(0.5-1%) and cooling rates on the mechanical properties of squeeze cast Al alloy was studied. The influence of Sr and P modification treatment on Si morphology was also studied. Aluminum alloy over 400MPa of tensile strength and 2% elongation was developed. Al scroll samples was fabricated by squeeze casting machine(UBE 800ton) with using 2 cavity mold. Flow-3D which is a three dimensional melt flow analysis program was used to find most proper mold design and optimum process conditions for squeeze casting before making samples. Relationship between secondary dendrite arm spacing and cooling rate was simulated by Flow-3D and compared with experimental results. (orig.)

  16. From Beamline to Scanner with 225Ac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew K. H.; Ramogida, Caterina F.; Kunz, Peter; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Cristina; Schaffer, Paul; Sossi, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    Due to the high linear energy transfer and short range of alpha-radiation, targeted radiation therapy using alpha-emitting pharmaceuticals that successfully target small disease clusters will kill target cells with limited harm to healthy tissue, potentially treating the most aggressive forms of cancer. As the parent of a decay chain with four alpha- and two beta-decays, 225Ac is a promising candidate for such a treatment. However, this requires retention of the entire decay chain at the target site, preventing the creation of freely circulating alpha-emitters that reduce therapeutic effect and increase toxicity to non-target tissues. Two major challenges to 225Ac pharmaceutical development exist: insufficient global supply, and the difficulty of preventing toxicity by retaining the entire decay chain at the target site. While TRIUMF works towards large-scale (C i amounts) production of 225Ac, we already use our Isotope Separation On-Line facility to provide small (overview of this research program and the journey of 225Ac from the beamline to the scanner. This research is funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  17. 浅析都匀电网110kV线路方式融冰与交流短路融冰特点%Analysis of the characteristics of working ice - melting and AC short circuit ice - melting for 110kV line of Duyun power grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘匀

    2011-01-01

    Since freeze disaster is easy to occur for Duyun power grid in winters, ice - melting should be taken into consideration ac- cording to the situation of timely ice - covering to 110kV line with avoiding the accident of pole collapse. Based on the reality of work- ing ice - melting and AC short circuit ice - melting of 110kV line taken in Duyun power grid during the freezing period of early 2011, the characteristics of the two ice - melting ways and the modified direction in future for the 110kV line of Duyun power grid are ana- lyzed, and the suggestions and proposals of Duyun power grid ice - melting planning are put forword.%都匀电网冬季易发凝冻灾害,110kV线路应及时根据覆冰跟踪情况安排融冰以避免发生因覆冰导致线路倒杆的事故。根据都匀电网2011年初凝;东期间实施的110kV线路方式融冰和交流短路融冰的实际情况,分析并总结了都匀电网110kV线路采用的两种融冰方式的特点及今后需要改进的方向,并对未来都匀电网融冰规划提出意见及建议。

  18. 1000 kV与500 kV同塔四回交流输电线路杆塔型式研究%Study on Tower Types of 1000 kV and 500 kV Four-Circuit AC Transmission Lines on One Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张禄琦; 郝阳; 张小力; 文凡; 臧国华; 魏鹏

    2013-01-01

    同塔四回输电技术是电网建设中解决输电走廊紧张、提高输电容量、实现“资源节约型”电网的有效手段.依托特高压交流输电技术研究成果,通过理论分析和数值计算对1 000kV与500 kV同塔四回交流输电线路杆塔型式进行研究.借鉴超高压输电线路同塔四回输电技术的经验,基于2种典型杆塔结构,从电磁环境、防雷性能、覆冰校验和经济性等方面进行了比较和分析,选择出合理的杆塔型式,并推荐了塔头布置方案,为1 000 kV与500 kV同塔四回输电线路塔型设计提供借鉴和参考.%Application of the four-circuit on one tower transmission technology is an effective way to solve the corridor shortage problems for transmission lines, and to improve transmission capacity and build the resource-saving power grids. Based on UHVAC-dedicated technological research results, a study was made through theoretical analysis and numerical calculation on the tower types of 1 000 kV and 500 kV four-circuit AC transmission lines on the same tower. Based on the experiences of EHV four-circuit AC transmission technology, two typical tower structures were analyzed in terms of electromagnetic environment, lighting performance, icing verification and economy. A reasonable tower type was selected, and the tower head layout scheme was proposed, which can provide a reference for tower design of 1 000 kV and 500 kV four-circuit AC transmission lines.

  19. Experimental Determination of Demand Response Control Models and Cost of Control for Ensembles of Window-Mount Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Drew Adam [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    Control of consumer electrical devices for providing electrical grid services is expanding in both the scope and the diversity of loads that are engaged in control, but there are few experimentally-based models of these devices suitable for control designs and for assessing the cost of control. A laboratory-scale test system is developed to experimentally evaluate the use of a simple window-mount air conditioner for electrical grid regulation services. The experimental test bed is a single, isolated air conditioner embedded in a test system that both emulates the thermodynamics of an air conditioned room and also isolates the air conditioner from the real-world external environmental and human variables that perturb the careful measurements required to capture a model that fully characterizes both the control response functions and the cost of control. The control response functions and cost of control are measured using harmonic perturbation of the temperature set point and a test protocol that further isolates the air conditioner from low frequency environmental variability.

  20. Application of adhesives in bus air conditioner%胶粘剂在大巴空调上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文

    2013-01-01

    The bus air conditioner is the important equipment for improving the riding comfort and the requirement for bus air conditioner is more and more high.The sealing problems including the leakage of refrigerant,water or air have great impact on the performance of bus air conditioner,which are important factors for the quality of bus air conditioning.This paper analyzed the applications of adhesives and sealants in the bus air conditioner.%汽车空调是提高汽车乘坐舒适性的重要设备,对汽车空调的质量要求越来越高。汽车空调中对空调性能起到很大影响的密封问题如漏制冷剂、漏水、漏风等,都是关系到空调质量的重要因素。本文就大巴空调使用胶粘剂、密封胶的情况进行了分析。

  1. Engineering study - alternatives for SHMS high temperature/moisture gas sample conditioners for the aging waste facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMPSON, J.F.

    1999-06-02

    The Standard Hydrogen Monitoring Systems have been experiencing high temperature/moisture problems with gas samples from the Aging Waste Tanks. These moist hot gas samples have stopped the operation of the SHMS units on tanks AZ-101, AZ-102, and AY-102. This study looks at alternatives for gas sample conditioners for the Aging Waste Facility.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix F to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioners F Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix F to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Room Air...

  3. Energy efficiency and energy saving air conditioners window and split type; Eficiencia energetica e economia de energia de condicionadores de ar tipo janela e split

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edson Palhares de; Cardoso, Rafael Balbino; Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2010-07-01

    The air-conditioners of window end Split type are responsible for a significant portion of energy consumption in residential sector of Brazil, from 20% of the sector. This study evaluates the impact energy of the Seal Program PROCEL in air-conditioners of window end Split type, showing the efficiency gains for the country in terms of energy saving. For this evaluation it was considered the effects of temperature and loss of performance due to age, PROCEL Stamp Program resulted in a power savings of 664 GWh in air-conditioners of window type residential sector in 2008. (author)

  4. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  5. UHV交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台功率限值的分析%Analysis of Non-directional Radio Beacon Power Limit Under the Condition of Active Interference Caused by UHV AC Transmission Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周铖路; 翁木云; 陈凤

    2015-01-01

    有关UHV交流输电线路与无方向信标台电磁兼容方面的研究主要集中在防护距离的分析,对间距无法满足要求时的兼容问题研究较少。为此,从台站频谱参数入手,分析特高压交流输电线路有源干扰下无方向信标台的发射功率限值。首先介绍无方向信标台的工作原理及配置区域,然后分析UHV交流输电线路对台站的干扰机理,最后根据飞行航迹,以防护率为干扰判别依据,结合防护距离的研究,分别针对航路无方向信标台、近距无方向信标台和远距无方向信标台进行有效辐射功率的分析。结果表明,在给定条件下,对于航路和远距无方向信标台,有效辐射功率分别大于5.298 W、5.273 W时,机载无线电罗盘不受干扰;对于近距无方向信标台,与输电线路始终满足兼容的要求,无需分析限值。%The EMC research between UHV AC transmission line and non-directional radio beacon mainly focused on the protection distance while the study of EMC is little when the protection distance cannot meet the requirements. Therefore, the non-directional radio beacon power limit under the condition of active interference caused by UHV AC transmission line is analyzed from the aspect of spectrum parameters. Firstly, the working principle and configuration area of non-directional radio beacon are introduced. Then the interference mechanism of non-directional radio beacon from UHV AC transmission line is analyzed. Finally, the effective radiated power (ERP) of route non-directional radio beacon, close non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon are analyzed according to the flight path and protection ratio in combination with protection distance research. The results show that under the given conditions, route non-directional radio beacon and distance non-directional radio beacon’s ERP should be greater than 5.298 W and 5.273 W respectively to keep

  6. Electric efficiency in lighting system and air conditioners replacement and automation of air conditioners split type in public buildings; Eficiencia eletrica na substituicao do sistema de iluminacao e de condicionadores de ar e automacao do sistema de condicionadores de ar tipo split em predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Apolonio, Roberto; Silva, Luciana Oliveira da; Gomes, Fernanda Leles [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The reduction in expenditure on electricity is a major benefit not only consumers but also to utilities. In this context, this article examines the process of replacing the system of internal lighting, window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners from buildings of public institutions of the state of Mato Grosso during 2009 year and verifies the reduction in annual consumption of electric power and demand active power. Thus, measurements and calculations performed are presented for the interior lighting systems and air conditioners of these buildings before and after implementation of the process of replacing the system of internal lighting and window type air conditioners and automation of Split type air conditioners. This work is the result of integration among the Dealer Network Energy Rede Cemat, the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT) and the Administration of all public buildings, where the academy answered these real issues, solving the specific problem presented. (author)

  7. Turfgrass Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Using technology developed under contract to NASA for the Space Agricultural Program, a scientist at the Plant-Wise Biostimulant Company invented a product for turfgrass called the 3-D Concentrated Plant Growth Supplement. The supplement is a blend of fortified seaweed extracts, humic acid and plant nutrients that supplies grass with extra insurance to handle adverse conditions. The "3-D" refers to its three dimensions: foliar enhancement, physiological integrity, and foundation fortification. The stimulant is used on lawns and on golf courses.

  8. Study on the Double Transposition Tower of 1000kV UHV AC in Huainan-nanjing-shanghai Transmission Line%1000kV淮南-南京-上海特高压交流双回换位塔研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑚; 李健; 汪如松; 刘文勋; 张冯硕

    2013-01-01

    本文以1000kV淮南-南京-上海特高压交流输电线路工程为背景,结合以往双回路换位塔设计成果,利用三维间隙分析软件,设计了三柱式换位塔、双柱式换位塔以及双回共杆换位塔,并估算了塔重、基础、绝缘子等工程量,通过技术经济比较,得出双共杆换位塔技术可行,经济合理。最后,推荐1000kV淮南-南京-上海高压交流输电线路工程采用双回共杆换位塔型式。%Based on the 1000kV UHV AC Double-circuit Huainan-Nanjing-Shanghai transmission line project,the paper designing three type of Double-circuit Transposition Tower with reference to some research results of double-circuit transposition towers.The paper also estimated the quantities of the transposition towers on tower heavy, foundation and insulators.it is show that double-circuit transposition on same tower gets more advantage by the analysis of technical and economic comparison.At last,the paper recommend that double-circuit transposition on same tower as the optimization type on the 1000kV UHV AC Double-circuit Huainan-Nanjing-Shanghai transmission line project.

  9. DISPLACEMENT CONTROL AND KINETIC ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT COMPRESSOR FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel variable displacement compressor (VDC) for automotive air conditioner (AAC) is introduced, which inherits the advantages of common wobble plate type VDC. It has fewer parts and makes less noise, and inst ead of pneumatic valve the displacement is controlled by electronic control valv e. In order to know the control mechanism well and get a good control effect, a mathematical model for the variable displacement mechanism is developed accordin g to the geometrical and kinematical information of the compressor. Using the mo del, the effect of relevant parameters on variable displace control is estimated . It is helpful to make the optimum decision in the flow control of AAC. As the novel displacement control device, the structure and control rule of electronic control valve is introduced. It can get better effect than the conventional pneu matic valves. And by using this new electronic control device, the optimum syste mic control of AAC is available.

  10. Experimental study on heat transfer performance of aluminium foam parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Wan, Z. M.; Chang, H. W.; Wang, Y. D.

    2017-01-01

    Open cell aluminium foam was used in parallel-flow condenser in air conditioner, and two condensers with different pore density were fabricated. The experimental study was conducted on the heat transfer performance and temperature distribution. The experimental results show that both of the heat transfer load and air pressure drop increase with the increase of pore density, air velocity is 2.5m/s, the heat transfer capacities of the condenser with 10PPI and 8PPI are 4.786kw and 3.344kW respectively. Along the flow direction of refrigerant, the outlet temperatures of refrigerant drop with the rise of air velocity when the inlet temperature is constant. The outlet temperature of the refrigerant decreases with the increase of pore density.

  11. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  12. Experimental investigation of a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2005-12-01

    In this study, a CO{sub 2} automotive air conditioner prototype was designed and constructed. The compressor was of swash plate design; the gas cooler and evaporator were made of fin-tubes; a manual expansion valve and an internal heat exchanger accumulator were used. The lubricant, the CO{sub 2} charge, the evaporator outlet pressure, the compressor speed, the air inlet temperature and flow rate of the gas cooler and the air flow rate of the evaporator were varied and the performance of the prototype was experimentally investigated in detail. The cooling capacity, compressor power consumption, CO{sub 2} mass flow rate, and COP value were analyzed. The experimental results showed that the CO{sub 2} system performance was greatly affected by different lubricants; the CO{sub 2} system performance was sensitive to the mass charge; the high side pressure affected the system performance greatly and a high side pressure controller was needed. (author)

  13. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  14. Solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants derived from Guerbet alcohols and their use in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahagi, K; Hoshino, N; Hirota, H

    1991-10-01

    Summary The solution behaviour of new cationic surfactants, synthesized by using long-chain Guerbet alcohols, in water was investigated by a polarizing microscopic technique, differential scanning calorimetry, and electric conductivity measurements. These surfactants show the gel-liquid crystalline phase transition to be lower than 0 degrees C and form lamellar liquid crystals even in cold water and at low concentrations of surfactants. The sorption of cationic surfactants from aqueous solutions onto hair was determined as a function of temperature. The effect of adsorbed cationic surfactants on the critical surface tension and kinetic frictional coefficients of hair surface have been investigated. These surface characteristics of hair treated with quaternary ammonium compounds derived from Guerbet alcohols were found to be significantly improved. These results can be explained by the high ability of sorption onto hair. Hair rinses and conditioners having excellent ease of combing or brushing for wet and dry hair can be formulated by the application of these cationic surfactants.

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Non-AHRI Central Air Conditioner Equipment and Air Source Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Air Source Heat Pump and Central Air Conditioner Equipment that are effective as of September 15, 2015. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=airsrc_heat.pr_crit_as_heat_pumps Listed products have been submitted to EPA by ENERGY STAR partners that do not participate in the AHRI certification program. EPA will continue to update this list with products that are certified by EPA-recognized certification bodies other than AHRI. The majority of ENERGY STAR products, certified by AHRI, can be found on the CEE/AHRI Verified Directory at http://www.ceedirectory.org/

  16. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  17. Performance assessment of HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 (India); Padalkar, A.S. [Process Development Division, National Chemical Laboratory, Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411 008 (India); Sane, N.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli 416 415 (India)

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental performance analysis of a 1.5 TR window air-conditioner, retrofitted with R-407C, as a substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that R-407C, for the operating conditions covered in this study, had lower cooling capacity in the range 2.1-7.9% with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for R-407C was lower in the range 7.9-13.5%. The power consumption of the unit with R-407C was higher in the range 6-7% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for R-407C were higher in the range 11-13% than HCFC-22. This paper also presents simulation results of heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner retrofitted with R-407C. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S.A. The simulated evaporator capacities are within +/-3% of the experimentally measured cooling capacities for both refrigerants. Simulation results for R-407C and HCFC-22 are compared. The exit temperatures of R-407C are lower by 1.9{sup o}C to 5.2{sup o}C in the condenser and are higher by 3.2{sup o}C to 3.8{sup o}C in the evaporator than HCFC-22. Evaporating pressures of R-407C are higher by 4.5-5.3% as compared to HCFC-22. The pressure drops of R-407C are lower in both the evaporator and the condenser as compared to HCFC-22. The outlet temperatures of air for HCFC-22 and R-407C in both heat exchangers are nearly the same. (author)

  18. Performance of a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner - An experimental and theoretical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Shahab [Queensland University of Technology, Faculty of Built Environment and Engineering, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper the results of testing a solar liquid desiccant air conditioner (LDAC) in the tropical climate of Queensland, Australia have been presented. The system uses polymer plate heat exchanger (PPHE) for dehumidification/indirect evaporative cooling, and a cooling pad as the direct evaporative cooler for the dry air leaving the PPHE. Lithium chloride, which is an effective desiccant in air dehumidification, was used in the experiments and a scavenger air regenerator concentrates the dilute solution from the dehumidifier using hot water from flat plate solar collectors. The data obtained from performance monitoring of the solar LDAC operating on a commercial site in Brisbane was compared with a previously developed model for the PPHE. The comparison reveals that good agreement exists between the experiments and model predictions. The inaccuracies are well within the measuring errors of the temperature, humidity and the air and solution flow rates. The above tests further indicate a satisfactory performance of the unit by independently controlling the air temperature and humidity inside the conditioned space. In order to prevent carryover of the solution particles into the environment, eliminators are used at outlet of the absorber unit and the regenerator. An alternative method in preventing the carryover is the use of indirect cooling, in which the supply air does not contact the solution. The method can be used to produce potable water from the atmospheric air in remote areas. The liquid desiccant system can be used in the HVAC industry, either as a packaged roof-top air conditioner, or as an air handler unit for commercial applications. The system could also be used for space heating in winter due to the property of desiccants to provide heat when wetted. (author)

  19. Single-Phase Direct AC-AC Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCANU, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a single-phase direct AC-AC boost converter. The circuit of the converter is simple and it has good performances, irrespective of the load nature. The adequate functioning and high performance of the circuit (the efficiency and waveform of the absorbed input current were tested both by simulation and experimentally.

  20. Cooling Floor AC Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Lu; Hao, Ding; Hong, Zhang; Ce, Gao Dian

    The present HVAC equipments for the residential buildings in the Hot-summer-and-Cold-winter climate region are still at a high energy consuming level. So that the high efficiency HVAC system is an urgently need for achieving the preset government energy saving goal. With its advantage of highly sanitary, highly comfortable and uniform of temperature field, the hot-water resource floor radiation heating system has been widely accepted. This paper has put forward a new way in air-conditioning, which combines the fresh-air supply unit and such floor radiation system for the dehumidification and cooling in summer or heating in winter. By analyze its advantages and limitations, we found that this so called Cooling/ Heating Floor AC System can improve the IAQ of residential building while keep high efficiency quality. We also recommend a methodology for the HVAC system designing, which will ensure the reduction of energy cost of users.

  1. Utilization of condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner%移动式空调机蒸发器冷凝水的利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁贤德

    2012-01-01

    How to use the condensate water from evaporator of portable air conditioner is analyzed An improved method to increase the energy efficiency of portable air conditioner is studied.%对如何利用移动式空调机蒸发器产生的冷凝水进行分析,探讨提升移动式空调机能效比的一种改进方法.

  2. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Sawada, Tetsuji; Amano, Ryosuke; Yamada, Nobuya; Ohira, Masaichi; Hirakawa, Kosei

    2010-05-23

    MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si) RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3) with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3). MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway.

  3. Corrosion Resistance of Zn and Cu Coated Steel Pipes as a Substitute for Cu Pipe in an Air Conditioner System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Gyeong; Park, Chan Jin; Hong, Sung Kil [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    We investigated the corrosion resistance of Zn and Cu coated steel pipes as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system. In addition, the galvanic corrosion tendency between two dissimilar metal parts was studied. The corrosion resistance of the Cu electroplated steel was similar to that of Cu, while the corrosion rate of the Zn electro-galvanized and the galvalume (Zn-55 % Al) coated steels was much higher and not suitable for Cu substitute in artificial sea water and acidic rain environments. Furthermore, the galvanic difference between Cu electroplated steel and Cu was so small that the Cu coated steel pipe can be used as a substitute for Cu pipe in an air-conditioner system.

  4. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  5. Performance Improvement of EMQ Bearings for Air-Conditioner%空调电机轴承的性能改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰

    2013-01-01

      依据调查结果阐述、分析空调电机轴承国产化现状及存在问题,论述问题产生原因并提出改进建议。%Based on findings of the investigation,elaborate and analyse current situation and existing issues of localized EMQ bearings for air-conditioners. Illustrate the root cause of issues and propose the actions to improve.

  6. he Efficiency Analysis of Room Air Conditioners%房间空气调节器的效率分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2013-01-01

    本文介绍和论述房间空调器的效率现状及其提高的途径,如高效压缩机、高效换热器、变频驱动等。%The efficiency status of room air conditioners and its improving ways are introduced and discussed in this paper , such as high-efficiency compressors , high efficiency heat exchangers , and inverter drives etc..

  7. Progress towards Managing Residential Electricity Demand: Impacts of Standards and Labeling for Refrigerators and Air Conditioners in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Iyer, Maithili

    2009-05-30

    The development of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labeling (EES&L) began in earnest in India in 2001 with the Energy Conservation Act and the establishment of the Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE). The first main residential appliance to be targeted was refrigerators, soon to be followed by room air conditioners. Both of these appliances are of critical importance to India's residential electricity demand. About 15percent of Indian households own a refrigerator, and sales total about 4 million per year, but are growing. At the same time, the Indian refrigerator market has seen a strong trend towards larger and more consumptive frost-free units. Room air conditioners in India have traditionally been sold to commercial sector customers, but an increasing number are going to the residential sector. Room air conditioner sales growth in India peaked in the last few years at 20percent per year. In this paper, we perform an engineering-based analysis using data specific to Indian appliances. We evaluate costs and benefits to residential and commercial sector consumers from increased equipment costs and utility bill savings. The analysis finds that, while the BEE scheme presents net benefits to consumers, there remain opportunities for efficiency improvement that would optimize consumer benefits, according to Life Cycle Cost analysis. Due to the large and growing market for refrigerators and air conditioners in India, we forecast large impacts from the standards and labeling program as scheduled. By 2030, this program, if fully implemented would reduce Indian residential electricity consumption by 55 TWh. Overall savings through 2030 totals 385 TWh. Finally, while efficiency levels have been set for several years for refrigerators, labels and MEPS for these products remain voluntary. We therefore consider the negative impact of this delay of implementation to energy and financial savings achievable by 2030.

  8. Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Distribution System with Air Conditioners under Model Predictive Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnamurthy, Dheepak [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lunacek, Monte S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Wesley B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Many have proposed that responsive load provided by distributed energy resources (DERs) and demand response (DR) are an option to provide flexibility to the grid and especially to distribution feeders. However, because responsive load involves a complex interplay between tariffs and DER and DR technologies, it is challenging to test and evaluate options without negatively impacting customers. This paper describes a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation system that has been developed to reduce the cost of evaluating the impact of advanced controllers (e.g., model predictive controllers) and technologies (e.g., responsive appliances). The HIL simulation system combines large-scale software simulation with a small set of representative building equipment hardware. It is used to perform HIL simulation of a distribution feeder and the loads on it under various tariff structures. In the reported HIL simulation, loads include many simulated air conditioners and one physical air conditioner. Independent model predictive controllers manage operations of all air conditioners under a time-of-use tariff. Results from this HIL simulation and a discussion of future development work of the system are presented.

  9. Performance assessment of HC-290 as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India); Padalkar, A.S. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India). Process Development Division; Sane, N.K. [Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli (India). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-06-01

    As per the Montreal Protocol, CFCs and HCFCs are being phased out. HCFC-22 is used in window air conditioners. This paper presents the experimental performance study of a window air conditioner with propane (HC-290), a natural refrigerant, as a drop-in substitute to HCFC-22. Experimental results showed that HC-290 had 6.6% lower cooling capacity for the lower operating conditions and 9.7% lower for the higher operating conditions with respect to HCFC-22. The coefficient of performance for HC-290 was 7.9% higher for the lower operating conditions and 2.8% higher for the higher operating conditions. The energy consumption of the unit with HC-290 was lower in the range 12.4-13.5% than HCFC-22. The discharge pressures for HC-290 were lower in the range 13.7-18.2% than HCFC-22. For HC-290, the pressure drop was lower than HCFC-22 in both heat exchangers. This paper also presents simulation results for the heat exchangers of an HCFC-22 window air conditioner with HC-290 as a drop-in substitute. The simulation has been carried out using EVAP-COND, a heat exchanger model developed by NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology. EVAP-COND: simulation models for finned-tube heat exchangers, Maryland, USA (2003). http://www2.bfrl.nist.gov/software/evap-cond/ [18

  10. 大型空调器节能装置%Large Air-conditioner Energy-saving Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扶岗; 李征涛; 李振华

    2012-01-01

    基于传统空调器性能测试台温度控制的原理,提出一种大型空调器节能实验装置,并简单介绍了该装置的节能原理。该试验台与传统空调器性能测试台不同的是在空气处理系统中加入了热回收换热器,有效利用室内外机室热回收换热器的热量来满足温度控制要求,从而减少了电加热器的能耗,节省了能源。%Based on the principle of temperature control of traditional air conditioner performance-testing bench, a new energy-saving equipment for large air conditioner is put forward. The energy saving principle of this equipment has been simply introduced. A heat recovery exchanger is put in the air handling system compared with the traditional air-conditioner laboratory. It is used to heat the air satisfying the demands for the temperature control in testing room, reducing the consumption of electric heaters and saving energy.

  11. Life cycle analysis of retrofitting with high energy efficiency air-conditioner and fluorescent lamp in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techato, Kua-anan [International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management (Hazardous Waste Management) and ERI (Energy Research Institute), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Watts, Daniel J. [Otto H. York Center for Environmental Engineering and Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Chaiprapat, Sumate [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai Campus, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); National Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management-Satellite Center at Prince of Songkla University (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Life cycle analysis of mercury in discarded low energy efficiency fluorescent lamps (36 W) and of HCFC in air-conditioners (12,000 Btu) removed from service has been conducted in this study. The objective was to find out the environmental impact (EDIP 1997 category, waste evaluation) of the products that appear in the waste stream as a result of facility upgrades. The scope of the study starts from retrofitting of the lamps and air-conditioners through recycling and disposal. For a 36 W fluorescent lamp, the bulk waste 1.64E-5 kg, hazardous waste 1.11E-4 kg, radioactive waste 1.09E-9 kg, and slag-ash 6.02E-7 kg occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. For a 12,000 Btu air-conditioner, the bulk waste 0.58 kg, hazardous waste 0.11 kg, radioactive waste 0.0002 kg, and slag-ash 0.01 kg also occurred at the end of life of the retrofitting cycle. These small amounts become important when viewed at the country level. These quantities imply that the policy makers who deal with hazardous waste should be aware of this waste-generating characteristic before issuing any pertinent policy. Consideration of this characteristic and planning for appropriate waste management methods at the beginning stage will reduce any future problem of contamination by the hazardous waste. (author)

  12. Simple and rapid analytical method for the simultaneous determination of cetrimonium chloride and alkyl alcohols in hair conditioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, A; Gómez-Mingot, M; Maestre, S E; Prats, S; Luis Todolí, J; Paredes, E

    2010-02-01

    A simple method for the simultaneous determination of a cationic surfactant (cetrimonium chloride) and four non-ionic surfactants (1-tetradecanol, 1-hexadecanol, 1-octadecanol and 1-eicosanol) has been developed. Direct extraction of the analytes from the sample with methanol and a subsequent separation using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection are the steps followed in the procedure. The column used was a Luna C18 and the mobile phase consisted of a 0.1 M KClO(4) solution prepared on a 95:5 mixture of methanol and water. This solution was adjusted to pH 2.8 with phosphoric acid. Recoveries close to 100% were obtained in spiked commercial hair conditioner samples for the surfactants assayed using this method. Limits of detection were 10.4, 16.7 and 22.9 mg kg(-1) of cetrimonium chloride, 1-hexadecanol, 1-hexadecanol and 1-1-octadecanol respectively. The methodology was successfully applied to nine commercial hair conditioners of several types and different brands. All hair conditioners but one contained at least two of the surfactants included in this study.

  13. ACS CCD Stability Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogin, Norman

    2012-10-01

    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.

  14. 连接管在空调器降成本机型中的灵活运用%Flexible application of connecting pipe into the cost reduction machine type of air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼志健; 梁勤奋

    2012-01-01

    在原有空调器配置不变的前提下,空调器连接管的灵活搭配应用,不但可以改善空调器制冷效果,而且能够降低空调器整机成本,提高其市场竞争力.%Under the original air conditioner configuration unchanged, the application of flexible collocation into air conditioner's connecting pipe,not only can improve the refrigeration effect of air conditioner,but also can reduce the cost of air conditioner and improve their market competitiveness.

  15. AcEST: DK956383 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TAC +HPGP Sbjct: 130 TP----GQAEEEKIEPLAPPVQKAVIDINQPQVCKNKGCGQTFKERDNHETACSHHPGPA 185 Query: 574 VF 579 VF S...AC +HPGP Sbjct: 130 TP----GQAEEEKIEPLAPPVQKAVIDINQPQVCKNKGCGQTFKERDNHETACSHHPGPA 185 Query: 574 VF 579 VF Sb

  16. Using AC Motors in Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Marzi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that fuzzy controllers are capable of controlling non-linear systems where it is cumbersome to develop conventional controllers based on mathematical modeling. This paper describes designing fuzzy controllers for an AC motor run mechanism. It also compares performance of two controllers designed based on Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno with the conventional control scheme in a short track length, following a high disturbance. Fine and rapid control of AC motors have been a challenge and the main obstacle in gaining popularity in use of AC motors in robots actuators. This chapter reviews how use of intelligent control scheme can help to solve this problem.

  17. Comparison of the Surface Roughness of Gypsum (Dental Stone with three Types of Tissue Conditioner Impression Materials over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nili M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Although the primary use of tissue conditioners is for healing the damaged mucosa but they can also be used as functional impression; it seems that its effeicasy depends on its viscoelastic features such as compatibility with gypsum and surface roughness.Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the surface roughness of gypsum with several tissue conditioner impression materials avaliable in the market.Materials and Method: In this experimental study, three tissue conditioners (Acrosoft, viscogel & GC were used. Pars dental gypsum moldano Type III and a polyvinyl siloxane impression were used for the controls. The tissue conditioners powder liquid ratio was mixed according to the manufacturer’s recommendation and immediately poured in a mold with an internal diameter of 18 mm and depth of 2mm. The mold was completely filled. Then, a glass block with the mean roughness of 0.8 µm was placed on its surface for two hours. Then, the 5 samples were immediately placed in 37oC water for 0-24 hrs, 3, 7, and 14 days. After that, the specimens were beaded, boxed and poured with pars dental gypsum type III. The gypsum sample’s surface roughness was measured with profilometer with the length of 2.5 mm and cut-off of 0.8 mm. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests.Results: The results showed that surface roughness of Acrosoft in different storage times did not change significantly and there was no significant difference between Acrosoft and the control group. Viscogels surface roughness was significantly different with all other groups at zero time; with the increase of storage time the surface roughness decreases. The control group showed a significant difference with viscogel at zero time and with GC at 24 hrs and 3 days but it revealed no difference with the other groups. The least surface roughness belonged to GC at zero and 14 days and the highests surface roughness belonged to viscogel at zero time

  18. Design Key Technologies and Testing Research of Steel Tubular Tower for UHV AC Transmission Line%特高压输电线路钢管塔设计关键技术与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李喜来; 董建尧; 段松涛

    2012-01-01

    本文所论工程1000kV淮南-上海(皖电东送)输电线路,是我国第1条百万等级的双回路特高压线路,电压等级高、导线截面大、平均塔高超过110m,采用钢管塔结构技术经济优势明显.加工产能是制约钢管塔应用最主要的原因,本工程设计中,在广泛调研和充分吸收国内外先进设计理念的前提下,提出了钢管塔标准化设计,应用带颈锻造法兰、标准化插板管头并规范和统一了可供设计选用的钢管系列规格库,为皖电东送工程钢管塔设计的安全可靠、制造加工的规范高效创造了条件.本文同时论述了工程进行的1基科研试验塔、8基工程真型塔和1基Q460科研试验塔的真型实验,以及相关的钢管、法兰、插板、节点、高强度螺栓等一系列试验研究.试验结果进一步指导和完善了钢管塔的设计,在计算模型、主材径厚比、结构布置、加劲板设置和构造处理等方面对钢管塔设计有了新的理解和认识.%Huainan-shanghai 1000kV UHVAC transmission line studied in this paper is the first project of double circuits UHV transmission line in China. The characteristic is UHV? large section of conductor and average highness more than 110m. It is more reasonable and economical for using steel tubular tower. Manufactory producible capability, that is primary reason restriet to using steel tubular tower. In the design of this project, standard design of steel tubular tower was put for ward after studing advanced method at home and abroad. One series of steel tubes, 3 kinds of joint plates of member-end and forging flange with neck were used, which create the conditions for design safty and efficient production of steel tubular tower. Testing research was carried on for 10 steel tubular tower (1 for study ? 8 for engineering and 1 for Q460 study ) to study properties of steel tubular? flange? joint plate? main joint and high strength bolt. So that design theories of steel

  19. Aislamiento acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobío, J. M.

    1970-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a very specific subject in the field of architectural acoustics, namely, insulation'. Emphasis is placed on the theoretical foundations of this phenomenon, and the most simple formula are developed to calculate easily the transmission losses of a material or the constructional insulating arrangements. The practical aspect of insulation can be considered by means of several graphs and charts, without the use of mathematics, and utilising common materials, that will not substantially increase the cost of the project. Finally this papers offers a critical discussion of building codes, and their reference to the acoustical insulation of dwellings, and data is included on the new regulations of the Madrid Municipality.Se trata un tema muy concreto de la Acústica Arquitectónica, el aislamiento, haciendo hincapié en los fundamentos teóricos del fenómeno y estableciendo las fórmulas más sencillas que permiten calcular fácilmente las pérdidas de transmisión de un material o disposición constructiva aislante. Varias gráficas y abacos permiten abordar, sin ningún tratamiento matemático, el problema práctico del aislamiento, aprovechando los materiales comunes y sin ocasionar gastos que graven sustancialmente el importe del proyecto. Por último, se hace un estudio crítico de las normas y su incidencia en los problemas del aislamiento de viviendas, incluyendo datos referentes a la nueva Ordenanza del Ayuntamiento de Madrid.

  20. Partial AC-coupling minigrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moix, Pierre-Olivier; Ruchet, Claude [Studer Innotec, Sion (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Partial AC-coupling: - It is feasible to make AC-coupling of some compatible elements without V/f droops. Standard elements available on the market were tested. - Optimum design for efficiency is a share of the solar modules between DC-coupling with a solar charger and AC-coupling with a grid inverter according to the load profile. - Partial AC-coupling is better in term of robustness; it is more reliable to have at least a part of the solar production connected directly to DC, or even only DC coupling. The presented concepts are not only theoretical but were implemented and tested on real products available on the market. Many tests have been done to find out the limits and problems that can occur with the use of grid connected and stand alone inverter together. Many combinations were tested and it was found robust enough to be used in the field with the precautions mentioned about microcycling. (orig.)

  1. Total AC loss of YBCO coated conductor carrying AC transport current in AC transverse magnetic field with various orientations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Naoyuki [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Jiang, Zhenan [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Iijima, Yasuhiro [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Kakimoto, Kazuomi [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Saitoh, Takashi [Materials Research Laboratory, Fujikura Ltd, 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan)

    2004-08-01

    Using an electro-magnetic method, we measured the total AC loss of a YBCO coated conductor carrying an AC transport current in an AC transverse magnetic field with various orientations. We measured the magnetization loss (energy flow from the external magnetic field) and the transport loss (energy flow from the transport current circuit) independently during simultaneous application of an AC transverse magnetic field and AC transport current. Their sum gave us the total AC loss. The transport loss increases with increasing AC transverse magnetic field, and the magnetization loss increases with increasing AC transport current. The AC transverse magnetic field and the AC self magnetic field interact with each other at the conductor edges. This nonlinear interaction is a possible cause of the increase in AC loss. Due to the high aspect ratio of YBCO coated conductors, this increase in AC loss due to the interaction between the AC transverse and AC self magnetic fields is observed even when the transverse magnetic field is nearly parallel to the conductor wide-face. When the total AC losses for various transport currents and various field orientations are plotted against a transverse magnetic field component which is perpendicular to the conductor wide-face, the plots with different field angles but identical transport current all agree quite well with each other. The total AC loss is dominated by the self magnetic field and the perpendicular component of the transverse magnetic field, both of which mostly penetrate from the conductor edges.

  2. Spin-exchange collision mixing of the K and Rb ac Stark shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Quan, Wei; Duan, Lihong; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Liwei; Fang, Jiancheng

    2016-11-01

    In a hybrid pumping alkali-metal vapor cell filled with both K and Rb atoms, the K atom spins are optically pumped by the laser and the Rb atom spins are polarized by the K spins through spin exchange. We discovered that the ac Stark shift of the Rb atom spins, caused by the far-off-resonant pumping laser tuned to the K absorption lines, was mixed together with the ac Stark shift of the K atom spins through fast spin exchange. This mixing is studied and we demonstrate a K-Rb-21Ne comagnetometer in which the ac Stark shift of the Rb atom spins is eliminated by compensating for the Rb ac Stark shift with the K ac Stark shift. An ac Stark shift elimination method has been developed.

  3. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J.; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers. PMID:26557428

  4. Effects of Multiple Soil Conditioners on a Mine Site Acid Sulfate Soil for Vetiver Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chu-Xia; LONG Xin-Xian; XU Song-Jun; CHU Cheng-Xing; MAI Shao-Zhi; JIANG Dian

    2004-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various soil treatments on the growth of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) with the objective of formulating appropriate soil media for use in sulfide-bearing mined areas. An acidic mine site acid sulfate soil (pH 2.8) was treated with different soil conditioner formula including hydrated lime, red mud (bauxite residues), zeolitic rock powder, biosolids and a compound fertilizer. Soils treated with red mud and hydrated lime corrected soil acidity and reduced or eliminated metal toxicity enabling the establishment of vetiver grass.Although over-liming affected growth, some seedlings of vetiver survived the initial strong alkaline conditions. Addition of appropriate amounts of zeolitic rock powder also enhanced growth, but over-application caused detrimental effects. In this experiment, soil medium with the best growth performance of vetiver was 50 g of red mud, 10 g of lime, 30 g of zeolitic rock powder and 30 g of biosolids with 2000 g of mine soils (100% survival rate with the greatest biomass and number of new shoots), but adding a chemical fertilizer to this media adversely impacted plant growth. In addition, a high application rate of biosolids resulted in poorer growth of vetiver, compared to a moderate application rate.

  5. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  6. Field evaluation of advanced controls for the retrofit of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas; Ngo, Hung; Underhill, Ronald M.; Taasevigen, Danny J.; Lutes, Robert G.

    2015-09-01

    This paper documents the magnitude of energy savings achievable in the field by retrofitting existing packaged rooftop units (RTUs) with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for RTUs. A total of 66 RTUs on 8 different buildings were retrofitted with a commercially available advanced controller for improving RTU operational efficiency. The controller features enhanced air-side economizer control, multi-speed fan control, and demand controlled ventilation. Of the 66 RTUs, 18 are packaged heat pumps and the rest are packaged air conditioners with gas heat. The eight buildings cover four building types and four climate conditions. Based on the data collected for about a whole year, the advanced controller reduced the normalized annual RTU energy consumption between 22% and 90%, with an average of 57% for all RTUs. The average fractional savings uncertainty was 12% at 95% confidence level. Normalized annual electricity savings were in the range between 0.47 kWh/h (kWh per hour of RTU operation) and 7.21 kWh/h, with an average of 2.39 kWh/h. RTUs greater than 53 kW and runtime greater than 14 hours per day had payback periods less than 3 years even at $0.05/kWh.

  7. Flow control of a centrifugal fan in a commercial air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyu; Bang, Kyeongtae; Choi, Haecheon; Seo, Eung Ryeol; Kang, Yonghun

    2015-11-01

    Air-conditioning fans require a low noise level to provide user comfort and quietness. The aerodynamic noise sources are generated by highly unsteady, turbulent structures near the fan blade. In this study, we investigate the flow characteristics of a centrifugal fan in an air-conditioner indoor unit and suggest control ideas to develop a low noise fan. The experiment is conducted at the operation condition where the Reynolds number is 163000 based on the blade tip velocity and chord length. Intermittent separation occurs at the blade leading edge and thus flow significantly fluctuates there, whereas vortex shedding occurs at the blade trailing edge. Furthermore, the discharge flow observed in the axial plane near the shroud shows low-frequency intermittent behaviors, resulting in high Reynolds stresses. To control these flow structures, we modify the shapes of the blade leading edge and shroud of the centrifugal fan and obtain noise reduction. The flow characteristics of the base and modified fans will be discussed. Supported by 0420-20130051.

  8. Performance characteristics of a turbo expander substituted for expansion valve on air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Soo-Yong [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (ReCAPT), Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Cho, Chong-Hyun [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 900 Gajoa-dong, Jinju 660-701 (Korea); Kim, Chaesil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Changwon National University, 9 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea)

    2008-09-15

    An experimental study is conducted on a small turbo expander which could be applied to the expansion process in place of expansion valves in refrigerator or air-conditioner to improve the cycle efficiency by recovering energy from the throttling process. The operating gas is HFC134a and the maximum cooling capacity of experiment apparatus is 32.7 kW. Four different turbo expanders are tested to find the performance characteristics of the turbo expander when they operate at a low partial admission rate. The partial admission rate is 1.70% or 2.37, and expanders are operated in the supersonic flow. In the experiment, pressure and temperature are measured at 10 different locations in the experimental apparatus. In addition to these measurements, output power at the turbo expander is measured through a generator installed on a rotor shaft with the rotational speed. Performance data of the turbo expander are obtained at many part load operations by adjusting the output power of the generator. A maximum of 15.8% total-to-static efficiency is obtained when the pressure ratio and the partial admission ratio are 2.37 and 1.70%, respectively. Experimental results show that the optimal velocity ratio decreases when the pressure ratio is decreased, and peak efficiencies, which are obtained at locally maximized efficiency depending on the operating condition, vary linearly against the subcooling temperature or the pressure ratio. (author)

  9. Design and performance prediction of a novel zeolite-water adsorption air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xia, Z.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wu, J.Y. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, School of Mechanical and Power Energy Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954, Huashan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: jywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2006-03-15

    A novel adsorption air conditioner is designed that supplies 8-12 deg. C chilled water for the fan coil in the locomotive operator cabin. Different from other two-bed adsorption cooling systems, this system has two adsorption/desorption chambers. One adsorber, one condenser and one evaporator are housed in one and the same adsorption/desorption chamber. There are no valves installed in the vacuum side. So, the reliability of the system is improved greatly. This machine uses zeolite and water as the working pairs. This system is driven by 350-450 deg. C exhaust gas generated by the internal combustion engine of the locomotive. The designed refrigerating power and COP (coefficient of performance) are 5 kW and 0.25, respectively, according to the requirements for the refrigeration output in the locomotive operator cabin and the waste heat provided by the engine. In this paper, a model for this system is described, and the simulation results are discussed. The model is validated in principle by limited experimental data. According to the calculation results, the refrigerating power of the machine is up to 10 kW with gas inlet temperature of 450 deg. C and evaporating temperature of 6.5 deg. C. The adsorber can be heated from 97 deg. C to 423 deg. C or cooled from 423 deg. C to 97 deg. C in 1320 s. Therefore, the heat and mass transfer performance of the adsorber is improved greatly. A few experimental data prove these conclusions.

  10. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Valsala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate the voltage sag/swell problems, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating voltage and current related power quality problems. Thus, the proposed topology can mitigate the voltage fluctuations and current harmonics without energy storage elements and the total harmonic distortion produced by the system also very low. It also reduced volume and cost, reduced capacitor power losses, together with higher reliability. The Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is used to control the matrix converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation results are presented to validate the approach.

  11. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  12. Distributed AC power flow method for AC and AC-DC hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Present MGs incorporate AC and DC sources and loads along with storage and power ... Keywords: Microgrid (MG), Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Particle ... But in case of renewable based MGs, where small and intermittent sources ...

  13. Local Voltage Support from Distributed Energy Resources to Prevent Air Conditioner Motor Stalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baone, Chaitanya A [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Microgrid voltage collapse often happens when there is a high percentage of low inertia air-conditioning (AC) motors in the power systems. The stalling of the AC motors results in Fault Induced Delayed Voltage Recovery (FIDVR). A hybrid load model including typical building loads, AC motor loads, and other induction motor loads is built to simulate the motoring stalling phenomena. Furthermore, distributed energy resources (DE) with local voltage support capability are utilized to boost the local bus voltage during a fault, and prevent the motor stalling. The simulation results are presented. The analysis of the simulation results show that local voltage support from multiple DEs can effectively and economically solve the microgrid voltage collapse problem.

  14. Response of microbial community of organic-matter-impoverished arable soil to long-term application of soil conditioner derived from dynamic rapid fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jiaqi; Li, Mingxiao; Mao, Xuhui; Hao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Liu, Dongming; Xi, Beidou; Liu, Hongliang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid fermentation of food waste can be used to prepare soil conditioner. This process consumes less time and is more cost-effective than traditional preparation technology. However, the succession of the soil microbial community structure after long-term application of rapid fermentation-derived soil conditioners remains unclear. Herein, dynamic rapid fermentation (DRF) of food waste was performed to develop a soil conditioner and the successions and diversity of bacterial communities in an organic-matter-impoverished arable soil after six years of application of DRF-derived soil conditioner were investigated. Results showed that the treatment increased soil organic matter (SOM) accumulation and strawberry yield by 5.3 g/kg and 555.91 kg/ha, respectively. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Firmicutes became the dominant phyla, occupying 65.95%-77.52% of the bacterial sequences. Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed that the soil bacterial communities were largely influenced by the treatment. Redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the relative abundances of Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Firmicutes were significantly correlated with soil TC, TN, TP, NH4+-N, NO3--N, OM, and moisture. These communities were all distributed in the soil samples collected in the sixth year of application. Long-term treatment did not enhance the diversity of bacterial species but significantly altered the distribution of major functional bacterial communities in the soils. Application of DRF-derived soil conditioner could improve the soil quality and optimize the microbial community, ultimately enhancing fruit yields.

  15. Implementation of a model for the reduction of latent capacity of an air-conditioner at part-load conditions with continuous fan operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, K.H.; Blake, J. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2004-07-01

    The performance of air-conditioners and their moisture removal effectiveness is degraded when the indoor circulation fan is in continuous mode and the compressor is off. Early experiments have shown that when the compressor is off, the cooling coil acts as an evaporative cooler and vapour condensates on its surface. This vapour goes back into the air stream and back to the conditioned space, resulting in higher humidity levels. A model has been developed by previous examiners to predict the degradation of the performance of the air-conditioner. The model accounts for the conditions of the air entering the coil, thermostat cycling rate, air-conditioner transient performance, and the moisture-retaining characteristics of the cooling coil. However, this model has not been used within a building energy simulation program. This paper demonstrates how the model can be used as part of an air-conditioning model in the ESP-r/HOT3000 building energy analysis program. Within ESP-r/HOT3000, the model can determine the effect of moisture evaporation from the coil, during compressor off-cycle within continuous fan operation. It can also examine the effect on temperature and relative humidity inside a residential building during the cooling season. The model can also determine the effect of equipment latent capacity degradation on electricity use by air conditioners. The study identifies the problems associated with an over-sized air conditioner. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. 基于复合热源的热泵型空调器%Heat pump air conditioner based on multiple heat sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国珊; 凌勋

    2012-01-01

    It is proposed that the air-water multiple heat sources could be the heat source of heat pump air conditioner. Based on the current study condition, the heat pump air conditioner which has a air/family waste water multiple heat source is preliminary designed. The working cycle and characteristics of the air conditioner are analyzed by using the thermodynamic principle. The results show that the refrigeration performance of the heat pump air conditioner is better than that of air source heat pump air conditioner, the heating performance and the situation which the outdoor heat exchanger frosts are improved.%提出将空气-水作为热泵型空调器的复合热源.根据当前的研究状况,初步设计空气-水复合热源热泵型空调器,利用热力学原理分析该空调器的工作循环和特点,结果表明该空调器的制冷性能高于空气源热泵空调器,制热和室外换热器结霜状况得到一定改善.

  17. On the Application of TLS Techniques to AC Electrical Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cirrincione

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the application of a new neuron, the TLS EXIN neuron, to AC induction motor drives. In particular, it addresses two important subjects of AC induction motor drives: the on-line estimation of the electrical parameters of the machine and the speed estimation in sensorless drives. On this basis, this work summarizes the parameter estimation and sensorless techniques already developed by the authors over these last few years, all based on the TLS EXIN. With regard to sensorless, two techniques are proposed: one based on the MRAS and the other based on the full-order Luenberger observer. The work show some of the most significant results obtained by the authors in these fields and stresses the important potentiality of this new neural technique in AC induction machine drives.

  18. Recurrent Security Gaps In 802.11ac Routers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Farik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In comparison to earlier IEEE 802.11 standard abgn routers todays popular 802.11ac standard routers have enhanced security. However 802.11ac router still has major security vulnerabilities. The novelty of this paper is that we not only highlight multiple security vulnerabilities in 802.11ac router technologies that still have not been secured since the earlier standards but also present some new ideas with solutions. We believe that our line of thoughts on security vulnerabilities gaps and on new solutions will provide network security researchers router manufacturers and network administrators with new disclosures to redesign even better security mechanisms in routers to counter attacks on networks via routers.

  19. AC Zeeman potentials for atom chip-based ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancher, Charles; Pyle, Andrew; Ziltz, Austin; Aubin, Seth

    2015-05-01

    We present experimental and theoretical progress on using the AC Zeeman force produced by microwave magnetic near-fields from an atom chip to manipulate and eventually trap ultracold atoms. These AC Zeeman potentials are inherently spin-dependent and can be used to apply qualitatively different potentials to different spin states simultaneously. Furthermore, AC Zeeman traps are compatible with the large DC magnetic fields necessary for accessing Feshbach resonances. Applications include spin-dependent trapped atom interferometry and experiments in 1D many-body physics. Initial experiments and results are geared towards observing the bipolar detuning-dependent nature of the AC Zeeman force at 6.8 GHz with ultracold 87Rb atoms trapped in the vicinity of an atom chip. Experimental work is also underway towards working with potassium isotopes at frequencies of 1 GHz and below. Theoretical work is focused on atom chip designs for AC Zeeman traps produced by magnetic near-fields, while also incorporating the effect of the related electric near-fields. Electromagnetic simulations of atom chip circuits are used for mapping microwave propagation in on-chip transmission line structures, accounting for the skin effect, and guiding impedance matching.

  20. Cascading failures in ac electricity grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohden, Martin; Jung, Daniel; Tamrakar, Samyak; Kettemann, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Sudden failure of a single transmission element in a power grid can induce a domino effect of cascading failures, which can lead to the isolation of a large number of consumers or even to the failure of the entire grid. Here we present results of the simulation of cascading failures in power grids, using an alternating current (AC) model. We first apply this model to a regular square grid topology. For a random placement of consumers and generators on the grid, the probability to find more than a certain number of unsupplied consumers decays as a power law and obeys a scaling law with respect to system size. Varying the transmitted power threshold above which a transmission line fails does not seem to change the power-law exponent q ≈1.6 . Furthermore, we study the influence of the placement of generators and consumers on the number of affected consumers and demonstrate that large clusters of generators and consumers are especially vulnerable to cascading failures. As a real-world topology, we consider the German high-voltage transmission grid. Applying the dynamic AC model and considering a random placement of consumers, we find that the probability to disconnect more than a certain number of consumers depends strongly on the threshold. For large thresholds the decay is clearly exponential, while for small ones the decay is slow, indicating a power-law decay.

  1. CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPOSTED BIO-TOILET RESIDUE AND ITS POTENTIAL USE AS A SOIL CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovita Triastuti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-toilet is a dry toilet where human excreta is trapped in a lignocelluloses soil matrix such as wood sawdust, then it is decomposed by aerobic  bacteria to organic compost rich in minerals such as N, P, and K. The study aimed to characterize the bio-toilet residue and its potential use as a soil conditioner for Jatropha curcas. The study was conducted in a private school of Daarut Tauhid in Bandung West Java. A bio-toilet S-50 type of Japan was constructed consisting of a composting chamber, mixer, heater, exhaust fan, and closet. The composting chamber was filled with 63 kg of Albizzia sawdust. Feces and urine was loaded daily by 54 students for 122-day observation. At the end of observation, the decomposed bio-toilet residue was evaluated for its physical properties such as bulk density (rb, porosity (%, and water retention (WR. Chemical properties such as pH, C/N ratio, N, P, and K, as well as microbiological properties such as numbers of bacteria, fungi, and worm eggs were evaluated at 14 and 122 days of decomposition process. Effect of the composted bio-toilet residue as plant growth media was evaluated using J. curcass as a plant indicator. Before it was used as a growth media, the composted bio-toilet residue was dried in a room temperature for 30 days. The experiment was designed in a completely randomized design 2 x 4 factorial with three replications. The first factor was the rate of composted biotoilet residue, i.e., 0, 20, 40, and 60% based on weight of the growth media mixture (1500 g pot-1, and the second was NPK fertilizer addition at 0 and 2 g pot-1. Each pot was planted with 2-month old of J. curcas seedlings. Parameters evaluated were leaf number, leaf area, stem height, and stem diameter measured at 12 weeks after planting. The results showed that the biotoilet residue was suitable as soil conditioner because it had high porosity (76%, low bulk density (0.19 g cm-3, high water retention (2.6 ml g-1 DM, neutral pH (6.9, C

  2. 空调运行管理中的节能研究%Energy-saving research in operation management of air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王元

    2012-01-01

    对空调系统运行管理中的节能进行了研究,并对空调系统运行管理的节能基础及节能措施进行了分析,通过采取良好的节能措施降低空调系统的能源消耗,从而有利于社会经济的良好发展。%The paper studies the energy-saving in the operation management of the air-conditioner system,analyzes the energy-saving foundation and the energy-saving measures of the operation management of the air-conditioner system,and reduces the source consumption of the air-conditioner system by adopting better energy-saving measures,so as to enhance the better development of the society and economy.

  3. Electrical and Control System Air Conditioner Teaching%空调器电气与控制系统教学的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雷; 阳丽

    2013-01-01

    空调器电气与控制系统部分是整个空调器教学中十分重要的内容,作者通过理论与实践教学,发现了当下在空调器教学中遇到的问题,并反思总结了一些有意义的经验做法。%Conditioner electrical and control parts of the system is the air conditioner is very important teaching content through the theory and practice of teaching, found a moment in the air conditioner problems encountered in teaching and reflect summa-rizes some meaningful experience approach.

  4. R407C在客车空调中的应用技术%Application Technology of R407C to Bus/Coach Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉文

    2015-01-01

    The author introduces the calculation method of R407C and R134a theoretical thermodynamic cycle, an-alyzes the effects variation of R407C on the bus/coach air-conditioner performance, and the selection of parts and materials for R407C bus/coach air-conditioner. This can provide a reference for the design of R407C bus/coach air-conditioner.%介绍R407C与R134a理论热力循环计算方法;对R407C客车空调系统性能的变化、零部件和材料的选用进行技术分析;为R407C客车空调器的研发设计提供参考。

  5. Analysis on Technology and Economic Feasibility of Air Conditioner%天然气空调的技术经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何于涛; 魏敦崧; 刘敏飞

    2001-01-01

    文章简述了天然气应用于空调机组的技术概况,通过办公室空调冷热源的四种方案比较,分析了以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组的经济性,此外文章还就以天然气为驱动能源的空调机组对环境的影响以及在小区集中供冷供热中的应用前景进行了讨论.%This article briefs on the technology of applying NG to air conditioner. with the comparison between 4proposals on cooling and warming resources for office air conditioner, the economic feasibility of NG as drivingenergy is analyzed. Furthermore, this article discusses the environmental impact of air conditioner using NG,

  6. 谈建筑暖通空调的设计要点%On design for architectural heat-ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王康成

    2015-01-01

    The paper indicates the concept for the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system,describes its basic key points of design from the design planning,loading calculation of air-conditioners,and ventilation system design,and puts forward the matters needing attention in the design,so as to ensure the design quality of the heat-ventilation air-conditioner system.%简述了暖通空调系统的含义,从设计规划、空调负荷计算、通风系统设计等方面,论述了建筑暖通空调的基本设计要点,提出了在设计中应该注意的问题,以保证暖通空调系统的设计质量。

  7. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of the application of a cationic conditioner to "clean" hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, A; Carr, C M; Pereira, A

    2004-01-01

    In this study the applicability of the surface-sensitive ToF-SIMS technique to hair analysis and associated aqueous processing is evaluated. ToF-SIMS analysis of "as received" human hair indicates the presence of silicones, anionic surfactants, and cationic conditioners, from previous treatments, on the fiber surface. Cleaning of the hair with SLS or SLES results in adsorption of the surfactants onto the fiber surface. In particular, the more non-polar surfactant components have greater substantivity for the fiber surface, as indicated by the relative increase in their ToF-SIMS intensity. Application of the Incroquat Behenyl 18-MEA conditioner to both "virgin" and bleached hair results in the adsorption of the cationic C18, C20, C22, and C21 surfactant components onto the hair surface. The ToF-SIMS data indicate higher levels of conditioner on the bleached hair relative to the undamaged hair.

  8. Investigating Effect of Conditioner Aggressiveness on Removal Rate during Interlayer Dielectric Chemical Mechanical Planarization through Confocal Microscopy and Dual Emission Ultraviolet-Enhanced Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Sun,; Len Borucki,; Yun Zhuang,; Yasa Sampurno,; Fransisca Sudargho,; Xiaomin Wei,; Sriram Anjur,; Ara Philipossian,

    2010-02-01

    The effect of conditioner aggressiveness is investigated in interlayer dielectric polishing on three types of pad. A method using confocal microscopy is used to analyze the effect of conditioner aggressiveness on pad-wafer contact. Results show that a more aggressive conditioner produces a higher interlayer dielectric polishing rate while at the same time a pad surface with fewer contacting summits and less contact area. It is found that the ratio of the contacting summit density to the contact area fraction is more important than either parameter measured separately since the ratio determines the mean real contact pressure. Modeling results based on contact area measurements agree well with experimental results. Moreover, it is found that a more aggressive disc also generates a thicker slurry film at the pad-wafer interface. This is in agreement with our general findings regarding pad asperity height distribution obtained using confocal microscopy.

  9. Hopping models and ac universality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed.......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA...

  10. Development of a metal hydride refrigeration system as an exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Feng; Chen, Jiangping; Chen, Zhijiu [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Lu, Manqi; Yang, Ke [Engineering Center, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016 (China); Zhou, Yimin [Research Center, Zhejiang Yinlun Machinery Co. Ltd., Tiantai County, Zhejiang Province 317200 (China)

    2007-10-15

    Aiming at developing exhaust gas-driven automobile air conditioners, two types of systems varying in heat carriers were preliminarily designed. A new hydride pair LaNi{sub 4.61}Mn{sub 0.26}Al{sub 0.13}/La{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4}Ni{sub 4.8}Mn{sub 0.2} was developed working at 120-200 C/20-50 C/-10-0 C. P-C isotherms and reaction kinetics were tested. Reaction enthalpy, entropy and theoretical cycling coefficient of performance (COP) were deducted from Van't-Hoff diagram. Test results showed that the hydride pair has flat plateau slopes, fast reaction dynamics and small hystereses; the reaction enthalpy of the refrigeration hydride is -27.1 kJ/mol H{sub 2} and system theoretical COP is 0.711. Mean particle sizes during cycles were verified to be an intrinsic property affected by constitution, heat treatment and cycle numbers rather than initial grain sizes. Based on this work pair, cylindrical reactors were designed and a function proving metal hydride intermittent refrigeration system was constructed with heat conducting oil as heat source and water as heat sink. The reactor equivalent thermal conductivity is merely 1.3 W/(m K), which still has not meet practical requirement. Intermittent refrigeration cycles were achieved and the average cooling power is 84.6 W at 150 C/30 C/0 C with COP being 0.26. The regulations of cycling performance and minimum refrigeration temperature (MRT) were determined by altering heat source temperature. Results showed that cooling power and system COP increase while MRT decreases with the growth of heat source temperature. This study develops a new hydride pair and confirms its application in automobile refrigeration systems, while their heat transfer properties still need to be improved for better performance. (author)

  11. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  12. Speed Control of DC Motor using AC/AC/DC Converter Based on Intelligent Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakan Kh Antar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available    This paper describes the application of ac/ac/dc and ac/dc converters to control the speed of a separately excited DC motor. Artificial neural network and PI controller are trained to select the desired values of firing angles for triggering thyristors of the ac/ac/dc and ac/dc bridge converters in order to control the speed of the dc motor at a desired value with constant and different load torques in order to obtain the best speed response. Simulation results show that the rising time for ac/dc and ac/ac/dc converters at 250rpm are reduced about 79% and 89% respectively, while delay time it reduced about 69% and 64% respectively. Therefore, speed response of the dc motor is more efficient for closed loop system compared with open loop also the response of ac/ac/dc converter is better than ac/dc converter.

  13. 空调器运行性能影响因素简析%Analysis on the Long-term Performance of Air Conditioner Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建军; 戴兴学; 叶檀

    2013-01-01

    The effects of on-off controlled air conditioners, outdoor temperature and dust contaminate on the performance of air conditioner are carried out on the 3 different rated capacity air conditioners in the paper. The results show that the effects on the cooling capacity and energy efficiency ratio are not more than 4% and 5% by on-off controlled air conditioner, 10% and 15% by temperature, 12% and 16% by dust contaminate respectively. So the dust contaminate and temperature on the air conditioner are important factors on evaluating the air conditioner is compliance with the long-term energy saving.%  本文通过3种不同额定制冷量的热泵型房间空调器研究了开停机、室外温度以及粉尘污染等因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响规律。结果表明,开停机对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过4%,EER不超过5%,室外温度对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过10%,EER不超过15%,粉尘污染对空调器制冷能力的最大衰减率不超过12%,EER不超过16%。因此,在实际评价空调器是否满足长效节能要求时,需着重考虑粉尘污染和温度负荷两个因素对空调器长期运行性能的影响。

  14. 带冷凝热回收的家用空调器的研究%Study on domestic air conditioner with condensing heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德福; 陈华; 黄耀坤

    2012-01-01

    随着生活水平的提高,家用空调器的使用逐年增加.空调器在夏季向室内供冷的同时,不仅给室外环境造成了热污染,而且还造成了能源的浪费.因此,很多学者都提出了空调冷凝热回收理论并进行了实验研究.文中分析了在家用空调器回收冷凝热的可行性及研究现状;介绍了家用空调器采用的冷凝热回收系统的形式及其分类;提出了一种带冷凝热回收装置的多功能热泵系统,并对该系统循环加热式冷凝热回收进行了实验研究和分析.%With tne improvement of living standards, the use of domestic air conditioner gradually increases year by year. In summer, air conditioner will consume a lot of energy for maintaining indoor air conditions and discharge lots of condensation heat into the environment which cause the environmental thermal pollution and waste of energy. Therefore, many scholars have put forward the theory and carried out the experimental studies on air conditioner with condensing heat recovery. In this study, the feasibility of recycling condensing heat on domestic air conditioner was analyzed. The form and assortment of air conditioner system with the condensing heat recovery were introduced. A multi functional hybrid domestic air conditioner system was put out, the circulating water heater of recovering condensing heat was tested and the results were analyzed.

  15. 房间空调器综合性能优化及应用研究%Room Air Conditioner Combination Performance Optimization and Applied Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 张士友; 董际鼎

    2014-01-01

    制冷量、制热量、能效比和噪声是房间空调器最重要的性能指标。通过对空调器的噪声控制和降低噪声方法进行研究,合理处理空调器噪声、节能与产品成本的关系;采用提高空调器配机系数和高传热系数的热交换器提升空调器能效系数和冷重比。从理论分析结合实际操作方法,介绍了在降低噪声和产品成本的同时,提高空调器产品能效比、冷重比、配机系数等性能优化方法,并取得较好效果。%There are many performance indexes for room air conditioner, such as cooling capacity, heating capacity, EER and noise. Through research on the method of noise control and reducing of air conditioner, the relationship with noise, energy conservation and product cost of air conditioner is managed rationally. In order to increase the energy efficiency coefficient and cooling-weight ratio of air conditioner, the heat exchangers which could increase matching coefficient and heat transfer coefficient of air conditioner are used. The method of theoretical analysis and practical operating experience is used. Meanwhile the performance optimization methods for increasing EER, cooling-weight ratio and matching coefficient of air conditioner are introduced with inducing noise and product cost which achieve better efficiency.

  16. Adhesive bonding of resin composite to various titanium surfaces using different metal conditioners and a surface modification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Jorge ALMILHATTI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of three metal conditioners on the shear bond strength (SBS of a prosthetic composite material to cpTi grade I having three surface treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred sixty eight rivet-shaped specimens (8.0x2.0 mm were cast and subjected to polishing (P or sandblasting with either 50 mm (50SB or 250 mm (250SB Al2O3. The metal conditioners Metal Photo Primer (MPP, Cesead II Opaque Primer (OP, Targis Link (TL, and one surface modification system Siloc (S, were applied to the specimen surfaces, which were covered with four 1-mm thick layers of resin composite. The resin layers were exposed to curing light for 90 s separately. Seven specimens from each experimental group were stored in water at 37ºC for 24 h while the other 7 specimens were subjected to 5,000 thermal cycles consisting of water baths at 4ºC and 60ºC (n=7. All specimens were subjected to SBS test (0.5 mm/min until failure occurred, and further 28 specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Data were analyzed by 3-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey's test (α=0.05. Results: On 50SB surfaces, OP groups showed higher SBS means than MPP (P<0.05, while no significant difference was found among OP, S, and TL groups. On 250SB surfaces, OP and TL groups exhibited higher SBS than MPP and S (P<0.05. No significant difference in SBS was found between OP and TL groups nor between MPP and S groups. The use of conditioners on 250SB surfaces resulted in higher SBS means than the use of the same products on 50SB surfaces (P<0.05. Conclusion: Sandblasting associated with the use of metal conditioners improves SBS of resin composites to cpTi.

  17. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Santhosh Kumar; K. VIJAY KUMAR

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W) distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC). The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer ne...

  18. Choice of a system for heat recovery. Efficiency of an air conditioner; Systeemkeuze voor warmteterugwinning. Meer efficientie uit luchtbehandelingsinstallatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gorkom, F.H.J.

    2004-05-01

    The use of heat recovery in an air conditioning system improves the efficiency. An overview is given of different air conditioners where heat recovery is applied: twincoil, heat exchanger, heat wheel, and the Kantherm system. [Dutch] Warmteterugwinning levert efficiente luchtbehandelingsinstallaties op. Voor het toepassen van warmteterugwinning is een aantal systemen beschikbaar. In dit artikel komen zowel de twincoil, de platenwisselaar, het warmtewiel en het Kantherm-systeem aan bod. De systemen worden kort beschreven en daarnaast beoordeeld op hun rendement, toepassingsmogelijkheden, voor- en nadelen en kosten voor de levenscyclus.

  19. Discussion on Refitting Air Conditioner on EVs%关于电动汽车空调改装探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷丰

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis and explanation of its working principle and refitting method, the author presents the basic thinking of electric refit of air conditioner on traditional vehicles.%针对纯电动汽车空调在传统汽车空调基础上的改装,结合其工作原理及改装方法进行一定的分析说明,提出对传统汽车空调电动化改装的基本思路。

  20. AC Cable: Yokohama Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takato

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables can transmit large amounts of electricity in a compact size with minimal losses. Therefore, they are expected to save the construction cost of underground lines in urban areas and decrease transmission losses. Several HTS cables have recently been demonstrated in networks around the world, and full-scale commercialization is expected in the near future. In Japan, the development of compact HTS cables suitable for urban deployment has been underway since the early 1990s. In 2007, a national project was started to verify their operational performance and long-term reliability in the grid. An HTS cable 240 m long was installed at the Asahi substation of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Yokohama; then a joint, terminations and cooling system was constructed in 2011. After successful performance tests, the cable was connected to the grid for the first time in Japan, and started to deliver electricity to 70,000 households in October 2012. This trouble-free in-grid service continued for over a year. We can conclude that the HTS cable system performs well and has the stability required for long-term in-grid operations.

  1. AC410 Unit 9 Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril1

    2017-01-01

     AC410 Unit 9 Assignment Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/ac410-unit-9-assignment/   18–29. The CPA firm of Carson & Boggs LLP is performing an internal control audit in accordance with PCAOB Standard No. 5. The partner in charge of the engagement has asked you to explain the process of determining which controls to test. Describe the process, presenting each of the links in this process and a short summary of how the auditors approach each of them. v ...

  2. Electrothermal ac electro-osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Zachary R.; Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    2009-01-01

    Two ac polarization mechanisms, charge accumulation due to electrode double layer charging and bulk permittivity/conductivity gradients generated by Joule heating, are combined in the double layer by introducing zwitterions to produce a new ac electrokinetic pump with the largest velocity (>1 mm/s) and flow penetration depth (100 μm) reported for low-conductivity fluids. The large fluid velocity is due to a quartic scaling with respect to voltage, as is true of electrothermal flow, but exhibits a clear maximum at a frequency corresponding to the electrode double layer inverse RC time.

  3. Nuclear structure of $^{231}$Ac

    CERN Document Server

    Boutami, R; Mach, H; Kurcewicz, W; Fraile, L M; Gulda, K; Aas, A J; García-Raffi, L M; Løvhøiden, G; Martínez, T; Rubio, B; Taín, J L; Tengblad, O

    2008-01-01

    The low-energy structure of 231Ac has been investigated by means of gamma ray spectroscopy following the beta-decay of 231Ra. Multipolarities of 28 transitions have been established by measuring conversion electrons with a mini-orange electron spectrometer. The decay scheme of 231Ra --> 231Ac has been constructed for the first time. The Advanced Time Delayed beta-gamma-gamma(t) method has been used to measure the half-lives of five levels. The moderately fast B(E1) transition rates derived suggest that the octupole effects, albeit weak, are still present in this exotic nucleus.

  4. AcEST: DK963222 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|P81919|OR46A_DROME Odorant receptor 46a, isoform A OS=Drosoph... 32 2.8 sp|Q5MJ68|SPDYC_HUMAN Speed...FCFKA 181 CS +T + AV S L + +YV + AC Q FI C+ A Sbjct: 262 CSVLVLTANFYAIAVLSDERLELFKYVTYQACMLIQIFILCYYA 305 >sp|Q5MJ68|SPDYC_HUMAN Spee

  5. AcEST: DK953266 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 0.49 sp|A5VSF3|ACSA_BRUO2 Acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase OS=Brucella ov... 34 0.49 sp|Q8YJ48|ACSA_BRUME Ac... K++ + NK L+ R G WG GR++ Sbjct: 180 FVITADEGVRGGKPVALKENTDTAIDIAAKQYVMVNKVLVVRRTGGKVSWGRGRDL 235 >sp|A5VSF3|ACSA_BRUO2

  6. AcEST: BP918420 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D 180 >sp|A8AC98|APGM_IGNH4 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase OS=Ignicoccus hosp...italis (strain KIN4/I / DSM 18386 / JCM 14125) GN=apgM PE=3 SV=1 Length = 416 Score

  7. AcEST: BP921446 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 34 2e-30 tr|A4VIU1|A4VIU1_PSEU5 Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Pseud... 129 1e-28 tr|Q11HF6|Q11HF6_MESSB...EHTHLMLDSKAGWVEPHIQAGDRCFAEYPDESLAQWHERLGL 159 >tr|Q11HF6|Q11HF6_MESSB Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde-ac

  8. AcEST: BP917259 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q96AC6|KIFC2_HUMAN Kinesin-like protein KIFC2 OS=Homo sapiens... 30 9.0 sp|O88737|BSN_MOUSE Protein bassoon ... WGQPG AAGS + PG Sbjct: 748 SSSPTEWVKWSWGQPG-------AAGSRAPPG 772 >sp|O88737|BSN_MOUSE Protein bassoon

  9. AcEST: DK947455 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tative uncharacterized protein OS=Picea... 246 9e-64 tr|A8QIH7|A8QIH7_MORAL Chlor...DPTARSDNGSCEYEFKE 479 >tr|A8QIH7|A8QIH7_MORAL Chloroplast ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase ac

  10. AcEST: DK943932 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rella paten... 145 2e-33 tr|B6T2L2|B6T2L2_MAIZE Sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase ...EAL++SHVCK+AC Sbjct: 67 ATACVNTFGDEQLAVDMLADKLLFEALRHSHVCKYAC 103 >tr|B6T2L2|B6T2L2_MAIZE Sedoheptulose-1,7-

  11. AcEST: DK961189 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available OS=A... 127 7e-29 sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS... 125 2e-28 sp|P00785|AC...IRNSWGLNWGDSGYVKLQRNIDDPFGKCGIAMMPSYP 347 >sp|Q94B08|GCP1_ARATH Germination-specific cysteine protease 1 OS=

  12. A comparison of the efficacy of nystatin and fluconazole incorporated into tissue conditioner on the in vitro attachment and colonization of Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah-Tafti

    2010-01-01

    Results: The 1% to 10% mixture of nystatin and tissue conditioner completely inhibited the attach-ment and colonization of Candida albicans, although for fluconazole only a 10% concentration caused complete inhibition. Nystatin showed a potentially higher effect in inhibition of candida at-tachment and colonization (P = 0.0001 compared to that of fluconazole and a statistically significant difference was seen between 5% and 1% fluconazole (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Tissue conditioner with 1% to 10% nystatin or 10% fluconazole can completely inhi-bit the adhesion and colonization of Candida albicans.

  13. Optimal Design Principle for Air Conditioner with Refrigerant R290%R290空调器的优化设计原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晶丹; 丁国良; 王婷婷; 高屹峰; 宋吉

    2013-01-01

    The principle for optimal design for air conditioners with refrigerant R290 is proposed. The principle is based on the thermal performance analysis and comparison of the three refrigerants, which are R290, R22 and R410A. The principle includes the optimal design of compressor, condenser, evaporator and orifice set: the compressor discharge rate of R290 air conditioner should be bigger; the condenser of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes; the evaporator of R290 air conditioner can adopt heat exchangers with smaller diameter tubes;the capillary length of R290 air conditioner should be about 39%longer than that of R22 air conditioner, and should be about 44%shorter than that of R410A air conditioner. Meanwhile, the suggestion of how to guarantee the security of R290 air conditioner is also proposed in this paper.%  在分析比较 R290、R22、R410A 三种工质热力性能的基础上,对采用 R290工质的空调器提出了优化设计原则。优化设计原则主要针对压缩机、冷凝器、蒸发器、节流装置四大部件:R290空调器的压缩机应增加排量;R290空调器的冷凝器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的蒸发器可采用小管径换热器;R290空调器的毛细管应比R22空调器的长约39%,比R410A空调器的短约44%。在提出R290空调器优化设计原则的同时,本文对保证R290空调器安全性提出了建议。

  14. 常规空调器用于低温制冷研究%Study on Low Temperature Refrigeration with Conventional Air Conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 时红臣

    2015-01-01

    对常规空调器用于低温制冷进行了研究,通过控制系统改造实现了系统在低温下稳定运行,控制系统改造方案可以实现常规空调机组低温制冷功能。%n this paper, how to achieve low temperatur air conditioning with conventional air conditioner were studied, through the control system renovation, air conditioning system run stably at low temperatur , the control system renovation scheme can realize the low temperature refrigeration function of conventional air conditioner.

  15. Natural refrigerants for air conditioners in passenger cars. A contribution to climate protection. Background; Natuerliche Kaeltemittel fuer PKW-Klimaanlagen. Ein Beitrag zum Klimaschutz. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Gabriele; Plehn, Wolfgang

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners in passenger cars contain a refrigerant which significantly increases the greenhouse effect. Currently about 30 % of global emissions of partially fluorinated hydrocarbons originate from these air conditioners. According to the directive 2006/40/EC, this refrigerant must be replaced by a less harmful substance. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration initially reports on the stock and level of air conditioning of passenger cars as well as on the refrigerant tetrafluoroethane. Subsequently, refrigerants for air conditioning of passenger cars such as carbon dioxide, 1.1-difluoroethane and 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro propylene are described. Overall, the refrigerant carbon dioxide is the best alternative for mobile air conditioning.

  16. ACS from development to operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caproni, Alessandro; Colomer, Pau; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Mañas, Miguel M.

    2016-08-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS), provides the infrastructure of the distributed software system of ALMA and other projects. ACS, built on top of CORBA and Data Distribution Service (DDS) middleware, is based on a Component- Container paradigm and hides the complexity of the middleware allowing the developer to focus on domain specific issues. The transition of the ALMA observatory from construction to operations brings with it that ACS effort focuses primarily on scalability, stability and robustness rather than on new features. The transition came together with a shorter release cycle and a more extensive testing. For scalability, the most problematic area has been the CORBA notification service, used to implement the publisher subscriber pattern because of the asynchronous nature of the paradigm: a lot of effort has been spent to improve its stability and recovery from run time errors. The original bulk data mechanism, implemented using the CORBA Audio/Video Streaming Service, showed its limitations and has been replaced with a more performant and scalable DDS implementation. Operational needs showed soon the difference between releases cycles for Online software (i.e. used during observations) and Offline software, which requires much more frequent releases. This paper attempts to describe the impact the transition from construction to operations had on ACS, the solution adopted so far and a look into future evolution.

  17. Transient Temperature Analysis for Industrial AC Arc Furnace Bottom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (U)nal (C)amdal1; Murat Tun(c)

    2004-01-01

    Heat losses from the furnaces depend on the design and size. The surface heat loss from the bottom of an industrial AC electric arc furnace (EAF) possesses an important fraction of overall losses. So in this study the transient temperature variation at the bottom of the EAF was investigated. The transient temperature analysis was carried out using MATLAB computer program. T=T(r, t) for different bottom lining layers was depicted.

  18. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945

  19. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne eHoogstrate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.

  20. Static aerobic composting of municipal sewage sludge with forced ventilation:Using matured compost as bulking conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳建新; 施周; 钟华; 刘卫; 柴琦; 袁兴中

    2014-01-01

    Static aerobic composting of municipal sewage sludge with forced ventilation or air ventilation using matured compost as bulking conditioner was investigated. Physical and chemical parameters, e.g., temperature, moisture content, VSS, CODcr, pH, and germination index (GI), were analyzed to characterize the composting process. Fermentation starts quickly in both forced and air ventilation compost heaps and reaches high-temperature stage after 2 d, owing to the bulking function of matured compost. Compared to air ventilation, however, forced ventilation enables the high-temperature stage to last longer for approximately 7 d. The moisture content of both compost bodies decreases from 62%to about 50%as a result of evaporation, and it decreases slightly faster in forced ventilation compost heap after 13 d due to the higher temperature and better ventilation condition. Although no obvious differences of VSS and pH are observed between both compost heaps, the soluble CODCr and GI show differences during the second half period of fermentation. In forced ventilation compost, the soluble CODCr has a small rebound after 13 d, and GI decreases from 46%to 35%but then increases. These results show that in general, the matured compost is a good conditioner and force ventilation with a proper air supply strategy can be more efficient than air ventilation.

  1. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  2. A review on test procedure, energy efficiency standards and energy labels for room air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Saidur, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-09-15

    Air conditioners and refrigerator-freezers are major energy users in a household environment and hence efficiency improvement of these appliances can be considered as an important step to reduce their energy consumption along with environmental pollution prevention. Energy efficiency standards and labels are commonly used tools to reduce the energy uses for household appliances for many countries around the world. The first step towards adopting energy efficiency standards is to establish a test procedure for rating and testing of an appliance. It may be mentioned that an energy test procedure is the technical foundation for energy efficiency standards, energy labels, and other related programs. This paper reviews requirements and specifications of various international test standards for testing and rating of room air conditioners and refrigerators. A review on the development of the energy efficiency standards has been provided as well. Finally, energy labels that provide some useful information for identifying energy efficient products have been reviewed for these appliances. It may be stated that the review will be useful for the developing countries who wish to develop these energy savings strategies. It is also expected to be useful to revise the existing strategies for a few selected countries who already implemented these strategies earlier. (author)

  3. The design of the motor bracket for reduction of structure-borne noise in package air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyoun Jin; Lee, Sung Jin; Oh, Jae Eung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Ho [WiniaMando, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Yoon [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    As the economic power is improved and the customer's demand is hard to please, the noise and vibration is the most important yardstick that can determine the quality of the product. Especially, as the air-conditioner's demand increase suddenly, the product of quality and the noise is becoming a decisive factor of determining whether purchase the product or not. Therefore, every manufactory is investing a lot of money and research to cut down the unpleasantness induced from noise and vibration. And they are emphasizing their product's difference by advertising a silence very actively. With these reason, the demand of a silent indoor air-conditioner is the essential research filed when the product is developed. In this study, the noise and vibration is visualized in the space and frequency domain by using experimental methods such as Operational Deflection Shape (ODS), modal testing and sound intensity. Also the location of noise source and its characteristic is analyzed in an acoustical point of view to reduce the structure borne noise that come from the fan motor, and the pertinent control method is suggested. Furthermore, the most suitable shape of the motor bracket is suggested by applying FEM and DOE (Design of Experiments) in the noise and vibration point a view.

  4. Performance of a prototype micro wind turbine in the manmade wind field from air conditioner of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Goh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Harnessing waste energy from the manmade air fields of buildings presents a new area of renewable energy to explore. Due to the unpredictability of the natural wind, this study is to evaluate the practicality for harnessing waste energy from the air conditioner exhaust units which are a more constant and predictable source available in the buildings. A prototype of the micro wind turbine has been designed to minimize the negative effect of the exhaust sources. After the micro wind turbine was manufactured, the performance of the turbine was tested in the selected air conditioner exhaust unit. Increasing the rotor solidity and decreasing the resistance of the generator contribute to improved starting torque and decreased generator break in torque respectively in the design. The power generation of the micro wind turbine increases with an increase of the rotor speed. The 24-hour operation of the prototype presents an observation for both exhaust performance and power generation prediction when the prototype is mounted on the exhaust unit.

  5. Performance evaluation of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner in fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Chul; Won, Jong Phil [Thermal Management Research Center, Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chungnam 330-912 (Korea); Park, Yong Sun; Lim, Tae Won [Corporate Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Gyeonggi 449-912 (Korea); Kim, Min Soo [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    A relation between the heat release from a fuel cell stack and an air conditioning system's performance was investigated. The air conditioning system installed in a fuel cell vehicle can be used for stack cooling when additional stack heat release is required over a fixed radiator capacity during high vehicle power generation. This study investigated the performance of a stack cooling system using CO{sub 2} air conditioner at various operating conditions. Also, the heat releasing effectiveness and mutual interference were analyzed and compared with those for the conventional radiator cooling system with/without cabin cooling. When the radiator coolant inlet temperature and flow rate were 65 C and 80 L/min, respectively, for the outdoor air inlet speed of 5 m/s, the heat release of the stack cooling system with the aid of CO{sub 2} air conditioner increased up to 36% more than that of the conventional radiator cooling system with cabin cooling. Furthermore, this increased by 7% versus the case without cabin cooling. (author)

  6. Suppression of RNA Silencing by a Geminivirus Nuclear Protein, AC2, Correlates with Transactivation of Host Genes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R.; Shivaprasad, P. V.; Akbergenov, Rashid; Oakeley, Edward J.; Veluthambi, K.; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2005-01-01

    Bipartite geminiviruses encode a small protein, AC2, that functions as a transactivator of viral transcription and a suppressor of RNA silencing. A relationship between these two functions had not been investigated before. We characterized both of these functions for AC2 from Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV). When transiently expressed in plant protoplasts, MYMV AC2 strongly transactivated the viral promoter; AC2 was detected in the nucleus, and a split nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped. In a model Nicotiana benthamiana plant, in which silencing can be triggered biolistically, AC2 reduced local silencing and prevented its systemic spread. Mutations in the AC2 NLS or Zn finger or deletion of its activator domain abolished both these effects, suggesting that suppression of silencing by AC2 requires transactivation of host suppressor(s). In line with this, in Arabidopsis protoplasts, MYMV AC2 or its homologue from African cassava mosaic geminivirus coactivated >30 components of the plant transcriptome, as detected with Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips. Several corresponding promoters cloned from Arabidopsis were strongly induced by both AC2 proteins. These results suggest that silencing suppression and transcription activation by AC2 are functionally connected and that some of the AC2-inducible host genes discovered here may code for components of an endogenous network that controls silencing. PMID:15681452

  7. Suppression of RNA silencing by a geminivirus nuclear protein, AC2, correlates with transactivation of host genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R; Shivaprasad, P V; Akbergenov, Rashid; Oakeley, Edward J; Veluthambi, K; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2005-02-01

    Bipartite geminiviruses encode a small protein, AC2, that functions as a transactivator of viral transcription and a suppressor of RNA silencing. A relationship between these two functions had not been investigated before. We characterized both of these functions for AC2 from Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV). When transiently expressed in plant protoplasts, MYMV AC2 strongly transactivated the viral promoter; AC2 was detected in the nucleus, and a split nuclear localization signal (NLS) was mapped. In a model Nicotiana benthamiana plant, in which silencing can be triggered biolistically, AC2 reduced local silencing and prevented its systemic spread. Mutations in the AC2 NLS or Zn finger or deletion of its activator domain abolished both these effects, suggesting that suppression of silencing by AC2 requires transactivation of host suppressor(s). In line with this, in Arabidopsis protoplasts, MYMV AC2 or its homologue from African cassava mosaic geminivirus coactivated >30 components of the plant transcriptome, as detected with Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips. Several corresponding promoters cloned from Arabidopsis were strongly induced by both AC2 proteins. These results suggest that silencing suppression and transcription activation by AC2 are functionally connected and that some of the AC2-inducible host genes discovered here may code for components of an endogenous network that controls silencing.

  8. AcEST: DK943965 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FKBP-type OS=Cya... 55 2e-06 tr|B8EIG1|B8EIG1_METSI Peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP-type OS=Met... 53 9e-06 t... type OS=Ac... 51 4e-05 tr|B8I9L2|B8I9L2_METNO Peptidylprolyl isomerase FKBP-type OS=Met.

  9. 中央空调节能技术分析%On technical analysis of central air-conditioner for saving energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云龙

    2009-01-01

    From three aspects of the air-conditioner design, the control in key links, the energy-saving measures in using process and the management of the central air-conditioner, the paper analyzes and sums up the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system and provides opinions for the energy-saving of the central air-conditioner system, so as to enhance the devdopment of the architectural energy-saving and the creation of the conservation-mined society.%从空调设计中的关键环节控制、空调使用过程中的节能措施以及中央空调的管理三个方面,对中央空调系统的节能进行了分析和总结,为中央空调系统的节能提供了有意义的看法,以促进建筑节能的发展和节约型社会的创建.

  10. Fire cause investigation of a air conditioner fault fire%对一起空调器故障引发火灾的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于深源

    2012-01-01

    介绍了一起空调器故障引发火灾的现场勘查认定.在未能发现空调器是否发生过故障的情况下,根据空调室内机内及室内部分冷媒管线聚氨酯保温护套的异常痕迹,证明了空调器异常运行、冷媒管异常发热的情况,并结合中国科学院沈阳金属研究所鉴定结论,正确认定了火灾原因.%Fire scene renaissance of a air conditioner fault fire was analyzed. In the event that air conditioner failure could' t be identified, based on abnormal traces of air conditioner indoor unit and some indoor refrigerant pipeline polyurethane insulation sheath, it was proved that the air conditioner didn't run properly and the refrigerant pipe heated abnormally. Combined with identification of Institute of Metal Research, Chinese A-cademy of Sciences, fire cause was identified.

  11. AC2 and AC4 proteins of Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus and Tobacco curly shoot virus mediate suppression of RNA silencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xiaofeng; ZHOU Xueping

    2004-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus Y10 isolate (TYLCCNV-Y10) alone could systemically infect host plants such as Nicotiana benthamiana without symptoms. In contrast, Tobacco curly shoot virus Y35 isolate (TbCSV-Y35) alone induces leaf curl symptoms in N. benthamiana. When inoculated into transgenic N. benthamiana plants expressing GFP gene (line 16c), TYLCCNV-Y10 neither reverses the established GFP silencing nor blocks the onset of GFP silencing. In contrast, TbCSV-Y35 can partially reverse the established GFP silencing and block the onset of GFP silencing in new leaves. In the patch co-infiltration assays, the AC2 and AC4 proteins of TYLCCNV-Y10 and TbCSV-Y35 could suppress local GFP silencing and delay systemic GFP silencing, suggesting that they are suppressors of RNA silencing. Comparison of the accumulation levels of GFP mRNA in the co-infiltration patches showed that Y10 AC2 and Y35 AC2 proteins had similar efficiency for suppression of RNA silencing. However, Y35 AC4 protein functioned as a stronger suppressor of RNA silencing than Y10 AC4 protein. Therefore, the pathogenicity difference between TbCSV-Y35 and TYLCCNV-Y10 may be related to the functional difference in their AC4 proteins.

  12. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    consuming products has always been an important component of all countries energy strategies. As we all know, a very large amount of total energy consumption is due to energy consuming products and equipment, which account for about 50% of China's total energy consumption. However, the current average energy utilization efficiency of this sector is only about 60%, 10 percent lower than the international advanced level. Therefore, China's energy consuming products and equipment sector holds great energy-saving potential. On the other hand, the energy supplied to these products is mainly from fossil fuel combustion, a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, improving the energy efficiency and augmenting the market share of market-dominant energy consuming products is of significant importance to achieving China's energy saving and emission reduction target and is an effective means to deal with energy and environmental constraints and climate change issues. Main energy consuming products generally include widely-used home appliances, industrial equipment, office equipment, transportation vehicles, etc. China is one of the major manufacturers and exporters of energy end-using products such as air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, etc. Their overall energy efficiency is comparatively low and the products are poorly designed, leading to great energy-saving potential. For example, electricity consumption of air conditioners accounts for about 20% of China's total electricity consumption and 40% of the summer electricity peak load in large and medium cities. However, less than 5% of units sold in the domestic market in 2009 reached the standard's highly efficient level of grade 2 above. The electricity consumption of electric motors and their related drive systems accounts for about 60% of China's total electricity consumption; however, less than 2% of the domestic market share consists of energy-efficient electric motor

  13. Analysis on Thermodynamic Perfectibility of Room Air Conditioners%房间空调器的热力学完善度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓凤; 马一太; 闫秋辉

    2013-01-01

    According to analysis on the energy efficiency standards of the constant speed room air conditioner and the variable speed type, differences between the two kinds of air conditioners exist in division standard, grades of energy efficiency and outdoor temperature starting refrigeration. Therefore, a survey was made about cooling capacity and EER as well as energy efficiency grades of the constant and variable speed room air conditioners. The thermodynamic perfectibility of the two types of room air conditioners was calculated for the performance evaluation. The calculation results show that energy efficiency standard of variable speed room air conditioners in 2008 is lower than that of constant room air conditioners. A new energy efficiency standard of the variable speed air conditioner is suggested in accordance with the consistent thermodynamic perfectibility.%  通过对定速与转速可控房间空调器能效标准的分析,发现两类房间空调器的能效划分标准、划分等级以及制冷运行室外温度发生时间均有不同的规定。因此对国内市场上的定速房间空调器制冷量和制冷循环的能效比(EER)、转速可控房间空调器制冷量和制冷季节能效比(SEER)、以及定速房间空调器与转速可控房间空调器的能效等级现状等方面进行了调研统计。利用热力学完善度对两类房间空调器能效等级进行计算,发现2008版转速可控房间空气调节器的能效等级的热力学完善度偏低,根据热力学完善度相一致的原则,提出转速可控房间空调器新的能效标准等级的建议。

  14. AC dynamometer; Koryu dinamo meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., developed an AC dynamometer for testing automobiles, and the product was delivered to Hokkaido Automotive Engineering College via Safety Automobile Company. The device is used for testing 1,300cc-class automobiles. It is similar to the conventional type in that its force of reaction to an imposed load is measured by load cells. It is a variable speed motor driven by an inverter (FRENIC5000VG5), whose specifications and features are mentioned below. It is a totally-enclosed self-cooled oscillating AC dynamometer that outputs 75kW, revolves at 1500/2868rpm, and operates for 30min. Since it is rated for a short time operation, the external fan is dispensed with, and this reduces noise. A number of parts for the standard type (R90 series) are utilized for reduction in the cost, and the time required for its delivery was short. (NEDO)

  15. An Annotated Bibliography of High-Voltage Direct-Current Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission (FACTS) Devices, 1991-1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litzenberger, Wayne; Lava, Val

    1994-08-01

    References are contained for HVDC systems, converter stations and components, overhead transmission lines, cable transmission, system design and operations, simulation of high voltage direct current systems, high-voltage direct current installations, and flexible AC transmission system (FACTS).

  16. A Hybrid Power Conditioner for High-speed Electric Railway and Its Power Capacity Analysis%一种适用于高速电气化铁路的混合型功率调节系统及其容量分析∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许加柱; 李平; 胡斯佳; 董欣晓; 周冠东; 陈跃辉

    2016-01-01

    随着交流电力机车的广泛使用,牵引网负序和过分相问题日益突出,采用配置铁路功率调节器(railway power conditioner,RPC)的同相供电系统是一种可行方案。为了提高该方案中功率调节系统的性价比,本文提出了一种适用于同相供电系统的新型混合铁路功率调节器(hybrid RPC,HRPC)。与传统 RPC 相比,该系统变流器的端口电压更低,从而大幅降低了有源部分的容量。文章详细描述了系统的拓扑结构、补偿原理,给出了关键参数的设计方法,并对 HRPC的容量进行了系统分析。研究结果表明,在完成相同补偿任务的前提下,所提 HRPC变流系统的容量将比传统RPC降低46%~50%。所得结论通过仿真得到了验证。%With wide application of AC drive electric locomotives in railway networks,the negative se-quence current and neutral section increase significantly,and the co-phase power supply system with Rail-way Power Conditioner (RPC)is an effective solution.In order to increase its cost performance,a new Hybrid Railway Power Conditioner (HRPC)for co-phase was proposed.Compared with the traditional RPC,HRPC is much lower than RPC in operation voltage,so its capacity of active part decreases signifi-cantly.This paper analyzed its topology,compensation principle and operation voltage of its active part. The design of its key parameter was given.The results prove that HRPC is lower by 46%~50% than that of RPC in completing similar compensational tasks through simulation.

  17. RNA interference suppression of mucin 5AC (MUC5AC reduces the adhesive and invasive capacity of human pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Nobuya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MUC5AC is a secretory mucin normally expressed in the surface muconous cells of stomach and bronchial tract. It has been known that MUC5AC de novo expression occurred in the invasive ductal carcinoma and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm with no detectable expression in normal pancreas, however, its function remains uncertain. Here, we report the impact of MUC5AC on the adhesive and invasive ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods We used two MUC5AC expressing cell lines derived from human pancreatic cancer, SW1990 and BxPC3. Small-interfering (si RNA directed against MUC5AC were used to assess the effects of MUC5AC on invasion and adhesion of pancreas cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We compared parental cells (SW1990 and BxPC3 with MUC5AC suppressed cells by si RNA (si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3. Results MUC5AC was found to express in more than 80% of pancreatic ductal carcinoma specimens. Next we observed that both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 showed significantly lower adhesion and invasion to extracellular matrix components compared with parental cell lines. Expression of genes associated with adhesion and invasion including several integerins, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -3 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were down-regulated in both MUC5AC suppressed cells. Furthermore, production of VEGF and phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 were significantly reduced by MUC5AC down regulation. Both of si-SW1990 and si-BxPC3 attenuated activation of Erk1/2. In vivo, si-SW1990 did not establish subcutaneous tumor in nude mice. Conclusions Knockdown of MUC5AC reduced the ability of pancreatic cancer cells to adhesion and invasion, suggesting that MUC5AC might contribute to the invasive motility of pancreatic cancer cells by enhancing the expression of integrins, MMP-3, VEGF and activating Erk pathway.

  18. Ac/Ds-induced chromosomal rearrangements in rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Zhang, Jianbo; Peterson, Thomas; Han, Chang-Deok

    2012-03-01

    A closely-linked pair of Ac/Ds elements induces chromosomal rearrangements in Arabidopsis and maize. This report summarizes the Ac/Ds systems that generate an exceptionally high frequency of chromosomal rearrangements in rice genomes. From a line containing a single Ds element inserted at the OsRLG5 locus, plants containing a closely-linked pair of inversely-oriented Ds elements were obtained at 1% frequency among the population regenerated from tissue culture. Subsequent regeneration of the lines containing cis-paired Ds elements via tissue culture led to a high frequency (35.6%) of plants containing chromosomal rearrangements at the OsRLG5 locus. Thirty-four rearrangement events were characterized, revealing diverse chromosomal aberrations including deletions, inversions and duplications. Many rearrangements could be explained by sister chromatid transposition (SCT) and homologous recombination (HR), events previously demonstrated in Arabidopsis and maize. In addition, novel events were detected and presumably generated via a new alternative transposition mechanism. This mechanism, termed single chromatid transposition (SLCT), resulted in juxtaposed inversions and deletions on the same chromosome. This study demonstrated that the Ac/Ds system coupled with tissue culture-mediated plant regeneration could induce higher frequencies and a greater diversity of chromosomal rearrangements than previously reported. Understanding transposon-induced chromosomal rearrangements can provide new insights into the relationship between transposable elements and genome evolution, as well as a means to perform chromosomal engineering for crop improvement. Rice is a staple cereal crop worldwide. Complete genome sequencing and rich genetic resources are great advantages for the study of the genomic complexity induced by transposable elements.(1) (-) (2) The combination of tissue culture with genetic lines carrying a pair of closely located Ac/Ds elements greatly increases the

  19. Performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [IM and T Ltd., Advanced Research Center, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research Center, Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    The effect of negative to positive electrode materials' weight ratio on the electrochemical performance of both activated carbon (AC)/AC and AC/graphite capacitors has been investigated, especially in the terms of capacity and cycle-ability. The limited capacity charge mode has been proposed to improve the cycle performance of AC/graphite capacitors at high weight ratios of AC/graphite. (author)

  20. 无人值守基站空调室外机防盗方案探讨%Discussion of Guard Against Theft for Outdoor Air Conditioner in Unattended Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫保辉

    2011-01-01

    Outdoor air conditioners are missing seriously from unattended base station.In this paper,the discussion of guard against theft is given from the following aspects: installation of outdoor air conditioner,report of alarms,and accurate location of GPS terminal to lost outdoor air conditioner.%无人值守基站空调室外机丢失严重。文中从室外机安装,告警上报,GPS定位终端对丢失的室外机精确定位几方面提出了一种空调室外机防盗方案。

  1. 空调器使用陋习及其解决方案分析%Analysis of the Bad Habits in Use of Air Conditioner and Solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱王武; 余志强; 陈志; 邹文才; 潘卢义; 徐名艳

    2015-01-01

    After the observation of the air conditioner usage, it found many bad habits in use, such as, overuse of air conditioners, turned air conditioners without person, and so on. These bad habits cause the unnecessary energy waste of air conditioner. For this, this paper proposed an energy-saving control device which is based on the outdoor temperature, indoor staff conditions and time mode, can correct the bad habits, and is suitable for small air conditioner. Application of the device can reduce unnecessary energy and labor costs, improve management efficiency, and also can bring good economic benefits to the family and unit, and it has positive significance for the energy conservation and emission reduction of society.%经过对空调器使用习惯的观察发现,普遍存在着空调器过度使用、无人却开机等多种的使用不良习惯。这些习惯造成了空调器不必要的能源浪费。对此,提出一种基于室外气温、室内人员情况和时间模式的、可纠正不良使用习惯的、面向小型空调器的节能控制装置。该装置的应用能减少不必要的能源和人工开支,提高管理效率,给单位和家庭还可带来不错的经济效益,对整个社会的节能减排具有积极意义。

  2. Control Effects of Tianshifu Soil Conditioners on Cd Contamination in Paddy Fields of Hunan Province%“田师傅”土壤调理剂应用于湖南Cd污染稻田的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴元; 田发祥; 谢运河; 纪雄辉

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of Tianshifu soil conditioners on rice growth and their control effects on Cd absorption and accumulation in rice, a test was carried out in the field typical y pol uted by Cd in Hunan Province. The results showed that the Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and the combination of Tian-shifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner al could promote rice growth, im-prove rice yield and reduce significantly Cd content in rice grains. ln Beishan, the Cd contents in rice grains treated by Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial condi-tioner and the combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner were reduced by 37.63% (P combination of Tianshifu soil condi-tioner and soil bacterial conditioner > Tianshifu soil bacterial conditioner. ln addition to reducing Cd absorption in rice, as described in the lime application treatment, the application of Tianshifu soil conditioners also inhibited the transportation of Cd from rice straws to rice grains. The Tianshifu soil conditioner, soil bacterial conditioner and combination of Tianshifu soil conditioner and soil bacterial conditioner also effec-tively improved the soil acidity, increased the soil pH value and reduced soil avail-able Cd content to some extent.%采取湖南典型 Cd污染的大田试验,研究“田师傅”系列土壤调理剂对水稻生长的影响及降低水稻吸收积累 Cd的效果。结果表明,“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施皆可促进水稻生长,提高水稻产量,并显著降低稻米 Cd含量。北山点“田师傅”土壤调理剂、土壤调理菌剂及两者混施的稻米 Cd含量分别比常规施肥下降37.63%(P<0.05)、32.59%(P<0.05)、27.95%(P<0.05);湘潭点则分别下降54.36%(P<0.05)、50.19%(P<0.05)、45.22%(P<0.05),皆达到食品安全国家标准,且"田师傅"系列调理剂的降 Cd效果为土壤调理剂>土壤调理

  3. AcEST: DK943968 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available = +2 Query: 71 SSIRDLDNSRPRAIACSDNSGICVAVAYNHLANM------AVATFRDKPSVHQAGS---M 223 SS+ S P AC+ N+ VA HL+N+ A+ F...ives = 24/56 (42%) Frame = +2 Query: 107 AIACSDNSGICVAVAYNHLANMAVATFRDKPSVHQAGSMN...es = 83/195 (42%), Gaps = 1/195 (0%) Frame = +2 Query: 32 VLTACSSGVYFWDSSIRDLDNSRPRAIACSDNSGICVAVAYNHLANMAVA.../188 (41%), Gaps = 2/188 (1%) Frame = +2 Query: 32 VLTACSSGVYFWDSSIRDLDNSRPRAIACSDNSGICVAVAYN-HLANMAVATFRDKP... VLTACSSGVYFWDSSIRDLDNSRPRAIACSDNSGICVAVAYN-HLANMAVATFRDKPSVH 208 V++A S G WD D +RP + +N G+C+++A N +++ VA+FR

  4. AcEST: DK954735 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC ■■Homology search results ■■ - Swiss-Prot (release 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id Q7TMD5 Definition sp|Q7TMD5...ng significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q7TMD5|ZC3HE_RAT Zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 1... ...tein pstB ... 30 5.8 sp|Q2S081|PSTB_SALRD Phosphate import ATP-binding protein pstB O... 30 7.6 >sp|Q7TMD5

  5. A novel power control strategy of Modular Multi-level Converter in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems for passive networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Zhenda; Wu, Rui; Yang, Xiaodong;

    2014-01-01

    With the development of High Voltage DC Transmission (HVDC) technology, there will be more and more HVDC-AC hybrid transmission system in the world. A basic challenge in HVDC-AC hybrid transmission systems is to optimize the power sharing between DC and AC lines, which become more severe when...... supplying power for passive networks, as the surplus power can only flow back to power grids through the AC lines. To deal with this issue, it demands not only accurate system capability design but also flexible power control strategy of power converters in VSC-HVDC. This paper proposes a novel power...

  6. Control strategy for Single-phase Transformerless Three-leg Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on Space Vector Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yong; Xiao, Guochun; Wang, Xiongfei

    2016-01-01

    The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is known as an effective compensation device to improve PQ for sensitive end-users. This paper investigates the operation and control of a single-phase three-leg UPQC (TL-UPQC), where a novel space vector modulation method is proposed for naturally...... solving the coupling problem introduced by the common switching leg. The modulation method is similar to the well-known space vector modulation widely used with three-phase voltage source converters, which thus brings extra flexibility to the TL-UPQC system. Two optimized modulation modes with either...... reduced switching loss or harmonic distortion are derived, evaluated, and discussed, in order to demonstrate the flexibility brought by the space vector modulated TL-UPQC. Simulations and experimental results are presented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed space vector modulation...

  7. Design and Simulation of Phase-Locked Loop Controller Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner Using Nonlinear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suparna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This project presents a power quality improvement of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC to compensate current and voltage quality problems of sensitive loads. The UPQC consists of the series and shunt converter having a common dc link. The series converter mitigates voltage sag from the supply side and shunt converter eliminates current harmonics from the nonlimear load side. The developed controllers for series and shunt converters are based on a reference signal generation method (phase-locked loop. The dc link control strategy is based on the fuzzy-logic controllers. The conventional method using dq transformation to show the superiority of the proposed sag detection method. A fast sag detection method is also is presented. The efficiency of the proposed system is tested through simulation studies using the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  8. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Shona E-mail: shona.webster@stir.ac.uk; Salt, Carol A.; Howard, Brenda J

    2003-07-01

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of {sup 99}Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that {sup 99}Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the {sup 99}Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO{sub 2} monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial {sup 99}Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining {sup 99}Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  9. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  10. Power Quality Improvement by Unified Power Quality Conditioner Based on CSC Topology Using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran Dharmalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC based on current source converter (CSC topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH MODULATION TECHNIQUE WITH GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE UNIFIED POWER QUALITY CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel control design of Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC. This design is enabled by a control framework that employs Genetic Algorithm which determines optimum points and angle for filtering and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Technique (SVPWM to offer significant flexibility to optimize waveform. In addition the same framework integrates the major functions of the UPQC with ease to unify the treatments of several power quality problems including system harmonics in the supply voltage and load current, sags/swells in the supply voltage, variations in the load demands and poor power factor at the supply side. Simulation studies on a three phase power distribution system are used to verify the performance and implementation of this control design with the UPQC.

  12. Effect of deflecting ring on noise generated by outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Junwei; Ding, Guoliang [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai JiaoTong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2006-05-15

    In order to analyze the influence of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set of a split-unit air conditioner, the flow field in the outdoor set is simulated with the CFD software STAR-CD, the relative turbulent intensities are computed and the influence of the width and contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed. The results of computation and experiment show that there is an optimal width of the deflecting ring, corresponding to the minimum noise generated by the outdoor set. In addition, the influence of the contoured duct of the deflecting ring on the noise generated by the outdoor set is analyzed and a double contoured duct is designed. The results of computation and experiment verify that the deflecting ring with double contoured duct can improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the noise generated by the outdoor set. (author)

  13. 提高空调产品性能研究%The Research of Improve the Air-conditioner Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本研究通过对家用空调结构优化设计,提高内机循环风量,以及对蒸发器结构优化,输入输出管采用多进多出管,使制冷剂流入、流出均匀,大大提高空调制冷能力和能效。%Using the optimized design for the structure of air conditioner can improve the circulating air flow of indoor unit. Optimizing the structure of the evaporator, and using multiple-out tube for input & output pipe can make the inflow & outflow of refrigerant uniform, which greatly improves product’s ability and energy efficiency.

  14. Performance of mixture refrigerant R152a/R125/R32 in domestic air-conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiangtao; Chu, Yingjie; Hu, Jing; Liu, Zhigang [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This work reports a ternary blend R152a/R125/R32 with a mass ratio of 48/18/34 as a potential alternative to R22. A computer code has been developed with NIST REFPROP 7.0 for the comparative analysis of thermophysical properties and refrigerant performance of this new mixture and of R22. A drop-in test of this new mixture was performed in a domestic air-conditioner originally designed for R22. Both the calculation and experimental results showed that this new mixture could be regarded as a most likely drop-in substitute for R22 in many applications. The flammability of this ternary blend was also studied with an explosion apparatus to prove that it could be used safely. Besides, simulation of the refrigerant cycle leakage showed that the variation of composition due to leakage was so little that there is no much performance degradation. (author)

  15. Cocomposting with and without Eisenia fetida for conversion of toxic paper mill sludge to a soil conditioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Arvinder; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal; Dhaliwal, S S; Rup, Pushpinder J

    2010-11-01

    Present study was envisaged for fast bioremediation of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil ameliorating agent. Although a rich source of organic carbon this sludge cannot be directly applied in fields and is recycled very slowly in landfills as it is deficient in other nutrients. Therefore it was mixed with cattle dung in various proportions and subjected to aerobic cocomposting (without worms) and vermicocomposting (with Eisenia fetida). It was observed that mixing cattle dung with the sludge improved physico-chemical characteristics (with transition metals in the permissible range for manures) of the products of both the processes and enhanced its acceptability for worms. Higher decline in organic carbon and higher content of nitrogen and phosphorous along with lower electrical conductivity and higher pH of the products of vermicomposting indicated that E. fetida helped in fast conversion of toxic paper mill sludge into a soil conditioner in 100days.

  16. A Structure for Three-Phase Four-Wire Distribution System Utilizing Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santhosh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel structure for a three- phase four-wire (3P4W distribution system utilizing unified power quality conditioner (UPQC. The 3P4W system is realized from a three-phase three-wire system where the neutral of series transformer used in series part UPQC is considered as the fourth wire for the 3P4W system. A new control strategy to balance the unbalanced load currents is also presented in this paper. The neutral current that may flow toward transformer neutral point is compensated by using a four-leg voltage source inverter topology for shunt part. Thus, the series transformer neutral will be at virtual zero potential during all operating conditions. The simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed UPQC-based 3P4W distribution system.

  17. 120 MB/S and 240 MB/S bit synchronizer-signal conditioners for NASA high data rate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two bit synchronizer-signal conditioners (BSSC) developed for NASA high data rate applications such as earth resources monitoring are described. One BSSC is centered at 120 MB/s and the other at 240 Mb/s. These subsystems are featured out of the total hardware developed because the BSSC is such a key subsystem in determining overall system statistical performance. These units represent an evolution of high data rate BSSC's available at low data rates. Numerous inputs/outputs, control functions, indicators, plus the ability to minimize the effects of various signal perturbations are provided. Examples of allowed perturbations are input level variations, bit rate variance static and dynamic, baseline, transition density, bandlimiting, etc., as well as noise. Emphasis in the past has been primarily concerned only with noise.

  18. Experimental investigation of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a mixture in a window air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabaraj, D.B.; Avinash, P.; Lal, D. Mohan; Renganarayan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2006-09-15

    HCFC22, one of the widely used refrigerants in window air conditioners must be phased out soon as per the Montreal protocol. Presently, HFC407C is considered as a potential drop in substitute for HCFC22, but retrofitting HCFC22 systems with HFC407C with polyol ester oil (POE) is a major issue as HFC407C is immiscible with mineral oil. The miscibility issue of HFC407C with mineral oil was overcome with the addition of a HC blend to it. The above technoeconomic feasibility issues to retrofit the existing HCFC22 systems with an ozone friendly refrigerant and retain the energy efficiency of the system are challenges in the air conditioning sector. In this present work, an experimental analysis has been conducted in a window air conditioner retrofitted with eco-friendly refrigerant mixtures of HFC407C/HC290/HC600a without changing the mineral oil. Its performance, as well as energy consumption, was compared with the conventional one. It is observed that the mixtures demand lengthening of the condenser in order to maintain the discharge pressure within acceptable limits. This also resulted in better heat transfer at the condenser. Therefore, in this study, the condenser tube length was increased by 19% to suit the mixtures as compared to HCFC22. Compared to HCFC22, the refrigeration capacity of the new mixture was 9.54-12.76% higher than that of HCFC22, while the actual COP was found to be 11.91-13.24% higher than that of HCFC22. The overall performance has proved that the HFC407C/HC blend refrigerant mixture could be an eco-friendly substitute to phase out HCFC22. (author)

  19. AN EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF REFRIGERANT CHARGE LEVEL AND OUTDOOR CONDITION ON A WINDOW AIR CONDITIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Herbert Raj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available R22 is an hydrochlorofluorocarbon widely used in refrigerant and air conditioning plants and although it has a low ozone depletion potential (0.05, it is necessary to consider the large amount that commonly escapes from commercial units to the atmosphere. This paper presents experimental investigation on the performance of a window air conditioner operated with R22 and the M20 (80% R407C and 20% HC blend by wt. refrigerant mixture tested under different refrigerant charge levels and outdoor conditions. Experiments were conducted in accordance with the Bureau of Indian standards procedure in a psychrometric test facility. Capillary and charge optimization tests were conducted for the both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture based on maximum coefficient of performance. Refrigerant charge in the air conditioner was systematically varied and the influences of refrigerant charge quantities and outdoor conditions on system performance are studied for both R22 and the M20 refrigerant mixture. At each charge levels, the outdoor room conditions were changed in accordance with Bureau of Indian standards. It is observed that R22 is more sensitive to deviations in charge levels as compared to the M20 refrigerant mixture. A decrease in charge level of about 7% reduced the system refrigerating capacity by 11.3% with R22 while with the M20 refrigerant mixture it reduces by 6.9% only. Similarly an over charge by 7% reduces the refrigerating capacity of the system by 13.8% with R22 while with M20 it reduces by 6.5% only.

  20. 太阳能辐射空调器的研究%On Solar Radiant Air-conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周亚东; 王军

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a solar radiant air-conditioner [1], which supplies heating and cooling for an office hall in one of the colleges in Haikou, Hainan. The system of the solar radiant air-conditioner uses solar water cooler and capillary network. The composition of the system is presented, and the major energy-saving parts of the system and the energy-saving performance ratio of the conventional temperature difference in air conditioning are analyzed from the thermodynamic theory. After running half a year, the system achieved the effects of substantial energy saving and reducing the thermal pollution of the environ-ment from the test data of the indicators. The system has the advantages of low investment and high utiliza-tion rate of the equipments.%介绍一种太阳能辐射空调器[1],为海南省海口市某学院办公事务大厅提供制冷的案例。系统用太阳冷水器与毛细管网相结合,介绍了其系统组成,并用热力学理论分析了本系统各主要节能部分与常规温差空调的节能效能比。系统运行半年,从各项指标检测数据看,取得了大幅节约能源,减少了对环境热污染的效果。该系统初投资少,设备利用率高,对今后的推广有一定的指导作用。

  1. Influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the outdoor unit of a split air-conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengjun; Liu, Jiang; Pan, Jie

    2014-07-01

    DC-inverter split air-conditioner is widely used in Chinese homes as a result of its high-efficiency and energy-saving. Recently, the researches on its outdoor unit have focused on the influence of surrounding structures upon the aerodynamic and acoustic performance, however they are only limited to the influence of a few parameters on the performance, and practical design of the unit requires more detailed parametric analysis. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics(CFD) and computational aerodynamic acoustics(CAA) simulation based on FLUENT solver is used to study the influence of surrounding structures upon the aforementioned properties of the unit. The flow rate and sound pressure level are predicted for different rotating speed, and agree well with the experimental results. The parametric influence of three main surrounding structures(i.e. the heat sink, the bell-mouth type shroud and the outlet grille) upon the aerodynamic performance of the unit is analyzed thoroughly. The results demonstrate that the tip vortex plays a major role in the flow fields near the blade tip and has a great effect on the flow field of the unit. The inlet ring's size and throat's depth of the bell-mouth type shroud, and the through-flow area and configuration of upwind and downwind sections of the outlet grille are the most important factors that affect the aerodynamic performance of the unit. Furthermore, two improved schemes against the existing prototype of the unit are developed, which both can significantly increase the flow rate more than 6 %(i.e. 100 m3·h-1) at given rotating speeds. The inevitable increase of flow noise level when flow rate is increased and the advantage of keeping a lower rotating speed are also discussed. The presented work could be a useful guideline in designing the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the split air-conditioner in engineering practice.

  2. Avoiding 100 new power plants by increasing efficiency of room air conditioners in India: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technology Division

    2013-10-15

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40% cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  3. Avoiding 100 New Power Plants by Increasing Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners in India: Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar

    2014-06-19

    Electricity demand for room ACs is growing very rapidly in emerging economies such as India. We estimate the electricity demand from room ACs in 2030 in India considering factors such as weather and income growth using market data on penetration of ACs in different income classes and climatic regions. We discuss the status of the current standards, labels, and incentive programs to improve the efficiency of room ACs in these markets and assess the potential for further large improvements in efficiency and find that efficiency can be improved by over 40percent cost effectively. The total potential energy savings from Room AC efficiency improvement in India using the best available technology will reach over 118 TWh in 2030; potential peak demand saving is found to be 60 GW by 2030. This is equivalent to avoiding 120 new coal fired power plants of 500 MW each. We discuss policy options to complement, expand and improve the ongoing programs to capture this large potential.

  4. Sensorless operation of surface mount permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toliyat, H.A.; Rahman, K.M.; Shet, D.S.

    1999-12-01

    A sensorless field oriented control scheme for surface mount permanent magnet ac (PMAC) motor with split phase stator windings is presented. This motor is obtained by splitting the phase windings of a conventional three phase motor. The six-phase motor, however is run as a three-phase motor by connecting the split phase stator windings in series, while the taps are made available for voltage measurements. By measuring the terminal voltages and the line currents, absolute position of the permanent magnet ac motor driven by a current regulated PWM inverter with a hysteresis controller is estimated. The estimated position information is independent of the stator resistance, thus this scheme is even applicable at low speeds. Results are presented to show the effectiveness of the new controller, and it is also shown that the position error is negligible.

  5. VRF air conditioner connected to the central control system. LON interface in the Sparkasse Greiz administrative building; Einsatz einer VRF-Klimaanlage mit Anbindung an die GLT. Ermoeglicht in der Sparkasse Greiz durch LON-Schnittstelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, L. [Mitsubishi Electric Europe B.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Central monitoring and control systems ensure automatic control and optimum operating conditions of heating systems, air conditioners and ventilation systems. The operating cost is minimized by early intervention. (orig.)

  6. Effect of the magnetic material on AC losses in HTS conductors in AC magnetic field carrying AC transport current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xing-Xing; Huang, Chen-Guang; Yong, Hua-Dong; Zhou, You-He

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the AC losses in several typical superconducting composite conductors using the H-formulation model. A single superconducting strip with ferromagnetic substrate or cores and a stack of coated conductors with ferromagnetic substrates are studied. We consider all the coated conductors carrying AC transport currents and simultaneously exposed to perpendicular AC magnetic fields. The influences of the amplitude, frequency, phase difference and ferromagnetic materials on the AC losses are investigated. The results show that the magnetization losses of single strip and stacked strips have similar characteristics. The ferromagnetic substrate can increase the magnetization loss at low magnetic field, and decrease the loss at high magnetic field. The ferromagnetic substrate can obviously increase the transport loss in stacked strips. The trends of total AC losses of single strip and stacked strips are similar when they are carrying current or exposed to a perpendicular magnetic field. The effect of the frequency on the total AC losses of single strip is related to the amplitude of magnetic field. The AC losses decrease with increasing frequency in low magnetic field region while increase in high magnetic field region. As the phase difference changes, there is a periodic variation for the AC losses. Moreover, when the strip is under only the transport current and magnetic field, the ferromagnetic cores will increase the AC losses for large transport current or field.

  7. Tumor-associated MUC5AC stimulates in vivo tumorigenicity of human pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Hirotaka; Sawada, Tetsuji; Uchida, Motoyuki; Saito, Hikaru; Iijima, Hiroko; Toda-Agetsuma, Mikako; Wada, Tsutomu; Yamazoe, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min; Hirakawa, Kosei; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2011-03-01

    MUC5AC, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, is overexpressed in the ductal region of human pancreatic cancer but is not detectable in the normal pancreas, suggesting its association with disease development. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of MUC5AC knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA) in the MUC5AC-overexpressing SW1990 and BxPC3 human pancreatic cancer cell lines in order to clarify its function. Significant decreases in the expression levels of MUC5AC mRNA and protein were observed in SW1990 and BxPC3 cells that had been stably transfected with a MUC5AC siRNA expression vector (SW1990/si-MUC5AC and BxPC3/si-MUC5AC cells) compared to those in cells transfected with an si-mock vector (SW1990/si-mock and BxPC3/si-mock cells). In in vitro studies, neither type of MUC5AC-knockdown cell showed any difference in cell survival, proliferation, or morphology from the si-mock cells or parental cells. However, in vivo xenograft studies demonstrated that MUC5AC knockdown significantly reduced the tumorigenicity and suppressed the tumor growth of si-MUC5AC cells compared to those of the si-mock cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CD45R/B220+ and Gr-1+ cells had infiltrated into the tumor tissue of the SW1990/si-MUC5AC cells. Furthermore, cancer-associated antigen specific antibodies were detected at high levels in the sera from the SW1990/si-MUC5AC cell-bearing mice. These results suggest that tumor-associated MUC5AC expressed on the surface of pancreatic cancer cells supports the escape of pancreatic cancer cells from immunosurveillance. The present findings highlight a new dimension of MUC5AC as a functional immunosuppressive agent and its important role in pancreatic cancer progression.

  8. BGA土壤调理剂在缺水土壤上的施用效果%Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Water Shortage Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建国; 纪立东; 樊丽琴; 王峰; 许强; 刘廷俊; 尚红莺

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为了缓解宁夏中部干旱带土壤缺水问题,提高水分生产效率和土地生产力.[方法]通过田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂对缺水土壤理化性质和作物生长发育的影响.[结果]与不施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂改善了缺水土壤物理性质,促进了马铃薯、压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜和不覆膜条件下马铃薯产量,改善了红枣品质;与配方施肥处理相比,施用BGA土壤调理剂促进了压砂瓜、红枣的生长发育,显著提高了压砂瓜产量,改善了红枣品质.[结论]如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,那么BGA土壤调理剂改良缺水土壤是可行的.%[Objective] The research aimed to relieve soil water shortage problem in the middle arid belt of Ningxia, and increase water use efficiency and land productivity. [Method] Through field plot experiment, the application effect of BGA soil conditioner on physical and chemical properties of water shortage soil and the growth of crops was studied. [ Result ] Compared with no fertilization, BGA soil conditioner improved the physical properties of water shortage soil, promoted the growth of potato, watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of potato without plastic film mulch and watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. Compared with balanced fertilization, BGA soil conditioner promoted the growth of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch and red jujube, increased significantly the yield of watermelon with gravel-sand mulch, and improved the quality of red jujube. [ Conclusion ] It was feasible to apply BGA soil conditioner to improve water shortage soil if the production cost of BGA soil conditioner was reduced or BGA soil conditioner was applied with chemical fertilizers together.

  9. 土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展%Advance in research and application of soil conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙蓟锋; 王旭

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviewed the progress in research and application of soil conditioner. There was no uniform definition of soil conditioner at present, but there were several different classification methods. The main functions of soil conditioner included improving soil texture and structure, improving water retention and water supply ability of soil, regulating soil pH value, treatment of alkali-saline soil, improving soil nutrient supply, remediation of heavy metals pollution soil, etc. In soil improvement process, the appropriate conditioner would be chosen according to the different soil obstacle problem to the good improvement effect. However, soil conditioner application also exposed a series of problems, including the potential environmental risk problem, product function orientation and awareness problem, product quality problem, packaging and marking the problem such as the disorder, finally pointed out that a scientific evaluation system of soil conditioner should be established urgently.%综述了土壤调理剂的研究和应用进展.土壤调理剂目前尚无统一定义,且存在不同的分类方法,其主要功能包括改良土壤质地与结构、提高土壤保水供水能力、调节土壤酸碱度、改良盐碱土、改善土壤的养分供应状况、修复重金属污染土壤等.在土壤改良过程中,针对不同土壤障碍问题有针对性地选择土壤调理剂将达到较好的改良效果.然而,土壤调理剂在推广应用中也暴露出一系列问题,包括潜在的环境风险、功能定位和认识问题、产品质量良莠不齐、包装标识混乱等,因此亟待建立一套完善的土壤调理剂科学评价体系.

  10. The Application Effect of BGA Soil Conditioner in Saline Soil%BGA土壤调理剂在盐土上的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丽琴; 杨建国; 纪立东; 尚红莺; 李淑玲

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve soil salinization problem of Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, improve saline soil quality, and increase land productivity, the author studied the effect of BCA soil conditioner on oil sunflower growth and saline soil property, and evaluated the application effect of BGA soil conditioner through field plot experiment. The results showed that BCA soil conditioner improved physical and chemical properties of saline soil. The soil bulk density decreased while the total porosity increased, and the contents of available nitrogen and available phosphorus in soil were increased compared with CK1. The content of soil available phosphorus was also increased compared with CK2. BCA soil conditioner also promoted growth of oil sunflower. Plant height, leaf SPAD value, and photosynthetic rate of oil sunflower were improved. The yield of oil sunflower was higher 176.7% than that in CK1 and 18.0% than that in CK2. It was feasible to use BGA soil conditioner to improve saline soil if its production cost reduced or it combined with chemical fertilizers, and it was valuable to further research and develop BGA soil conditioner.%为了解决宁夏引黄灌区土壤盐渍化问题,提高盐土土壤质量,增强土地生产力,通过田间小区试验研究了BGA土壤调理剂对盐土油葵生长发育和土壤理化性质的影响,评价了BGA土壤调理剂的施用效果.结果表明,BGA土壤调理剂改善了盐土理化性质,较对照1降低了土壤容重,增加了土壤总孔隙度、碱解氮和有效磷含量,较对照2提高了土壤有效磷含量;BGA土壤调理剂促进了油葵生长发育,油葵株高、叶片SPAD值、光合速率提高,油葵产量较对照1提高176.7%,较对照2提高18.0%.如果降低BGA土壤调理剂的生产成本或与化肥配合施用,BGA土壤调理剂改良盐土是可行的,值得进一步研究应用.

  11. Universality of ac conduction in disordered solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The striking similarity of ac conduction in quite different disordered solids is discussed in terms of experimental results, modeling, and computer simulations. After giving an overview of experiment, a macroscopic and a microscopic model are reviewed. For both models the normalized ac conductivity...... as a function of a suitably scaled frequency becomes independent of details of the disorder in the extreme disorder limit, i.e., when the local randomly varying mobilities cover many orders of magnitude. The two universal ac conductivities are similar, but not identical; both are examples of unusual non......-power-law universalities. It is argued that ac universality reflects an underlying percolation determining dc as well as ac conductivity in the extreme disorder limit. Three analytical approximations to the universal ac conductivities are presented and compared to computer simulations. Finally, model predictions...

  12. Development and Application of Air Conditioner with Energy-saving Condensate Water Nebulization for Vehicle%车载冷凝雾化节能空调的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建萍

    2011-01-01

    The author introduces a new type of auto air-conditioner, which has marked energy-saving effect through condensation water nebulization. This auto air-conditioner could be widely applied.%介绍一种带冷凝水雾化装置的新型空调系统。该系统具有明显的节能降耗效果,应用前景广泛。

  13. Strict Implementation of Air-Conditioner Temperature Control Standards to Actively Help Public Building Energy Saving%严格执行空调温控标准积极助力公共建筑节能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上海市节能监察中心

    2015-01-01

    简要介绍了2015年空调温控监察工作,提出了存在的主要问题、解决方法及今后空调温控监察的打算和建议.%The article introduces air-conditioner temperature control supervision work and puts forward existing problems, solutions and plans and suggestions on air-conditioner temperature control supervision in the future.

  14. A novel concept for stabilization of AC/DC network with UPFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, R.K. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Inst. of Technology, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In a power system network, 2 regional grids can be interconnected by HVDC back-to-back. The 2 converter stations are connected through the DC link and the converters have their individual controls. The risk of network tripping can be significantly minimized by modulating the real and reactive power, thereby improving the stability of the AC/DC system. This paper described a unified power flow controller (UPFC), an innovative concept for stabilizing AC/DC networks. It also presented the results of a study that investigated the perturbation in AC bus voltages along with the effect on the stability deterioration. The new concept of control was proposed by embedding UPFC and then generating the control decisions to sufficiently stabilize the earlier ones. The Novel Discrete-Time model for AC/DC systems was used to study the complete system stability under varying perturbations of AC system voltage. The study revealed that the HVDC-SVC alone was not able to handle the perturbation of line to line voltage change after a certain value because the SVC cannot support external reactive power variations which are meant to regulate the Var requirements during converter control. In such situations, the UPFC along with the HVDC-SVC damped the oscillations, thereby adequately matching the real and reactive power demands. This combination can be used effectively in situations when the AC system bus voltage fluctuates due to changing P and Q requirements. 9 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  15. Control of grid interactive AC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Guerrero, Josep M.; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    and reliability, becomes an attractive candidate for the configuration of future electrical power system. This paper gives a brief review of grid interactive ac microgrid configurations. Control methods for power electronics interfaced DER units in grid interactive ac microgrids are discussed. In addition......, microgrid controls and power management strategies are presented. Future trends of microgrid are discussed pointing out how this concept can be a key to achieve a more intelligent and flexible AC grid....

  16. Your employees: the front line in cyber security

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenden, D.

    2016-01-01

    First published in The Chemical Engineer and reproduced by Crest - Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats, 26/01/2016 (https://crestresearch.ac.uk/comment/employees-front-line-cyber-security/)

  17. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  18. AcEST: DK959751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 72 3e-12 sp|Q6PFQ7|RASL2_MOU...SE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 72 4e-12 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...ivating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 65 3e-10 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi... 1 OS=Homo s... 61 6e-09 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 61 6e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 60 1e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended

  19. AcEST: BP920842 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ta... 59 6e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 59 7e-09 sp|Q9ZT47|PP16A_...CUCMA 16 kDa phloem protein 1 OS=Cucurbita maxim... 57 2e-08 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 ... domain-conta... 56 6e-08 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 55 8e-08 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 55 1e-07 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synap...totagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus G... 54 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptota

  20. AcEST: DK956298 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AIZE Glutamate dehydrogenase OS=Zea mays GN=GDH1... 370 e-102 sp|Q43314|DHE1_ARATH Glutamate dehydrogenase 1...HGK 202 >sp|P93541|DHE3_SOLLC Glutamate dehydrogenase OS=Solanum lycopersicum GN=GDH1 PE=2 SV=1 Length = 412...RG ++A EALL ++G+ Sbjct: 181 RDAATGRGALFATEALLNEHGK 202 >sp|Q43260|DHE3_MAIZE Glutamate dehydrogenase OS=Zea mays GN=GDH1...ATH Glutamate dehydrogenase 1 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=GDH1 PE=1 SV=1 Length = 411 Score = 369 bits (946),...AC Glutamate dehydrogenase OS=Nicotiana taba... 376 e-103 tr|A7YVW3|A7YVW3_ACTCH GDH1 OS=Actinidia chinensis GN=GDH1

  1. Spin exchange collision mixing of the K and Rb ac Stark shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yao; Fang, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    In a hybrid pumping alkali vapor cell that both K and Rb are filled, K atom spins are optically pumped by laser and Rb atom spins are polarized by the K spins through spin exchange. We find that the AC Stark shift of the Rb atoms is composed of not only the AC Stark shift of the Rb atoms caused by the far off resonant pumping laser which is tuned to the K absorption lines, but also the AC Stark shift of the K atom spins. The mixing of the light shifts through fast spin exchange between K and Rb atoms are studied in this paper and we demonstrate a K-Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer in which the AC Stark shift of the Rb atoms are reduced by the collision mixing.

  2. Improving Best Air Conditioner Efficiency by 20-30% through a High Efficiency Fan and Diffuser Stage Coupled with an Evaporative Condenser Pre-Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S; Sherwin, John R; Raustad, Richard

    2014-04-10

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) conducted a research project to improve the best residential air conditioner condenser technology currently available on the market by retrofitting a commercially-available unit with both a high efficiency fan system and an evaporative pre-cooler. The objective was to integrate these two concepts to achieve an ultra-efficient residential air conditioner design. The project produced a working prototype that was 30% more efficient compared to the best currently-available technologies; the peak the energy efficiency ratio (EER) was improved by 41%. Efficiency at the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) standard B-condition which is used to estimate seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER), was raised from a nominal 21 Btu/Wh to 32 Btu/Wh.

  3. 谈暖通空调节能问题%On energy-saving issues in heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志宇

    2016-01-01

    The paper introduces the meanings in the energy-saving design of heat-supply and ventilation air-conditioners,illustrates the design methods from the heat-supply,ventilation and air-conditioners,and sums up the precautions in the energy-saving design,so as to improve the u-tility ratio of the resources and enhance the extension of the energy-saving technique.%介绍了暖通空调节能设计的意义,从供暖、通风、空调三方面,阐述了暖通空调节能设计的方法,总结了节能设计中的注意事项,有利于提高能源的利用率,促进节能技术的推广应用。

  4. Simulation System of Modular Air Conditioner Control Based on WinCC%基于WinCC的模块式空调机控制仿真系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤志强

    2016-01-01

    本设计是仿真模块式空调机的控制系统,系统的基本工艺流程是:通过温度传感器对室内外的温度进行检测,设定温度与室内温度进行比较,确定空调加热还是制冷。利用四通阀、热交换器、压缩机进行温度调节。%This design is simulating modular air conditioner control system,the basic process of the system is: measure the temperature of exterior and interior used to text by the temperature sensor,setting a temperature compare with the interior temperature, then determine the air conditioner is heating or cooling, in the end adjust the temperature by four-way valves,switches,and compressors.

  5. Study on breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu, China%芜湖地区居室空调粉螨污染研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湛孝东; 陈琪; 郭伟; 李朝品

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解芜湖地区居室内空调粉螨的污染情况.方法 于2012年6-10月采集芜湖市居民家用柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网的灰尘,对孳生的螨类进行分类鉴定,并按种统计个体数.率的比较采用x2检验.结果 共收集202份空调隔尘网积尘样本,检出螨类3265只,其中粉螨2796只,隶属6科14属18种;平均孳生密度为10.39只/g,孳生率为70.79%;柜式空调隔尘网积尘中螨类孳生率为58.73%,壁挂式空调螨类孳生率为76.26%,二者差异有统计学意义(x2=6.442,P<0.05).麦食螨科、粉螨科和食甜螨科构成比较高,分别为53.47%、20.96%和18.13%.结论 芜湖地区柜式空调和壁挂式空调隔尘网粉螨孳生情况严重,物种多样性丰富.%Objective To investigate the breeding of acaroid mites in room air conditioners in Wuhu,China.Methods Dust was collected from the dust screens of the cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners used by Wuhu residents from June to October 2012.The mites breeding in the dust were classified and identified,and the mites of each species were counted.The mite breeding rates were compared by chi-square test.Results A total of 202 dust samples were collected from the dust screens of air conditioners; 3265 mites,including 2796 acaroid mites,were detected from the dust samples,and they were identified as 18 species,14 genera,and 6 families.The mean breeding density was 10.39 mites/g of dust,and the breeding rate was 70.79%.The mite breeding rate for the cabinet air conditioners was 58.73%,versus 76.26% for the wall-mounted air conditioners (x2=6.442,P<0.05).Pyroglyphidae,Acaridae,and Glycyphagidae were commonly seen and accounted for 53.47%,20.96%,and 18.13% of the total tmites,respectively.Conclusion In Wuhu,acaroid mites breed heavily in the dust screens of cabinet air conditioners and wall-mounted air conditioners,with high species diversity.

  6. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Manzano

    Full Text Available Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  7. The Ethylene Biosynthesis Gene CitACS4 Regulates Monoecy/Andromonoecy in Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Susana; Aguado, Encarnación; Martínez, Cecilia; Megías, Zoraida; García, Alicia; Jamilena, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Monoecious and andromonoecious cultivars of watermelon are characterised by the production of male and female flower or male and hermaphrodite flowers, respectively. The segregation analysis in the offspring of crosses between monoecious and andromonoecious lines has demonstrated that this trait is controlled by a single gene pair, being the monoecious allele M semi-dominant to the andromonoecious allele A. The two studied F1 hybrids (MA) had a predominantly monoecious phenotype since both produced not only female flowers, but also bisexual flowers with incomplete stamens, and hermaphrodite flowers with pollen. Given that in other cucurbit species andromonoecy is conferred by mutations in the ethylene biosynthesis genes CmACS7, CsACS2 and CpACS27A we have cloned and characterised CitACS4, the watermelon gene showing the highest similarity with the formers. CitACS4 encoded for a type ACS type III enzyme that is predominantly expressed in pistillate flowers of watermelon. In the andromonoecious line we have detected a missense mutation in a very conserved residue of CitACS4 (C364W) that cosegregates with the andromonoecious phenotype in two independent F2 populations, concomitantly with a reduction in ethylene production in the floral buds that will develop as hermaphrodite flowers. The gene does not however co-segregates with other sex expression traits regulated by ethylene in this species, including pistillate flowering transition and the number of pistillate flowers per plant. These data indicate that CitAC4 is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the ethylene required for stamen arrest during the development of female flowers. The C364W mutation would reduce the production of ethylene in pistillate floral buds, promoting the conversion of female into hermaphrodite flowers, and therefore of monoecy into andromonoecy.

  8. Investigation of the Coupling Paths of a Galvanically Isolated AC/AC Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roc'h, Anne; Zhao, Dongsheng; Leferink, Frank; Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Braham

    2007-01-01

    A galvanically isolated three-phase AC/AC converter with a high-frequency AC-link has been analyzed from an EMC point of view. This is a special configuration because of a large number of switches, a high frequency transformer, and a fourwire output. The essential coupling paths are identified. Corr

  9. AC polarographic determination of cloxacillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Vergara, L J; Silva, M M; Squella, J A

    1982-11-01

    Hydrolysis of cloxacillin at pH 4.0 yields an electroactive product which can be determined by polarography. Depending on the concentration of cloxacillin, one of 2 peaks was obtained: The potential ac peaks for a 4.36 mM cloxacillin solution were peak I, -0.23 V and peak II, -0.13 V. For analytical purposes, the first peak was used. A linear relationship was established for levels of cloxacillin between 2.2 X 10(-5) and 2.2 X 10(-3)M. Average recovery was 98.8% (SD 1.8), indicating satisfactory accuracy for the method. Individual capsule and composite assays as well as interference tests are described.

  10. 蓄能空调技术及其发展%The Technology and Development of Energy-storage Air-conditioners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶水泉

    2002-01-01

    In this article importance of using energy storage technology in peak-clipping and valley-filling of the demandside management in our country' s power systems is generally discussed. With a practical application in projects, superiorityof the energy-storage air-conditioner is tested and proved. This article comprehensively presents some methods taken byadministration branches of domestic and international governments in supporting its application as well as its current appli-cation situation abroad.

  11. Effect of Soil Conditioner on Growth for Oriental Hybrid Lily (Sorbonne) Cut Flowers%土壤调理剂对百合生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贺; 解占军

    2013-01-01

    In the study,the greenhouse planting methods were employed to reveal effect of soil conditioner and application methods on growth for lily (oriental hybrids) cut flowers in the Lingyuan city of western Liaoning province.The results were as follows:The soil conditioner promoted the growth of the lily.The Promoting effect followed as:conditioner Ⅰ treatment > Compound microelement fertilizer treatment > brenstone treatment > vinegar residue treatment.banding applications of conditioner Ⅰ was better than its broadcast applications.The reasonable application method of chemical fertilizers was that the basal fertilizers lay particular stress on P and K,and that the top-dressing fertilizer applied largely of N,which under the principle of fractional fertilization.%采用温室栽培方法,通过施用各种土壤酸性改良剂,探讨土壤改良剂和不同施用模式对辽西凌源市的百合生长发育的影响.结果表明,土壤改良剂明显促进了百合的生长,其中以调制剂1号处理为最好,其次为复合微肥处理,再次为硫磺处理,最次为醋渣处理,其中,调制剂1号沟施效果明显好于全层施用效果.施用化肥采用基施偏重P、K肥,轻施N肥;追施化肥要以氮肥为主,P、K肥为辅进行分量多次的施肥原则.

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  13. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  14. 具有数据转换和处理功能的信号调理器%Signal Conditioner With Data Converter and Processor Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪宗南

    2002-01-01

    详细介绍了信号调理器MAX1462的特点,主要电气参数,内部功能模块电路.最后给出该器件的典型应用电路.%This paper introduces the features, main electrical parameters, internal function of signal conditioner MA 1462 in detail, its typical application circuit is also provided.

  15. Study on load levelling by means of the control of air conditioner operation; Kuchoki kado seigyo ni yoru fuka heijunka ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Sadakuni, S. [Japan Broadcasting Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    The recent drastic increase in the number of air conditioners has caused sharp and narrow peaks in summer seasons due to the inherent temperature sensitive characteristics. The authors proposed to reduce the peak power demand by controlling air conditioner operations, verifying its effectiveness on peak demand clipping. However, the former study has shortcomings in that any qualitative treatment of room temperatures or pleasant feeling was not attempted and it did not provide a way of assessing peak demand clipping in a power system as a whole. In this paper, we shall first propose a new control method that can compromise pleasant feeling and reduction in power demand. Although air conditioners are used to pursue `pleasant feeling`, this contradicts to reduce power consumption and further more the concept of `pleasant feeling` is very vague. Hence, `Weber-Fechner`s law` is utilized to quantify the pleasant feeling which is treated as fuzzy quantity. Fuzzy co-ordination method is used to compromise power demand curtailment and pleasantness. In the second part of this paper, we shall propose an approach of assessing the amount of peak load clipping when the newly proposed control strategy is adopted in a real size power system: A decrease in the required generation capacity is estimated provided that the Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) is maintained at the same level before and after the application of the new control strategy. The reduction can be regarded as a dividend of load management. 5 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Air- conditioner Energy Saving Renovation of Gaokai District IDC Telecom Room in Tangshan%IDC机房空调节能改造工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 田浩

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了中国联通唐山分公司高开区IDC(互联网数据中心)机房空调的节能改造工程,根据改造后空调机组耗电量的实测数据,对节能型机房空调与普通型机房空调的能耗进行了对比,证实了改造后机房空调方案具有很好的节能效果,可为相似老旧通信机房的节能改造提供参考.%The air - conditioner energy saving renovation of Gaokai district IDC (Internet Data Center) telecom room of China Unicom Tangshan Branch was introduced in this paper. According to the measured power consumption of the air conditioning units after renovation, the energy consumption of energy - sav-ing telecom room air conditioners and common telecom room air conditioners were also compared in this paper. It was proved that the energy saving effect after renovation was extremely obvisus. This paper may be a reference for the energy saving renovation of similar old telecom rooms.

  17. Determination of alkyltrimethylammonium surfactants in hair conditioners and fabric softeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron-impact and chemical ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Chuan; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2004-02-20

    The commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners were analyzed for the content of alkyltrimethylammonium compounds (ATMACs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with electron impact (EI) and low-pressure positive-ion chemical ionization (PICI) modes. The method involves mixed diluted samples (adjust pH to 10.0) with potassium iodide to enhance the extraction of iodide-ATMA+ ion pairs by direct liquid-liquid extraction. The iodide-ATMA+ pairs were then demethylated to their corresponding nonionic alkyldimethylamines (ADMAs) by thermal decomposition in a GC injection-port. A high abundance of ADMAs was detected at the temperature above 300 degrees C in the GC injection-port. The enhanced selectivity of quasi-molecular ion chromatograms of C12-C18-ADMA, obtained using methanol PICI-MS enables ADMAs to be identified. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated and was successfully applied to determine contents of ATMAC in commercial hair conditioners and fabric softeners. The contents of total measured ATMAC ranged from 0.4 to 6.9% for hair conditioners, and from 3.3 to 4.6% for fabric softeners.

  18. AC-tabsmodeller for superledende kabelledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Holm (fratrådt), Jesper; Understrup (fratrådt), Henriette

    1996-01-01

    I denne rapport opstilles tre modeller for beregning af AC-tab (vekselstrømstab) i superledende kabelledere. Beregning af tabenes størrelse er væsentlig i forbindelse med vurdering af superlederteknologiens anvendelighed til AC-applikationer. Viden om tabenes natur giver desuden et vigtigt...

  19. A Novel Protection Scheme against Fault Resistance for AC Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinrui Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The faults characteristics of the lines in AC microgrid are weakened due to the fault resistance, which may refuse protection action. To solve the problems caused by different types of the faults through fault resistance (FTFR, the faults where the fault point resistance is greater than zero in AC microgrid, a novel FTFR protection scheme based on the active power of 0-frame component or d-frame component consumed by fault resistance is proposed in this paper as the backup protection of FTFR. This proposed protection scheme utilizes the active power of 0-frame component or d-frame component consumed by fault resistance to identify internal FTFR and external faults. It performs well in grid-connected mode and islanded mode by adopting self-adaptive threshold and is not affected by the factors such as the fault position and the fault resistance value. The theoretical analysis and various simulations show that this protection scheme can identify and isolate different types of internal FTFR in AC microgrid with high reliability and high sensitivity.

  20. AC electrokinetic manipulation of selenium nanoparticles for potential nanosensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, Seyed Reza [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayati, Marzieh, E-mail: m-bayati@tums.ac.ir [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseinirad, Somayeh [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Foroumadi, Alireza [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gilani, Kambiz [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi [School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Se nanoparticles were synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process. ► AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. ► Dielectrophoresis electrode showed non-ohmic behavior. ► The device can potentially be used as a nanosensor. - Abstract: We report the AC electrokinetic behavior of selenium (Se) nanoparticles for electrical characterization and possible application as micro/nano devices. selenium Se nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a reverse-microemulsion process and investigated structurally using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. Interdigitated castellated ITO and non-castellated platinum electrodes were employed for manipulation of suspended materials in the fluid. Using ITO electrodes at low frequency limits resulted in deposition of Se particles on electrode surface. When Se particles exposed to platinum electrodes in the 10 Hz–1 kHz range and V {sub p−p}> 8, AC osmotic fluid flow repulses the particles from electrode edges. However, in 10 kHz–10 MHz range and V {sub p−p}> 5, dielectrophoretic force attracts the particles to electrode edges. As the Se particle concentration increased, the trapped Se particles were aligned along the electric field line and bridged the electrode gap. The device was characterized and can potentially be useful in making micro/nano electronic devices.

  1. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into a utility grid: final report Category I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.; Putkovich, R.P.

    1981-07-01

    A study was conducted of the requirements for and technologies applicable to power conditioning equipment in residential solar photovoltaic systems. A survey of companies known or thought to manufacture power conditioning equipment was conducted to asses the technology. Technical issues regarding ac and dc interface requirements were studied. A baseline design was selected to be a good example of existing technology which would not need significant development effort for its implementation. Alternative technologies are evaluated to determine which meet the baseline specification, and their costs and losses are evaluated. Areas in which cost improvements can be obtained are studied, and the three best candidate technologies--the current-sourced converter, the HF front end converter, and the programmed wave converter--are compared. It is concluded that the designs investigated will meet, or with slight improvement could meet, short term efficiency goals. Long term efficiency goals could be met if an isolation transformer were not required in the power conditioning equipment. None of the technologies studied can meet cost goals unless further improvements are possible. (LEW)

  2. Investigation of a family of power conditioners integrated into a utility grid: final report Category I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.; Putkovich, R.P.

    1981-07-01

    A study was conducted of the requirements for and technologies applicable to power conditioning equipment in residential solar photovoltaic systems. A survey of companies known or thought to manufacture power conditioning equipment was conducted to asses the technology. Technical issues regarding ac and dc interface requirements were studied. A baseline design was selected to be a good example of existing technology which would not need significant development effort for its implementation. Alternative technologies are evaluated to determine which meet the baseline specification, and their costs and losses are evaluated. Areas in which cost improvements can be obtained are studied, and the three best candidate technologies--the current-sourced converter, the HF front end converter, and the programmed wave converter--are compared. It is concluded that the designs investigated will meet, or with slight improvement could meet, short term efficiency goals. Long term efficiency goals could be met if an isolation transformer were not required in the power conditioning equipment. None of the technologies studied can meet cost goals unless further improvements are possible. (LEW)

  3. Design, Realization and First Tests of a Prototype of Mower-Conditioner to Harvest Fibre Sorghum through Haymaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirelli, A.; Pari, L. (Consiglio per la Ricerca e la Sperimentazione in Agricoltura, Unita di Ricerca per l' Ingegneria Agraria, Monterotondo, RM (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    The baling of dried fibre sorghum introduces some specific problems due mostly to stalk development, height and rigidity and to the volume of green biomass to process. To improve storage and to reduce transport cost, the main aspect to consider is the achievement of a satisfactory natural drying of the plant on the ground. Previous tests with mowers and mower-conditioners pointed out operational problems: the mowers, in relation to height and rigidity of the stalks, showed low working capacity, while the mower-conditioners, both with rolls or spokes, were not able to obtain a conditioning level good enough to achieve sufficient natural drying. The structure of the plant, particularly of its stalk, is such that without a continuous cleavage along the whole length, water content decreases slower than it would be suitable for harvesting period in Italy. Following these considerations, CRA-ING developed a back mounted harvester prototype, connected to the rear three-point linkage of a reversible drive tractor. Such equipment permits the cutting and conditioning of the whole plant, leaving it spread on the ground, without forming windrows, so to make full use of the solar radiation for drying. When the water contents drops to the optimum value for storing, the product can be collected in windrow and then baled with existing round balers or big balers. The adopted conditioning system is formed by six couples of longitudinal rolls, similar to those used in corn harvesting, because also the fibre sorghum is a row cultivation; each roll is provided with alternate blades and pads to press and cleave all along the stalk while pulling down the plant. Rolls dimensions and rotational speed are such to hit the stalk every 5 cm. Under the rolls, next to the ground, a saw cuts the plants. During the first year tests in Central Italy, the idea was confirmed successful: it was possible, working at 5 km/h speed, corresponding to 1,5 ha/h effective working capacity, to windrow and to

  4. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  5. Effect of soil conditioner on the growth of Lolium multiflorum%自制环保型土壤改良剂对一年生黑麦草生长的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁耀; 郭建斌; 尹诗萌; 牟夏

    2015-01-01

    为探索自制环保型土壤改良剂应用于黄土高原半干旱区后对土壤的改良效果,选用一年生黑麦草进行盆栽试验,统计分析一年生黑麦草生长生理指标,比较3种自制土壤改良剂(A,B,C)和1种市场土壤改良剂(D)的作用效果,以筛选出适宜的土壤改良剂。研究结果表明,土壤改良剂能改善土壤的通透性,对一年生黑麦草出苗率影响不大;添加土壤改良剂能显著提高一年生黑麦草的株高、分蘖数、生物量、含水率、P 肥和 N 肥表观利用率;与市场改良剂和对照 CK 相比,添加自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的处理,其植株株高分别提高了16.6%和33.7%,分蘖数提高了18.5%和33.8%,生物量提高了40%和185%,土壤改良剂 C 作用下 P 肥表观利用率达到10.28%,说明自制环保型土壤改良剂 C 的促进作用最佳。研究结果将为黄土半干旱区土壤改良剂的研发以及植被恢复提供理论指导作用。%To explore the effect of soil conditioners which are applied to semiarid regions of the Loess Plateau, this study compared pots planted with Lolium multiflorum seed with and without the soil conditioners.Three self-made soil conditioners (A,B,C)and a standard soil conditioner (D)were compared.The results showed that soil conditioner application can significantly improve soil perviousness,but there was no difference in seed-ling emergence rates between untreated and soil conditioner treated pots.Soil conditioner C produced signifi-cantly better height growth in L.multiflorum plants,16.6% and 33.7% higher than that of the standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively.Tiller numbers in pots treated with soil conditioner C were 18.5% and 33.8% higher than that of standard soil conditioner and the untreated soil respectively while the bi-omass was 40% and 185% higher,respectively.The appearance utilization rate of phosphorus was 10

  6. AcEST: BP916793 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SC complexes subunit ssr2 OS=S... 66 6e-14 sp|Q9XI07|SWI3C_ARATH SWI/SNF complex subunit SWI3C OS=Arabidops...... 65 1e-12 sp|Q8VY05|SWI3D_ARATH SWI/SNF complex subunit SWI3D OS=Arabidops... 66 2e-12 sp|P97496|SMRC1_MOU...2|SWI3B_ARATH SWI/SNF complex subunit SWI3B OS=Arabidops... 59 9e-09 sp|Q8W475|SWI3A_ARATH SWI/SNF complex s...ional adapter ADA2 OS=Oryza sati... 47 3e-05 sp|Q9ATB4|TAD2B_ARATH Transcriptional adapter ADA2b OS=Arabidops...... 45 2e-04 sp|Q9SFD5|TAD2A_ARATH Transcriptional adapter ADA2a OS=Arabidops... 44 3e-04 sp|Q5ZJF3|TAD2A_C

  7. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinggang eZhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes.

  8. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes.

  9. Generation and Analysis of Transposon Ac/Ds-Induced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Rice Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yuan Hu; Peterson, Thomas; Han, Chang-Deok

    2016-01-01

    Closely-located transposable elements (TEs) have been known to induce chromosomal breakage and rearrangements via alternative transposition. To study genome rearrangements in rice, an Ac/Ds system has been employed. This system comprises an immobile Ac element expressed under the control of CaMV 35S promoter, and a modified Ds element. A starter line carried Ac and a single copy of Ds at the OsRLG5 (Oryza sativa receptor-like gene 5). To enhance the transpositional activity, seed-derived calli were cultured and regenerated into plants. Among 270 lines regenerated from the starter, one line was selected that contained a pair of inversely-oriented Ds elements at the OsRLG5 (Oryza sativa receptor-like gene 5). The selected line was again subjected to tissue culture to obtain a regenerant population. Among 300 regenerated plants, 107 (36 %) contained chromosomal rearrangements including deletions, duplications, and inversions of various sizes. From 34 plants, transposition mechanisms leading to such genomic rearrangements were analyzed. The rearrangements were induced by sister chromatid transposition (SCT), homologous recombination (HR), and single chromatid transposition (SLCT). Among them, 22 events (65 %) were found to be transmitted to the next generation. These results demonstrate a great potential of tissue culture regeneration and the Ac/Ds system in understanding alternative transposition mechanisms and in developing chromosome engineering in plants.

  10. 空调铝箔用高耐水性含氟丙烯酸疏水涂料的研制%Preparation of highly water-resistant fluoroacrylic hydrophobic coating for aluminum foils for air conditioner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂建华; 周志盛; 霍泽荣

    2014-01-01

    A fluoroacrylic resin solution was synthesized by radical polymerization based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl acrylate (BA), and stearyl acrylate (SA) as materials with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as hydroxy functional monomer and fluorinated acrylate monomer as organic fluorine modifier, and then blended with curing agent to prepare a hydrophobic coating with high water resistance. The effects of different fluoroacrylate monomers on water contact angle and water dissolution rate of the coating were studied. The influence of the dosages of perfluoroalkyl ethyl methacrylate (PFMA) and HEMA on hydrophobicity and water resistance of the coating was discussed. The optimal reaction formulation was determined as follows: MMA 57%, BA 12%, SA 4%, PFMA 20%, and HEMA 7%. The coating prepared with the optimal formulation was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,and tested for comparison of the comprehensive performance with a commercially available product. The results indicated that the coating has a water contact angle 132.7° and a water dissolution rate of 4.1%, being matchable to the comprehensive performance of the superhydrophobic coating formed from the Ultra AC series transparent vanish (a product of the Ultratech Ltd., USA, used for aluminum foils of air conditioner). The coating meets the requirement of surface treatment of aluminum foils for air conditioner.%以甲基丙烯酸甲酯(MMA)、丙烯酸丁酯(BA)以及丙烯酸十八酯(SA)为原料,甲基丙烯酸-β-羟乙酯(HEMA)为羟基功能单体,含氟丙烯酸酯单体为有机氟改性剂,通过溶液自由基聚合反应制备了含氟丙烯酸树脂溶液,再与固化剂配合使用制得高耐水性疏水涂膜。研究了不同含氟丙烯酸酯单体对涂膜的水接触角和水溶率的影响,讨论了甲基丙烯酸全氟烷基乙酯(PFMA)与HEMA不同用量对涂膜的疏水性和耐水性的影响,获得了最佳反应配方:MMA 57%,BA 12%,SA 4%

  11. 交流传动机车与直流传动机车混合运用条件下牵引网电压控制技术%Traction Network Voltage Control Techniques under the Condition of Hybrid Application of AC Drive and DC Drive Locomotives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 吴命利

    2014-01-01

    在大秦重载铁路上,担当万吨和两万吨重载列车牵引任务的即有 HXD1型、HXD2型交流传动电力机车,也有S S4型直流传动电力机车。由于这两种电力机车具有不同的电气负荷特性,在大秦线的部分区段,保持牵引变电所母线电压处在适当水平成为一个需要解决的技术问题。结合算例,本文给出因S S4型电力机车功率因数低而导致的网压降低和 HXD1型电力机车再生制动引起的网压升高的仿真计算结果,分析电源短路容量、牵引变压器、无功补偿装置以及牵引网阻抗对网压变动的影响。对包括使用有载调压牵引变压器、有载调压自耦变压器、晶闸管控制串联变压器、串联电容器和功率平衡调节器等在内的不同改善网压技术方案进行比较。基于现代电力电子技术的功率平衡调节器不但能有效稳定网压还能综合治理电能质量,有望为该问题提供最佳解决方案。%Both the AC drive locomotives , HXD1 and HXD2 , and the DC drive locomotive , SS4 , are designated for 10 000 t and 20 000 t heavy-duty haul on the Datong-Qinhuangdao Heavy-haul Railway Line . Due to the distinct electric loading characteristics of these two types of locomotives , how to maintain the bus bar voltage in traction substations in some sections of the Line at an appropriate level has become a technical issue to be handled .By a numerical example , the voltage drop caused by the low power factor of Locomotive SS4 and the voltage rise caused by the regenerative braking of Locomotive HXD1 were computed . The influences of the power source capacity , the traction transformer , the reactive power compensator and the impedance of the traction network on the voltage variations were analyzed . Different voltage improving schemes , including those schemes with use of the on-load tap changing traction transformer , the on-load voltage regulating auto-transformer , the thyristor

  12. Study on Energy Efficiency Decay of on-duty Room Air Conditioners%在用房间空气调节器能效衰减研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何曙; 袁雅青; 吴志东; 田波; 戴兴学

    2015-01-01

    53 sets of on-duty room air conditioners coming from different temperature areas, made from different manufactures, having different cooling capacities and having been used no less than 5 years were tested and ana-lyzed.Results show that except for the decay rate of energy efficiency of products with different brands various signifi-cantly, the effect of service temperature areas, on-duty duration and cooling capacity on the decay rate of energy ef-ficiency is negligible.The energy efficiency of domestic air conditioners served for more than 5 years is much less than the minimum allowable energy efficiency values stipulated in current standards with majority 20%~30%lower, some even 54%lower.In order to analyze the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction caused by accel-erating eliminating the on-duty domestic air conditioners, the market share of on-duty air conditioners in China in 2008 was taken for case study.Results indicate that even if the on-duty air conditioners were replaced by new air con-ditioners of minimum allowable energy efficiency, it will save 214.7 billion kWh power and reduce carbon dioxide e-mission 214.7 million ton every cooling season.If they are replaced by higher energy efficiency air conditioners or vari-able-speed ones, the potential of energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction will be bigger.%对53台来自在不同温区、不同品牌的、不同制冷量、使用了5年及以上的在用房间空气调节器能效进行了测试分析,结果表明除不同品牌的产品能效衰减率差异较大外,使用温区、使用年限、产品制冷量对空调能效衰减率的影响不大。使用了5年或更长时间的家用空调器能效水平远低于当前标准规定的能效限定值,普遍低20%~30%,最高可低54%。为分析加速淘汰在用空调器的节能减排潜力,以2008年中国在用空调器的保有量进行估算,即使以当前最低能效水平的空调器进行

  13. Normal form of particle motion under the influence of an AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R

    2002-01-01

    AC dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. These beam oscillations may last arbitrarily long and, in principle, there is no significant emittance growth if the AC dipole is adiabatically turned on and off. Therefore the AC dipole seems to be an adequate tool for non-linear diagnostics provided the particle motion is well described in presence of the AC dipole and non-linearities. Normal Forms and Lie algebra are powerful tools to study the non-linear content of an accelerator lattice. In this article a way to obtain the Normal Form of the Hamiltonian of an accelerator with an AC dipole is described. The particle motion to first order in the non-linearities is derived using Lie algebra techniques. The dependence of the Hamiltonian terms on the longitudinal coordinate is studied showing that they vary differently depending on the AC dipole parameters. The relation is given between the lines of the Fourier spectrum of the turn-by-turn moti...

  14. Normal form of particle motion under the influence of an ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tomás

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available ac dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. These beam oscillations may last arbitrarily long and, in principle, there is no significant emittance growth if the ac dipole is adiabatically turned on and off. Therefore the ac dipole seems to be an adequate tool for nonlinear diagnostics provided the particle motion is well described in the presence of the ac dipole and nonlinearities. Normal forms and Lie algebra are powerful tools to study the nonlinear content of an accelerator lattice. In this article a way to obtain the normal form of the Hamiltonian of an accelerator with an ac dipole is described. The particle motion to first order in the nonlinearities is derived using Lie algebra techniques. The dependence of the Hamiltonian terms on the longitudinal coordinate is studied showing that they vary differently depending on the ac dipole parameters. The relation is given between the lines of the Fourier spectrum of the turn-by-turn motion and the Hamiltonian terms.

  15. Estimation of heat rejection based on the air conditioner use time and its mitigation from buildings in Taipei City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chun-Ming; Aramaki, Toshiya; Hanaki, Keisuke [The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Urban Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The main work in the research focuses on the analysis and mitigation of the anthropogenic heat discharged from buildings, which is one of the main reasons leading to the heat island effect. The residential and commercial buildings, divided into 10 categories, with HVAC systems were analyzed by the building energy program, EnergyPlus. With the help of GIS, the heat rejection of all the residential and commercial buildings in DaAn Ward of Taipei City were evaluated, in which the spatial data and diurnal variation of the heat rejection were described by 3-h time periods. Furthermore, the effect of mitigation strategies was discussed. The first strategy was to change the wall/roof material of building envelope. The second and third strategies, from the viewpoint of energy saving, were to change the temperature setting of air conditioners and to turn off the lighting and equipment when not in use. The fourth strategy was to use a better efficiency of the cooling systems. Finally, the evaluation of installing the water-cooled cooling system, which discharges heat in the form of sensible and latent heat, was also included. (author)

  16. Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working at high pressures in a compressor for an air conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Jin; Choi, Hyo Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chae Hoon, E-mail: chsohn@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Auto-ignition of lubricating oil working in a compressor for an air conditioner is studied experimentally. The adopted lubricating oil is an unknown mixture with multi-components and known to have flash point temperature of 170 deg. C. First, its auto-ignition temperature is measured 365 deg. C at atmospheric pressure. The lubricating oil works under high-pressure condition up to 30 atm and it is heated and cooled down repeatedly. Accordingly, auto-ignition temperatures or flammable limits of lubricating oil are required at high pressures with respect to fire safety. Because there is not a standard test method for the purpose, a new ignition-test method is proposed in this study and thereby, auto-ignition temperatures are measured over the pressure range below 30 atm. The measured temperatures range from 215 deg. C to 255 deg. C and they strongly depend on pressure of gas mixture consisting of oil vapor, nitrogen, and oxygen. They are close to flash point temperature and the lubricating oil can be hazardous when it works for high-pressure operating condition and abundant air flows into a compressor.

  17. Performance of a split-type air conditioner matched with coiled adiabatic capillary tubes using HCFC22 and HC290

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Guobing [School of Energy and Power Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang, Yufeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2010-05-15

    This paper experimentally investigated the system performance of a split-type air conditioner matching with different coiled adiabatic capillary tubes for HCFC22 and HC290. Experiments were carried out in a room-type calorimeter. The results have shown that (1) similar cooling effects can be achieved by matching various capillary tubes of different inner diameters; (2) parallel capillary tubes presented better system performance and flow stability with weaker inlet pressure fluctuations than the single capillary tube; (3) with the coil diameter of the capillary tube increasing from 40 mm to 120 mm, the mass flow rate tended to increase slightly. But the cooling capacity, input power and energy efficiency ratio (EER) did not show evident tendency of change; (4) the refrigerant charge and mass flow rate for HC290 were only 44% and 47% of that for HCFC22, respectively, due to the much lower density. And HC290 had 4.7-6.7% lower cooling capacity and 12.1-12.3% lower input power with respect to HCFC22. However, the EER of HC290 can be 8.5% higher than that of HCFC22, which exhibits the advantage of using HC290. In addition, the experimental uncertainties were analyzed and some application concerns of HC290 were discussed. (author)

  18. Performance of a new refrigeration cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/R134a for residential air-conditioner applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianyong; Yu, Jianlin [Department of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Engineering, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a new refrigeration cycle (NRC) using the binary non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture R32/R134a is presented, which can be an alternative refrigeration cycle applied in residential air-conditioner. In the NRC, refrigerant circuit of the evaporator is separated into two branches. Because the non-azeotropic mixture has the characteristic of temperature glide, an important benefit of such configuration is that the Lorentz cycle can be realized. Compared with that of conventional cycle configuration, the new cycle efficiency can be improved. The calculating results show that, in the conventional refrigeration cycle (CRC), the mixture R32/R134a has a close performance to that is obtainable with pure refrigerant R22. However, the mixture R32/R134a in the NRC will result in a better performance. The maximal COP can be improved in a range of 8-9% over that of the CRC, and the volumetric refrigerating capacity can be approximately increased by 9.5%. (author)

  19. New and Green Multi-component Scaling and Corrosion Inhibitor for the Cooling Water of Central Air Conditioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maodong; Dai, Chenlin; Yang, Bo; Qiao, Yue; Zhu, Zhiping

    2016-12-01

    A green multi-component inhibitor was developed in this study to obtain suitable scale and corrosion inhibitor for the cooling water treatment of central air conditioners. The inhibitor formulation consisted of hydrolyzed polymaleic anhydride/Tween-80/sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate/tolyltriazole (named 4-HTSA). Weight loss test and electrochemical method were used to investigate the corrosion inhibition performance of 4-HTSA on A3 carbon steel and T2 red copper in synthetic cooling water, and the scale inhibition performance of 4-HTSA was studied by the calcium carbonate precipitation method. The influence of parameters, such as pH, temperature, scaling and corrosive ion, on 4-HTSA was researched. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction were used for examination of the scale, and corrosion coupons were analyzed by SEM/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that 4-HTSA had excellent scale and corrosion inhibition performance and wide tolerance to pH, temperature and the concentration of scaling and corrosive ion. Polarization curves indicated that 4-HTSA was anodic inhibitor.

  20. Measure Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crissman, Sally

    2011-01-01

    One tool for enhancing students' work with data in the science classroom is the measure line. As a coteacher and curriculum developer for The Inquiry Project, the author has seen how measure lines--a number line in which the numbers refer to units of measure--help students not only represent data but also analyze it in ways that generate…

  1. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.

    1993-10-01

    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  2. Input current shaped ac-to-dc converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Input current shaping techniques for ac-to-dc converters were investigated. Input frequencies much higher than normal, up to 20 kHz were emphasized. Several methods of shaping the input current waveform in ac-to-dc converters were reviewed. The simplest method is the LC filter following the rectifier. The next simplest method is the resistor emulation approach in which the inductor size is determined by the converter switching frequency and not by the line input frequency. Other methods require complicated switch drive algorithms to construct the input current waveshape. For a high-frequency line input, on the order of 20 kHz, the simple LC cannot be discarded so peremptorily, since the inductor size can be compared with that for the resistor emulation method. In fact, since a dc regulator will normally be required after the filter anyway, the total component count is almost the same as for the resistor emulation method, in which the filter is effectively incorporated into the regulator.

  3. The Usage of Household Split-type Air Conditioner on Naval Vessel%家用分体式空调器在舰船上的使用情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何磊; 施晓波

    2013-01-01

    This paper expatiates some problems of small-sized water-cooling air conditioners using on naval ships. It analyses advantages of household wind-cooling split-type air conditioners compared with marine small-sized air conditioners. Some key technologies on installing and using of household air conditioners on naval ships are pointed out. Through theoretical analysis and survey, it is thought to be practicable to use household split-type air conditioners on naval vessel.%  详细阐述了船用小型水冷式空调器在舰船使用存在的一些问题,分析当前家用分体式空调器相比船用小型空调器的优点,并指出家用空调在舰船安装使用的关键技术。通过理论分析及实船反复调研,认为舰船上采用家用分体式空调器是可行的。

  4. 并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调节能特性%Energy-saving Character of a Solar Hybrid Air Conditioner with Parallel Condensers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康靖; 王劲柏

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid solar air-conditioner with consideration of solar energy’s characteristics is proposed in this paper. We use the air conditioner models, which established by steady-state distribution parameters method, to simulate the influence of chilling water temperature obtained by solar assisted cooling system on the hybrid air conditioner operation performance. The air conditioner operation characteristics studied by analyzing the flow rate variation. Through comparison with another kind of basic model, we obtained variation of the thermal efficiency COP, and analyzed the energy saving character of this air conditioner simply.%根据太阳能的特点,提出了一种并联冷却的太阳能复合式空调器,并用稳态分布参数法建立空调器模型,来模拟计算太阳能辅助冷却系统制取的冷水水温变化对复合式空调器运行效果的影响。通过分析制冷剂流量变化研究该空调器的运行特性,并与另一种基本运行模式对比,得到了其热效能COP值的变化情况,并对该空调器的节能特性进行了简单的分析。

  5. 基于Matlab的CRH2动车组空调变频控制仿真%Simulation of Air Conditioner Frequency Conversion Control of CRH2 EMUs Based on Matlab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏海龙; 杨美传; 刘峰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了CRH2动车组空调控制系统,并用Matlab/Simulink对动车组空调系统进行建模仿真,将空调变频控制系统与通断式空调控制系统二者作用下的客室温度和制冷量作比较分析,同时对过分相时动车组空调运行做了仿真.仿真模型能够较好地模拟动车组空调运行过程中客室温度和制冷量的变化.%Air conditioner control system of CRH2 EMUs was introduced and simulated based on Matlab/Simulink. Passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with frequency conversion control air conditioner system and on/off air conditioner control system was compared and analyzed, as well as air conditioner operation during train passing neutral sections was simulated. The built model simulates passenger room temperature and refrigerating output with air conditioner system well.

  6. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  7. 电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工监理的控制要点%On controlling points for construction inspection for cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering cases,the paper analyzes the features of cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops, and illustrates the monitoring controlling points for the cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops from the materials and equipment entry,installation of air-conditioner wind system and air-conditioner water system,so as to enhance the cleaning air-conditioner system to achieve the expected effect.%结合工程案例,分析了电子工业洁净空调系统的特点,并从材料和设备进场、空调风系统安装、空调水系统安装三个方面出发,阐述了电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工的监理控制要点,促使洁净空调系统达到预期的效果。

  8. DC-Modulated PFC Buck-Type AC/AC Converter for Light Dimming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗方林; 叶虹

    2007-01-01

    Dimmers are very widely applied in theatres, cinemas, dancing-parties, auditoriums and signal systems. They are usually supplied by single-stage AC/AC converters in the past with voltage regulation technique with the disadvantages of high total harmonic distortion, low power factor and poor power transfer efficiency. This paper introduces a novel method-DC-modulation that implements DC/DC conversion technology into AC/AC converters. The DC-modulated single-stage PFC AC/AC converters effectively improved the power factor up to 0.999 and the power transfer efficiency up to 97.8 %. The experimental results verified our design and calculation. This technique will be widely used in light dimming and other industrial applications.

  9. Cooperative Frequency Control for Autonomous AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Qobad; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Distributed secondary control strategies have been recently studied for frequency regulation in droop-based AC Microgrids. Unlike centralized secondary control, the distributed one might fail to provide frequency synchronization and proportional active power sharing simultaneously, due to having...... not require measuring the system frequency as compared to the other presented methods. An ac Microgrid with four sources is used to verify the performance of the proposed control methodology....

  10. Guiding Principles in Selecting AC To DC Converters For Power Factor Corrections in AC Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibekwe B.E

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ac to dc converters’ power factors correction in ac transmission system were investigated. The studies include: phase-controlled converter; pulse width modulated (PWM converter and ac input current shaped converter. Using Fourier series, power factors of these converters were calculated and simulated using MATLAB. The resulting curves are displayed in the hard copies for practical guides in the choice of converters; and comparatively, current shaped type is the best.

  11. The Effect of the Feedback Controller on Superconducting Tokamak AC Losses + AC-CRPP user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaerz, B.; Bruzzone, P.; Favez, J.Y.; Lister, J.B.; Zapretilina, E

    2001-11-01

    Superconducting coils in a Tokamak are subject to AC losses when the field transverse to the coil current varies. A simple model to evaluate the AC losses has been derived and benchmarked against a complete model used in the ITER design procedure. The influence of the feedback control strategy on the AC losses is examined using this model. An improved controller is proposed, based on this study. (author)

  12. 马士基将重组AC-2和AC-3航线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕翔(整理)

    2014-01-01

    马士基航运将重组其远东-墨西哥-中美洲-南美洲西海岸航线“AC-2”线和“AC-3”线。“AC-2”线将延伸至华北和韩国,同时不再挂靠华南,在亚洲,该航线将加挂青岛和釜山,

  13. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  14. imulation Results of Single Stage AC- AC Converter for Induction Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ARUMUGAM

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation of single stage Induction heating system with series Load Resonance. Low frequency AC is converted in to High Frequency Ac using newly developed ZVS-PWM high frequency inverter. This High Frequency is used for Induction Heating .Single stage AC-AC converter system is modeled and simulated using Matlab Simulink. The simulation results of ZVS-PWM high frequency system are presented. The effectiveness of this UFAC-to-HFAC direct power frequency converter using IGBTs for consumer high-frequency IH appliances is evaluated and proved on the basis of simulation results.

  15. Resonance reduction for AC drives with small capacitance in the DC link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Török, Lajos; Wang, Dong;

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Width Modulated AC drives equipped with small DC-link capacitor are becoming an attractive solution for electric drive applications with moderate requirements for shaft dynamic performance. However, when these drives are fed from a weak grid a resonance between the line side impedance and t...... from the motor current. The method has been experimentally validated and the results show excellent performance. Moreover, the proposed compensation method can be applied for any kind of load connected to a three-phase passive rectifier equipped with small capacitor....... and the DC-link capacitor appears. Due to this resonance, the THD and the partially weighted harmonic distortion of the line currents are increased, which may rise compatibility problems with the AC line harmonic standards. By using vector control the motor drive is transformed into a constant power load...

  16. Vip3Aa tolerance response of Helicoverpa armigera populations from a Cry1Ac cotton planting region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jingjie; Gao, Yulin; Wu, Kongming; Gould, Fred; Gao, Jianhua; Shen, Zhicheng; Lei, Chaoliang

    2010-12-01

    Transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., that expresses the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin, holds great promise in controlling target insect pests. Evolution of resistance by target pests is the primary threat to the continued efficacy of Bt cotton. To thwart pest resistance evolution, a transgenic cotton culitvar that produces two different Bt toxins, cry1Ac and vip3A genes, was proposed as a successor of cry1Ac cotton. This article reports on levels of Vip3Aa tolerance in Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations from the Cry1Ac cotton planting region in China based on bioassays of the F1 generation of isofemale lines. In total, 80 isofemale families of H. armigera from Xiajin county of Shandong Province (an intensive Bt cotton planting area) and 93 families from Anci county of Hebei Province (a multiple-crop system including corn [Zea mays L.] , soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), and Bt cotton) were screened with a discriminating concentration of both Cry1Ac- and Vip3A-containing diets in 2009. From data on the relative average development rates and percentage of larval weight inhibition of F1 full-sib families tested simultaneously on Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa, results indicate that responses to Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa were not genetically correlated in field population ofH. armigera. This indicates that the threat of cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Vip3A is low in field populations of H. armigera. Thus, the introduction of Vip3Aa/Cry1Ac-producing lines could delay resistance evolution in H. armigera in Bt cotton planting area of China.

  17. Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2006-02-01

    Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation.

  18. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-Conditioning Electricity Savings from Standard Energy Conservation Measures, Radiant Barriers, and High-Efficiency Window Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A field test involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The average measured pre-weatherization air-conditioning electricity consumption was 1664 kWh/year ($119/year). Ten percent of the houses used less than 250 kWh/year, while another 10% used more than 3000 kWh/year. An average reduction in air-conditioning electricity consumption of 535 kWh/year ($38/year and 28% of pre-weatherization consumption) was obtained from replacement of one low-efficiency window air conditioner (EER less than 7.0) per house with a high-efficiency unit (EER greater than 9.0). For approximately the same cost, savings tripled to 1503 kWh/year ($107/year and 41% of pre-weatherization consumption) in those houses with initial air-conditioning electricity consumption greater than 2750 kWh/year. For these houses, replacement of a low-efficiency air conditioner with a high-efficiency unit was cost effective using the incremental cost of installing a new unit now rather than later; the average installation cost for these houses under a weatherization program was estimated to be $786. The

  19. 78 FR 39345 - ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... No. 812-14066] ACS Wireless, Inc.; Notice of Application AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission... (``Act''). Summary of Application: ACS Wireless, Inc. (``ACS Wireless'') seeks an order under section 3(b..., reinvesting, owning, holding or trading in securities. ACS Wireless is primarily engaged in providing...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1850 - AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. 886.1850... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1850 AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope. (a) Identification. An AC-powered slitlamp biomicroscope is an AC-powered device that is...

  1. 21 CFR 886.4440 - AC-powered magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered magnet. 886.4440 Section 886.4440 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4440 AC-powered magnet. (a) Identification. An AC-powered magnet is an AC-powered device that generates a magnetic field intended to find and...

  2. 21 CFR 888.1240 - AC-powered dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered dynamometer. 888.1240 Section 888.1240...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 888.1240 AC-powered dynamometer. (a) Identification. An AC-powered dynamometer is an AC-powered device intended for medical purposes to...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1630 - AC-powered photostimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false AC-powered photostimulator. 886.1630 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1630 AC-powered photostimulator. (a) Identification. An AC-powered photostimulator is an AC-powered device intended to provide light stimulus...

  4. Leakage Evaluation of Blend Refrigerant HCFC-22/HFC-152a for Auto mobile Air Conditioners%混合工质HCFC-22/HFC-152a汽车空调系统中泄漏性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华; 谷松

    2001-01-01

    A analysis of leakage is carried out for automobile air conditioner charged with HCFC-22/HFC-152a. The performance of automobile air conditioners doesn,t obvio usly change when leakage of the blend refrigerant happens. The HCFC-22/HFC-152a( 40/60mass%) can be used as alternative refrigerant in the transition period of e xisting automobile air conditioners.%对采用HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂的汽车空调的 泄漏性能进行了分析;说明了HCFC-22/HFC-152a混合制冷剂不会因泄漏引起制冷系统性 能的显著变化,它可作为现有的汽车空调系统的过渡替代工质。

  5. New Test Requirement for Energy Efficiency of Air Conditioner for European Market%关于欧盟市场空调新能效的测试要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧松彦; 刘勃宏

    2013-01-01

      According to the new energy requirement for air conditioner performed from Jan. 1, 2013 and the newly-released European Standards (EN14825: 2012), the testing and calculation method of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) and Seasonal Coefficient of Performance (SCOP) of air conditioner was illustrated with inverter air-conditioner, and it could be taken for reference.%  本文根据欧盟2013年1月1日起执行生效的空调新的能源要求,以及最新发布的欧洲标准(EN14825:2012),以变频空调为例阐述空调季节能效比(SEER)和季节性能系数(SCOP)的测试计算方法,以供相关人员参考。

  6. 中央空调风系统管道清洗的调查探讨%On exploration for investigation of pipeline cleaning of central air-conditioner wind system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温嘉

    2012-01-01

    The study illustrates the necessity for the cleaning of the central air-conditioner system,introduces the development status and problems in the cleaning industry of the central pipeline air-conditioner system at home and abroad,and has the perspective for the future of the cleaning industry of the central air-conditioner system in China.%阐述了中央空调风系统清洗的必要性,介绍了国内外中央空调风系统管道清洗行业的发展状况和存在的问题,展望了我国中央空调风系统管道清洗行业发展的大好前景。

  7. On design for air-conditioners and ventilation in some orient home household square in Shanxi%山西某地东方家园家居广场的空调与通风设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王业辉

    2012-01-01

    重点介绍了某家居广场的空调、通风的设计特点,阐述了空调方式、防排烟、空调自控及节能等的设计,强调了空调设计中节能的重要性及消防设计的重要性,以期引起相关设计人员重视。%The paper mainly introduces the design features for the air-conditioners and ventilation of the household square,mainly illustrates the design for the air-conditioning ways,the smoke control,the auto-control system of air-conditioners,and its energy-saving,and emphasizes the importance of the energy-saving and the fire-control design in the air-conditioner design,so as to draw the attention of relative design personnel.

  8. Effect of Polymeric Soil Conditioners on Seeds Germination%高分子土壤改良剂对种籽萌芽之影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元智; 周良勋; 郑皆达; 卢俊谷; 李茂田

    2005-01-01

    Polymers used as soil conditioners to enhance the adhesive for protection against erosion of soil are important topics in environmental study. Previous studies showed that the polymer soil conditioners can stabilize the aggregates of soils, increase the infiltration and reduce the runoff and erosion of soil. However the inhibition of seeds germination by the polymers was seldom discussed. In this study the effects of polymers on the germination of Bahia grass seeds are experimental observed. Polyvinyl alcohol and acrylic polymer are used in the experiments. Experimental results showed acrylic polymer, the most often used soil conditioner, would evidently inhibit the plant germination. However with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol to acrylic polymer will increase the germination of the seeds. The percentage germination and germination energy are discussed in this study.%以高分子材料为土壤改良剂可使土壤团粒化, 增加水份入渗效率, 减少土壤冲蚀, 为研究环境问题之重要课题.但此类土壤改良剂可能抑制植物种籽萌芽, 为使用此种材料的一大问题.以压克力与聚乙烯醇对 Bahia种籽做一系列萌芽实验探讨.实验结果发现, 压克力对种籽萌芽率与萌芽势能有严重之抑制作用.但适量之聚乙烯醇添加可克服此问题.

  9. The Oklahoma Field Test: Air-conditioning electricity savings from standard energy conservation measures, radiant barriers, and high-efficiency window air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, M.P.; Levins, W.P.

    1992-08-01

    A field test Involving 104 houses was performed in Tulsa, Oklahoma, to measure the air-conditioning electricity consumption of low-income houses equipped with window air conditioners, the reduction in this electricity consumption attributed to the installation of energy conservation measures (ECMS) as typically installed under the Oklahoma Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP), and the reduction achieved by the replacement of low-efficiency window air conditioners with high-efficiency units and the installation of attic radiant barriers. Air-conditioning electricity consumption and indoor temperature were monitored weekly during the pre-weatherization period (June to September 1988) and post-weatherization period (May to September 1989). House energy consumption models and regression analyses were used to normalize the air-conditioning electricity savings to average outdoor temperature conditions and the pre-weatherization indoor temperature of each house. The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) programs directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption should be targeted at clients with high consumption to improve cost effectiveness; (2) replacing low-efficiency air conditioners with high-efficiency units should be considered an option in a weatherization program directed at reducing air-conditioning electricity consumption; (3) ECMs currently being installed under the Oklahoma WAP (chosen based on effectiveness at reducing space-heating energy consumption) should continue to be justified based on their space-heating energy savings potential only; and (4) attic radiant barriers should not be included in the Oklahoma WAP if alternatives with verified savings are available or until further testing demonstrates energy savings or other benefits in this typo of housing.

  10. AC Electrokinetics of Physiological Fluids for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Liu, Tingting; Lamanda, Ariana C; Sin, Mandy L Y; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-12-01

    Alternating current (AC) electrokinetics is a collection of processes for manipulating bulk fluid mass and embedded objects with AC electric fields. The ability of AC electrokinetics to implement the major microfluidic operations, such as pumping, mixing, concentration, and separation, makes it possible to develop integrated systems for clinical diagnostics in nontraditional health care settings. The high conductivity of physiological fluids presents new challenges and opportunities for AC electrokinetics-based diagnostic systems. In this review, AC electrokinetic phenomena in conductive physiological fluids are described followed by a review of the basic microfluidic operations and the recent biomedical applications of AC electrokinetics. The future prospects of AC electrokinetics for clinical diagnostics are presented.

  11. Effects of Applying BGA Soil Conditioner and Nitrogen,Phosphorus,Potassium Together on Yield of Spring Maize%BGA土壤调理剂与氮磷钾肥配施对春玉米产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩全辉; 黄洁; 许瑞丽; 罗春芳

    2013-01-01

    采用田间试验,研究BGA土壤调理剂与氮、磷、钾肥配施对玉米产量及其主要产量构成因素的影响。结果表明:BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施比CK(不施肥)增产54.9%,纯施BGA土壤调理剂比CK增产7.5%,而BGA土壤调理剂与氮肥、钾肥、氮磷钾复合肥配施分别比CK减产22.5%、9.4%、13.8%。因此,推荐在玉米生产上采用BGA土壤调理剂与磷肥配施,并建议加强BGA土壤调理剂与化肥配施对其他作物产量影响的研究。%Under the field experiment,the effects of applying BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen,phosphorus,potassium together on the yield of spring maize were studied. The results showed that comparing with the CK (no fertilizer),BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application increased the kernal yield by 54.9%,BGA soil conditioner single application increased the kernal yield by 7.5% ,while BGA soil conditioner and nitrogen fertilizer,potassium fertilizer,compound fertilizer combined application decreased the kernal yield by 22.5%,9.4%,13.8%, respectively.We suggested BGA soil conditioner and phosphorus fertilizer combined application on maize plantation,and the study of the yield of BGA soil conditioner combined application with fertilizer on other crops should be focused on.

  12. Application of central air conditioner system on modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform%集中空调系统在海洋固定平台模块钻机上的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗立臣; 许瑞杰; 马冬辉

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air conditioner selection of Lu Feng7-2 oil ifeld modular drilling rig project, this paper determines two sets of selection of air conditioner by preliminary study, which are central and separation air conditioner systems, respectively. With comparison between the central air conditioner and the split air conditioner in cost, effciency, comfort, space, etc., it concludes that the central air conditioner system has the advantages of lower operation cost, higher energy effciency ratio, better comfort capability, smaller space occupation and so on. It also analyzes its superiority and prospect of application on the modular drilling rig of offshore ifxed platform, which can provide a certain reference for the room cooling design and the equipment selection.%结合陆丰7-2油田模块钻机项目空调选型,通过前期调查研究制定了两套空调选型方案:集中空调系统方案和分体空调系统方案。通过对比两者在费用、工作效率、舒适性、占用空间等方面的特点,得出集中空调系统具有初始投入及运行成本低、能效比高、舒适性好、占地面积小等方面的优点,并分析了集中空调在海洋固定平台模块钻机上使用的优越性以及应用前景,对海洋固定平台模块钻机的房间制冷设计及设备选型提供了一定的参考。

  13. Efficacy of Neem Extract and Three Antimicrobial Agents Incorporated into Tissue Conditioner in Inhibiting the Growth of C. Albicans and S. Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Dikshita Ray; Basavanna, Jayaprakash Mugur; Varghese, Rana Kalappattil

    2017-05-01

    Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition which compromises the mucosal surface beneath dentures. The aetiology of denture stomatitis is usually multifactorial which varies from trauma from ill fitting denture to poor immune system. There are evidences that denture stomatitis is an outcome of multispecies biofilms that include Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Tissue conditioners are found to be more susceptible to colonisation by micro-organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of neem leaf extract and three other antimicrobial agents incorporated in a tissue conditioner against both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Standard strain of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into Sabouraud Dextrose broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin broth respectively incubated at 37°C. Tissue conditioner (Viscogel) mixed with two different concentrations of ketoconazole, nystatin and chlorhexidine diacetate (5%, 10% w/w) and neem leaf extract (7.5% w/w and 15% w/w) and control group (plain tissue conditioner) were placed into punch hole (6 mm diameter) agar plate inoculated with Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. A total of 216 samples were prepared for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Mean Inhibition Diameter (MID) across each punch holes were measured in millimetres at 24 hours and seven days and data were statistically analysed using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test. Both ketoconazole and nystatin (10% w/w) showed maximum inhibition of 32 mm and mean of 31.75 followed by 15% w/w neem leaf extract with an inhibition of 21 mm and mean of 20.67 after 24 hours against Candida albicans whereas chlorhexidine diacetate (10% w/w) showed mean of 25.67 followed by chlorhexidine diacetate (5% w/w) and neem extract (15% w/w) which showed mean of 24.17 and 23.67 respectively against Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaf extract exhibited considerable potential to be an efficacious

  14. Introduction of the New Edition of Air-conditioner Safety Standard%关于新版空调安全标准介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田磊

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the new major points of the air-conditioner standard GB 4706.32-2012, and points out the key points of changes of new standard, and briefly interprets the concept of software evaluation.%  本文介绍了新版空调标准GB 4706.32-2012的主要新增点,指出了关键性的变化点,对软件评估的概念做了简要解读。

  15. Plug-bit design of residential air conditioners Thinking%住宅外挂空调机位设计的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许群枫

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the existing exterior design of residential external air conditioners bit placement method,concludes its four possible seat designs,and further leads to thinking and looking forward to a better future.%对现行住宅外观设计上的外挂空调机位摆置方式进行了调查研究,总结其四种可行的机位设计,并进一步引出思考,展望美好的未来。

  16. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  17. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The

  18. Flux line depinning in a magnet-superconductor levitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentiev, A. N.; Hull, J. R.; De Long, L. E.

    The AC loss characteristics of a magnet-superconductor system were studied with the magnet fixed to the free end of an oscillating cantilever located near a stationary melt-textured YBCO pellet. Below a threshold AC field amplitude ≈2 Oe, the dissipation of the oscillator is amplitude-independent, characteristic of a linear, non-hysteretic regime. Above threshold, dissipation increases with amplitude, reflecting the depinning and hysteretic motion of flux lines. The threshold AC field is an order of magnitude higher than that measured for the same YBCO material via AC susceptometry in a uniform DC magnetic field. A partial lock-in of flux lines between YBCO ab planes is proposed as the mechanism for the substantial increase of the depinning threshold.

  19. Approaches to building single-stage AC/AC conversion switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible topologies and promising approaches towards direct single-phase AC-AC conversion of the mains voltage for audio applications. When compared to standard Class-D switching audio power amplifiers with a separate power supply, it is expected that direct conversion...

  20. RESULTS OF USING MOBILE AIR CONDITIONER TO CONTROL CORN TEMPERATUER IN SILO IN SOUTH OF CHINA%南方立筒仓应用移动空调控温储存玉米研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄启迪

    2012-01-01

    对立筒仓的玉米应用移动空调进行控温储存试验,试验表明通过空调间歇性控温能确保玉米安全度夏储存安全,降低粮食保管费用.%Mobile air conditioner was used to control corn temperature in silo. The results showed that intermittent ventilation by using air conditioner can ensure corn stored safely in summer, it also can reduce storage costs.