WorldWideScience

Sample records for abyssal plain study

  1. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  2. Seismic echo character northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Latest efforts in echo-character mapping of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain have discerned variations in thickness in a near-surface sedimentary sequence which has been designated seismic unit A. This unit probably represents the last episode of progradation of the Hatteras Deep Sea Fan in the southern part of the study area, and has infilled probable paleochannels from the Wilmington Canyon and Sohm Gap in the north. Unit A thins to a minimum in the central part of the plain, where older sediments come within 1 meter of the surface. Variations in the character of the surface reflector probably represent differing degrees of microtopography developed on a Late Pleistocene surface overlain by Holocene sediments. With the exception of one area identified as a relict surface outcropping in the western plain, this microtopography seems related to present-day thalweg locations on the abyssal plain. 11 references, 13 figures

  3. Comparative geoscience studies of the Madeira and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains: NEA/SWG preference location document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffret, G.A.; Buckley, D.E.; Schuttenhelm, R.T.E.; Searle, R.C.; Shephard, L.E.; Cranston, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This document summarizes the status of geoscience investigations in the two primary North Atlantic study locations Great Meteor East (GME) in the Madeira Abyssal Plain, and the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain (SNAP), and assesses the characteristics of these locations relative to the guidelines considered desirable and necessary for a potential subseabed high-level waste repository. These characteristics will be continually reevaluated as additional data become available and as our understanding of deep-sea sediment processes within abyssal plain environments improves. Initially, a number of areas of minimum size were identified in the ocean basins that appeared to comply with most of the stability and barrier guidelines. However, detailed studies in both GME and SNAP demonstrate that as our level of knowledge improves, and the degree of resolution increases, the number of 100 km 2 areas complying with these guidelines becomes much more limited. This observation may be characteristic of abyssal plain and abyssal hill environments in both the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. Marked differences in geoscience characteristics exist between the Great Meteor East and the Southern Nares Abyssal Plain study locations. The significance of these differences, as they impact the selection of a single preferred site for a potential subseabed repository, can only be determined by using an integrated systems risk assessment modeling approach. The known geoscience characteristics can, however, be used in conjunction with the site assessment guidelines to draw conclusions concerning the geoscience suitability of these two locations. These conclusions will be modified as specific types of data from future expeditions become available

  4. Endeavor cruise 071 navigation and bathymetry, northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.; McCreery, C.; Dickson, S.; Baker, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sub-bottom seismic profiling was carried out by R/V Endeavor during the summers of 1980 and 1981. Data collection was concentrated in LLWODP study area E-N3, which encompasses the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and the adjacent lower continental rise. Time, position, and depth were logged and marked on the seismic record at 15-minute intervals. These navigational and bathymetric data have been used to produce a time/position/depth listing, and a detailed bathymetric map of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain and surrounding physiographic provinces. 6 figures, 1 table

  5. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  6. Late Quarternary evolution of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    The sedimentary history and seismic structure of a deep-water turbidite basin in the Western North Atlantic Ocean has been investigated to understand further the evolution of abyssal plains. This study integrates analyses of sedimentary and seismic facies in order to examine the temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain during the Late Quaternary. Forty deep-sea sediment cores and 6000 km of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles from within 31-34 0 N and 69-74 0 W include portions of the Hatteras Outer Ridge, Lower Continental Rise and Bermuda Rise as well as the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. Seismic profiles (within 32-33 0 N, 70-71.5 0 W) define two acoustically-transparent seismic units beneath the Plain. The composition of these seismic units has been investigated with sediment cores. This study has found two notable features in the sedimentary framework of the Plain that appear to have resulted from temporal changes in sediment supply. The most recent change, a postglacial decline in turbidity current activity, produced a diagenetic iron enrichment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The stratigraphic thickness affected by diagenesis is related spatially to patterns of turbidite sedimentation. An earlier change, discovered in this research, occurred during the Wisconsinian glaciation and brought coarser-grained turbidity currents to the northern Plain. Deposition of sands from these flows appears to have been locally controlled by a broad topographic feature with less than ten meters relief. As a result of the topographic influence, there are abrupt boundaries, both verically and laterally, between an older mud facies and a younger sandy turbidite facies of the Plain

  7. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  8. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  9. Chemical speciation modelling of the South Terras and Madeira Abyssal Plain natural analogue sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffield, J.R.; Xu Langqui; Williams, D.R.

    1988-11-01

    The chemical speciation of uranium has been modelled using field data from the South Terras and Madeira Abyssal Plain natural analogue sites. In general, validation is good, particularly for the Abyssal Plain model. Problems regarding uranium redox couples have been highlighted as have other areas requiring further consideration for building into the thermodynamic models. (author)

  10. Long-term change in the megabenthos of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, D. S. M.; Bett, B. J.; Rice, A. L.; Thurston, M. H.; Galéron, J.; Sibuet, M.; Wolff, G. A.

    A radical change in the abundance of invertebrate megafauna on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain is reported over a period of 10 years (1989-1999). Actiniarians, annelids, pycnogonids, tunicates, ophiuroids and holothurians increased significantly in abundance. However, there was no significant change in wet weight biomass. Two holothurian species, Amperima rosea and Ellipinion molle, increased in abundance by more than two orders of magnitude. Samples from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain over a longer period (1977-1999) show that prior to 1996 these holothurian species were always a minor component of the megafauna. From 1996 to 1999 A. rosea was abundant over a wide area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicating that the phenomenon was not a localised event. Several dominant holothurian species show a distinct trend in decreasing body size over the study period. The changes in megafauna abundance may be related to environmental forcing (food supply) rather than to localised stochastic population variations. Inter-annual variability and long-term trends in organic matter supply to the seabed may be responsible for the observed changes in abundance, species dominance and size distributions.

  11. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  12. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  13. New insights into the abyssal sponge fauna of the Kurile-Kamchatka plain and Trench region (Northwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Rachel V.; Janussen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    -enclosed seas of Japan and Okhotsk. The importance of the dominant sub-Polar Gyre currents, the vast area of abyssal plain and similar levels of productivity, are likely to be driving the strong faunal connectivity in the North Pacific. The importance of utilising several forms of sampling equipment has been illustrated in this study, with half of all specimens caught with non-AGT (Agassiz trawl) equipment.

  14. Acoustic structure and echo character of surficial sediments of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreery, C.J.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    A study has been made of the high frequency acoustic response of abyssal plain depositional facies. Piston cores have been obtained at six stations and deep hydrophone recordings at three stations on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. 3.5 kHz seismic profiles indicate acoustically transparent lobes of surficial sediment which thicken towards the Hatteral Transverse Canyon and Sohm Gap/Wilmington Fan. Physical property data from piston cores indicate a higher percentage of coarse sediment in the areas of transparent acoustic response. Many of the characteristics normally used in mapping of conventional 3.5 kHz profiler acoustic response varied only slightly in the study area. Regions of diffuse 3.5 kHz surface echoes, similar to prolonged echoes attributed to high percent sand beds, have been identified in the study area. High trace to trace variation in deep hydrophone/pinger recordings in these areas suggests that the diffuse echo returns are due to unresolved microtopography and are not necessarily associated with a sandy seafloor

  15. Uranium in pore waters from North Atlantic (GME and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain) sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santschi, P.H.; Bajo, C.; Mantovani, M.; Orciuolo, D.; Cranston, R.E.; Bruno, J.

    1988-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of low uranium concentrations in composite pore-water samples from the uppermost 20-30 m of deep-sea abyssal plain sediments from the Great Meteor East and Southern Nares Abyssal Plains Area. Many values are the lowest uranium concentrations ever measured in the pore waters of deep-sea sediments. Our lowest value, 0.05 ± 0.01 p.p.b., is orders of magnitude lower than the predicted solubility of U0 2 or U 4 0 9 . The uranium concentrations obtained from both sites correlate closely with measured redox potentials in the sediments. The low mobility of uranium in pore waters from turbiditic deep-sea abyssal plain sediments, which can be deduced from these measurements, has important implications for the sub-seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and for marine geochemistry of uranium. (author)

  16. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  17. Lithology and surficial sediment distribution: northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.; Friedrich, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    Surficial sediments of the LLWODP study area E-N3 have several common characteristics and a few anomalous features. All of the 26 surficial samples examined are Holocene in age. In E-N3, the Holocene sequence ranges from 12-90 cm. The sequence is composed primarily of brown foraminiferal lutite. The lutites show evidence of burrowing by benthic animals in the form of burrows infilled with sediment of a different color. Below the bioturbated lutites is a dark brown, iron-enriched horizon stratigraphically near (within a few centimeters of) the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The vertical extent of this unit, which ranges from 2-22 cm, varies systematically within the study area. The maximum thickness is found in a region most removed from the terrigenous sediment entry points. Fine-grained turbidity currents, an abyssal current, and a debris flow created the uncommon features of the surficial sediments. The areal extent of these deposits is estimated as 10% of the E-N3 region below 5300 m. The largest turbidite is probably greater than 2000 km 2 in extent. However, evidence of coarse-grained turbidity current activity in the Holocene is absent. Hemipelagic deposition during the Holocene has resulted in a texturally uniform sequence of surficial sediments. 22 references, 10 figures, 6 tables

  18. The geology and geochemistry of Madeira abyssal plain sediments: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.P.E.; Thomson, J.; Jarvis, I.

    1989-01-01

    The Madeira Abyssal Plain was chosen by the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) as a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal in 1980. Subsequently, the area has been intensively investigated, in particular by the Geological Survey of the Netherlands, the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, and latterly by the international ESOPE expedition organized by the NEA Seabed Working Group. The large data set from this area of 2 0 x 2 0 includes 16,000 km of low-frequency seismic lines, 28,000 km of high-frequency seismic lines, 70,000 km 2 of GLORIA sidescan and 120 sediment cores. Core coverage extends through the upper 34 m of the sediment column, representing the last 730,000 years, and shows deposition dominated by turbidite sedimentation. Seismic profiles indicate that total thickness of turbidites averages 350 m with about 200 m of pelagic sediment beneath. Thus the turbidites continue considerably deeper than proposed penetrator emplacement depths of 30-70 m. Individual turbidites are separated by thin pelagic layers which can be dated and show the turbidites to be emplaced at the beginning and end of glacial periods. (author)

  19. Pore water geochemistry and the oxidation of sedimentary organic matter: Hatteras Abyssal Plain 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heggie, D.; Lewis, T.; Graham, D.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the pore water geochemistry from R/V an Endeavor cruise to an area of the Hatteras Abyssal Plain between 31 0 45' - 34 0 00'N and 69 0 37.5 - 72 0 07.5'W. The authors report on the down core variations of the products of organic matter oxidation, the stoichiometry of reactions and make a preliminary assessment of the rates of organic matter oxidation at several core locations. The authors found concentrations of total inorganic nitrogen species; nitrate, nitrite and ammonia in pore waters to be less than those predicted from a model of organic matter oxidation (Froelich et al. 1979) in sediments. The observations indicate that nitrogen is depleted over carbon as compared to typical marine organic matter. The down-core nitrate profiles over the study area were used to infer depths at which oxygen is near totally consumed in the sediments and hence to compute rates of oxygen consumption. The authors found oxygen consumption rates to vary by nearly an order of magnitude between core locations (1.7 - >15μmO 2 cm -2 yr -1 ). A simple model which combines the computed rates of oxidant consumption and the stoichiometry of organic matter oxidation was used to make estimates of organic carbon oxidation rates. These latter were found to vary between 1.3 and > 11.5 μm C cm -2 yr -1 . Highest carbon oxidation rates were found at the western boundary of the study area, and in all cases oxygen consumption was responsible for >85% of carbon oxidized. 11 references, 5 figures, 4 tables

  20. Heat flow measurements in Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Discovery Cruise 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes 21 closely spaced heat flow measurements which were made along two survey lines in an area of faulted sediments east of Great Meteor Seamount in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. The heat flow was found to be correlated with basement topography as mapped by seismic reflection profiling. Data modelling suggests that this is due both to the thermal conductivity contrast between sediments and basement rocks and to the presence of hydrothermal circulation within basement highs. The existence of non-linear temperature profiles in sediments covering basement highs suggests that the underlying circulation is causing an upward movement of porewater. There is no firm evidence to show that the sediment faults act as preferred pathways for porewater advection. (author)

  1. Heat flow measurements in the vicinity of Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Darwin Cruise CD9B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.; Hounslow, M.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes 37 new measurements of heat flow in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. These have comprised 22 values in the Great Meteor East Study Area and 15 measurements in the newly defined ''10 km Box'' to the southeast of this region. The aim of the project has been to examine in more detail than hitherto the thermal and fluid processes operating in the oceanic crust. For this purpose, a new thermistor string, with 1/2 m sensor spacing was used. Also, the heat flux data have been compared to the output from a finite element model for heat conduction. No non-linear sediment temperature profiles were discovered indicating that vertical advection of water through the sediment is absent or slow. The results of numerical modelling imply that the variability of measured heat flow cannot be explained entirely on the basis of basement topography. It is necessary to invoke either vertical basement intrusions of differing conductivity or basement hydrothermal circulation. (author)

  2. Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites of the Argo Abyssal Plain, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Stewart, Sondra K.; Kennett, Diana; Mazzullo, Elsa K.

    1992-01-01

    Sediments recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 123 from the Argo Abyssal Plain (AAP) consist largely of turbidites derived from the adjacent Australian continental margin. The oldest abundant turbidites are Valanginian-Aptian in age and have a mixed (smarl) composition; they contain subequal amounts of calcareous and siliceous biogenic components, as well as clay and lesser quartz. Most are thin-bedded, fine sand to mud-sized, and best described by Stow and Piper's model (1984) for fine-grained biogenic turbidites. Thicker (to 3 m), coarser-grained (medium-to-coarse sand-sized) turbidites fit Bouma's model (1962) for sandy turbidites; these generally are base-cut-out (BCDE, BDE) sequences, with B-division parallel lamination as the dominant structure. Parallel laminae most commonly concentrate quartz and/or calcispheres vs. lithic clasts or clay, but distinctive millimeter to centimeter-thick, radiolarian-rich laminae occur in both fine and coarse-grained Valanginian-Hauterivian turbidites.AAP turbidites were derived from relatively deep parts of the continental margin (outer shelf, slope, or rise) that lay below the photic zone, but above the calcite compensation depth (CCD). Biogenic components are largely pelagic (calcispheres, foraminifers, radiolarians, nannofossils); lesser benthic foraminifers are characteristic of deep-water (abyssal to bathyal) environments. Abundant nonbiogenic components are mostly clay and clay clasts; smectite is the dominant clay species, and indicates a volcanogenic provenance, most likely the Triassic-Jurassic volcanic suite exposed along the northern Exmouth Plateau.Lower Cretaceous smarl turbidites were generated during eustatic lowstands and may have reached the abyssal plain via Swan Canyon, a submarine canyon thought to have formed during the Late Jurassic. In contrast to younger AAP turbidites, however, Lower Cretaceous turbidites are relatively fine-grained and do not contain notably older reworked fossils. Early

  3. Geomorphological and sedimentary processes of the glacially influenced northwestern Iberian continental margin and abyssal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llave, Estefanía; Jané, Gloria; Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Mink, Sandra

    2018-07-01

    The offshore region of northwestern Iberia offers an opportunity to study the impacts of along-slope processes on the morphology of a glacially influenced continental margin, which has traditionally been conceptually characterised by predominant down-slope sedimentary processes. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry, acoustic backscatter and ultrahigh-resolution seismic reflection profile data are integrated and analysed to describe the present-day and recent geomorphological features and to interpret their associated sedimentary processes. Seventeen large-scale seafloor morphologies and sixteen individual echo types, interpreted as structural features (escarpments, marginal platforms and related fluid escape structures) and depositional and erosional bedforms developed either by the influence of bottom currents (moats, abraded surfaces, sediment waves, contourite drifts and ridges) or by gravitational features (gullies, canyons, slides, channel-levee complexes and submarine fans), are identified for the first time in the study area (spanning 90,000 km2 and water depths of 300 m to 5 km). Different types of slope failures and turbidity currents are mainly observed on the upper and lower slopes and along submarine canyons and deep-sea channels. The middle slope morphologies are mostly determined by the actions of bottom currents (North Atlantic Central Water, Mediterranean Outflow Water, Labrador Sea Water and North Atlantic Deep Water), which thereby define the margin morphologies and favour the reworking and deposition of sediments. The abyssal plains (Biscay and Iberian) are characterised by pelagic deposits and channel-lobe systems (the Cantabrian and Charcot), although several contourite features are also observed at the foot of the slope due to the influence of the deepest water masses (i.e., the North Atlantic Deep Water and Lower Deep Water). This work shows that the study area is the result of Mesozoic to present-day tectonics (e.g. the marginal platforms

  4. Geochemistry of the near surface sediments of the Nares Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.A.; Thomson, J.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of a suite of box and 2m gravity cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain has been characterised by means of pore water analyses, XRF determination of major and trace element concentrations, mineralogy and 230 Thsub(excess) dating. The interstitial fluid environment of those deep-sea clays is mildly reducing, although one site exhibits manganese remobilisation and precipitation. Despite their marked colour differences, there is a similarity in clay mineralogy between the grey silt/clay turbidites and the brown clays found in the area. Sediment accumulation rates of pelagic brown clays range between 0.5 and 1.0 cm/10 3 yr. These pelagic brown clays are metal-rich relative to the grey clays, and a model is used to estimate the hydrogenous metal fluxes on the assumption that they are constant over the Plain. This model gives values of approx. 1300 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Mn, approx. 2600 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Fe and Co, Ni, Cu, V and Zn in the range 6 to 26 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr. An associated model-derived estimate of the detrital contents of the same elements agrees well with the mean values of the grey clays and of average shale. Metal-poor brown clays and assorted minor lithologies are intermediate in composition between these two end-members. (author)

  5. Evidences of intraplate deformation in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain (eastern North Atlantic) from seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, C.; Simões, M.; Lourenço, N.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2009-04-01

    The West Madeira Abyssal Plain is located in the eastern North Atlantic off Madeira Islands, forming part of the Canary Basin and reaching a mean water depth of 5300 m. This region is also located within Africa plate at about 500 km southwards from the Açores-Gibraltar plate boundary, and for that reason lacks seismic activity. Although this region being located in an intraplate setting, the presence of faulted sediments was reported in several works published during the eighties of last century following a study conducted in late 1970s to evaluate the feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the ocean. According these works, the Madeira Abyssal Plain sediments are cut by many normal growth faults and this deformation is a result of compaction and dewatering of the sediments. Evidences of tectonic deformation of oceanic sediments in intraplate settings are uncommon, but folded sediments and reverse faults extending into the basement, were recognized in the equatorial Indian Ocean and in the West African continental margin. Recently, during 2006 multi-channel seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry surveys were carried out in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain by EMEPC in order to prepare the Portuguese proposal for the extension of the continental shelf. The seismic lines were acquired onboard R/V Akademik Shatskiy using a source of 5720 cu in bolt gun array, cable length of 7950 m and shot interval of 50.00 m. The multibeam swath bathymetry was acquired onboard NRP Gago Coutinho, and allowed a high resolution mapping of the main geomorphological features. The multichannel seismic lines, oriented WNW-ESE, image the Madeira island lower slope located at about 4000 m water depth and the almost flat abyssal plain at about 5300 m water depth. These seismic lines show a thick sedimentary succession that reaches a maximum thickness of about 1.5 sec twt in the deepest parts of the West Madeira Abyssal Plain, overlying an irregular diffractive

  6. Ferromanganese oxides from Mid-Indian ridge, seamounts and abyssal plains from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Pattan, J.N.

    .47%) in the seamount crusts. The ferromanganese oxides from the Mid-Indian Ridge, seamount crusts and abyssal nodules appear to be of hydrothermal, hydrogenous and early-diagenetic in origin respectively...

  7. Elemental analysis of sediments and organisms from the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV 1 and CV 2 sites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Boust, D.; Sibuet, M.; Philippot, J.C.; Hemon, G.

    1984-08-01

    Some 20 stable elements were determined by neutron activation analysis in epibenthic organisms and sediments from the Cape Verde abyssal plain. The levels measured in two Plesiopenaeus sp. (shrimp) individuals and one Barathrites sp. (fish) individual are similar to those found in others crustaceans and fish from oceanic and coastal areas. Concentration factors were calculated for the elements whose radioactive isotopes should be considered in the case of subseabed waste disposal ( 90 Sr, 135 Cs, 79 Se). The sediments are biogenous marly oozes. The levels measured reflect the variations of terrigenous inputs since the last glacial maximum 18,000 B.P [fr

  8. Radionuclide sorption studies on abyssal red clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.L.

    1979-01-01

    The radionuclide sorption properties of a widely distributed abyssal red clay are being experimentally investigated using batch equilibration techniques. This paper summarizes sorption equilibrium data obtained when 0.68 N NaCl solutions containing either Tc, U, Pu, Am or Cm were contacted with samples of the red clay and also summarizes some initial results from experiments designed to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for various nuclides. Under mildly oxidizing conditions, the sorption equilibrium distribution coefficients for technetium were essentially zero. At solution-phase nuclide concentrations on the order of 10 -6 M and less and at solution pH values of about 6.9, the distribution coefficients for plutonium were about 3 x 10 3 m1/gm and for uranium, americium, and curium were about 10 5 ml/gm or greater. However, at solution pH values of about 2.7, the distribution coefficients for each of the nuclides were greatly diminished. Initial experiments conducted in order to determine the relative selectivity of the clay for cesium, barium, and cerium, indicated that the silicate phases in the clay were selective for cesium over barium and cerium. These experiments also indicated that the hydrous oxide phases were selective for cerium over barium and for barium over cesium

  9. Spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of phytopigments and phytoplanktonic groups at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Boswell, Stephen; Kim, Young-Nam; Kemp, Alan

    2010-08-01

    We have made a comprehensive study of pigment distributions and microscopically determined phytoplankton abundances within the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) location in the North Atlantic to better understand phytoplankton variability, and make some suggestions regarding the composition of the material falling to the sea bed and its impacts on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea. The area has been the focus of many studies of ocean fluxes and benthic communities over recent years, but little attention has been given to the spatio-temporal variability in the surface waters. Dawn casts over a 12-day period at the PAP mooring site (48.83°N 16.5°W) revealed the presence of only one species, the diatom Actinocyclus exiguus, at bloom concentrations for just 5 days. Smaller populations of other diatoms and the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium were also present at this time. Following this 5-day interval, a mixed population of small-sized dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria occurred. It is clear from concomitant CTD/bottle surveys that rapid changes in phytoplankton community structure at a fixed time series position do not necessarily reflect a degradation or manifestation of one particular species but rather represent the movement of eddies and other water masses within very short timescales. These cause substantial variability in the species class and size fraction that may explain the variability in carbon export that has been seen at the PAP site. We also make some suggestions on the variable composition of the material falling to the seabed and its impact on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea.

  10. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R J; Morris, K J; Bett, B J; Durden, J M; Jones, D O B; Robert, K; Ruhl, H A; Bailey, D M

    2016-05-16

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing two spatial scales (1-10 km(2)) on and adjacent to a small abyssal hill (240 m elevation). The spatial distributions of the total fish fauna and that of the two dominant morphotypes (Coryphaenoides sp. 1 and C. profundicolus) appeared to be random, a result contrary to common expectation but consistent with previous predictions for these fishes. We estimated total fish density on the abyssal plain to be 723 individuals km(-2) (95% CI: 601-844). This estimate is higher, and likely more precise, than prior estimates from trawl catch and baited camera techniques (152 and 188 individuals km(-2) respectively). We detected no significant difference in fish density between abyssal hill and plain, nor did we detect any evidence for the existence of fish aggregations at any spatial scale assessed.

  11. A discussion of non-linear temperature profiles at six closely spaced heat flow sites, southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, M. M.

    1986-09-01

    Six heat flow measurement sites were occupied in June 1980 in a 10 x 10 km 2 flat area of the southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, western North Atlantic Ocean. Non-linear sediment temperature profiles, measured to depths of 5 m, indicate perturbations in the temperature field in sediments overlying 90 Ma ocean floor. Temperature gradients average 59.0 mK m -1 in the lower half of the profile and decrease by 25% to an average of 44.24 mK m -1 in the upper half. Thermal conductivities of sediment cores down to 12 m ranged from 0.74 to 2.12 W m -1 K -1 and averaged 1.06 W m -1K -1. The non-linearity of sediment temperature profiles cannot be accounted for by the variations in thermal conductivity. Vertical fluid convection in the sediments, with a predominantly downward migration on the order of 5 x 10 -8 ms -1 in the upper 3 m, could explain the perturbations. However, in this study area of high abyssal kinetic energy and abyssal storms, bottom-water temperature fluctuations are the likely source of observed sediment temperature perturbations. A bottom-water temperature change of 50 mK occurring 3 months prior to the cruise could produce sediment temperature perturbations similar to those observed. Heat flow determined from the lower gradient (3-5 m sediment depth interval), assuming the non-linearity in the upper sensors to be principally due to bottom-water temperature fluctuations, averages 59.2 mW m -2, a slightly higher value than that predicted for 90 Ma crust.

  12. Lagrangian circulation of the North Atlantic Central Water over the abyssal plain and continental slopes of the Bay of Biscay: description of selected mesoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Serpette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1994 and 2001, several experiments (ARCANE, SEFOS, INTERAFOS were conducted to directly measure the general and mesoscale Lagrangian circulations over the Bay of Biscay abyssal plain and slopes. Two levels (~100 m and ~450 m were selected to cover the North Atlantic Central Water range. Two types of Lagrangian instruments, drogued surface drifters tracked by satellite (Surdrift and acoustically tracked subsurface floats (Rafos and Marvor, were used. Overall, more than 36 instrument-years were collected in the Bay of Biscay region (43-49°N, 01-12°W. The weak general circulation in the Bay of Biscay is seen to be highly influenced by the occurrence of several mesoscale coherent features, notably slope currents and eddies, and these affect the exchanges between the abyssal plain and the slopes. The objective of this paper is to depict some specific examples of the observed mesoscale field. Selected float trajectories are shown and used to discuss observations of slope currents and of both anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Slope currents exhibit alternation of poleward and equatorward directions, depending on both the period and the geographic area considered. Although the generation process of mesoscale eddies is difficult to observe unambiguously from Lagrangian instruments, eddies are nevertheless ubiquitous over the abyssal plain. Some characteristics of the observed cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are presented. Smaller anticyclones, localised over the outer shelf and interpreted in terms of ajustment of slope water intrusions, are also depicted.

  13. Th-230 dating of ∼30 m long piston cores taken from two North Atlantic abyssal plains during the ESOPE cruise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Shimooka, Kenji.

    1987-01-01

    Two sediment cores longer then 20 meters, obtained from two abyssal plains of the North Atlantic during the ESOPE (Etude des Sediments Oceaniques par Penetration) cruise, are analyzed for U and Th isotopes. In the Maderia Abyssal Plain sediment, excess 230 Th data do not show a simple exponential decrease with depth, being reflected by complex depositional history of the sediments, and hence the Th isotope data can only weakly constrain the rate of sediment accumulation. Relatively low 230 Th concentration in the top 5 meters may be caused by rapid accumulation of turbiditic materials. That a significant excess 230 Th exists even at depths of ∼20 m in the core suggests that the average sedimentation rate is high, perhaps ∼10 of centimeters per thousand years. This high rate of sediment accumulation has resulted largely from frequent turbidites, and not from pelagic clay sedimentation. In the Nares Abyssal Plain sediment, excess 230 Th relative to 234 U has been found down to ∼5 m, showing its almost exponential decrease with depth. Based on excess 230 Th distribution, an average sedimentation rate for the core is estimated to be 1.2 ± 0.3 cm-10 3 y. (Nogami, K.)

  14. High-resolution sub-bottom seismic and sediment core records from the Chukchi Abyssal Plain reveal Quaternary glaciation impacts on the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Y. J.; Seokhoon, Y.; Nam, S. I.; Polyak, L.; Niessen, F.

    2017-12-01

    For regional context of the Quaternary history of Arctic marine glaciations, such as glacial events in northern North America and on the Siberian and Chukchi margins, we used CHIRP sub-bottom profiles (SBP) along with sediment cores, including a 14-m long piston core ARA06-04JPC taken from the Chukchi abyssal plain during the RV Araon expedition in 2015. Based on core correlation with earlier developed Arctic Ocean stratigraphies using distribution of various sedimentary proxies, core 04JPC is estimated to extend to at least Marine Isotope Stage 13 (>0.5 Ma). The stratigraphy developed for SBP lines from the Chukchi abyssal plain to surrounding slopes can be divided into four major seismostratigraphic units (SSU 1-4). SBP records from the abyssal plain show well preserved stratification, whereas on the surrounding slopes this pattern is disrupted by lens-shaped, acoustically transparent sedimentary bodies interpreted as glaciogenic debris flow deposits. Based on the integration of sediment physical property and SBP data, we conclude that these debris flows were generated during several ice-sheet grounding events on the Chukchi and East Siberian margins, including adjacent ridges and plateaus, during the middle to late Quaternary.

  15. Nares Abyssal Plain sediment flux studies, FY 1986 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, J.; Collier, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    On 21 September, 1984, a mooring (NAP-2) was deployed at 23 0 14.5'N, 64 0 02.1'W with an approximate bottom depth of 5835 meters. This mooring contained 6 upward looking traps (at 720, 1420, 2870, 3785, 4770, 5780 meters) and two inverted traps (at 2900 and 4800 meters). This mooring was successfully recovered on 21 November, 1985. The details of this recovery and the samples are presented. On 22 November, 1985, another shorter trap mooring (NAP-3) was deployed. The mooring was similar in design to NAP-1 and has two normal traps at 750 and 4800 meters and an inverted trap at 4830 meters

  16. Nares Abyssal Plain Sediment Flux Studies, FY 1985 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymond, J.; Collier, R.

    1987-01-01

    The sediment trap NAP-1 was successfully recovered and the materials have been analyzed for a set of bio- and geochemical components. The trap mooring NAP-2 was deployed and recovered but no analyses have been completed. The bulk fluxes are relatively low at this site and are approximately 50% biogenic and 50% terrigenous. The flux of terrigenous material is very high due to primary atmospheric inputs and horizontal transport of resuspended sediments. The buoyant particle fluxes are also extremely low. The accumulation of material in the sediments reflects the crustal nature of the vertical flux and also shows the normal loss of labile biogenic phases

  17. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manel; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-03-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocity and gravity models along a transect that crosses the Gorringe Bank from the Tagus to the Horseshoe abyssal plains. The P-wave velocity structure of the basement is similar in the Tagus and Horseshoe plains. It shows a 2.5-3.0 km-thick top layer with a velocity gradient twice stronger than oceanic Layer 2 and an abrupt change to an underlying layer with a five-fold weaker gradient. Velocity and density is lower beneath the Gorringe Bank probably due to enhanced fracturing, that have led to rock disaggregation in the sediment-starved northern flank. In contrast to previous velocity models of this region, there is no evidence of a sharp crust-mantle boundary in any of the record sections. The modelling results indicate that the sediment overlays directly serpentinite rock, exhumed from the mantle with a degree of serpentinization decreasing from a maximum of 70-80% under the top of Gorringe Bank to less than 5% at a depth of ˜20 km. We propose that the three domains were originally part of a single serpentine rock band, of nature and possibly origin similar to the Iberia Abyssal Plain ocean-continent transition, which was probably generated during the earliest phase of the North Atlantic opening that followed continental crust breakup (Early Cretaceous). During the Miocene, the NW-SE trending Eurasia-Africa convergence resulted in thrusting of the southeastern segment of the exhumed serpentinite band over the northwestern one, forming the Gorringe Bank. The local deformation associated to plate

  18. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Gupta, S.M.; Padmavati, V.K.

    ) 167-173 167 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam Letter Section Abyssal sediment erosion in the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies V.K. Banakar, S.M. Gupta and V.K. Padmavathi National Institute... of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa-403 004, India (Revision accepted September 17, 1990) ABSTRACT Banakar, V.K., Gupta, S.M. and Padmavathi, V.K., 1991. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evi- dence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies...

  19. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Pauline A; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity.

  20. Magnetic anomalies across the transitional crust of the passive conjugate margins of the North Atlantic: Iberian Abyssal Plain/Northern Newfoundland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sibuet, J.; Manatschal, G.

    2005-12-01

    The magma starved Iberia Abyssal Plain (IAP) margin off Iberia is probably one of the most studied non-volcanic continental margin in the world. Numerous multi-channel seismic cruises, detailed refraction surveys, and ODP drilling (Legs 149 and 173) have been carried out across it. Yet serious disagreement exists about the nature and mode of emplacement of the transitional crust which lies between true continental and true oceanic crusts in this region. One group regards this crust to be excessively thinned continental crust through which mantle was exhumed while the other group regards it to be oceanic crust, a mixture of basalt and mantle material, formed during ultraslow seafloor spreading. However, neither the drilling, which was carried out only on the basement highs and recovered serpentinized peridotites together with some gabbroic material, nor the detailed refraction measurements have been of much help in solving this dispute because the velocity values in this region neither correspond to true volcanic materials nor to true continental rocks. Similarly the magnetic anomalies in this region have been also interpreted differently by the two groups. One group negates the existence of any seafloor spreading type anomalies over the transition zone. On the other hand, examination of surface and deep-tow magnetic data from conjugate sections of the margins across this part of the North Atlantic shows a good correlation between them. The prime reason for such differences in the interpretation of magnetic data lies in the low amplitude of the surface magnetic anomalies forming the M sequence anomalies in this region compared to those of similar age present in the Central Atlantic. We demonstrate here that the symmetrical magnetic anomalies identified within the transitional zones between Iberia and North America, and across passive margins in general where separation between plates has been very slow, are caused by the serpentinization of the exhumed mantle rocks

  1. Geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Madec, G.

    2017-12-01

    Long considered a negligible contribution to ocean dynamics, geothermal heat flow (GHF) is now increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the large scale ocean's deep structure and circulation. This presentation will review the history of theories regarding geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean. Though the contribution to the thermal structure was recognized early on, its potential in driving a circulation [Worthington, 1968] was largely ignored on the grounds that it could not materially affect potential vorticity. Huang [JPO, 1999] proposed that GHF may provide 30-50% of the energy available for deep mixing, a calculation that later proved too optimistic [Wunsch & Ferrari ARFM 2004]. Model simulations suggested that a uniform GHF of 50 mW/m2 could drive an abyssal of a few Sverdrups (1 Sv = 106 m3.s-1) [Adcroft et al, GRL 2001], but it was not until Emile-Geay & Madec [OS, 2009] (EM09) that GHF began to be taken seriously [Mashayek et al, GRL 2013; Voldoire et al. Clim. Dyn. 2013; Dufresnes et al., Clim. Dyn. 2013]. Using analytical and numerical approaches, the study made 3 main points: GHF brings as much energy to the deep ocean as intense diapycnal mixing (1 cm2/s). GHF consumes the densest water masses, inducing a deep circulation of 5 Sv even without mixing. This circulation varies in inverse proportion to abyssal stratification. The spatial structure of GHF, highest at mid-ocean ridges and lowest in abyssal plains, matters far less than the fact that it bathes vast fractions of the ocean floor in a relatively low, constant flux. EM09 concluded that GHF "is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies". Recent work has confirmed that geothermal heat flow is of comparable importance to ocean circulation as bottom-intensified mixing induced by internal wave breaking [De Lavergne et al, JPO 2016a,b]. Thus, including GHF in ocean general circulation models improves abyssal structure and

  2. Turbidite pathways in Cascadia Basin and Tufts abyssal plain, Part A, Astoria Channel, Blanco Valley, and Gorda Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Hamer, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    This open-file report was prepared in support of the USGS Earthquake Hazards of Cascadia Project. The primary objective of this phase of the project is to determine recurrence intervals of turbidites in Cascadia basin-floor channel systems and evaluate implications of this event record for the paleoseismic history of the Cascadia subduction zone. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the canyon/channel systems themselves are blocked or deformed in such a way that the downstream turbidite stratigraphy might be biased. To accomplish this investigation approximately 7500 kilometers of pre-existing 3.5 KHz seismic data were evaluated to determine the direction and extent of the Astoria Channel/pathway system, which originates at the base of the Astoria Fan. Additionally, distribution and thickness of turbidite sediment sequences were determined along each identified pathway. Bathymetery and distance were used to determine gradients along the main pathway axis and for each of the secondary pathways that feed into it. Channel pathways were identified on the basis of channel phyisiography, where visible at the seafloor, subbottom channel configuration, and acoustic packets of sediments that might represent turbidite deposits. A principal result of this study is that the Astoria Channel/pathway extends continuously from the base of the Astoria Fan southward along the base of the continental slope through the Blanco Valley, then heads southwestward through the Gorda Basin and into the region of the Escanaba Trough. Additionally it was determined that the Astoria Channel is filled and basically buried for it's full length south of 44 degrees latitude. The 44 North Slump, as defined by Goldfinger (1999, see Map 3 ref.), may have been instrumental in blocking the pathway and thus contributed to the filling of the channel/pathway. Sheets 1 and 2 show the Astoria and secondary turbidite pathways highlighted in blue. Ship survey tracklines are shown for the area

  3. CeDAMar global database of abyssal biological sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Carol T.; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Smith, Craig R.; Molodtsova, Tina; Brandt, Angelika; Etter, Ron J.; Escobar-briones, Elva; Fabri, Marie-claire; Rex, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Census of the Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life (CeDAMar), a division of the Census of Marine Life, has compiled the first comprehensive global database of biological samples taken in the abyssal plains of the world ocean. It is an essential resource for planning future exploration of the abyss, for synthesizing patterns of biogeography and biodiversity, and for environmentally safe exploitation of natural resources. The database is described in this article, and made available to investig...

  4. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L; Dahlgren, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  5. Geochemistry of abyssal peridotites from the super slow-spreading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Serpentinites exhibit talc veins and major serpentine derived from ...... All trace element data used for this study are listed in table 5 ..... China for Distinguished Young Scholars (Grant. No. .... abyssal peridotites: A new perspective; Earth Planet.

  6. RSS Discovery Cruise 341, 08 Jul – 13 Aug 2009. Porcupine Abyssal Plain time series process study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, R.; et al, .

    2010-01-01

    The Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a major feature of the global carbon transporting approximately 10GT C yr-1 from the ocean surface to the interior mainly via the sinking of particles with an organic component. The scale of the BCP requires good year-round measurements of its functioning. Moreover, the BCP’s susceptibility to global change means that we need better information on how its climate sensitive elements function and how its poorly parameterised elements operate. These three requ...

  7. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinier, J.-L.; Godard, M.

    2003-12-01

    'Reilly et al., 2001).The abyssal peridotites are generally strongly affected by oceanic hydrothermal alteration. Most often, their whole-rock compositions are strongly modified and cannot be used straightforwardly to assess mantle compositions (e.g., Baker and Beckett, 1999). However, even in the worst cases the samples generally contain fresh, relic minerals (mainly clinopyroxene) that represent the only available direct information on the oceanic upper mantle in large ocean basins, away from hot-spot volcanic centers. In situ trace-element data on clinopyroxenes from abyssal peridotites provide constraints on melting processes at mid-ocean ridges (Johnson et al., 1990).In this chapter, we review the main inferences on upper mantle composition and heterogeneity that may be drawn from geochemical analyses of the major elements, lithophile trace elements, and Nd-Sr isotopes in tectonically emplaced and abyssal mantle rocks. In addition we emphasize important insights into the mechanisms of melt/fluid transfer that can be deduced from detailed studies of these mantle materials.

  8. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Thomas G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys.

  10. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  11. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materia......) international standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials have been accepted by WHO as the 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit plain, and thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......BACKGROUND: The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current 4(th) International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials...... have been prepared. This report describes the calibration of the proposed 5(th) International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). METHODS: An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment...

  12. Presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brealey, S.; Scally, A.J.; Thomas, N.B.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose To raise awareness of the frequency of bias that can affect the quality of radiographer plain film reading performance studies. Methods Studies that assessed radiographer(s) plain film reading performance were located by searching electronic databases and grey literature, hand-searching journals, personal communication and scanning reference lists. Thirty studies were judged eligible from all data sources. Results A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrates no statistically significant difference (P=0.25) in the mean proportion of biases present from diagnostic accuracy (0.37), performance (0.42) and outcome (0.44) study designs. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed no statistically significant linear association between the proportion of biases present for the three different study designs and the year that the study was performed. The frequency of biases in film and observer selection and application of the reference standard was quite low. In contrast, many biases were present concerning independence of film reporting and comparison of reports for concordance. Conclusions The findings indicate variation in the presence of bias in radiographer plain film reading performance studies. The careful consideration of bias is an essential component of study quality and hence the validity of the evidence-base used to underpin radiographic reporting policy

  13. Vema-TRANSIT - An interdisciplinary study on the bathymetry of the Vema-Fracture Zone and Puerto Rico Trench as well as abyssal Atlantic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Torben; Kaiser, Stefanie; Brandt, Angelika

    2018-02-01

    The seafloor below 3500 m remains largely unexplored. The paucity of knowledge of abyssal and hadal environments encompasses a wide spectrum of geological and biological patterns and processes as well as their interactions. Historically most marine research has been conducted in the North Atlantic. However, the high proportion of undescribed taxa frequently discovered at greater depth there underline the need to fill in these knowledge gaps. The Vema-TRANSIT campaign in northern winter 2014-2015 surveyed and sampled along almost the entire extent of one of the major offsets of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), the Vema Fracture Zone (VFZ), as well as the deepest trench in the Atlantic, the Puerto Rico Trench (PRT). The discoveries that were made include new data on deep-sea habitats showing geologically complex features across all crust ages from 110 Ma until present. Moreover, some new species and genera of the abyssal and hadal benthos were described herein. Not only the taxa themselves, but also their distributions and genetic structure were elucidated. In this context, significant differences in abundances, community composition, and species distribution were detected that were affected by the MAR as well as by the depth transition between hadal PRT and the adjacent abyss. Despite significant differences between eastern and western communities, the MAR does not represent an absolute barrier. Instead, the VFZ, and especially the VTF may serve as a connecting feature between east and west and this may be exemplary for fracture zones across the whole Atlantic. Nevertheless, the MAR as well as the 3000-m-depth gradient between abyss and hadal appear to restrict gene flow for poor dispersers and thus contribute to speciation processes in the deep sea.

  14. Abyssal Solenogastres (Mollusca, Aplacophora from the Northwest Pacific: Scratching the Surface of Deep-Sea Diversity Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S. Bergmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solenogastres (Aplacophora is a small clade of marine, shell-less worm-molluscs with close to 300 valid species. Their distribution ranges across all oceans, and whereas the vast majority of species has been collected and described from the continental shelf and slope, only few species are known from depths below 4,000 m. Following traditional taxonomy, identification of specimens to species level is complex and time-consuming and requires detailed investigations of morphology and anatomy—often resulting in the exclusion of the clade in biodiversity or biogeographic studies. During the KuramBio expedition (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies to the abyssal plain of the Northwest Pacific and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, 33 solenogaster specimens were sampled from 4,830 m to 5,397 m. Within this study we present an efficient workflow to address solenogaster diversity, even when confronted with a high degree of singletons and minute body sizes, hampering the use of single individuals for multiple morphological and molecular approaches. We combine analyses of external characters and scleritome with molecular barcoding based on a self-designed solenogaster specific set of mitochondrial primers. Overall we were able to delineate at least 19 solenogaster lineages and identify 15 species to family level and beyond. Based on our approach we identified three key lineages from the two regionally most species-rich families (Acanthomeniidae and Pruvotinidae for deeper taxonomic investigations and describe the novel abyssal species Amboherpia abyssokurilensis sp. nov. (Cavibelonia, Acanthomeniidae using microanatomical 3D-reconstructions. Our study more than doubles the previous records of solenogaster species from the Northwest Pacific and its marginal seas. Almost all lineages are reported for the first time from the region of the (Northwest Pacific, vastly expanding distribution ranges of the respective clades. Moreover it doubles the number of

  15. Orphan Strontium-87 in Abyssal Peridotites: Daddy Was a Granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jonathan E.; Hart, Stanley R.; Dick, Henry J. B.

    1993-12-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in some bulk abyssal and alpine peridotites are too high to be binary mixtures of depleted mantle and seawater components. The apparent excess, or "orphan," 87Sr appears to be separated from its radioactive parent. Such observations were widely held to be analytical artifacts. Study of several occurrences of orphan 87Sr shows that the orphan component in abyssal peridotite is located in the alteration products of olivine and enstatite in the peridotite. The orphan 87Sr is most likely introduced by infiltration of low-temperature (<200^circC) seawater bearing suspended detrital particulates. These particulates include grains of detrital clay that are partly derived from continental (that is, granitic) sources and thus are highly radiogenic. Orphan 87Sr and other radiogenic isotopes may provide a tracer for low-temperature seawater penetrating into the oceanic crust.

  16. Desert plains classification based on Geomorphometrical parameters (Case study: Aghda, Yazd)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazeh, mahdi; Kalantari, Saeideh

    2013-04-01

    This research focuses on plains. There are several tremendous methods and classification which presented for plain classification. One of The natural resource based classification which is mostly using in Iran, classified plains into three types, Erosional Pediment, Denudation Pediment Aggradational Piedmont. The qualitative and quantitative factors to differentiate them from each other are also used appropriately. In this study effective Geomorphometrical parameters in differentiate landforms were applied for plain. Geomorphometrical parameters are calculable and can be extracted using mathematical equations and the corresponding relations on digital elevation model. Geomorphometrical parameters used in this study included Percent of Slope, Plan Curvature, Profile Curvature, Minimum Curvature, the Maximum Curvature, Cross sectional Curvature, Longitudinal Curvature and Gaussian Curvature. The results indicated that the most important affecting Geomorphometrical parameters for plain and desert classifications includes: Percent of Slope, Minimum Curvature, Profile Curvature, and Longitudinal Curvature. Key Words: Plain, Geomorphometry, Classification, Biophysical, Yazd Khezarabad.

  17. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  18. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  19. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  20. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  1. Abyssal ocean overturning shaped by seafloor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lavergne, C.; Madec, G.; Roquet, F.; Holmes, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.

    2017-11-01

    The abyssal ocean is broadly characterized by northward flow of the densest waters and southward flow of less-dense waters above them. Understanding what controls the strength and structure of these interhemispheric flows—referred to as the abyssal overturning circulation—is key to quantifying the ocean’s ability to store carbon and heat on timescales exceeding a century. Here we show that, north of 32° S, the depth distribution of the seafloor compels dense southern-origin waters to flow northward below a depth of about 4 kilometres and to return southward predominantly at depths greater than 2.5 kilometres. Unless ventilated from the north, the overlying mid-depths (1 to 2.5 kilometres deep) host comparatively weak mean meridional flow. Backed by analysis of historical radiocarbon measurements, the findings imply that the geometry of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic basins places a major external constraint on the overturning structure.

  2. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  3. Geochemical studies of abyssal lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from Eastern Galapagos Rift, Inca Transform, and Ecuador Rift: 2. Phase chemistry and crystallization history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfit, Michael R.; Fornari, Daniel J.

    1983-12-01

    A diverse suite of lavas recovered by DSRV Alvin from the eastern Galapagos rift and Inca transform includes mid-ocean ridge tholeiitic basalts (MORB), iron- and titanium-enriched basalts (FeTi basalts), and abyssal andesites. Rock types transitional in character (ferrobasalts and basaltic andesites) were also recovered. The most mafic glassy basalts contain plagioclase, augite, and olivine as near-liquidus phases, whereas in more fractionated basalts, pigeonite replaces olivine and iron-titanium oxides crystallize. Plagioclase crystallizes after pyroxenes and iron-titanium oxides in andesites, possibly due to increased water contents or cooling rates. Apatite phenocrysts are present in some andesitic glasses. Ovoid sulfide globules are also common in many lavas. Compositional variations of phenocrysts in glassy lavas reflect changes in magma chemistry, temperature of crystallization, and cooling rate. The overall chemical variations parallel the chemical evolution of the lava suite and are similar to those in other fractionated tholeiitic complexes. Elemental partitioning between plagioclase-, pyroxene-, and olivine-glass pairs suggests that equilibration occurred at low pressure in a rather restricted temperature range. Various geothermometers indicate that the most primitive MORB began to crystallize between 1150° and 1200°C with fo2 PH 2 o could have been as high as 1 kbar during andesite crystallization. Compositions of the lavas from the Galapagos rift follow the experimentally determined (1 atm-QFM) liquid line of descent. Least squares calculations for the major elements indicate that the entire suite of lavas can be produced by fractional crystallization of successive residual liquids from a MORB parent magma. FeTi basalts represent 30-65 cumulative weight percent crystallization of plagioclase, augite, and olivine. An additional 30-50% fractionation of pyroxenes, plagioclase, titanomagnetite, and possible apatite is required to generate andesite from Fe

  4. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M. F.; Zouari, Kamel; Tarhouni, J.; Gaye, C.B.; Oueslati, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  5. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Christine M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”, or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors. Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging

  6. Microbial diversity and stratification of South Pacific abyssal marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Alan M; Teske, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Abyssal marine sediments cover a large proportion of the ocean floor, but linkages between their microbial community structure and redox stratification have remained poorly constrained. This study compares the downcore gradients in microbial community composition to porewater oxygen and nitrate concentration profiles in an abyssal marine sediment column in the South Pacific Ocean. Archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries showed a stratified archaeal community that changed from Marine Group I Archaea in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing upper sediment column towards deeply branching, uncultured crenarchaeotal and euryarchaeotal lineages in nitrate-depleted, anaerobic sediment horizons. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed a similar shift on the phylum and subphylum level within the bacteria, from a complex community of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes in oxic surface sediments towards uncultured Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes in the anaerobic sediment column. The distinct stratification of largely uncultured bacterial and archaeal groups within the oxic and nitrate-reducing marine sediment column provides initial constraints for their microbial habitat preferences. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Thermoluminescence dating of abyssal deposits in the north region of the South China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaoxian

    1988-01-01

    The ages of abyssal deposits have been studied by TL dating. The ages of the deposits from the wells Weima 1, 5 and 6 at the slope in the north of the South China Sea are 36,100 and 128 thousand years respectively

  8. Geothermal heating, diapycnal mixing and the abyssal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Emile-Geay

    2009-06-01

    near-surface temperature gradients onto the bottom, thereby altering the density structure that supports a geothermal circulation. For strong vertical mixing rates, geothermal heating enhances the AABW cell by about 15% (2.5 Sv and heats up the last 2000 m by ~0.15°C, reaching a maximum of by 0.3°C in the deep North Pacific. Prescribing a realistic spatial distribution of the heat flux acts to enhance this temperature rise at mid-depth and reduce it at great depth, producing a more modest increase in overturning than in the uniform case. In all cases, however, poleward heat transport increases by ~10% in the Southern Ocean. The three approaches converge to the conclusion that geothermal heating is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies.

  9. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  10. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (p<0.001), ‘positive smoker characteristics’ (p=0.003) and ‘positive taste characteristics’ (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for ‘negative smoker characteristics’ (p=0.427) or ‘negative harm characteristics’ (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  11. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (p<0.001), 'positive smoker characteristics' (p=0.003) and 'positive taste characteristics' (p=0.033) in the Winfield brand name condition only. Across the four pack conditions, no main differences were found for 'negative smoker characteristics' (p=0.427) or 'negative harm characteristics' (p=0.411). In comparison to plain packaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  12. Abyssal Upwelling and Downwelling and the role of boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Ferrari, R. M.

    2016-02-01

    The bottom-intensified mixing activity arising from the interaction of internal tides with bottom topography implies that the dianeutral advection in the ocean interior is downwards, rather than upwards as is required by continuity. The upwelling of Bottom Water through density surfaces in the deep ocean is however possible because of the sloping nature of the sea floor. A budget study of the abyss (deeper than 2000m) will be described that shows that while the upwelling of Bottom Water might be 25 Sv, this is achieved by very strong upwelling in the bottom turbulent boundary layer (of thickness 50m) of 100 Sv and strong downwelling in the ocean interior of 75 Sv. This downwelling occurs within 10 degrees of longitude of the continental boundaries. This near-boundary confined strong upwelling and downwelling clearly has implications for the Stommel-Arons circulation.

  13. Study of the malaria situation in forested foothill and nearby plain areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, L; Ye, H

    1991-12-01

    A longitudinal demographic-parasitological survey on malaria was conducted at 10 weekly intervals starting from September in one foothill village with the population of 1,095 and one epidemiologically comparable plain village with the population of 962 in Kyauktaga township, Bago division, 120 miles north of Yangon. The objective was to describe and analyse the current malaria situation in a forested foothill area and an adjacent plain area. Ten weekly blood film collections for malaria parasite examination, six monthly sera collections on filter paper for serological examination from the whole study population and ten weekly splenic measurements from 2-9 year children were done. The malaria parasite rate in the foothill area was invariably higher than that in the plain area in all age groups throughout the study period. Moreover, the parasite rate decreased with the increase in distance from the forested foothill area indicating that the deep forest malaria may have some influence on the foothill villages. The total age specific parasite rate in foothill villages was found to be highest in the 5-8 year age group and decreased as the age advanced which may be due to the increasing immunity. The study revealed the presence of local transmission in the foothill village. From these data it is evident that new village sites should be chosen at least 5 miles away from the forest fringe and the malaria control measures in the plain area should utilize chemoprophylaxis and effective chemotherapy focusing on the people who travel into the forest.

  14. Bathymetry (Part I), sedimentary regimes (Part II), and abyssal waste-disposal potential near the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Frederick A.; Vogt, Peter R.; Jung, Woo-Yeol

    1998-05-01

    Placing waste on the seafloor, with the intention that it remain in place and isolated from mankind, requires a knowledge of the environmental factors that may be applicable to a specific seafloor area. DBDB5 (Digital Bathymetric Database gridded at 5' latitude by 5' longitude cell dimension) is used here for regional assessments of seafloor depth, slope, and relief at five surrogate abyssal waste sites; two each in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific, and one in the Gulf of Mexico. Only Pacific-1 exhibits a `high' slope (2°) by DBDB5 standards, whereas the remaining sites are located on almost level seafloor. Detailed examination of the sites using multibeam-based contour sheets show the area around Atlantic-1 to be a featureless plain. Atlantic-2 and both Pacific sites are surrounded by abyssal hill topography, with local slopes ranging from greater than 6° at all sites to above 15° at Pacific-2. Neither Pacific site features a seafloor as `flat' as at Atlantic-1 or at the Gulf of Mexico site. Locating waste sites on sedimented slopes could have serious consequences due to catastrophic slope failure and downslope displacement of waste by mass sediment-transport processes. Neither slumping nor sliding are perceived as critical processes affecting the surrogate sites because of their locations on negligibly sloping seafloors. However, debris flows and turbidity currents are capable of transporting large volumes of sediment for long distances over low gradients and, in the case of turbidity currents, at great speed. Dispersal of loose waste material by these processes is virtually assured, but less likely if the waste is bagged. The turbidity current problem is alleviated (but not eliminated) by locating waste sites on distal portions of abyssal plains. Both Pacific sites are surrounded by abyssal hills and, in the case of Pacific-2, far beyond the reach of land-derived turbidity currents. Thin sediment cover and low rates of sedimentation have also resulted

  15. Influence of internal tides on Antarctic Bottom Water propagation through abyssal channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) propagates in the Atlantic Ocean from the Weddell Sea to the north through narrow passages in submarine ridges. Submarine ridges are regions of strong internal tide generation in the ocean that causes mixing and eventually AABW loses its distinguishing properties such as low temperature and salinity. The Vema Fracture Zone (11 N) and Romanche Fracture Zone (equator) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are pathways for AABW to the Northeast Atlantic. The deep basin of the Northeast Atlantic (Canary Basin and Gambia Abyssal Plain) are filled with the bottom water propagating through the Vema FZ rather than through the equatorial fracture zones because strong internal tides and mixing over the slopes of the MAR near the equator cause warming of AABW and decrease of its density. Further propagation of AABW through the Kane Gap is low. Recent field measurements in the fracture zones confirm this concept based on modeling results. Results of recent cruises are presented.

  16. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  17. On the possible ''normalization'' of experimental curves of 230Th vertical distribution in abyssal oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Al'terman, Eh.I.; Lisitsyn, A.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Okeanologii)

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of normalization of experimental ionic curves in reference to dating of abyssal sediments and establishing their accumulation rapidities are studied. The method is based on using correlation between ionic curves extrema and variations of Fe, Mn, C org., and P contents in abyssal oceanic sediments. It has been found that the above method can be successfully applied for correction of 230 Th vertical distribution data obtained by low-background γ-spectrometry. The method leads to most reliable results in those cases when the vertical distribution curves in sediments of elements concentrators of 230 Th are symbasic between themselves. The normalization of experimental ionic curves in many cases gives the possibility to realize the sediment age stratification [ru

  18. High School Racial Confrontation, A Study of the White Plains, New York, Student Boycott. Student Unrest and Changing Student-Staff Relationships in the White Plains Public Schools, September, 1967 to December, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Dan W.; And Others

    This case study examines a racial confrontation in the high school of White Plains, New York. The study includes a chronology of the White Plains incident, a report of the community background, discussion of various hypotheses concerning the reasons for the incident (social class factors, youths testing new roles, and breakdown of authority),…

  19. Chemical and Isotopic Study of the Groundwater of Jeffara Plain of Medenine and Tataouine (Southern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, R.; Kalled, M; Zouari, K.; Abidi, B.; Yahyaoui, H.

    2007-01-01

    The study area constitutes the major part of the plain of Jeffara, located at the south-east of Tunisia. This plain is characterized by an arid climate with rare and irregular pluviometry. The hydrochemical approach is used to define the chemical characteristics of the water in these aquifer systems. Indeed, the water salinity varies between 0.6g/? and 9g/?, and increases from the Daher mountains in the west to the Mediterranean Sea. The groundwaters are homogeneous and characterized by a Cl-(SO 4 ) and Na-(Ca-Mg) water type. The isotopic approach shows that the carbone-14 activities, measured in groundwater, evolve in the same direction of groundwater flow. These activities suggest a recent recharge area in eastern piedmont of the Dahar mountains, as well as the zone of the Sahel Abebsa and Zeuss-Koutine. The isotopic values confirm, also, the communication between the various major levels through the existing faults and discontinuities in this area

  20. Plain Radiography May Be Safely Omitted for Selected Major Trauma Patients Undergoing Whole Body CT: Database Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Whole body CT is being used increasingly in the primary survey of major trauma patients. We evaluated whether omitting plain films of the chest and pelvis in the primary survey was safe. We compared the probability of survival of patients and time to CT who had plain X-rays to those who did not. Method. We performed a database study on major trauma patients admitted between 2008 and 2010 using data from Trauma, Audit and Research Network (TARN and our PACS system. We included adult major trauma patients who has an ISS of greater than 15 and underwent whole body CT. Results. 245 patients were included in the study. 44 (17.9% did not undergo plain films. The median time to whole body CT from the time of admission was longer (47 minutes in patients having plain films, than those who did not have plain films performed (30 minutes, P<0.005. Mortality was increased in the group who received plain films, 9.5% compared to 4.5%, but this was not statistically significant (P=0.77. Conclusion. We conclude that plain films may be safely omitted during the primary survey of selected major trauma patients.

  1. A reconnaissance study of the effect of irrigated agriculture on water quality in the Ogallala Formation, Central High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program began a regional study of water quality in the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies an area of about 174,000 square miles in parts of eight States. Because of its large size, the High Plains aquifer has been divided into three regions: the Southern High Plains, Central High Plains, and Northern High Plains. Although an assessment of water quality in each of the three regions is planned, the initial focus will be the Central High Plains aquifer. Anyone who has flown over the Central High Plains in the summer and has seen the large green circles associated with center pivot sprinklers knows that irrigated agriculture is a widespread land use. Pesticides and fertilizers applied on those irrigated fields will not degrade ground-water quality if they remain in or above the root zone. However, if those chemicals move downward through the unsaturated zone to the water table, they may degrade the quality of the ground water. Water is the principal agent for transporting chemicals from land surface to the water table, and in the semiarid Central High Plains, irrigation often represents the most abundant source of water during the growing season. One objective of NAWQA's High Plains Regional Ground-Water study is to evaluate the effect of irrigated agriculture on the quality of recently recharged water in the Ogallala Formation of the Central High Plains aquifer. The Ogallala Formation is the principal geologic unit in the Central High Plains aquifer, and it consists of poorly sorted clay, silt, sand, and gravel that generally is unconsolidated (Gutentag and others, 1984). Approximately 23 percent of the cropland overlying the Ogallala Formation is irrigated (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1999). The NAWQA Program generally defines recently recharged ground water to be water recharged in the last 50 years. The water table in the Ogallala Formation is separated from

  2. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  3. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  4. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  5. Cross-equatorial flow through an abyssal channel under the complete Coriolis force: Two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    The component of the Coriolis force due to the locally horizontal component of the Earth's rotation vector is commonly neglected, under the so-called traditional approximation. We investigate the role of this "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which crosses from the southern to the northern hemisphere through the Ceara abyssal plain in the western Atlantic ocean. The bathymetry in this region resembles a northwestward channel, connecting the Brazil Basin in the south to the Guyana Basin in the north. South of the equator, the AABW leans against the western continental rise, consistent with a northward flow in approximate geostrophic balance. The AABW then crosses to the other side of the abyssal channel as it crosses the equator, and flows into the northern hemisphere leaning towards the east against the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The non-traditional component of the Coriolis force is strongest close to the equator. The traditional component vanishes at the equator, being proportional to the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector. The weak stratification of the abyssal ocean, and subsequent small internal deformation radius, defines a relatively short characteristic horizontal lengthscale that tends to make non-traditional effects more prominent. Additionally, the steep gradients of the channel bathymetry induce large vertical velocities, which are linked to zonal accelerations by the non-traditional components of the Coriolis force. We therefore expect non-traditional effects to play a substantial role in cross-equatorial transport of the AABW. We present asymptotic steady solutions for non-traditional shallow water flow through an idealised abyssal channel, oriented at an oblique angle to the equator. The current enters from the south, leaning up against the western side of the channel in approximate geostrophic balance, and crosses the

  6. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  7. Identifying and Studying the Factors Effective on Greenhouses Profitability in the Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Rajabi Tehrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was economic evaluation of green houses and the factors that affect their profitability in the Varamin plain. The type of this research is descriptive-correlation research that was conducted by using a survey method. The statistical population of the research consisted of the beneficiary farmers of established and cultivated green houses in the Varamin plain. The sample size was 108 farmers. The sampling method was simple random sampling method. The main tool of this research study is a questionnaire that whose validity was verified by using a panel of experts and professors in the field of agriculture. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed through a pre-test for which the Cronbach alpha was between 0.78 and 0.85 which is considered to be acceptable. The results of this research study show that the mean of the profitability index of cost benefit  was 2.286 and thus there is a significant positive correlation between agricultural experience, the level of famer education, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources with the cost benefit  profitability index. The results of regression analysis also indicated that the five variables of agricultural experience, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources well explain for 51.5 % of the changes in the cost benefit profitability index of the green houses located in the Varamin plain. Finally, it is recommended to improve the cost benefit profitability index by actions such as increasing the level of technical knowledge and farmers' access to and use of information resources.

  8. Using natural range of variation to set decision thresholds: a case study for great plains grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural range of variation (NRV) may be used to establish decision thresholds or action assessment points when ecological thresholds are either unknown or do not exist for attributes of interest in a managed ecosystem. The process for estimating NRV involves identifying spatial and temporal scales that adequately capture the heterogeneity of the ecosystem; compiling data for the attributes of interest via study of historic records, analysis and interpretation of proxy records, modeling, space-for-time substitutions, or analysis of long-term monitoring data; and quantifying the NRV from those data. At least 19 National Park Service (NPS) units in North America’s Great Plains are monitoring plant species richness and evenness as indicators of vegetation integrity in native grasslands, but little information on natural, temporal variability of these indicators is available. In this case study, we use six long-term vegetation monitoring datasets to quantify the temporal variability of these attributes in reference conditions for a variety of Great Plains grassland types, and then illustrate the implications of using different NRVs based on these quantities for setting management decision thresholds. Temporal variability of richness (as measured by the coefficient of variation, CV) is fairly consistent across the wide variety of conditions occurring in Colorado shortgrass prairie to Minnesota tallgrass sand savanna (CV 0.20–0.45) and generally less than that of production at the same sites. Temporal variability of evenness spans a greater range of CV than richness, and it is greater than that of production in some sites but less in other sites. This natural temporal variability may mask undesirable changes in Great Plains grasslands vegetation. Consequently, we suggest that managers consider using a relatively narrow NRV (interquartile range of all richness or evenness values observed in reference conditions) for designating a surveillance threshold, at which

  9. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO 3 , which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N 2 , CO 2 -sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0 2 produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the 60 Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total 60 Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of 60 Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions

  10. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO/sub 3/, which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/-sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0/sub 2/ produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the /sup 60/Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total /sup 60/Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of /sup 60/Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions.

  11. [Distribution Characteristics and Source of Fluoride in Groundwater in Lower Plain Area of North China Plain: A Case Study in Nanpi County].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiao-le; Wang, Shi-qin; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Rui-qiang

    2015-11-01

    There is an obvious regional contradiction between water resources and agricultural produce in lower plain area of North China, however, excessive fluorine in deep groundwater further limits the use of regional water resources. In order to understand the spatial distribution characteristics and source of F(-) in groundwater, study was carried out in Nanpi County by field survey and sampling, hydrogeochemical analysis and stable isotopes methods. The results showed that the center of low fluoride concentrations of shallow groundwater was located around reservoir of Dalang Lake, and centers of high fluoride concentrations were located in southeast and southwest of the study area. The region with high fluoride concentration was consistent with the over-exploitation region of deep groundwater. Point source pollution of subsurface drainage and non-point source of irrigation with deep groundwater in some regions were the main causes for the increasing F(-) concentrations of shallow groundwater in parts of the sampling sites. Rock deposition and hydrogeology conditions were the main causes for the high F(-) concentrations (1.00 mg x L(-1), threshold of drinking water quality standard in China) in deep groundwater. F(-) released from clay minerals into the water increased the F(-) concentrations in deep groundwater because of over-exploitation. With the increasing exploitation and utilization of brackish shallow groundwater and the compressing and restricting of deep groundwater exploitation, the water environment in the middle and east lower plain area of North China will undergo significant change, and it is important to identify the distribution and source of F(-) in surface water and groundwater for reasonable development and use of water resources in future.

  12. Testing deep-sea biodiversity paradigms on abyssal nematode genera and Acantholaimus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Lidia; da Silva, Maria Cristina; Neres, Patrícia; Esteves, André Morgado; Vanreusel, Ann

    2018-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns in the deep sea have been extensively studied in the last decades. In this study, we investigated whether reputable concepts in deep-sea ecology also explain diversity and distribution patterns of nematode genera and species in the abyss. Among them, three paradigms were tackled: (1) the deep sea is a highly diverse environment at a local scale, while on a regional and even larger geographical scale, species and genus turnover is limited; (2) the biodiversity of deep-sea nematode communities changes with the nature and amount of organic matter input from the surface; and (3) patch-mosaic dynamics of the deep-sea environment drive local diversity. To test these hypotheses, diversity and density of nematode assemblages and of species of the genus Acantholaimus were studied along two abyssal E-W transects. These two transects were situated in the Southern Ocean ( 50°S) and the North Atlantic ( 10°N). Four different hierarchical scales were used to compare biodiversity: at the scale of cores, between stations from the same region, and between regions. Results revealed that the deep sea harbours a high diversity at a local scale (alpha diversity), but that turnover can be shaped by different environmental drivers. Therefore, these results question the second part of the paradigm about limited species turnover in the deep sea. Higher surface primary productivity was correlated with greater nematode densities, whereas diversity responses to the augmentation of surface productivity showed no trend. Areas subjected to a constant and low food input revealed similar nematode communities to other oligotrophic abyssal areas, while stations under high productivity were characterized by different dominant genera and Acantholaimus species, and by a generally low local diversity. Our results corroborate the species-energy hypothesis, where productivity can set a limit to the richness of an ecosystem. Finally, we observed no correlation between sediment

  13. Radium 228 as a tracer of basin wide processes in the Abyssal Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmiento, J.L.; Rooth, C.G.H.; Broecker, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    A simple model of isopycnal mixing in a circular basin is developed in order to examine the utility of the 5.75-year half-life tracer radium 228 for studying basin wide processes in the deep ocean. The model shows that it is possible to resolve diffusivities of 7 cm 2 s - 1 in a basin of approx.3000-km diameter with profiles measured near the center and edge of the basin. A least squares fit of the model to four abyssal profiles measured during GEOSECS in the North American Basin gives an isopycnal diffusivity of 6 x 10 7 cm 2 s - 1

  14. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  15. Can neap-spring tidal cycles modulate biogeochemical fluxes in the abyssal near-seafloor water column?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Dale, Andrew; Lahajnar, Niko; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-05-01

    Before particulate matter that settles as 'primary flux' from the interior ocean is deposited into deep-sea sediments it has to traverse the benthic boundary layer (BBL) that is likely to cover almost all parts of the seafloor in the deep seas. Fluid dynamics in the BBL differ vastly from fluid dynamics in the overlying water column and, consequently, have the potential to lead to quantitative and compositional changes between primary and depositional fluxes. Despite this potential and the likely global relevance very little is known about mechanistic and quantitative aspects of the controlling processes. Here, results are presented for a sediment-trap time-series study that was conducted on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the abyssal Northeast Atlantic, with traps deployed at 2, 40 and 569 m above bottom (mab). The two bottommost traps were situated within the BBL-affected part of the water column. The time series captured 3 neap and 4 spring tides and the arrival of fresh settling material originating from a surface-ocean bloom. In the trap-collected material, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), biogenic silica (BSi), particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), total hydrolysable amino acids (AA), hexosamines (HA) and lithogenic material (LM) were determined. The biogeochemical results are presented within the context of time series of measured currents (at 15 mab) and turbidity (at 1 mab). The main outcome is evidence for an effect of neap/spring tidal oscillations on particulate-matter dynamics in BBL-affected waters in the deep sea. Based on the frequency-decomposed current measurements and numerical modelling of BBL fluid dynamics, it is concluded that the neap/spring tidal oscillations of particulate-matter dynamics are less likely due to temporally varying total free-stream current speeds and more likely due to temporally and vertically varying turbulence intensities that result from the temporally varying

  16. An Abyssal Current in the Central Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M.; Yashayaev, I.; Torres, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) data collected along the repeat hydrographic section AR7W in the Labrador Sea has unveiled a new abyssal current, confined to a narrow trench extending from NW to SE over the entire abyssal basin and crossing AR7W in the center of the basin at about 57.8°N, 51.3°W. Maximum water depth in the trough is 75 - 100 m greater depth than the surrounding topography, and the current extends from about 160 m above the bottom to the bottom (3610 m), headed in a south to southeasterly direction. Maximum speeds of 10-20 cm s-1 occur in the deepest part of the current, implying a net transport of as much as 0.2 Sv of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Potential temperature and salinity in the bottom-intensified current tend to be well mixed below 3520 m, suggesting that the mixed bottom boundary layer is about 100 m thick. This V-shaped trench is part of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), which has been recognized as a turbidity current pathway by petrologists (Chough and Hesse, 1980; Chough et al., 1986). Another small trough intersects the main branch of the NAMOC where the abyssal current is observed, which may account for the varying direction of the current. This network of abyssal channels may provide a pathway for DSOW, entering the Labrador Sea around the southern tip of Greenland, to reach the central Labrador Sea with little delay. Indeed, Yashayaev and Dickson (2008) have noted the rapidity with which signals of hydrographic change in DSOW spread across the entire abyssal basin, reaching the central Labrador Sea within several months after their first appearance at the eastern boundary. Chough, S. K. and R. Hesse (1980). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea: III. Head spill vs. body spill deposits from turbidity currents on natural levees. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 227-234. Chough, S. K., R. Hesse, and J. Muller (1987). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the

  17. Suspected ureteral colic: plain film and sonography vs unenhanced helical CT. A prospective study in 66 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripolles, Tomas; Agramunt, Marcos; Errando, Jose; Martinez, Maria Jesus [Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, 90 Gaspar Aguilar Avenue, 46017, Valencia (Spain); Coronel, Belen [Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, 90 Gaspar Aguilar Avenue, 46017, Valencia (Spain); Morales, Maria [Research Unit, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, 90 Gaspar Aguilar Avenue, 46017, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of plain abdominal films plus ultrasound, vs nonenhanced CT for the diagnosis of ureteral colic in patients with acute flank pain. During a 4-month period, 66 patients (mean age 48 years) with acute flank pain were prospectively studied by means of plain abdominal film, US, and unenhanced CT. The presence of lithiasis and of obstructive uropathy signs were determined. The plain film was only used as a guide for the US exam. Clinical follow-up of all patients was obtained. Ureteral lithiasis was confirmed in 56 patients. The CT had a greater sensitivity (93 vs 79%) and negative predictive value (71 vs 46%) for the detection of lithiasis. The combination of lithiasis plus obstructive signs showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for CT and of 100 and 90%, respectively, for US. The 11 lithiasis not detected by US were passed spontaneously (10 were <5 mm). Both techniques showed similar extraurinary pathology. Computed tomography is the most accurate technique for the detection of ureteral lithiasis; however, the combination of plain film and US is an alternative to nonenhanced CT with a lower sensitivity and radiation dose that has a good practical value. (orig.)

  18. Study of groundwater arsenic pollution in Lanyang Plain using multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    chan, S.

    2013-12-01

    The study area, Lanyang Plain in the eastern Taiwan, has highly developed agriculture and aquaculture, which consume over 70% of the water supplies. Groundwater is frequently considered as an alternative water source. However, the serious arsenic pollution of groundwater in Lanyan Plain should be well studied to ensure the safety of groundwater usage. In this study, 39 groundwater samples were collected. The results of hydrochemistry demonstrate two major trends in Piper diagram. The major trend with most of groundwater samples is determined with water type between Ca+Mg-HCO3 and Na+K-HCO3. This can be explained with cation exchange reaction. The minor trend is obviously corresponding to seawater intrusion, which has water type of Na+K-Cl, because the localities of these samples are all in the coastal area. The multivariate statistical analysis on hydrochemical data was conducted for further exploration on the mechanism of arsenic contamination. Two major factors can be extracted with factor analysis. The major factor includes Ca, Mg and Sr while the minor factor includes Na, K and As. This reconfirms that cation exchange reaction mainly control the groundwater hydrochemistry in the study area. It is worth to note that arsenic is positively related to Na and K. The result of cluster analysis shows that groundwater samples with high arsenic concentration can be grouped into that with high Na, K and HCO3. This supports that cation exchange would enhance the release of arsenic and exclude the effect of seawater intrusion. In other words, the water-rock reaction time is key to obtain higher arsenic content. In general, the major source of arsenic in sediments include exchangeable, reducible and oxidizable phases, which are adsorbed ions, Fe-Mn oxides and organic matters/pyrite, respectively. However, the results of factor analysis do not show apparent correlation between arsenic and Fe/Mn. This may exclude Fe-Mn oxides as a major source of arsenic. The other sources

  19. Observational study of the capacity and demand of plain-film workflow in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahan, James

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Demand for radiology services in the National Health Service (NHS) is rising. The pressure felt by radiology departments is compounded by growing public expectation, government guidelines, targets, penalties and tight budget restrictions. One widely supported hypothesis is that inefficiency in the NHS is a result of a mismatch between the variances in capacity and demand. In the light of an increasing trend towards evidence-based management the study aims to model, analyse and understand variations in plain-film workflow in a radiology department and evaluate whether the data provide evidence to base future decisions upon. Methods: Retrospective data for a period of 6 months were collected, from the Computer Radiology Information System (CRIS), staff rotas and clinic diaries. Capacity was measured by the planned number of radiographers working within the department. Demand was measured by the daily workload of the department, number of plain-film events, and was subdivided to include referral source. To further analyse the drivers for demand the number of outpatient clinics was also recorded. Descriptive statistical testing was used to understand the variability in the obtained data. Levene's test was undertaken to test the homogeneity of daily variances in clinics and workload. Establishment of correlative relationships was undertaken using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) between chosen variables. Linear regression testing was performed in order to establish the capacity of the number of clinics running to predict the workload, adjusted for GP events, of the department. Results: Mean daily workload, capacity and clinics show variable correlation. Workload and clinics demonstrate relatively high variation; workload; range, max = 178, min = 46, mean = 95.58, standard deviation (SD) = 25.35, coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.27. Clinics; mean = 4.79, SD = 1.63, CV = 0.34. Variances in daily clinics and daily workflow are homogeneous, Levene tests F

  20. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  1. THE STUDY OF CHANGES IN ARDABIL PLAIN GROUNDWATER LEVEL USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Zare Aghbolagh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater in many parts of the world has led to a sharp drop in groundwater levels. In this study, changes in Ardabil plain groundwater level were studied using geographic information system (GIS. For this purpose, the interpolation table method was used, the intrinsic data as table data of piezo metric wells was used. In order to implement the model, the Majol Geoestatical in geographic information system software was used. The data entered as regions into the geographic information system, and then done for the entire zoning area, due to zoning 8 models, the IDW, GPI, RBF, LPI, KO, KS, KU and EBK in geostatical extension were evaluated. The ordinary kriging method (KO with the lowest RMSE, was determined as the most accurate one, and finally, as the ultimate method for zoning and map providing for the changes in groundwater levels drop of the region. The results of classification showed that the biggest drop of about 40 meters was in the areas close to the southeastern parts of the study region and in other areas, little changes were observed, this rate of the change and decline in some parts of the desert like southern regions is very tangible and specified.

  2. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior.

  3. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydrological models are very important tools for planning and management of water resources. These models can be used for identifying basin and nature problems and choosing various managements. Precipitation is based on these models. Calculations of rainfall would be affected by displacement and region factor such as topography, etc. Estimating areal rainfall is one of the basic needs in meteorological, water resources and others studies. There are various methods for the estimation of rainfall, which can be evaluated by using statistical data and mathematical terms. In hydrological analysis, areal rainfall is so important because of displacement of precipitation. Estimating areal rainfall is divided to three methods: 1- graphical. 2-topographical. 3-numerical. This paper represented calculating mean precipitation (daily, monthly and annual using Galerkin’s method (numerical method and it was compared with other methods such as kriging, IDW, Thiessen and arithmetic mean. In this study, there were 42 actual gauges and thirteen dummies in Mashhad plain basin which is calculated by Galerkin’s method. The method included the use of interpolation functions, allowing an accurate representation of shape and relief of catchment with numerical integration performed by Gaussian quadrature and represented the allocation of weights to stations. Materials and Methods:The estimation of areal rainfall (daily, monthly,… is the basic need for meteorological project. In this field ,there are various methods that one of them is finite element method. Present study aimed to estimate areal rainfall with a 16-year period (1997-2012 by using Galerkin method ( finite element in Mashhad plain basin for 42 station. Therefore, it was compared with other usual methods such as arithmetic mean, Thiessen, Kriging and IDW. The analysis of Thiessen, Kriging and IDW were in ArcGIS10.0 software environment and finite element analysis did by using of Matlab

  4. Evaluation of MEDALUS model for desertification hazard zonation using GIS; study area: Iyzad Khast plain, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Egbal, Mahbobeh Nik

    2007-08-15

    In this study, the MEDALUS model along with GIS mapping techniques are used to determine desertification hazards for a province of Iran to determine the desertification hazard. After creating a desertification database including 20 parameters, the first steps consisted of developing maps of four indices for the MEDALUS model including climate, soil, vegetation and land use were prepared. Since these parameters have mostly been presented for the Mediterranean region in the past, the next step included the addition of other indicators such as ground water and wind erosion. Then all of the layers weighted by environmental conditions present in the area were used (following the same MEDALUS framework) before a desertification map was prepared. The comparison of two maps based on the original and modified MEDALUS models indicates that the addition of more regionally-specific parameters into the model allows for a more accurate representation of desertification processes across the Iyzad Khast plain. The major factors affecting desertification in the area are climate, wind erosion and low land quality management, vegetation degradation and the salinization of soil and water resources.

  5. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  6. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. June 9-10, 2015: A case study of the Great Plains Low-Level Jet during PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection at Night)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sharon M.

    Observations as part of the Plains Elevated Convection at Night (PECAN) campaign have allowed for an examination of the thermodynamic and dynamic structure of the LLJ using ground-based and airborne measurements in central Kansas. A shallow jet with wind speeds near 20 m s-1 formed during the nighttime hours on 10 June 2015. The University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft conducted two research flights beginning at sunset and ending near dawn, capturing the full evolution of the LLJ. Each flight included a series of vertical sawtooth maneuvers and isobaric legs along a fixed track at 38.7°N between 98.89°W and 100.3°W. This case featured classic signatures of the LLJ, including but not limited to the inertial oscillation of the ageostrophic wind. Forcing of the LLJ was analyzed using cross sections of D-values that allowed the vertical structure of the horizontal pressure gradient and hence thermal wind to be examined. A series of numerical simulations of the 10 June 2015 case study were made using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to compare with observations. Output grids indicated that a temperature gradient of 6°C over 500 km was present between the surface and 850 hPa. Warmer temperatures were found to the west from the surface up to 600 hPa. The 600 hPa geostrophic winds were from the north. As a result, only weak southerly geostrophic winds were able to develop at the surface. The terrain-induced thermal wind was sufficiently large to overcome the adverse pressure gradient in the free atmosphere, but could only produce weak southerly geostrophic winds at the surface of about 11.4 m s-1.

  8. AUTOMATIC TRAINING SITE SELECTION FOR AGRICULTURAL CROP CLASSIFICATION: A CASE STUDY ON KARACABEY PLAIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdarici Ok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study implements a traditional supervised classification method to an optical image composed of agricultural crops by means of a unique way, selecting the training samples automatically. Panchromatic (1m and multispectral (4m Kompsat-2 images (July 2008 of Karacabey Plain (~100km2, located in Marmara region, are used to evaluate the proposed approach. Due to the characteristic of rich, loamy soils combined with reasonable weather conditions, the Karacabey Plain is one of the most valuable agricultural regions of Turkey. Analyses start with applying an image fusion algorithm on the panchromatic and multispectral image. As a result of this process, 1m spatial resolution colour image is produced. In the next step, the four-band fused (1m image and multispectral (4m image are orthorectified. Next, the fused image (1m is segmented using a popular segmentation method, Mean- Shift. The Mean-Shift is originally a method based on kernel density estimation and it shifts each pixel to the mode of clusters. In the segmentation procedure, three parameters must be defined: (i spatial domain (hs, (ii range domain (hr, and (iii minimum region (MR. In this study, in total, 176 parameter combinations (hs, hr, and MR are tested on a small part of the area (~10km2 to find an optimum segmentation result, and a final parameter combination (hs=18, hr=20, and MR=1000 is determined after evaluating multiple goodness measures. The final segmentation output is then utilized to the classification framework. The classification operation is applied on the four-band multispectral image (4m to minimize the mixed pixel effect. Before the image classification, each segment is overlaid with the bands of the image fused, and several descriptive statistics of each segment are computed for each band. To select the potential homogeneous regions that are eligible for the selection of training samples, a user-defined threshold is applied. After finding those potential regions, the

  9. Life history of abyssal and hadal fishes from otolith growth zones and oxygen isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Andrews, A. H.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Popp, B. N.; Linley, T. D.; Gallo, N. D.; Clark, M. R.; Jamieson, A. J.; Drazen, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Hadal trenches are isolated habitats that cover the greatest ocean depths (6,500-11,000 m) and are believed to host high levels of endemism across multiple taxa. A group of apparent hadal endemics is within the snailfishes (Liparidae), found in at least five geographically separated trenches. Little is known about their biology, let alone the reasons for their success at hadal depths around the world. This study investigated the life history of hadal liparids using sagittal otoliths of two species from the Kermadec (Notoliparis kermadecensis) and Mariana (Pseudoliparis swirei) trenches in comparison to successful abyssal macrourids found at the abyssal-hadal transition zone. Otoliths for each species revealed alternating opaque and translucent growth zones that could be quantified in medial sections. Assuming these annuli represent annual growth, ages were estimated for the two hadal liparid species to be from five to 16 years old. These estimates were compared to the shallower-living snailfish Careproctus melanurus, which were older than described in previous studies, expanding the potential maximum age for the liparid family to near 25 years. Age estimates for abyssal macrourids ranged from eight to 29 years for Coryphaenoides armatus and six to 16 years for C. yaquinae. In addition, 18O/16O ratios (δ18O) were measured across the otolith using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to investigate the thermal history of the three liparids, and two macrourids. Changes in δ18O values were observed across the otoliths of C. melanurus, C. armatus, and both hadal liparids, the latter of which may represent a change of >5 °C in habitat temperature through ontogeny. The results would indicate there is a pelagic larval stage for the hadal liparids that rises to a depth above 1000 m, followed by a return to the hadal environment as these liparids grow. This result was unexpected for the hadal liparids given their isolated environment and large eggs, and the biological

  10. Implications of spinel compositions for the petrotectonic history of abyssal peridotite from Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Jin, Z.; Wang, Y.; Tao, C.

    2012-12-01

    Abyssal peridotites generate at mid-ocean ridges. Lherzolite and harzburgite are the main rock types of peridotites in the uppermost mantle. The lherzolite subtype, less depleted and less common in ophiolites, characterizes mantle diapirs and slow-spreading ridges. Along the Earth's mid-ocean ridges, abyssal peridotites undergo hydration reactions to become serpentinite minerals, especially in slow to ultraslow spreading mid-ocean ridges. Spinel is common in small quantities in peridotites, and its compositions have often been used as petrogenetic indicators [1]. The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is one of the two ultraslow spreading ridges in the world. The studied serpentinized peridotite sample was collected by the 21st Voyage of the Chinese oceanic research ship Dayang Yihao (aka Ocean No. 1) from a hydrothermal field (63.5°E, 28.0°S, and 3660 m deep) in SWIR. The studied spinels in serpentinized lherzolite have four zones with different compositions: relic, unaltered core is magmatic Al-spinels; micro- to nano- sized ferrichromite zoned particles; narrow and discontinuous magnetite rim; and chlorite aureoles. The values Cr# of the primary Al-spinels indicate the range of melting for abyssal peridotites from SWIR extends from ~4% to ~7% [2]. The alteration rims of ferrichromite have a chemical composition characterized by Fe enrichment and Cr# increase indicating chromite altered under greenschist-amphibolite facies. Magnetites formed in syn- and post- serpentinization. Chlorite (clinochlore) formed at the boundary and crack of spinel indicating it had undergone with low-temperature MgO- and SiO2-rich hydrothermal fluids [3]. It suggests that serpentinized lherzolite from SWIR had undergone poly-stage hydration reactions with a wide range of temperature. Acknowledgments: EMPA experiment was carried out by Xihao Zhu and Shu Zheng in The Second Institute of Oceanography and China University of Geosciences, respectively. The work was supported by NSFC

  11. From the epipelagic zone to the abyss: Trophic structure at two seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic - Part I zooplankton and micronekton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Anneke; Stefanowitsch, Benjamin; Christiansen, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Specific mechanisms, driving trophic interactions within the pelagic community may be highly variable in different seamount systems. This study investigated the trophic structure of zooplankton and micronekton above and around Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic, and over the adjacent abyssal plains. For the identification of food sources and trophic positions stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were used. δ13C ranged from -24.7‰ to -15.0‰ and δ15N covered a total range of 0.9-15.9‰. Based on epipelagic particulate organic matter, zooplankton and micronekton usually occupied the 1st-3rd trophic level, including herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous taxa. δ13C and δ15N values were generally lower in zooplankton and micronekton of the subtropical waters as compared to the tropical region, due to the differing nutrient availability and phytoplankton communities. Correlations between δ13C and δ15N values of particulate organic matter, zooplankton, micronekton and benthopelagic fishes suggest a linear food chain based on a single energy source from primary production for Ampère Seamount, but no evidence was found for an autochthonus seamount production as compared to the open ocean reference site. Between Senghor Seamount and the open ocean δ13C signatures indicate that hydrodynamic effects at seamounts may modify the energy supply at times, but evidence for a seamount effect on the trophic structure of the pelagic communities was weak, which supports the assumption that seamount communities rely to a large extent on advected food sources.

  12. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigan; Payne, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Property Changes of Abyssal Waters in the Western Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrford, Josefine; Brandt, Peter; Zenk, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Flowing northward towards the equator, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) encounters the lighter overlying North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), both water masses creating an abyssal stratification and gradually mixing across their interface. Changes in the associated water mass formation and/or along-path transformation, observable in the evolution of water mass volume and characteristics, might impact the deep oceans uptake of anthropogenic CO2 or its contribution to global sea level rise. We compile historic and recent shipboard measurements of hydrography and velocity to provide a comprehensive view on water mass distribution, pathways, along-path transformation and long-term temperature changes of abyssal waters in the western South and Equatorial Atlantic. We are able to confirm previous results showing that the northwest corner of the Brazil Basin represents a splitting point for the southward/northward flow of NADW/AABW. The available measurements sample water mass transformation along the two major routes for deep and bottom waters in the tropical to South Atlantic - along the deep western boundary and eastward, parallel to the equator - as well as the hot spots of extensive mixing. We find lower NADW and lighter AABW to form a highly interactive transition layer in the northern Brazil Basin. The AABW north of 5°S is relatively homogeneous with only lighter AABW being able to pass through the Equatorial Channel (EQCH) into the North Atlantic. Spanning a period of 26 years, our data also allow an estimation of long-term temperature trends in abyssal waters. We find a warming of 2.5 ± 0.7•10-3 °C yr-1 of the waters in the northern Brazil Basin being colder than 0.6 °C throughout the period 1989-2014 and can relate that warming to a thinning of the dense AABW layer. While isopycnal heave is the dominant effect defining the vertical distribution of temperature trends on isobars, we also find temperature changes on isopycnals in the transition layer the lower NADW

  14. Soil Moisture Estimation Using MODIS Images (Case Study: Mashhad Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fashaee

    2016-09-01

    area is selected in the Mashhad plain in Khorasan Razavi province of I.R. Iran. Study area is about 1,200 square kilometers and is located around the Golmakan center of agricultural research. In this study, water deficit index (WDI was zoning by MODIS images in subset of Mashhad plain during water year of 2011-2012. Then, based on the close relationship between WDI and soil moisture parameter, a linear relationship between these two parameters were fitted. Soil moisture is measured by the TDR and every 7 days at 5 depths of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm from the surface. Remote Sensing (RS technology used as a tool for providing some of the data that is required. The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument is popular for monitoring soil moisture because of its high spectral (36 bands resolution, moderate spatial (250–1000 m resolution and various products for land surface properties. MODIS products used in the present study include: MOD09A1 land surface albedo data, MOD11A1 land surface temperature data, and MOD13A1 vegetation data. Using ArcMap 9.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 softwares, WDI was calculated pixel by pixel for 18 days (non-cloudy days and simultaneous with measurement of soil moisture at the station. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the northeastern region is predominantly rainfed and irrigated farmlands are under water stress. Conversely, the southwestern part of the area is mountainous with less water stress. Based on NDVI, there is also less crop cover in the southwestern part of the region during the year. The results showed that about 44% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.3. Then about 22% of the index values are in the range of 0.3-0.4. Thus it can be concluded that over 66% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.4. According to the maximum index value (WDI=0.59 on the 201th day of year and the minimum values (WDI=0.0004 on the 129th day of year during the time period of study, it seems that water

  15. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Feng, Tian; Zhao, Shuyu; Xing, Li; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs) to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW). Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR) and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP). To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust) is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm) during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei). When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from -5 to -15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of -12.4 % (-19.2 µg m-3) in BTH and -7.6 % (-10.1 µg m-3) in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the dominant reason for [PMC] decrease in the NCP

  16. Effect of ecological restoration programs on dust concentrations in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Chinese government has made a great effort in initiating large-scale ecological restoration programs (ERPs to reduce the dust concentrations in China, especially for dust storm episodes. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land cover product, the ERP-induced land cover changes are quantitatively evaluated in this study. Two obvious vegetation protective barriers arise throughout China from the southwest to the northeast, which are well known as the Green Great Wall (GGW. Both the grass GGW and forest GGW are located between the dust source region (DSR and the densely populated North China Plain (NCP. To assess the effect of ERPs on dust concentrations, a regional transport/dust model (WRF-DUST, Weather Research and Forecast model with dust is applied to investigate the evolution of dust plumes during a strong dust storm episode from 2 to 8 March 2016. The WRF-DUST model generally performs reasonably well in reproducing the temporal variations and spatial distributions of near-surface [PMC] (mass concentration of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 µm during the dust storm event. Sensitivity experiments have indicated that the ERP-induced GGWs help to reduce the dust concentration in the NCP, especially in BTH (Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei. When the dust storm is transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, the [PMC] reduction ranges from −5 to −15 % in the NCP, with a maximum reduction of −12.4 % (−19.2 µg m−3 in BTH and −7.6 % (−10.1 µg m−3 in the NCP. We find the dust plumes move up to the upper atmosphere and are transported from the upwind DSR to the downwind NCP, accompanied by dust decrease. During the episode, the forest GGW is nonsignificant in dust concentration control because it is of benefit for dry deposition and not for emission. Conversely, the grass GGW is beneficial in controlling dust erosion and is the

  17. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  18. Simulating Effects of Long Term Use of Wastewater on Farmers Health Using System Dynamics Modeling (Case Study: Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzehali Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agricultural activity in Varamin plain has been faced with many challenges in recent years, due to vicinity to Tehran the capital of Iran (competition for Latian dam reservoir, and competition with Tehran south network in allocation of Mamlou dam reservoir and treated wastewater of south wastewater treatment plant. Mamlou and Latian dam reservoirs, due to increase of population and industry sectors, allocated to urban utilization of Tehran. Based on national policy, the treated wastewater should be replaced with Latian dam reservoir water to supply water demand of agricultural sector. High volume transmission of wastewater to Varamin plain, will be have economical, environmental, and social effects. Several factors effect on wastewater management and success of utilization plans and any change in these factors may have various feedbacks on the other elements of wastewater use system. Hence, development of a model with capability of simulation of all factors, aspects and interactions that affect wastewater utilization is very necessary. The main objective of present study was development of water integrated model to study long-term effects of irrigation with Tehran treated wastewater, using system dynamics modeling (SD approach. Materials and Methods: Varamin Plain is one of the most important agricultural production centers of the country due to nearness to the large consumer market of Tehran and having fertile soil and knowledge of agriculture. The total agricultural irrigated land in Varamin Plain is 53486 hectares containing 17274 hectares of barley, 16926 hectares of wheat, 3866 hectares of tomato, 3521 hectares of vegetables, 3556 hectares of alfalfa, 2518 hectares of silage maize, 1771 hectares of melon, 1642 hectares of cotton, 1121 hectares of cucumber and 1291 hectares of other crops. In 2006 the irrigation requirement of the crop pattern was about 690 MCM and the actual agriculture water consumption was about 620 MCM

  19. Effects of Climate Change on Groundwater Recharge (Case Study: Sefid Dasht Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samin ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, the issue of climate change and its related problems are fundamental crisis in water resource management. On the other hand, considering that groundwater is the most important water resources, determination of the effects of climate change on groundwater and estimation the amount of their recharge will be necessary in the future. Materials and Methods: In this research, to analyze the effects of climate change scenarios on groundwater resources, a case study has been applied to the Sefid Dasht Plain located in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province in Iran. One of the three Atmospheric-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCM which is called HadCM3, under the emission scenarios A2 and B1 is used to predict time series of climate variables of temperature and precipitation in the future. In order to downscale the data for producing the regional climate scenarios, LARS-WG model has been applied. Also, IHACRES model is calibrated and used for simulation of rainfall - runoff with monthly temperature, precipitation and runoff data. The predicted runoff and precipitation production in future have been considered as recharge parameters in the ground water model and the effects of climate change scenarios on the ground water table has been studied. To simulate the aquifer, GMS software has been used. GMS model is calibrated in both steady and unsteady state for one year available data and verification model has been performed by using the calibration parameters for four years. Results and Discussion: Results of T- test shows that LARS-WG model was able to simulate precipitation and temperature selected station appropriately. Calibration of IHACRES model indicated the best performance with τw=6 و f=7.7 and the results shows that IHACRES model simulated minimum amount of runoff appropriately. Although it didn’t simulate the maximum amount of runoff accurately, but its performance and Nash coefficient is acceptable. Results indicate

  20. Translating medical documents into plain language enhances communication skills in medical students--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (pcommunicative aspects (pcommunication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical study for findings of pneumothoraces on the plain chest film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty cases of pneumothoraces in intensive care unit in the last seven and half years were reviewed. In intensive care unit, plain chest films are likely to be obtained on supine position that make difficult to diagnose pneumothorax, because of unusual distribution of air in the pleural cavity. In our institution, they were obtained in supine position in 75 %. In our series of 207 supine chest cases, anteromedial and subpulmonic recesses were involved in 11.6 % and 25.6 % respectively. Twenty five cases (12 %) showed unusual location of air. Several radiographic signs have been previously described to recognize this condition. Basilar hyperlucency was most reliable sign (100 %) of detecting subpulmonary pneumothorax. Double diaphragm sign (60 %) and distinct cardiac apex (46.6 %) were also reliable signs. Almost all cases of unusual pneumothoraces were recognized on supine radiographs. However, CT was useful to detect unusual pneumothorax in patient with pneumomediastinum or pulmonary contusion. Unusual pneumothoraces were seen only in traumatized patients. The importance of careful observation of plain chest films to detecte unusual pneumothorax in patients with blunt chest trauma was stressed. (author)

  2. Clinical study for findings of pneumothoraces on the plain chest film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, Mitsuaki

    1988-11-01

    Two hundred and fifty cases of pneumothoraces in intensive care unit in the last seven and half years were reviewed. In intensive care unit, plain chest films are likely to be obtained on supine position that make difficult to diagnose pneumothorax, because of unusual distribution of air in the pleural cavity. In our institution, they were obtained in supine position in 75 %. In our series of 207 supine chest cases, anteromedial and subpulmonic recesses were involved in 11.6 % and 25.6 % respectively. Twenty five cases (12 %) showed unusual location of air. Several radiographic signs have been previously described to recognize this condition. Basilar hyperlucency was most reliable sign (100 %) of detecting subpulmonary pneumothorax. Double diaphragm sign (60 %) and distinct cardiac apex (46.6 %) were also reliable signs. Almost all cases of unusual pneumothoraces were recognized on supine radiographs. However, CT was useful to detect unusual pneumothorax in patient with pneumomediastinum or pulmonary contusion. Unusual pneumothoraces were seen only in traumatized patients. The importance of careful observation of plain chest films to detecte unusual pneumothorax in patients with blunt chest trauma was stressed.

  3. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O G; Cristache, C I; Culicovc, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Szobotca, S A; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  4. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, O.G.; Cristache, C.I.; Culicovc, O.A.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Szobotca, S.A.; Toma, M.

    2009-01-01

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  5. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: duliu@b.astral.ro; Cristache, C.I. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: ocarmen@ifin.nipne.ro; Culicovc, O.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: otilia_culicov@yahoo.com; Frontasyeva, M.V. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.ru; Szobotca, S.A. [National Institute of Geoecology and Marine Geology, 34 Dimitrie Onciul str., 024504 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: szobi@geoecomar.ro; Toma, M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  6. A new report on the occurrence of zeolitites in the abyssal depths of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India (Received August 13, 1992; revised version accepted November 18, 1992) ABSTRACT Forty-two indurated slabs of zeolites collected from the abyssal depths of the Central Indian Basin have been studied. The slabs... Depth Sampler Topography/ No. (dimensions in cm) (°S) (°E) (m) deployed sediment type 1 SS17/877 (A) Ferromanganese oxides with patches of 13.032 75.743 4275 Dredge Seamount flank/ orangish-yellow material, 25 × 21...

  7. Spatiotemporal Variation of Dissolved Carbon in Semi-humid/arid Inland Waters: A Case Study from Songnen Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, K.; Li, L.; Zang, S.; Zhao, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) in 34 waters across the semi-humid/arid Songnen Plain, China were examined with 320 samples collected in 2011-2012. Large variations in both the concentration and quality of DOC are revealed, ranging from 0.47 mgL-1 to 720 mgL-1, which is mainly caused by the hydro-climatic condition in the plain. Large variations of DOC and DIC concentrations are observed between open (mean ± sd: 5.6 ± 2.4 mgL-1, 57.4 ± 34.7 mgL-1) and closed lakes (43.3 ± 7.9 mgL-1, 172.9 ± 113.3 mgL-1). Temporally, higher DOC and DIC concentrations are measured for ice-underlying water in winter than ice-free seasons. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and DOC concentrations are higher after high discharge events with terrigenous sources of CDOM/DOC dominated, while autochthonous sources also contributed to CDOM/DOC concentrations during algal bloom seasons. An interesting result of this study is that the non-outflow conditions for various water catchments had condensed effects on the dissolved carbon, resulting in close relationships between salinity and dissolved carbon parameters, e.g. salinity vs DOC (R2 = 0.83, p DOC (R2 = 0.79, p DOC/DIC from salinity measurements for thousand of waters dispersed in the semi-arid Songnen Plain. Indices based on CDOM absorption spectra, e.g. E250:365, DOC specific CDOM absorption (SUVA254) and spectral slope ratio (Sr, S275-295/S350-400), were applied to characterize DOM components and sources. Our results indicate high molecular weight CDOM fractions are more abundant in open waters than closed waters.

  8. Morphological and ecological parallels between sublittoral and abyssal foraminiferal species in the NE Atlantic: a comparison of Stainforthia fusiformis and Stainforthia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Alve, Elisabeth

    Dead specimens of a minute fusiform rotaliid foraminifer are common in the 28-63 μm fraction of multiple corer samples from a 4850 m-deep site on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP). Their test morphology is remarkably similar to small specimens of Stainforthia fusiformis ( Williamson, 1858), a species which is well known from coastal settings (intertidal to outer shelf) around NW Europe and North America. A detailed comparison of the PAP form with typical individuals of S. fusiformis from Norwegian waters (55-203 m depth), however, reveals slight but consistent morphological differences. The PAP specimens are smaller (test length 40-140 μm) than those from Norway (test length 80-380 μm), the chambers tend to be rather less elongate, the density of pores in the test wall is much lower, and there are differences in apertural features. We therefore conclude that the diminutive abyssal form is a distinct species, here referred to as Stainforthia sp. This interpretation is consistent with increasing evidence for genetic differentiation in deep-sea organisms, particularly along bathymetric gradients. Stainforthia sp. was previously illustrated by Pawlowski as Fursenkoina sp. and appears to be widespread and abundant in the abyssal North Atlantic (>4000 m depth). Stainforthia fusiformis, on the other hand, is most abundant in continental shelf and coastal settings. It extends onto the continental slope in the North Atlantic but has not been reported reliably from depths greater than about 2500 m. We suggest that the striking morphological convergence between these two species reflects the adoption of similar ecological strategies in widely separated habitats. Both are enrichment opportunists, a life-style which may explain the rather broad bathymetric range of Stainforthia fusiformis. This is a dominant species in organically-enriched and sometimes extremely oxygen-depleted environments on the continental shelf, and is a rapid coloniser of formerly azoic habitats. Live

  9. Application of Time-series Model to Predict Groundwater Quality Parameters for Agriculture: (Plain Mehran Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad Mirsanjari, Mir; Mohammadyari, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Underground water is regarded as considerable water source which is mainly available in arid and semi arid with deficient surface water source. Forecasting of hydrological variables are suitable tools in water resources management. On the other hand, time series concepts is considered efficient means in forecasting process of water management. In this study the data including qualitative parameters (electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio) of 17 underground water wells in Mehran Plain has been used to model the trend of parameters change over time. Using determined model, the qualitative parameters of groundwater is predicted for the next seven years. Data from 2003 to 2016 has been collected and were fitted by AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models. Afterward, the best model is determined using information criterion or Akaike (AIC) and correlation coefficient. After modeling parameters, the map of agricultural land use in 2016 and 2023 were generated and the changes between these years were studied. Based on the results, the average of predicted SAR (Sodium Adsorption Rate) in all wells in the year 2023 will increase compared to 2016. EC (Electrical Conductivity) average in the ninth and fifteenth holes and decreases in other wells will be increased. The results indicate that the quality of groundwater for Agriculture Plain Mehran will decline in seven years.

  10. Geochemical impacts of waste disposal on the abyssal seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Richard A.

    1998-05-01

    The response of pore water oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, sulfide, ammonium and methane and particulate organic carbon distributions to the input of 8.5 million m 3 (3.8×10 12 g) of organic-rich waste materials is simulated. The deposit is assumed to be conical with a maximum thickness of approximately 20 m. Remineralization reactions within the deposit rapidly deplete any initially available pore water oxidants such as oxygen, nitrate and sulfate, and are subsequently dominated by fermentation reactions. Diffusion downward of reduced metabolites, sulfide, ammonium and methane, depletes the available oxidants in the pore waters below the waste pile, increasing the thickness of the anoxic layer. While the impacted region is limited to essentially the deposition site, recovery of the pore waters is estimated to be >10 4 years. The overall computational results are corroborated by the pore water distributions observed at turbidite boundaries. Numerous uncertainties in the parameterizations limit the overall accuracy of the calculations presented. The most significant of these are: (1) A quantitatively accurate assessment of the remineralization rate of the deposited organic matter including its rate of inoculation by abyssal microorganisms; (2) a detailed assessment of potential non-diffusive pore water transport processes including advection due to compaction and buoyancy-driven flows and enhanced exchange due to macrobenthic irrigation activities and (3) an assessment of the potential alteration of pore space and methane reactivity due to gas hydrate formation.

  11. Quantitative characterization of abyssal seafloor with transit multibeam backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The expanding volume of deep-water multibeam echosounder data provides emerging opportunities for the improved characterization of the abyssal seafloor. Nearly 500 cruises criss-cross the oceans with modern wide-swath multibeam systems, and these cruise tracks have imaged a variety of morphologic, tectonic and magmatic environments. The qualitative analysis of the seafloor backscatter data strongly suggests a local and regional variability that correlates with sediment thickness, sediment type and/or depositional environment. We present our initial attempts to develop a method that quantifies this observed seafloor backscatter variability and to explore the causes and potential implications of this variability. Our approach is rooted in the Angular Range Analysis methodology, which utilizes changes in backscatter amplitude observed as a function of grazing angle, to characterize the seafloor. The primary difference in our approach is that we do not invert for geo-acoustical parameters, but rather explores empirical relationships between geological observations and stacked slope and y-intercept values. In addition, we also include the mean and the variance of detrended backscatter measurements. Our initial results indicate intriguing relationships between backscatter parameters and the CaCO3 content of surface sediments. Seafloor regions reported to have high manganese nodule concentrations also tend to have characteristic trends in backscatter parameters. We will present these regional correlations as well as some preliminary statistical analyses of the backscatter parameters and key environmental factors.

  12. The abyssal and deep circulation of the Northeast Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional abyssal and deep circulation of the region to the east and north of the Emperor Seamount Chain/Hawaiian Ridge is determined from a compilation of CTD and Argo float data, using a new overdetermined inverse technique for the geostrophic reference velocity and diapycnal/lateral mixing coefficients. The Northeast Pacific Basin is primarily sourced from its northern boundary, at a rate of 3.5 Sv across 47°N below 3000 m. Bottom water in the western subarctic gyre recirculates cyclonically between the Emperor Seamount Chain and 155°W. Bottom water east of 155°W takes a more direct path southward along the flank of a broad topographic slope. In the deep water, a ridge of potential vorticity lying along the Mendocino Fracture Zone separates circulation systems north and south of ∼40°N. The region has very weak diapycnal and lateral mixing, and an aspect ratio for the overturning circulation that is correspondingly flat, with bottom water parcels rising less than 1 km during their long transit from the Aleutian Trench to the latitude of Hawaii.

  13. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP, and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m−3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  14. Validation of the plain chest radiograph for epidemiologic studies of airflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musk, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 125 industrial workers from rural New South Wales were examined for overinflated lungs, with and without attenuated midzonal vessels. Although the mean values of a comprehensive range of pulmonary function tests in the whole group were within normal limits, the nine subjects whose radiographs showed overinflated lungs and attenuated vessels had significantly impaired pulmonary function in comparison with 85 subjects with normal radiographs. The mean values for these nine subjects, expressed as a percentage of the mean value for subjects with normal radiographs, were: forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 75%; total lung capacity, 107%; residual volume, 143%; transpulmonary pressure at maximum inspiration, 60%; static deflation compliance, 158%; lung volume at transpulmonary pressure 10 cm H 2 O, 132%; transfer factor, 79%; and transfer factor/alveolar volume, 77%. Similar results were obtained by a second observer. Those subjects with overinflation but no vascular attenuation had significantly larger mean values for vital capacity and alveolar volume but no significant difference in total lung capacity or other tests of the mechanical properties of the lungs. Agreement on the presence of a positive sign between the two observers expressed as a percentage of those considered positive by either was 81% for overinflation and 62% for attenuated midzonal vessels. The results indicate that in groups of subjects with normal-average values of pulmonary function, the plain chest radiograph may provide information concerning pulmonary structure that is reflected in tests of function

  15. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-01-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUE PAR ) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security

  16. Pesticide use in the wheat-maize double cropping systems of the North China Plain: Assessment, field study, and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang

    2018-01-01

    In the North China Plain (NCP), rising inputs of pesticides have intensified the environmental impact of farming activities in recent decades by contributing to surface water and groundwater contamination. In response to this, the Chinese government imposed stricter regulations on pesticide...... contamination by pesticides in the NCP are reviewed and assessed. Additionally, a small-scale field study was performed to determine if residuals from currently-used pesticides in the NCP can be detected in surface water, and in connected shallow groundwater. The contaminants of interest were commonly used...... studies focus on organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) like the isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), which were banned in China in 1983. However, currently-used herbicides like 2,4-D and atrazine were detected in river water and groundwater in all samplings...

  17. Abyssal near-bottom dispersal stages of benthic invertebrates in the Clarion-Clipperton polymetallic nodule province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Oliver; Smith, Craig R.; Vetter, Eric W.

    2017-09-01

    Growing interest in polymetallic nodule mining has intensified the need to characterize the abundance, community structure and vertical flux of meroplankton in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) to facilitate the estimation of larval supply and potential connectivity of benthic populations. These ecological parameters are essential to predict recolonization processes following the expected large-scale, high intensity disturbances associated with nodule extraction. Here, we present the first description of the composition, abundance, temporal variability, and mesoscale distribution of dispersing stages of the benthos in two study areas in the eastern CCZ. Samples from free-vehicle plankton pumps showed little variation in meroplankton diversity and abundance over scales of 30-100 km for time scales of days to weeks. However, sediment-trap samples revealed high temporal variability in vertical flux over weeks to months. Larval abundances and fluxes measured in the abyssal CCZ are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than observed at deep-sea ridge and hydrothermal-vent habitats. We found significantly higher downward larval fluxes at 11 m above the bottom (mab) than at 146 mab, indicating accumulation or retention of meroplankton within the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). The high abundance of meroplankton in the BBL emphasizes its importance to dispersing stages and suggests that the creation of large sediment plumes in the BBL during nodule mining could compromise the dispersal and recruitment abilities of the abyssal benthos, potentially slowing rates and altering patterns of benthic community recovery following mining disturbance.

  18. Dynamics of Melting and Melt Migration as Inferred from Incompatible Trace Element Abundance in Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    To better understand the melting processes beneath the mid-ocean ridge, we developed a simple model for trace element fractionation during concurrent melting and melt migration in an upwelling steady-state mantle column. Based on petrologic considerations, we divided the upwelling mantle into two regions: a double- lithology upper region where high permeability dunite channels are embedded in a lherzolite/harzburgite matrix, and a single-lithology lower region that consists of partially molten lherzolite. Melt generated in the single lithology region migrates upward through grain-scale diffuse porous flow, whereas melt in the lherzolite/harzburgite matrix in the double-lithology region is allowed to flow both vertically through the overlying matrix and horizontally into its neighboring dunite channels. There are three key dynamic parameters in our model: degree of melting experienced by the single lithology column (Fd), degree of melting experienced by the double lithology column (F), and a dimensionless melt suction rate (R) that measures the accumulated rate of melt extraction from the matrix to the channel relative to the accumulated rate of matrix melting. In terms of trace element fractionation, upwelling and melting in the single lithology column is equivalent to non-modal batch melting (R = 0), whereas melting and melt migration in the double lithology region is equivalent to a nonlinear combination of non-modal batch and fractional melting (0 abyssal peridotite, we showed, with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, that it is difficult to invert for all three dynamic parameters from a set of incompatible trace element data with confidence. However, given Fd, it is quite possible to constrain F and R from incompatible trace element abundances in residual peridotite. As an illustrative example, we used the simple melting model developed in this study and selected REE and Y abundance in diopside from abyssal peridotites to infer their melting and melt migration

  19. A study on damage and fatigue characteristics of plain woven carbon fiber reinforced composite material(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Soo; Kim, Sang Tae

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics of damage and fatigue subjected to tensile fatigue loading in plain woven carbon fiber reinforced composite material were studied. Constant amplitude load of 90% stress of notch strength was applied to each specimen, which had different initial notch length, and crack dectectvie compliance curve was determined form load-displacement data. The effective crack length(a eff ) was obtained form this compliance curve and the effective crack growth could be divided to three-steps and explained separately. After cycling the shape of fatigue crack was observed by S.E.M.. Change of elastic modulus(E N ) during fatigue cycle was explained by repeated sudden-death medel. The material constant determined by Jen-Hsu model was more useful to evaluate damage than Wang-Chim model. (Author)

  20. Investigating the effects of abyssal peridotite alteration on Si, Mg and Zn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. S.; Wimpenny, J.; Harvey, J.; Yin, Q.; Moynier, F.

    2013-12-01

    Around 1/3 of Earth's divergent ridge system is now classified as "slow" spreading [1], exposing ultramafic rocks (abyssal peridotites) at the seafloor. Such material is often highly altered by serpentinisation and steatisation (talc formation). It is crucial to understand such processes in order to access the original composition of the mantle, and to quantify any impact on ocean composition. Here we examine the effect of both serpentinisation and steatisation on Si, Mg and Zn isotopes. Hydrothermal alteration and seafloor weathering are both sources of oceanic Si [2] and weathering of abyssal peridotites is a source of oceanic Mg [3]; hence isotopic fractionation as a result of seafloor alteration could affect oceanic Si and Mg isotope composition. Zinc isotopes can provide complimentary information; the magnitude and direction of fractionation is highly dependent on complexing ligand [4] and can provide compositional information on the fluids driving metasomatism. For this study, two cores from the well-characterised abyssal peridotites recovered on ODP Leg 209 were examined [5]. Hole 1274a peridotites exhibit variable serpentinisation at ~200°C, whereas samples from Hole 1268a have been comprehensively serpentinised and then subsequently steatised to talc facies at ~350°C, by a low Mg/Si, low pH fluid. The Si, Mg and Zn isotope compositions of 1274a samples are extremely homogeneous, identical to that of pristine mantle rocks (BSE) i.e., serpentinisation at this locality was predominantly isochemical [5]. In contrast, samples from 1268a show greater isotopic variability. In all samples, Mg is enriched in the heavier isotopes relative to BSE, consistent with formation of isotopically heavy secondary phases [6]. For Si, serpentinised samples are slightly enriched in the lighter isotopes compared to BSE, again consistent with the behaviour of Si during formation of secondary phases [7]. Within the steatised samples, some exhibit enrichments in the lighter Si

  1. Preferences and actual chemotherapy decision-making in the greater plains collaborative breast cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ann M; Buzalko, Russell J; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Gardner, Bret J; Djalilova, Dilorom M; Otte, Julie L

    2017-12-01

    There is renewed interest in identifying breast cancer patients' participation in decision-making about adjuvant chemotherapy. There is a gap in the literature regarding the impact of these decisions on quality of life (QOL) and quality of care (QOC). Our aims were to determine similarities and differences in how patients diagnosed with breast cancer preferred to make decisions with providers about cancer treatment, to examine the patient's recall of her role when the decision was made about chemotherapy and to determine how preferred and actual roles, as well as congruence between them, relate to QOL and perceived QOC. Greater Plains Collaborative clinical data research network of PCORnet conducted the 'Share Thoughts on Breast Cancer' survey among women 12-18 months post-diagnosis at eight sites in seven Midwestern United States. Patients recalled their preferred and actual treatment decision-making roles and three new shared decision-making (SDM) variables were created. Patients completed QOL and QOC measurements. Correlations and t-tests were used. Of 1235 returned surveys, 873 (full sample) and 329 (subsample who received chemotherapy) were used. About one-half of women in both the full (50.7%) and subsample (49.8%,) preferred SDM with providers about treatment decisions, but only 41.2% (full) and 42.6% (subsample) reported experiencing SDM. Significant differences were found between preferred versus actual roles in the full (p decision-making variables with QOL, but there was an association with QOC. The subsample's decision-making variables related to several QOL scales and QOC items, with a more patient-centered decision than originally preferred related to higher physical and social/family well-being, overall QOL and QOC. Patients benefit from providers' efforts to identify patient preferences, encourage an active role in SDM, and tailor decision making to their desired choice.

  2. Lateralized odontoid in plain film radiography. Sign of fractures? A comparison study with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, S.; Bieck, K.; Karul, M.; Schoennagel, B.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.; Yamamura, J. [University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate X-ray standards for the detection of odontoid fractures. Summary of background data: Cervical spine fractures are a common finding in emergency medicine, accounting for 1 - 3 % of injuries. Involvement of the C1 / C2 complex is found in 25 % of cases, affecting the odontoid peg in 55 - 80 %. Regarding the consequences of missed fractures, radiographic techniques built the groundwork for further treatment procedures. As standardized X-ray measurements have not been established, the incidence of unrecognized cervical spine fracture is expected to be up to 20 %. The establishment of X-ray-based guidelines is also limited by the presumed low specificity and sensitivity of distance measurements caused by rotational distortion which leads to a rising popularity of CT. 79 (age 60 ± 26 yrs) patients with lateralization of the odontoid process on conventional plain film radiography (anteroposterior, lateral, and open mouth odontoid process view projection) were examined. The distance between the odontoid process and lateral mass of C1, angles of vertical odontoid line and basis of C2 were measured in the ap view. In the lateral view, dorsal alignment and atlantodental distance were assessed. MDCT examinations were used as a reference. Discriminatory power test was applied to assess significance. 8/79 (10.1 %) odontoid process fractures were found. Diagnosis was achieved on conventional radiographs in 6 patients. Neither distance and angle measurements between odontoid and C1 nor the dorsal alignment of the vertebral bodies differed significantly between healthy and affected patients. Decentralization of the odontoid process is not necessarily an indirect sign for its fracture. In patients with suspected injury of the odontoid process, an MDCT scan might be the method of choice to rule out a fracture.

  3. Environmental and bathymetric influences on abyssal bait-attending communities of the Clarion Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Astrid B.; Neuheimer, Anna B.; Donlon, Erica; Smith, Craig R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2017-07-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is one of the richest manganese nodule provinces in the world and has recently become a focus area for manganese nodule mining interests. However, this vast area remains poorly studied and highly undersampled. In this study, the abyssal bait-attending fauna is documented for the first time using a series of baited camera deployments in various locations across the CCZ. A bait-attending community intermediate between those typical of the California margin and Hawaii was found in the larger CCZ area, generally dominated by rattail fishes, dendrobranchiate shrimp, and zoarcid and ophidiid fishes. Additionally, the western and eastern ends of the CCZ had different communities, with the western region characterized by decreased dominance of rattails and small shrimps and increased dominance of ophidiids (especially Bassozetus sp. and Barathrites iris) and large shrimps. This trend may be related to increasing distance from the continental margin. We also test the hypothesis that bait-attending communities change across the CCZ in response to key environmental predictors, especially topography and nodule cover. Our analyses showed that higher nodule cover and elevated topography, as quantified using the benthic positioning index (BPI), increase bait-attending community diversity. Elevated topography generally had higher relative abundances, but taxa also showed differing responses to the BPI metric and bottom temperature, causing significant community compositional change over varying topography and temperatures. Larger individuals of the dominant scavenger in the CCZ, Coryphaenoides spp., were correlated with areas of higher nodule cover and with abyssal hills, suggesting these areas may be preferred habitat. Our results suggest that nodule cover is important to all levels of the benthic ecosystem and that nodule mining could have negative impacts on even the top-level predators and scavengers in the CCZ. Additionally, there is

  4. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  5. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying BRDF Effects in Comparing Landsat-7 and AVIRIS Near-Simultaneous Acquisitions for Studies of High Plains Vegetation Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Heidebrecht, K. B.; Gutmann, E. D.; Warner, A. S.; Johnson, E. L.; Lestak, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 sq. km of the High Plains of the central United States are covered by sand dunes and sand sheets deposited during the Holocene. Soil-dating evidence shows that there were at least four periods of dune reactivation during major droughts in the last 10,000 years. The dunes in this region are anchored by vegetation. We have undertaken a study of land-use change in the High Plains from 1985 to the present using Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ images to map variation in vegetation cover during wet and dry years. Mapping vegetation cover of less than 20% is important in modeling potential surface reactivation since at this level the vegetation no longer sufficiently shields sandy surfaces from movement by wind. Landsat TM data have both the spatial resolution and temporal coverage to facilitate vegetation cover analysis for model development and verification. However, there is still the question of how accurate TM data are for the measurement of both growing and senescent vegetation in and and semi-arid regions. AVIRIS provides both high spectral resolution as well as high signal-to-noise ratio and can be used to test the accuracy of Landsat TM and ETM+ data. We have analyzed data from AVIRIS flown nearly concurrently with a Landsat 7 overpass. The comparison between an AVIRIS image swath of 11 km width subtending a 30 deg. angle and the same area covered by a 0.8 deg. angle from Landsat required accounting for the BRDF. A normalization technique using the ratio of the reflectances from registered AVIRIS and Landsat data proved superior to the techniques of column averaging on AVIRIS data alone published previously by Kennedy et al. This technique can be applied to aircraft data covering a wider swath angle than AVIRIS to develop BRDF responses for a wide variety of surfaces more efficiently than from ground measurements.

  7. In situ experimental evidence of the fate of a phytodetritus pulse at the abyssal sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, U.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Sommer, S.

    2003-01-01

    More than 50% of the Earth's surface is sea floor below 3,000 m of water. Most of this major reservoir in the global carbon cycle and final repository for anthropogenic wastes is characterized by severe food limitation. Phytodetritus is the major food source for abyssal benthic communities...... quantified (over a period of 2.5 to 23 days) the response of an abyssal benthic community to a phytodetritus pulse, on the basis of 11 in situ experiments. Here we report that, in contrast to previous hypotheses(5-11), the sediment community oxygen consumption doubled immediately, and that macrofauna were...... very important for initial carbon degradation. The retarded response of bacteria and Foraminifera, the restriction of microbial carbon degradation to the sediment surface, and the low total carbon turnover distinguish abyssal from continental-slope 'deep-sea' sediments....

  8. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  9. Seafloor Age-Stacking Reveals No Evidence for Milankovitch Cycle Influence on Abyssal Hills at Intermediate, Fast and Super-Fast Spreading Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J.; Zahirovic, S.; Müller, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently published spectral analyses of seafloor bathymetry concluded that abyssal hills, highly linear ridges that are formed along seafloor spreading centers, exhibit periodicities that correspond to Milankovitch cycles - variations in Earth's orbit that affect climate on periods of 23, 41 and 100 thousand years. These studies argue that this correspondence could be explained by modulation of volcanic output at the mid-ocean ridge due to lithostatic pressure variations associated with rising and falling sea level. If true, then the implications are substantial: mapping the topography of the seafloor with sonar could be used as a way to investigate past climate change. This "Milankovitch cycle" hypothesis predicts that the rise and fall of abyssal hills will be correlated to crustal age, which can be tested by stacking, or averaging, bathymetry as a function of age; stacking will enhance any age-dependent signal while suppressing random components, such as fault-generated topography. We apply age-stacking to data flanking the Southeast Indian Ridge ( 3.6 cm/yr half rate), northern East Pacific Rise ( 5.4 cm/yr half rate) and southern East Pacific Rise ( 7.8 cm/yr half rate), where multibeam bathymetric coverage is extensive on the ridge flanks. At the greatest precision possible given magnetic anomaly data coverage, we have revised digital crustal age models in these regions with updated axis and magnetic anomaly traces. We also utilize known 2nd-order spatial statistical properties of abyssal hills to predict the variability of the age-stack under the null hypothesis that abyssal hills are entirely random with respect to crustal age; the age-stacked profile is significantly different from zero only if it exceeds this expected variability by a large margin. Our results indicate, however, that the null hypothesis satisfactorily explains the age-stacking results in all three regions of study, thus providing no support for the Milankovitch cycle hypothesis. The

  10. Strong Flows of Bottom Water in Abyssal Channels of the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.

    Analysis of bottom water transport through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean is presented. The study is based on recent observations in the Russian expeditions and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Argentine Basin to the Brazil Basin through the Vema Channel is observed on the basis of lowered profilers and anchored buoys with current meters. The further flow of bottom water in the Brazil Basin splits in the northern part of the basin. Part of the bottom water flows to the East Atlantic through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones. The other part follows the bottom topography and flows to the northwester into the North American Basin. Part of the northwesterly flow propagates through the Vema Fracture Zone into the Northeastern Atlantic. This flow generally fills the bottom layer in the Northeastern Atlantic basins. The flows of bottom waters through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones do not spread to the Northeast Atlantic due to strong mixing in the equatorial zone and enhanced transformation of bottom water properties.

  11. Metabolic enzyme activities of abyssal and hadal fishes: pressure effects and a re-evaluation of depth-related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Yancey, P. H.

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic enzyme activities of muscle tissue have been useful and widely-applied indicators of whole animal metabolic capacity, particularly in inaccessible systems such as the deep sea. Previous studies have been conducted at atmospheric pressure, regardless of organism habitat depth. However, maximum reaction rates of some of these enzymes are pressure dependent, complicating the use of metabolic enzyme activities as proxies of metabolic rates. Here, we show pressure-related rate changes in lactate and malate dehydrogenase (LDH, MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in six fish species (2 hadal, 2 abyssal, 2 shallow). LDH maximal reaction rates decreased with pressure for the two shallow species, but, in contrast to previous findings, it increased for the four deep species, suggesting evolutionary changes in LDH reaction volumes. MDH maximal reaction rates increased with pressure in all species (up to 51±10% at 60 MPa), including the tide pool snailfish, Liparis florae (activity increase at 60 MPa 44±9%), suggesting an inherent negative volume change of the reaction. PK was inhibited by pressure in all species tested, including the hadal liparids (up to 34±3% at 60 MPa), suggesting a positive volume change during the reaction. The addition of 400 mM TMAO counteracted this inhibition at both 0.5 and 2.0 mM ADP concentrations for the hadal liparid, Notoliparis kermadecensis. We revisit depth-related trends in metabolic enzyme activities according to these pressure-related rate changes and new data from seven abyssal and hadal species from the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Results show that, with abyssal and hadal species, pressure-related rate changes are another variable to be considered in the use of enzyme activities as proxies for metabolic rate, in addition to factors such as temperature and body mass. Intraspecific increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes with depth of capture, independent of body mass, in two hadal snailfishes suggest improved nutritional

  12. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining satellite remote sensing and surveys to understand persistent yield variation--- a case study in North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lobell, D. B.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large gap between maize yields on average farmers' fields and the highest yields achieved by either experiment or farmers is typical throughout the developing world, including in the North China Plain (NCP). This maize yield gap as identified by previous studies indicates large opportunities for raising yield by improving agronomy. Quzhou county is typical of the winter-wheat summer-maize system in NCP where the average plot size is as small as 0.25 hectares. To analyze this cropping system amidst the challenge of substantial heterogeneity, we identified fields that were either persistently higher or lower yielding according to the remote sensing yield estimates, and then conducted detailed field surveys. We found irrigation facility to be a major constraint to yield both in terms of irrigation water quality and farmers' access to wells. In total, improving the access to unsalty water would be associated with a 0.32t/ha (4.2%) increase in multi-year average yield. In addition, farmers' method of choosing cultivar, which likely relates to their overall knowledge level, significantly explained yield variation. In particular, those choosing cultivars according to technician advice, personal experiences and high yielding neighbors' advice had on average higher yield than farmers that either followed seed sellers' advice or collectively purchased seeds. Overall, the study presents a generalizable methodology of assessing yield gap as well as its persistent factors using a combination of satellite and survey data.

  14. Seasonal variation of antibiotics concentration in the aquatic environment: a case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Li, Yonggang; Deng, Yamin; Guo, Wei; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-09-15

    25 antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were detected in swine wastewater, river water, rivulet water and in groundwater samples from multi-level monitoring boreholes (with sampling ports, respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m below the land surface) at Jianghan Plain, central China. Except swine wastewater, the antibiotic concentrations in groundwater, river and rivulet water were higher in spring than those in winter. Nineteen antibiotics were detected at 100% frequencies in all kinds of water samples. In groundwater, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the predominant antibiotics and the total concentrations of 25 antibiotics commonly decreased with the aquifer depth. Most groundwater samples collected in spring had high concentrations of norfloxacin, with average values of 65.27 ng · L(-1), 37.28 ng · L(-1) and 46.83 ng · L(-1), respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m deep boreholes. By contrast, the concentrations of sulfamethazine and erythromycin were rather low in groundwater, but high in surface water. Groundwater samples collected from sites close to rivers or rivulets had much higher contents of antibiotics than those from other sites, indicating that the dominant source of antibiotics in groundwater should be the contaminated rivers or rivulets, rather than the scattered pig and poultry farms in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  16. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  17. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  18. Examination of abyssal sea floor and near-bottom water mixing processes using Ra-226 and Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Since Broecker's (1965) original work, extensive studies have been made on abyssal near-bottom water-mixing processes using the radioactive parent-daughter pair radium-226 (Ra) - radon-222 (Rn). One assumption critical to all of these studies is that sediments immediately under a given water column are the source of excess radon (=Rn concentration - Ra concentration) found in bottom waters. Since 1965 theoretical works of increasing complexity have tried to explain areal variations of excess radon and radium. However, Key et al. (1979b) have reported the only extensive measurements of radium and radon in bottom water and sediments at the same location. This dissertation is an expansion of that work both in theory and in scope. A diagenetic sediment model based on the work of Schink and Guinasso (1978), Cochran (1979), and Key et al. (1979b) was developed to model Ra-Rn in near-surface abyssal sediments. In order to maximize model application information, the degrees of freedom were minimized by measuring as many of the model parameters as possible. The most glaring discrepancy found was that measured near-surface total radium profiles could not be fit using plutonium-derived bioturbation rates. There is an implication that plutonium profiles modeled with currently accepted bioturbation models do not give a true indication of the real biologically induced mixing process. After adjusting for this problem in the source function, diagenetic theory explains near-surface radon-distributions adequately. Using both the adjusted diagenetic model and the empirical model developed by Key et al. (1979b), reasonable agreement was found between the sedimentary radon deficit and near-bottom water surplus. Inadequacy of present diagenetic theory makes any attempt to differentiate sedimentary radium sources academic

  19. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  20. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  1. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  2. Long-Term Studies of Prescribed Burning in Loblolly Pine Forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; David H. van Lear; F. Thomas Lloyd; William R. Harms

    1987-01-01

    Prescribed fire provides many benefits in southern pine A study begun in 1946 provides a unique opportunity stands. to observe long-term changes in understory vegetation, soil properties, and overstory tree growth caused by repeated burning.

  3. The rôle of the complete Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    Ocean currents flowing close to or across the equator are strongly constrained by the change in sign of f, the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector, across the equator. We investigate these currents using a shallow water model that includes both the locally vertical and locally horizontal components of the Earth's rotation vector, thus accounting for the complete Coriolis force. We therefore avoid making the so-called "traditional approximation" that retains only the part of the Coriolis force associated with the locally vertical component of the rotation vector. Including the complete Coriolis force contributes an additional term to the fluid's potential vorticity, which may partially balance the change in sign of f as fluid crosses the equator over suitably shaped bathymetry. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water, which crosses the equator northwards in the western Atlantic ocean where the local bathymetry forms an almost-zonal channel. We show that this bathymetry facilitates the current's equatorial crossing via the action of the "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force. We illustrate this process using both analytical and numerical solutions for flow of an abyssal current over idealised equatorial topography. We also consider the one-dimensional geostrophic adjustment of a body of fluid across the equator, and show that the "non-traditional" contribution to the fluid's angular momentum permits a larger cross-equatorial transport. These results underline the importance of including the complete Coriolis force in studies of the equatorial ocean, particularly in the weakly-stratified abyssal ocean where the non-traditional component is most pronounced.

  4. Feature Selection as a Time and Cost-Saving Approach for Land Suitability Classification (Case Study of Shavur Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamzeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability classification is important in planning and managing sustainable land use. Most approaches to land suitability analysis combine a large number of land and soil parameters, and are time-consuming and costly. In this study, a potentially useful technique (combined feature selection and fuzzy-AHP method to increase the efficiency of land suitability analysis was presented. To this end, three different feature selection algorithms—random search, best search and genetic methods—were used to determine the most effective parameters for land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the Shavur Plain, southwest Iran. Next, land suitability classes were calculated for all methods by using the fuzzy-AHP approach. Salinity (electrical conductivity (EC, alkalinity (exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, wetness and soil texture were selected using the random search method. Gypsum, EC, ESP, and soil texture were selected using both the best search and genetic methods. The result shows a strong agreement between the standard fuzzy-AHP methods and methods presented in this study. The values of Kappa coefficients were 0.82, 0.79 and 0.79 for the random search, best search and genetic methods, respectively, compared with the standard fuzzy-AHP method. Our results indicate that EC, ESP, soil texture and wetness are the most effective features for evaluating land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the study area, and uses of these parameters, together with their appropriate weights as obtained from fuzzy-AHP, can perform good results for land suitability classification. So, the combined feature selection presented and the fuzzy-AHP approach has the potential to save time and money for land suitability classification.

  5. CTD data from the Madeira and Iberian Abyssal Plains. CHARLES DARWIN cruises 3/85 and 9A/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents lists and graphs of CTD data taken aboard RRS Charles Darwin on cruises 3 (May 1985) and 9A (November 1985). The majority of the lowerings were made in support of two experiments; the deployment of deep SOFAR floats and of deep moored current meters, the latter near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W (GME site). All CTD data is compared with reversing thermometer observations, and with determinations of salinity and dissolved oxygen derived from samples. (author)

  6. DOE ZERH Case Study: Hammer and Hand, Pumpkin Ridge Passive House, North Plains, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the marine climate that got a HERS 49 without PV, or HERS 5 with PV, with 2x4 24” on center walls plus 8” exterior cavity together dense-packed with R-60 cellulose; daylight basement with R-29 rigid EPS foam under slab; vented attic with R-86 blown cellulose; minisplit heat pump; ducted with HRV; 15.5 SEER; 10 HSPF.

  7. Geomicrobiology of Archaeal Communities Isolated from an Off-axis Abyssal Hill Fault Scarp on the East Pacific Rise Flank at 9° 27'N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, C. J.; Haymon, R.; Holden, P.; Lamontagne, M.

    2003-12-01

    Although heat flow studies suggest that ~70% of the hydrothermal heat loss in the oceans occurs in the abyssal hill terrain on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges, very few off-axis hydrothermal sites have been discovered. In May 2002, sedimentary blowout structures of probable hydrothermal origin were discovered along East Pacific Rise at 9° 27'N on an off-axis abyssal hill bounded by a fault scarp covered with orange-brown microbial flocculations. Recovered samples of these flocculations have presented an opportunity to study the unknown nature and role of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbial communities on the ridge flanks. Furthermore, the archaeal communities that we have identified in the samples are useful "microbial tracers" which can be used to locate off-axis areas of moderate-to-high temperature fluid flow (>50° C). In this study, we used molecular techniques to isolate, amplify, and sequence community archaeal RNA sequences from fault scarp flocculations collected with a slurp pump system mounted in the Alvin basket. Molecular phylogenies based on 16S rRNA were constructed. Phylogenetic relationships of isolated clones were used to infer temperature preferences of archaeal communities. We identified 12 clones that clustered within thermophilic or hyperthermophilic clades within Archaea suggesting that moderately high temperature fluid (>50° C) exited the seafloor along this abyssal hill fault scarp. Our studies also suggest that these communities mediate the formation of Fe-sulfide mineral phases. Analysis of the samples with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDS) revealed unique iron sulfide mineral phases with anomalously low Fe/S ratios in direct association with microbial communities.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP. PMID:27612146

  9. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuwei Liu

    Full Text Available The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  11. Vitamin D and plain type: a study of male patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, N. L.; Effendy, E.; Amin, MM

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder in which there is an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Evidence related to vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia is aresidence. Because influenced by geographical location this can affect sun exposure to individuals living in the area because the source of vitamin D for humans is exposure to sunlight. For determining differences in serum levels of vitamin D based on residence in the highland and lowland male schizophrenic patient. This study was an analytical study, by RS Jiwa Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Medan, approach to see the comparison 60 samples (30 patients live in the Highland and Lowland). Sample inspection for serum vitamin D using ELFA method. The results showed median levels of vitamin D subjects living in high land Tanah Karo was 22.20ng/mL with minimum-maximum levels of 19.3-34.5ng/mL and in the low land Pemko Medan vitamin D levels higher with median 27.95ng/mL with the minimum-maximum level of vitamin D 20.4-42.6ng/mL. Analysis using the Mann Whitney U test showed significant differences between the levels of vitamin D based on residence with a value of p = 0.001.

  12. Study on modernization processes in the coating metal surfaces (plain bearings by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIMIE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated within the metal coating through thermal spraying allows the understanding of aspects related to the coat structure phenomena, in this case of the routs that need to be followed in order to create strong and stabile connections between the coats subsided through thermal spraying, between the particles that compose those coats, respectively. However, all this knowledge does not ensure the understanding of some practical situations that are apparently paradoxes, as for instance the absence of tin bronze adherence to ignobly steel holders, the perfect adherence of bronze to the aluminum on the same types of holders, in the context in which both elements, tin and aluminum, respectively are found in equal quantity in the two type of bonze that maintain them in solid solutions (below 10%.The parallel study in the sinter antifriction domain has offered information regarding the optimal correlation between the composition of antifriction material and the required type of application, the optimal pinches level and the way that this morphological characteristic may be influenced. By experimental research it is necessary to determine the conditions under which such coverage can be obtained by thermal spraying of the metal coatings.

  13. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  14. Conjunctive Use of Surface and Groundwater with Inter-Basin Transfer Approach: Case Study Piranshahr Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammad Rezapour Tabari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In IRAN, inconsideration to water as a key sustainable development is the water crisis. This problem is the biggest factor for being marginalize planning and long-term management of water. The sustainable development policies in water resources management of IRAN require consideration of the different aspects of management that each of them required the scientific integrated programs. Optimal operation from inter-basin surface and groundwater resources and transfer surplus water to adjacent basins is important from different aspects. The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient optimization model based on inter-basin water resources and restoration of outer-basin water resources. In the proposed model the different three objective function such as inter-basin water supply demand, reduce the amount of water output of the boundary of IRAN and increase water transfer to adjacent basins are considered. In this model, water allocation is done based on consumption and resources priorities and groundwater table level constrain. In this research, the non-dominate sorting genetic algorithm is used for solution developed model because the objectives function and decision variables are complex and nonlinear. The optimal allocation of each water resources and Water transfer to adjacent basin are can be determined by using of proposed model. Based on optimal value and planning horizon, optimal allocation policy presented. The result as shown that applying the optimal operation policy can be transfer considerable volume of water resources within the basin for restoration the outside basin. Based on policy, can be prevented the great flow of water from river border.

  15. Exploring the linkage between drought, high temperatures, and hydrologic sensitivities: A case study of the 2012 Great Plains drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, B.; Hoerling, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of drought is associated with agricultural loss, water supply shortfalls, and other economic impacts. Here we explore the physical relationships between precipitation deficits, high temperatures, and hydrologic responses as a pathway to better anticipate drought impacts. Current methodologies to predict hydrologic scarcity include local monitoring of river flows, remote sensing of land-surface wetness, drought indices, expert judgment, climate indices (e.g. SST-relationships) and the application of hydrologic models. At longer lead times, predictions of drought have most frequently been made on the basis of GCM ensembles, with subsequent downscaling of those to scales over which hydrologic predictions can be made. This study focuses on two important aspects of drought. First, we explore the causal hydro-climatic timeline of a drought event, namely (a) the lack of precipitation, which serves to reduce soil moisture and produce (b) a skewed Bowen ratio, i.e. comparatively more sensible heating (warming) with less ET, resulting in (c) anomalously warm conditions. We seek to assess the extent to which the lack of precipitation contributes to warming temperatures, and the further effects of that warming on hydrology and the severity of drought impacts. An ensemble of GCM simulations will be used to explore the evolution of the land surface energy budget during a recent Great Plains drought event, which will subsequently be used to drive a hydrologic model. Second, we examine the impacts of the critical assumptions relating climatic variables with water demand, specifically the relationship between potential evapotranspiration (PET) and temperature. The common oversimplification in relating PET to temperature is explored against a more physically consistent energy balance estimate of PET, using the Penman-Monteith approach and the hydrologic impacts are presented. Results from this work are anticipated to have broad relevance for future water management

  16. Determination of hydrogeological conditions in large unconfined aquifer: A case study in central Drava plain (NE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keršmanc, Teja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-04-01

    In several countries, many unregulated landfills exits which releasing harmful contaminations to the underlying aquifer. The Kidričevo industrial complex is located in southeastern part of Drava plain in NW Slovenia. In the past during the production of alumina and aluminum approximately 11.2 million tons of wastes were deposit directly on the ground on two landfills covering an area of 61 hectares. Hydrogeological studies were intended to better characterized conditions bellow the landfill. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of Quaternary unconfined aquifer were analyzed with lithological characterization of well logs and cutting debris and XRF diffraction of silty sediments on 9 boreholes. Hydrogeological conditions: hydraulic permeability aquifer was determined with hydraulic tests and laboratory grain size analyses where empirical USBR and Hazen methods were applied. Dynamics of groundwater was determined by groundwater contour maps and groundwater level fluctuations. The impact of landfill was among chemical analyses of groundwater characterised by electrical conductivity measurements and XRF spectrometry of sand sediments. The heterogeneous Quaternary aquifer composed mainly of gravel and sand, is between 38 m and 47.5 m thick. Average hydraulic permeability of aquifer is within the decade 10-3 m/s. Average hydraulic permeability estimated on grain size curves is 6.29*10-3 m/s, and for the pumping tests is 4.0*10-3 m/s. General direction of groundwater flow is from west to east. During high water status the groundwater flow slightly changes flow direction to the southwest and when pumping station in Kidričevo (NW of landfill) is active groundwater flows to northeast. Landfills have significant impact on groundwater quality.

  17. Influence of premium versus value brand names on the smoking experience in a plain packaging environment: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-01-16

    To examine the effect of branding, as indicated by brand name, on evaluation of the cigarette smoking experience. Between-subjects and within-subjects experimental study. Participants were randomly allocated to smoke a cigarette from a pack featuring a premium brand name and a cigarette from a pack featuring a value brand name. Within each condition, participants unknowingly smoked two identical cigarettes (either two premium or two value cigarettes). Australia, October 2014, 2 years after tobacco plain packaging implementation. 81 current cigarette smokers aged 19-39 years. From apparently premium and value brand-name packs, 40 smokers were allocated to smoke the same actual premium cigarettes and 41 were allocated to smoke the same actual value cigarettes. Experienced taste (flavour, satisfaction, enjoyment, quality, liking, mouthfeel and aftertaste), harshness, dryness, staleness, harm/strength measures (strength, tar, lightness, volume of smoke), draw effort and purchase intent. Cigarettes given a premium brand name were rated as having a better taste, were less harsh and less dry than identical cigarettes given a value brand name. This pattern was observed irrespective of whether the two packs actually contained premium or value cigarettes. These effects were specific: the brand name did not influence ratings of cigarette variant attributes (strength, tar, volume of smoke, lightness and draw effort). Despite the belief that brand names represent genuine differences between cigarette products, the results suggest that at least some of this perceived sensory difference is attributable to brand image. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Reclaiming Saline-Sodic Soils Using Electrochemical Processes: A Case Study From Sahl El-Tina Plain, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Fattah Mohamed K.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A leaching experiment was conducted using column techniques assessing efficiency of electrochemical process to reclaim saline-sodic soils. Soil material was collected from Sahl El-Tina plain, which located in North West coast of Sinai, Egypt. The experiment was designed as factorial randomized complete block and all treatments were replicated three times. Two 2.5 cm diameterx30 cm height mild stainless steel tubes were inserted into the soil matrix to serve as electrodes (i.e. cathode and anode. Distance between cathode and anode was 10 cm. Electrodes were supplied by a direct current (DC power supply; Volt ages of 0.3 or 9 Volt. Leaching was done using the intermittent method so as to add portions to the already saturated soil columns, and obtain leachates equal to the added portions. Pore volume 0.1 PV was used in the leaching processes which are equal 498.4 cm3, i.e. PV being volume of pores per column, thus 1 PV equals volume of pores (cm3 expressed as water quantity. Electric remediation increased ionic mobility and separated salts from soil. All treatments decreased soil EC and soil sodicity expressed as SAR and ESP. Results showed that 9 Volt treatment was more effective in decreasing the soil EC and soil sodicity than the other treatments. Efficiency of treatments were 9-Volt > 3-Volt > leaching alone (non-DC treatment. This study suggests that leaching using direct current (DC led to improvement of the chemical properties of saline sodic soils and required a short time to reclaim saline-sodic soils compared with leaching alone.

  19. Mantle melting and melt refertilization beneath the Southwest Indian Ridge: Mineral composition of abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Zhu, Jihao; Chu, Fengyou; Dong, Yan-hui; Liu, Jiqiang; Li, Zhenggang; Zhu, Zhimin; Tang, Limei

    2017-04-01

    As one of the slowest spreading ridges of the global ocean ridge system, the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is characterized by discontinued magmatism. The 53°E segment between the Gallieni fracture zone (FZ) (52°20'E) and the Gazelle FZ (53°30'E) is a typical amagmatic segment (crustal thickness 1cm) Opx, and Mg-rich mineral compositions akin to harzburgite xenoliths that sample old continental lithospheric mantle (Kelemen et al., 1998). Melt refertilization model shows that Group 2 peridotites were affected by an enriched low-degree partial melt from the garnet stability field. These results indicate that depleted mantle which experiences ancient melting event are more sensitive to melt refertilization, thus may reduce the melt flux, leading to extremely thin crust at 53°E segment. This research was granted by the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 programme) (grant No. 2013CB429705) and the Fundamental Research Funds of Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration (JG1603, SZ1507). References: Johnson K T M, Dick H J B, Shimizu N. Melting in the oceanic upper mantle: An ion microprobe study of diopsides in abyssal peridotites[J]. Journal of Geophysical Research, 1990, 95(B3):2661-2678. Kelemen P B, Hart S R, Bernstein S. Silica enrichment in the continental upper mantle via melt/rock reaction[J]. Earth & Planetary Science Letters, 1998, 164(1-2):387-406. Zhou H, Dick H J. Thin crust as evidence for depleted mantle supporting the Marion Rise.[J]. Nature, 2013, 494(7436):195-200.

  20. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  1. Reducing the impact of unplanned urbanization on a riparian ecosystem: a case study on designing a plan for sustainable utilization of flood plains on river Ravi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This work emphasizes that utilization of flood plain must be preceded by a study that shows the extent of the flood plain with the primary objective to management and maintaining the integrity of riparian areas for their multiple values. One such design is presented here where the riparian land is used for designing a municipal waste water treatment plant in order to provide a reward feedback to river Ravi. Since the space is becoming expensive for setting up of a treatment plant, this high risk piece of land instead of being used for land filling and housing schemes should be used for designing multipurpose environmentally sustainable projects. The treatment plant is designed to mimic the functional properties of riparian corridor flood plains. This design is based on integrated series of interconnected basins including a sedimentation basin, infiltration basin and a created wetland. This system would promote ground water recharge and passively remove pollutants through a combination of filtering, settling and biological treatment mechanisms and providing an attractive recreation and learning environment for the community at large. Additionally, benefits of such treatment will allow a direct recycling of water and nutrients for beneficial use; the sewage becomes a valuable natural resource that is not simply disposed of untreated. (author)

  2. PMMA-hydroxyapatite composite material retards fatigue failure of augmented bone compared to augmentation with plain PMMA: in vivo study using a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Bachmaier, Samuel; Geiger, Florian; Rauschmann, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used void filler for augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral fracture, but the differing mechanical features of PMMA and osteoporotic bone result in overload and failure of adjacent bone. The aim of this study was to compare fatigue failure of bone after augmentation with PMMA-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) composite material or with plain PMMA in a sheep model. After characterization of the mechanical properties of a composite material consisting of PMMA and defined amounts (10, 20, and 30% volume fraction) of HA, the composite material with 30% volume fraction HA was implanted in one distal femur of sheep; plain PMMA was implanted in the other femur. Native non-augmented bone served as control. Three and 6 months after implantation, the augmented bone samples were exposed to cyclic loading and the evolution of damage was investigated. The fatigue life was highest for the ovine native bone and lowest for bone-PMMA specimens. Bone-composite specimens showed significantly higher fatigue life than the respective bone-PMMA specimens in both 3- and 6-month follow-up groups. These results suggest that modification of mechanical properties of PMMA by addition of HA to approximate those of cancellous bone retards fatigue failure of the surrounding bone compared to augmented bone with plain PMMA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejiba, Fayçal; Schamper, Cyril; Chevalier, Antoine; Deleplancque, Benoit; Hovhannissian, Gaghik; Thiesson, Julien; Weill, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The La Bassée floodplain area is a large groundwater reservoir controlling most of the water exchanged between local aquifers and hydrographic networks within the Seine River basin (France). Preferential flows depend essentially on the heterogeneity of alluvial plain infilling, whose characteristics are strongly influenced by the presence of mud plugs (paleomeander clayey infilling). These mud plugs strongly contrast with the coarse sand material that composes most of the alluvial plain, and can create permeability barriers to groundwater flows. A detailed knowledge of the global and internal geometry of such paleomeanders can thus lead to a comprehensive understanding of the long-term hydrogeological processes of the alluvial plain. A geophysical survey based on the use of electromagnetic induction was performed on a wide paleomeander, situated close to the city of Nogent-sur-Seine in France. In the present study we assess the advantages of combining several spatial offsets, together with both vertical and horizontal dipole orientations (six apparent conductivities), thereby mapping not only the spatial distribution of the paleomeander derived from lidar data but also its vertical extent and internal variability.

  4. Pesticide use in the wheat-maize double cropping systems of the North China Plain: Assessment, field study, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, Bentje; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang; Bjerg, Poul L

    2018-03-01

    In the North China Plain (NCP), rising inputs of pesticides have intensified the environmental impact of farming activities in recent decades by contributing to surface water and groundwater contamination. In response to this, the Chinese government imposed stricter regulations on pesticide approval and application, and better monitoring strategies are being developed. However, sufficient and well-directed research on the accumulation and impact of different pesticides is needed for informed decision-making. In this study, current pesticide use, and recent and current research on water contamination by pesticides in the NCP are reviewed and assessed. Additionally, a small-scale field study was performed to determine if residuals from currently-used pesticides in the NCP can be detected in surface water, and in connected shallow groundwater. The contaminants of interest were commonly used pesticides on winter wheat-summer maize fields (the dominant cropping system in the NCP), such as 2,4-D and atrazine. Sampling took place in May, July, and October 2013; and March 2014. Results from our literature research showed that sampling is biased towards surface water monitoring. Furthermore, most studies focus on organic chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) like the isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), which were banned in China in 1983. However, currently-used herbicides like 2,4-D and atrazine were detected in river water and groundwater in all samplings of our field study. The highest concentrations of 2,4-D and atrazine were found in the river water, ranging up to 3.00 and 0.96μg/L, respectively. The monitoring of banned compounds was found to be important because several studies indicate that they are still accumulating in the environment and/or are still illegally in use. However, supported by our own data, we find that the monitoring in groundwater and surface water of currently permitted pesticides in China needs equal

  5. Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, ZhiQiang; Lin, Weili; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiaobin; Fuentes, Jose D.; Xue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP), to the east of the Loess Plateau, experiences severe regional air pollution. During the daytime in the summer, the Loess Plateau acts as an elevated heat source. The impacts of such a thermal effect on meteorological phenomena (e.g., waves, precipitation) in this region have been discussed. However, its impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality have not been reported. It is hypothesized that the thermal effect of the Plateau likely modulates the boundary layer structure and ambient concentrations of pollutants over the NCP under certain meteorological conditions. Thus, this study investigates such effect and its impacts using measurements and three-dimensional model simulations. It is found that in the presence of daytime westerly wind in the lower troposphere (∼ 1 km above the NCP), warmer air above the Loess Plateau was transported over the NCP and imposed a thermal inversion above the mixed boundary layer, which acted as a lid and suppressed the mixed layer growth. As a result, pollutants accumulated in the shallow mixed layer and ozone was efficiently produced. The downward branch of the thermally-induced Mountain-Plains Solenoid circulation over the NCP contributed to enhancing the capping inversion and exacerbating air pollution. Previous studies have reported that low mixed layer, a factor for elevated pollution in the NCP, may be caused by aerosol scattering and absorption of solar radiation, frontal inversion, and large scale subsidence. The present study revealed a different mechanism (i.e., westerly warm advection) for the suppression of the mixed layer in summer NCP, which caused severe O 3 pollution. This study has important implications for understanding the essential meteorological factors for pollution episodes in this region and forecasting these severe events. - Highlights: • Low mixed layer exacerbates air pollution over the North China Plain (NCP) • Warm advection from the Loess

  6. Does deep ocean mixing drive upwelling or downwelling of abyssal waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, R. M.; McDougall, T. J.; Mashayek, A.; Nikurashin, M.; Campin, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    It is generally understood that small-scale mixing, such as is caused by breaking internal waves, drives upwelling of the densest ocean waters that sink to the ocean bottom at high latitudes. However the observational evidence that the turbulent fluxes generated by small-scale mixing in the stratified ocean interior are more vigorous close to the ocean bottom than above implies that small-scale mixing converts light waters into denser ones, thus driving a net sinking of abyssal water. Using a combination of numerical models and observations, it will be shown that abyssal waters return to the surface along weakly stratified boundary layers, where the small-scale mixing of density decays to zero. The net ocean meridional overturning circulation is thus the small residual of a large sinking of waters, driven by small-scale mixing in the stratified interior, and a comparably large upwelling, driven by the reduced small-scale mixing along the ocean boundaries.

  7. An isotopic approach to study the recharge mechanism in Haripur plain contribution to the area from Tarbela and Khanpur lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Khan, I.H.; Ahmad, M.; Akram, W.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental isotopic investigation were carried out in Haripur plain to determine the recharge mechanism in the area. The Haripur plain is bounded by river Doar (that falls in Tarbela lake) in the north mountain ranges in the east and west, while the river Haro flows on the south eastern boundary upon which Khanpur dam has been built. Effort were made to identify the different sources which recharge the aquifer in the area. Isotopic data reveals that the major source of recharge is the rainfall on adjoining hills There is no contribution of Tarbela and Khanpur lakes. The residence time varies from a few years to more than fifty years depending upon the geology of the area. 14 figs. (author)

  8. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  10. Glacial magnetite dissolution in abyssal NW Pacific sediments - evidence for carbon trapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korff, Lucia; von Dobeneck, Tilo; Frederichs, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Kuhn, Gerhard; Gersonde, Rainer; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The abyssal North Pacific Ocean's large volume, depth, and terminal position on the deep oceanic conveyor make it a candidate site for deep carbon trapping as postulated by climate theory to explain the massive glacial drawdown of atmospheric CO2. As the major basins of the North Pacific have depths of 5500-6500m, far below the modern and glacial Calcite Compensation Depths (CCD), these abyssal sediments are carbonate-free and therefore not suitable for carbonate-based paleoceanographic proxy reconstructions. Instead, paleo-, rock and environmental magnetic methods are generally well applicable to hololytic abyssal muds and clays. In 2009, the international paleoceanographic research cruise SO 202 INOPEX ('Innovative North Pacific Experiment') of the German RV SONNE collected two ocean-spanning EW sediment core transects of the North Pacific and Bering Sea recovering a total of 50 piston and gravity cores from 45 sites. Out of seven here considered abyssal Northwest Pacific piston cores collected at water depths of 5100 to 5700m with mostly coherent shipboard susceptibility logs, the 20.23m long SO202-39-3, retrieved from 5102 m water depth east of northern Shatsky Rise (38°00.70'N, 164°26.78'E), was rated as the stratigraphically most promising record of the entire core transect and selected for detailed paleo- and environmental magnetic, geochemical and sedimentological investigations. This core was dated by correlating its RPI and Ba/Ti records to well-dated reference records and obviously provides a continuous sequence of the past 940 kyrs. The most striking orck magnetic features are coherent magnetite-depleted zones corresponding to glacial periods. In the interglacial sections, detrital, volcanic and even submicron bacterial magnetite fractions are excellently preserved. These alternating magnetite preservation states seem to reflect dramatic oxygenation changes in the deep North Pacific Ocean and hint at large-scale benthic glacial carbon trapping

  11. A Qualitative and Quantitative Study of the Distribution of Pelagic Sediment in the Atlantic Basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webb, Helen

    1997-01-01

    By numerically modeling pelagic sedimentation as a diffusive process, we study sedimentation effects in terms of stochastic parameters including seafloor RMS height, abyssal hill spacing, and slope distribution...

  12. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  13. Using Plain Language and Adding Communication Technology to an Existing Health-Related Questionnaire to Help Generate Accurate Information: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbie, Marlies; Wittink, Harriet; Westerman, Marjan J; Topper, Ilse; Snoei, Josca; Devillé, Walter Ljm

    2018-04-23

    Low-educated patients are disadvantaged in using questionnaires within the health care setting because most health-related questionnaires do not take the educational background of patients into account. The Dutch Talking Touch Screen Questionnaire (DTTSQ) was developed in an attempt to meet the needs of low-educated patients by using plain language and adding communication technology to an existing paper-based questionnaire. For physical therapists to use the DTTSQ as part of their intake procedure, it needs to generate accurate information from all of their patients, independent of educational level. The aim of this study was to get a first impression of the information that is generated by the DTTSQ. To achieve this goal, response processes of physical therapy patients with diverse levels of education were analyzed. The qualitative Three-Step Test-Interview method was used to collect observational data on actual response behavior of 24 physical therapy patients with diverse levels of education. The interviews included both think-aloud and retrospective probing techniques. Of the 24 respondents, 20 encountered one or more problems during their response process. The use of plain language and information and communication technology (ICT) appeared to have a positive effect on the comprehensibility of the DTTSQ. However, it also had some negative effects on the interpretation, retrieval, judgment, and response selection within the response processes of the participants in this study. No educational group in this research population stood out from the rest in the kind or number of problems that arose. All respondents recognized themselves in the outcomes of the questionnaire. The use of plain language and ICT within the DTTSQ had both positive and negative effects on the response processes of its target population. The results of this study emphasize the importance of earlier recommendations to accompany any adaption of any questionnaire to a new mode of delivery by

  14. Contribution to the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic study of Ain El Beidha and Merguellil (Kairouan plain) aquifers: Implication for the dam-aquifer relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Safouan

    2007-01-01

    In the semiarid central part of Tunisia the water resources are becoming increasingly rare because of the scarcity and irregularity of the precipitation and a steadily growing need for fresh water. This study addresses the use of geochemical and isotopic data to analyze the relationship between the El Haouareb dam and the Ain El Beidha and the Kairouan alluvial plain aquifers systems for durable groundwater management. In the Ain El Beidha basin the hydrogeological and geochemical investigations showed that: - The general direction of the groundwater flow is mainly from the SW to the NE, i.e. towards the hydraulic sill of El Haouareb which allows the connection between the Ain El Beidha basin and the Kairouan plain, - The salinity distribution displays a zonation in apparent relationship with the lithological variation of the aquifer formation, - Mineral exchange between groundwater and the aquifer matrix is the dominant process in determining groundwater salinity. The isotopic data confirm the flow directions of groundwater and shows that the recharge of Ain El Beidha aquifers takes place from the floods of the Khechem and Ben Zitoun wadies and also by preferential infiltration of runoff at the front of hill slopes area. Close to preferential recharge areas, groundwater 3H contents reflect a recent input of surface water, whereas the radiocarbon data indicate a longer residence time downstream. The isotopic characteristics of Ain El Beidha groundwater (small space and temporal changes) authorize the use of averaged values for the dam-aquifer water exchange. Under natural conditions, groundwater recharge of the alluvial aquifer of Kairouan plain occurs by infiltration of the Merguellil floods and from the Ain el Beidha groundwater flow close the karstic hydraulic sills. Since the construction of the El Haouareb dam, these natural mechanisms have been strongly modified: the dam waters infiltrate into the karst, mix with the Ain el Beidha groundwater, and feed the

  15. Study on the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation based on a 3-D fully coupled poroelastic model: An example of the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H.; Zhang, H.; Pang, Y. J.; Shi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    With the quick urban development, over-exploitation of groundwater resources becomes more and more intense, which leads to not only widespread groundwater depression cones but also a series of harsh environmental and geological hazards. Among which, the most intuitive phenomenon is the ground subsidence in loose sediments. However, another direct consequence triggered by the groundwater depletion is the substantial crustal deformation and potential modulation of crustal stress underneath the groundwater over-pumping zones. In our previous 3-D viscoelastic finite element model, we found that continuous over-exploitation of groundwater resources in North China Plain during the past 60 years give rise to crustal-scale uplift reaching 4.9cm, with the Coulomb failure stress decreasing by up to 12 kPa, which may inhibit the nucleation of possible big earthquake events. Furthermore, according to the effective pressure principle and lab experiments, the pore pressure may also have changed due to the reduced water level. In order to quantitatively analyze the stress changes due to the regional groundwater exploitation in North China Plain, a three-dimensional fully coupled poroelastic finite element model is developed in this study. The high resolution topography, grounwater level fluctuation, fault parameters and etc, are taken into consideration. Further, the changes of Coulomb Failure Stress, in correspondence to elastic stress and pore pressure changes induced by fluid diffusion are calculated. Meanwhile, the elastic strain energy accumulation in region due to the regional groundwater exploitation is obtained. Finally, we try to analyze the seismic risk of major faults within North China Plain to further discuss the regional seismic activities.

  16. Attributing regional trends of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity with remote sensing: a case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xingguo; Chen, Xuejuan; Hu, Shi; Liu, Suxia; Xia, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Attributing changes in evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP) is crucial for impact and adaptation assessment of the agro-ecosystems to climate change. Simulations with the VIP model revealed that annual ET and GPP slightly increased from 1981 to 2013 over the North China Plain. The tendencies of both ET and GPP were upward in the spring season, while they were weak and downward in the summer season. A complete factor analysis illustrated that the relative contributions of climatic change, CO2 fertilization, and management to the ET (GPP) trend were 56 (-32) %, -28 (25) %, and 68 (108) %, respectively. The decline of global radiation resulted from deteriorated aerosol and air pollution was the principal cause of GPP decline in summer, while air warming intensified the water cycle and advanced the plant productivity in the spring season. Generally, agronomic improvements were the principal drivers of crop productivity enhancement.

  17. The characteristic and influence factors of extinction depth of shallow groundwater on the high-latitude region: a case study on the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of extinction depth of shallow groundwater (EDSG) and identification of its influence factors are important for sustainable management of groundwater resources, ecological protection, and human health in intensively irrigated region. In this study, the ratio of actual groundwater depth and EDSG (RAE) method was used to understand the spatial variability of EDSG in the Sanjiang Plain, one of China's largest grain production bases and China's largest inland freshwater wetland region. The study showed a large spatial variation of EDSG in the region. Spatially, the sites, which were in the northeast and center had the deepest and the shallowest EDSG, whereby, indicate that it has higher and lower pumping potential capacity. Many factors including climate, soil parameters, vegetation and topography affected the EDSG. We also identified an area of 3.86 × 10 10  m 2 , which accounting for 35.3% of the entire Sanjiang Plain, has exceeded the ESGD by over exploited for years. Knowledge of the variation and influence factors of EDSG for a certain plant system and the current shallow groundwater condition in the higher latitude region can be a key to the development of preventive actions for large quantity pumping groundwater and protection regional and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  18. Study of Ground water Groundwater Potentiality and Sea Water Intrusion Along along the Coastal Plain, Wadi Thuwal, KSA- A Case Study Based on DC Resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour A. Al-Garni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study mainly aims to outline zones that have groundwater potentiality with good quality and those which are affected by sea water intrusion. The electrical resistivity data were acquired over an area of about 170 km2 of a coastal plain, Wadi Thuwal, which is bounded by the Red Sea in the west and the volcanic hills in the east.  In such an area, resistivity measurements, using n-layering model, reveal generally reveal a wide range of resistivity values which do not reflect the reality. Hence, the statistical analysis has to be involved to overcome this problem and to make the final interpretation reliable.  In our case, the n-layer models were modified to another statistical geoelectric models (SLM, consisting of  a number of layers equivalent to the stratigraphic layering beneath each VES site. The modified models were used to outline the depth to the bed rock, groundwater accumulation zones and  water table as well as to define the effect of sea water intrusion through the study area. Check alignment above

  19. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  20. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  1. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Orlando; Romanelli, Asuncion; Martinez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km 2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  3. Tectonic origin of serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical signatures of abyssal origin preserved in a HP/LT subduction complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperdock, Emily H. G.; Raia, Natalie H.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

    2018-01-01

    This study combines whole rock trace and major element geochemistry, and stable isotope (δD and δ18O) analyses with petrographic observations to deduce the origin and tectonic setting of serpentinization of ultramafic blocks from the exhumed HP/LT Aegean subduction complex on Syros, Greece. Samples are completely serpentinized and are characterized by mineral assemblages that consist of variable amounts of serpentine, talc, chlorite, and magnetite. δD and δ18O values of bulk rock serpentinite powders and chips (δD = - 64 to - 33‰ and δ18O = + 5.2 to + 9.0‰) reflect hydration by seawater at temperatures serpentinization by seawater, followed by secondary fluid-rock interactions with a sedimentary source pre- or syn-subduction. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses record limited melt extraction, exhibit flat REE patterns, and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. The geochemical signatures preserved in these serpentinites argue against a mantle wedge source, as has been previously speculated for ultramafic rocks on Syros. Rather, the data are consistent with derivation from abyssal peridotites in a hyper-extended margin setting or mid-ocean ridge and fracture zone environment. In either case, the data suggest an extensional and/or oceanic origin associated with the Cretaceous opening of the Pindos Ocean and not a subduction-related derivation from the mantle wedge.

  4. Into the Abyss: The Case of the Collapsing Sinkhole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsvath, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a case study to teach about the relationship between sinkhole development and groundwater levels in Orlando, Florida. Discusses the relationship between groundwater levels and sinkhole formation in a karst terrane. Includes discussion questions. (YDS)

  5. Metabolic rates are significantly lower in abyssal Holothuroidea than in shallow-water Holothuroidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes. Here, we present metabolic rates of Holothuroidea, a non-visual benthic and benthopelagic echinoderm class, determined in situ at abyssal depths (greater than 4000 m depth). Mean temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate did not differ significantly between shallow-water (less than 200 m depth) and bathyal (200–4000 m depth) holothurians, but was significantly lower in abyssal (greater than 4000 m depth) holothurians than in shallow-water holothurians. These results support the dominance of the visual interactions hypothesis at bathyal depths, but indicate that ecological or evolutionary pressures other than biotic visual interactions contribute to bathymetric variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Multiple nonlinear regression assuming power or exponential models indicates that in situ hydrostatic pressure and/or food/chemical energy availability are responsible for variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Consequently, these results have implications for modelling deep-sea energetics and processes. PMID:29892403

  6. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-01-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ( 40 K). However, 137 Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations

  7. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  8. Case study of developing an integrated water and nitrogen scheme for agricultural systems on the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Tao, F.; Luo, Y.; Ma, J.

    2013-12-01

    Appropriate irrigation and nitrogen fertilization, along with suitable crop management strategies, are essential prerequisites for optimum yields in agricultural systems. This research attempts to provide a scientific basis for sustainable agricultural production management for the North China Plain and other semi-arid regions. Based on a series of 72 treatments over 2003-2008, an optimized water and nitrogen scheme for winter wheat/summer maize cropping system was developed. Integrated systems incorporating 120 mm of water with 80 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Hebei and 120 mm of water with 120 kg N ha-1 were used to simulate winter wheat yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Similarly, integrated treatments of 40 kg N ha-1 N fertilizer were used to simulate summer maize yields in Hebei, and 80 kg N ha-1 was used to simulate summer maize yields in Shandong and Henan provinces in 2000-2007. Under the optimized scheme, 341.74 107 mm ha-1 of water and 575.79 104 Mg of urea fertilizer could be saved per year under the wheat/maize rotation system. Despite slight drops in the yields of wheat and maize in some areas, water and fertilizer saving has tremendous long-term eco-environmental benefits.

  9. Marine diatom study and stratigraphy of cenozoic sediments in the coastal plain between Morro da Jureia and Barra do Una, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant-Vildary, S.; Soguio, K.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of sediments obtained from cores of four wells drilled by Nuclebras, in the coastal plain of State of Sao Paulo, have been here studied from diatom flora viewpoint. The irregular surface of the crystalline pre-Cambrian basements rocks is locally covered by the Pliocene Pariquera-Acu Formation - like deposits, whose contact with the Quaternary sediments is flat, being situated about 40 m bellow the present sea-level. The contact between the Holocene Santos Formation and the probable Pleistocene Cananeia Formation is very difficult to be recognized. It has been tentatively established based on two radiocarbon ages. Dominantly clayey-silty intervals from the wells F-003 and F-004, probably related to the Cananeia Formation, have been selectively sampled and studied for definition of their diatom flora assemblage. (author)

  10. Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, ZhiQiang; Lin, Weili; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiaobin; Fuentes, Jose D; Xue, Ming

    2014-11-15

    The North China Plain (NCP), to the east of the Loess Plateau, experiences severe regional air pollution. During the daytime in the summer, the Loess Plateau acts as an elevated heat source. The impacts of such a thermal effect on meteorological phenomena (e.g., waves, precipitation) in this region have been discussed. However, its impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality have not been reported. It is hypothesized that the thermal effect of the Plateau likely modulates the boundary layer structure and ambient concentrations of pollutants over the NCP under certain meteorological conditions. Thus, this study investigates such effect and its impacts using measurements and three-dimensional model simulations. It is found that in the presence of daytime westerly wind in the lower troposphere (~1 km above the NCP), warmer air above the Loess Plateau was transported over the NCP and imposed a thermal inversion above the mixed boundary layer, which acted as a lid and suppressed the mixed layer growth. As a result, pollutants accumulated in the shallow mixed layer and ozone was efficiently produced. The downward branch of the thermally-induced Mountain-Plains Solenoid circulation over the NCP contributed to enhancing the capping inversion and exacerbating air pollution. Previous studies have reported that low mixed layer, a factor for elevated pollution in the NCP, may be caused by aerosol scattering and absorption of solar radiation, frontal inversion, and large scale subsidence. The present study revealed a different mechanism (i.e., westerly warm advection) for the suppression of the mixed layer in summer NCP, which caused severe O3 pollution. This study has important implications for understanding the essential meteorological factors for pollution episodes in this region and forecasting these severe events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of long-term land subsidence by combination of InSAR and time series analysis - Application study to Kanto Plains of Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T.; Rokugawa, S.; Matsushima, J.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR is an application technique of synthetic aperture radars and is now drawing attention as a methodology capable of measuring subtle surface deformation over a wide area with a high spatial resolution. In this study, the authors applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by combining InSAR and time series analysis to Kanto Plains of Japan using 28 images of ENVISAT/ASAR data. In this measuring method, the value of land deformation is set as an unknown parameter and the optimal solution to the land deformation amount is derived by applying a smoothness-constrained inversion algorithm. The vicinity of the Kanto Plain started to subside in the 1910s, and became exposed to extreme land subsidence supposedly in accordance with the reconstruction efforts after the Second World War and the economic development activities. The main causes of the land subsidence include the intake of underground water for the use in industries, agriculture, waterworks, and other fields. In the Kujukuri area, the exploitation of soluble natural gas also counts. The Ministry of Environment reported in its documents created in fiscal 2006 that a total of 214 km2 in Tokyo and the six prefectures around the Plain had undergone a subsidence of 1 cm or more per a year. As a result of long-term land subsidence over approximately five and a half years from 13th January, 2003, to 30th June, 2008, unambiguous land deformation was detected in six areas: (i) Haneda Airport, (ii) Urayasu City, (iii) Kasukabe-Koshigaya, (iv) Southern Kanagawa, (v) Toride-Ryugasaki, and (vi) Kujukuri in Chiba Prefecture. In particular, the results for the Kujukuri area were compared with the leveling data taken around the same area to verify the measuring accuracy. The comparative study revealed that the regression formula between the results obtained by time series analysis and those by the leveling can be expressed as a straight line with a gradient of approximately 1, though including a bias of about

  12. Tipping into the abyss: with more than a virtual parachute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tompsett

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Any application of information and communication technology in education (ICTE sits, at times uncomfortably, at the intersection of three key disciplines: technology, education and sociology (including reflexivity. To confuse matters, any specific study may need to take account of specific knowledge within subdisciplines, such as organisational management and technology transfer, and of knowledge within the domain of application (e.g. nursing, social work, fashion, etc.. Researchers must build a consistent model of knowledge that can integrate disparate methodologies, research goals and even conflicting interpretations of the same terminology. Without this, the ICTE research field will be dominated by what is simply novel, irrespective of the relevance of particular changes to educational practice. If existing models in this field are as limited as suggested by Moule, when should lecturers and teachers, with no motivation to use technology for its own sake and no additional financial support, review progress in this field for effective examples of innovative practice, let alone wide-scale change? On most of the criteria that could be introduced to compare two papers, the views of Moule and Salmon appear almost diametrically opposed and a detailed comparison would seem of limited value. Instead, this paper asks a more fundamental question: what could be the basis within this research community for establishing coherence within the field and ensuring that research can justify actual changes in educational practice?

  13. Variation horizontale du flux particulaire à micro- et méso-échelle dans la plaine abyssale de Californie (4 100 m de profondeur)

    OpenAIRE

    Crassous, Philippe; Khripounoff, Alexis

    1994-01-01

    Nine sediment traps were assembled in triplicate on a frame and deployed at 100 m above the bottom in the California abyssal plain (4 100 m depth) for ten days. The distances between traps were from 30 cm to 11 km. The main flux measured during this period was 167 mg m(-2) day(-1) with a minimum of 43 mg m(-2) d(-1) and a maximum of 283 mg m(-2) d(-1). This high variation of the particulate flux at the kilometric scale was also observed at a metric scale: for example, the particulate flux mea...

  14. Physiological response to chemical immobilization: a case study of etorphine-azaperone in free-ranging plains zebra (Equus quagga in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Vitali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictable immobilization of wild zebras is challenging and there is massive variation in opiate response within different species. Etorphine combined with azaperone is considered the protocol of choice, but no studies have investigated the physiological response to this procedure of immobilization in plains zebras.   Eleven free-ranging plains zebras (Equus quagga were immobilized in Kenya using a combination of etorphine 0.019 ± 0.003 mg/kg and azaperone 0.27 ± 0.05 mg/kg administered intramuscularly with a projectile dart. After recumbency, an arterial sample was performed for blood gas analysis and physiological parameters were recorded every five minutes. Descriptive scores were given to the exertion resulting from high-speed chasing and to the quality of induction, immobilization and recovery. Diprenorphine or naltrexone were used for opioid antagonism.   In all zebras, the combination induced quick inductions within 3.5 ± 0.8 minutes and provided reliable recumbencies without attempts to stand for the entire duration of the immobilization. The average heart rates, respiratory rates and mean arterial blood pressure recorded were 102 ± 42 beats/minute, 18 ± 4 breaths/minute and 145 ± 28 mmHg respectively. Arterial gas analyses demonstrated mild to severe and partially compensated metabolic acidosis and hypoxia, while electrolytes were within equids range. In particular, higher exertion levels during the chasing were significantly correlated to worse immobilization scores (p=0.008 and hyperthermia occurrence (p=0.0012 and non-significantly to more severe acidosis. Recoveries from anaesthesia were smooth, on average 121 ± 38 seconds after diprenorphine/naltrexone administration.             Etorphine-azaperone combination produced physiological alterations in free-ranging plains zebra such as tachycardia, hypertension, metabolic acidosis and hypoxemia. However, these preliminary results indicate that high-speed chase

  15. Three new species of deep-sea Gromia (Protista, Rhizaria) from the bathyal and abyssal Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, Nina; Gooday, Andrew J.; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We describe three new species of the genus Gromia from bathyal and abyssal depths in the Weddell Sea. The new species are characterized by a combination of morphological and molecular criteria. All three species possess a distinct oral capsule and a layer of ‘honeycomb membranes’, which form the ...

  16. Has phytodetritus processing by an abyssal soft-sediment community recovered 26 years after an experimental disturbance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratmann, T.; Mevenkamp, L.; Sweetman, A.K.; Vanreusel, A.; van Oevelen, D.

    2018-01-01

    The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The

  17. Groundwater overexploitation: why is the red flag waved? Case study on the Kairouan plain aquifer (central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Riaux, Jeanne

    2017-09-01

    In many parts of the world, groundwater users regularly face serious resource-depletion threat. At the same time, "groundwater overexploitation" is massively cited when discussing groundwater management problems. A kind of standard definition tends to relegate groundwater overexploitation only as a matter of inputs and outputs. However, a thorough state-of-the-art analysis shows that groundwater overexploitation is not only a matter of hydrogeology but also a qualification of exploitation based on political, social, technical, economic or environmental criteria. Thus, an aquifer with no threat to groundwater storage can rightly be considered as overexploited because of many other prejudicial aspects. So, why is groundwater overexploitation so frequently only associated with resource-depletion threat and so rarely related to other prejudicial aspects? In that case, what really lies behind the use of the overexploitation concept? The case of the Kairouan plain aquifer in central Tunisia was used to analyze the way that the overexploitation message emerges in a given context, how groundwater-use stakeholders (farmers, management agencies and scientists) each qualify the problem in their own way, and how they see themselves with regard to the concept of overexploitation. The analysis shows that focusing messages on overexploitation conceals the problems encountered by the various stakeholders: difficulties accessing water, problems for the authorities in controlling the territory and individual practices, and complications for scientists when qualifying hydrological situations. The solutions put forward to manage overexploitation are at odds with the problems that arise locally, triggering tensions and leading to misunderstandings between the parties involved.

  18. A randomly-controlled study on the cardiac function at the early stage of return to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiquan Zhou

    Full Text Available High altitude acclimatization and adaptation mechanisms have been well clarified, however, high altitude de-adaptation mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a controlled study on cardiac functions in 96 healthy young male who rapidly entered the high altitude (3700 m and returned to the plains (1500 m after 50 days. Ninety eight healthy male who remained at low altitude were recruited as control group. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, cardiac function index (Tei index were tested. Levels of serum creatine kinase isoform MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-1 (LDH-1, endothelin-1 (ET-1, nitrogen oxide (NO, serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α (8-iso PGF(2α, superoxide dismutase (SOD and malonaldehyde (MDA were measured at an altitude of 3700 m and 1500 m respectively. The results showed that after short-term exposure to high altitude mPAP and Tei index increased significantly, while LVEF and LVFS decreased significantly. These changes were positively correlated with altitude. On the 15(th day after the subjects returned to low altitude, mPAP, LVEF and LVFS levels returned to the same level as those of the control subjects, but the Tei index in the returned subjects was still significantly higher than that in the control subjects (P<0.01. We also found that changes in Tei index was positively correlated with mPAP, ET-1, HIF-1α and 8-iso PGF(2α levels, and negatively correlated with the level of NO, LVEF, LVFS, CK-MB and LDH-1. These findings suggest that cardiac function de-adapts when returning to the plains after short-term exposure to high altitude and the function recovery takes a relatively long time.

  19. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G; Andrade, Antonio C S; Richardson, David M

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20-40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (<2 % of soil moisture) or deep shade. Growth was greater in sunny than in shady conditions. Although a low degree of phenotypic plasticity is important in habitats with multiple stress factors, this species exhibited high germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and

  20. A case study of an axillary artery pseudoaneurysm following anterior dislocation of the glenohumeral joint: A rare presentation on plain film radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittam, Katie; Hardy, Maryann

    2007-01-01

    Axillary pseudoaneurysm is a rare but important complication of anterior glenohumeral joint dislocation. Diagnosis of axillary pseudoaneurysm is predominantly undertaken following clinical examination but where diagnosis is uncertain, Doppler ultrasound is the imaging examination of choice to confirm diagnosis. In this case study, the initial clinical signs of axillary pseudoaneurysm were masked by the presenting trauma and, although findings indicative of pseudoaneurysm were present on late plain film images, they were not immediately recognised. Misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of axillary pseudoaneurysm may result in upper limb morbidity or patient mortality. Consequently, the prompt and accurate identification of an axillary pseudoaneurysm on plain film radiographs, although rare, is essential. Yet for inexperienced film readers, correctly identifying an axillary pseudoaneurysm can be difficult due to its apparent similarity to other pathologies. This article will highlight the differences in radiological appearances between a pseudoaneurysm and a gleno-humeral joint effusion to raise radiographer awareness of the risks and clinical signs of an axillary pseudoaneurysm post gleno-humeral joint dislocation and discuss the difficulties encountered in its diagnosis. Finally, this review will evaluate current diagnostic practices in comparison with best practice, as identified in the literature [Fitzgerald JF, Keates J. False aneurysm as a late complication of anterior shoulder dislocation. Ann Surg 1975;6:785-6; Drury JK, Scullion JE. Vascular complications of anterior dislocation of the shoulder. Br J Surg 1980;67(8):579-81. Waxman DL, France MP, Douglas T, Harryman I. Late lateral displacement of the humeral head after closed reduction of dislocation: a sign of vascular injury. J Bone Joint Surg 1996;78(6):907-10

  1. Experimental assessment of factors mediating the naturalization of a globally invasive tree on sandy coastal plains: a case study from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Thalita G.; Andrade, Antonio C. S.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-01-01

    As all naturalized species are potential invaders, it is important to better understand the determinants of naturalization of alien plants. This study sought to identify traits that enable the alien tree Casuarina equisetifolia to overcome barriers to survival and reproductive and to become naturalized on sandy coastal plains. Restinga vegetation in Brazil was used as a model system to conceptualize and quantify key stressors (high temperature, solar radiation, drought and salinity) which can limit the initial establishment of the plants. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of these environmental factors on seed persistence in the soil (field), germination (laboratory), survival, growth, phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic integration (greenhouse). Results show that the expected viability of the seeds in the soil was 50 months. Seeds germinated in a similar way in constant and alternating temperatures (20–40 °C), except at 40 °C. Low light, and water and salt stresses reduced germination, but seeds recovered germination when stress diminished. Young plants did not tolerate water stress (<2 % of soil moisture) or deep shade. Growth was greater in sunny than in shady conditions. Although a low degree of phenotypic plasticity is important in habitats with multiple stress factors, this species exhibited high germination plasticity, although young plants showed low plasticity. The positive effect of phenotypic integration on plastic expression in the shade shows that in stressful environments traits that show greater phenotypic plasticity values may have significant phenotypic correlations with other characters, which is an important factor in the evolutionary ecology of this invasive species. Long-term seed persistence in the soil, broad germination requirements (temperature and light conditions) and the capacity to survive in a wide range of light intensity favours its naturalization. However, C. equisetifolia did not tolerate water stress and

  2. Marine geophysical studies along a transect across the continental margin off Bombay coast, west of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Ramana, M.V.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A; Ramprasad, T.

    upto 1.0-1.2 s TWT in the shelf and slope regions. Abrupt truncation of reflectors within the upper sequences of the slope resulting in `V` shaped troughs and continuous parallel reflections of increased areal extent in the abyssal plains are also...

  3. Hydrochemistry and isotope geochemistry as management tools for groundwater resources in multilayer aquifers: A study case from the Po plain (Lomellina, South-Western Lombardy, Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilla, G; Sacchi, E; Ciancetti, G; Braga, G [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Zuppi, G M [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia, Venice (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    Full text: The Po plain, located in Northern Italy, hosts a multi-layer alluvial aquifer of Quaternary age constituted by sands interbedded with clays. The plain supports most of the agricultural and industrial activities of Northern Italy, which are associated with groundwater pollution in the shallower portions of the aquifer. The increasing demand of water for industrial and domestic use has led to the exploitation of deeper layers of the aquifer, without a rational management of the resource. Only in the last decade, the government agencies have started a global evaluation of the quality standards of pumped groundwater, urged by the increasing need for clean water for domestic use. The task is particularly difficult because of missing or approximate well logs and the presence of multi-filter wells tapping in different aquifers. In this case the chemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwaters is the only reliable tool to reconstruct the geometry, the interconnections and the characteristics of the aquifers. This study, promoted by the local agency for groundwater management and protection (Amministrazione Provinciale di Pavia, settore tutela e valorizzazione ambientale - U.O.C. Acqua) focused on a limited portion of the Po plain, the Lomellina region, of approximately 900 km{sup 2}. The region is bound to the South by the Po river, to the East and West by the Sesia and the Ticino rivers respectively, and to the North by the administrative boundary. The study aimed at the hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the aquifers, allowing to serve as basis for the correct management of the groundwater resource. A preliminary reconstruction of the hydrogeological asset of the Lomellina plain was performed through the analysis of the stratigraphic data from 102 municipal wells. On this basis, a shallow phreatic aquifer, reaching depths of about 50-60 m from the surface, and two groups of aquifers containing confined groundwater, were

  4. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  5. Migration of chlorinated hydrocarbons in multilayer unconsolidated porous media: a case study from the Po Plain, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filippini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated solvents are the most ubiquitous organic contaminants found in groundwater since the last six decades. Due to their high degree of carcinogenicity/toxicity and the relatively high mobility and persistence, they represent a serious threat against the human health and the environment. These contaminants generally reach groundwater as Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL that can migrate through aquifers easier than aqueous contaminants. The complex phase partitioning to which chlorinated solvent DNAPLs can undergo (i.e. to the dissolved, vapor or sorbed phase, as well as their transformations (e.g. degradation, depend on the physico-chemical properties of the contaminants and on the features of the hydrogeological system in which they migrate. The hydrogeologic setting below the city of Ferrara (Po plain, northern Italy, which is affected by scattered contamination by chlorinated solvents, has been investigated. In particular, a limited-inspace high-resolution investigation was performed in one selected contaminated test-site, known as “Caretti site”. Here, high-resolution vertical profiling of different kind of data (i.e. stratigraphic data, hydraulic heads, hydrochemical composition of water, stable isotopes of water and contaminants were collected by means of multilevel monitoring systems and other innovative sampling and analytical techniques. The main goals of the research were to assess the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifers and to identify the dynamics of migration and transformation of the chloroethene contaminants in relationship to the features of the hosting porous medium. The confined aquifers turned out to be more vulnerable to DNAPLs than aqueous contaminants due to the occurrence of microfractures in the overlying clayey aquitards. The presence of organic-rich deposits in the local stratigraphy enhanced the biodegradation of chloroethenes causing accumulation of Vinyl Chloride. The results are useful at the

  6. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  7. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  8. Speculations about the upper Miocene change in abyssal Pacific dissolved bicarbonate delta13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.L.; Keigwin, L.D. Jr

    1979-01-01

    New data from three Tasman Sea cores support Kleigwin's observation that the delta 13 C of Pacific benthic foraminifera (and by inference bottom-water TCO 2 ) decreased by 0.7 per thousand at about 6.5 Myr B.P. Simple box models are developed and used to test several hypotheses about the cause of the delta 13 C decrease. The authors favor the idea that the delta 13 C shift was due to a rapid change in TCO 2 cycling within the oceans (such as would result from either a decrease in upwelling rate, or an increase in the fraction of PO 4 3- reaching the deep oceans in particulate organic matter and a corresponding drop in the performed PO 4 3- concentration). The delta 13 C decrease across the shift might reflect either a global decrease in upwelling rate, or a different abyssal circulation pattern before the shift. (Auth.)

  9. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  10. Ship Sensor Observations for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Estuary to the Abyss 2004" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  11. Study of the oxide reduction and interstitial contents during sintering of different plain carbon steels by in situ mass spectrometry in nitrogen atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni, Mohammad; Gierl, Christian; Danninger, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Degassing phenomenon was studied in plain steels with different iron base powders. → The integrated area below the MS m12 graph can be used as an indicator of formed CO. → The integrated area is an indicator for in situ carbon loss in the specimen. → Carbon loss and area below the m12 graph can be correlated. - Abstract: Reduction of oxides covering powder particles is an important process during sintering and a prerequisite to form sintering contacts in PM parts. In the present research, degassing and reduction phenomena during sintering of plain carbon steels prepared from different atomised and sponge iron powders were studied by mass spectrometry (MS) in the dilatometer under protective N 2 atmosphere. Interstitial constituents were measured by carbon and oxygen analysis. According to the results, the major part of CO 2 is formed during carbothermic reduction of surface oxides in the low to moderate temperature range ( 600 deg. C, the main product of carbothermic reduction is CO and not CO 2 , but the former cannot be detected by MS in N 2 atmosphere. Signals m44 (CO 2 ) and m12 (C) were however found to be reliable indicators for CO. Similar intensity of mass 12 signals for both ASC and SC up to 1000 deg. C is consistent with equal carbon loss through carbothermic reaction. The integrated areas below the MS signal graphs, and thus the areas of the different degassing peaks obtained in the MS, were used as at least semi-quantitative estimation of the amount of gases formed, bearing in mind that MS is not really a quantitative analytical tool. Although a clearly defined relationship is not visible between oxygen loss and area below the m16 graph, the area for m12 can be used as an indicator for in situ carbon loss in the specimen. Increasing integrated areas for m12 and 16 between 800 and 1300 deg. C with only marginal enhancement of m44 indicates that the major part of oxides are removed as CO, in agreement with Boudouard equilibrium, at

  12. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bing; Ju, Xiaotang; Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng; Oenema, Oene; Christie, Peter; Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N 2 O emissions plus CH 4 uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH 4 by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N 2 O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N 2 O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N 2 O + CH 4 emission differ among cropping systems. • An

  15. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Ju, Xiaotang, E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Su, Fang; Meng, Qingfeng [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Oenema, Oene [Wageningen University and Research, Alterra, Wageningen (Netherlands); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Agri-Environment Branch, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen, Xinping; Zhang, Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple food for hundreds of millions of people and where groundwater resources are polluted with nitrate and depleted through irrigation. Here, we report on fertilizer N and irrigation water use, grain yields, and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions of conventional and optimized winter wheat–summer maize double-cropping systems, and of three alternative cropping systems, namely a winter wheat–summer maize (or soybean)–spring maize system, with three harvests in two years; and a single spring maize system with one crop per year. The results of this two-year study show that the optimized double-cropping system led to a significant increase in grain yields and a significant decrease in fertilizer N use and net greenhouse gas intensity, but the net greenhouse gas N{sub 2}O emissions plus CH{sub 4} uptake and the use of irrigation water did not decrease relative to the conventional system. Compared to the conventional system the net greenhouse gas emissions, net greenhouse gas intensity and use of fertilizer N and irrigation water decreased in the three alternative cropping systems, but at the cost of grain yields except in the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system. Net uptake of CH{sub 4} by the soil was little affected by cropping system. Average N{sub 2}O emission factors were only 0.17% for winter wheat and 0.53% for maize. In conclusion, the winter wheat–summer maize–spring maize system has considerable potential to decrease water and N use and decrease N{sub 2}O emissions while maintaining high grain yields and sustainable use of groundwater. - Highlights: • Yields, resource use efficiency and N{sub 2}O + CH{sub 4} emission

  16. Preliminary study of uranium in Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, and the Northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, J.F. Jr.; Kadish, K.A.

    1977-11-01

    Persistent and widespread radiometric anomalies occur in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata in the subsurface of the northern Great Plains and the Powder River Basin. The primary host lithology of these anomalies is shale interbedded with sandstone, dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone. Samples from the project area indicate that uranium is responsible for some anomalies. In some samples there seems to be a correlation between high uranium content and high organic-carbon content, which possibly indicates that carbonaceous material acted as a trapping mechanism in some strata. The Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks studied are predominantly marine carbonates and clastics, but there are rocks of fluvial origin in the basal Pennsylvanian of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota and in the Pennsylvanian and Permian deposits on the east flank of the Laramie Mountains. Fine-grained clastic rocks that flank the Chadron arch in western Nebraska are possibly of continental origin. The trend of the Chadron arch approximately parallels the trend of radiometric anomalies in the subsurface Permian-Pennsylvanian section. Possible source areas for uranium in the sediments studied were pre-Pennsylvanian strata of the Canadian Shield and Precambrian igneous rocks of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

  17. International Network Performance and Security Testing Based on Distributed Abyss Storage Cluster and Draft of Data Lake Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ByungRae Cha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The megatrends and Industry 4.0 in ICT (Information Communication & Technology are concentrated in IoT (Internet of Things, BigData, CPS (Cyber Physical System, and AI (Artificial Intelligence. These megatrends do not operate independently, and mass storage technology is essential as large computing technology is needed in the background to support them. In order to evaluate the performance of high-capacity storage based on open source Ceph, we carry out the network performance test of Abyss storage with domestic and overseas sites using KOREN (Korea Advanced Research Network. And storage media and network bonding are tested to evaluate the performance of the storage itself. Additionally, the security test is demonstrated by Cuckoo sandbox and Yara malware detection among Abyss storage cluster and oversea sites. Lastly, we have proposed the draft design of Data Lake framework in order to solve garbage dump problem.

  18. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A {sup 15}N tracer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, X.T. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)]. E-mail: juxt@cau.edu.cn; Gao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Christie, P. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Zhang, F.S. [Key Laboratory of Plant-Soil Interactions, Ministry of Education, College of Agricultural Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2007-03-15

    {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO{sub 3} {sup -}N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate from K{sup 15}NO{sub 3} injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundw0010at.

  19. A long-term study of aerosol–cloud interactions and their radiative effect at the Southern Great Plains using ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical estimates of the microphysical response of cloud droplet size distribution to aerosol perturbations are commonly used to constrain aerosol–cloud interactions in climate models. Instead of empirical microphysical estimates, here macroscopic variables are analyzed to address the influence of aerosol particles and meteorological descriptors on instantaneous cloud albedo and the radiative effect of shallow liquid water clouds. Long-term ground-based measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program over the Southern Great Plains are used. A broad statistical analysis was performed on 14 years of coincident measurements of low clouds, aerosol, and meteorological properties. Two cases representing conflicting results regarding the relationship between the aerosol and the cloud radiative effect were selected and studied in greater detail. Microphysical estimates are shown to be very uncertain and to depend strongly on the methodology, retrieval technique and averaging scale. For this continental site, the results indicate that the influence of the aerosol on the shallow cloud radiative effect and albedo is weak and that macroscopic cloud properties and dynamics play a much larger role in determining the instantaneous cloud radiative effect compared to microphysical effects. On a daily basis, aerosol shows no correlation with cloud radiative properties (correlation = −0.01 ± 0.03, whereas the liquid water path shows a clear signal (correlation = 0.56 ± 0.02.

  20. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A 15N tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, X.T.; Gao, Q.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    15 N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO 3 - N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of 15 N-labeled nitrate from K 15 NO 3 injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundwater

  1. Visibility of Different Intraorbital Foreign Bodies Using Plain Radiography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Golamian, Masoud; Shahrzad, Maryam; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Shahmorady, Zahra; Fouladi, Daniel F; Sadrarhami, Shohreh; Akhoundzadeh, Leila

    2017-05-01

    The study sought to compare the usefulness of 4 imaging modalities in visualizing various intraorbital foreign bodies (IOFBs) in different sizes. Six different materials including metal, wood, plastic, stone, glass. and graphite were cut in cylindrical shapes in 4 sizes (dimensions: 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm) and placed intraorbitally in the extraocular space of fresh sheep's head. Four skilled radiologists rated the visibility of the objects individually using plain radiography, spiral computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in accordance with a previously described grading system. Excluding wood, all embedded foreign bodies were best visualized in CT and CBCT images with almost equal accuracies. Wood could only be detected using MRI, and then only when fragments were more than 2 mm in size. There were 3 false-positive MRI reports, suggesting air bubbles as wood IOFBs. Because of lower cost and using less radiation in comparison with conventional CT, CBCT can be used as the initial imaging technique in cases with suspected IOFBs. Optimal imaging technique for wood IOFBs is yet to be defined. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A case study of the Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler network data and a high resolution mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, S.; Fast, J.D.; Bian, X.; Stage, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) has important effects on the life cycle of clouds and on radiative and surface heat and moisture fluxes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. This diurnal phenomenon governs the transport and convergence of low-level moisture into the region and often leads to the development of clouds and precipitation. A full understanding of the life cycle of clouds at the SGP CART site and their proper representation in single column and global climate models cannot be obtained without an improved understanding of this important phenomenon.

  3. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2014-08-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region's water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little published data which describe their potential for loss in surface runoff. This study compared runoff of a fungicide, tebuconazole (α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and an herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) from 0.2 ha fields in strip (ST), a commonly used conservation-tillage practice, and conventional tillage (CT) near Tifton, GA (USA). Following their first application, metolachlor and tebuconazole were detected at high frequency in runoff. Concentrations and their annual losses increased with application frequency and runoff event timing and frequency with respect to applications, and when fields were positioned at the top of the slope and CT was practiced. Runoff one day after treatment (DAT) contributed to high tebuconazole runoff loss, up to 9.8% of the amount applied on an annual basis. In all cases, metolachlor loss was more than 10 times less even though total application was 45% higher. This was linked to the fact that the one metolachlor application to each crop was in May, one of the region's driest months. In sum, studies showed that fungicide runoff rates may be relatively high and emphasize the need to focus on these products in future studies on peanut and other crops. The study also showed that peanut farmers should be encouraged to use conservation tillage practices like ST which can substantially reduce pesticide runoff. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  5. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  6. Indications for computed tomography (CT-) diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Weise Kuno; Pereira Philippe L; Dietz Klaus; Eingartner Christoph; Schmal Hagen; Südkamp Norbert P; Rolauffs Bernd; Bahrs Christian; Lingenfelter Erich; Helwig Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT) in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X...

  7. Woodville Karst Plain, North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Map showing the largest mapped underwater cave systems and conduit flow paths confirmed by tracer testing relative to surface streams, sinkholes and potentiometric surface of the Florida aquifer in the Woodville Karst Plain, Florida

  8. Plain formation on Mercury: tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.

    1980-01-01

    Four major plain units, plus intermediates, are distinguished on Mercury. The chronologic relationships between these plains indicate that plains formation was a permanent process on Mercury. Their location and morphology seem to indicate a possible volcanic origin for these plains. The relationships between tectonism and volcanism seems to indicate the global contraction is not the only tectonic process on Mercury. (Auth.)

  9. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  10. Interelement relationship in abyssal Pacific ferromanganese nodules and associated pelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y H

    1982-01-01

    By R-mode factor analysis and enrichment factor calculations, most of the elements in abyssal ferromanganese nodules and associated pelagic sediments (excluding common authigenic minerals like apatite, barite, opal and carbonates) are found to be preferentially concentrated in one of the following three major phases: aluminosilicates (e.g., Al, Si, Sc, Ga, Cr, Be, Na, K, Rb and Cs), Fe-oxides (e.g., Fe, P, S, V, Se, Te, As, B, Sn, U, Hg, Pb, Ti, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Pd, In, rare-earths, Hf, Th, Pa, Pu, Am, Ru and Bi), and Mn-oxides (e.g., Mn, Tl, Ag, Cd, Mg, Ca, Ba, Ra, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Sb and probably W). The specific association of elements with these three phases can be explained by the difference in chemical forms of elements in seawater and by fundamental differences in physicochemical properties (e.g., the pH of zero point of charge and dielectric constant) of these three phases.

  11. Interelement relationship in abyssal Pacific ferromanganese nodules and associated pelagic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y -H

    1982-06-01

    By R-mode factor analysis and enrichment factor calculations, most of the elements in abyssal ferromanganese nodules and associated pelagic sediments (excluding common authigenic minerals like apatite, barite, opal and carbonates) are found to be preferentially concentrated in one of the following three major phases: aluminosilicates (e.g., Al, Si, Sc, Ga, Cr, Be, Na, K, Rb and Cs), Fe-oxides (e.g., Fe, P, S, V, Se, Te, As, B, Sn, U, Hg, Pb, Ti, Ge, Y, Zr, Nb, Pd, In, rare-earths, Hf, Th, Pa, Pu, Am, Ru and Bi), and Mn-oxides (e.g., Mn, Tl, Ag, Cd, Mg, Ca, Ba, Ra, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Sb and probably W). The specific association of elements with these three phases can be explained by the difference in chemical forms of elements in seawater and by fundamental differences in physiocochemical properties (e.g., the pH of zero point of charge and dieletric constant) of these three phases.

  12. Denitrification Rates and Controlling Factors for Accumulated Nitrate in the 0-12 m Intensive Farmlands: a Case Study in the North China Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, H; Qin, S; Dong, W

    2018-01-01

    collected from intensive farming fields in the North China Plain (NCP). The fields had received long-term nitrogen (N) fertilizer inputs of 0 (N0), 200 (N200) and 600 (N600) kg N ha−1 year−1. Main soil properties related to denitrification, i.e. soil moisture, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil...

  13. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality in Arid Zones Using Geostatistical Methods(Case Study: Koohpaye– Segzi Plain in Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Abbasi Jondani

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The resultsshow thatwaterquality inKoohpaye– SegziPlainhavedramaticallyreduced in 1389than in1374.Most ofthechangeshave been occurrednearzayanderood river, as critical points have been appeared in Southern area of this plain. This show the effective role of zayanderood river in groundwater aquifer.

  14. Accelerated testing for studying pavement design and performance (FY 2000) : effectiveness of fiber reinforced and plain, ultra-thin concrete overlays on Portland Cement Concrete Pavement (PCCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the research was to compare the performance of fiber reinforced and plain PCC concrete overlay when used as a thin non-dowelled overlay on top of a rubblized, distressed concrete pavement. The experiment was conducted at the Accelera...

  15. Data assimilation for groundwater flow modelling using Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter: Case study in Guantao, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W.; Li, H.; Li, W.; Chen, F.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation techniques are widely used in hydrology to improve the reliability of hydrological models and to reduce model predictive uncertainties. This provides critical information for decision makers in water resources management. This study aims to evaluate a data assimilation system for the Guantao groundwater flow model coupled with a one-dimensional soil column simulation (Hydrus 1D) using an Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter (UnEnSRF) originating from the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to update parameters and states, separately or simultaneously. To simplify the coupling between unsaturated and saturated zone, a linear relationship obtained from analyzing inputs to and outputs from Hydrus 1D is applied in the data assimilation process. Unlike EnKF, the UnEnSRF updates parameter ensemble mean and ensemble perturbations separately. In order to keep the ensemble filter working well during the data assimilation, two factors are introduced in the study. One is called damping factor to dampen the update amplitude of the posterior ensemble mean to avoid nonrealistic values. The other is called inflation factor to relax the posterior ensemble perturbations close to prior to avoid filter inbreeding problems. The sensitivities of the two factors are studied and their favorable values for the Guantao model are determined. The appropriate observation error and ensemble size were also determined to facilitate the further analysis. This study demonstrated that the data assimilation of both model parameters and states gives a smaller model prediction error but with larger uncertainty while the data assimilation of only model states provides a smaller predictive uncertainty but with a larger model prediction error. Data assimilation in a groundwater flow model will improve model prediction and at the same time make the model converge to the true parameters, which provides a successful base for applications in real time modelling or real time controlling strategies

  16. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  17. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors – a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-01-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events

  18. [Soil organic carbon sequestration rate and its influencing factors in farmland of Guanzhong Plain: a case study in Wugong County, Shannxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ming-Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Take Wugong County as an example, soil carbon storage and soil carbon sequestration rate were calculated, the change law of farmland soil organic carbon was explored, and the relationship of farmland soil organic carbon and natural factors, human factors was further revealed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The soil organic carbon contents in 80% of the sampling sites were in the range of 8.0-12.0 g x kg(-1), and the organic carbon contents in 0-20 cm soils showed a normal distribution. (2) In 2011, the organic carbon density of the 0-20 cm farmland soil was 26.3 t x hm(-2), below the national average soil organic carbon density (33.45 t x hm(-2)) of the arable layer. In the last 30 years, the soil carbon sequestration rate in the 0-20 cm layer was 71.3 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), and in the past five years, the carbon sequestration rate was 480 kg x (hm x a)(-1). The recent carbon sequestration rate was higher than the national average soil carbon sequestration rate of the arable layer [380.78 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)]. (3) In the semi-humid plain region, soil organic carbon was mainly affected by soil types, landform types, organic fertilizer. Soil types accounted for 30.2% of the organic carbon variability; the landform types and the organic fertilizer could explain 37.7% and 32.1%, respectively. The results of the comprehensive analysis showed that the farmland soil organic carbon density of Wugong County in the past 30 years is increasing, and this probably relies on the utilization of chemical fertilizer and the returning straw. Further study should be conducted on the impact of the chemical fertilizer and returning straw.

  19. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  20. Effects of climate change on the length of growth stages and water requirement of wheat and barley (Case Study: Birjand Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The global climate is changing and, despite efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, weather variation is inevitable. Meanwhile, agriculture as a major water consumer will require adaptation to these variations, along with other challenges, to guarantee its persistence and sustainability. Given the arid and semi-arid climate of Iran, water, as a main limiting factor for agricultural production, plays an important role in determining the type of farming activities (Osamu et al., 2005. Crop water requirements and evapotranspiration are the main cause of water consumption in agricultural sector, the both accepted to face a dramatic increase in future under influence of increasing temperatures resulting from climate change (Koocheki et al., 2001. In this regard, the foreknowledge about future changes in climate and its effects on agricultural water use can be helpful for farmers and decision-makers. This study aimed to evaluate the climatic conditions of Birjand plain in the next two decades, and to investigate the effects of climate change on water consumption of wheat and barley as two main crops in this region. Materials and methods In the present survey, the effects of estimated climate change in Birjand plain on water requirement of wheat and barley and wheat yield in the 2010-2039 period were studied. Based on average weather data for the last thirty years from Birjand synoptic stations, climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation for the time period of 2010-2039 were simulated with LARS-WG5 using A1 scenario confirmed by the IPCC. Wind speed and relative humidity also were estimated for the future period. Common planting and harvesting dates were obtained from local farmers and Birjand Agriculture Organization and duration and crop coefficients (Kc for early, developmental, middle and final crop growth stages in the current period were extracted from FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. For the future period

  1. Indications for computed tomography (CT- diagnostics in proximal humeral fractures: a comparative study of plain radiography and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Kuno

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise indications for computed tomography (CT in proximal humeral fractures are not established. The purpose of this study was a comparison of conventional radiographic views with different CT reconstructions with 2 D and 3 D imaging to establish indications for additional CT diagnostics depending on the fractured parts. Methods In a prospective diagnostic study in two level 1 trauma centers, 44 patients with proximal humeral fractures were diagnosed with conventional X-rays (22 AP + axillary views, 22 AP + scapular Y-views and CT (multi-planar reconstruction (MPR and maximum intensity projection (MIP with 2 D and 3 D imaging. 3 observers assessed the technical image quality, the assessment of the relevant anatomical structures (2-sample-t-test and the percentage of the osseous overlap of the proximal humerus (Welch-test using a scoring system. The quality of the different diagnostic methods was assessed according to the number of fractured parts (Bonferroni-Holm adjustment. Results There was significantly more overlap of the fractured region on the scapular Y-views (mean 71.5%, range 45–90% than on axillary views (mean 56.2%, range 10.5–100%. CT-diagnostics allowed a significantly better assessment of the relevant structures than conventional diagnostics (p Conclusion Conventional X-rays with AP view and a high-quality axillary view are useful for primary diagnostics of the fracture and often but not always show a clear presentation of the relevant bony structures such as both tuberosities, the glenoid and humeral head. CT with thin slices technology and additional 3 D imaging provides always a clear presentation of the fractured region. Clinically, a CT should be performed – independently of the number of fractured parts – when the proximal humerus and the shoulder joint are not presented with sufficient X-ray-quality to establish a treatment plan.

  2. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  3. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling: A Case Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A., Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kennedy, Aaron; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) temperature and moisture states and fluxes. In turn, these interactions regulate the strength of the connection between surface moisture and precipitation in a coupled system. To address model deficiencies, recent studies have focused on development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land-PBL coupling at the process level. In this paper, a diagnosis of the nature and impacts of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) during dry and wet extreme conditions is presented using a combination of models and observations during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in the U.S. southern Great Plains. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation is applied to the dry/wet regimes exhibited in this region, and in the process, a thorough evaluation of nine different land-PBL scheme couplings is conducted under the umbrella of a high-resolution regional modeling test bed. Results show that the sign and magnitude of errors in land surface energy balance components are sensitive to the choice of land surface model, regime type, and running mode. In addition, LoCo diagnostics show that the sensitivity of L-A coupling is stronger toward the land during dry conditions, while the PBL scheme coupling becomes more important during the wet regime. Results also demonstrate how LoCo diagnostics can be applied to any modeling system (e.g., reanalysis products) in the context of their integrated impacts on the process chain connecting the land surface to the PBL and in support of hydrological anomalies.

  4. The role of microcredits in the development of mountainous and plain rural areas (A case study of the villages of Kardeh and Miyan-velayat in the Mashhad County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Javanshiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Not so long ago, the main obstacle to the development of undeveloped countries was thought to be the lack of capital. However, today it is believed that capital is a necessary condition for development, but not the sufficient one. Therefore, one of the strategies to achieve economic development is to make use of an efficient financial system to circulate stagnant capitals in the community. Accordingly, micro-credits were introduced in developing countries over the past 30 years, aiming to provide low-income groups with financial services. These funds are used to provide villagers with loans, particularly those who are active in production. The availability of liquidity helps villagers meet their financial needs and start a production process and get agricultural products for plantings. The study also aimed to examine the role of microcredits in rural development, with emphasis on the impact of geographical factors in attracting such funds in mountainous and plain rural area of the Mashhad County. This study is an applied research carried out in a descriptive-analytical method. Based on Cochran's formula, 207 rural households were selected. The ratio of households in each area was also calculated by Cochran's formula to be a total of 90 households from mountainous areas, and 118 households from plain areas that were selected. The required data were collected from library sources and the survey (questionnaires among the households that received the funds. The results showed that the effectiveness of microcredits is not significantly different in mountainous and plain areas. However, there is a significant difference between the two areas considering the difficulties and satisfaction level of villagers in getting the loans, such that villagers in plain areas were more satisfied than those in mountainous areas.

  5. Has Phytodetritus Processing by an Abyssal Soft-Sediment Community Recovered 26 Years after an Experimental Disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stratmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The first objective of this study was to measure recovery of phytodetritus processing by the benthic food web from a sediment disturbance experiment in 1989. The second objective was to determine the role of holothurians in the uptake of fresh phytodetritus by the benthic food web. To meet both objectives, large benthic incubation chambers (CUBEs; 50 × 50 × 50 cm were deployed inside plow tracks (with and without holothurian presence and at a reference site (holothurian presence, only at 4100 m water depth. Shortly after deployment, 13C- and 15N-labeled phytodetritus was injected in the incubation chambers and during the subsequent 3-day incubation period, water samples were taken five times to measure the production of 13C-dissolved inorganic carbon over time. At the end of the incubation, holothurians and sediment samples were taken to determine biomass, densities and incorporation of 13C and 15N into bacteria, nematodes, macrofauna, and holothurians. For the first objective, the results showed that biomass of bacteria, nematodes and macrofauna did not differ between reference sites and plow track sites when holothurians were present. Additionally, meiofauna and macrofauna taxonomic composition was not significantly different between the sites. In contrast, total 13C uptake by bacteria, nematodes and holothurians was significantly lower at plow track sites compared to reference sites, though the number of replicates was low. This result suggests that important ecosystem functions such as organic matter processing have not fully recovered from the disturbance that occurred 26 years prior to our study. For the second objective, the analysis indicated

  6. An integrated hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach to study groundwater Salinization in the overexploited aquifers of Indo-Gangetic Plain, a part of NCR Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R.

    2017-12-01

    roundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas are highly vulnerable to salinity problems. Inadequate availability of surface water supply, vagaries of mansoonal rainfall and overexploitation due to population pressure and rapid landuse change induced decline in groundwater levels and salinization has been observed in many Asian cities. After green revolution, large part of Indo-Gangetic plain groundwater salinization has been reported. One such region is National Capital Region, Delhi- India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration of people and economic hub of Northern India. The present study includes National capital territory, Delhi, Gurgaon and Faridabad. In the present study, different graphical plots, Piper plot, saturation index values (using PHREEQC), stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and GIS is used to create the database for analysis of spatial variation in respective water quality parameters as well as to decipher the hydrogeochemical process occurring in the area. Major ions are analysed to describe the composition and distribution of salinization and dissolution/precipitation dynamics. It was observed that groundwater weathering is governed by carbonate and silicate weathering and reverse ion-exchange, however due to semi-arid climate evaporation is also playing a major role in groundwater chemistry and salinity of the area. δ18O and δD regression line of groundwater samples of the study area is below the LMWL also suggest from non-equilibrium fractionation during evaporation. Large lateral variation in chloride concentration indicates impact of evapotranspiration rate during recharge. Most of water facies are of Na-Cl. Stable isotope (δ18O and δD) analysis helps to identify evaporation and to better understand recharge processes and mixing dynamics in the study region. Limited availability of surface water supply, no pricing exists for groundwater extraction has resulted in a widespread decline in the water table and intermixing of

  7. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  8. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  9. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  10. Plain abdominal radiographs in acute medical emergencies: an abused investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyler, S; Williamson, V; King, D

    2002-02-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed. In only 16 cases (12%) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47%), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24%). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7%). The majority of plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies is inappropriate. There is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  11. [Study on the variation of arsenic concentration in groundwater and chemical characteristics of arsenic in sediment cores at the areas with endemic arsenic poison disease in Jianghan Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Suhua; Ye, Hengpeng; Li, Mingjian; Xiong, Peisheng; Du, Dongyun; Wang, Jingwen

    2015-06-01

    To understand the variation of arsenic concentration in underground water at the endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain so as to better understand the spatial distribution of high arsenic groundwater, hydro-chemical evolution and source of arsenic in this region. Thirty underground water samples were collected respectively around 3 km radius of the two houses where arsenic poisoning patients lived, in Xiantao and Honghu. Sediment cores of three drillings were collected as well. Both paired t-test or paired Wilcoxon Signed Ranking Test were used to compare the arsenic concentration of water. The arsenic concentration in 2011-2012 appeared lower than that in 2006-2007 at the Nanhong village of Xiantao (t = 4.645 3, P arsenic concentration and Cl, HCO3(-), Fe, Mn. However, negative correlations were found between As and SO4(2-), NO3(-). The range of arsenic content in the sediment was 1.500 mg/kg to 17.289 mg/kg. The maximum arsenic content existed in the soil layer, while the minimum arsenic content existed in the sand layer. The concentration of arsenic varied widely with time and space at endemic arsenic poison disease area of Jianghan Plain. Characteristics of these water chemicals showed significant differences, when compared to the groundwater from Datong Basin, Shanxi Shanyin and Hetao Plain of Inner Mongolia, which presented a typical environment with high arsenic contents in the groundwater. The arsenic content in the sediment samples seemed related to the lithologic structure.

  12. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  13. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. First long-term study of particle number size distributions and new particle formation events of regional aerosol in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. J. Shen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm were measured between March 2008 and August 2009 at Shangdianzi (SDZ, a rural research station in the North China Plain. These measurements were made in an attempt to better characterize the tropospheric background aerosol in Northern China. The mean particle number concentrations of the total particle, as well as the nucleation, Aitken, accumulation and coarse mode were determined to be 1.2 ± 0.9 × 104, 3.6 ± 7.9 × 103, 4.4 ± 3.4 × 103, 3.5 ± 2.8 × 103 and 2 ± 3 cm−3, respectively. A general finding was that the particle number concentration was higher during spring compared to the other seasons. The air mass origin had an important effect on the particle number concentration and new particle formation events. Air masses from northwest (i.e. inner Asia favored the new particle formation events, while air masses from southeast showed the highest particle mass concentration. Significant diurnal variations in particle number were observed, which could be linked to new particle formation events, i.e. gas-to-particle conversion. During particle formation events, the number concentration of the nucleation mode rose up to maximum value of 104 cm−3. New particle formation events were observed on 36% of the effective measurement days. The formation rate ranged from 0.7 to 72.7 cm−3 s−1, with a mean value of 8.0 cm−3 s−1. The value of the nucleation mode growth rate was in the range of 0.3–14.5 nm h−1, with a mean value of 4.3 nm h−1. It was an essential observation that on many occasions the nucleation mode was able to grow into the size of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN within a matter of several hours. Furthermore, the new particle formation was regularly followed by a measurable increase in particle mass

  15. Pioneering studies of IQ by G.H. Thomson and J.F. Duff--an example of established knowledge subsequently 'hidden in plain sight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the earliest authoritative measurement of a social class gradient in IQ, with a stratification of occupations among the parents of children with different IQs, is seen in two fascinating papers published in 1923 and 1929 in the British Journal of Psychology. The authors were GH Thomson and JF Duff (both of whom were later knighted) and the papers' main findings were confirmed by later researchers. Results of an intelligence test administered to 13419 children aged 11-12 were analyzed according to parent's occupation. The average children's IQ at extremes of social class among their parents included clergymen-121, teachers-116 and bankers and managers-112 at the upper end; while at the lower end there were 'cripples and invalids'-94, cattlemen-93, hawkers and chimneysweeps-91, and the 'insane, criminal'-88. More than 100 specific categories of parental occupations were then combined into 13 social classes, with their children's average IQ as follows: Professional-112; Managers-110; Higher Commercial-109; Army, Navy, Police, Postmen-106; Shopkeeping-105; Engineers [ie. apprenticed craftsmen, such as mining engineers]-103; Foremen-103; Building trades-102; Metal workers, shipbuilders-101; Miscellaneous industrial workers-101; Miners and quarrymen-98; Agriculture-98; Labourers-96. A follow-up study compared an 'intelligent' group (IQ 136 plus) with a matched IQ 95-105 'control' group. IQ testing at age 11-12 was predictive of teacher's reports of higher levels of intelligence and health at age 16; and better performance in official examinations. The occupations of fathers, grandfathers and uncles were consistent with occupation being indicative of 'an inherited quality' (i.e. IQ) and there was regression from parents to grandparents and uncles among the 'intelligent' but not among controls. Other findings included a wider variance in intelligence among boys than girls, and descriptions of the predictive value of IQ in estimating future education, examinations

  16. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  17. Deep down: Isopod biodiversity of the Kuril-Kamchatka abyssal area including a comparison with data of previous expeditions of the RV Vityaz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Nikolaus O.; Malyutina, Marina V.; Golovan, Olga A.; Brenke, Nils; Riehl, Torben; Brandt, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This study focusses on the isopod biodiversity in the abyssal area southeast of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. The KuramBio (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies) expedition in summer 2012 collected altogether 10,169 isopods from 21 C-EBS hauls at 12 stations, belonging to 19 families, 73 genera and 207 species from the depth range between 4830 and 5780 m. Munnopsidae and Desmosomatidae were the most abundant and species-rich families, Eurycope (Munnopsidae) and Macrostylis (Macrostylidae) the most abundant genera. An nMDS plot on the basis of the Cosine similarity index reveals no clear pattern and all hauls to be different from each other. We compared our data with 12 stations from the same depth range sampled by the Russian RV Vityaz about 50 years ago and were able to identify several species collected by the RV Vityaz. The identified isopod species belonged to the families Munnopsidae, Macrostylidae, Haploniscidae, Desmosomatidae, Ischnomesidae and Nannoniscidae. Of the 333 individuals collected by the RV Vityaz, Haploniscidae and Munnopsidae were the most abundant families. Desmosomatidae were only represented by rarefaction curves of both the KuramBio and the Vityaz samples are not approaching an asymptote, indicating that even after repeated sampling just a part of the local fauna has been recorded so far.

  18. Project plan-Surficial geologic mapping and hydrogeologic framework studies in the Greater Platte River Basins (Central Great Plains) in support of ecosystem and climate change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Slate, Janet L.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Sawyer, David A.; VanSistine, D. Paco

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basin area spans a central part of the Midcontinent and Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains on the west to the Missouri River on the east, and is defined to include drainage areas of the Platte, Niobrara, and Republican Rivers, the Rainwater Basin, and other adjoining areas overlying the northern High Plains aquifer. The Greater Platte River Basin contains abundant surficial deposits that were sensitive to, or are reflective of, the climate under which they formed: deposits from multiple glaciations in the mountain headwaters of the North and South Platte Rivers and from continental ice sheets in eastern Nebraska; fluvial terraces (ranging from Tertiary to Holocene in age) along the rivers and streams; vast areas of eolian sand in the Nebraska Sand Hills and other dune fields (recording multiple episodes of dune activity); thick sequences of windblown silt (loess); and sediment deposited in numerous lakes and wetlands. In addition, the Greater Platte River Basin overlies and contributes surface water to the High Plains aquifer, a nationally important groundwater system that underlies parts of eight states and sustains one of the major agricultural areas of the United States. The area also provides critical nesting habitat for birds such as plovers and terns, and roosting habitat for cranes and other migratory birds that travel through the Central Flyway of North America. This broad area, containing fragile ecosystems that could be further threatened by changes in climate and land use, has been identified by the USGS and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln as a region where intensive collaborative research could lead to a better understanding of climate change and what might be done to adapt to or mitigate its adverse effects to ecosystems and to humans. The need for robust data on the geologic framework of ecosystems in the Greater Platte River Basin has been acknowledged in proceedings from the 2008 Climate Change Workshop and in draft

  19. Morphological and ontogenetic stratification of abyssal and hadal Eurythenes gryllus sensu lato (Amphipoda: Lysianassoidea) from the Peru-Chile Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustace, Ryan M.; Ritchie, Heather; Kilgallen, Niamh M.; Piertney, Stuart B.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2016-03-01

    The globally ubiquitous lysianassoid amphipod, Eurythenes gryllus, has been shown to consist of multiple genetically distinct cryptic taxa, with depth considered a major driver of speciation and morphological divergence. Here we examine morphological variation of E. gryllus sensu lato through a continuous depth distribution that spans from abyssal (3000-6000 m) into hadal depths (>6000 m) in the Peru-Chile Trench (SE Pacific Ocean). Three distinct morphospecies were identified: one was confirmed as being E. magellanicus (4602-5329 m) based on DNA sequence and morphological similarity. The other two morphologically distinct species were named based upon depth of occurrence; Abyssal (4602-6173 m) and Hadal (6173-8074 m). The three Eurythenes morphospecies showed vertical ontogenetic stratification across their bathymetric range, where juveniles were found shallower in their depth range and mature females deeper. Potential ecological and evolutionary drivers that explain the observed patterns of intra and inter-specific structure, such as hydrostatic pressure and topographical isolation, are discussed.

  20. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  1. Etude du point critique des paliers lisses alimentés à la graisse Study of Critical Point on Plain Bearings Lubricated by Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delneuville P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.

  2. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, padvertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Geothermal Alteration of Basaltic Core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Christopher Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquife...

  4. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  5. Future Irrigation Requirement of Rice Under Irrigated Area - Uncertainty through GCMs and Crop Models : A Case Study of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. G.; Porter, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Panwar, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the food basket of South Asia, characterised by predominantly cereal-based farming systems where livestock is an integral part of farm economy. Climate change is projected to have significant effects on agriculture production and hence on food and livelihood security because more than 90 per cent farmers fall under small and marginal category. The rising temperatures and uncertainties in rainfall associated with global warming may have serious direct and indirect impacts on crop production. A loss of 10-40% crop production is predicted in different crops in India by the end of this century by different researchers. Cereal crops (mainly rice and wheat) are crucial to ensuring the food security in the region, but sustaining their productivity has become a major challenge due to climate variability and uncertainty. Under AgMIP Project, we have analysed the climate change impact on farm level productivity of rice at Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh using 29 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during mid-century period 2041-2070. Two crop simulation models DSSAT4.6 and APSIM7.7 were used for impact study. There is lot of uncertainty in yield level by different GCMs and crop models. Under RCP4.5, APSIM showed a declining yield up to 14.5 % while DSSAT showed a declining yield level of 6.5 % only compared to the baseline (1980-2010). However, out of 29 GCMs, 15 GCMs showed negative impact and 14 showed positive impact under APSIM while it showed 21 and 8 GCMs, respectively in the case of DSSAT. DSSAT and APSIM simulated irrigation water requirement in future of the order of 645±75 mm and 730±107 mm, respectively under RCP4.5. However, the same will be of the order of 626 ± 99 mm and 749 ± 147 mm, respectively under RCP8.5. Projected irrigation water productivity showed a range of 4.87-12.15 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 6.77-12.63 kg ha-1 mm-1 through APSIM and DSSAT, respectively under RCP4.5, which stands an average of 7.81 and 8.53 kg ha-1 mm-1 during the

  6. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  7. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  8. Precipitation Dynamical Downscaling Over the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Xue, Ming; McPherson, Renee A.; Martin, Elinor; Rosendahl, Derek H.; Qiao, Lei

    2018-02-01

    Detailed, regional climate projections, particularly for precipitation, are critical for many applications. Accurate precipitation downscaling in the United States Great Plains remains a great challenge for most Regional Climate Models, particularly for warm months. Most previous dynamic downscaling simulations significantly underestimate warm-season precipitation in the region. This study aims to achieve a better precipitation downscaling in the Great Plains with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. To this end, WRF simulations with different physics schemes and nudging strategies are first conducted for a representative warm season. Results show that different cumulus schemes lead to more pronounced difference in simulated precipitation than other tested physics schemes. Simply choosing different physics schemes is not enough to alleviate the dry bias over the southern Great Plains, which is related to an anticyclonic circulation anomaly over the central and western parts of continental U.S. in the simulations. Spectral nudging emerges as an effective solution for alleviating the precipitation bias. Spectral nudging ensures that large and synoptic-scale circulations are faithfully reproduced while still allowing WRF to develop small-scale dynamics, thus effectively suppressing the large-scale circulation anomaly in the downscaling. As a result, a better precipitation downscaling is achieved. With the carefully validated configurations, WRF downscaling is conducted for 1980-2015. The downscaling captures well the spatial distribution of monthly climatology precipitation and the monthly/yearly variability, showing improvement over at least two previously published precipitation downscaling studies. With the improved precipitation downscaling, a better hydrological simulation over the trans-state Oologah watershed is also achieved.

  9. Assessment the Economic Damage of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Cropping Pattern and Farmers’ Income Situation in the Origin Basin (Case Study: Water Transfer of Alamoutrood to Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parhizkari

    2016-03-01

    building the dam, canals, streams and aqueducts. Even today, many projects are implemented in Iran that water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain is one of the most important of these projects. According to reports of Regional Water Company of Qazvin province and the specifications of inter-basin water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain will be out from the farmers availability of Alamut region about 370 million cubic meters of irrigation water. This issue has the huge impacts on cropping pattern and farmers economic and livelihood condition in the origin basin (Alamout region. Therefore, in this study a hydrological-economic modeling system to analysis the effects of water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain on cropping pattern, farmers gross profit and economic value of irrigation water in the Alamut region (origin basin was used. Materials and Methods: Nowadays different methods to analysis of the issues related to the management of water resources and agriculture are used. One of the most important of these methods is mathematical programming that in recent years are in use to solve problems of water resource management sector and analysis of the agricultural policies. In this study a hydrological-economic modeling system consists of the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP and product function with Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES to analysis of the effects of inter-basin water transfer on land use, farmers income situation and economic value of irrigation water in the origin basin (Alamout region was used. The first time PMP model developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models have been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modelling framework and to assess impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analysing the impact of water resources management policies and scenarios. PMP model used in this paper is a

  10. Geomorphology of the Namoi alluvial plain, northwestern New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.; Young, A.R.M.; Price, D.M.; Wray, R.A.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Quaternary history of the extensive alluvial plains of the northern part of the Darling River Basin has received little attention, and has generally been assumed to be an analogue of the very detailed history compiled for the Riverine Plain of southeastern Australia. Our study of the Namoi valley, which is a tributary to the upper Darling, shows that this assumption is unfounded. Thermoluminescence dating demonstrates that the oldest palaeochannels of the Namoi River correspond only to the youngest palaeochannels on the Riverine Plain. The thermoluminescence analyses were carried out on the 90-125 μm quartz fraction thermally stimulated by ionizing radiation using the combined additive/regenerative technique. This technique utilises a second glow normalisation procedure that involves re-irradiating each of the quartz sample aliquots and measuring the thermoluminescence induced in the grains. It has ben demonstrated that unlike the streams on the Riverine Plain, the Namoi River has moved progressively away from its buried Tertiary palaeovalley, probably due to declining sediment input from its southern tributaries. In contrast to the streams of the Riverine Plain, the dimensions of the Namoi palaeochannels are indicative of substantially greater discharges until the mid-Holocene. There is also evidence of significant aeolian input throughout the Late Quaternary. The study indicates that the water resources of this increasingly important irrigated region seem to be considerably constrained by the Quaternary heritage of the Namoi valley. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  11. First simultaneous space measurements of atmospheric pollutants in the boundary layer from IASI: A case study in the North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynard, Anne; Safieddine, Sarah; Oudot, Charlotte; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette; Clerbaux, Cathy; Clarisse, Lieven; Bauduin, Sophie; Hurtmans, Daniel; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Pommier, Matthieu; Van Damme, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a severe pollution episode that occurred in Beijing, Tianjin, and the Hebei province in January 2013. The episode was caused by the combination of anthropogenic emissions and a high-pressure system that trapped pollutants in the boundary layer. Using IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) satellite measurements, high concentrations of key trace gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and ammonia (NH 3 ) along with ammonium sulfate aerosol ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) are found. We show that IASI is able to detect boundary layer pollution in case of large negative thermal contrast combined with high levels of pollution. Our findings demonstrate that anthropogenic key pollutants, such as CO and SO 2 , can be monitored by IASI in the North China Plain during wintertime in support of air quality evaluation and management. (authors)

  12. Geophysical Constraints on the Hydrogeologic and Structural Settings of the Gulf of Suez Rift-Related Basins: Case Study from the El Qaa Plain, Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M; Sauck, William; Sultan, Mohamed; Yan, Eugene; Soliman, Farouk; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-11-09

    Groundwater has been identified as one of the major freshwater sources that can potentially meet the growing demands of Egypt’s population. Gravity data (from 381 ground gravity stations) were collected, processed, and analyzed together with the available aeromagnetic (800 line-km) data to investigate the hydrogeologic and structural settings, areal distribution, geometry, and water storage of the aquifers in El Qaa coastal plain in the southwest Sinai Peninsula, and to assess their longevity given projected extraction rates. Findings include (1) complete Bouguer anomaly and total magnetic intensity maps show two connected sub-basins separated by a narrow saddle with an average basin length of 43 km and an average width of 12 km; (2) two-dimensional modeling of both gravity and magnetic data indicates basin fill with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km; (3) using anomalous residual gravity, the volume of water in storage was estimated at 40–56 km3; and (4) progressive increases in extraction rates over time will deplete up to 40 % of the aquifers’ volume in 200–230 years and will cause the water quality to deteriorate due to seawater intrusion in 45 years. Similar geophysical exploration campaigns, if conducted over the entire coastal plains of the Red Sea and the Gulfs of Suez and Aqaba, could assist in the development of sound and sustainable management schemes for the freshwater resources in these areas. The adopted techniques could pave the way toward the establishment of sustainable utilization schemes for a much larger suite of similar aquifers worldwide.

  13. Analysis on the Change in Shallow Groundwater Level based on Monitoring Electric Energy Consumption - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wolfgang, K.; Steiner, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater has been over-pumped for irrigation in the North China Plain in the past decades causing a drastic decrease in the groundwater level. Shallow groundwater can be recharged by rainfall, and the aquifer could be rehabilitated for sustainable use. However, understanding and maintaining the balance of the aquifer - including climatic as well as anthropogenic influences - are fundamental to enable such a sustainable groundwater management. This is still severely obstructed by a lack of measurements of recharge and exploitation. A project to measure groundwater pumping rate at the distributed scale based on monitoring electric energy consumption is going on in Guantao County (456 km2) located in the southern part of the North China Plain. Considerably less costly than direct measurements of the pumping rate, this approach enables us to (a) cover a larger area and (b) use historic electricity data to reconstruct water use in the past. Pumping tests have been carried out to establish a relation between energy consumption and groundwater exploitation. Based on the results of the pumping tests, the time series of the pumping rate can be estimated from the historical energy consumption and serves as the input for a box model to reconstruct the water balance of the shallow aquifer for recent years. This helps us to determine the relative contribution of recharge due to rainfall as well as drawdown due to groundwater pumping for irrigation. Additionally, 100 electric meters have been installed at the electric transformers supplying power for irrigation. With insights gained from the pumping tests, real-time monitoring of the groundwater exploitation is achieved by converting the measured energy consumption to the water use, and pumping control can also be achieved by limiting the energy use. A monitoring and controlling system can then be set up to implement the strategy of sustainable groundwater use.

  14. “One Should Have Two Homelands”: Discord and Hope in Soma Morgenstern’s Sparks in the Abyss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soma Morgenstern’s three-part novel Sparks in the Abyss, written between 1930 and 1943, exudes a spirit of serenity and optimism at the same time that its narrative is structured by repeated scenes of conflict and violence. This paper seeks to account for the place of discord in the trilogy. Morgenstern uses the interwar Galician homeland as a site to articulate the possibility of traditional Jewish life in modern Europe. By inhabiting two homes—East and West, Galicia and Vienna, secularism and piety—Jews will be able to negotiate the inevitable discord and occasional brutality that they face in the world. The lessons learned by a Western secular Jew in pluralist Galicia create hope for the negotiation of difference, if not for the complete overcoming of violence, on the eve of World War II.

  15. Petrological, magnetic and chemical properties of basalt dredged from an abyssal hill in the North-east pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendyk, B.P.; Engel, C.G.

    1969-01-01

    OVER the years, samples of basalt from the oceanic crust have been taken mainly from seamounts, fracture zones and ridge and rise crests1-6, and rarely from the vast fields of abyssal hills which cover a large part of the deep-sea floor. The basalt sampled from the deeper regions of the oceanic crust (for example, on fault scarps) is a distinct variety of tholeiitic basalt, while alkali basalt is restricted to the volcanic edifices4. Oceanic tholeiitic basalt differs from alkali basalt and continental tholeiite chiefly in having a relatively low percentage of K2O (0.2 weight per cent)4. Some authors have speculated that this type of tholeiitic basalt is the major extrusion from the upper mantle and constitutes the predominant rock type in the upper oceanic crust. ?? 1969 Nature Publishing Group.

  16. Description of plant communities on the Red Sea costal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Sykora, K.V.; Abate, T.; Mostofa, B.; Huis, van A.

    2007-01-01

    The coastal plains of the Red Sea constitute an important breeding area for the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Vegetation analysis was undertaken in the coastal plain of Sudan to provide a frame of reference for studies on desert locust ecology and distribution. Vegetation relevés (>60 in

  17. Diagnostic value of plain abdominal radiographs in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The plain film of the abdomen (PAX) is still utilised in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Aap). Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PAX in the diagnosis of Aap in children, since it continues to be a controversial subject. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gazi ...

  18. Astrobiology and the Basaltic Plains in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, D. J.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farmer, J. D.; Grotzinger, John P.; Haskin, Larry A.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Schroeder, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This report assesses the availability of nutrient elements, energy and liquid water on the plains surrounding Columbia Memorial Station by evaluating observations by the MER rover Spirit in the context of previous Mars missions, Earth-based studies of martian meteorites and studies of microbial communities on Earth that represent potential analogs of martian biota.

  19. A Land Systems Science Framework for Bridging Land System Architecture and Landscape Ecology: A Case Study from the Southern High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Vadjunec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resource-use decisions affect the ecological and human components of the coupled human and natural system (CHANS, but a critique of some frameworks is that they do not address the complexity and tradeoffs within and between the two systems. Land system architecture (LA was suggested to account for these tradeoffs at multiple levels/scales. LA and landscape ecology (LE focus on landscape structure (i.e., composition and configuration of land-use and land-cover change [LULCC] and the processes (social-ecological resulting from and shaping LULCC. Drawing on mixed-methods research in the Southern Great Plains, we develop a framework that incorporates LA, LE, and governance theory. Public land and water are commons resources threatened by overuse, degradation, and climate change. Resource use is exacerbated by public land and water policies at the state- and local-levels. Our framework provides a foundation for investigating the mechanisms of land systems science (LSS couplings across multiple levels/scales to understand how and why governance impacts human LULCC decisions (LA and how those LULCC patterns influence, and are influenced by, the underlying ecological processes (LE. This framework provides a mechanism for investigating the feedbacks between and among the different system components in a CHANS that subsequently impact future human design decisions.

  20. The macrofauna of the soil in systems of agricultural production: Answers to the perturbations and handling perspectives. A case of study in the Oriental Plains of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaens, T; Jimenez, J J; Schneidmadl, J; Lavelle, P

    1998-01-01

    During the last 20 years, numerous investigations were dedicated to the understanding of the relationships between soil macro-invertebrates and the abiotic factors that determine soil function. Important effects of macro-fauna activities were observed in soil organic matter dynamics, cycles of assimilable nutrients, soil structure and plant growth. Actual investigation in the Eastern Plains of Colombia (Investigation Centre of Carimagua and Matazul Farm) aims to identify sustainable and macrofauna-protecting systems of production; managing savanna results in important changes in soil faunal communities. Sowing improved pastures increases the activity of local macro-invertebrates populations (especially earthworms) and conserves the initial biodiversity of the savanna. On the other hand, monocrops have a dramatic effect on the whole soil macrofauna. An appropriate management of soil tillage and plant residues may minimize the negative effects of such monocrops. Other alternative is the use of rotations and/or juxtapositions of suitable and unfavorable situations, which may facilitates macrofaunal migrations from one system to another

  1. Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions. The Oulu knee osteoarthritis study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Thevenot, Jerome; Podlipska, Jana; Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Nieminen, Miika T.; Saarakkala, Simo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (E Lap ) and local binary patterns (E LBP ), homogeneity index of local angles (HI Angles,mean ), and horizontal (FD Hor ) and vertical fractal dimensions (FD Ver ). Medial tibial articular cartilage damage and BMLs were scored using the magnetic resonance imaging osteoarthritis knee score. Level of statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Subjects with medial tibial cartilage damage had significantly higher FD Ver and E LBP as well as lower E Lap and HI Angles,mean in the medial tibial subchondral bone region than subjects without damage. FD Hor , FD Ver , and E LBP were significantly higher, whereas E Lap and HI Angles,mean were lower in the medial trabecular bone region. Subjects with medial tibial BMLs had significantly higher FD Ver and E LBP as well as lower E Lap and HI Angles,mean in medial tibial subchondral bone. FD Hor , FD Ver , and E LBP were higher, whereas E Lap and HI Angles,mean were lower in medial trabecular bone. Our results support the use of bone structural analysis from radiographs when examining subjects with osteoarthritis or at risk of having it. (orig.)

  2. Abyssal and hydrated mantle wedge serpentinised peridotites: a comparison of the 15°20'N fracture zone and New Caledonia serpentinites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersole, Fiona Elizabeth; Evans, Katy; Frost, B. Ronald

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of serpentinised mantle transfers oxidised and hydrated mantle lithosphere into the Earth, with consequences for the oxidation state of sub-arc mantle and the genesis of arc-related ore deposits. The role of subducted serpentinised mantle lithosphere in earth system processes is uncertain because subduction fluxes are poorly constrained. Most subducted serpentinised mantle is serpentinised on the ocean floor settings. Yet this material is poorly represented in the literature because it is difficult to access. Large volumes of accessible serpentinite are available in ophiolite complexes, and most interpretations of subduction fluxes associated with ultramafic rocks are based on ophiolite studies. Seafloor and ophiolite serpentinisation can occur under different conditions, so it is necessary to assess if ophiolite serpentinites are a good proxy for seafloor serpentinites. Serpentinites sampled during ODP cruise 209 were compared with serpentinites from New Caledonia. The ODP209 serpentinites were serpentinised by modified seawater in a shallow hydrothermal seafloor setting. The New Caledonia serpentinites were serpentinised in a mantle wedge setting by slab-derived fluids, with possible contributions from oceanic serpentinisation and post-obduction serpentinisation. Petrological, whole rock and mineralogical analyses were combined to compare the two sample sets. Petrologically, the evolution of serpentinisation was close to identical in the two environments. However, more oxidised iron, Cl, S and C is present in serpentine from the ODP209 serpentinites relative to the New Caledonia serpentinites. Given these observations, the use of serpentinites from different geodynamic settings as a proxy for abyssal serpentinites from spreading settings must be undertaken with caution.

  3. Creep of plain weave polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek

    composites, was experimentally evaluated for time periods ranging from 1--120 hours under both loading conditions. The composite showed increase in creep with increase in temperature and stress. Creep of composite increased with increase in angle of loading, from 1% under on-axis loading to 31% under off-axis loading, within the tested time window. The experimental creep data for plain weave composites were superposed using TTSP (Time Temperature Superposition Principle) to obtain a master curve of experimental data extending to several years and was compared with model predictions to validate the model. The experimental and model results were found in good agreement within an error range of +/-1-3% under both loading conditions. A parametric study was also conducted to understand the effect of microstructure of plain weave composites on its on-axis and off-axis creep. Generation of knowledge in this area is also "first". Additionally, this thesis generated knowledge on time-dependent damage m woven composites and its effect on creep and tensile properties and their prediction.

  4. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  5. Analysis of energy requirement in the irrigation sector and its application in groundwater over-pumping control at a local scale - A case study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kinzelbach, W.; Yao, H.; Hagmann, A.; Li, N.; Steiner, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    The North China Plain is one of the most important agricultural regions which relies heavily on groundwater pumping for irrigation powered by electric energy. This region is also facing a severe problem of groundwater over-pumping. Stopping groundwater depletion by controlling pumping for irrigation may harm the agricultural production and affect the interests of the electricity utility who is a direct participant in the irrigation management. Water-saving infrastructures such as sprinklers can be effective means for water conservation but are often difficult to implement due to farmers' unwillingness to pay for the additional electricity consumption. Understanding this food-energy-water nexus is fundamental to implement effective and practical strategies for groundwater over-pumping control in the North China Plain. However, this understanding can be obscured by the missing groundwater pumping monitoring and a lack of access to specific energy data for irrigation use as well as the field observations of pump efficiency. Taking the example of a typical agricultural county (Guantao) in the North China Plain with irrigation pumps generally powered by electricity, this study is focused on the analysis of the energy requirement in the irrigation sector and its application in developing strategies for groundwater over-pumping control at the county scale. 1) Field measurements from pumping tests are used to adjust the pumps' theoretical characteristics. A simple empirical equation is derived to estimate the energy use rate for irrigation given the depth of the groundwater table. Field measurements show that pump efficiency is around 30% in the tested region. 2) We hypothesize that the inter-annual variability of rural energy consumption is caused by the randomness in annual precipitation. This assumption is examined and then applied to separate the energy consumption for irrigation from the total rural energy consumption. 3) Based on the groundwater pumping rate

  6. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; van den Bekerom, Michel; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  7. Prediction of characteristics of coastal plain soils using terrain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to model the characteristics of coastal plain sands using terrain attributes. Representative surface soil samples of upper, middle and lower slopes were collected from 10 locations and their properties determined using standard laboratory methods. Soil properties determined include depth, ...

  8. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Skull and other bone contents were mostly (about 90%) of Gerbilliscus robusta, suggesting this rodent to still be an important food item of the barn owl in the ... Their biology and ecology on the plains have received but few studies (Senzota 1990, Reed 2011). Gerbils are ground dwelling rodents that have also been tamed ...

  9. Challenges faced in the conservation of rare antelope: a case study on the northern basalt plains of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Grant

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of rare antelope has long been one of the goals of the Kruger National Park. The roan antelope Hippotragus equinus, and to a lesser extent the tsessebe Damaliscus lunatus, represent low-density species or rare antelope in the park. Specific management approaches representing the older equilibrium approach, have been employed to conserve these antelope. Of these, the supply of artificial water over many decades was the most resource intensive. The sudden, severe drop in the roan antelope population towards the end of the 1980s was unexpected and, retrospectively, attributed to the development of a high density of perennial waterpoints. The postulated mechanism was that the perennial presence of water allowed Burchell’s zebra Equus burchelli to stay permanently in an area that was previously only seasonally accessible. The combined effect of a long, dry climatic cycle, high numbers of zebra and their associated predators was proposed to be the cause of this decline. As part of the new nature evolving or ecosystem resilience approach, twelve artificial waterpoints were closed in the prime roan antelope habitat in 1994 in an attempt to move the zebra out of this area. The zebra numbers declined as the rainfall increased. Closure of waterholes clearly led to redistribution of zebra numbers on the northern plains, zebra tending to avoid areas within several kilometres of closed waterpoints. However, at a larger scale, regional densities appeared similar in areas with and without closed waterpoints. There was an initial drop in the lion numbers in 1995, after which they stabilised. In spite of an improvement in the grass species composition and an increase in biomass the roan antelope population did not increase. The complexity of maintaining a population at the edge of their distribution and the problems associated with the conservation of such populations are discussed in terms of management options and monitoring approaches that

  10. [Impacts of land use change on ecosystem services in the agricultural area of North China Plain: A case study of Shangqiu City, Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya Ru; Wang, Cong; Yan, Li Jiao

    2018-05-01

    Under the rapid urbanization, quantitatively assessing the impacts of land use and cover change (LUCC) on ecosystem service is of great significance for regional ecological environment construction. Based on the land use maps of Shangqiu City (as the typical agricultural area of North China Plain) in the year of 1990, 2005 and 2015, the spatio-temporal dynamics of land use and ecosystem service were analyzed, and the impacts of LUCC on ecosystem services was quantified with the impact assessment model. The results showed that, from 1990 to 2015, farmland and construction land area, which covered more than 95% of the total area of the research area, changed the most in quantity as -104.38 and 201.59 km 2 respectively, while forestland, grassland and water area changed the most by 79.3%, -73.7% and -24.2%, respectively. The total value of ecosystem service continuously decreased by 1.005 billion yuan, among which the value of hydrolo-gical regulation service suffered the most. The value of ecosystem service (ESV) presented an increasing trend in the west and a decreasing trend in the east. Extending from the center of the city to the outside, the value of ecosystem services was "high-low-high" in the east to west direction. The rate of farmland and water area contributed more than 95% to the total ecosystem service value, which had the greatest impact. The main drivers for the changes of land use and ESV in Shangqiu were population pressure, economic growth, regional policy, and urban planning. In the urban and rural development planning of Shangqiu City, more attention should be paid to the protection of na-tural resources and rational adjustment of the land use structure to realize sustainable development based on the harmony of economy, society and environment.

  11. Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions. The Oulu knee osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Thevenot, Jerome; Podlipska, Jana [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nieminen, Miika T.; Saarakkala, Simo [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (E{sub Lap}) and local binary patterns (E{sub LBP}), homogeneity index of local angles (HI{sub Angles,mean}), and horizontal (FD{sub Hor}) and vertical fractal dimensions (FD{sub Ver}). Medial tibial articular cartilage damage and BMLs were scored using the magnetic resonance imaging osteoarthritis knee score. Level of statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Subjects with medial tibial cartilage damage had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in the medial tibial subchondral bone region than subjects without damage. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were significantly higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in the medial trabecular bone region. Subjects with medial tibial BMLs had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in medial tibial subchondral bone. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in medial trabecular bone. Our results support the use of bone structural analysis from radiographs when examining subjects with osteoarthritis or at risk of having it. (orig.)

  12. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  13. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in surface water and groundwater from different depths of aquifers: A case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Deng, Yamin; Li, Yonggang; Gan, Yiqun; Guo, Wei; Dong, Chuangju; Duan, Yanhua; Zhao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulfonamides) in groundwater and surface water at Jianghan Plain was investigated during three seasons. The total concentrations of target compounds in the water samples were higher in spring than those in summer and winter. Erythromycin was the predominant antibiotic in surface water samples with an average value of 1.60μg/L, 0.772μg/L and 0.546μg/L respectively in spring, summer and winter. In groundwater samples, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines accounted for the dominant proportion of total antibiotic residues. The vertical distributions of total antibiotics in groundwater samples from three different depths boreholes (10m, 25m, and 50m) exhibited irregular fluctuations. Consistently decreasing of antibiotic residues with increasing of depth was observed in four (G01, G02, G03 and G05) groundwater sampling sites over three seasons. However, at the sampling sites G07 and G08, the pronounced high concentrations of total antibiotic residues were detected in water samples from 50m deep boreholes instead of those at upper aquifer in winter sampling campaign, with the total concentrations of 0.201μg/L and 0.100μg/L respectively. The environmental risks posed by the 14 antibiotics were assessed by using the methods of risk quotient and mixture risk quotient for algae, daphnids and fish in surface water and groundwater. The results suggested that algae might be the aquatic organism most sensitive to the antibiotics, with the highest risk levels posed by erythromycin in surface water and by ciprofloxacin in groundwater among the 14 antibiotics. In addition, the comparison between detected antibiotics in groundwater samples and the reported effective concentrations of antibiotics on denitrification by denitrifying bacteria, indicating this biogeochemical process driven by microorganisms won't be inhibitory influenced by the antibiotic residues in groundwater. Copyright © 2016

  14. Use of the Cone Penetration Testing (CPT) method to interpret late Quaternary tide-dominated successions: A case study from the eastern China coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Lin, Chun-Ming; Dalrymple, Robert W.; Gao, Shu; Canas, Daniel T.

    2018-06-01

    We evaluate the applicability of cone penetration testing (CPT), calibrated using adjacent cores, as a tool for the sedimentological and stratigraphic examination of late Quaternary tide-dominated successions in the eastern China coastal plain. The results indicate that the sedimentary facies and sequence-stratigraphic surfaces can be readily distinguished using CPT profiles in the Qiantang River incised-valley system because of their distinctive mechanical behavior. The lithologic character of the various facies, which is controlled mainly by sediment supply, dynamic processes and post-depositional diagenesis, is the key factor affecting how well the CPT technique works. Within this particular macrotidal environment, which is dominated by non-cohesive sand and silt in the tidal channels, the accumulation of fluid mud is rare. Consequently, the tidal-channel deposits exhibit the geotechnical properties of coarse-grained sediments, and can be easily distinguished from the mud-dominated facies. However, in the nearby Changjiang delta system which is characterized by very high suspended-sediment concentrations and an abundance of fine-grained cohesive sediments, the presence of channel-bottom fluid muds makes it difficult to recognize channel deposits, because of the lack of a sharp lithologic contrast at their base. Consequently, the CPT method might not be as universally effective in tide-dominated systems as it appears to be in wave-dominated settings. Care is needed in the interpretation of the results from tide-dominated successions because of the widespread presence of fluid muds, the heterolithic nature of tidal deposits, the rheological similarity between adjacent facies, and the averaging of geotechnical properties between the alternating finer and coarser layers.

  15. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  16. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  17. Evaluating the Use of Plain Language in a Cancer Clinical Trial Website/App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Paula L; Carlisle, Regina; Cheatham, Chesley; O'Grady, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Medically complex titles and descriptions found on clinical trial websites and online applications present a barrier to comprehension for users from the general public. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of plain language trial descriptions for user comprehension of basic trial details. Two hundred seventeen volunteers recruited from patient waiting areas completed 441 user tests of ten plain language trial descriptions. The majority of volunteers adequately comprehended the cancer type and basic inclusion/exclusion criteria from plain language trial descriptions. Difficulty comprehending the treatment being studied was seen in seven of ten descriptions tested. Revision and retesting of the seven trial descriptions showed continued user challenges in comprehending the treatment being studied. Plain language clinical trial descriptions integrated into a website/app allowed users to understand basic inclusion/exclusion criteria. Despite plain language used, discerning the treatment being studied may be difficult for some users. Integration of plain language descriptions into clinical trial online applications can help users understand trial basics. Further research regarding effective use of plain language to communicate the treatment being studied is needed.

  18. Sources and flow of north Canterbury Plains groundwater, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.; Brown, L.J.; Stewart, M.K.; Brailsford, G.W.; Wilson, D.D.; Burden, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Geological, hydrological, isotope (tritium and 18 O) and chemical evidence is interpreted to give a mutually consistent picture of the recharge sources and flow patterns of the important groundwater resource in the deep Quaternary deposits of the Canterbury Plains between Selwyn R. and Ashley R. The study period for tritium measurements extends over 27 years, encompassing the peak and decline of thermonuclear tritium fallout in this region. Major rivers emerging from mountain catchments to the west of the Plains are depleted in 18 O relative to average low-level precipitation. Most of the groundwater is river-recharged, but some areas with significant local precipitation recharge are clearly identified by 18 O and chemical concentrations. Artesian groundwater underlying Christchurch ascends from deeper aquifers into the shallowest aquifer via gaps in the confining layers; much of this flow is induced by withdrawal. The Christchurch aquifers are recharged by infiltration from Waimakariri R. in its central Plains reaches, and the resulting flow regime is E- and SE-directed; satisfactory water quality of the deeper Christchurch aquifer appears to be guaranteed for the future provided the river can be maintained in its present condition. Shallow groundwater, and water recharged to depth by other rivers, irrigation and local precipitation on the unconfined western areas of the Plains, are more susceptible to agricultural and other pollutants; none of this water is encountered in the deeper aquifers under Christchurch. (author). 15 refs., 12 figs

  19. Plain ABDO X-rays: a waste of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Plain abdominal radiographs are commonly requested for acute medical emergencies on patients with non-specific abdominal symptoms and signs. In this study, 131 plain abdominal radiographs performed on the day of admission were prospectively analysed by the research team. In only 16 cases (12 per cent) the reasons for requests conformed to the recommended guidelines by the Royal College of Radiologists. The reason for the request was stated in the case notes in only three cases. In 62 cases (47 per cent), there was no comment made on the film by the requesting clinician. There was a discrepancy in the interpretation of the radiograph between the clinician and the radiologist in 31 cases (24 per cent). The clinical management was influenced by plain abdominal radiographs in only nine cases (7 per cent). The researchers argue that most plain abdominal radiographs requested on acute medical emergencies are inappropriate. They suggest there is a need to ensure guidelines are followed to prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation as well as preventing expenditure on irrelevant investigations.

  20. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  1. Carbon isotopic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: Reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Oxygen- and carbon-isotopic analyses have been performed on the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi in seven Late Quaternary cores from the Vema Channel-Rio Grande Rise region. The cores are distributed over the water-depth interval of 2340 to 3939 m, which includes the present transition from North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The carbon-isotopic records in the cores vary as a function of water depth. The shallowest and deepest cores show no significant glacial-interglacial difference in δ 13C. Four of the five cores presently located in the NADW have benthic foraminiferal δ 13C that is lower during glacial isotopic stages. Based on bathymetric gradients in δ 13C, we conclude that, like today, there were two water masses present in the Vema Channel during glacial intervals: a water mass enriched in 13C overlying another water mass depleted in 13C. The largest gradient of change of δ 13C with depth, however, occurred at 2.7 km, ˜ 1 km shallower than the present position of this gradient. On the basis of paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence, we consider it unlikely that the NADW:AABW transition shallowed to this level. Reduced carbon-isotopic gradients between the deep basins of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last glaciation suggest that production of NADW was reduced. Lower production of NADW may have modified the local abyssal circulation pattern in the Vema Channel region.

  2. Intussusception in childhood: the role of plain abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Joo Yun; Kim, Min Joong; Kim, Young Mook; Park, Won Gyu; Ko, Kang Seok; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Ran; Kim, Byong Geun

    1995-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the plain radiologic findings of the childhood intussusception and to evaluate the role of plain abdominal films in predicting the success of air or barium reduction. We retrospectively reviewed 140 cases with the diagnosis of intussusception in childhood. The radiological signs that included soft tissue mass, dilatation of small bowel suggesting obstruction, crescent sign, and target sign were evaluated in terms of frequency. The relationship between radiological findings and outcome of reduction was analyzed. The site of soft tissue mass or crescent sign seen on plain radiographs was correlated with the position of the apex of the intussusceptum seen at the beginning of barium edema. The degree of dilated small bowel was evaluated by calculating the proportion of air-filled small bowel occupying peritoneal cavity and measuring the maximal diameter of dilated bowel lumen. The radiological finding for small bowel obstruction is determined by observation of the degree of small bowel dilatation and/or air-fluid levels. Ninety-two cases out of 140 showed one or more radiographic signs. Two most common signs were soft tissue mass and small bowel obstruction. The success rate of air or barium reduction was significantly lower in patients with most severe degree of dilatation of small bowel and/or more than 7 air-fluid levels on erect view. The suspected location of intussusception on plain radiographs correlated well with the true location of intussusception seen in the first few seconds of barium reduction. Plain abdominal radiography is useful in the diagnosis of intussusception and provides helpful information for the reduction procedure as well as for the exclusion of the contraindications such as bowel perforation

  3. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  4. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  5. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  6. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  7. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  8. Water in orthopyroxene from abyssal spinel peridotites of the East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147: Hess Deep)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Kirsten T.; Gose, Jürgen; Stalder, Roland; Schmädicke, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Abyssal spinel peridotites from Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (ODP Leg 147) were investigated concerning their major, minor, and trace element mineral chemistry and the incorporation of structural water in orthopyroxene. The rocks are partially serpentinized harzburgites containing primary minerals of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel. Orthopyroxene is enstatitic with Mg# (Mg/(Mg + Fe)) between 0.90 and 0.92 and Al2O3 from 0.5 to 2.9 wt.%. The residual harzburgite experienced high degrees of melt removal in the spinel peridotite stability field. The average degree of partial melting was calculated to be 17.5% (range: 16.4-17.8%). Trace element data of ortho- and clinopyroxenes reflect this strong depletion, characteristic for the restitic nature of abyssal peridotites. Mantle re-equilibration temperatures around 1000 °C indicate that, after melt extraction and before exhumation to the ocean floor, the rocks experienced significant cooling in the spinel peridotite facies. Water contents of orthopyroxene range from 86 to 233 wt. ppm H2O with an average concentration of 142 wt. ppm H2O. These results represent the first data on water contents in the sub-pacific mantle obtained by direct measurements of sub-oceanic peridotite. The water contents are not related to mineral chemistry, stratigraphy, melting degree, mantle equilibrium conditions or oxidation state. Calculated post-melt peridotite water contents vary between 40 and 100 wt. ppm H2O. Compared to Mid-Atlantic Ridge peridotites, the East Pacific Rise samples of Leg 147 contain somewhat lower water concentrations than samples from Leg 153 and considerably higher contents than those of Leg 209 (Gose et al., 2009; Schmädicke et al., 2011). In Leg 147, the strongest OH absorbtion band occurs at 3420 cm- 1, wheras orthopyroxene from MAR peridotite (Legs 153 and 209) has its strongest absorbtion band at 3566 and 3522 cm- 1. The mantle equilibrium temperature of Leg 147 peridotites is lower than that

  9. Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites from the MARK area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Sulfur geochemistry and reaction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2003-01-01

    The opaque mineralogy and the contents and isotope compositions of sulfur in serpentinized peridotites from the MARK (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Kane Fracture Zone) area were examined to understand the conditions of serpentinization and evaluate this process as a sink for seawater sulfur. The serpentinites contain a sulfur-rich secondary mineral assemblage and have high sulfur contents (up to 1 wt.%) and elevated ??34Ssulfide (3.7 to 12.7???). Geochemical reaction modeling indicates that seawater-peridotite interaction at 300 to 400??C alone cannot account for both the high sulfur contents and high ??34Ssulfide. These require a multistage reaction with leaching of sulfide from subjacent gabbro during higher temperature (???400??C) reactions with seawater and subsequent deposition of sulfide during serpentinization of peridotite at ???300??C. Serpentinization produces highly reducing conditions and significant amounts of H2 and results in the partial reduction of seawater carbonate to methane. The latter is documented by formation of carbonate veins enriched in 13C (up to 4.5???) at temperatures above 250??C. Although different processes produce variable sulfur isotope effects in other oceanic serpentinites, sulfur is consistently added to abyssal peridotites during serpentinization. Data for serpentinites drilled and dredged from oceanic crust and from ophiolites indicate that oceanic peridotites are a sink for up to 0.4 to 6.0 ?? 1012 g seawater S yr-1. This is comparable to sulfur exchange that occurs in hydrothermal systems in mafic oceanic crust at midocean ridges and on ridge flanks and amounts to 2 to 30% of the riverine sulfate source and sedimentary sulfide sink in the oceans. The high concentrations and modified isotope compositions of sulfur in serpentinites could be important for mantle metasomatism during subduction of crust generated at slow spreading rates. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Effects of plain packaging on decision-making and reward for nicotine cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin LE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Martin1,21Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Efforts to reduce smoking prevalence include changes to policies that are expected to have impacts on smoking behaviors. Plain packaging has been introduced as a method to reduce the appeal of smoking by removing such branding information as pack colors and brand logos from cigarette packages. Behavioral studies of plain packaging demonstrate reductions in the appeal of cigarette packages, changes in smoking behaviors, and expected reductions in smoking initiation. Neuroimaging studies of branding demonstrate that the neural systems of rewards and cognitive control are associated with processing brand information (eg, logos. Neuroimaging studies in smokers demonstrate that the neural systems of reward respond to images of cigarettes and are associated with reductions in cognitive control responses. The current review discusses the state of research on plain packaging in terms of a biopsychosocial model of addiction in which behavioral studies of plain packaging can identify psychological and social changes related to packaging, whereas neuroimaging studies can identify biological changes underlying the psychological and social impacts of packaging. Together, these studies show that plain packaging may reduce positive perceptions of smoking by reducing related reward responses in the brain, thus increasing the likelihood that smokers will be able to resist the urge to smoke, and perhaps quit smoking altogether.Keywords: smoking, plain packaging, neuroimaging, branding, reward

  11. Characterisation of the Ionian-Lucanian coastal plain aquifer

    OpenAIRE

    Polemio, M.; Limoni, P.P.; Mitolo, D.; Santaloia, F.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with a Southern Italy area, 40 km by 10 km wide, located where four river valleys anastomose themselves in the coastal plain. The geological and hydrogeological features of the study area and the chemical-physical groundwater characterisation have been inferred from the data analysis of 1130 boreholes. Some aquifers, connected among them, constituted by soils of different geological origin -marine terraces deposits, river valley alluvial deposits and alluvial and coastal depo...

  12. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  13. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  14. Sphaerodoropsis kitazatoi, a new species and the first record of Sphaerodoridae (Annelida: Phyllodocida) in SW Atlantic abyssal sediments around a whale carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimabukuro, Maurício; Rizzo, Alexandra E.; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M.; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sumida, Paulo Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    A new polychaete species, Sphaerodoropsis kitazatoi (Annelida: Phyllodocida: Sphaerodoridae), is described from the abyssal Southwest Atlantic Ocean at the base of São Paulo Ridge (4204 m depth). This species was found in sediments impacted by a whale carcass. The new species has four longitudinal rows of macrotubercles and one transversal row per chaetiger and shares several characters with S. anae Aguado and Rouse, 2006 that is also associated with chemosynthetic environments. They can be clearly distinguished from S. anae and other Sphaerodoropsis species by the arrangement and the number of prostomial, body and parapodial papillae.

  15. The characteristics of hydrogeochemical zonation of groundwater in inland plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-yu, HOU; Li-ting, XING; Yi, YANG; Wen-jing, ZHANG; Guang-yao, CHI

    2018-05-01

    To find out the hydrochemical zoning of groundwaterin the inland plain, taking Jiyang plain as an example, based on mathematical statistics, ion ratio coefficient and isotopic analysis method, the characteristics of water chemical composition and its zoning at different depths of 500m were studied. The result shows: ①The groundwater flow system in the study area can be divided into local flow system, intermediate flow system and regional flow system. ②The hydrochemical type of shallow groundwater is complex. The hydrochemical types of middle confined water are mainly ClṡSO4—MgṡNa and SO4ṡCl—NaṡMg. The deep confined water is mainly HCO3. ③The TDS of shallow groundwater increases gradually along the direction of groundwater flow. ④The shallow saltwater and freshwater are alternately distributed in horizontal direction, and saltwater is distributed sporadically in the interfluve area with sporadic punctate or banded, and hydrochemical types are mainly ClṡSO4—NaṡMgṡCa. Conclusion: Groundwater in the study area is affected by complicated hydrogeochemical action, mainly in the form of filtration, cation exchange and evaporation. The inland plain area is characterized by hydrogeochemical zonation in horizontal and vertical.

  16. Diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frkovic, M.; Klapan, T.; Moscatello, I.; Frkovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Background. Pneumoperitoneum is the presence of air outside the gut lumen as the hallmark of alimentary tract perforation. It can be spontaneous or traumatic in origin. The most frequent cause of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum is the perforation of gastric or duodenal ulcer and the aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film. Patients and methods. This is a retrospective study based on the diagnostic value of pneumoperitoneum on plain abdominal film, with the patient in upright, supine and sometimes left lateral decubitus position. The study included 79 patients who were admitted to our hospital during a 2-year period of time (1998- 1999) and operated on for perforated gastroduodenal ulcer. Results. Ten (12.66 %) of 79 patients underwent operation without radiological procedure. Sixty-nine (87.34 %) patients were examined radiographically and 53 (76.81 %) of them had signs of pneumoperitoneum initially on the plain film. Conclusions. The most common cause of pneumoperitoneum was perforated duodenal ulcer in elderly male patients. The most frequent sign of pneumoperitoneum was the crescent shaped free air beneath the diaphragm. (author)

  17. Climatic change in the Great Plains region of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, B.

    1991-01-01

    Implications of global warming to Canada's Great Plains region are discussed, with reference to the climate predictions of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model under a two times atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Two sets of climate variables for a geographic area located in the Great Plains are tabulated, for the current (1951-1980) climate normals and under the doubled carbon dioxide scenario. Simple univariate statistics were calculated for the two areas, for the variables of mean annual temperature, mean summer temperature, mean winter temperature, mean July temperature, mean growing season temperature, total annual precipitation, total summer precipitation, total winter precipitation, and total growing season precipitation. Under the GISS scenario, temperature values are on average 4 degree C higher than 1951-1980 normals, while precipitation remains about the same. Locations of ecoclimatic regions are graphed for the whole of Canada. 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Braila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links t...

  19. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-01-01

    The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters,...

  20. Behavior of Plain Concrete of a High Water-Cement Ratio after Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Shang, Huai-Shuai; Yi, Ting-Hua; Song, Yu-Pu

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study of plain concrete specimens of water-cement ratio 0.55, subjected to 0, 15, 25, 40, 50 and 75 cycles of freeze-thaw was completed. The dynamic modulus of elasticity (DME), weight loss, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength, cleavage strength and stress-strain relationships of plain concrete specimens suffering from freeze-thaw cycles were measured. The experimental results showed that the strength decreased as the freeze-thaw cycles were repeated. A c...

  1. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  2. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.; Somers, J.M.; Broderick, N.; Halliday, K.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  3. The role of the plain radiograph and renal tract ultrasound in the management of children with renal tract calculi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S L; Somers, J M; Broderick, N; Halliday, K

    2000-09-01

    AIMS: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relative efficacy of plain abdominal radiographs and detailed renal tract ultrasound (US) examination in the diagnosis and follow-up of children with renal tract calculi. METHODS: The records and imaging studies of 28 paediatric patients who had presented with proven renal tract calculi over a period of 5 years were examined. RESULTS: In 23 (82%) patients, US was the first investigation. All these patients also had plain radiographs. Plain radiographs were the first investigation in five (18%) patients. All renal calculi (100%) visible on plain films were demonstrated on US. Furthermore, detailed US often provided other clinically significant findings that were not apparent on plain films. CONCLUSION: As a result of this study it is recommend that detailed US should be the investigation of choice in children with suspected renal tract calculi. Smith, S.L. (2000)

  4. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  5. Turkey Creek—a case study of ecohydrology and integrated watershed management in the low-gradient Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Timothy Callahan; William Hansen; Carl Trettin; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Patrick Meire

    2015-01-01

    Water yield, water supply and quality, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem productivity and services are important societal concerns for natural resource management in the 21st century. Watershed-scale ecohydrologic studies can provide needed context for addressing complex spatial and temporal dynamics of these functions and services. This study was...

  6. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Gavin [Diagnostic Radiographer, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, CO4 5JL Essex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gavincain8@hotmail.com; Shepherdson, Jane; Elliott, Vicki; Svensson, Jon [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  8. Vertical and lateral variability of soils structure – potentials for environmental reconstruction. Case study of the Middle Paeleoithic alluvial plain of the Wallertheim site (Germany).

    OpenAIRE

    Becze-Deák, Judit; Langohr, Judit

    2017-01-01

    This study highlights the potential contributions of soil studies to the environmental reconstructions in terrestrial context. The soils structure of the soil-sedimentary sequence of the Middle Palaeolithic site of Wallertheim has been analysed in details. The observation of the vertical and lateral variability of the soils characteristics as well as their related distribution on large section enabled to detect the impact of various and changing climatic and environmental conditions. As such ...

  9. Review: Recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas of the High Plains aquifer, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Roe, Cassia D.

    2010-12-01

    Playas are ephemeral, closed-basin wetlands that are hypothesized as an important source of recharge to the High Plains aquifer in central USA. The ephemeral nature of playas, low regional recharge rates, and a strong reliance on groundwater from the High Plains aquifer has prompted many questions regarding the contribution and quality of recharge from playas to the High Plains aquifer. As a result, there has been considerable scientific debate about the potential for water to infiltrate the relatively impermeable playa floors, travel through the unsaturated zone sediments that are tens of meters thick, and subsequently recharge the High Plains aquifer. This critical review examines previously published studies on the processes that control recharge rates and chemistry beneath playas. Reported recharge rates beneath playas range from less than 1.0 to more than 500 mm/yr and are generally 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than recharge rates beneath interplaya settings. Most studies support the conceptual model that playas are important zones of recharge to the High Plains aquifer and are not strictly evaporative pans. The major findings of this review provide science-based implications for management of playas and groundwater resources of the High Plains aquifer and directions for future research.

  10. Diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis by plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of plain radiography in the diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis was studied in 116 patients using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. The most significant signs found in central spinal stenosis were short pedicles, high narrow intervertebral foramina, small interlaminar windows and deep posterior concavity of the vertebral bodies. The sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis as compared to CT was 66%, the specificity was 93% and the accuracy was 86%. The midsagittal and interpedicular diameters were measured from plain radiograms and were compared with corresponding CT diameters. In approximately half of the cases, the sagittal diameters were compatible. The maximum error was 6 mm. On average, the interpedicular distances were measured as too wide. The reliability of CT measurements were established by taking the measurements from the vertebral column of a moose calf, and then comparing these to the real measurements obtained with a calibrated ruler. The maximal differences were 2 mm. (author). 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  12. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  13. Insights into the abundance and diversity of abyssal megafauna in a polymetallic-nodule region in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Glover, Adrian G; Goineau, Aurélie; Gooday, Andrew J; Wiklund, Helena; Smith, Craig R

    2016-07-29

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Pacific. Nonetheless, benthic communities in this region remain poorly known. The ABYSSLINE Project is conducting benthic biological baseline surveys for the UK Seabed Resources Ltd. exploration contract area (UK-1) in the CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle, we surveyed megafauna at four sites within a 900 km(2) stratum in the UK-1 contract area, and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area, allowing us to make the first estimates of abundance and diversity. We distinguished 170 morphotypes within the UK-1 contract area but species-richness estimators suggest this could be as high as 229. Megafaunal abundance averaged 1.48 ind. m(-2). Seven of 12 collected metazoan species were new to science, and four belonged to new genera. Approximately half of the morphotypes occurred only on polymetallic nodules. There were weak, but statistically significant, positive correlations between megafaunal and nodule abundance. Eastern-CCZ megafaunal diversity is high relative to two abyssal datasets from other regions, however comparisons with CCZ and DISCOL datasets are problematic given the lack of standardised methods and taxonomy. We postulate that CCZ megafaunal diversity is driven in part by habitat heterogeneity.

  14. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmeng Ye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%. During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas.

  15. Influence of premium vs masked cigarette brand names on the experienced taste of a cigarette after tobacco plain packaging in Australia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-03-12

    Few studies have experimentally assessed the contribution of branding to the experience of smoking a cigarette, compared with the inherent properties of the product. This study examined the influence of cigarette brand name on the sensory experience of smoking a cigarette. Seventy-five Australian smokers aged 18-39 years smoked two 'premium' cigarettes, one with the brand variant name shown and one with the brand variant name masked (which provided 'objective' ratings). Unknown to participants, the two cigarettes were identical. At recruitment, participants rated their expected enjoyment, quality and harshness of several premium cigarette brands. Branded cigarettes were rated as having a significantly more favorable taste (M(SE) = 64.14(2.21)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 58.53(2.26), p = .031). Branded cigarettes were also rated as being less stale (M(SE) = 36.04(2.62)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 43.90(2.60), p = .011). Purchase intent tended to be higher among those shown the branded cigarette compared to the masked cigarette (χ 2 (1) = 3.00, p = .083). Expected enjoyment and quality of the brand variant (enjoyment: b = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.11, 0.51, p  .05). This pattern was not observed for cigarette harshness. A premium brand variant name can enhance the subjective experience of a cigarette. Further, smokers' expectations of such brand variants contribute to the smoking experience as much, if not more than, the actual qualities of the product.

  16. Degenerative disc disease as a cause of back pain in the thalassaemic population: a case-control study using MRI and plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desigan, S.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.; Ho, C.-P. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Eliahoo, J. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Research and Development Directorate, London (United Kingdom); Porter, J.B. [University College Hospital, Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this study was to test our observation that back pain in thalassemic patients could be caused by premature and extensive lumbar degenerative disc disease, when compared to non-thalassemic patients with back pain. Sixteen thalassemic patients with their sex- and age-matched controls were recruited into the study, 12 with thalassemia major, and 4 with thalassemia intermedia. Both the thalassemia patients and control subjects suffered from back pain, which was subjective rather than measured/pain scored. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine, and 11 of the cases and 8 controls had lumbar spine radiographs. Each lumbar disc was scored for radiographic appearances and MR features of disc degeneration and disc protrusion. Proportion values for these parameters and median scores were derived at each disc level, and were analyzed and compared. There was a statistically-significant difference between proportion values of cases and controls for the MR features (P value=0.01, n=16) and the radiographic features (P value=0.01, n=11 cases, n=8 controls) of disc degeneration. The median disc level scores for the thalassemic group were uniformly high across all lumbar discs, and at all levels except at L 4/5. The control group conversely demonstrated a predilection for disc degeneration at L4/5 level. The distribution of lumbar disc degeneration in thalassemic patients with back pain is more extensive, severe and multi-level in nature compared to matched controls, and disc degeneration should be considered as a significant cause of back pain in this population group. (orig.)

  17. Degenerative disc disease as a cause of back pain in the thalassaemic population: a case-control study using MRI and plain radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desigan, S.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.; Ho, C.-P.; Eliahoo, J.; Porter, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test our observation that back pain in thalassemic patients could be caused by premature and extensive lumbar degenerative disc disease, when compared to non-thalassemic patients with back pain. Sixteen thalassemic patients with their sex- and age-matched controls were recruited into the study, 12 with thalassemia major, and 4 with thalassemia intermedia. Both the thalassemia patients and control subjects suffered from back pain, which was subjective rather than measured/pain scored. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine, and 11 of the cases and 8 controls had lumbar spine radiographs. Each lumbar disc was scored for radiographic appearances and MR features of disc degeneration and disc protrusion. Proportion values for these parameters and median scores were derived at each disc level, and were analyzed and compared. There was a statistically-significant difference between proportion values of cases and controls for the MR features (P value=0.01, n=16) and the radiographic features (P value=0.01, n=11 cases, n=8 controls) of disc degeneration. The median disc level scores for the thalassemic group were uniformly high across all lumbar discs, and at all levels except at L 4/5. The control group conversely demonstrated a predilection for disc degeneration at L4/5 level. The distribution of lumbar disc degeneration in thalassemic patients with back pain is more extensive, severe and multi-level in nature compared to matched controls, and disc degeneration should be considered as a significant cause of back pain in this population group. (orig.)

  18. Graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packs: will they make a difference to adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Judith; Webb, Lisa; Cameron, Linda D; Hoek, Janet

    2012-04-01

    Graphic warning labels and plain cigarette packaging are two initiatives developed to increase quit behaviour among smokers. Although a little is known about how adolescents interpret graphic warning labels, very few studies have examined how plain cigarette packaging would affect adolescents' perceptions of cigarette smoking and smoking behaviour. We explored how teens interpret and respond to graphic warning labels and the plain packaging of cigarettes, to assess the potential these strategies may offer in deterring smoking initiation. Twelve focus group interviews with a sample of 80 14-16 year old students from a diverse range of schools in Auckland, New Zealand were undertaken between June and August 2009. Textual analysis revealed that graphic warning labels may influence adolescents by reiterating a negative image of smokers. Graphic warning on a plain cigarette pack increased the attention paid to graphic warning labels and the overall perceptions of harm caused by cigarette smoking, and reduced the social appeal of cigarette smoking. This research offers evidence on how adolescents are appraising and interpreting graphic warning labels, and explores how dominant appraisals may affect the role graphic warning labels play in preventing smoking. Not only would plain cigarette packaging enhance the salience and impact of graphic warning labels, but it would potentially bolster the overall message that cigarette smoking is harmful. In the context of a comprehensive tobacco control programme, graphic warning labels on plain cigarette packaging present an explicit message about the risks (to health and image) associated with cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reform of Medium Education and Physical education: an abyss for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It develops analyzes on the reform of secondary education proposed by Provisional Measure . 746, now Law 13.415/17, and its implications in the future of Physical Education. Part of the following scientific question: What are the perspectives for the future of Physical Education in the face of the reform of secondary education proposed by the new educational policy? As methodological strategy a documentary study was developed, having as a source of analysis the texts of the MP and the law that ratifies it, besides the notes published by different entities related to education and Physical Education. The study indicates that the reform of high school will imply significantly in Physical Education in three fields: in its teaching in basic education, in teacher training and in teaching work.

  20. Effectiveness of a physical barrier for contaminant control in an unconfined coastal plain aquifer: the case study of the former industrial site of Bagnoli (Naples, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arienzo, Michele; Allocca, Vincenzo; Manna, Ferdinando; Trifuoggi, Marco; Ferrara, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    A vertical engineered barrier (VEB) coupled with a water treatment plant was surveyed in the framework of a vast remedial action at the brownfield site of the former ILVA of Bagnoli steel making facility located in western Naples, Italy. The VEB was put in place to minimize contaminant migration from the brownfield site toward the sea at the shorelines sites of Bagnoli and Coroglio. The efficiency of the VEB was monitored through 12 piezometers, 8 at the Bagnoli shoreline and 4 at the Coroglio shoreline. Concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were examined in upstream and downstream groundwater relative to the VEB. The mean levels of Al, As, Fe, and Mn largely exceeded the legal limits, 10-15-fold, whereas that of Hg was up to 3-fold the rules. The VEB decreased the outlet concentrations only at certain specific location of the barrier, four times for Al, 6-fold for Hg, and by 20% for Mn with means largely exceeding the rules. At the other sites, the downstream water showed marked increases of the pollutants up to 3-fold. Outstanding levels of the hydrocarbons > 12 were detected in the inlet water with means of some hundred times the limits at both sites. Likewise most of screened inorganic pollutants, the downstream water showed marked increases of the hydrocarbons up to ~113%. The treatment plant was very effective, with removal efficiencies >80% for As, Al, Fe, and Mn. The study evidenced the need to put alternative groundwater remedial actions.

  1. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. [land use, image enhancement, winter wheat, agriculture, water resources, and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L.; Ulaby, F. T.; Davis, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Improvement in the land use classification accuracy of ERTS-1 MSS multi-images over Kansas can be made using two distances between neighboring grey tone N-tuples instead of one distance. Much more information is contained texturally than spectrally on the Kansas image. Ground truth measurements indicate that reflectance ratios of the 545 and 655 nm wavebands provide an index of plant development and possibly physiological stress. Preliminary analysis of MSS 4 and 5 channels substantiate the ground truth interpretation. Results of the land use mapping experiment indicate that ERTS-1 imagery has major potential in regionalization. The ways in which land is utilized within these regions may then be studied more effectively than if no adequate regionalization is available. A model for estimating wheat yield per acre has been applied to acreage estimates derived from ERTS-1 imagery to project the 1973 wheat yields for a ten county area in southwest Kansas. The results are within 3% of the preharvest estimates for the same area prepared by the USDA. Visual identification of winter wheat is readily achieved by using a temporal sequence of images. Identification can be improve by stratifying the project area into subregions having more or less homogeneous agricultural practices and crop mixes.

  2. Russian devaluation in 2014–2015: Falling into the abyss or a window of opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Mironov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Falling oil prices are leading to a reduction in domestic demand and lowering of the ruble exchange rate, thus enhancing the price competitiveness of Russian producers and stimulating the supply side of the economy (especially in foreign markets unaffected by the recession. Indeed, all of this create the possibility of offsetting the decline in domestic demand to a varying degree through increased net exports. However, the present study shows that, taking into account all of the structural problems of the Russian economy, the devaluation of the ruble may lead to a more severe recession than anticipated by most experts in their estimates, judging by average consensus forecasts (as of the end of September 2015.

  3. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    dimensions that are “characteristically human [and take the form of] the logical, the historical, ... the philosopher Cicero (James 2008: 3), are still important in plain language work: invention ... databases, help files, content management systems, etc., that essentially serve the same ...... From a talent to a scientific discipline.

  4. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  6. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  7. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  8. Second chance for the plains bison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Curtis H.; Aune, K.; Boyd, D.; Derr, James N.; Forrest, Steven C.; Gates, C. Cormack; Gogan, Peter J.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Halbert, Natalie D.; Kunkel, Kyran; Redford, Kent

    2007-01-01

    Before European settlement the plains bison (Bison bison bison) numbered in the tens of millions across most of the temperate region of North America. Within the span of a few decades during the mid- to late-1800s its numbers were reduced by hunting and other factors to a few hundred. The plight of the plains bison led to one of the first major movements in North America to save an endangered species. A few individuals and the American Bison Society rescued the remaining animals. Attempts to hybridize cattle and bison when bison numbers were low resulted in extensive cattle gene introgression in bison. Today, though approximately 500,000 plains bison exist in North America, few are free of cattle gene introgression, 96% are subject to anthropogenic selection for commodity production, and only 4% are in herds managed primarily for conservation purposes. Small herd size, artificial selection, cattle-gene introgression, and other factors threaten the diversity and integrity of the bison genome. In addition, the bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct across its former range, with multiple consequences for grassland biodiversity. Urgent measures are needed to conserve the wild bison genome and to restore the ecological role of bison in grassland ecosystems. Socioeconomic trends in the Great Plains, combined with new information about bison conservation needs and new conservation initiatives by both the public and public sectors, have set the stage for significant progress in bison conservation over the next few years.

  9. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  10. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  11. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morard

    2017-06-01

    the entire pelagic community, including non-fossilized taxa, thus opening new avenues for paleoceanographic and paleoecological studies.

  12. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  13. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... user how alternative land use decisions may affect the aquatic and terrestial ecosystems, human safety... Flood-plain management. Through proper planning, flood plains can be managed to reduce the threat to... encourages sound flood-plain management decisions by land users. (a) Policy—(1) General. NRCS provides...

  14. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  15. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  16. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  17. Report of the first interim meeting of the Seabed Working Group Engineering Studies Task Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1982-02-01

    The first interim meeting of the Engineering Studies Task Group (ESTG) was held at the Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory, Delft, The Netherlands, on 21-24 September 1981. The main business of the meeting was the development of a network analysis for the ESTG. Significant progress was made; however, substantial further development remains to be accomplished. Other items discussed were (1) progress relevant to engineering studies made in the various national programs since the sixth annual meeting of the Seabed Working Group (SWG) held in Paris, February, 1981; (2) the ESTG Boundary Conditions and Scope of Work as previously defined at the Paris meeting; (3) the Draft II SWG Five-Year Plan; (4) the deep ocean drilling proposal made by the Site Selection Task Group at the Paris meeting and expanded upon at their May, 1981, meeting; and (5) a recent compilation of data from the Nares Abyssal Plain arising from the US Program studies. Finally, consideration was given to a plan for continued work by the ESTG. A brief discussion of the principal items is given. The current state of the network analysis is shown

  18. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    bedrock bluffs defining the valley wall flank the braid plain, they form an obviously resistant braid-plain margin, but erosion resistance appears to have also been provided by previously unmapped intermittent bedrock 0-2 m above river level, locally exposed and elsewhere mantled by glacial or riverine sediment in bluffs up to 75 m high. Braid-plain process changes since 1949 include incision that created a terrace 2-3 m high within the braid plain in the lower river near Palmer and at a mid-river location, and channel narrowing and conversion from braided to single-thread within 5 km downstream of the Matanuska Glacier, likely as a result of changes to locations or amounts of glacier drainage. Constraining estimates of future erosion in braided rivers is more likely to be successful by considering bank erodibility, the process of local, episodic braid-plain expansion, and process changes such as incision or channel planform conversion, rather than restricting analysis to strictly historical erosion rate studies.

  19. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  20. Peering into the abyss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.

    1988-01-01

    The multi-continent detections of the neutrinos from the core of SN 1987A open a new chapter in high energy astrophysics. For the first time, we have penetrated the supernova ejecta and glimpsed at the violent convulsions that attend stellar collapse and the birth of a neutron star. The neutrino emissions are the only good diagnostic of implosion physics, and the new data allow to test supernova theories in a unique way. The author compares the theory developed over the last 20 years with these observations to extract what information there is in these epochal detections

  1. ABYSSES OF FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to think the genesis of the poetry in the artistic universe of Mário de Sá-Carneiro, a poet who undertakes literary criticism from within his own writings while reckoning with the specificities of art. Following the path of some of the iconic figures of modern times, such as Baudelaire, Rimbaud and Mallarmé, Sá-Carneiro inscribes his poetry in a tradition of a whole lineage of poets for whom writing is above all a hand-to-hand with language.

  2. Habitat heterogeneity of hadal trenches: Considerations and implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2018-02-01

    The hadal zone largely comprises a series of subduction trenches that do not form part of the continental shelf-slope rise to abyssal plain continuum. Instead they form geographically isolated clusters of deep-sea (6000-11,000 m water depth) environments. There is a growing realization in hadal science that ecological patterns and processes are not driven solely by responses to hydrostatic pressure, with comparable levels of habitat heterogeneity as observed in other marine biozones. Furthermore, this heterogeneity can be expressed at multiple scales from inter-trench levels (degrees of geographical isolation, and biochemical province), to intra-trench levels (variation between trench flanks and axis), topographical features within the trench interior (sedimentary basins, ridges, escarpments, 'deeps', seamounts) to the substrate of the trench floor (seabed-sediment composition, mass movement deposits, bedrock outcrop). Using best available bathymetry data combined with the largest lander-derived imaging dataset that spans the full depth range of three hadal trenches (including adjacent slopes); the Mariana, Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches, the topographic variability, fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and distribution of seabed sediments of these three trenches have been assessed for the first time. As well as serving as the first descriptive study of habitat heterogeneity at hadal depths, this study also provides guidance for future hadal sampling campaigns taking into account geographic isolation, total trench particulate organic matter flux, maximum water depth and area.

  3. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Water content within the oceanic upper mantle of the Southwest Indian Ridge: a FTIR analysis of orthopyroxenes of abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Li, H.; Tao, C.; Jin, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Water can be present in the oceanic upper mantle as structural OH in nominally anhydrous minerals. Such water has marked effects on manlte melting and rheology properties. However, the water content of MORB source is mainly inferred from MORB glass data that the water budget of oceanic upper mantle is poorly constrained. Here we present water analysis of peridotites from different sites on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The mineral assemblages of these peridotites are olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel. As the peridotites have been serpentinized to different degrees, only water contents in orthopyroxnene can be better determined by FTIR spectrometry. The IR absorption bands of all measured orthopyroxenes can be devided into four different groups: (1)3562-3596 cm-1, (2)3515-3520 cm-1, (3)3415-3420 cm-1, (4)3200-3210 cm-1. The positions of these absorption bands are in good agreement with perivious reports. Hydrogen profile measurements performed on larger opx grains in each suite of samples show no obvious variations between core and rims regions, indicating that diffusion of H in orthopyroxene is insignificant. Preliminary measured water contents of orthopyroxene differ by up to one order of magnitude. Opx water contents (80-220 ppm) of most samples are within the range of those found in mantle xenoliths of contentinal settings [1]. Opx water contents of one sample (VM-21V-S9-D5-2: 38-64 ppm) are similar to those from Gakkel Ridge abyssal peridotites (25-60 ppm) [2] but higher than those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 209(~15 ppm) [3]. Two other samples show high water concentrations (VM-19ΙΙΙ-S3-TVG2-4: 260-275 ppm, Wb-18-b: 190-265 ppm) which compare well with those from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ODP-Leg 153(160-270 ppm) [4]. Most opx water contents decrease with increasing depletion degree (spl Cr#) consistent with an incompatible behavior of water during partial melting. Recalculated bulk water contents (27-117 ppm) of these peridotites overlap

  5. Chenier plain development: feedbacks between waves, mud and sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Cheniers are sandy ridges parallel to the coast established by high energy waves. Here we discuss Chenier plains ontogeny through dimensional analysis and numerical results from the morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Our results show that wave energy and shelf slope play an important role in the formation of Chenier plains. In our numerical experiments waves affect Chenier plain development in three ways: by winnowing sediment from the mudflat, by eroding mud and accumulating sand over the beach during extreme wave events. We further show that different sediment characteristics and wave climates can lead to three alternative coastal landscapes: strand plains, mudflats, or the more complex Chenier plains. Low inner-shelf slopes are the most favorable for strand plain and Chenier plain formation, while high slopes decrease the likelihood of mudflat development and preservation.

  6. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolo, E.S.; Ahmed, A.O.; Kazeem, M.J.; Nwaorgu, O.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  7. Plain radiography procedures in Sudan: examination frequency and collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, B. E. Y.

    2010-12-01

    According to the previous studies diagnostic examinations are the largest man-made source to collective dose (CED) in world. It was observed that, despite of the large number of medical x-ray installations in Sudan and in particular conventional x-ray procedures, studies aimed at estimating collective effective dose in diagnostic radiology were lacking. The purpose of this study was to estimate the annual frequency of plain radiography examinations and to estimate the annual collective effective dose to Sudanese population due to plain radiography examinations, selected by their high frequencies or their relatively high doses delivered to patient. To have an idea about the typical examinations frequencies, data were collected from a sample of ten hospitals in Khartoum. The collected data provided information about the x-ray machine manufacture, year of installation and frequency of some examinations per day. The annual collective doses from all medical examinations to the population are: 441, 166, 630, 544, 276, 525, 30, 9, 12 and 161 man Sv from abdomen AP, chest AP, pelvis, lumbar spine PA, lumbar spain PA, lumbar- sacral joints, Skull AP, Skull LAT, Skull PA and from others examination, respectively. The resulting annual collective effective dose was evaluated 2793 man Sv, with the largest contribution of pelvis and LS examinations and lowest contribution of skull examinations. Collective effective dose resulting from the use of plain radiography examinations in the Sudan is small compared with global results. But that dose not negate the need to conduct radiological surveys in frequent intervals to meet the increase of successive x-ray equipment to try to estimate and reduce the doses of patients and the public. (Author)

  8. From the epipelagic zone to the abyss: Trophic structure at two seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic - Part II Benthopelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Anneke; Stefanowitsch, Benjamin; Christiansen, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Specific mechanisms, driving trophic interactions between seamount associated fishes and the pelagic community may be highly variable in different seamount systems. This study investigated the trophic structure and the main prey of benthopelagic fishes from the summit and slope regions of Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical NE Atlantic, and the adjacent deep-sea plains. For the identification of food sources and nutritional links to the pelagic realm a combination of stomach content and stable isotope ratio (δ13C and δ15N) analyses was used. δ13C ranged from -22.2‰ to -15.4‰ and δ15N covered a total range of 8.0-15.9‰. Feeding types of fish species comprised mainly zooplanktivores and mixed feeders, but also benthivores, piscivores, and predator-scavengers. Based on epipelagic particulate organic matter, they occupied trophic positions between the 2nd and 4th trophic level. Differences in stomach contents and stable isotope signatures indicate a resource partitioning among the benthopelagic fish fauna through distinct habitat choice, vertical feeding positions and prey selection. Topographic trapping of vertically migrating zooplankton on the summit seemed to be of minor importance for food supply of the resident near-bottom fishes, rather horizontal current-driven advection of the planktonic prey was assumed as major factor. Vertically migrating micronekton and mesopelagic fishes show up as key players within the food webs at Ampère and Senghor Seamounts and the adjacent deep-sea plains.

  9. The effect of cigarette branding and plain packaging on female youth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of fracture energy of plain and reinforced concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajesh K.; Singh, R.K.; Kant, T.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling the complex behaviour of Reinforced concrete (RC), which is both non-homogenous and anisotropic, is a difficult task in finite element analysis of civil engineering structures. The application of fracture mechanics to plain and reinforced concrete has opened up a new field for modelling of phenomena that have often been treated empirically in the past. Cohesive crack model proposed by Hillerborg and crack band model Bazant et al with localization limiters are frequently used to study of tension failure of concrete. (author)

  11. Short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours after the implementation of plain packaging with larger health warnings: findings from a national cohort study with Australian adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Plain packaging (PP) with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) was implemented in Australia in late 2012. This study examined effects of these packaging changes on short-term changes in quitting-related cognitions and behaviours. We used a series of cohorts of Australian adult cigarette smokers originally sourced from a nationally representative cross-sectional tracking survey, followed up approximately 1 month after their baseline interview (n(weighted)=5441). Logistic regression analyses compared changes in seven quitting-related outcomes over this 1-month follow-up period for the cohorts surveyed before PP, over the period of transition to PP, and during the first year of PP, adjusting for baseline levels of the outcome and covariates. Compared to the referent group of smokers who completed their follow-up survey pre-PP, those who were followed-up in the early transition period showed significantly greater increases in rates of stopping themselves from smoking (OR=1.51, 95% CI (1.08 to 2.10)) and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.43, 95% CI (1.00 to 2.03)), those followed-up in the late transition period showed greater increases in intentions to quit (OR=1.42, 95% CI (1.06 to 1.92)) and pack concealment (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.05 to 2.31)), and those followed-up in the first year of PP showed higher levels of pack concealment (OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.72)), more premature stubbing out of cigarettes (OR=1.55, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.36)), and higher quit attempt rates (OR=1.52, 95% CI (1.01 to 2.30)). These findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that implementation of PP with larger GHWs was associated with increased rates of quitting cognitions, microindicators of concern and quit attempts among adult cigarette smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  13. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  14. Hidden Learning in plain sight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølberg, Jan

    This study is based on a 5-year development project aimed at improving student engagement in science through introduction of innovation in science teaching. Early results found interesting discrepancies between students’ and teachers’ perception of student learning outcomes. While students did...

  15. Dendroclimatic potential of plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) from the Northern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Jesse; Friedman, Jonathan; Meko, David; Touchan, Ramzi; Scott, Julian; Edmonson, Alan

    2014-01-01

    A new 368-year tree-ring chronology (A.D. 1643–2010) has been developed in western North Dakota using plains cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. monilifera) growing on the relatively undisturbed floodplain of the Little Missouri River in the North Unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park. We document many slow-growing living trees between 150–370 years old that contradict the common understanding that cottonwoods grow fast and die young. In this northern location, cottonwood produces distinct annual rings with dramatic interannual variability that strongly crossdate. The detrended tree-ring chronology is significantly positively correlated with local growing season precipitation and soil moisture conditions (r  =  0.69). This time series shows periods of prolonged low radial tree growth during the known droughts of the instrumental record (e.g. 1931–1939 and 1980–1981) and also during prehistory (e.g. 1816–1823 and 1856–1865) when other paleoclimate studies have documented droughts in this region. Tree rings of cottonwood will be a useful tool to help reconstruct climate, streamflow, and the floodplain history of the Little Missouri River and other northern river systems.

  16. Sensitivity Analysis for Hydraulic Behavior of Shiraz Plain Aquifer Using PMWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza karimipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydraulic behavior of Shirazplain aquifer, with an area of ~300 km2, was simulated using PMWIN model. The performance of recently constructed drainage system in the plain was modeled and parameters affecting hydraulic behavior of the aquifer were analyzed. Measured rainfall and evaporation rates in the plain, recharge and discharge rates through the aqueducts, Khoshk and Chenar Rahdar rivers, as well as amount of water discharged from production wells and recharge due to returned wastewater were considered in the model. Plain hydrodynamic coefficients were estimated via calibration and sensitivity analysis of the model was performed for four important parameters. Results showed that the model is most sensitive to recharge rate and hydraulic conductivity, respectively, such that a small variation in these two parameters causes a dramatic change in hydraulic head distribution in the plain. Furthermore, specific yield coefficient influences the seasonal water level fluctuations, but the aqueducts conductance coefficient only affects the aqueduct radius of influence with little effect on the overall hydraulic behavior of the plain.

  17. Determining the Appropriate Economic Strategy to Conserve Groundwater Resources in Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abozar Parhizkari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Qazvin plain is one of the capable plains in Iran to produce of agricultural goods. Unfortunately, due to inordinate shafts digging and irregular use of groundwater the level of groundwater has been decreased during two last decades so that water balance is negative now. To conserve the groundwater resources in this plain, strategies and appropriate policies are needed and this requires a better understanding of farmers’ behavior. Therefore, in the present study in order to investigate farmers' behavior in using of groundwater and determine appropriate strategies to conserve of groundwater resources in Qazvin plain, positive mathematical programming and production function with constant elasticity of substitution were used. The investigated strategies included increase in water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation strategy and were investigated under various scenarios. The required data were registered information related to 2011-2012 collected from relevant departments in Qazvin province. The model was solved using GAMS 23/9 software. The results showed that all the investigated strategies led to water saving however the average gross profit changes decreased by 3.13, 8.61 and 5.54 percent with increasing water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation, respectively. Finally, considering the less reduction in average gross profit, the irrigation water pricing and then deficit irrigation strategies were proposed to conserve groundwater resources in Qazvin plain.

  18. Dispersion of near-infrared laser energy through radicular dentine when using plain or conical tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Christine Yi Jia; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tip design on patterns of laser energy dispersion through the dentine of tooth roots when using near-infrared diode lasers. Diode laser emissions of 810 or 940 nm were used in combination with optical fiber tips with either conventional plain ends or conical ends, to irradiate tooth roots of oval or round cross-sectional shapes. The lasers were operated in continuous wave mode at 0.5 W for 5 s with the distal end of the fiber tip placed in the apical or coronal third of the root canal at preset positions. Laser light exiting through the roots and apical foramen was imaged, and the extent of lateral spread calculated. There was a significant difference in infrared light exiting the root canal apex between plain and conical fiber tips for both laser wavelengths, with more forward transmission of laser energy through the apex for plain tips. For both laser wavelengths, there were no significant differences in emission patterns when the variable of canal shape was used and all other variables were kept the same (plain vs conical tip, tip position). To ensure optimal treatment effect and to prevent the risks of inadvertent laser effects on the adjacent periapical tissues, it is important to have a good understanding of laser transmission characteristics of the root canal and root dentine. Importantly, it is also essential to understand transmission characteristics of plain and conical fibers tips.

  19. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Peng Kewen; Zhang Houde; Shen Bixian; Xiao Hanxin; Cai Juan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  20. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  1. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  2. The History of the Environmental Conditions Research in the Brăila Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela Turtureanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Plain has generally represented the study subject of research in the field of Geography and especially of the environment geography and resources. Due to the structure and the geological movements of the climate factors, the hydrography in the area of the Braila Plain has represents a subject of many geographers‘ interest. The divagation and the leaving of the water course phenomena of some rivers, the genesis and the classification of lake basins, underground waters, the links that are established between these hydrographical units, the water balance, the water chemism, the existence of the oil and gas resources made the researchers study them as a whole.

  3. Sacroiliitis in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Comparison with Multidetector Row CT and Plain Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Youn; Joo, Kyung Bin; Choi, Byeong Kyoo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Woo Jung [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of our study was to compare multidetector row CT and the plain radiographs for making the diagnosis and grading the sacroiliitis that accompanies ankylosing spondylitis. We wanted to determine the role of multidetector row CT for the evaluation of the sacroilitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. One hundred ninety two patients with clinically suspected ankylosing spondylitis were evaluated by conventional radiography and multidetector row CT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, and they graded the sacroiliitis using the modified New York Criteria. Multidetector row CT demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (74.5%, 83.3%) than did plain radiography (59.9%, 66.7%) for detecting early sacroiliitis (p<0.05). Multidetector row CT showed a higher grade of sacroiliitis in 114 and 127 of 384 sacroiliac joints. Performing multidetector row CT rather than plain radiography for making the diagnoses of accompanying ankylosing spondylitis allows an early start of treatment with a subsequently improved prognosis

  4. Correlation of plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with surgical findings in thoracolumbar disc disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldby, N.J.; Dyce, J.; Houlton, J.E.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a prospective study to compare the plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with the surgical findings in 70 cases of suspected thoracolumbar disc protrusion in the dog are reported. The aim was to assess the relative accuracy of disc lesion localisation using plain and contrast radiography. From the plain radiographs, the affected disc space was correctly identified in 40 cases (57.1 per cent), and incorrectly identified in seven. More than one site was identified in 11; in eight of these dogs, the affected disc space was strongly suspected. It was not possible to identify an affected disc in 12 cases. The site of disc protrusion was accurately identified by myelography in 60 dogs (85.7 per cent). In four dogs, myelography was helpful in identifying an adjacent disc and, in a further two, cord swelling was found at surgery. In one dog, neither disc material nor cord swelling was identified. Three myelograms were non-diagnostic

  5. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  6. Hyperdensity liver tumor on plain CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Shozo; Hanaguri, Katsuro [Kochi Municipal Central Hospital (Japan); Shimizu, Masahumi; Sako, Masao; Harada, Yasushi

    1984-12-01

    Most liver tumors on plain CT have been recognized as low density or iso-density masses. Sometimes calcified high density masses were shown on plain CT in case of cysts or metastatic liver tumors. However, hyperdensity mass of the liver on CT, of which the density was a little higher than surrounding tissues, was very rare. Recently 7 patients with hyperdensity liver masses on plain CT were experienced: 6 hepatocellular carcinomas and 1 hepatic cavernous hemangioma. A single hyperdensity mass was shown in 4 patients, a hyperdensity mass of multiple hepatic tumors was shown in 2 patients, and some hyperdensity masses of multiple hepatic tumors were shown in 1 patient. Lesions are classified in 3 types according to the appearance of hyperdensity masses: diffuse hyperdensity all over the mass, ring like hyperdensity, creascent like hyperdensity. Intravenous contrast enhancement was performed in 2 patients: one with a primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and another with a hepatic cavernous hemangioma. In the former case the tumor margin had changed unclear, in the latter case the tumor was markedly enhanced. Our results revealed that hyperdensity liver tumors were divided into 2 types: One type, shown in a cavernous hemangioma with fatty liver, demonstrated relative hyperdensity due to lower density of the surrounding tissue. Another type, shown in 6 hepatocellular carcinomas, showed hyperdensity since the density of the tumor was hyperdensity relative to the surrounding tissue of the liver. It was suggested that the tumor with the latter type had been strongly probable of malignant one, and been recommended to receive further examination. Cause of hyperdensity was thought to be due to hemorrhage, though microcalcification could not be denyed. In Japan, no hyperdensity liver tumor had been reported partly due to a wide window width with which CT photographs were taken.

  7. Plain film diagnosis of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.V. Jr.; Torres, W.E.; Clements, J.L. Jr.; Gedgaudas-McClees, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    One of the first examinations obtained routinely in abdominal radiography is the plain radiograph of the abdomen. The liver occupies anywhere from 15 to 30 percent of the area on such examinations. Thus, it is important to pay particular attention to the region of the liver and obtain as much information as possible from these films. The purpose of this chapter is to review the normal radiographic anatomy and pathology. Also, pathologic calcifications, gas collections, unusual collections of fat, and the systemic manifestations of hepatic disease are discussed within this chapter

  8. Analysis of farming types’ characteristics in the Boianu Plain (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Vijulie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution and dimensional structure of the farms depending on their legal status, and the owners’ perceptions on the current status. The main research methods used in the study were: direct observation method, digital mapping, statistical analysis, surveying (semi-structured interview and SWOT analysis. The Boianu Plain is by excellence an agricultural region. Its arable land is worked/operated by three main categories of farms: individual holdings, family farming associations and farming societies. Production obtained within individual holdings is always lower comparative to family farming associations and especially to farming societies. Partnership helps farmers to join their technical and financial means in order to increase the annual production and, implicitly, gain profit. In this respect, the farmers’ perception resulted from the semi-structured interviews is a good evaluation instrument. The most critical issue at local level is making individual farmers aware of the benefits of family association and/or farmland leasing. The SWOT analysis reveals the possibility of an efficient management as driven by the way that the existing opportunities are able to mitigate or completely remove the weaknesses. The Boianu Plain has a very good agricultural potential in a highly favourable environment, but poorly capitalized.

  9. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  10. The importance of plain radiographic signs for emergency aortography in blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Trost, K.; Bargon, G.

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective study of plain radiographic findings in 11 patients with traumatic rupture of the aorta was conducted, and the results compared with the incidence of numerous chest x-rays signs previously described in 294 cases of angiographically proven thoracic aorta dissection. It is concluded that positive plain radiographic signs obtained from patients with blunt chest trauma reveal high sensitivity and may thus be used as an indication for emergency aortography. However, since this procedure lacks 100% specificity even those patients with normal x-ray findings but clinically and/or anamnestically adequate thoracic trauma should be submitted to aortography. (orig.) [de

  11. Hydrologic and geochemical characterization of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Plain is home to approximately half of the population of Sonoma County, California, and faces growth in population and demand for water. Water managers are confronted with the challenge of meeting the increasing water demand with a combination of water sources, including local groundwater, whose future availability could be uncertain. To meet this challenge, water managers are seeking to acquire the knowledge and tools needed to understand the likely effects of future groundwater development in the Santa Rosa Plain and to identify efficient strategies for surface- and groundwater management that will ensure the long-term viability of the water supply. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency and other stakeholders in the area (cities of Cotati, Rohnert Park, Santa Rosa, and Sebastopol, town of Windsor, Cal-American Water Company, and the County of Sonoma), undertook this study to characterize the hydrology of the Santa Rosa Plain and to develop tools to better understand and manage the groundwater system. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop an updated assessment of the hydrogeology and geochemistry of the Santa Rosa Plain; (2) to develop a fully coupled surface-water and groundwater-flow model for the Santa Rosa Plain watershed; and (3) to evaluate the potential hydrologic effects of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the basin. The purpose of this report is to describe the surface-water and groundwater hydrology, hydrogeology, and water-quality characteristics of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed and to develop a conceptual model of the hydrologic system in support of the first objective. The results from completing the second and third objectives will be described in a separate report.

  12. Re-analysing tobacco industry funded research on the effect of plain packaging on minors in Australia: Same data but different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal A. Diethelm

    2017-11-01

    Our findings suggest a decline of smoking prevalence in minors following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. They differ substantially from those presented in an industry-funded study on the effects of plain packaging on smoking prevalence in minors in Australia, which used the same data.

  13. Modeling of the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals and arsenic in embanked flood plain soils of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, T.J.; Hiemstra, T.; Vink, J.P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the solid-solution partitioning of heavy metals in river flood plain soils. We compared mechanistic geochemical modeling with a statistical approach. To characterize the heavy metal contamination of embanked river flood plain soils in The Netherlands, we collected

  14. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  15. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii; Tao, Weichun; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Kalenderski, Stoitchko; Jish Prakash, P.; Yang, Zong Liang; Shi, Mingjie

    2017-01-01

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  16. Complexities within distal sheet turbidite deposits: case study 160,000ka Icod Turbidite, Moroccan Turbidite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James; Wynn, Russell

    2010-05-01

    coarse silt or (2) removal of previously deposited silt by erosion of a post-depositional mudflow associated with mudcap remobilisation. Further to the stacked subunit facies and grain-size breaks, there are additional complexities to the deposit. An omission of a typical Bouma Ta facies is observed, replaced with a thick well-developed banded Bouma Tb, representing density sorting and flow fractionation of dense basaltic clasts and >100μm foraminifera. Above developing ripple laminations associated with Bouma Tc development is a 0.2-0.5m thick convolute laminated sand. This convoluted sand represents increasing shear stress across developing ripples. Grain-size analysis and ITRAX x-radiographs highlighted an additional process within the mudcaps of the Icod turbidite within the Agadir Basin. The mudcap thickens towards the base of incline from the Agadir Basin to the Selvage Islands. Within the cores with an over-thickened mudcap, the mudcap contained silt contortions. X-radiographs using ITRAX further displayed these contorted silts in the mudcaps. Grain-size analysis was used to confirm the presence of silt and poor sorting through the regions of contortions. These contorted muds have a debritic fabric, and could represent post-depositional remobilisation of the accumulative suspended clay fraction as a mudflow, as it was settling on a gradient and destabilising. This presentation will show the complexities present in even distal sheet turbidites, and that detailed multidisciplinary studies are required to unravel the mechanisms at work during their deposition. Pearce, T.J., & Jarvis I. 1992. Composition and provenance of turbidite sands: Late Quaternary, Madeira Abyssal Plain. Rothwell, R.G., Pearce, I., & Weaver, P.P.E. 1992. Late Quaternary evolution of the Madeira Abyssal Plain, Canary Basin, NE Atlantic. Basin Research, vol.4, no.2, p.103-131. Watts, A.B., & Masson, D.G. 1995. A giant landslide on the north flank of Tenerife, Canary Islands. Journal of

  17. A distribution of adsorbed forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 in flood-plain formations of Sozh river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.A.; Generalova, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of strontium 90 and cesium 137 forms in flood-plain geochemical system 'alluvial deposits - flood-plain turf - humus horizon - soil-source rock', where sorption and colloidal processes play main role in the isotopes migration, was studied. The bulk amount of strontium 90 is presented in adsorbed form in all investigated objects, whereas only 6% of cesium 137 amount in alluvial deposits, flood-plain turf and humus horizon is in adsorbed form. The content of exchange forms of cesium 137 and strontium 90 increases with the depth of the layer. The race of this increase for strontium 90 is large than for cesium 137. The distribution of radionuclides through the different parts of flood-plain of Sozh river has some distinctions due to more lability of adsorbed strontium 90 forms in comparison with cesium 137 ones

  18. Peculiarities of 239,240Pu behaviour in flood-plain soils of the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailovskaya, L.N.; Molchanova, I.V.; Karavaeva, E.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Techa river was contaminated with the liquid nuclear waste discharged from the nuclear plant 'Mayak' within 1949-1956 years. In 1999-2002 flood-plain soils of the Techa river were investigated and the levels of content, a migration and a vertical distribution of 239,240 Pu in the flood-plain soils were studied. Reference plots were located in the pre-bed and in central flood plain at different distances from the source of contamination (78-240 km). It was shown that in the soils of the pre-bed the content of Pu isotopes was decreasing from 10.5 to 2.8 kBq/m 2 with the distance from the plant 'Mayak'. Besides, a non-uniform spatial distribution of 239,240 Pu was found in those plots, which were at the same distance from the source of the contamination. As a rule, the central flood plain (25-100 m from the river-bed) was contaminated with 239,240 Pu less than the area in the pre-bed (5-20 m from the the river-bed). Thus, in the area of the middle length of the river the density of the soil contamination with 239,240 Pu of the central flood plain is 0.3 to 0.8 kBq/m 2 and that of the pre-bed is 1.0 to 4.7 kBq/m 2 at a maximum migration depth being 25 to 30 cm and 40 to 50 cm, respectively. The determined value of the 239,240 Pu/ 137 Cs ratio proves that rates of the vertical migration of the Pu isotopes in the flood plain soils of the Techa river are comparable and higher (in some cases) than those of 137 Cs. (author)

  19. South Ilan Plain High-Resolution 3-D S-Wave Velocity from Ambient Noise Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Xun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located at a pivotal point where the Ryukyu trench subduction zone, the northern Taiwan crustal stretching zone, and the ongoing arc-continent collision zone converge. In contrast to the North Ilan Plain, the South Ilan Plain exhibits a thin unconsolidated sedimentary layer with depths ranging from 0 - 1 km, high on-land seismicity and significant SE movements relative to Penghu island. We deployed a dense network of 43 short-period vertical component Texan instruments from June to November 2013 in this study, covering most of the South Ilan Plain and its vicinity. We then used the ambient noise tomography method for simultaneous phase and group Rayleigh wave velocity measurements to invert a high-resolution 3-D S-wave for shallow structures (up to a depth of 2.5 km in the South Ilan Plain. We used the fast marching method for ray tracing to deal with ray bending in an inhomogeneous medium. The resulting rays gradually bend toward high velocity zones with increasing number of iterations. The high velocity zone results are modified by more iterations and the resolutions become higher because ray crossings are proportional to ray densities for evenly distributed stations. The final results agreed well with known sedimentary basement thickness patterns. We observed nearly EW trending fast anomalies beneath the mountainous terrain abutting to the South Ilan Plain. The Chingshui location consistently exhibited a low S-wave velocity zone to a depth of 1.5 km.

  20. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  1. An End-to-End DNA Taxonomy Methodology for Benthic Biodiversity Survey in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, Central Pacific Abyss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G. Glover

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased survey and sampling expeditions to the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific Ocean abyss, driven by commercial interests from contractors in the potential extraction of polymetallic nodules in the region. Part of the International Seabed Authority (ISA regulatory requirements are that these contractors undertake environmental research expeditions to their CCZ exploration claims following guidelines approved by the ISA Legal and Technical Commission (ISA, 2010. Section 9 (e of these guidelines instructs contractors to “…collect data on the sea floor communities specifically relating to megafauna, macrofauna, meiofauna, microfauna, nodule fauna and demersal scavengers”. There are a number of methodological challenges to this, including the water depth (4000–5000 m, extremely warm surface waters (~28 °C compared to bottom water (~1.5 °C and great distances to ports requiring a large and long seagoing expedition with only a limited number of scientists. Both scientists and regulators have recently realized that a major gap in our knowledge of the region is the fundamental taxonomy of the animals that live there; this is essential to inform our knowledge of the biogeography, natural history and ultimately our stewardship of the region. Recognising this, the ISA is currently sponsoring a series of taxonomic workshops on the CCZ fauna and to assist in this process we present here a series of methodological pipelines for DNA taxonomy (incorporating both molecular and morphological data of the macrofauna and megafauna from the CCZ benthic habitat in the recent ABYSSLINE cruise program to the UK-1 exploration claim. A major problem on recent CCZ cruises has been the collection of high-quality samples suitable for both morphology and DNA taxonomy, coupled with a workflow that ensures these data are made available. The DNA sequencing techniques themselves are relatively standard, once good samples have been

  2. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  3. Spatial variation in seed bank dynamics of two annual brome species in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes decrease forage production in northern central plains rangelands of North America. Early life history stages are when plants are most failure-prone, yet studying death post-germination and prior to emergence is difficult. In seed bank collections conducted over the course of two growin...

  4. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  5. Curve number derivation for watersheds draining two headwater streams in lower coastal plain South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Epps; Daniel R. Hitchcock; Anand D. Jayakaran; Drake R. Loflin; Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess curve number (CN) values derived for two forested headwater catchments in the Lower Coastal Plain (LCP) of South Carolina using a three-year period of storm event rainfall and runoff data in comparison with results obtained from CN method calculations. Derived CNs from rainfall/runoff pairs ranged from 46 to 90 for the Upper...

  6. Conization of the cervix uteri. Complications in connection with plain catgut or silk suturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, A; Qvist, N; Møller, A

    1984-01-01

    During a retrospective study on postoperative complications in 213 patients who had undergone conization, a (non-significant) reduction in the bleeding rate from 27.9% to 18.6% was found when using silk sutures (102 patients) instead of plain catgut (111 patients) for adaption of the edges of the...

  7. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  8. Effect of Different Bar Embedment Length on Bond-Slip in Plain and Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.; Chopra, M.B.; Kunnath, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This research aims to study the behaviour of the concrete-steel bond using numerical models, taking into account the effect of the different bar embedment length. Both plain and fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) are modeled. The interface bond stress as well as load-displacement response of the

  9. Javelin, Arrow, Dart and Pin Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…

  10. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Groundwater Hydrochemical Zoning in Inland Plains and its Genetic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liting Xing

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Pore water in inland plain areas, generally having poor water quality, contain complex hydrochemical properties. In order to examine groundwater chemical composition formation characteristics, groundwater in the Jiyang area of Lubei Plain was studied using stratified monitoring of drilling, analysis of water level and water quality, isotope analysis, ion ratio coefficient and isothermal adsorption experiments, hydrochemical characteristics, and analysis of variations in different shallow depths. Results show that: (1 Numerous hydrochemistry types are present in the diving. Along with the direction of groundwater flow, total dissolved solids (TDS of diving in the study area generally increases and the hydrochemical type changes from the HCO3 type to the HCO3·SO4 type, Cl·HCO3 type and the Cl·SO4 type. (2 Shallow brackish water and freshwater in the horizontal direction are alternately distributed, and shallow brackish water is distributed in the area between old channels, showing sporadic spots or bands, whose hydrochemistry type is predominantly Cl·SO4-Na·Mg·Ca. (3 Affected by the sedimentary environment, hydrodynamic conditions and other factors; diving, middle brackish water and deep freshwater are vertically deposited in the study area. The dynamics of middle brackish water quality are stable due to the sedimentary environment and clay deposits. The hydrochemistry types of middle brackish water are mainly Cl·SO4-Mg·Na and SO4·Cl-Na·Mg, while the deep confined water is dominated by HCO3. (4 The optimal adsorption isotherms of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater from clay, with a thickness raging from 6–112 m, conformed to the Henry equation and the Langmuir equation. The retardation of Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in groundwater differed with differing depths of the clay deposit. The trend of change in retardation strength correlates strongly with the TDS of groundwater. Groundwater in the inland plain area is affected by complicated

  12. 49 CFR 215.107 - Defective plain bearing box: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing box: General. 215.107... Suspension System § 215.107 Defective plain bearing box: General. A railroad may not place or continue in... the bearing; or (2) Have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and the bearings. ...

  13. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  14. 27 CFR 9.207 - Outer Coastal Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outer Coastal Plain. 9.207... Outer Coastal Plain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Outer Coastal Plain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Outer Coastal Plain” is a term of viticultural...

  15. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  16. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management and protection. 801.8 Section 801.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands...

  17. Remote Sensing Insights into Storage Capacities among Plains Village Horticulturalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewel, Adam S.

    Maize was a fundamental component of the diet and economy of Middle Missouri Plains Village groups, sedentary farmers with settlements along the Missouri River during the last millennia. More than a century of study has contributed to our understanding of agricultural production among these peoples, but little effort has been made to consider temporal variation in production. Such an understanding is crucial to examining changes that occurred before and after the arrival of colonists and their trade goods in the seventeenth century. Plains archaeologists have suggested that the storage capacity of Middle Missouri villages increased during the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries. In fact, the number and size of subterranean storage pits, ubiquitous features within most settlements, are thought to have grown during these centuries, which reflects greater agricultural production. To further examine changes in production and storage capacity during this centuries-long period, I combine information from historical documents, excavations, and geophysical investigations. At Huff Village, a fifteenth-century community, excavations and magnetic gradiometry surveys reveal the size and distribution of storage pits. Their number and average volume suggest the villagers grew immense amounts of food and contributed to widespread intertribal trade. Furthermore, storage pit excavation data from 20 regional sites, dating from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century, indicate pit volumes increased through the seventeenth century. A sharp decrease subsequently occurred during the eighteenth century due to epidemic disease. However, mean pit volumes were significantly larger during the nineteenth century, evidence of the resilience of Mandans, Hidatsas, and Arikaras and the continued significance of maize. In fact, historical documents and remote sensing data suggest the Mandans and Arikaras, successive occupants of an earthlodge village near the American Fur Company's Fort

  18. Myxomatosis on the Western Plains of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, F G; Edmonds, J W; Nolan, I F; Shepherd, R C; Gocs, A

    1977-10-01

    Myxomatosis on the Western Plains is an enzootic disease in contrast with the epizootic pattern which is general in eastern Australia. The most unusual aspects are the presence of significant numbers of diseased rabbits throughout the winter and the continuously low percentage of rabbits with antibodies to myxoma virus. Climatic and topographic conditions are unsuited to the production of the high densities of mosquitoes necessary for widespread epizootics. Under these conditions the effects of less efficient methods of myxomatosis transmission are apparent. The unusual epidemiology of myxomatosis has resulted in selection for virulence of the virus similar to that which has occurred under summer epizootic conditions. All field strains are now in the mid range of virulence.

  19. Probabilistic health risk assessment for arsenic intake through drinking groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    An abundant and inexpensive supply of groundwater is used to meet drinking, agriculture and aquaculture requirements of the residents in the Pingtung Plain. Long-term groundwater quality monitoring data indicate that the As content in groundwater in the Pingtung Plain exceeds the maximum level of 10 g/L recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The situation is further complicated by the fact that only 46.89% of population in the Pingtung Plain has been served with tap water, far below the national average of 92.93%. Considering there is a considerable variation in the measured concentrations, from below the detection limit (consumption rate and body weight of the individual, the conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for health risk management. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater by local residents in the Pingtung Plain. The probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of inorganic As intake through drinking groundwater consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who drink high As content groundwater.

  20. Determination of groundwater characteristics in the Nigde-Misli Plain by means of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursali, S.; Ertan, I.; Yalcin, H.; Gunay, G.; Onhon, E.

    1975-06-01

    Nigde-Misli Plain, situated in the Central Anatolia, is 30 km north to Nigde City. The most important part of the plain is Golcuk with a superficial area of 290 sq. kilometers. Ovacik part has a superficial area of 22 sq. kilometers and separately Edikli part with 35 sq. kilometers. The total of the superficial area of the plain is 347 sq. km and its average altitude is 1340 m. The main purpose of this study is to check the sufficiency of the Nigde-Misli aquifer from which all of the wells are fed. Hydrogeological studies of the Nigde-Misli Plain have been completed in order to determine some of the groundwater characteristics. However, it was thought that it would be useful to check and support the hydrogeological conclusions by isotopic methods and to clarify some important points in the groundwater movement for which hydrogeological methods seem to be insufficient. For this purpose, surface water and ground water, precipitation and soil samples have been collected and analysed to determine their stable isotopes and tritium contents. Results have been interpreted in order to answer, as far as it is possible, to the question of the sufficiency of the Nigde-Misli aquifer

  1. Diagnosis of bowel infarction: a comparison of plain films and CT scans in 23 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerud, M J; Johnson, C D; Stephens, D H

    1990-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed abdominal CT and plain film findings in 23 proved cases of mesenteric infarction to compare the value of the two techniques. Criteria considered specific for infarction on CT were identified in nine (39%) of 23 patients and comprised pneumatosis in seven patients (30%), mesenteric or portal venous gas in three patients (13%), and focally thick-walled bowel in two patients (9%). Criteria considered specific for bowel infarction on plain films were identified in seven (30%) of 23 patients and comprised focally edematous bowel in six patients (26%) and pneumatosis intestinalis in one patient (4%). Only one patient had specific changes on both CT and plain films, but 15 (65%) of the 23 showed specific changes on at least one study. The results indicate that plain films remain an important tool in patients suspected of mesenteric infarction and can provide information that is complementary to CT. Also, as both studies were nonspecific in eight (35%) of our patients, negative or nonspecific findings should not deter further diagnostic or interventional procedures in patients in whom the clinical suspicion of bowel infarction is high.

  2. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  3. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  4. Assessment of bioaerosol pollution over Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Shrivastava, J N; Satsangi, G P; Kumar, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol plays a very important role in climate change and public health. It affects cloud condensation nuclei and causes a number of epidemic diseases. The correlations of aerosol with epidemic diseases are due to the biotic components of aerosol. The present study deals with the measurements and characterization of bioaerosol over Indo-Gangetic plain. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are much higher than the recommended value set by NAAQS in India. Bacterial and fungal concentrations are in the reported range. Bacterial concentration is higher than fungal concentration. Gram-positive bacteria contribute 75% while gram-negative bacteria contribute 25% only. A total seven types of fungi are identified in aerosols. Aspergillus niger is dominant. Meteorological parameters play important roles in growth and presence of microorganism in the air. Bacterial concentrations are governed mainly by temperature while fungal concentration is influenced by relative humidity.

  5. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Lucia; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; De Capitani, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  6. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, Lucia [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: lucia.sesana@unimi.it; Polla, Giancarla [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); Facchini, Ugo [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); De Capitani, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Botticelli, 23 - 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground.

  7. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  8. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S; Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  9. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  10. Determination of recharge modes of aquifers by use of chemical and isotopic tracers. Case study of the contact zone between Western High-Atlas Chain and Souss Plain (SW Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagma, T.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the origin of recharge of the unconfined aquifer in the right side of the Souss wadi between Agadir and Taroudant (South-western of Morocco was based on the use of hydrochemical and isotopic analysis of groundwater, surface water and springs of the contact zone between the High-Atlas Chain and the Souss plain.The correspondence in the space evolution of the various chemical elements of evaporitic origin (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+ in groundwater, piedmont springs, and surface water reveals the existence of recharge water from the adjacent High-Atlas Chain.The various recharge modes of the different aquifers (High Atlas and Souss plain determined by isotopic analysis, shows that the source of groundwater for the unconfined Souss aquifer seems to be composite between a direct infiltration on the High-Atlas tributaries and a remote recharge from the bordering High Atlas aquifers.La determinación del origen de los aportes de agua de la capa freática de la ribera derecha del rio Souss entre Agadir y Taroudant (Suroeste de Marruecos se ha basado en la hidroquímica y el análisis isotópico de las aguas subterráneas, aguas superficiales y manantiales de la zona de contacto entre el Alto Atlas y la llanura de Souss.La correspondencia en la evolución espacial de los diferentes elementos químicos de origen evaporítico (SO42-, Cl-, Sr2+ en las aguas subterráneas, manantiales de pie de monte y aguas superficiales, revela la existencia de una recarga de agua procedente de la cadena del Alto Atlas. El análisis de los modos de recarga de los diferentes acuíferos (Alto Atlas y llanura de Souss determinado por análisis isotópico, demuestra que la alimentación de la capa freática de Souss a partir del Alto Atlas parece ser mixta, compuesta por una infiltración directa de los afluentes del Alto Atlas y una alimentación lejana desde los acuiferos que limitan con el borde del Alto Atlas.

  11. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  12. Sonographic appearances of common gut pathology in paediatric patients: comparison with plain abdominal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotto, Lino; Gent, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Even with the advent of more specialised imaging modalities such as fluoroscopic contrast examinations, CT and MRI, the plain abdominal radiograph remains the initial imaging modality in investigating the signs and symptoms of suspected gut pathology. However, ultrasound is playing an increasing part in the detection of gut pathology in paediatric patients. At our hospital, when plain abdominal radiography does not provide a diagnosis, ultrasound is commonly requested to rule out conditions that require urgent attention, such as intussusception, appendicitis and midgut malrotation and volvulus. After these conditions have been excluded however, the ultrasound examination can frequently lead to the diagnosis of several other conditions, including gastroenteritis, Crohn's disease, mesenteric lymphadenopathy and less commonly, duplication cysts, bezoas, and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Although plain radiography of the abdomen may be suggestive of gut pathology, the additional information provided by sonography often provides a specific diagnosis, leading to better patient care. This paper is a presentation of ten case studies demonstrating the use of ultrasound to augment plain X-ray findings, in order to obtain a final diagnosis. Copyright (2004) Australian Institute of Radiography

  13. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  14. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. V. The Echinoderm species Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and Psychropotes depressa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1985-09-01

    Specimens of the holothurians Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and P. depressa were examined from a number of stations (2300m-4780m) in the Porcupine Seabight and Abyssal Plain. All three species are gonochoric and show marked interspecific differences in gonad morphology. In the females of each species fecundity was low. Maximum oocyte size was 500 μm for Benthodytes sordida, 1.8mm for Psychropotes depressa and a massive 3mm for P. longicauda. In the males of each species spermatogenesis appeared typical of holothurians except where there was evidence of heavy parasitic infestation. There is no evidence of reproductive seasonality. (author)

  15. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Landscape history and man-induced landscape changes in the young morainic area of the North European Plain — a case study from the Bäke Valley, Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Margot; Brande, Arthur

    2010-10-01

    The Bäke creek valley is part of the young morainic area in Berlin. Its origin is related to meltwater flow and dead-ice persistence resulting in a valley with a lake-creek system. During the Late Glacial, the slopes of the valley were affected by solifluction. A Holocene brown soil developed in this material, whereas parts of the lakes were filled with limnic-telmatic sediments. The excavation site at Goerzallee revealed Bronze Age and Iron Age burial places at the upper part of the slope, as well as a fireplace further downslope, but the slope itself remained stable. Only German settlements in the 12th and 13th centuries changed the processes in the creek-lake system: the construction of water mills created a retention system with higher ground water levels in the surrounding areas. On the other hand, deforestation on the till plain and on the slope triggered erosion. Therefore, in medieval time interfingering organic sediments and sand layers were deposited in the lower part of the slope on top of the Holocene soil. The new soil which formed on top of these sediments was transformed by ploughing until the 19th century. In 1905/06 the lower part of the slope was reshaped by the construction of the Teltow Canal, following the valley of the former Bäke creek. Finally, the whole area was levelled by infill after World War II.

  18. Neural mechanisms underlying visual attention to health warnings on branded and plain cigarette packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Munafò, Marcus R; Leonards, Ute

    2017-04-01

    To (1) test if activation in brain regions related to reward (nucleus accumbens) and emotion (amygdala) differ when branded and plain packs of cigarettes are viewed, (2) test whether these activation patterns differ by smoking status and (3) examine whether activation patterns differ as a function of visual attention to health warning labels on cigarette packs. Cross-sectional observational study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with eye-tracking. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers performed a memory task on branded and plain cigarette packs with pictorial health warnings presented in an event-related design. Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, UK. Non-smokers, weekly smokers and daily smokers (n = 72) were tested. After exclusions, data from 19 non-smokers, 19 weekly smokers and 20 daily smokers were analysed. Brain activity was assessed in whole brain analyses and in pre-specified masked analyses in the amygdala and nucleus accumbens. On-line eye-tracking during scanning recorded visual attention to health warnings. There was no evidence for a main effect of pack type or smoking status in either the nucleus accumbens or amygdala, and this was unchanged when taking account of visual attention to health warnings. However, there was evidence for an interaction, such that we observed increased activation in the right amygdala when viewing branded as compared with plain packs among weekly smokers (P = 0.003). When taking into account visual attention to health warnings, we observed higher levels of activation in the visual cortex in response to plain packaging compared with branded packaging of cigarettes (P = 0.020). Based on functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking data, health warnings appear to be more salient on 'plain' cigarette packs than branded packs. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  20. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios waters have lost up to 70% of their Ca (average ∼ 50%) to precipitation of secondary calcite which is abundant as a diagenetic cement in the flood plain sediments. 31% of the Sr, 8% of the Ca and 45% of the Mg are calculated to be derived from silicate minerals. Because of significant evaporative loss of water across the flood plain, and in the absence of hydrological data for flood plain tributaries, chemical weathering fluxes from the

  1. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  2. PATTERNS OF THE MAXIMUM RAINFALL AMOUNTS REGISTERED IN 24 HOURS WITHIN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VLĂDUŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 hours within the Oltenia Plain. The present study aims at rendering the main features of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 h within the Oltenia Plain. We used 30-year time series (1980-2009 for seven meteorological stations. Generally, the maximum amounts in 24 h display the same pattern as the monthly mean amounts, namely higher values in the interval May-October. In terms of mean values, the highest amounts are registered in the western and northern extremity of the plain. The maximum values generally exceed 70 mm at all meteorological stations: D.T. Severin, 224 mm, July 1999; Slatina, 104.8 mm, August 2002; Caracal, 92.2 m, July 1991; Bechet, 80.8 mm, July 2006; Craiova, 77.6 mm, April 2003. During the cold season, there was noticed a greater uniformity all over the plain, due to the cyclonic origin of rainfalls compared to the warm season, when thermal convection is quite active and it triggers local showers. In order to better emphasize the peculiarities of this parameter, we have calculated the frequency on different value classes (eight classes, as well as the probability of appearance of different amounts. Thus, it resulted that the highest frequency (25-35% is held by the first two classes of values (0-10 mm; 10.1-20 mm. The lowest frequency is registered in case of the amounts of more than 100 mm, which generally display a probability of occurrence of less than 1% and only in the western and eastern extremities of the plain.

  3. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  4. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  5. Geothermal alteration of basaltic core from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, Christopher J.

    The Snake River Plain is located in the southern part of the state of Idaho. The eastern plain, on which this study focuses, is a trail of volcanics from the Yellowstone hotspot. Three exploratory geothermal wells were drilled on the Snake River Plain. This project analyzes basaltic core from the first well at Kimama, north of Burley, Idaho. The objectives of this project are to establish zones of geothermal alteration and analyze the potential for geothermal power production using sub-aquifer resources on the axial volcanic zone of the Snake River Plain. Thirty samples from 1,912 m of core were sampled and analyzed for clay content and composition using X-ray diffraction. Observations from core samples and geophysical logs are also used to establish alteration zones. Mineralogical data, geophysical log data and physical characteristics of the core suggest that the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the axial zone is located 960 m below the surface, much deeper than previously suspected. Swelling smectite clay clogs pore spaces and reduces porosity and permeability to create a natural base to the aquifer. Increased temperatures favor the formation of smectite clay and other secondary minerals to the bottom of the hole. Below 960 m the core shows signs of alteration including color change, formation of clay, and filling of other secondary minerals in vesicles and fractured zones of the core. The smectite clay observed is Fe-rich clay that is authigenic in some places. Geothermal power generation may be feasible using a low temperature hot water geothermal system if thermal fluids can be attained near the bottom of the Kimama well.

  6. DNAPL migration in a coastal plain aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGuiseppi, W.H.; Jung, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and ground water at the Dover Gas Light Superfund Site, a former manufactured gas plant (1859 to 1948), are contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Contaminants of concern include light aromatics, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), and heavy aromatics, including naphthalene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Although ground-water contaminant levels are elevated near the site, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene are present within an order of magnitude of their solubility limits, indicating the possibility of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the subsurface. The unconfined Columbia Aquifer, which is characterized by interfingering and discontinuous sand, silt, and clay Coastal Plain deposits, overlies a clay aquitard at a depth of 60 feet. The ground water beneath the intermediate clay horizon exhibited little or no contamination, even immediately downgradient from the site. The relationship between the more permeable granular sand horizons and the less permeable interfingering clay zones controls the migration of both the aqueous-phase contamination and the DNAPL. A detailed horizontal and vertical characterization of the subsurface stratigraphy was critical to the accurate interpretation of the extent and magnitude of contamination and the identification and delineation of DNAPL zones

  7. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  8. Vegetation - Carrizo Plain ER, 2005 - 2008 [ds561

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Vegetation Map of the Carrizo Plain Ecological Reserve, San Luis Obispo County, California was created by the California Department of Fish and Game (DFG)...

  9. Plain language: a strategic response to the health literacy challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stableford, Sue; Mettger, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Low health literacy is a major challenge confronting American and international health organizations. Research in the past decade has documented the prevalence of limited literacy and limited health literacy skills among adults worldwide. This creates a major policy challenge: how to create text-based health information - a common method of health communication - that is accessible to the public. Plain language is a logical, flexible response. While touted by American, Canadian, and European health policy makers, adoption and promotion of plain language standards and skills in health-focused organizations have lagged. Most text-based health information continues to be too hard for most adults to read. Barriers to more rapid diffusion of plain language are reflected in a set of myths perpetuated by critics. These myths are identified and refuted. While plain language is only one of many broad-based solutions needed to address low health literacy, the benefits to everyone demand increased use by health organizations.

  10. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  11. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  12. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  13. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  14. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Pottage

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  15. A Comparison of Plain Radiography with Computer Tomography in Determining Coronal and Sagittal Alignments following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solayar GN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimal coronal and sagittal component positioning is important in achieving a successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Modalities to determine post-operative alignment include plain radiography and computer tomography (CT imaging. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of plain radiographs in measuring coronal and sagittal alignment following TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, consecutive study of 58 patients undergoing TKA was performed comparing alignment data from plain radiographs and CT imaging. Hip- knee-angle (HKA, sagittal femoral angle (SFA and sagittal tibial angle (STA measurements were taken by two observers from plain radiographs and compared with CT alignment. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was calculated for each measurement. RESULTS: Intra-observer correlation was excellent for HKA (r>0.89 with a mean difference of 0.95 and STA (r>0.8 compared to SFA (r=0.5. When comparing modalities (radiographs vs CT, HKA estimations for both observers showed the least maximum and mean differences while SFA observations were the least accurate. CONCLUSION: Radiographic estimation of HKA showed excellent intra- and inter-observer correlation and corresponds well with CT imaging. However, radiographic estimation of sagittal plane alignment was less reliably measured and correlated less with CT imaging. Plain radiography was found to be inferior to CT for estimation of biplanar prosthetic alignment following TKA.