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Sample records for abyssal plain study

  1. Suspended particulate studies over the Madeira Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Various aspects relating to suspended matter over the Madeira Abyssal Plain are discussed. Special attention is paid to the nepheloid layer including resuspension and transport processes; time variabilities in particle concentrations and fluxes; particle morphology, microbiology and chemical composition; phase association of metals. Also, tentative predictions of the behaviour of some radionuclides are made based on theory and data on rare earth elements. Instrumentation developed for the project is detailed - the deep water particle sampler. (author)

  2. Great Meteor East (distal Madeira Abyssal Plain): geological studies of its suitability for disposal of heat-emitting radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, R.C.; Schultheiss, P.J.; Weaver, P.P.E.; Noel, M.; Kidd, R.B.; Jacobs, C.L.; Huggett, Q.J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarises geological and geophysical studies carried out by the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences up to December 1983 in an area of the Madeira Abyssal Plain in order to assess its suitability for the disposal of heat-emitting radioactive waste. The results of work carried out in the same area by the Rijks Geologische Dienst of the Netherlands are also reviewed in the report. Other oceanographic studies in the area in the fields of geochemistry, biology and oceanography are briefly touched upon. (author)

  3. Late Quarternary evolution of the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, S.M.; Laine, E.P.

    1986-05-01

    The sedimentary history and seismic structure of a deep-water turbidite basin in the Western North Atlantic Ocean has been investigated to understand further the evolution of abyssal plains. This study integrates analyses of sedimentary and seismic facies in order to examine the temporal and spatial patterns of sedimentation on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain during the Late Quaternary. Forty deep-sea sediment cores and 6000 km of high resolution (3.5 kHz) seismic reflection profiles from within 31-34 0 N and 69-74 0 W include portions of the Hatteras Outer Ridge, Lower Continental Rise and Bermuda Rise as well as the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain. Seismic profiles (within 32-33 0 N, 70-71.5 0 W) define two acoustically-transparent seismic units beneath the Plain. The composition of these seismic units has been investigated with sediment cores. This study has found two notable features in the sedimentary framework of the Plain that appear to have resulted from temporal changes in sediment supply. The most recent change, a postglacial decline in turbidity current activity, produced a diagenetic iron enrichment at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The stratigraphic thickness affected by diagenesis is related spatially to patterns of turbidite sedimentation. An earlier change, discovered in this research, occurred during the Wisconsinian glaciation and brought coarser-grained turbidity currents to the northern Plain. Deposition of sands from these flows appears to have been locally controlled by a broad topographic feature with less than ten meters relief. As a result of the topographic influence, there are abrupt boundaries, both verically and laterally, between an older mud facies and a younger sandy turbidite facies of the Plain

  4. Landscape scale ecology at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, H.; Morris, K. J.; Bett, B. J.; Jones, D.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Robert, K.; Gooday, A. J.; Durden, J. M.; Laguionie-Marchais, C.; Stefanoudis, P. V.; Benoist, N. M.; Paterson, G. L.; Wolff, G. A.; Milligan, R. J.; Bailey, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and abundance of life on the seafloor is set to some extent by the supply of sinking particulate organic matter from overlying surface water. However, the habitat landscape of the seafloor can also exert important ecological influences at local scales. Community differences on the scales of centimeters upwards can arise from drivers including changes in seafloor sediments, slope, and lateral movement of particulate organic matter. Here we use photographic survey data covering an extent on the order of 100 km2 to examine relationships between megafauna density, biomass, diversity, and community composition, as well as food availability and habitat type across landscape scales. The surveyed area at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain has a maximum water depth of about 4850 m and includes a range of topographic features from slight undulations of the seafloor to exposed bedrock scarps on an abyssal hill rising more than 200 m above the surrounding plain. We first examine community descriptors across the entire area and then sequentially break the analytical units into smaller units including variants based on habitat types and spatial extent. We repeat the examination of seafloor community descriptors with finer and finer analytical unit scales, as well as for different habitat types, and changing levels of phytodetritus coverage. We then examine the scales at which diversity and community composition go from statistically indistinguishable between analytical units to significantly different and which factors best explain these observations. Lastly, we relate the results from this megafauna study to other recent spatial studies at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, from foraminifera to fishes, to build a landscape view of the ecology of the area.

  5. Dispersion measurements from Sofar floats on the Iberian Abyssal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, J.M.; Gmitrowicz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Tracks of SOFAR floats launched on the Iberian Abyssal Plain are presented. The floats were launched in two groups in early October 1984 and mid-February 1985 to a nominal depth of 2500 m. Of these floats, 4 from the first deployment and 2 from the second functioned properly. Float signals were recorded by four autonomous listening stations at a depth of 1900 m. These preliminary results show the tracks of floats up to July 1986 and represent 3600 float days of information. The main task of the experiment was to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  6. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 1. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom current have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 13 months. Locations were selected in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its flank just above the plain. Current meters were moored 10, 100, and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5398 m and 4999 m) in January 1984 and recovered in February 1985. This report displays the characteristics of the currents in numerous tables and figures. In the mean they ar found to be very weak and though adjacent moorings are separated by only 12 km and 27 km the year-long current directions differ radically. Current variations are principally due to semi-diurnal tides, inertial oscillations and eddies the latter of which migrate over the moorings. The tidal energy meets expectations as does the eddy energy with magnitude 2-3 cm 2 s -2 . Horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity is estimated as about 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents 10 m above the bottom exceed 10 cm/s least frequently on the plain and most frequently at the hill-foot. The influence of the hill is surprisingly large. At all three sites the strongest currents are found near the sea bed. Speeds also show a Weibull distribution and rough 50 year return currents are inferred. (author)

  7. Ocean-Bottom Topography: The Divide between the Sohm and Hatteras Abyssal Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, R M

    1965-06-18

    A compilation of precision echo soundings has delineated the complex topography between the Sohm and Hatteras abyssal plains off the Atlantic coast of the United States. At present the divide between the two plains is a broad, flat area about 4950 meters deep; however, the configuration of channels and depressions suggests spillage of turbidity currents from the Sohm Plain into the Hatteras Plain and a shifting of the divide toward the northeast. Hudson Canyon terminates in the divide area and has probably fed sediment into both plains.

  8. Moored current meter data from the Madeira Abyssal Plain (GME). 2. deployment (1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Near bottom currents have been measured at three closely spaced sites in the N.E. Atlantic for 22 months. This report describes the results for the period 13-22 months and closely follows the pattern used in describing the first 13 months of data (IOS Report No. 221, 1986). The three locations were in the Great Meteor East study site area, near 31 0 30'N 25 0 W, one on the abyssal plain, one on top of a small abyssal hill about 400 m high and one on its eastern flank. For the period of this report current meters were moored 10,100 and 1000 m above the local bottom (5438 m, 5433 m and 4989 m) between February and November 1985. The characteristics of the currents are displayed in numerous tables and figures: the mean currents for the 9 months are strikingly similar to those measured for the first 13 months. The variations in current strengths are also similar and yield eddy energies of between 2 and 3 cm 2 s -2 and horizontal (isopycnal) diffusivity of 2x10 2 m 2 s -1 . Currents in excess of 10 cm/s were considerably less frequent than found for the earlier data set. (author)

  9. Heat flow measurements in Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Discovery Cruise 144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes 21 closely spaced heat flow measurements which were made along two survey lines in an area of faulted sediments east of Great Meteor Seamount in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. The heat flow was found to be correlated with basement topography as mapped by seismic reflection profiling. Data modelling suggests that this is due both to the thermal conductivity contrast between sediments and basement rocks and to the presence of hydrothermal circulation within basement highs. The existence of non-linear temperature profiles in sediments covering basement highs suggests that the underlying circulation is causing an upward movement of porewater. There is no firm evidence to show that the sediment faults act as preferred pathways for porewater advection. (author)

  10. Heat flow measurements in the vicinity of Great Meteor East, Madeira Abyssal Plain, during Darwin Cruise CD9B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, M.; Hounslow, M.W.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes 37 new measurements of heat flow in the Madeira Abyssal Plain. These have comprised 22 values in the Great Meteor East Study Area and 15 measurements in the newly defined ''10 km Box'' to the southeast of this region. The aim of the project has been to examine in more detail than hitherto the thermal and fluid processes operating in the oceanic crust. For this purpose, a new thermistor string, with 1/2 m sensor spacing was used. Also, the heat flux data have been compared to the output from a finite element model for heat conduction. No non-linear sediment temperature profiles were discovered indicating that vertical advection of water through the sediment is absent or slow. The results of numerical modelling imply that the variability of measured heat flow cannot be explained entirely on the basis of basement topography. It is necessary to invoke either vertical basement intrusions of differing conductivity or basement hydrothermal circulation. (author)

  11. Geochemistry of the near surface sediments of the Nares Abyssal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, M.S.N.; Colley, S.; Elderfield, H.; Kennedy, H.A.; Thomson, J.; Wilson, T.R.S.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of a suite of box and 2m gravity cores from the Nares Abyssal Plain has been characterised by means of pore water analyses, XRF determination of major and trace element concentrations, mineralogy and 230 Thsub(excess) dating. The interstitial fluid environment of those deep-sea clays is mildly reducing, although one site exhibits manganese remobilisation and precipitation. Despite their marked colour differences, there is a similarity in clay mineralogy between the grey silt/clay turbidites and the brown clays found in the area. Sediment accumulation rates of pelagic brown clays range between 0.5 and 1.0 cm/10 3 yr. These pelagic brown clays are metal-rich relative to the grey clays, and a model is used to estimate the hydrogenous metal fluxes on the assumption that they are constant over the Plain. This model gives values of approx. 1300 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Mn, approx. 2600 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr for Fe and Co, Ni, Cu, V and Zn in the range 6 to 26 μg/cm 2 /10 3 yr. An associated model-derived estimate of the detrital contents of the same elements agrees well with the mean values of the grey clays and of average shale. Metal-poor brown clays and assorted minor lithologies are intermediate in composition between these two end-members. (author)

  12. Evidences of intraplate deformation in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain (eastern North Atlantic) from seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, C.; Simões, M.; Lourenço, N.; Pinto de Abreu, M.

    2009-04-01

    The West Madeira Abyssal Plain is located in the eastern North Atlantic off Madeira Islands, forming part of the Canary Basin and reaching a mean water depth of 5300 m. This region is also located within Africa plate at about 500 km southwards from the Açores-Gibraltar plate boundary, and for that reason lacks seismic activity. Although this region being located in an intraplate setting, the presence of faulted sediments was reported in several works published during the eighties of last century following a study conducted in late 1970s to evaluate the feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in the ocean. According these works, the Madeira Abyssal Plain sediments are cut by many normal growth faults and this deformation is a result of compaction and dewatering of the sediments. Evidences of tectonic deformation of oceanic sediments in intraplate settings are uncommon, but folded sediments and reverse faults extending into the basement, were recognized in the equatorial Indian Ocean and in the West African continental margin. Recently, during 2006 multi-channel seismic reflection and multibeam swath bathymetry surveys were carried out in the West Madeira Abyssal Plain by EMEPC in order to prepare the Portuguese proposal for the extension of the continental shelf. The seismic lines were acquired onboard R/V Akademik Shatskiy using a source of 5720 cu in bolt gun array, cable length of 7950 m and shot interval of 50.00 m. The multibeam swath bathymetry was acquired onboard NRP Gago Coutinho, and allowed a high resolution mapping of the main geomorphological features. The multichannel seismic lines, oriented WNW-ESE, image the Madeira island lower slope located at about 4000 m water depth and the almost flat abyssal plain at about 5300 m water depth. These seismic lines show a thick sedimentary succession that reaches a maximum thickness of about 1.5 sec twt in the deepest parts of the West Madeira Abyssal Plain, overlying an irregular diffractive

  13. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. Нalitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  14. The Kefalonia Transform Zone (offshore Western Greece) with special emphasis to its prolongation towards the Ionian Abyssal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokinou, E.; Papadimitriou, E.; Karakostas, V.; Kamberis, E.; Vallianatos, F.

    2006-12-01

    Information concerning two seismic lines, the first located northwest of the Lefkada Island and the second from the deep Ionian basin to the gulf of Patras, is used to trace the Kefalonia Transform Zone (KTZ) and to explore its relation with the sedimentary sequences and the deeper geologic structures in the study area. In addition, sea bottom topography and fault plane solutions are combined in order to explore the prolongation of the KTZ into the Ionian Abyssal Plain (IoAP) and to describe its properties. The boundary between the subduction of the eastern Mediterranean oceanic crust under the overriding continental crust and the KTZ is well constrained by the seismic data in association with seismicity and regional stress field. The southern prolongation of the KTZ is located in the IoAP towards the direction between Kefalonia and Zakynthos Islands at depth greater than 15 km. The southern part of the KTZ exhibits a strike slip motion with a thrust component according to fault plane solutions of moderate and strong earthquakes. The seismic section mostly confirms the existence of the thrust component and gives information about the tectonic status east and west of the KTZ.

  15. Ferromanganese oxides from Mid-Indian ridge, seamounts and abyssal plains from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Pattan, J.N.

    .47%) in the seamount crusts. The ferromanganese oxides from the Mid-Indian Ridge, seamount crusts and abyssal nodules appear to be of hydrothermal, hydrogenous and early-diagenetic in origin respectively...

  16. Elemental analysis of sediments and organisms from the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV 1 and CV 2 sites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germain, P.; Boust, D.; Sibuet, M.; Philippot, J.C.; Hemon, G.

    1984-08-01

    Some 20 stable elements were determined by neutron activation analysis in epibenthic organisms and sediments from the Cape Verde abyssal plain. The levels measured in two Plesiopenaeus sp. (shrimp) individuals and one Barathrites sp. (fish) individual are similar to those found in others crustaceans and fish from oceanic and coastal areas. Concentration factors were calculated for the elements whose radioactive isotopes should be considered in the case of subseabed waste disposal ( 90 Sr, 135 Cs, 79 Se). The sediments are biogenous marly oozes. The levels measured reflect the variations of terrigenous inputs since the last glacial maximum 18,000 B.P [fr

  17. Fatty acid compositions and trophic relationships of shelled molluscs from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlamenko, Vladimir I.; Würzberg, Laura; Peters, Janna; Borisovets, Evgeny E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid (FA) compositions of 12 species of shelled molluscs (gastropods, bivalves, and scaphopods) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain were studied. According to the results of multivariate statistical analysis, molluscs were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of three scaphopod species, the bivalve Nucula profundorum and the gastropod Solariella delicata. FA compositions of this group were characterized by high levels of 20:4(n-6). We suggest that the FA pattern found in scaphopods with high values of 20:4(n-6) is most likely typical for that of benthic organisms feeding preferentially on foraminiferans. Group II included the bivalves Neilonella politissima, Bentharca asperula, and Rhinoclama filatovae. Bivalves from the second group had elevated concentrations of 22:6(n-3), and the ratio of 20:4(n-6) to 20:5(n-3) was lower than 1. Bivalves from the second group had elevated concentrations of 22:6(n-3). We propose that high concentrations of this FA can be used as a specific marker for a carnivorous feeding mode of deep-sea benthic invertebrates. The bivalve Bathyspinula calcarella as well as the scaphopod Polyschides sakuraii could not unambiguously be assigned to one group. Within the similarity analysis they rather clustered together with the foraminiferans feeders (group I), but forming an own subgroup. In the PCA on the other hand, P. sakuraii showed a position close to the other bivalves, while B. calcarella had an intermediate position between all three groups. Group III consisted of the gastropods Tacita holoserica and Paracteocina sp., which contained high concentrations of 20:5(n-3) and 22:5(n-3). Both are known to exhibit a carnivorous/scavenging feeding strategy. The very low content of DHA in both species is on first sight not consistent with the suggested carnivorous feeding behavior. A characteristic feature of Paracteocina sp. and T. holoserica was a high level of 22:5(n-3), and HUFA ratios indicate that DHA

  18. Spatio-temporal changes in the distribution of phytopigments and phytoplanktonic groups at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe-Wright, Denise; Boswell, Stephen; Kim, Young-Nam; Kemp, Alan

    2010-08-01

    We have made a comprehensive study of pigment distributions and microscopically determined phytoplankton abundances within the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) location in the North Atlantic to better understand phytoplankton variability, and make some suggestions regarding the composition of the material falling to the sea bed and its impacts on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea. The area has been the focus of many studies of ocean fluxes and benthic communities over recent years, but little attention has been given to the spatio-temporal variability in the surface waters. Dawn casts over a 12-day period at the PAP mooring site (48.83°N 16.5°W) revealed the presence of only one species, the diatom Actinocyclus exiguus, at bloom concentrations for just 5 days. Smaller populations of other diatoms and the dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium were also present at this time. Following this 5-day interval, a mixed population of small-sized dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, prasinophytes, chrysophytes and cyanobacteria occurred. It is clear from concomitant CTD/bottle surveys that rapid changes in phytoplankton community structure at a fixed time series position do not necessarily reflect a degradation or manifestation of one particular species but rather represent the movement of eddies and other water masses within very short timescales. These cause substantial variability in the species class and size fraction that may explain the variability in carbon export that has been seen at the PAP site. We also make some suggestions on the variable composition of the material falling to the seabed and its impact on benthic organisms such as Amperima rosea.

  19. A discussion of non-linear temperature profiles at six closely spaced heat flow sites, southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, northwest Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, M. M.

    1986-09-01

    Six heat flow measurement sites were occupied in June 1980 in a 10 x 10 km 2 flat area of the southern Sohm Abyssal Plain, western North Atlantic Ocean. Non-linear sediment temperature profiles, measured to depths of 5 m, indicate perturbations in the temperature field in sediments overlying 90 Ma ocean floor. Temperature gradients average 59.0 mK m -1 in the lower half of the profile and decrease by 25% to an average of 44.24 mK m -1 in the upper half. Thermal conductivities of sediment cores down to 12 m ranged from 0.74 to 2.12 W m -1 K -1 and averaged 1.06 W m -1K -1. The non-linearity of sediment temperature profiles cannot be accounted for by the variations in thermal conductivity. Vertical fluid convection in the sediments, with a predominantly downward migration on the order of 5 x 10 -8 ms -1 in the upper 3 m, could explain the perturbations. However, in this study area of high abyssal kinetic energy and abyssal storms, bottom-water temperature fluctuations are the likely source of observed sediment temperature perturbations. A bottom-water temperature change of 50 mK occurring 3 months prior to the cruise could produce sediment temperature perturbations similar to those observed. Heat flow determined from the lower gradient (3-5 m sediment depth interval), assuming the non-linearity in the upper sensors to be principally due to bottom-water temperature fluctuations, averages 59.2 mW m -2, a slightly higher value than that predicted for 90 Ma crust.

  20. High resolution study of the spatial distributions of abyssal fishes by autonomous underwater vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R J; Morris, K J; Bett, B J; Durden, J M; Jones, D O B; Robert, K; Ruhl, H A; Bailey, D M

    2016-05-16

    On abyssal plains, demersal fish are believed to play an important role in transferring energy across the seafloor and between the pelagic and benthic realms. However, little is known about their spatial distributions, making it difficult to quantify their ecological significance. To address this, we employed an autonomous underwater vehicle to conduct an exceptionally large photographic survey of fish distributions on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth) encompassing two spatial scales (1-10 km(2)) on and adjacent to a small abyssal hill (240 m elevation). The spatial distributions of the total fish fauna and that of the two dominant morphotypes (Coryphaenoides sp. 1 and C. profundicolus) appeared to be random, a result contrary to common expectation but consistent with previous predictions for these fishes. We estimated total fish density on the abyssal plain to be 723 individuals km(-2) (95% CI: 601-844). This estimate is higher, and likely more precise, than prior estimates from trawl catch and baited camera techniques (152 and 188 individuals km(-2) respectively). We detected no significant difference in fish density between abyssal hill and plain, nor did we detect any evidence for the existence of fish aggregations at any spatial scale assessed.

  1. The role of tectonic inheritance in the morphostructural evolution of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains from digital bathymetric model (DBM) analysis (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro, A.; Jané, G.; Llave, E.; López-Martínez, J.; Bohoyo, F.; Druet, M.

    2017-09-01

    The identification of recent major tectonic structures in the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains was carried out by means of a quantitative analysis of the linear structures having bathymetric expression on the seabed. It was possible to identify about 5800 lineaments throughout the entire study area, of approximately 271,500 km2. Most lineaments are located in the Charcot and Coruña highs, in the western sector of the Galicia Bank, in the area of the Marginal Platforms and in the northern sector of the margin. Analysis of the lineament orientations shows a predominant NE-SW direction and three relative maximum directions: NW-SE, E-W and N-S. The total length of the lineaments identified is over 44,000 km, with a mode around 5000 m and an average length of about 7800 m. In light of different tectonic studies undertaken in the northwestern margin of the Iberian Peninsula, we establish that the lineaments obtained from analysis of the digital bathymetric model of the Galicia continental margin and adjacent abyssal plains would correspond to fracture systems. In general, the orientation of lineaments corresponds to main faults, tectonic structures following the directions of ancient faults that resulted from late stages of the Variscan orogeny and Mesozoic extension phases related to Triassic rifting and Upper Jurassic to Early Cretaceous opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The N-S convergence between Eurasian and African plates since Palaeogene times until the Miocene, and NW-SE convergence from Neogene to present, reactivated the Variscan and Mesozoic fault systems and related physiography.

  2. High-resolution sub-bottom seismic and sediment core records from the Chukchi Abyssal Plain reveal Quaternary glaciation impacts on the western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Y. J.; Seokhoon, Y.; Nam, S. I.; Polyak, L.; Niessen, F.

    2017-12-01

    For regional context of the Quaternary history of Arctic marine glaciations, such as glacial events in northern North America and on the Siberian and Chukchi margins, we used CHIRP sub-bottom profiles (SBP) along with sediment cores, including a 14-m long piston core ARA06-04JPC taken from the Chukchi abyssal plain during the RV Araon expedition in 2015. Based on core correlation with earlier developed Arctic Ocean stratigraphies using distribution of various sedimentary proxies, core 04JPC is estimated to extend to at least Marine Isotope Stage 13 (>0.5 Ma). The stratigraphy developed for SBP lines from the Chukchi abyssal plain to surrounding slopes can be divided into four major seismostratigraphic units (SSU 1-4). SBP records from the abyssal plain show well preserved stratification, whereas on the surrounding slopes this pattern is disrupted by lens-shaped, acoustically transparent sedimentary bodies interpreted as glaciogenic debris flow deposits. Based on the integration of sediment physical property and SBP data, we conclude that these debris flows were generated during several ice-sheet grounding events on the Chukchi and East Siberian margins, including adjacent ridges and plateaus, during the middle to late Quaternary.

  3. Lagrangian circulation of the North Atlantic Central Water over the abyssal plain and continental slopes of the Bay of Biscay: description of selected mesoscale features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Serpette

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Between 1994 and 2001, several experiments (ARCANE, SEFOS, INTERAFOS were conducted to directly measure the general and mesoscale Lagrangian circulations over the Bay of Biscay abyssal plain and slopes. Two levels (~100 m and ~450 m were selected to cover the North Atlantic Central Water range. Two types of Lagrangian instruments, drogued surface drifters tracked by satellite (Surdrift and acoustically tracked subsurface floats (Rafos and Marvor, were used. Overall, more than 36 instrument-years were collected in the Bay of Biscay region (43-49°N, 01-12°W. The weak general circulation in the Bay of Biscay is seen to be highly influenced by the occurrence of several mesoscale coherent features, notably slope currents and eddies, and these affect the exchanges between the abyssal plain and the slopes. The objective of this paper is to depict some specific examples of the observed mesoscale field. Selected float trajectories are shown and used to discuss observations of slope currents and of both anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Slope currents exhibit alternation of poleward and equatorward directions, depending on both the period and the geographic area considered. Although the generation process of mesoscale eddies is difficult to observe unambiguously from Lagrangian instruments, eddies are nevertheless ubiquitous over the abyssal plain. Some characteristics of the observed cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are presented. Smaller anticyclones, localised over the outer shelf and interpreted in terms of ajustment of slope water intrusions, are also depicted.

  4. Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Susan; Lampitt, Richard; Schuster, Ute; Jiang, Zongpei; Frigstad, Helene; Ostle, Clare

    2016-04-01

    We examine high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure p(CO2) taken in situ at the FixO3 Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP-SO) site in the northeast Atlantic (49° N, 16.5° W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyze weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of deep winter mixing and the intensity of the spring bloom.

  5. Long-term selective degradation of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in a Maderia Abyssal Plain turbidite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Daniel D.; Versteegh, Gerard J. M.; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.

    2017-04-01

    Post-depositional sedimentary dinoflagellate cyst degradation is well documented under oxic conditions, a process characterised by the preferential loss of "S-cysts" at elevated ambient oxygen concentrations. Establishing a quantitative relationship between degradation rates and aerobic exposure would allow paleo-bottom oxygen water profiles to be reconstructed. Here we trace the long-term (centennial-millennial scale) degradation pattern of a dinocyst assemblage from the F-turbidite of core GeoB20305-7 retrieved at Maderia Abyssal Plain (MAP), with reference to a suite of inorganic and organic geochemical profiles. A downward-migrating oxidation front advances through the the upper part of the depositional unit, resulting in a near-total loss of the Peridiniales cyst fraction dominated by Brigantedinium spp. and Echinidinium spp. specimens. In contrast, Gonyaulacales species have subdued degradation responses resulting in the progressive reconstitution of the cyst assemblage away from its source signal. Assuming a diffusion-dominated migration of the oxidation front and a basic parameterisation of boundary conditions we estimate the oxygen exposure time (OET) of the oxidised section to be 5000 years. The resulting degradation profile is well-fitted by an exponential decay curve. Implications of these observations are discussed with regard to existing schemes for dinoflagellate based proxy interpretation in oxic environments.

  6. Sedimentology of the Argo and Gascoyne abyssal plains, NW Australia: Report on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 123 (Sept. 1–Nov. 1, 1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurow, Jürgen

    1988-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 123 drilled two sites in the Indian Ocean in order to study the rifting and early spreading of one of the world’s oldest ocean basins.Site 765 was drilled in 5714 meters of water on the Argo Abyssal Plain northwest of Australia. The sedimentary succession records the opening of an ocean basin, from the first sediments deposited atop young oceanic crust, to the present day. The oldest sediments are microlaminated brown silty claystones, locally rich in calcareous bioclasts. Most of the sequence is dominated by turbidites (primarily calcareous) which probably originated within canyons cut into the margin of the drowned platform of the North West Shelf of Australia.Site 766 is located in 3998 meters of water, at the base of the steep western margin of the Exmouth Plateau. The oldest sediments penetrated are glauconitic, volcaniclastic, and bioclastic sandstones and siltstones, which are interbedded with inclined basaltic sills. These sediments were deposited by a prograding submarine fan system which shed shallow marine sediments westward or northwestward off of the western rim of the Exmouth Plateau. Sandstones are succeeded by silty claystones, recording gradual abandonment or redirection of the fan system. An overlying sequence of pelagic and hemipelagic clayey and zeolitic calcareous oozes and chalks is succeeded by featureless and homogeneous pelagic nannofossil oozes.

  7. Large-scale patterns in biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes from the abyssal sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckenbach, Frank; Hausmann, Klaus; Wylezich, Claudia; Weitere, Markus; Arndt, Hartmut

    2010-01-05

    Eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths remains "uncharted territory" in eukaryotic microbiology. No phylogenetic surveys have focused on the largest benthic environment on this planet, the abyssal plains. Moreover, knowledge of the spatial patterns of deep-sea community structure is scanty, and what little is known originates primarily from morphology-based studies of foraminiferans. Here we report on the great phylogenetic diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities of all 3 abyssal plains of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean--the Angola, Cape, and Guinea Abyssal Plains--from depths of 5,000 m. A high percentage of retrieved clones had no close representatives in genetic databases. Many clones were affiliated with parasitic species. Furthermore, differences between the communities of the Cape Abyssal Plain and the other 2 abyssal plains point to environmental gradients apparently shaping community structure at the landscape level. On a regional scale, local species diversity showed much less variation. Our study provides insight into the community composition of microbial eukaryotes on larger scales from the wide abyssal sea floor realm and marks a direction for more detailed future studies aimed at improving our understanding of deep-sea microbes at the community and ecosystem levels, as well as the ecological principles at play.

  8. Depth-related distribution and abundance of seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain, N.E. Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kerry L.; Billett, David S. M.; Tyler, Paul A.

    2002-10-01

    The depth-related distribution of seastar (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) species between 150 and 4950 m in the Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain is described. 47 species of asteroid were identified from ˜14,000 individuals collected. The bathymetric range of each species is recorded. What are considered quantitative data, from an acoustically monitored epibenthic sledge and supplementary data from otter trawls, are used to display the relative abundance of individuals within their bathymetric range. Asteroid species are found to have very narrow centres of distribution in which they are abundant, despite much wider total adult depth ranges. Centres of distribution may be skewed. This might result from competition for resources or be related to the occurrence of favourable habitats at particular depths. The bathymetric distributions of the juveniles of some species extend outside the adult depth ranges. There is a distinct pattern of zonation with two major regions of faunal change and six distinct zones. An upper slope zone ranges from 150 to ˜700 m depth, an upper bathyal zone between 700 and 1100 m, a mid-bathyal zone from 1100 to1700 m and a lower bathyal zone between 1700 and 2500 m. Below 2500 m the lower continental slope and continental rise have a characteristic asteroid fauna. The abyssal zone starts at about 2800 m. Regions of major faunal change are identified at the boundaries of both upper and mid-bathyal zones and at the transition of bathyal to abyssal fauna. Diversity is greatest at ˜1800 m, decreasing with depth to ˜2600 m before increasing again to high levels at ˜4700 m.

  9. Polychaete composition from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with the description of a new species of Sphaerephesia (Polychaeta: Sphaerodoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalykina, Inna L.

    2015-01-01

    During the KuramBio expedition, the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench was sampled in July-August 2012. More than 5200 individuals of Polychaeta belonging to 38 families, 108 genera and about 144 species were found. Six genera have been reported for the Northwest Pacific for the first time. About 50% of the collected polychaete species are considered as new to science. One of these, Sphaerephesia lesliae sp. n., is described herein. The detailed description of the new species is presented and its differences from similar species are shown. This eighth species of the genus is characterized by the presence of macrotubercles with two paired terminal papillae. The genus Sphaerephesia Fauchald, 1972 is newly recorded in the Northwest Pacific. An updated key to the species of the genus Sphaerephesia is provided.

  10. A census of abyssal polychaetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon L. J.; Glover, Adrian G.; Barrio Froján, Christopher R. S.; Whitaker, Amoret; Budaeva, Nataliya; Chimonides, Jim; Doner, Stacy

    2009-09-01

    As part of the Census of Marine Life's programme of summarising existing knowledge of the oceans, records of all polychaete species collected below 2000 m have been collated from the literature. A total of 3633 records was assembled into a database, revealing that 768 species, 358 of which were new to science, have been reported from the deep sea over the past 200 years. The limitations of the dataset are also discussed. Most of the records were obtained from between 2000 m, the upper depth range of the study, and 4000 m. Analyses of the distribution of records with time reveals that the majority of records were added in the 1960s to early 1980s, coincidental with the introduction of new collecting technologies. However, following this period there was a gap between the collecting of samples and the publication of taxonomic results. To reduce this time lag we are encouraging the use of the world-wide web with new tools and protocols to bring together taxonomists working on different sample sets and allow them to share and compare taxonomic data. As this is the first collation of abyssal polychaetes, the records were analysed to determine whether there is a distinct hadal fauna and whether the fauna of individual trenches was distinctive or a subset of the abyssal plain fauna. The results suggest that the hadal fauna contains few endemic species and that the majority are elements of the abyssal fauna that have extended their bathymetric range.

  11. Bioturbation, geochemistry and geotechnics of sediments affected by the oxygen minimum zone on the Oman continental slope and abyssal plain, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Azra; Meadows, Peter S.; West, Fraser J. C.; Murray, John M. H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the way the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) alters interactions between bioturbation and sediment geochemistry, and geotechnical properties. Sediments are compared within and below the OMZ on the Oman continental slope and adjacent abyssal plain during the post monsoonal autumn season. Quantitative measurements were made of Eh and pH, of total organic matter (TOM) and carbonate, of water content and shear strength, and of bioturbation structures in vertical profiles of subcores taken from spade-box core samples. The OMZ stations had distinctively low redox conditions and high carbonate content, and different geotechnical properties and different bioturbation structures than stations below the OMZ on the abyssal plain. These differences are related to the degree of anoxia and to water depth. Within the OMZ, Eh, pH and carbonate increased with water depth, and TOM and water content decreased. We also noted the presence of subsurface sediment heterogeneity on the continental slope within the OMZ. In the OMZ, Eh, water content and bioturbation decreased with increasing sediment depth. There was a slight decrease in pH in the top 5 cm at all stations. Shear strength nearly always increased with increasing sediment depth. At each water depth correlations show down-core trends in these parameters, while across all water depths correlations were significant at deeper sediment depths (20-30 cm). An Eh-pH diagram identified two water-depth groupings: 391-1008 and 1265-3396 m. Cluster analysis showed the upper and lower sediment depths form separate clusters, the break occurring at 4-7.5 cm; while there are also distinct clusters related to water depth. We relate our results to bottom-water oxygen concentrations reported by other investigators, and to regional-scale geochemical processes.

  12. Structural Iron (II) of Basaltic Glass as an Energy Source for Zetaproteobacteria in an Abyssal Plain Environment, Off the Mid Atlantic Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henri, Pauline A; Rommevaux-Jestin, Céline; Lesongeur, Françoise; Mumford, Adam; Emerson, David; Godfroy, Anne; Ménez, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W). In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 μm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads) by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II) present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from their activity.

  13. Structural iron (II of basaltic glass as an energy source for Zetaproteobacteria in an abyssal plain environment, off the Mid Atlantic Ridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Audrey Henri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the capability of basaltic glass to support the growth of chemosynthetic microorganisms, complementary in situ and in vitro colonization experiments were performed. Microbial colonizers containing synthetic tholeitic basaltic glasses, either enriched in reduced or oxidized iron, were deployed off-axis from the Mid Atlantic Ridge on surface sediments of the abyssal plain (35°N; 29°W. In situ microbial colonization was assessed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and basaltic glass alteration was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy, micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure at the Fe-K-edge and Raman microspectroscopy. The colonized surface of the reduced basaltic glass was covered by a rind of alteration made of iron-oxides trapped in a palagonite-like structure with thicknesses up to 150 µm. The relative abundance of the associated microbial community was dominated (39% of all reads by a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU that shared 92% identity with the iron-oxidizer Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Conversely, the oxidized basaltic glass showed the absence of iron-oxides enriched surface deposits and correspondingly there was a lack of known iron-oxidizing bacteria in the inventoried diversity. In vitro, a similar reduced basaltic glass was incubated in artificial seawater with a pure culture of the iron-oxidizing M. ferrooxydans DIS-1 for 2 weeks, without any additional nutrients or minerals. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy revealed that the glass surface was covered by twisted stalks characteristic of this iron-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria. This result supported findings of the in situ experiments indicating that the Fe(II present in the basalt was the energy source for the growth of representatives of Zetaproteobacteria in both the abyssal plain and the in vitro experiment. In accordance, the surface alteration rind observed on the reduced basaltic glass incubated in situ could at least partly result from

  14. Magnetic anomalies across the transitional crust of the passive conjugate margins of the North Atlantic: Iberian Abyssal Plain/Northern Newfoundland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sibuet, J.; Manatschal, G.

    2005-12-01

    The magma starved Iberia Abyssal Plain (IAP) margin off Iberia is probably one of the most studied non-volcanic continental margin in the world. Numerous multi-channel seismic cruises, detailed refraction surveys, and ODP drilling (Legs 149 and 173) have been carried out across it. Yet serious disagreement exists about the nature and mode of emplacement of the transitional crust which lies between true continental and true oceanic crusts in this region. One group regards this crust to be excessively thinned continental crust through which mantle was exhumed while the other group regards it to be oceanic crust, a mixture of basalt and mantle material, formed during ultraslow seafloor spreading. However, neither the drilling, which was carried out only on the basement highs and recovered serpentinized peridotites together with some gabbroic material, nor the detailed refraction measurements have been of much help in solving this dispute because the velocity values in this region neither correspond to true volcanic materials nor to true continental rocks. Similarly the magnetic anomalies in this region have been also interpreted differently by the two groups. One group negates the existence of any seafloor spreading type anomalies over the transition zone. On the other hand, examination of surface and deep-tow magnetic data from conjugate sections of the margins across this part of the North Atlantic shows a good correlation between them. The prime reason for such differences in the interpretation of magnetic data lies in the low amplitude of the surface magnetic anomalies forming the M sequence anomalies in this region compared to those of similar age present in the Central Atlantic. We demonstrate here that the symmetrical magnetic anomalies identified within the transitional zones between Iberia and North America, and across passive margins in general where separation between plates has been very slow, are caused by the serpentinization of the exhumed mantle rocks

  15. Geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Madec, G.

    2017-12-01

    Long considered a negligible contribution to ocean dynamics, geothermal heat flow (GHF) is now increasingly recognized as an important contributor to the large scale ocean's deep structure and circulation. This presentation will review the history of theories regarding geothermal influences on the abyssal ocean. Though the contribution to the thermal structure was recognized early on, its potential in driving a circulation [Worthington, 1968] was largely ignored on the grounds that it could not materially affect potential vorticity. Huang [JPO, 1999] proposed that GHF may provide 30-50% of the energy available for deep mixing, a calculation that later proved too optimistic [Wunsch & Ferrari ARFM 2004]. Model simulations suggested that a uniform GHF of 50 mW/m2 could drive an abyssal of a few Sverdrups (1 Sv = 106 m3.s-1) [Adcroft et al, GRL 2001], but it was not until Emile-Geay & Madec [OS, 2009] (EM09) that GHF began to be taken seriously [Mashayek et al, GRL 2013; Voldoire et al. Clim. Dyn. 2013; Dufresnes et al., Clim. Dyn. 2013]. Using analytical and numerical approaches, the study made 3 main points: GHF brings as much energy to the deep ocean as intense diapycnal mixing (1 cm2/s). GHF consumes the densest water masses, inducing a deep circulation of 5 Sv even without mixing. This circulation varies in inverse proportion to abyssal stratification. The spatial structure of GHF, highest at mid-ocean ridges and lowest in abyssal plains, matters far less than the fact that it bathes vast fractions of the ocean floor in a relatively low, constant flux. EM09 concluded that GHF "is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies". Recent work has confirmed that geothermal heat flow is of comparable importance to ocean circulation as bottom-intensified mixing induced by internal wave breaking [De Lavergne et al, JPO 2016a,b]. Thus, including GHF in ocean general circulation models improves abyssal structure and

  16. Turbidite pathways in Cascadia Basin and Tufts abyssal plain, Part A, Astoria Channel, Blanco Valley, and Gorda Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen C.; Hamer, Michael R.

    1999-01-01

    This open-file report was prepared in support of the USGS Earthquake Hazards of Cascadia Project. The primary objective of this phase of the project is to determine recurrence intervals of turbidites in Cascadia basin-floor channel systems and evaluate implications of this event record for the paleoseismic history of the Cascadia subduction zone. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the canyon/channel systems themselves are blocked or deformed in such a way that the downstream turbidite stratigraphy might be biased. To accomplish this investigation approximately 7500 kilometers of pre-existing 3.5 KHz seismic data were evaluated to determine the direction and extent of the Astoria Channel/pathway system, which originates at the base of the Astoria Fan. Additionally, distribution and thickness of turbidite sediment sequences were determined along each identified pathway. Bathymetery and distance were used to determine gradients along the main pathway axis and for each of the secondary pathways that feed into it. Channel pathways were identified on the basis of channel phyisiography, where visible at the seafloor, subbottom channel configuration, and acoustic packets of sediments that might represent turbidite deposits. A principal result of this study is that the Astoria Channel/pathway extends continuously from the base of the Astoria Fan southward along the base of the continental slope through the Blanco Valley, then heads southwestward through the Gorda Basin and into the region of the Escanaba Trough. Additionally it was determined that the Astoria Channel is filled and basically buried for it's full length south of 44 degrees latitude. The 44 North Slump, as defined by Goldfinger (1999, see Map 3 ref.), may have been instrumental in blocking the pathway and thus contributed to the filling of the channel/pathway. Sheets 1 and 2 show the Astoria and secondary turbidite pathways highlighted in blue. Ship survey tracklines are shown for the area

  17. CeDAMar global database of abyssal biological sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart, Carol T.; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Smith, Craig R.; Molodtsova, Tina; Brandt, Angelika; Etter, Ron J.; Escobar-briones, Elva; Fabri, Marie-claire; Rex, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The Census of the Diversity of Abyssal Marine Life (CeDAMar), a division of the Census of Marine Life, has compiled the first comprehensive global database of biological samples taken in the abyssal plains of the world ocean. It is an essential resource for planning future exploration of the abyss, for synthesizing patterns of biogeography and biodiversity, and for environmentally safe exploitation of natural resources. The database is described in this article, and made available to investig...

  18. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L; Dahlgren, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  19. Long-term cycling of mantle Pb: A trace element study of the major mantle mineral phases in abyssal peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, M. E.; Warren, J. M.; Godard, M.; Ildefonse, B.

    2012-12-01

    Peridotites from ultraslow-spreading ridges preserve signatures of the depleted mantle, while also reflecting the fine scale compositional variability present in the mantle. Traditional analyses of these depleted rocks have focused on clinopyroxene, the main trace element host in spinel peridotites. However, key isotopic systems, such as lead and osmium, are hosted in other phases at low but significant concentration levels. The amount of lead contained within mantle mineral phases is of critical importance to understanding the long-term evolution of the Earth, because the radiogenic isotopes of lead are sensitive to past material cycling and melt-rock interaction. Sulfides have long been suggested as the main host for lead (Pb) in the mantle, but recent studies have demonstrated that Pb is not exclusively hosted in this trace phase. Therefore, the Pb contents of the major peridotite mineral phases (olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene) need to be reassessed. Lead concentration data is available for orogenic and xenolith peridotite samples, which are typically more enriched than abyssal peridotites, but these do not provide direct information on the oceanic upper mantle. Direct measurement of Pb in abyssal peridotites has so far been limited because of its extremely low concentration (often spreading Gakkel and Southwest Indian Ridges (SWIR), with samples coming from segments with full spreading rates Gakkel and SWIR samples are relatively unaltered (Gakkel. A total of five Gakkel and six SWIR peridotites were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS, with a subset of samples also analyzed for bulk rock trace elements by solution ICP-MS. Combined with mineral modal data, this study provides a direct comparison of measured and calculated bulk rock Pb concentrations to determine a comprehensive assessment of the distribution of Pb among upper mantle phases Results indicate that all three of the main mantle mineral phases have similar Pb concentrations, ranging from 2-20 ppb, which

  20. Species diversity in the cryptic abyssal holothurian Psychropotes longicauda (Echinodermata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubili, Chrysoula; Ross, Elizabeth; Billett, David S. M.; Yool, Andrew; Tsairidis, Charalampos; Ruhl, Henry A.; Rogacheva, Antonina; Masson, Doug; Tyler, Paul A.; Hauton, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Despite the plethora of studies on swallow-water invertebrates, almost nothing is known about the evolution and population structure of deep-sea species at the global scale. The aim of this study was to assess phylogeographic patterns of a common and cosmopolitan, predominantly abyssal sea cucumber, Psychropotes longicauda, based on samples from the Atlantic, Southern, Indian and Pacific oceans. Sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S genes were analysed for 128 specimens of P. longicauda. In addition, temporal genetic variation was investigated at one site, the Porcupine Abyssal Plain, NE Atlantic Ocean over a period of 34 years. Two distinct lineages within the global distribution were identified. The sister clades probably could be classified as separate species based on the observed genetic divergence (>5.0%) and phylogenetic reconstruction with indications of a Southern Hemisphere origin. Moreover, significant population differentiation was detected between the North Atlantic and localities in both the Pacific and Indian oceans. No bathymetric structuring was detected among lineages. Temporal genetic shifts were detected in a time series of samples from 1977 to 2011. Our data confirm the previously suspected cryptic species diversity throughout the wide distributional range previously attributed to the single species P. longicauda. The presence of sympatric species in the North Pacific and Indian Oceans has been underestimated by previous morphological analyses. The differentiation at the population level detected in the main lineages among the four oceans could suggest restricted gene flow despite wide-scale dispersal potential of the species.

  1. Cost assessment for abyssal seafloor waste isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Di; Kite-Powell, Hauke L.

    1998-05-01

    We develop an integrated model for estimating the internal cost of abyssal seafloor waste isolation. The model captures the major economic, engineering, geographic and social factors that influence the management cost for sewage sludge and municipal incinerator ash. Considering five representative metropolitan areas and five proposed abyssal study sites, we apply this model to produce cost estimates for four deep-ocean waste delivery system concepts. The results show that the unit cost depends primarily on regional waste volume, the marine delivery system and transportation distance. Based on available data, the abyssal ocean option may be competitive with present land-based disposal costs in New York City. The option is less competitive in other metropolitan areas.

  2. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  3. The Os isotopic variation of abyssal peridotites revised: A study from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchl, A.; Snow, J. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is generally thought that the Os isotopic variation of abyssal peridotites (187Os/188Os varies from 0.120 to 0.129 after [1,2,3,4]) only exceeds the chondritic value of 0.127 [5] because of secondary alteration by seawater. In contrast supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios in peridotites from ophiolites [6] and xenoliths from a subduction zone setting [7] have been ascribed to exchange of Os with radiogenic melts. We analysed the Os isotopic composition of 16 peridotites from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge. The samples are unusually fresh for abyssal peridotites. The Os isotopic composition varies from 0.1208 to 0.1344 in the spinel-lherzolites, from 0.1176 to 0.1360 in the harzburgites and from 0.1325 to 0.1400 in the dunites. The reason for the supra-chondritic Os isotopic ratios could be (a) secondary alteration by seawater, (b) radiogenic ingrowth due to the decay of Re to Os, or (c) exchange with a radiogenic magmatic component. The fact that the degree of alteration does not correlate with Os isotopic composition, together with the high Os concentration in the peridotites compared with seawater, implies that the supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios cannot be explained by secondary alteration processes. The similar and low Re and high Os concentrations in all samples rule out the ingrowth of 187Os as source for the supra-chondritic values. World-wide volcanic rocks mostly have supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios. In addition it was shown recently that during melt percolation the peridotites can inherit the signature of percolating melts [6]. This suggests that the supra-chondritic 187Os/188Os ratios are due to the exchange with a magmatic component. This is supported by the observation that the dunites, which are expected to have the highest melt/rock ratio of all lithologies, have the most radiogenic signatures. We therefore suggest that the 187Os/188Os variation of abyssal peridotites is much larger than previously considered. However the origin of

  4. RSS Discovery Cruise 341, 08 Jul – 13 Aug 2009. Porcupine Abyssal Plain time series process study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, R.; et al, .

    2010-01-01

    The Biological Carbon Pump (BCP) is a major feature of the global carbon transporting approximately 10GT C yr-1 from the ocean surface to the interior mainly via the sinking of particles with an organic component. The scale of the BCP requires good year-round measurements of its functioning. Moreover, the BCP’s susceptibility to global change means that we need better information on how its climate sensitive elements function and how its poorly parameterised elements operate. These three requ...

  5. Comparative feeding ecology of abyssal and hadal fishes through stomach content and amino acid isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Popp, B. N.; Linley, T. D.; Jamieson, A. J.; Drazen, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    The snailfishes, family Liparidae (Scorpaeniformes), have found notable success in the hadal zone from 6000-8200 m, comprising the dominant ichthyofauna in at least five trenches worldwide. Little is known about the biology of these deepest-living fishes, nor the factors that drive their success at hadal depths. Using recent collections from the Mariana Trench, Kermadec Trench, and neighboring abyssal plains, this study investigates the potential role of trophic ecology in structuring fish communities at the abyssal-hadal boundary. Stomach contents were analyzed from two species of hadal snailfishes, Notoliparis kermadecensis and a newly-discovered species from the Mariana Trench. Amphipods comprised the majority (Kermadec: 95.2%, Mariana: 97.4% index of relative importance) of stomach contents in both species. Decapod crustaceans, polychaetes (N. kermadecensis only), and remains of carrion (squid and fish) were minor dietary components. Diet analyses of abyssal species (families Macrouridae, Ophidiidae, Zoarcidae) collected from near the trenches and the literature are compared to those of the hadal liparids. Stomachs from abyssal fishes also contained amphipods, however macrourids had a higher trophic plasticity with a greater diversity of prey items, including larger proportions of carrion and fish remains; supporting previous findings. Suction-feeding predatory fishes like hadal liparids may find an advantage to descending into the trench - where amphipods are abundant. More generalist feeders and scavengers relying on carrion, such as macrourids, might not benefit from this nutritional advantage at hadal depths. Compound specific isotope analysis of amino acids was used to estimate trophic level of these species (5.3±0.2 Coryphaenoides armatus, 5.2±0.2 C. yaquinae, 4.6±0.2 Spectrunculus grandis, 4.2±0.2 N. kermadecensis, 4.4±0.2 Mariana snailfish). Source amino acid δ15N values were especially high in hadal liparids (8.0±0.3‰ Kermadec, 6.7±0.2

  6. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodinier, J.-L.; Godard, M.

    2003-12-01

    'Reilly et al., 2001).The abyssal peridotites are generally strongly affected by oceanic hydrothermal alteration. Most often, their whole-rock compositions are strongly modified and cannot be used straightforwardly to assess mantle compositions (e.g., Baker and Beckett, 1999). However, even in the worst cases the samples generally contain fresh, relic minerals (mainly clinopyroxene) that represent the only available direct information on the oceanic upper mantle in large ocean basins, away from hot-spot volcanic centers. In situ trace-element data on clinopyroxenes from abyssal peridotites provide constraints on melting processes at mid-ocean ridges (Johnson et al., 1990).In this chapter, we review the main inferences on upper mantle composition and heterogeneity that may be drawn from geochemical analyses of the major elements, lithophile trace elements, and Nd-Sr isotopes in tectonically emplaced and abyssal mantle rocks. In addition we emphasize important insights into the mechanisms of melt/fluid transfer that can be deduced from detailed studies of these mantle materials.

  7. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration claim, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Echinodermata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Adrian G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Smith, Craig R; O'Hara, Tim; Mah, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal benthic Echinodermata collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration claim ‘UK-1’ in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. Morphological and genetic data are presented for 17 species (4 Asteroidea, 4 Crinoidea, 2 Holothuroidea and 7 Ophiuroidea) identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data. No taxa matched previously published genetic sequences, but 8 taxa could be assigned to previously-described species based on morphology, although here we have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. PMID:26929713

  8. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Cnidaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Thomas G; Wiklund, Helena; Rabone, Muriel; Amon, Diva J; Ikebe, Chiho; Watling, Les; Smith, Craig R; Glover, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Data were collected from the UK-1 exploration area following the methods described in Glover et al. (2015b). Morphological and genetic data are presented for 10 species and 18 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 2 primnoid octocorals, 2 isidid octocorals, 1 anemone, 4 hydroids (including 2 pelagic siphonophores accidentally caught) and a scyphozoan jellyfish (in the benthic stage of the life cycle). Two taxa matched previously published genetic sequences (pelagic siphonophores), two taxa matched published morphological descriptions (abyssal primnoids described from the same locality in 2015) and the remaining 6 taxa are potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. We have used a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections. For some of the specimens we also provide image data collected at the seabed by ROV, wich may facilitate more accurate taxon designation in coming ROV or AUV surveys.

  9. Terrain And Laboratory Conductivity Studies Of Flood Plains Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shallow electromagnetic study (electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements) and laboratory conductivity sampling of the flood plains of Oluwatuyi/Oshinle area of Akure have been undertaken. This is with the aim of correlating the terrain conductivity mapping with laboratory measurements to establish ...

  10. Growth, reproduction and possible recruitment variability in the abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatum (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata) in the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, John D.; Anderson, Roslyn M.; Tyler, Paul A.; Chapman, Rachel; Dolan, Emily

    2004-06-01

    Growth was studied from skeletal growth markers in the cosmopolitan abyssal brittle star Ophiocten hastatm. Samples for analysis were taken at five sites located in the southern (2900 m) and central (2000 m) Rockall Trough, at ca. 3000 and 4000 m in the Porcupine Seabight, and at 4850 m on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain. Growth bands were assumed to reflect an annual cycle in skeletal growth. Band measurements on arm vertebrae, standardised to disc diameter, were used to provide size-at-age data and size-increment data that took into account overgrowth of early bands in older individuals. The Richards growth function marginally provides best fit to pooled size-at-age data, although the asymptote-less Tanaka function and the Gompertz growth function also provided good fit to size-at-age data which showed a rather linear growth pattern with little indication of a growth asymptote. Log e transformed size-increment data were linearised by applying the Ford-Walford method to approximate Gompertz growth so that growth could be compared at the five sites. Grouped linear regression and analysis of covariance showed no significant differences between growth at the sites and a common fitted regression. However, pairwise comparisons suggest growth differences with increasing bathymetric separation. Oocyte size frequencies measured from histological preparations of the gonad of specimens from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain indicate marked reproductive periodicity, with spawn-out in late winter that is likely followed by planktotrophic early development in spring with benthic settlement in summer. Although usually rare in the trawl and epibenthic sled samples, several years of successful recruitment followed by a period when recruitment was low or absent might explain size structure observed in a single unusually large sample from the Rockall Trough. This is consistent with previous observations during the late 1990s of a large population increase on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain

  11. Unique 16S rRNA sequences of Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassidae from the Gulf of Mexico abyssal plain Secuencias únicas 16SrRNA de Eurythenes gryllus (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Lysianassidae de la planicie abisal del Golfo de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Escobar-Briones

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Amphipods of the species Eurythenes gryllus were collected at 2 locations on the abyssal plain (~3 400 m of the Gulf of Mexico in order to test whether or not these scavenger amphipods are isolated in this peripheral sea or show connectivity by their predominant swimming behavior, moving horizontally along the abyssal water masses in the region. Partial sequences of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene from 2 individuals of E. gryllus were determined and showed small differences when compared to sequences of other amphipods of the same species from the Atlantic Ocean (3.6 to 3.9% and Pacific Ocean (4.0 to 4.1% and increasing (4.2 to 9.5% when compared to sequences of specimens from sites of less than 500 m. The largest differences (18% were observed when the sequences were compared to that of Eurythenes from the Tongue of the Ocean in spite of its closer geographical distance in the region. Isolation in the deep Gulf of Mexico could be attributed to limited genetic exchange with the western tropical Atlantic through the Caribbean over the 2 040 m deep sill and inexistent at abyssal depth through the Florida Straits.Se recolectaron ejemplares de los anfípodos de la especie Eurythenes gryllus en 2 localidades de la planicie abisal (~3 400 m en el golfo de México con el objeto de evaluar si estos carroñeros se encuentran aislados en el mar marginal o presentan cierta conectividad por su conducta natatoria, desplazándose horizontalmente en las masas de agua que caracterizan la región. Las secuencias parciales del gen mitocondrial 16S rRNA que se obtuvieron de 2 individuos de E. gryllus mostraron diferencias ligeras al compararse con las secuencias de otros anfípodos de la misma especie procedentes de otras zonas del Atlántico (3.6 a 3.9% y del Pacífico (4.0 a 4.1%, incrementándose (4.2 a 9.5% al compararse con secuencias de organismos de aguas someras (<500 m. Las diferencias mayores (18% se observan en la comparación de ejemplares de

  12. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-06-25

    Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013).

  13. Abyssal Solenogastres (Mollusca, Aplacophora from the Northwest Pacific: Scratching the Surface of Deep-Sea Diversity Using Integrative Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S. Bergmeier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Solenogastres (Aplacophora is a small clade of marine, shell-less worm-molluscs with close to 300 valid species. Their distribution ranges across all oceans, and whereas the vast majority of species has been collected and described from the continental shelf and slope, only few species are known from depths below 4,000 m. Following traditional taxonomy, identification of specimens to species level is complex and time-consuming and requires detailed investigations of morphology and anatomy—often resulting in the exclusion of the clade in biodiversity or biogeographic studies. During the KuramBio expedition (Kuril-Kamchatka Biodiversity Studies to the abyssal plain of the Northwest Pacific and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench, 33 solenogaster specimens were sampled from 4,830 m to 5,397 m. Within this study we present an efficient workflow to address solenogaster diversity, even when confronted with a high degree of singletons and minute body sizes, hampering the use of single individuals for multiple morphological and molecular approaches. We combine analyses of external characters and scleritome with molecular barcoding based on a self-designed solenogaster specific set of mitochondrial primers. Overall we were able to delineate at least 19 solenogaster lineages and identify 15 species to family level and beyond. Based on our approach we identified three key lineages from the two regionally most species-rich families (Acanthomeniidae and Pruvotinidae for deeper taxonomic investigations and describe the novel abyssal species Amboherpia abyssokurilensis sp. nov. (Cavibelonia, Acanthomeniidae using microanatomical 3D-reconstructions. Our study more than doubles the previous records of solenogaster species from the Northwest Pacific and its marginal seas. Almost all lineages are reported for the first time from the region of the (Northwest Pacific, vastly expanding distribution ranges of the respective clades. Moreover it doubles the number of

  14. Study on ecological regulation of coastal plain sluice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wengong; Geng, Bing; Yu, Huanfei; Yu, Hongbo

    2018-02-01

    Coastal plains are densely populated and economically developed, therefore their importance is self-evident. However, there are some problems related with water in coastal plains, such as low flood control capacity and severe water pollution. Due to complicated river network hydrodynamic force, changeable flow direction and uncertain flood concentration and propagation mechanism, it is rather difficult to use sluice scheduling to realize flood control and tackle water pollution. On the base of the measured hydrological data during once-in-a-century Fitow typhoon in 2013 in Yuyao city, by typical analysis, theoretical analysis and process simulation, some key technologies were researched systematically including plain river network sluice ecological scheduling, “one tide” flood control and drainage scheduling and ecological running water scheduling. In the end, single factor health diagnostic evaluation, unit hydrograph of plain water level and evening tide scheduling were put forward.

  15. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  16. Archaeomagnetic studies in the Gorgan Plain in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt, Catherine M.; Greenwood, David; Omrani Rekavandi, Hamid; Sauer, Eberhard

    2010-05-01

    This paper will report on new directional magnetic data obtained from recent studies of fired archaeological materials and sediments from northern Iran. It will discuss the palaeosecular variation record available in this poorly covered region and will address the archaeological questions that can be answered by such studies. Samples for magnetic directional studies have been obtained from archaeological features in the Gorgan Plain of northern Iran, including ovens, hearths, brick kilns and water-lain sediments. These are shown to retain a stable record of the past magnetic field, with well-defined and precise magnetic directions, and to provide an indication of palaeosecular variation. All the features are associated with the Gorgan Wall which, at over 195km in length and with over 30 associated forts, is arguably the grandest ancient defensive barrier between central Europe and China. Radiocarbon dating has established that the Gorgan and nearby Tammishe Walls and associated forts (all explored in an Iranian/British fieldwork project since 2005) were all built sometime between the early fifth and the first third of the sixth century AD. Dating these installations to such a long time span leaves many unanswered archaeological questions which are addressed by this archaeomagnetic study. Were the forts built simultaneously or over a long period of time? Was the Gorgan Wall built from west to east (as suggested by different brick and kiln sizes)? How long did it take to complete this immense building programme? What is the time interval between the early kilns used to produce bricks to build the walls and the ovens used during later phases of occupation within the forts? In addition, new radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dates for the features investigated allow comparison with the existing, sparse palaeosecular variation data for the region. This research not only adds data to global models of geomagnetic change, it provides a snapshot of the past

  17. International collaborative study for the calibration of proposed International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain, and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, A M H P; Chantarangkul, V; Angeloni, F; Binder, N B; Byrne, M; Dauer, R; Gudmundsdottir, B R; Jespersen, J; Kitchen, S; Legnani, C; Lindahl, T L; Manning, R A; Martinuzzo, M; Panes, O; Pengo, V; Riddell, A; Subramanian, S; Szederjesi, A; Tantanate, C; Herbel, P; Tripodi, A

    2018-01-01

    Essentials Two candidate International Standards for thromboplastin (coded RBT/16 and rTF/16) are proposed. International Sensitivity Index (ISI) of proposed standards was assessed in a 20-centre study. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 4.6%. The mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 with a between-centre coefficient of variation of 5.7%. Background The availability of International Standards for thromboplastin is essential for the calibration of routine reagents and hence the calculation of the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Stocks of the current Fourth International Standards are running low. Candidate replacement materials have been prepared. This article describes the calibration of the proposed Fifth International Standards for thromboplastin, rabbit, plain (coded RBT/16) and for thromboplastin, recombinant, human, plain (coded rTF/16). Methods An international collaborative study was carried out for the assignment of International Sensitivity Indexes (ISIs) to the candidate materials, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for thromboplastins and plasma used to control oral anticoagulant therapy with vitamin K antagonists. Results Results were obtained from 20 laboratories. In several cases, deviations from the ISI calibration model were observed, but the average INR deviation attributabled to the model was not greater than 10%. Only valid ISI assessments were used to calculate the mean ISI for each candidate. The mean ISI for RBT/16 was 1.21 (between-laboratory coefficient of variation [CV]: 4.6%), and the mean ISI for rTF/16 was 1.11 (between-laboratory CV: 5.7%). Conclusions The between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material RBT/16 was similar to that of the Fourth International Standard (RBT/05), and the between-laboratory variation of the ISI for candidate material rTF/16 was slightly higher than that of the Fourth International Standard (rTF/09). The candidate materials

  18. Section 206, Flood Plain Management Services; Study of Coastal Flooding Charlestown, Rhode Island

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The New England Division, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (NED) conducted this study for the Town of Charlestown, Rhode Island under the authority provided by the Corps of Engineers' Section 206 Flood Plain Management Services (FPMS) program...

  19. Soil salinity study in Northern Great Plains sodium affected soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharel, Tulsi P.

    Climate and land-use changes when combined with the marine sediments that underlay portions of the Northern Great Plains have increased the salinization and sodification risks. The objectives of this dissertation were to compare three chemical amendments (calcium chloride, sulfuric acid and gypsum) remediation strategies on water permeability and sodium (Na) transport in undisturbed soil columns and to develop a remote sensing technique to characterize salinization in South Dakota soils. Forty-eight undisturbed soil columns (30 cm x 15 cm) collected from White Lake, Redfield, and Pierpont were used to assess the chemical remediation strategies. In this study the experimental design was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated four times. Following the application of chemical remediation strategies, 45.2 cm of water was leached through these columns. The leachate was separated into 120- ml increments and analyzed for Na and electrical conductivity (EC). Sulfuric acid increased Na leaching, whereas gypsum and CaCl2 increased water permeability. Our results further indicate that to maintain effective water permeability, ratio between soil EC and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) should be considered. In the second study, soil samples from 0-15 cm depth in 62 x 62 m grid spacing were taken from the South Dakota Pierpont (65 ha) and Redfield (17 ha) sites. Saturated paste EC was measured on each soil sample. At each sampling points reflectance and derived indices (Landsat 5, 7, 8 images), elevation, slope and aspect (LiDAR) were extracted. Regression models based on multiple linear regression, classification and regression tree, cubist, and random forest techniques were developed and their ability to predict soil EC were compared. Results showed that: 1) Random forest method was found to be the most effective method because of its ability to capture spatially correlated variation, 2) the short wave infrared (1.5 -2.29 mum) and near infrared (0

  20. The potential impact of plain packaging of cigarette products among Brazilian young women: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Christine M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use is responsible for 5.4 million deaths every year worldwide and is a leading cause of preventable death. The burden of these deaths is rapidly shifting to low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil. Brazil has prohibited most forms of tobacco advertising; however, the cigarette pack remains a primary source of marketing. The current study examined how tobacco packaging influences brand appeal and perceptions of health risk among young women in Brazil. Methods A between-subjects experiment was conducted in which 640 Brazilian women aged 16–26 participated in an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packages according to one of three experimental conditions: standard branded packages, the same packs without brand imagery (“plain packaging”, or the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors (e.g., flavors. Participants rated packages on perceived appeal, taste, health risk, smoothness, and smoker attributes. Finally, participants were shown a range of branded and plain packs from which they could select one as a free gift, which constituted a behavioral measure of appeal. Results Branded packs were rated as significantly more appealing, better tasting, and smoother on the throat than plain packs. Branded packs were also associated with a greater number of positive smoker attributes including style and sophistication, and were perceived as more likely to be smoked by females than the plain packs. Removing descriptors from the plain packs further decreased the ratings of appeal, taste and smoothness, and also reduced associations with positive attributes. In the pack offer, participants were three times more likely to select branded packs than plain packs. Conclusions Plain packaging and removal of descriptors may reduce the appeal of smoking for youth and young adults, and consequently reduce smoking susceptibility. Overall, the findings provide support for plain packaging

  1. Microbial diversity and stratification of South Pacific abyssal marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Alan M; Teske, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Abyssal marine sediments cover a large proportion of the ocean floor, but linkages between their microbial community structure and redox stratification have remained poorly constrained. This study compares the downcore gradients in microbial community composition to porewater oxygen and nitrate concentration profiles in an abyssal marine sediment column in the South Pacific Ocean. Archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries showed a stratified archaeal community that changed from Marine Group I Archaea in the aerobic and nitrate-reducing upper sediment column towards deeply branching, uncultured crenarchaeotal and euryarchaeotal lineages in nitrate-depleted, anaerobic sediment horizons. Bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed a similar shift on the phylum and subphylum level within the bacteria, from a complex community of Alpha-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes in oxic surface sediments towards uncultured Chloroflexi and Planctomycetes in the anaerobic sediment column. The distinct stratification of largely uncultured bacterial and archaeal groups within the oxic and nitrate-reducing marine sediment column provides initial constraints for their microbial habitat preferences. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers' ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-02-06

    This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of 'positive pack characteristics' (ppackaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers' purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers.

  3. Socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers’ ratings of plain and branded cigarette packaging: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Chris; Durkin, Sarah; D'Este, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the potential impact of plain packaging for cigarettes on brand appeal among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers using the new design for cigarettes implemented in Australia, which combines plain packaging with larger health warning labels. Design A 2×2 factorial design trial embedded within a cross-sectional computer touchscreen survey. Data were collected between March and December 2012. Setting Socially disadvantaged welfare aid recipients were recruited through a large Social and Community Service Organisation in New South Wales, Australia. Participants N=354 smokers. The majority of the sample had not completed high school (64%), earned less than $A300/week (55%) and received their income from Government payments (95%). Interventions Participants were randomised to one of the four different pack conditions determined by brand name: Winfield versus Benson & Hedges, and packaging type: branded versus plain. Participants were required to rate their assigned pack on measures of brand appeal and purchase intentions. Results Plain packaging was associated with significantly reduced smoker ratings of ‘positive pack characteristics’ (ppackaging, the presentation of branded packaging was associated with higher odds of smokers’ purchase intentions (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.34 to 3.54; p=0.002). Conclusions Plain packs stripped of branding elements, featuring larger health warning labels, were associated with reduced positive cigarette brand image and purchase intentions among highly socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. PMID:24503299

  4. Landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity in phytodetrital cover and megafauna biomass in the abyss links to modest topographic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kirsty J; Bett, Brian J; Durden, Jennifer M; Benoist, Noelie M A; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Jones, Daniel O B; Robert, Katleen; Ichino, Matteo C; Wolff, George A; Ruhl, Henry A

    2016-09-29

    Sinking particulate organic matter (POM, phytodetritus) is the principal limiting resource for deep-sea life. However, little is known about spatial variation in POM supply to the abyssal seafloor, which is frequently assumed to be homogenous. In reality, the abyss has a highly complex landscape with millions of hills and mountains. Here, we show a significant increase in seabed POM % cover (by ~1.05 times), and a large significant increase in megafauna biomass (by ~2.5 times), on abyssal hill terrain in comparison to the surrounding plain. These differences are substantially greater than predicted by current models linking water depth to POM supply or benthic biomass. Our observed variations in POM % cover (phytodetritus), megafauna biomass, sediment total organic carbon and total nitrogen, sedimentology, and benthic boundary layer turbidity, all appear to be consistent with topographically enhanced current speeds driving these enhancements. The effects are detectable with bathymetric elevations of only 10 s of metres above the surrounding plain. These results imply considerable unquantified heterogeneity in global ecology.

  5. Landscape-scale spatial heterogeneity in phytodetrital cover and megafauna biomass in the abyss links to modest topographic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kirsty J.; Bett, Brian J.; Durden, Jennifer M.; Benoist, Noelie M. A.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Robert, Katleen; Ichino, Matteo C.; Wolff, George A.; Ruhl, Henry A.

    2016-09-01

    Sinking particulate organic matter (POM, phytodetritus) is the principal limiting resource for deep-sea life. However, little is known about spatial variation in POM supply to the abyssal seafloor, which is frequently assumed to be homogenous. In reality, the abyss has a highly complex landscape with millions of hills and mountains. Here, we show a significant increase in seabed POM % cover (by ~1.05 times), and a large significant increase in megafauna biomass (by ~2.5 times), on abyssal hill terrain in comparison to the surrounding plain. These differences are substantially greater than predicted by current models linking water depth to POM supply or benthic biomass. Our observed variations in POM % cover (phytodetritus), megafauna biomass, sediment total organic carbon and total nitrogen, sedimentology, and benthic boundary layer turbidity, all appear to be consistent with topographically enhanced current speeds driving these enhancements. The effects are detectable with bathymetric elevations of only 10 s of metres above the surrounding plain. These results imply considerable unquantified heterogeneity in global ecology.

  6. Geothermal heating, diapycnal mixing and the abyssal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Emile-Geay

    2009-06-01

    near-surface temperature gradients onto the bottom, thereby altering the density structure that supports a geothermal circulation. For strong vertical mixing rates, geothermal heating enhances the AABW cell by about 15% (2.5 Sv and heats up the last 2000 m by ~0.15°C, reaching a maximum of by 0.3°C in the deep North Pacific. Prescribing a realistic spatial distribution of the heat flux acts to enhance this temperature rise at mid-depth and reduce it at great depth, producing a more modest increase in overturning than in the uniform case. In all cases, however, poleward heat transport increases by ~10% in the Southern Ocean. The three approaches converge to the conclusion that geothermal heating is an important actor of abyssal dynamics, and should no longer be neglected in oceanographic studies.

  7. Nonlinear effects in a plain journal bearing. I - Analytical study. II - Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, F. K.; Braun, M. J.; Hu, Y.

    1991-01-01

    In the first part of this work, a numerical model is presented which couples the variable-property Reynolds equation with a rotor-dynamics model for the calculation of a plain journal bearing's nonlinear characteristics when working with a cryogenic fluid, LOX. The effects of load on the linear/nonlinear plain journal bearing characteristics are analyzed and presented in a parametric form. The second part of this work presents numerical results obtained for specific parametric-study input variables (lubricant inlet temperature, external load, angular rotational speed, and axial misalignment). Attention is given to the interrelations between pressure profiles and bearing linear and nonlinear characteristics.

  8. Abyssal fiction: common shares, colonial cleavages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Montaury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to develop a reflection on the interaction between the legacies of colonialism and traditional symbolic and cultural practices in African Portuguese-speaking spaces. From a preliminary analysis of fictional texts of wide circulation in Brazil, aims to examine the cleavages, or “abyssal lines” that constitute experiences printed in the daily life of the former Portuguese colony of Cape Verde, Mozambique and Angola.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a378

  9. Three new species and one new genus of abyssal Cumacea (Crustacea, Malacostraca, Peracarida) from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenteva, Anna V.; Mühlenhardt-Siegel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Only two species of crustacean Cumacea have been reported in publications for the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area after nine expeditions on board of the RV "Vityaz". During the KuramBio expedition 2012 to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and the adjacent abyssal plain at depths 4830-5780 m no less than 72 species of cumaceans from 23 genera and 6 families were sampled. Five genera were recorded for the first time in the studied region: the genera Pseudoleptostyloides and Platycuma were detected for the first time for the Pacific Ocean; Cyclaspoides, Bathylamprops and Styloptocuma were firstly sampled in North Pacific. About 90% of the sampled species appear to be new to science. Three new deep-sea cumacean species and one new genus from the Kurile Kamchatka area are described in the present paper: Abyssoleucon tzarevae gen. n., sp. n. belonging to the family Leuconidae, Cyclaspoides borisovetsi sp. n. and Bathycuma sonne sp. n. of the family Bodotriidae. A distribution map for the species of the genus Cyclaspoides is provided.

  10. High School Racial Confrontation, A Study of the White Plains, New York, Student Boycott. Student Unrest and Changing Student-Staff Relationships in the White Plains Public Schools, September, 1967 to December, 1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Dan W.; And Others

    This case study examines a racial confrontation in the high school of White Plains, New York. The study includes a chronology of the White Plains incident, a report of the community background, discussion of various hypotheses concerning the reasons for the incident (social class factors, youths testing new roles, and breakdown of authority),…

  11. Chemical and Isotopic Study of the Groundwater of Jeffara Plain of Medenine and Tataouine (Southern Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trabelsi, R.; Kalled, M; Zouari, K.; Abidi, B.; Yahyaoui, H.

    2007-01-01

    The study area constitutes the major part of the plain of Jeffara, located at the south-east of Tunisia. This plain is characterized by an arid climate with rare and irregular pluviometry. The hydrochemical approach is used to define the chemical characteristics of the water in these aquifer systems. Indeed, the water salinity varies between 0.6g/? and 9g/?, and increases from the Daher mountains in the west to the Mediterranean Sea. The groundwaters are homogeneous and characterized by a Cl-(SO 4 ) and Na-(Ca-Mg) water type. The isotopic approach shows that the carbone-14 activities, measured in groundwater, evolve in the same direction of groundwater flow. These activities suggest a recent recharge area in eastern piedmont of the Dahar mountains, as well as the zone of the Sahel Abebsa and Zeuss-Koutine. The isotopic values confirm, also, the communication between the various major levels through the existing faults and discontinuities in this area

  12. Status report on geochemical field results from Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.S.; Thomson, J.; Hydes, D.J.; Colley, S.

    1983-01-01

    This report summarises the results of preliminary geochemical investigations at three North Atlantic study areas. The two eastern sites, on the Cape Verde abyssal plain (CV2) and east of Great Meteor Seamount (GME) were visited during 1982. The results presented are preliminary. Studies in the western Atlantic, close to the Nares Abyssal Plain study site are more detailed and are presented in a separate paper. The report shows for the first time the relative redox status of the three sites. The differences are unexpectedly large, the most reduced cores being recovered at GME and the most oxidised at CV2. The sporadic nature of Recent sediment accumulation at these sites is also emphasised. In order to place these preliminary results in context their relevance to the production of mathematical system models is discussed in a closing section. The necessity for such models to rest on sound foundations of geochemical understanding is noted. Suggestions on future research priorities are offered for discussion. (author)

  13. Influence of internal tides on Antarctic Bottom Water propagation through abyssal channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) propagates in the Atlantic Ocean from the Weddell Sea to the north through narrow passages in submarine ridges. Submarine ridges are regions of strong internal tide generation in the ocean that causes mixing and eventually AABW loses its distinguishing properties such as low temperature and salinity. The Vema Fracture Zone (11 N) and Romanche Fracture Zone (equator) in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) are pathways for AABW to the Northeast Atlantic. The deep basin of the Northeast Atlantic (Canary Basin and Gambia Abyssal Plain) are filled with the bottom water propagating through the Vema FZ rather than through the equatorial fracture zones because strong internal tides and mixing over the slopes of the MAR near the equator cause warming of AABW and decrease of its density. Further propagation of AABW through the Kane Gap is low. Recent field measurements in the fracture zones confirm this concept based on modeling results. Results of recent cruises are presented.

  14. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  15. On the possible ''normalization'' of experimental curves of 230Th vertical distribution in abyssal oceanic sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Al'terman, Eh.I.; Lisitsyn, A.P.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Okeanologii)

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of the method of normalization of experimental ionic curves in reference to dating of abyssal sediments and establishing their accumulation rapidities are studied. The method is based on using correlation between ionic curves extrema and variations of Fe, Mn, C org., and P contents in abyssal oceanic sediments. It has been found that the above method can be successfully applied for correction of 230 Th vertical distribution data obtained by low-background γ-spectrometry. The method leads to most reliable results in those cases when the vertical distribution curves in sediments of elements concentrators of 230 Th are symbasic between themselves. The normalization of experimental ionic curves in many cases gives the possibility to realize the sediment age stratification [ru

  16. Rare earth elements during diagenesis of abyssal sediments: analogies with a transuranic element americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boust, D.

    1987-03-01

    One of the possibilities for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes consists in burying them into abyssal sediments, the sediments being supposed to barrier out radionuclides migration. The objective of the work was to estimate the efficiency of sediment barrier with respect to americium. As there is no americium in abyssal sediments, an indirect approach was used: the behaviour of the rare earth elements, the best natural analogs of americium. They were analysed in a 15 m long core, from the Cap Verde abyssal plateau. The terrigenous phase derived from the African continent was modified by short-term processes (1-1000 years); the intermediate rare earth elements were dissolved. Mineral coatings, enriched in rare earth appeared. After burial, the evolution continued at a much slower rate (10 5 - 10 6 years). The rare elements of the mineral coatings derived from the dissolution of the terrigenous phase and from an additional source, deeper in the sediment column. The fluxes of rare earth elements from sediment to water column were estimated. In suboxic sediments, the dissolved particulate equilibrium was related to redox conditions. The short-term reactivity of americium was studied in laboratory experiments. Simple americium migration models showed that the sediments barrier was totally efficient with respect to americium. In the conditions, neptunium 237 a daughter product of americium 241 could induce fluxes of 10 16 atoms per year per ton of stored waste (10 -8 Ci y-1), during millions years, towards the water column [fr

  17. Hydrochemical study of an arsenic-contaminated plain in Guandu, north Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsiang

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain, north Taiwan is a critical issue due to highly developed anthropogenic activities. It was considered that arsenic was carried in by surface water system. Two major rivers, Huanggang Creek and South Huang Greek, flow through Guandu Plain. Both creeks originate from Tatung Volcano Group, which is extensively active in post-volcanic activities. In this study, the hydrochemistry along the two major rivers was studied for tracing the source of arsenic pollution in Guandu Plain. The pH values in the upstream water are in the range from 6 to 8 but dramatically decrease down to 2-4.5 in the downstream area. It can be concluded that the creeks are recharged with very low pH geothermal water. In addition, arsenic shows a different spatial distribution. In Huanggang Creek, arsenic concentration is much higher, about 200 ppb to 500 ppb, in the downstream than in the upstream while arsenic concentration is extremely low, below 1 ppb, in the downstream of South Huang Greek. The geochemical results show that rare earth elements (REEs) are depleted in the upstream both in Huanggang creek and South Huang creek, and the NASC-normalized ratios of heavy to light REE (Lu/La) in the upstream are very close to 1. This demonstrates that the upstream water is geochemically dominated by the interaction between water and sedimentary rock. In the downstream, the NASC-normalized REE pattern shows a quit different type which is depleted in light REEs (much higher Lu/La ratio). It is well known that igneous rock is depleted in light REEs; therefore, arsenic is possibly volcanic origin. In this study, PHREEQC, a thermodynamic modeling program, was also utilized to calculate the saturation index (SI) of hydrous ferric oxide (HFO), which can effectively scavenge arsenic in water. The results demonstrate that SI of HFO is mainly controlled by pH in this study. When pH is greater than 3.5, HFO start to precipitate and remove arsenic from water. Therefore, it is

  18. Identifying and Studying the Factors Effective on Greenhouses Profitability in the Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Rajabi Tehrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was economic evaluation of green houses and the factors that affect their profitability in the Varamin plain. The type of this research is descriptive-correlation research that was conducted by using a survey method. The statistical population of the research consisted of the beneficiary farmers of established and cultivated green houses in the Varamin plain. The sample size was 108 farmers. The sampling method was simple random sampling method. The main tool of this research study is a questionnaire that whose validity was verified by using a panel of experts and professors in the field of agriculture. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed through a pre-test for which the Cronbach alpha was between 0.78 and 0.85 which is considered to be acceptable. The results of this research study show that the mean of the profitability index of cost benefit  was 2.286 and thus there is a significant positive correlation between agricultural experience, the level of famer education, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources with the cost benefit  profitability index. The results of regression analysis also indicated that the five variables of agricultural experience, agricultural income, the total area of the green house, technical knowledge, using of information resources well explain for 51.5 % of the changes in the cost benefit profitability index of the green houses located in the Varamin plain. Finally, it is recommended to improve the cost benefit profitability index by actions such as increasing the level of technical knowledge and farmers' access to and use of information resources.

  19. Using natural range of variation to set decision thresholds: a case study for great plains grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Jonas, Jayne L.; Edited by Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural range of variation (NRV) may be used to establish decision thresholds or action assessment points when ecological thresholds are either unknown or do not exist for attributes of interest in a managed ecosystem. The process for estimating NRV involves identifying spatial and temporal scales that adequately capture the heterogeneity of the ecosystem; compiling data for the attributes of interest via study of historic records, analysis and interpretation of proxy records, modeling, space-for-time substitutions, or analysis of long-term monitoring data; and quantifying the NRV from those data. At least 19 National Park Service (NPS) units in North America’s Great Plains are monitoring plant species richness and evenness as indicators of vegetation integrity in native grasslands, but little information on natural, temporal variability of these indicators is available. In this case study, we use six long-term vegetation monitoring datasets to quantify the temporal variability of these attributes in reference conditions for a variety of Great Plains grassland types, and then illustrate the implications of using different NRVs based on these quantities for setting management decision thresholds. Temporal variability of richness (as measured by the coefficient of variation, CV) is fairly consistent across the wide variety of conditions occurring in Colorado shortgrass prairie to Minnesota tallgrass sand savanna (CV 0.20–0.45) and generally less than that of production at the same sites. Temporal variability of evenness spans a greater range of CV than richness, and it is greater than that of production in some sites but less in other sites. This natural temporal variability may mask undesirable changes in Great Plains grasslands vegetation. Consequently, we suggest that managers consider using a relatively narrow NRV (interquartile range of all richness or evenness values observed in reference conditions) for designating a surveillance threshold, at which

  20. Risk Modelling of Late Spring Frost Damage on Fruit Trees, Case Study; Apple Tree, Mashhad Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rahimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mashhad plain is one of the most important regions of Apple cultivated areas. Occurring spring late frost creates a lot of damages on bud and decreasing the yield of Apple in this region. Assessment and risk modeling of frost damage would be useful to manage and decrease the damage. The study area is a part of Khorasan Razavi province which is located in Mashhad plain. This region is located in Northeast Iran (36º to 37 º N, 58 º 30' to 60 º E. The area of this region is about 13000 square km which is about one tenth of Khorasan province area. In order to modeling frost damage risk 12 affective parameters including climatological(Minimum temperature, temperature decreasing rate, temperature Increasing rate, Julian days of frost, cumulative degree days, Area under zero line, and frost duration and geographical parameters (Elevation, Longitude, Latitude, Aspect, and slope were selected. 3 damage full radiative frosts were selected in the period of Apple flowering time which was dated 20 April 2003, 8 April 2005, and 28 March 2005. Required meteorological data were collected from 9 meteorological standard stations inside and outside of study area. Linear multiple regression were used to modeling the relationship. The map for each parameter was plotted by using suitable interpolation method including IDW; Spline; Kriging. A grid map was defined with 5 by 5 kilometers to extract enough data for entering to the model. The regression equation was significant at the level of 99% significance. By using this equation the predicted amounts of frost risk damage were calculated for each point of grid and also the map was plotted. The regression equation of observed and predicted frost damage risk was provided by correlation of 0.93 and the error map also was prepared. According to this study in frost of 31 Farvardin 1388 South West parts of the plain estimated as the most frost risk areas by %53.19 and the southeast parts were estimated as the least

  1. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  2. Distribution of groundwater nitrate contamination in GIS environment: A case study, Sonqor plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parasto Setareh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate is a pollutant of groundwater resources which can results health risks such as methemoglobinemia and formation of nitrosamine compounds in higher concentration limits. The present study was aimed to determine the nitrite level, causes of pollution and zonation of nitrite concentration in drinking water resources in the villages of Sonqor. Methods: In this descriptive-analytrical study, 73 samples of all groundwater resources of Sonqor plain were taken in ,high water (March 2010 and low water (September 2011 periods. Water nitrate levels were then determined by spectrophotometry. Results were compared by national standards and analyzed by SPSS and Arcview GIS 9.3 software. Finally, the concentration distribution mapping was carried out in GIS environment and the factors affecting nitrite changes were analyzed. Results: nitrate concentration of water resources of Sonqor plain was fluctuating at 3.09-88.5 mg per liter.In one station, nitrite concentrations in the high (88.5 mg/liter and low (71.4 mg/liter water seasons were higher than the maximum limit. Based on the maps, a relatively high concentration of nitrite was observed in the Eastern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The findings indicated a reverse correlation between nitrite concentration changes and changes of static surface depth. Low thickness of alluvium, location of wells in the downstream farmlands, farming condition of the region, nitrate leaching from agricultural soils and wide application of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture were considered as the causes of the pollution in one station.

  3. Cross-equatorial flow through an abyssal channel under the complete Coriolis force: Two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    The component of the Coriolis force due to the locally horizontal component of the Earth's rotation vector is commonly neglected, under the so-called traditional approximation. We investigate the role of this "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which crosses from the southern to the northern hemisphere through the Ceara abyssal plain in the western Atlantic ocean. The bathymetry in this region resembles a northwestward channel, connecting the Brazil Basin in the south to the Guyana Basin in the north. South of the equator, the AABW leans against the western continental rise, consistent with a northward flow in approximate geostrophic balance. The AABW then crosses to the other side of the abyssal channel as it crosses the equator, and flows into the northern hemisphere leaning towards the east against the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The non-traditional component of the Coriolis force is strongest close to the equator. The traditional component vanishes at the equator, being proportional to the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector. The weak stratification of the abyssal ocean, and subsequent small internal deformation radius, defines a relatively short characteristic horizontal lengthscale that tends to make non-traditional effects more prominent. Additionally, the steep gradients of the channel bathymetry induce large vertical velocities, which are linked to zonal accelerations by the non-traditional components of the Coriolis force. We therefore expect non-traditional effects to play a substantial role in cross-equatorial transport of the AABW. We present asymptotic steady solutions for non-traditional shallow water flow through an idealised abyssal channel, oriented at an oblique angle to the equator. The current enters from the south, leaning up against the western side of the channel in approximate geostrophic balance, and crosses the

  4. Study on long-term aerosol distribution over central plains economic region using MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangluo; Xushu; Lianhong, Bai; Caikun

    2017-03-01

    The long-term (2000-2013) Moderate Resolution Imaging (MODIS) level 2 aerosol products were used to study the spatial and temporal distributions of both aerosol optical depths (AOD) over Central Plains Economic Region (CPER), which is critical for a thorough understanding of its formation, transport and accumulation in the atmosphere. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of AOD with higher values locate in Xinxiang city, Kaifeng city, Zhengzhou city and Jiaozuo city. The lower ones locate in the south of Shanxi province and the west of Henan province, which are all mountainous regions. Spring and summer are the two seasons with the lowest AOD in a year. The minimum AOD in CPER occurred in winter. In the Central Plains Urban Agglomeration (CPUA), Kaifeng city, Xinxiang city and Zhengzhou city are the areas with the worst air pollution of particulate matter. The AOD over CPER significantly reduce during the period from 2011 to 2013. In the long term, however, the condition of particulate matter pollution has not been improved.

  5. Study of the filtration performance of a plain wave fabric filter using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Fuping; Wang, Haigang

    2010-04-15

    The gas-solid two-phase flows in the plain wave fabric filter were simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology, and the warps and wefts of the fabric filter were made of filaments with different dimensions. The numerical solutions were carried out using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code Fluent 6.1. The filtration performances of the plain wave fabric filter with different geometry parameters and operating condition, including the horizontal distance, the vertical distance and the face velocity were calculated. The effects of geometry parameters and operating condition on filtration efficiency and pressure drop were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) by means of the statistical software (Minitab V14), and two second-order polynomial models were obtained with regard to the effect of the three factors as stated above. Moreover, the models were modified by dismissing the insignificant terms. The results show that the horizontal distance, vertical distance and the face velocity all play an important role in influencing the filtration efficiency and pressure drop of the plane wave fabric filters. The horizontal distance of 3.8 times the fiber diameter, the vertical distance of 4.0 times the fiber diameter and Reynolds number of 0.98 are found to be the optimal conditions to achieve the highest filtration efficiency at the same face velocity, while maintaining an acceptable pressure drop. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO 3 , which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N 2 , CO 2 -sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0 2 produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the 60 Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total 60 Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of 60 Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions

  7. Fate of corrosion products released from stainless steel in marine sediments and seawater. Part 4: Hatteras abyssal red clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.L.

    1982-07-01

    A study in which neutron-activated 347 stainless steel was exposed to surficial sediment from a site in the Hatteras Abyssal Plain of the Northwest Atlantic Ocean is described. This sediment consists of approx. 20% CaCO/sub 3/, which could lead to the formation of calcareous scale on the metal surface and reduce the corrosion rate. The distribution of indigenous metals among different chemical fractions shows that extractable Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn were associated with amorphous Mn and Fe oxides. Most of the remaining extractable Cr, and about a third of the extractable Cu appear to have been weakly complexed. Major fractions (25 to 36%) of extractable Mn, Co and Ni were present as adsorbed cations. Organic complexation appears to account for a large amount of extractable Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn. Neutron-activated 347 stainless steel specimens were exposed to sediment slurry under aerobic and non-oxygenated conditions for a period of 94 days. The redox potential measurements for air-sparged and N/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/-sparged sediment slurries were +410 and +60 mv, respectively. The presence of 0/sub 2/ produced increased amounts of corrosion products. Chemical extraction showed that relatively labile substances constituted about 84% of the /sup 60/Co activity released in aerated sediment. Relatively labile substances constitute about 82% of the total /sup 60/Co activity released under non-oxygenated conditions. A large fraction of /sup 60/Co which was in the soluble or easily dissolved forms under non-oxygenated conditions appears to have been more strongly adsorbed to the sediment under aerated conditions.

  8. Short Communication Abyssal scavenging demersal fauna at two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area to the east of the Crozet Islands experiences high levels of surface productivity during the austral summer due to natural iron enrichment from terrestrial ... A modelled arrival and departure curve for the abyssal grenadier Coryphaenoides armatus suggests a region of low food availability compared to other regions ...

  9. Geochemistry of abyssal peridotites from the super slow-spreading ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E were investigated. Abyssal peridotites recovered from this site were comprised mainly of lizardite, chlorite, carbonate and magnetite with minor amounts of talc, pyroxene phenocrysts and sparse olivines. Serpentinites exhibit talc veins and major serpentine derived from serpentinization with relict olivine granuloblasts.

  10. STUDY & EVALUATE THE COMPARISON OF PLAIN LIGNOCAINE AND LIGNACAINE WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE EFFECTS IN SUPRACLAVICULAR BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijetha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS : supraclavicular brachial plexus block is usually used to anaesthetize the upper limb for the purpose of upper limb surgeries. Drugs like Lignocaine , Bupiv a caine are used for this block and some additives are added to prolong the duration and quality of bl ockade. The present study is aimed to evaluate the comparison of plain lignocaine and lign o caine with sodium bicarbonate in supraclavicular brachial plexus block by means of the onset time of sensory and motor blockade, the quality of sensory and motor blo ckade , and the duration of blockade . METHODS : Sixty patients aged between 18 and 60 years of physical status ASA 1 and 2 undergoing upper limb surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block was performed after eliciting paraesthesia. The patients in Group I (n=30 received 25ml of 1% plain lignocaine (prepared by adding 12.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. The patients in th e Group II (study group received 25ml of 1% alkalinized lignocaine (prepared by adding 3ml of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate and 9.5ml of distilled water to 12.5ml of 2% plain lignocaine. RESULTS : The present study entitled Comparison of effects of plain lignoc aine and lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate on brachial plexus block concludes that, the onset time of sensory and motor blockade is lesser with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine (4.13, 11.1minutes when compared to plain lignocaine(9.73, 21.1minutes in supraclavicular brachial plexus block, the quality of sensory and motor blockade is better with sodium bicarbonate added lignocaine, the duration of motor and sensory blockade was significantly prolonged when lignocaine with sodium bicarbonate was used in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

  11. Pharmacokinetic study of a new oral buffered acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation in comparison with plain ASA in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, G; Garagiola, U; Gaspari, F

    1991-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, crossover pharmacokinetic study was carried out to investigate the bioavailability of a new oral buffered 325 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulation (ASPIRINA 03) in comparison with a 325 mg plain tablet. Twelve healthy volunteers of both sexes, aged between 20 and 37 years, received buffered or plain ASA on two separate occasions with a wash-out interval of at least two weeks. ASA and salicylic acid (SA) plasma levels were determined by a chromatographic method. The results showed no difference between the area under concentration time curve (AUC0-infinity) ASA values of both formulations (p = 0.19), and buffered ASA relative bioavailability was 102.49% (= bioequivalence). A significant difference was found between the AUC0-30 min ASA values: 90.5 micrograms. min/ml with buffered and 67.7 micrograms. min/ml with the plain tablet (p less than 0.05). The buffered ASA time of maximum concentration was shorter (28 +/- 8 min) than the plain one (38 +/- 19 min, p less than 0.05). The plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of SA were not significantly different after the administration of the two ASA formulations. The plain ASA tablet had a significantly lower (p less than 0.05) dissolution rate than buffered ASA tablet. Moreover, the buffered ASA tablet significantly (p less than 0.01) increased the pH by 0.5 units. In conclusion, the bioavailability of the new oral buffered ASA was equivalent to that of plain ASA, but the plasma concentration peak was reached in a shorter time.

  12. Suspected ureteral colic: plain film and sonography vs unenhanced helical CT. A prospective study in 66 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripolles, Tomas; Agramunt, Marcos; Errando, Jose; Martinez, Maria Jesus; Coronel, Belen; Morales, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of plain abdominal films plus ultrasound, vs nonenhanced CT for the diagnosis of ureteral colic in patients with acute flank pain. During a 4-month period, 66 patients (mean age 48 years) with acute flank pain were prospectively studied by means of plain abdominal film, US, and unenhanced CT. The presence of lithiasis and of obstructive uropathy signs were determined. The plain film was only used as a guide for the US exam. Clinical follow-up of all patients was obtained. Ureteral lithiasis was confirmed in 56 patients. The CT had a greater sensitivity (93 vs 79%) and negative predictive value (71 vs 46%) for the detection of lithiasis. The combination of lithiasis plus obstructive signs showed a sensitivity and a specificity of 100% for CT and of 100 and 90%, respectively, for US. The 11 lithiasis not detected by US were passed spontaneously (10 were <5 mm). Both techniques showed similar extraurinary pathology. Computed tomography is the most accurate technique for the detection of ureteral lithiasis; however, the combination of plain film and US is an alternative to nonenhanced CT with a lower sensitivity and radiation dose that has a good practical value. (orig.)

  13. Observational study of the capacity and demand of plain-film workflow in a radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahan, James

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Demand for radiology services in the National Health Service (NHS) is rising. The pressure felt by radiology departments is compounded by growing public expectation, government guidelines, targets, penalties and tight budget restrictions. One widely supported hypothesis is that inefficiency in the NHS is a result of a mismatch between the variances in capacity and demand. In the light of an increasing trend towards evidence-based management the study aims to model, analyse and understand variations in plain-film workflow in a radiology department and evaluate whether the data provide evidence to base future decisions upon. Methods: Retrospective data for a period of 6 months were collected, from the Computer Radiology Information System (CRIS), staff rotas and clinic diaries. Capacity was measured by the planned number of radiographers working within the department. Demand was measured by the daily workload of the department, number of plain-film events, and was subdivided to include referral source. To further analyse the drivers for demand the number of outpatient clinics was also recorded. Descriptive statistical testing was used to understand the variability in the obtained data. Levene's test was undertaken to test the homogeneity of daily variances in clinics and workload. Establishment of correlative relationships was undertaken using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) between chosen variables. Linear regression testing was performed in order to establish the capacity of the number of clinics running to predict the workload, adjusted for GP events, of the department. Results: Mean daily workload, capacity and clinics show variable correlation. Workload and clinics demonstrate relatively high variation; workload; range, max = 178, min = 46, mean = 95.58, standard deviation (SD) = 25.35, coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.27. Clinics; mean = 4.79, SD = 1.63, CV = 0.34. Variances in daily clinics and daily workflow are homogeneous, Levene tests F

  14. A boundary-layer cloud study using Southern Great Plains Cloud and radiation testbed (CART) data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, B.; Mace, G.; Dong, X.; Syrett, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Boundary layer clouds-stratus and fairweather cumulus - are closely coupled involves the radiative impact of the clouds on the surface energy budget and the strong dependence of cloud formation and maintenance on the turbulent fluxes of heat and moisture in the boundary layer. The continuous data collection at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site provides a unique opportunity to study components of the coupling processes associated with boundary layer clouds and to provide descriptions of cloud and boundary layer structure that can be used to test parameterizations used in climate models. But before the CART data can be used for process studies and parameterization testing, it is necessary to evaluate and validate data and to develop techniques for effectively combining the data to provide meaningful descriptions of cloud and boundary layer characteristics. In this study we use measurements made during an intensive observing period we consider a case where low-level stratus were observed at the site for about 18 hours. This case is being used to examine the temporal evolution of cloud base, cloud top, cloud liquid water content, surface radiative fluxes, and boundary layer structure. A method for inferring cloud microphysics from these parameters is currently being evaluated.

  15. Finite Element Method Application in Areal Rainfall Estimation Case Study; Mashhad Plain Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Irani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The hydrological models are very important tools for planning and management of water resources. These models can be used for identifying basin and nature problems and choosing various managements. Precipitation is based on these models. Calculations of rainfall would be affected by displacement and region factor such as topography, etc. Estimating areal rainfall is one of the basic needs in meteorological, water resources and others studies. There are various methods for the estimation of rainfall, which can be evaluated by using statistical data and mathematical terms. In hydrological analysis, areal rainfall is so important because of displacement of precipitation. Estimating areal rainfall is divided to three methods: 1- graphical. 2-topographical. 3-numerical. This paper represented calculating mean precipitation (daily, monthly and annual using Galerkin’s method (numerical method and it was compared with other methods such as kriging, IDW, Thiessen and arithmetic mean. In this study, there were 42 actual gauges and thirteen dummies in Mashhad plain basin which is calculated by Galerkin’s method. The method included the use of interpolation functions, allowing an accurate representation of shape and relief of catchment with numerical integration performed by Gaussian quadrature and represented the allocation of weights to stations. Materials and Methods:The estimation of areal rainfall (daily, monthly,… is the basic need for meteorological project. In this field ,there are various methods that one of them is finite element method. Present study aimed to estimate areal rainfall with a 16-year period (1997-2012 by using Galerkin method ( finite element in Mashhad plain basin for 42 station. Therefore, it was compared with other usual methods such as arithmetic mean, Thiessen, Kriging and IDW. The analysis of Thiessen, Kriging and IDW were in ArcGIS10.0 software environment and finite element analysis did by using of Matlab

  16. Can neap-spring tidal cycles modulate biogeochemical fluxes in the abyssal near-seafloor water column?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnewitsch, Robert; Dale, Andrew; Lahajnar, Niko; Lampitt, Richard S.; Sakamoto, Kei

    2017-05-01

    Before particulate matter that settles as 'primary flux' from the interior ocean is deposited into deep-sea sediments it has to traverse the benthic boundary layer (BBL) that is likely to cover almost all parts of the seafloor in the deep seas. Fluid dynamics in the BBL differ vastly from fluid dynamics in the overlying water column and, consequently, have the potential to lead to quantitative and compositional changes between primary and depositional fluxes. Despite this potential and the likely global relevance very little is known about mechanistic and quantitative aspects of the controlling processes. Here, results are presented for a sediment-trap time-series study that was conducted on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the abyssal Northeast Atlantic, with traps deployed at 2, 40 and 569 m above bottom (mab). The two bottommost traps were situated within the BBL-affected part of the water column. The time series captured 3 neap and 4 spring tides and the arrival of fresh settling material originating from a surface-ocean bloom. In the trap-collected material, total particulate matter (TPM), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), biogenic silica (BSi), particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), total hydrolysable amino acids (AA), hexosamines (HA) and lithogenic material (LM) were determined. The biogeochemical results are presented within the context of time series of measured currents (at 15 mab) and turbidity (at 1 mab). The main outcome is evidence for an effect of neap/spring tidal oscillations on particulate-matter dynamics in BBL-affected waters in the deep sea. Based on the frequency-decomposed current measurements and numerical modelling of BBL fluid dynamics, it is concluded that the neap/spring tidal oscillations of particulate-matter dynamics are less likely due to temporally varying total free-stream current speeds and more likely due to temporally and vertically varying turbulence intensities that result from the temporally varying

  17. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs: A comparative plain film-reading performance study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buskov, L.; Abild, A.; Christensen, A.; Holm, O.; Hansen, C.; Christensen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital. Materials and methods: Plain radiographs of the appendicular skeleton from 1000 consecutive emergency room patients were included in the study: 500 primarily reported by radiographers and 500 by trainee radiologists. The final reporting was subsequently undertaken by a consultant radiologist in consensus with an orthopaedic surgeon. Two observers classified reports as either true positive/negative or false positive/negative based on the final report, which was considered the reference standard. To evaluate the severity of incorrect primary reports, errors were graded into three categories concerning clinical impact and erroneous reports graded as the most severe category were subsequently analysed. Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests were used to compare differences and associations between radiographers versus trainee radiologists regarding film reporting. Results: The sensitivity for correct diagnosis was 99% for reporting radiographers and 94% for trainee radiologists. The specificity was found to be 97% for reporting radiographers and 99% for trainee radiologists. Radiographers missed significantly fewer fractures (n = 2) than trainee radiologists (n = 14; p = 0.006) but had a higher, but not significant, degree of overcalling. No significant difference was found between groups regarding clinical impact of incorrect reporting. Conclusion: Trained radiographers report accident radiographs of the extremities with high accuracy and constitute a qualified resource to help meet increasing workload and demands in quality standards.

  18. An Abyssal Current in the Central Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M. M.; Yashayaev, I.; Torres, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler (LADCP) data collected along the repeat hydrographic section AR7W in the Labrador Sea has unveiled a new abyssal current, confined to a narrow trench extending from NW to SE over the entire abyssal basin and crossing AR7W in the center of the basin at about 57.8°N, 51.3°W. Maximum water depth in the trough is 75 - 100 m greater depth than the surrounding topography, and the current extends from about 160 m above the bottom to the bottom (3610 m), headed in a south to southeasterly direction. Maximum speeds of 10-20 cm s-1 occur in the deepest part of the current, implying a net transport of as much as 0.2 Sv of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). Potential temperature and salinity in the bottom-intensified current tend to be well mixed below 3520 m, suggesting that the mixed bottom boundary layer is about 100 m thick. This V-shaped trench is part of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel (NAMOC), which has been recognized as a turbidity current pathway by petrologists (Chough and Hesse, 1980; Chough et al., 1986). Another small trough intersects the main branch of the NAMOC where the abyssal current is observed, which may account for the varying direction of the current. This network of abyssal channels may provide a pathway for DSOW, entering the Labrador Sea around the southern tip of Greenland, to reach the central Labrador Sea with little delay. Indeed, Yashayaev and Dickson (2008) have noted the rapidity with which signals of hydrographic change in DSOW spread across the entire abyssal basin, reaching the central Labrador Sea within several months after their first appearance at the eastern boundary. Chough, S. K. and R. Hesse (1980). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the Labrador Sea: III. Head spill vs. body spill deposits from turbidity currents on natural levees. J. of Sedimentary Petrology 50, 227-234. Chough, S. K., R. Hesse, and J. Muller (1987). The Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel of the

  19. Utopia Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a dark-toned, cratered plain in southwest Utopia Planitia. Large, light-toned, windblown ripples reside on the floors of many of the depressions in the scene, including a long, linear, trough. Location near: 30.3oN, 255.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  20. Historic maps and landscape evolution: a case study in the Little Hungarian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zámolyi, A.; Székely, B.; Draganits, E.; Timár, G.

    2009-04-01

    Georeferenced historic maps provide a useful tool to derive geomorphologic landscape elements largely uninfluenced by anthropogenic activity, thus allowing the study of natural changes in the landscape evolution of increasingly densely populated areas. The study area, the Little Hungarian Plain (LHP), is located at the geologically and geomorphologically highly interesting region at the transition between the mountain chains of the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. The area, as transport route and exchange zone of goods has had its specific importance since the Neolithic times. Consequently, the environment has been subject to human influence, especially since the onset of the industrial age. Geographically the LHP lies in the vicinity of major settlement areas (Vienna, Bratislava, Sopron, Győr) and stretches from the Leithagebirge, a mountainous area in Eastern Austria, to the City of Győr in Western Hungary. The political division of the area into two separate countries occurred after World War I. Thus, historic mapping in the Habsburg Empire and later in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy that was organized and conducted before World War I allows a comprehensive overview of the study area. Map sheets of the 2nd Military Survey of the whole Monarchy were mapped in the time from 1807 to 1873 in the area of the entire Empire (Kretschmer et al., 2004). The Kingdom of Hungary, as part of the Empire was mapped in a homogenous campaign in the time from 1819 - 1869. Beside the increasing human impact the area is characterized by active surface processes. The geologic evolution of the Little Hungarian Plain is dominated by tectonic processes related to the lateral extrusion of the Eastern Alps and the acceleration of northward movement of the Carpathians. Subsidence is accommodated mainly along high- and low angle normal faults with a high vertical movement component. Strike-slip movements at these faults are very rare. Most of these processes have been active also in the

  1. Evidence for deep-water deposition of abyssal Mediterranean evaporites during the Messinian salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeleit, Elizabeth C.; Brandon, Mark T.; Zhuang, Guangsheng

    2015-10-01

    Scientific drilling of the abyssal evaporites beneath the deepest parts of the Mediterranean basin gave rise to the idea that the Mediterranean sea completely evaporated at the end of the Messinian. Herein, we show, using new organic geochemical data, that those evaporites were deposited beneath a deep-water saline basin, not in a subaerial saltpan, as originally proposed. Abundant fossil organic lipids were extracted from evaporites in Mediterranean Deep Sea Drilling Project cores. The archaeal lipid distribution and new analyses, using the ACE salinity proxy and TEX86 temperature proxy, indicate that surface waters at the time of evaporite deposition had normal marine salinity, ranging from ∼26 to 34 practical salinity units, and temperatures of 25-28 °C. These conditions require a deep-water setting, with a mixed layer with normal marine salinity and an underlying brine layer at gypsum and halite saturation. After correction for isostatic rebound, our results indicate maximum drawdown of ∼2000 m and ∼2900 m relative to modern sea level in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins, respectively. Our results are consistent with previously proposed scenarios for sea level drawdown based on both subaerial and submarine incision and backfilling of the Rhone and Nile rivers, which require Messinian sea level drops of ∼1300 m and ∼200 m, respectively. This study provides new evidence for an old debate and also demonstrates the importance of further scientific drilling and sampling of deeper part of the abyssal Messinian units.

  2. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior.

  3. AUTOMATIC TRAINING SITE SELECTION FOR AGRICULTURAL CROP CLASSIFICATION: A CASE STUDY ON KARACABEY PLAIN, TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ozdarici Ok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study implements a traditional supervised classification method to an optical image composed of agricultural crops by means of a unique way, selecting the training samples automatically. Panchromatic (1m and multispectral (4m Kompsat-2 images (July 2008 of Karacabey Plain (~100km2, located in Marmara region, are used to evaluate the proposed approach. Due to the characteristic of rich, loamy soils combined with reasonable weather conditions, the Karacabey Plain is one of the most valuable agricultural regions of Turkey. Analyses start with applying an image fusion algorithm on the panchromatic and multispectral image. As a result of this process, 1m spatial resolution colour image is produced. In the next step, the four-band fused (1m image and multispectral (4m image are orthorectified. Next, the fused image (1m is segmented using a popular segmentation method, Mean- Shift. The Mean-Shift is originally a method based on kernel density estimation and it shifts each pixel to the mode of clusters. In the segmentation procedure, three parameters must be defined: (i spatial domain (hs, (ii range domain (hr, and (iii minimum region (MR. In this study, in total, 176 parameter combinations (hs, hr, and MR are tested on a small part of the area (~10km2 to find an optimum segmentation result, and a final parameter combination (hs=18, hr=20, and MR=1000 is determined after evaluating multiple goodness measures. The final segmentation output is then utilized to the classification framework. The classification operation is applied on the four-band multispectral image (4m to minimize the mixed pixel effect. Before the image classification, each segment is overlaid with the bands of the image fused, and several descriptive statistics of each segment are computed for each band. To select the potential homogeneous regions that are eligible for the selection of training samples, a user-defined threshold is applied. After finding those potential regions, the

  4. “First” abyssal record of Stenosemus exaratus (G.O. Sars, 1878 (Mollusca, Polyplacophora in the North-Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Allcock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The first proven abyssal record of Stenosemus exaratus (G.O. Sars, 1878 is presented on the basis of an ROV study in the Irish Sea. For the first time in situ images of the species and data on the environmental parameters are provided.

  5. Environmental isotope study related to groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in Quaternary aquifers of North China Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhigan; Payne, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    An isotopic hydrology section across the North China Plain has been studied to investigate problems of groundwater age, flow system and saline water origin in a semi-arid pre-mountain artesian basin. Two local and one regional flow system along the section have been recognized. Turnover time of water for alluvial fan, shallow and regional systems are estimated to be the order of 10 2 , 10 3 , and 10 4 years respectively. Specific flow rates for the three systems have been calculated. Only less than 5 percent of flow from alluvial fan is drained by the regional flow system and the rest, in natural conditions, discharges at surface in the front edge of an alluvial fan and forms a groundwater discharge belt at a good distance away from the mountain foot. Developed in the alluvial plain and coastal plain areas the shallow flow system embraces a series of small local systems. Groundwater in these systems appears to be the salt carrier during continental salinization. It washes salt out of the recharge area and deep-occurred strata by circulating and carries it up to the surface in lowland areas. Consequently, in parallel with salinization at surface a desalinization process occurs at depth, which provides an additional explanation for the existing thick deep fresh water zone in most arid and semi-arid regions, where continental salting process is in progress. (author). 6 refs, 8 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Sustainability of farmers' soil fertility management practices: a case study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Lin; Zoebisch, Michael A; Chen, Guibao; Feng, Zhiming

    2006-06-01

    To ensure regional self-sufficiency and adequate rural livelihoods in the North China Plain (NCP), tremendous efforts were made over the last two decades by the Chinese government to raise the productivity of crops, despite increasing pressure on the land caused by a growing population. Emphasis was placed on high external input use, especially for wheat, maize and cotton, ignoring the particularities and limitations of the natural resource base. This study assesses the sustainability of current soil fertility management practices on the basis of selected location-specific indicators, such as fertilizer use, soil pH, soil organic matter content, levels of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in the soil, and identifies determining factors of the yield and environmental impacts of inputs use. Data used for the analysis were gathered from soil tests, groundwater and chive plant tests, household surveys, and statistical yearbooks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is applied to determine factors affecting the yields. The study revealed unbalanced use of nutrients. Organic fertilizers (manure, crop residues) and K are insufficiently applied, whereas N and P are considerably overused in comparison with recommended doses. The intensive cropping in the area using high-input technologies -particularly fertilizer- has resulted in a remarkable general enhancement of crop productivity and improvement of soil fertility over the years. The yield of wheat and maize has increased 173 and 180 kg ha(-1) annually from 1982 to 2000, respectively and soil fertility status also improved over the years and the values of the selected indicators are within the borderline for sustainability. Irrigation water, FYM application, and total labor used during the cultivation season (with the exception of cotton and chive) for production are the main factors determining the yields of four major crops under study, while popularly and overly used N did not appear to be a significant

  7. Soil Moisture Estimation Using MODIS Images (Case Study: Mashhad Plain Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fashaee

    2016-09-01

    area is selected in the Mashhad plain in Khorasan Razavi province of I.R. Iran. Study area is about 1,200 square kilometers and is located around the Golmakan center of agricultural research. In this study, water deficit index (WDI was zoning by MODIS images in subset of Mashhad plain during water year of 2011-2012. Then, based on the close relationship between WDI and soil moisture parameter, a linear relationship between these two parameters were fitted. Soil moisture is measured by the TDR and every 7 days at 5 depths of 5, 10, 20, 30 and 50 cm from the surface. Remote Sensing (RS technology used as a tool for providing some of the data that is required. The moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS instrument is popular for monitoring soil moisture because of its high spectral (36 bands resolution, moderate spatial (250–1000 m resolution and various products for land surface properties. MODIS products used in the present study include: MOD09A1 land surface albedo data, MOD11A1 land surface temperature data, and MOD13A1 vegetation data. Using ArcMap 9.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2010 softwares, WDI was calculated pixel by pixel for 18 days (non-cloudy days and simultaneous with measurement of soil moisture at the station. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the northeastern region is predominantly rainfed and irrigated farmlands are under water stress. Conversely, the southwestern part of the area is mountainous with less water stress. Based on NDVI, there is also less crop cover in the southwestern part of the region during the year. The results showed that about 44% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.3. Then about 22% of the index values are in the range of 0.3-0.4. Thus it can be concluded that over 66% of the index values are in the range of 0.2-0.4. According to the maximum index value (WDI=0.59 on the 201th day of year and the minimum values (WDI=0.0004 on the 129th day of year during the time period of study, it seems that water

  8. Simulating Effects of Long Term Use of Wastewater on Farmers Health Using System Dynamics Modeling (Case Study: Varamin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzehali Alizadeh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Agricultural activity in Varamin plain has been faced with many challenges in recent years, due to vicinity to Tehran the capital of Iran (competition for Latian dam reservoir, and competition with Tehran south network in allocation of Mamlou dam reservoir and treated wastewater of south wastewater treatment plant. Mamlou and Latian dam reservoirs, due to increase of population and industry sectors, allocated to urban utilization of Tehran. Based on national policy, the treated wastewater should be replaced with Latian dam reservoir water to supply water demand of agricultural sector. High volume transmission of wastewater to Varamin plain, will be have economical, environmental, and social effects. Several factors effect on wastewater management and success of utilization plans and any change in these factors may have various feedbacks on the other elements of wastewater use system. Hence, development of a model with capability of simulation of all factors, aspects and interactions that affect wastewater utilization is very necessary. The main objective of present study was development of water integrated model to study long-term effects of irrigation with Tehran treated wastewater, using system dynamics modeling (SD approach. Materials and Methods: Varamin Plain is one of the most important agricultural production centers of the country due to nearness to the large consumer market of Tehran and having fertile soil and knowledge of agriculture. The total agricultural irrigated land in Varamin Plain is 53486 hectares containing 17274 hectares of barley, 16926 hectares of wheat, 3866 hectares of tomato, 3521 hectares of vegetables, 3556 hectares of alfalfa, 2518 hectares of silage maize, 1771 hectares of melon, 1642 hectares of cotton, 1121 hectares of cucumber and 1291 hectares of other crops. In 2006 the irrigation requirement of the crop pattern was about 690 MCM and the actual agriculture water consumption was about 620 MCM

  9. From the epipelagic zone to the abyss: Trophic structure at two seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic - Part I zooplankton and micronekton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Anneke; Stefanowitsch, Benjamin; Christiansen, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Specific mechanisms, driving trophic interactions within the pelagic community may be highly variable in different seamount systems. This study investigated the trophic structure of zooplankton and micronekton above and around Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic, and over the adjacent abyssal plains. For the identification of food sources and trophic positions stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) were used. δ13C ranged from -24.7‰ to -15.0‰ and δ15N covered a total range of 0.9-15.9‰. Based on epipelagic particulate organic matter, zooplankton and micronekton usually occupied the 1st-3rd trophic level, including herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous taxa. δ13C and δ15N values were generally lower in zooplankton and micronekton of the subtropical waters as compared to the tropical region, due to the differing nutrient availability and phytoplankton communities. Correlations between δ13C and δ15N values of particulate organic matter, zooplankton, micronekton and benthopelagic fishes suggest a linear food chain based on a single energy source from primary production for Ampère Seamount, but no evidence was found for an autochthonus seamount production as compared to the open ocean reference site. Between Senghor Seamount and the open ocean δ13C signatures indicate that hydrodynamic effects at seamounts may modify the energy supply at times, but evidence for a seamount effect on the trophic structure of the pelagic communities was weak, which supports the assumption that seamount communities rely to a large extent on advected food sources.

  10. Life history of abyssal and hadal fishes from otolith growth zones and oxygen isotopic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Andrews, A. H.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Popp, B. N.; Linley, T. D.; Gallo, N. D.; Clark, M. R.; Jamieson, A. J.; Drazen, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Hadal trenches are isolated habitats that cover the greatest ocean depths (6,500-11,000 m) and are believed to host high levels of endemism across multiple taxa. A group of apparent hadal endemics is within the snailfishes (Liparidae), found in at least five geographically separated trenches. Little is known about their biology, let alone the reasons for their success at hadal depths around the world. This study investigated the life history of hadal liparids using sagittal otoliths of two species from the Kermadec (Notoliparis kermadecensis) and Mariana (Pseudoliparis swirei) trenches in comparison to successful abyssal macrourids found at the abyssal-hadal transition zone. Otoliths for each species revealed alternating opaque and translucent growth zones that could be quantified in medial sections. Assuming these annuli represent annual growth, ages were estimated for the two hadal liparid species to be from five to 16 years old. These estimates were compared to the shallower-living snailfish Careproctus melanurus, which were older than described in previous studies, expanding the potential maximum age for the liparid family to near 25 years. Age estimates for abyssal macrourids ranged from eight to 29 years for Coryphaenoides armatus and six to 16 years for C. yaquinae. In addition, 18O/16O ratios (δ18O) were measured across the otolith using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to investigate the thermal history of the three liparids, and two macrourids. Changes in δ18O values were observed across the otoliths of C. melanurus, C. armatus, and both hadal liparids, the latter of which may represent a change of >5 °C in habitat temperature through ontogeny. The results would indicate there is a pelagic larval stage for the hadal liparids that rises to a depth above 1000 m, followed by a return to the hadal environment as these liparids grow. This result was unexpected for the hadal liparids given their isolated environment and large eggs, and the biological

  11. Engineering concepts for the placement of wastes on the abyssal seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Philip J.; Palowitch, Andrew W.; Young, David K.

    1998-05-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), with industry and academic participation, has completed a study of the concept of isolating industrial wastes (i.e., sewage sludge, fly ash from municipal incinerators, and dredged material) on the abyssal seafloor. This paper presents results of the technical and economic assessment of this waste management concept. The results of the environmental impacts portion of the study are presented in a companion paper. The technical assessment began with identification of 128 patents addressing waste disposal in the ocean. From these 128 patents, five methods for transporting wastes through the water column and emplacing wastes within an easily monitored area on the abyssal seafloor were synthesized for technical assessment. In one method waste is lowered to the seafloor in a bucket of 190 m 3. In a second method waste is pumped down to the seafloor in pipes, 1.37 m in diameter and 6100 m in length. In a third method waste is free-fallen from the ocean surface in 380-m 3 geosynthetic fabric containers (GFCs). In the fourth and fifth methods, waste is carried to near the seafloor in GFCs transported in (a) a 20,000 metric ton displacement (loaded), unpowered, unmanned submersible glider, or (b) a 2085 metric ton displacement (loaded) disk-shaped transporter traversing to and from the seafloor much like an untethered elevator. In the last two methods the transporter releases the GFCs to free-fall the last few hundred meters to the seafloor. Two reliability analyses, a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and a Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), showed that the free-fall GFC method posed the least overall relative risk, provided that fabric container and transporter designs eliminate the potential for tearing of the containers on release from the surface transporter. Of the five methods, the three GFC methods were shown to offer cost-effective waste management options when compared with present-day waste management

  12. Eco-environment contribution of agroforestry to agriculture development in the plain area of China--Huai' an Prefecture, Jiangsu Province as the case study area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-chang; Lu, Yong-long; Liu, Can; Meng, Qing-hua; Shi, Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    For improving the environmental quality and ensuring supply of wood and non-timber forest products, many forests have been planted in plain areas of China. Scientists have studied their benefits, almost all of the approaches were based on fixed-point data, and few was considered on the non-efficient factors and temporal scale effects. This paper studies the positive and negative benefits at a large temporal scale, and the effects of plain afforestation on stockbreeding and rural economy. The benefits of plain afforestation, correlation coefficiency of agroforestry and production factors are analyzed via stochastic frontier modeling in Huanghuaihai Plain Area of China; elastic coefficient of agroforestry, husbandry, farming, and total output of agricultural sector are calculated through adopting partial differential equation. Some conclusions can be drawn that, plain forests have an important effect on the development of plain agriculture. But shelterbelts and small-scale forests have different effect on the development of agricultural economy. Shelterbelts have negative effect on the industries, but small-scale forest has positive effect. On the whole, contribution of forest resource to value of animal husbandry and gross production value of agriculture is positive, and to the value of farming is negative.

  13. Translating medical documents into plain language enhances communication skills in medical students--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Anja; Jonietz, Ansgar; Bittner, Johannes; Beickert, Luise; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-09-01

    To train and assess undergraduate medical students' written communication skills by exercises in translating medical reports into plain language for real patients. 27 medical students participated in a newly developed communication course. They attended a 3-h seminar including a briefing on patient-centered communication and an introduction to working with the internet platform http://washabich.de. In the following ten weeks, participants "translated" one medical report every fortnight on this platform receiving feedback by a near-peer supervisor. A pre- and post-course assignment consisted of a self-assessment questionnaire on communication skills, analysis of a medical text with respect to medical jargon, and the translation of a medical report into plain language. In the self-assessment, students rated themselves in most aspects of patient-centered communication significantly higher after attending the course. After the course they marked significantly more medical jargon terms correctly than before (pcommunicative aspects (pcommunication skills and medical knowledge in undergraduate medical students. To include translation exercises in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep ocean communities impacted by changing climate over 24 y in the abyssal northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth L; Ruhl, Henry A; Kahru, Mati; Huffard, Christine L; Sherman, Alana D

    2013-12-03

    The deep ocean, covering a vast expanse of the globe, relies almost exclusively on a food supply originating from primary production in surface waters. With well-documented warming of oceanic surface waters and conflicting reports of increasing and decreasing primary production trends, questions persist about how such changes impact deep ocean communities. A 24-y time-series study of sinking particulate organic carbon (food) supply and its utilization by the benthic community was conducted in the abyssal northeast Pacific (~4,000-m depth). Here we show that previous findings of food deficits are now punctuated by large episodic surpluses of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor, which meet utilization. Changing surface ocean conditions are translated to the deep ocean, where decadal peaks in supply, remineralization, and sequestration of organic carbon have broad implications for global carbon budget projections.

  15. Property Changes of Abyssal Waters in the Western Tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrford, Josefine; Brandt, Peter; Zenk, Walter

    2017-04-01

    Flowing northward towards the equator, Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) encounters the lighter overlying North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), both water masses creating an abyssal stratification and gradually mixing across their interface. Changes in the associated water mass formation and/or along-path transformation, observable in the evolution of water mass volume and characteristics, might impact the deep oceans uptake of anthropogenic CO2 or its contribution to global sea level rise. We compile historic and recent shipboard measurements of hydrography and velocity to provide a comprehensive view on water mass distribution, pathways, along-path transformation and long-term temperature changes of abyssal waters in the western South and Equatorial Atlantic. We are able to confirm previous results showing that the northwest corner of the Brazil Basin represents a splitting point for the southward/northward flow of NADW/AABW. The available measurements sample water mass transformation along the two major routes for deep and bottom waters in the tropical to South Atlantic - along the deep western boundary and eastward, parallel to the equator - as well as the hot spots of extensive mixing. We find lower NADW and lighter AABW to form a highly interactive transition layer in the northern Brazil Basin. The AABW north of 5°S is relatively homogeneous with only lighter AABW being able to pass through the Equatorial Channel (EQCH) into the North Atlantic. Spanning a period of 26 years, our data also allow an estimation of long-term temperature trends in abyssal waters. We find a warming of 2.5 ± 0.7•10-3 °C yr-1 of the waters in the northern Brazil Basin being colder than 0.6 °C throughout the period 1989-2014 and can relate that warming to a thinning of the dense AABW layer. While isopycnal heave is the dominant effect defining the vertical distribution of temperature trends on isobars, we also find temperature changes on isopycnals in the transition layer the lower NADW

  16. Study of failure criterion of hole-notched plain Woven CFRP composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Young; Geum, In Hwa; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyungwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) is more and more using in the various fields because of a higher specific modulus, chemical property and so on. Most products using CFRP composite are manufactured by construction of components. Various independent components are joined with those by bolts and pins. Holes for bolts and pins are decreasing strength of components, because those act as notch in structures. In this paper, the fracture behavior of CFRP plain-woven composite plates containing circular holes is experimentally investigated to examine the effects of hole-size and specimen width on notched tensile strength. It is shown in this paper that the characteristic length according to the point stress criterion depends on the hole-size and specimen width. Notched tensile strength and characteristic length are shown a certain relation. Fracture criterion is redefined by this relation.

  17. Application of Time-series Model to Predict Groundwater Quality Parameters for Agriculture: (Plain Mehran Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad Mirsanjari, Mir; Mohammadyari, Fatemeh

    2018-03-01

    Underground water is regarded as considerable water source which is mainly available in arid and semi arid with deficient surface water source. Forecasting of hydrological variables are suitable tools in water resources management. On the other hand, time series concepts is considered efficient means in forecasting process of water management. In this study the data including qualitative parameters (electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio) of 17 underground water wells in Mehran Plain has been used to model the trend of parameters change over time. Using determined model, the qualitative parameters of groundwater is predicted for the next seven years. Data from 2003 to 2016 has been collected and were fitted by AR, MA, ARMA, ARIMA and SARIMA models. Afterward, the best model is determined using information criterion or Akaike (AIC) and correlation coefficient. After modeling parameters, the map of agricultural land use in 2016 and 2023 were generated and the changes between these years were studied. Based on the results, the average of predicted SAR (Sodium Adsorption Rate) in all wells in the year 2023 will increase compared to 2016. EC (Electrical Conductivity) average in the ninth and fifteenth holes and decreases in other wells will be increased. The results indicate that the quality of groundwater for Agriculture Plain Mehran will decline in seven years.

  18. Influence of Melting and Hydrothermal Alteration on Lead in Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, J. M.; D'Errico, M. E.; Godard, M.; Coble, M. A.; Horan, M.

    2017-12-01

    The lead isotopic system is a key tracer of mantle convection, yet the abundance and mineralogical hosts of Pb in the upper mantle are poorly constrained. To address this, we analyzed the concentration of Pb in minerals and bulk rock powders of abyssal peridotites. These samples represent the oceanic upper mantle following melt extraction. They can be used to explore the mantle Pb budget, assuming that the amount of Pb lost during mantle melting and gained during seafloor alteration can be determined. We performed in situ analysis of the three main silicate phases (olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene), which yield Pb concentrations of 2-30 ppb. Olivine is the main mineralogical host of Pb, unlike other trace elements, which are predominantly hosted in clinopyroxene. Sulfide contains an average of 3 ppm Pb, but these high concentrations are offset by low modal abundances (100 ppb [1, 2], measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The higher values among literature data may reflect a combination of lower analytical sensitivity and effects of alteration. Samples in this study include an unaltered peridotite from the Gakkel Ridge, which shows the closest agreement between reconstructed and measured whole rock values. We estimate that our peridotites have undergone 5 to 9% melting [3], based on non-modal fractional melt modeling of rare earth element abundances. Assuming 18 to 23 ppb Pb in the depleted source mantle [4, 5], expected concentrations in abyssal peridotites after melting are Pet.; [2] Paulick et al., 2006, Chem. Geol.; [3] D'Errico et al., 2016, GCA; [4] Salters and Stracke, 2004, G-Cubed; [5] Workman and Hart, 2005 EPSL.

  19. Visibility of different foreign bodies in the maxillofacial region using plain radiography, CT, MRI and ultrasonography: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, R; Fouladi, D F; Golamian, M; Hajalioghli, P; Daghighi, M H; Shahmorady, Z; Niknejad, M T

    2015-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of four imaging modalities in visualizing various foreign bodies of different sizes. Foreign bodies of four sizes (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mm) including metal, tooth, wood, plastic, stone, glass and graphite were embedded in six fresh sheep heads on bone surface between the corpus mandible and muscle, and inside the tongue muscle. A human dry skull served as an air-filled space. Plain radiography, CT, MRI and ultrasonography were used, and four skilled radiologists rated the findings individually. All embedded foreign bodies except wood were best visualized using CT. Wood could only be detected using ultrasonography, and then only when fragments were >0.5 mm in size. Plain radiography and CT were almost equally accurate in visualizing metal and graphite. MRI was the least useful imaging technique. In cases with suspected foreign bodies in the maxillofacial region, CT seems to be the optimal initial imaging study. Wood, however, could only be detected using ultrasonography.

  20. Analysis and Development in Method of Permissible Working Hours of Agricultural Wells in the Khorasan-e-Razavi Province- Case study: Neyshabour Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Haghayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Permissible working hours of agricultural wells in the Neyshabour plain was determined equal 4120 hours by regional water authority of Khorasan-e-Razavi. This research was conducted to introduce method of working hours of agricultural wells in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province (case study of Neyshabour plain and analyse effective parameters on working time of wells. For this purpose, the area of agronomy and horticulture crops was obtained for the years of 2001 to 2010. Water requirement of these crops was extracted from the water national document. Working hours of wells for every months would be calculated by deviding gross irrigation requirement to average hydromodul of three maximum months. The calculations to assess the effect of sowing pattern was done separately in two phases, for all crops pattern and for major crops pattern. In the thirth and forth phases, the effect of annual variation of water requirement and irrigation hydromodul were assessed on the working hours of Neyshabour plain wells. The results showed that instead of using all crops pattern, it is possible to use just major crops in calculating of working hours of wells. Annual variation of sowing pattern and water requirement in the Neyshabour plain have significant effect (95% confidence on working hours of wells. By suppose the constant area under crops in the Neyshabour plain, adjust in calculating of working hours of wells was done using measured hydromodul in the region. In adjusted method, the annual working hours showed increase averagely 440 (11% hours in compare to permissible working hours of Neyshabour plain (4120 hours. This variety in working hours of wells cause to be near to existence and realy conditions of the Neyshabour plain. In an agronomy year, it is possible to have an acceptable forcasting for working hours of regional wells by determining the sowing area of wheat and barley.

  1. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O G; Cristache, C I; Culicovc, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Szobotca, S A; Toma, M

    2009-05-01

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  2. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duliu, O.G.; Cristache, C.I.; Culicovc, O.A.; Frontasyeva, M.V.; Szobotca, S.A.; Toma, M.

    2009-01-01

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  3. Epithermal neutron activation analysis investigation of Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane clay and polymetallic micronodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duliu, O.G. [University of Bucharest, Department of Atomic and Nuclear Physics, P.O. Box MG-11, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: duliu@b.astral.ro; Cristache, C.I. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)], E-mail: ocarmen@ifin.nipne.ro; Culicovc, O.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: otilia_culicov@yahoo.com; Frontasyeva, M.V. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, 6, Joliot Curie str., 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: marina@nf.jinr.ru; Szobotca, S.A. [National Institute of Geoecology and Marine Geology, 34 Dimitrie Onciul str., 024504 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: szobi@geoecomar.ro; Toma, M. [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering ' Horia-Hulubei' , P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

    2009-05-15

    The content of seven major (Na, Al, Cl, Mn, K, Ca, Ti, Fe) and 30 trace (Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, As, Sr, Rb, Zr, Mo, Sn, In, Sb, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Eu, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) elements determined by INAA in 13 samples of abyssal clay and two samples of micronodules collected from the North pacific Ocean Clarion-Clipperton abyssal plane is presented and discussed with respect to some rocks models.

  4. Hydrogeochemical processes and geochemical modeling in a coastal aquifer: Case study of the Marathon coastal plain, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazotos, Panagiotis; Koumantakis, Ioannis; Kallioras, Andreas; Vasileiou, Eleni; Perraki, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Determining the hydrogeochemical processes has always been a challenge for scientists. The aim of this work is the study of the principal hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater quality in the Marathon coastal plain, Greece, with emphasis on the origin of the solutes. Various physicochemical parameters and major ions of twenty-five groundwater samples were analyzed. The hydrogeochemical data of groundwater were studied in order to determine the major factors controlling the chemical composition and hydrogeochemical evolution. In the Marathon coastal plain, three different zones of the alluvial granular aquifer system have been detected, considering the geochemical processes and recharge, which affect its hydrochemical characteristics. The alluvial granular aquifer system is divided eastwards into three zones: a) the natural recharge zone, b) the reverse ion exchange zone and c) the diffusion sea water zone. Cl-is the dominant anion and Na+and Ca2+ are the dominant cations, as determined by plotting the analyses on the respective Piper diagram. Near the coastline high concentrations of Na+ and Cl- were observed indicating a zone of seawater intrusion. On the other hand, westward there is increasing concentration of HCO3- with simultaneous decrease of Na+is indication of a recharge zone from karstic aquifers of the study area. Between the aforementioned zones there is an intermediate one, where reverse ion exchange takes place due to high concentrations of dissolved Na+ and Ca2+ adsorption. The saturation indices (SI) were calculated using the geochemical modeling software PHREEQC. Mineral phases of halite, sylvite, gypsum and anhydrite were estimated to be undersaturated in the water samples, suggesting these phases are minor or absent in the host rock. On the other hand, calcite, aragonite and dolomite are close to equilibrium; these minerals are present in the host rocks or in the unsaturated zone, possibly increasing the Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3

  5. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP, and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m−3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  6. Validation of the plain chest radiograph for epidemiologic studies of airflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musk, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    The chest radiographs of 125 industrial workers from rural New South Wales were examined for overinflated lungs, with and without attenuated midzonal vessels. Although the mean values of a comprehensive range of pulmonary function tests in the whole group were within normal limits, the nine subjects whose radiographs showed overinflated lungs and attenuated vessels had significantly impaired pulmonary function in comparison with 85 subjects with normal radiographs. The mean values for these nine subjects, expressed as a percentage of the mean value for subjects with normal radiographs, were: forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 75%; total lung capacity, 107%; residual volume, 143%; transpulmonary pressure at maximum inspiration, 60%; static deflation compliance, 158%; lung volume at transpulmonary pressure 10 cm H 2 O, 132%; transfer factor, 79%; and transfer factor/alveolar volume, 77%. Similar results were obtained by a second observer. Those subjects with overinflation but no vascular attenuation had significantly larger mean values for vital capacity and alveolar volume but no significant difference in total lung capacity or other tests of the mechanical properties of the lungs. Agreement on the presence of a positive sign between the two observers expressed as a percentage of those considered positive by either was 81% for overinflation and 62% for attenuated midzonal vessels. The results indicate that in groups of subjects with normal-average values of pulmonary function, the plain chest radiograph may provide information concerning pulmonary structure that is reflected in tests of function

  7. Morphological and ecological parallels between sublittoral and abyssal foraminiferal species in the NE Atlantic: a comparison of Stainforthia fusiformis and Stainforthia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooday, Andrew J.; Alve, Elisabeth

    Dead specimens of a minute fusiform rotaliid foraminifer are common in the 28-63 μm fraction of multiple corer samples from a 4850 m-deep site on the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP). Their test morphology is remarkably similar to small specimens of Stainforthia fusiformis ( Williamson, 1858), a species which is well known from coastal settings (intertidal to outer shelf) around NW Europe and North America. A detailed comparison of the PAP form with typical individuals of S. fusiformis from Norwegian waters (55-203 m depth), however, reveals slight but consistent morphological differences. The PAP specimens are smaller (test length 40-140 μm) than those from Norway (test length 80-380 μm), the chambers tend to be rather less elongate, the density of pores in the test wall is much lower, and there are differences in apertural features. We therefore conclude that the diminutive abyssal form is a distinct species, here referred to as Stainforthia sp. This interpretation is consistent with increasing evidence for genetic differentiation in deep-sea organisms, particularly along bathymetric gradients. Stainforthia sp. was previously illustrated by Pawlowski as Fursenkoina sp. and appears to be widespread and abundant in the abyssal North Atlantic (>4000 m depth). Stainforthia fusiformis, on the other hand, is most abundant in continental shelf and coastal settings. It extends onto the continental slope in the North Atlantic but has not been reported reliably from depths greater than about 2500 m. We suggest that the striking morphological convergence between these two species reflects the adoption of similar ecological strategies in widely separated habitats. Both are enrichment opportunists, a life-style which may explain the rather broad bathymetric range of Stainforthia fusiformis. This is a dominant species in organically-enriched and sometimes extremely oxygen-depleted environments on the continental shelf, and is a rapid coloniser of formerly azoic habitats. Live

  8. Evaluation of vulnerability of aquifers by improved fuzzy drastic method: Case study: Aastane Kochesfahan plain in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoome Arezoomand Omidi Langrudi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study the vulnerability of aquifer is investigated by fuzziness of the different layers. The vulnerable potential of different location within the basin by most accuracy was traced. In this method by the use of max lambda the weights of parameters were become fuzzy and quantity weights parameters has been fuzzy by the use of membership function. The quality weights were done by the discrete functions became fuzzy. The final map showed that some parts of north and northeast parts of the aquifer were most vulnerable locations. The correlation coefficient of vulnerability and nitrate concentration by standard method was estimated 49 percent and in the fuzzy method 53 percent that showed fuzzy method is more realistic. In FAHP method 13.87% of the plain area was by the low vulnerability, 11.96% by low to moderate vulnerability, 41.24% by moderate to high vulnerability, and 32.92% by high vulnerability.

  9. Lateralized odontoid in plain film radiography. Sign of fractures? A comparison study with MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, S.; Bieck, K.; Karul, M.; Schoennagel, B.; Adam, G.; Habermann, C.; Yamamura, J. [University Hospital Hamburg Eppendorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate X-ray standards for the detection of odontoid fractures. Summary of background data: Cervical spine fractures are a common finding in emergency medicine, accounting for 1 - 3 % of injuries. Involvement of the C1 / C2 complex is found in 25 % of cases, affecting the odontoid peg in 55 - 80 %. Regarding the consequences of missed fractures, radiographic techniques built the groundwork for further treatment procedures. As standardized X-ray measurements have not been established, the incidence of unrecognized cervical spine fracture is expected to be up to 20 %. The establishment of X-ray-based guidelines is also limited by the presumed low specificity and sensitivity of distance measurements caused by rotational distortion which leads to a rising popularity of CT. 79 (age 60 ± 26 yrs) patients with lateralization of the odontoid process on conventional plain film radiography (anteroposterior, lateral, and open mouth odontoid process view projection) were examined. The distance between the odontoid process and lateral mass of C1, angles of vertical odontoid line and basis of C2 were measured in the ap view. In the lateral view, dorsal alignment and atlantodental distance were assessed. MDCT examinations were used as a reference. Discriminatory power test was applied to assess significance. 8/79 (10.1 %) odontoid process fractures were found. Diagnosis was achieved on conventional radiographs in 6 patients. Neither distance and angle measurements between odontoid and C1 nor the dorsal alignment of the vertebral bodies differed significantly between healthy and affected patients. Decentralization of the odontoid process is not necessarily an indirect sign for its fracture. In patients with suspected injury of the odontoid process, an MDCT scan might be the method of choice to rule out a fracture.

  10. Preferences and actual chemotherapy decision-making in the greater plains collaborative breast cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ann M; Buzalko, Russell J; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Gardner, Bret J; Djalilova, Dilorom M; Otte, Julie L

    2017-12-01

    There is renewed interest in identifying breast cancer patients' participation in decision-making about adjuvant chemotherapy. There is a gap in the literature regarding the impact of these decisions on quality of life (QOL) and quality of care (QOC). Our aims were to determine similarities and differences in how patients diagnosed with breast cancer preferred to make decisions with providers about cancer treatment, to examine the patient's recall of her role when the decision was made about chemotherapy and to determine how preferred and actual roles, as well as congruence between them, relate to QOL and perceived QOC. Greater Plains Collaborative clinical data research network of PCORnet conducted the 'Share Thoughts on Breast Cancer' survey among women 12-18 months post-diagnosis at eight sites in seven Midwestern United States. Patients recalled their preferred and actual treatment decision-making roles and three new shared decision-making (SDM) variables were created. Patients completed QOL and QOC measurements. Correlations and t-tests were used. Of 1235 returned surveys, 873 (full sample) and 329 (subsample who received chemotherapy) were used. About one-half of women in both the full (50.7%) and subsample (49.8%,) preferred SDM with providers about treatment decisions, but only 41.2% (full) and 42.6% (subsample) reported experiencing SDM. Significant differences were found between preferred versus actual roles in the full (p decision-making variables with QOL, but there was an association with QOC. The subsample's decision-making variables related to several QOL scales and QOC items, with a more patient-centered decision than originally preferred related to higher physical and social/family well-being, overall QOL and QOC. Patients benefit from providers' efforts to identify patient preferences, encourage an active role in SDM, and tailor decision making to their desired choice.

  11. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative characterization of abyssal seafloor with transit multibeam backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Ferrini, V. L.

    2014-12-01

    The expanding volume of deep-water multibeam echosounder data provides emerging opportunities for the improved characterization of the abyssal seafloor. Nearly 500 cruises criss-cross the oceans with modern wide-swath multibeam systems, and these cruise tracks have imaged a variety of morphologic, tectonic and magmatic environments. The qualitative analysis of the seafloor backscatter data strongly suggests a local and regional variability that correlates with sediment thickness, sediment type and/or depositional environment. We present our initial attempts to develop a method that quantifies this observed seafloor backscatter variability and to explore the causes and potential implications of this variability. Our approach is rooted in the Angular Range Analysis methodology, which utilizes changes in backscatter amplitude observed as a function of grazing angle, to characterize the seafloor. The primary difference in our approach is that we do not invert for geo-acoustical parameters, but rather explores empirical relationships between geological observations and stacked slope and y-intercept values. In addition, we also include the mean and the variance of detrended backscatter measurements. Our initial results indicate intriguing relationships between backscatter parameters and the CaCO3 content of surface sediments. Seafloor regions reported to have high manganese nodule concentrations also tend to have characteristic trends in backscatter parameters. We will present these regional correlations as well as some preliminary statistical analyses of the backscatter parameters and key environmental factors.

  13. The abyssal and deep circulation of the Northeast Pacific Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional abyssal and deep circulation of the region to the east and north of the Emperor Seamount Chain/Hawaiian Ridge is determined from a compilation of CTD and Argo float data, using a new overdetermined inverse technique for the geostrophic reference velocity and diapycnal/lateral mixing coefficients. The Northeast Pacific Basin is primarily sourced from its northern boundary, at a rate of 3.5 Sv across 47°N below 3000 m. Bottom water in the western subarctic gyre recirculates cyclonically between the Emperor Seamount Chain and 155°W. Bottom water east of 155°W takes a more direct path southward along the flank of a broad topographic slope. In the deep water, a ridge of potential vorticity lying along the Mendocino Fracture Zone separates circulation systems north and south of ∼40°N. The region has very weak diapycnal and lateral mixing, and an aspect ratio for the overturning circulation that is correspondingly flat, with bottom water parcels rising less than 1 km during their long transit from the Aleutian Trench to the latitude of Hawaii.

  14. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  15. Intensity of pelagic-benthic coupling in different regions along the Antarctic Polar Front - Clues from abyssal megafauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würzberg, Laura; Zinkann, Ann-Christine; Brandt, Angelika; Janussen, Dorte; Bohn, Jens M.; Schwabe, Enrico

    2014-10-01

    The zone surrounding the Antarctic Polar Front is a region characterized by elevated seasonal primary production. Studies on the implications for the fauna inhabiting the underlying deep-sea floor, however, are rare. The present study focuses on the abundance of megafaunal organisms caught by means of an Agassiz Trawl during the SYSTem COupling in the Southern Ocean II (SYSTCO II) expedition (RV Polarstern cruise ANT XXVIII/3). Biomass estimates in terms of volume as well as species richness of echinoderms were additionally taken into account. Abyssal stations (ca. 4000 m depth) located in three different regions along the Antarctic Polar Front characterized by different primary production regimes and oceanographic features were sampled. One shallower station (337 m depth) was used as reference station. Highest megafaunal abundances were found at the shallow station (147 individuals per 1000 m2). Megafaunal abundances were low to moderate at the abyssal stations (7.2-23.5 individuals per 1000 m2) with the exception of the region northwest of South Georgia, where distinctly higher abundances were found (up to 119.7 individuals per 1000 m2). The same pattern was observed for biomass estimates. At the other regions, magnitude of megafaunal abundances and echinoderm biomasses were found not to be linked to the surface levels of primary production. This indicates that strong pelagic-benthic coupling likely occurs only downstream of South Georgia. Echinoderm species richness does not appear to be directly related to the environmental conditions as it does not differ statistically between the considered areas.

  16. Abyssal near-bottom dispersal stages of benthic invertebrates in the Clarion-Clipperton polymetallic nodule province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Oliver; Smith, Craig R.; Vetter, Eric W.

    2017-09-01

    Growing interest in polymetallic nodule mining has intensified the need to characterize the abundance, community structure and vertical flux of meroplankton in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) to facilitate the estimation of larval supply and potential connectivity of benthic populations. These ecological parameters are essential to predict recolonization processes following the expected large-scale, high intensity disturbances associated with nodule extraction. Here, we present the first description of the composition, abundance, temporal variability, and mesoscale distribution of dispersing stages of the benthos in two study areas in the eastern CCZ. Samples from free-vehicle plankton pumps showed little variation in meroplankton diversity and abundance over scales of 30-100 km for time scales of days to weeks. However, sediment-trap samples revealed high temporal variability in vertical flux over weeks to months. Larval abundances and fluxes measured in the abyssal CCZ are 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than observed at deep-sea ridge and hydrothermal-vent habitats. We found significantly higher downward larval fluxes at 11 m above the bottom (mab) than at 146 mab, indicating accumulation or retention of meroplankton within the Benthic Boundary Layer (BBL). The high abundance of meroplankton in the BBL emphasizes its importance to dispersing stages and suggests that the creation of large sediment plumes in the BBL during nodule mining could compromise the dispersal and recruitment abilities of the abyssal benthos, potentially slowing rates and altering patterns of benthic community recovery following mining disturbance.

  17. Dynamics of Melting and Melt Migration as Inferred from Incompatible Trace Element Abundance in Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    To better understand the melting processes beneath the mid-ocean ridge, we developed a simple model for trace element fractionation during concurrent melting and melt migration in an upwelling steady-state mantle column. Based on petrologic considerations, we divided the upwelling mantle into two regions: a double- lithology upper region where high permeability dunite channels are embedded in a lherzolite/harzburgite matrix, and a single-lithology lower region that consists of partially molten lherzolite. Melt generated in the single lithology region migrates upward through grain-scale diffuse porous flow, whereas melt in the lherzolite/harzburgite matrix in the double-lithology region is allowed to flow both vertically through the overlying matrix and horizontally into its neighboring dunite channels. There are three key dynamic parameters in our model: degree of melting experienced by the single lithology column (Fd), degree of melting experienced by the double lithology column (F), and a dimensionless melt suction rate (R) that measures the accumulated rate of melt extraction from the matrix to the channel relative to the accumulated rate of matrix melting. In terms of trace element fractionation, upwelling and melting in the single lithology column is equivalent to non-modal batch melting (R = 0), whereas melting and melt migration in the double lithology region is equivalent to a nonlinear combination of non-modal batch and fractional melting (0 abyssal peridotite, we showed, with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, that it is difficult to invert for all three dynamic parameters from a set of incompatible trace element data with confidence. However, given Fd, it is quite possible to constrain F and R from incompatible trace element abundances in residual peridotite. As an illustrative example, we used the simple melting model developed in this study and selected REE and Y abundance in diopside from abyssal peridotites to infer their melting and melt migration

  18. Environmental and bathymetric influences on abyssal bait-attending communities of the Clarion Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Astrid B.; Neuheimer, Anna B.; Donlon, Erica; Smith, Craig R.; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2017-07-01

    The Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) is one of the richest manganese nodule provinces in the world and has recently become a focus area for manganese nodule mining interests. However, this vast area remains poorly studied and highly undersampled. In this study, the abyssal bait-attending fauna is documented for the first time using a series of baited camera deployments in various locations across the CCZ. A bait-attending community intermediate between those typical of the California margin and Hawaii was found in the larger CCZ area, generally dominated by rattail fishes, dendrobranchiate shrimp, and zoarcid and ophidiid fishes. Additionally, the western and eastern ends of the CCZ had different communities, with the western region characterized by decreased dominance of rattails and small shrimps and increased dominance of ophidiids (especially Bassozetus sp. and Barathrites iris) and large shrimps. This trend may be related to increasing distance from the continental margin. We also test the hypothesis that bait-attending communities change across the CCZ in response to key environmental predictors, especially topography and nodule cover. Our analyses showed that higher nodule cover and elevated topography, as quantified using the benthic positioning index (BPI), increase bait-attending community diversity. Elevated topography generally had higher relative abundances, but taxa also showed differing responses to the BPI metric and bottom temperature, causing significant community compositional change over varying topography and temperatures. Larger individuals of the dominant scavenger in the CCZ, Coryphaenoides spp., were correlated with areas of higher nodule cover and with abyssal hills, suggesting these areas may be preferred habitat. Our results suggest that nodule cover is important to all levels of the benthic ecosystem and that nodule mining could have negative impacts on even the top-level predators and scavengers in the CCZ. Additionally, there is

  19. The Horoman Peridotite Massif: an Example of Ancient Ultraslow-Spreading Ridge Abyssal Peridotites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N.; Warren, J. M.; Frey, F. A.; Takazawa, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraslow-spreading ridges (full spreading rate less than 20 mm per year) comprise about one third (lengthwise) of the global ridge system today, and might also have been important in the geologic past, particularly after breakup of large continents. Geochemical studies of abyssal peridotites show that large local- scale (single-dredge to hand specimen scales) variations in isotopic composition, modal abundance of clinopyroxene (CPX), and trace element abundance in CPX are distinct characteristics of ultraslow-spreading ridge peridotites. It is suggested that these local-scale variabilities are produced by melt-rock reaction during melt migration in the mantle (e.g., Warren et al., 2006). We explored using these geochemical characteristics to identify ancient ultraslow-spreading ridge peridotites among "orogenic lherzolite massifs". The Horoman peridotite massif in Hokkaido, Japan, possesses DMM-like initial Nd and Sr isotopic characteristics at the time of melt extraction, and displays large variations in modal CPX (13.2 - 5.2%, only for lherzolites and plagioclase lherzolites) and in trace elements in CPX (e.g., Nd ranges from 0.3 to 10 times C1 chondrite) over a sampling scale length of 150 m. Additionally, there is ample evidence for chromatographic melt-rock reaction in the presence of garnet (Takazawa et al., 1996; Yoshikawa and Nakamura, 2000). These geochemical characteristics are very similar to those observed for the present-day ultraslow-spreading ridge peridotites such as those from the SWIR and Gakkel ridge. A whole-rock Sm-Nd isochron age for the plagioclase lherzolites of 830+/-78 Ma (Yoshikawa and Nakamura, 2000) and a suggestion by Saal et al. (2001) that refertilization of depleted peridotites by a MORB-like magma occurred around 900 Ma, based on the Re-Os systematics, indicate that melt extraction and melt-rock reaction formed the Horoman peridotite massif at 800 to 900 Ma. This time is similar to that, 750 Ma, estimated for formation of the

  20. Origin of salt giants in abyssal serpentinite systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Vittorio; Carbone, Serafina; Manuella, Fabio C.; Hovland, Martin; Rueslåtten, Håkon; Johnsen, Hans-K.

    2017-10-01

    Worldwide marine salt deposits ranging over the entire geological record are generally considered climate-related evaporites, derived from the precipitation of salts (mainly chlorides and sulfates) from saturated solutions driven by solar evaporation of seawater. This explanation may be realistic for a salt thickness ≤100 m, being therefore inadequate for thicker (>1 km) deposits. Moreover, sub-seafloor salt deposits in deep marine basins are difficult to reconcile with a surface evaporation model. Marine geology reports on abyssal serpentinite systems provide an alternative explanation for some salt deposits. Seawater-driven serpentinization consumes water and increases the salinity of the associated aqueous brines. Brines can be trapped in fractures and cavities in serpentinites and the surrounding `country' rocks. Successive thermal dehydration of buried serpentinites can mobilize and accumulate the brines, forming highly saline hydrothermal solutions. These can migrate upwards and erupt onto the seafloor as saline geysers, which may form salt-saturated water pools, as are currently observed in numerous deeps in the Red Sea and elsewhere. The drainage of deep-seated saline brines to seafloor may be a long-lasting, effective process, mainly occurring in areas characterized by strong tectonic stresses and/or igneous intrusions. Alternatively, brines could be slowly expelled from fractured serpentinites by buoyancy gradients and, hence, separated salts/brines could intrude vertically into surrounding rocks, forming salt diapirs. Serpentinization is an ubiquitous, exothermic, long-lasting process which can modify large volumes of oceanic lithosphere over geological times. Therefore, buried salt deposits in many areas of the world can be reasonably related to serpentinites.

  1. Water Quality Pollution Indices to Assess the Heavy Metal Contamination, Case Study: Groundwater Resources of Asadabad Plain In 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, tow documented methods: the Heavy metal potential index (HPI and the Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI were evaluated for their suitability for contamination monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu contamination in groundwater resources of Asadabad Plain during spring and summer in 2012. Materials & Methods: In this analytical observational study, concentrations of heavy metals have been evaluated at 30 important groundwater sampling stations. For this purpose, collect samples in pre-cleaned, acid-soaked polyethylene bottles. Add 2 mL conc HNO3/L sample and mix well. Cap tightly and store in refrigerator until ready for analysis. Metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma- optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Results: The results showed that mean concentrations of As, Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu in groundwater samples in spring season were 52.53±13.62, 15.51±23.45, 10.10±2.80, 4.48±1.80 and 8.63±10.87 μg l−1, respectively and in summer season were 57.60±16.90, 14.99±17.66, 9.28±2.46, 4.57±1.73 and 10.45±10.30 μg l−1, respectively. Therefore the mean values of indices in samples from spring and summer seasons were 25.61 and 27.28 respectively for HPI and were 9.29 and 8.88 respectively for HEI, and indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Thus, the mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Conclusions: Despite of the heavy metal pollution of the groundwater resources in Asadabad Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but the irregular and long-term usage of agricultural inputs, use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, over use of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries can threaten the groundwater resources of this

  2. Genotype-Phenotype Study of the Middle Gangetic Plain in India Shows Association of rs2470102 with Skin Pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anshuman; Nizammuddin, Sheikh; Mallick, Chandana Basu; Singh, Sakshi; Prakash, Satya; Siddiqui, Niyamat Ali; Rai, Niraj; Carlus, S Justin; Sudhakar, Digumarthi V S; Tripathi, Vishnu P; Möls, Märt; Kim-Howard, Xana; Dewangan, Hemlata; Mishra, Abhishek; Reddy, Alla G; Roy, Biswajit; Pandey, Krishna; Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Das, Pradeep; Nath, Swapan K; Singh, Lalji; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Our understanding of the genetics of skin pigmentation has been largely skewed towards populations of European ancestry, imparting less attention to South Asian populations, who behold huge pigmentation diversity. Here, we investigate skin pigmentation variation in a cohort of 1,167 individuals in the Middle Gangetic Plain of the Indian subcontinent. Our data confirm the association of rs1426654 with skin pigmentation among South Asians, consistent with previous studies, and also show association for rs2470102 single nucleotide polymorphism. Our haplotype analyses further help us delineate the haplotype distribution across social categories and skin color. Taken together, our findings suggest that the social structure defined by the caste system in India has a profound influence on the skin pigmentation patterns of the subcontinent. In particular, social category and associated single nucleotide polymorphisms explain about 32% and 6.4%, respectively, of the total phenotypic variance. Phylogeography of the associated single nucleotide polymorphisms studied across 52 diverse populations of the Indian subcontinent shows wide presence of the derived alleles, although their frequencies vary across populations. Our results show that both polymorphisms (rs1426654 and rs2470102) play an important role in the skin pigmentation diversity of South Asians. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ experimental evidence of the fate of a phytodetritus pulse at the abyssal sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, U.; Wenzhofer, F.; Sommer, S.

    2003-01-01

    More than 50% of the Earth's surface is sea floor below 3,000 m of water. Most of this major reservoir in the global carbon cycle and final repository for anthropogenic wastes is characterized by severe food limitation. Phytodetritus is the major food source for abyssal benthic communities...... very important for initial carbon degradation. The retarded response of bacteria and Foraminifera, the restriction of microbial carbon degradation to the sediment surface, and the low total carbon turnover distinguish abyssal from continental-slope 'deep-sea' sediments....

  4. Northern Plains Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    22 December 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows three circular features on the martian northern plains near 70.7oN, 311.7oW. These circular features are the locations of meteor impact craters that have been buried beneath the plains. Much of the northern plains shares this story, in which thousands of old craters have been filled or partially filled and then thinly buried beneath textured plains. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  5. Seasonal variation of antibiotics concentration in the aquatic environment: a case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Li, Yonggang; Deng, Yamin; Guo, Wei; Gan, Yiqun

    2015-09-15

    25 antibiotics (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides) were detected in swine wastewater, river water, rivulet water and in groundwater samples from multi-level monitoring boreholes (with sampling ports, respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m below the land surface) at Jianghan Plain, central China. Except swine wastewater, the antibiotic concentrations in groundwater, river and rivulet water were higher in spring than those in winter. Nineteen antibiotics were detected at 100% frequencies in all kinds of water samples. In groundwater, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines were the predominant antibiotics and the total concentrations of 25 antibiotics commonly decreased with the aquifer depth. Most groundwater samples collected in spring had high concentrations of norfloxacin, with average values of 65.27 ng · L(-1), 37.28 ng · L(-1) and 46.83 ng · L(-1), respectively, at 10, 25 and 50 m deep boreholes. By contrast, the concentrations of sulfamethazine and erythromycin were rather low in groundwater, but high in surface water. Groundwater samples collected from sites close to rivers or rivulets had much higher contents of antibiotics than those from other sites, indicating that the dominant source of antibiotics in groundwater should be the contaminated rivers or rivulets, rather than the scattered pig and poultry farms in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radon and thoron levels, their spatial and seasonal variations in adobe dwellings - a case study at the great Hungarian plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Jordan, Gyozo; Szabó, Csaba; Horváth, Ákos; Holm, Óskar; Kocsy, Gábor; Csige, István; Szabó, Péter; Homoki, Zsolt

    2014-06-01

    Radon and thoron isotopes are responsible for approximately half of the average annual effective dose to humans. Although the half-life of thoron is short, it can potentially enter indoor air from adobe walls. Adobe was a traditional construction material in the Great Hungarian Plain. Its major raw materials are the alluvial sediments of the area. Here, seasonal radon and thoron activity concentrations were measured in 53 adobe dwellings in 7 settlements by pairs of etched track detectors. The results show that the annual average radon and thoron activity concentrations are elevated in these dwellings and that the proportions with values higher than 300 Bq m(-3) are 14-17 and 29-32% for radon and thoron, respectively. The calculated radon inhalation dose is significantly higher than the world average value, exceeding 10 mSv y(-1) in 7% of the dwellings of this study. Thoron also can be a significant contributor to the inhalation dose with about 30% in the total inhalation dose. The changes of weather conditions seem to be more relevant in the variation of measurement results than the differences in the local sedimentary geology. Still, the highest values were detected on clay. Through the year, radon follows the average temperature changes and is affected by the ventilation, whereas thoron rather seems to follow the amount of precipitation.

  7. Development of relative risk model for regional groundwater risk assessment: a case study in the lower Liaohe River Plain, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianbo; Zuo, Rui; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng; Wang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Increasing pressure on water supply worldwide, especially in arid areas, has resulted in groundwater overexploitation and contamination, and subsequent deterioration of the groundwater quality and threats to public health. Environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater is an important tool for groundwater protection. This study presents a new approach for assessing the environmental risk assessment of regional groundwater. It was carried out with a relative risk model (RRM) coupled with a series of indices, such as a groundwater vulnerability index, which includes receptor analysis, risk source analysis, risk exposure and hazard analysis, risk characterization, and management of groundwater. The risk map is a product of the probability of environmental contamination and impact. The reliability of the RRM was verified using Monte Carlo analysis. This approach was applied to the lower Liaohe River Plain (LLRP), northeastern China, which covers 23604 km2. A spatial analysis tool within GIS which was used to interpolate and manipulate the data to develop environmental risk maps of regional groundwater, divided the level of risk from high to low into five ranks (V, IV, III, II, I). The results indicate that areas of relative risk rank (RRR) V cover 2324 km2, covering 9.8% of the area; RRR IV covers 3986 km2, accounting for 16.9% of the area. It is a new and appropriate method for regional groundwater resource management and land use planning, and is a rapid and effective tool for improving strategic decision making to protect groundwater and reduce environmental risk.

  8. Effects of first exposure to plain cigarette packaging on smoking behaviour and attitudes: a randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-03-13

    Plain packaging requires tobacco products to be sold in packs with a standard shape, method of opening and colour, leaving the brand name in a standard font and location. We ran a randomised controlled trial to investigate the impact of plain packaging on smoking behaviour and attitudes. In a parallel group randomised trial design, 128 daily smokers smoked cigarettes from their usual UK brand, or a plain Australian brand that was closely matched to their usual UK brand for 24 hours. Primary outcomes were number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ratings of motivation to quit, cigarette taste, experience of using the pack, experience of smoking, attributes of the pack, perceptions of the health warning, changes in smoking behaviour, and views on plain packaging. There was no evidence that pack type had an effect on either of the primary measures (ps > 0.279). However, smokers using plain cigarette packs rated the experience of using the pack more negatively (-0.52, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.22, p = 0.001), rated the pack attributes more negatively (-1.59, 95% CI -1.80 to -1.39, p < 0.001), and rated the health warning as more impactful (+0.51, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.78, p < 0.001). Plain cigarette packs reduce ratings of the experience of using the cigarette pack, and ratings of the pack attributes, and increase the self-perceived impact of the health warning, but do not change smoking behaviour, at least in the short term. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308. Registered 27 June 2013.

  9. Strong Flows of Bottom Water in Abyssal Channels of the Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, E. G.

    Analysis of bottom water transport through the abyssal channels of the Atlantic Ocean is presented. The study is based on recent observations in the Russian expeditions and historical data. A strong flow of Antarctic Bottom Water from the Argentine Basin to the Brazil Basin through the Vema Channel is observed on the basis of lowered profilers and anchored buoys with current meters. The further flow of bottom water in the Brazil Basin splits in the northern part of the basin. Part of the bottom water flows to the East Atlantic through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones. The other part follows the bottom topography and flows to the northwester into the North American Basin. Part of the northwesterly flow propagates through the Vema Fracture Zone into the Northeastern Atlantic. This flow generally fills the bottom layer in the Northeastern Atlantic basins. The flows of bottom waters through the Romanche and Chain fracture zones do not spread to the Northeast Atlantic due to strong mixing in the equatorial zone and enhanced transformation of bottom water properties.

  10. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowlam, S.; Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I.; Yiannakou, Y.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically

  11. Blinded comparison of faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowlam, S. [Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland (United Kingdom); Vinayagam, R.; Khan, U.; Marsden, S.; Minty, I.; Moncur, P.; Bain, I. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom); Yiannakou, Y.J. [University Hospital of North Durham, Durham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yan.yiannakou@cddft.nhs.uk

    2008-12-15

    Aim: To compare faecal loading on plain radiography versus radio-opaque marker transit studies in the assessment of constipation. Methods: The study group was a convenience sample of patients attending the Durham Constipation Clinic. All patients underwent transit studies according to an established protocol, and severity of constipation was assessed contemporaneously using a validated questionnaire (PAC-SYM). Transit studies were performed using radio-opaque markers that were ingested over 3 consecutive days, with a radiograph taken on the fourth day. Digital images of the radiograph were digitally altered to remove all traces of the transit markers without affecting the underlying pattern of faecal loading. Four observers assessed faecal loading independently; two clinicians (C1 and C2) and two radiologists (R1 and R2). C1 and R1 used a previously described formal scoring method of assessing faecal loading, whereas C2 and R2 assessed the images as if they were in a clinic or reporting session, grading the faecal loading as mild, moderate, or severe. Results: One hundred patients were recruited out of 186 presenting in a 2-year period. All patients completed assessments. The correlation between observers was only fair to moderate (r ranging from 0.34-0.51). There were some surprisingly marked disagreements in 10-18% of assessments. The correlation between faecal loading and transit was weak for all observers (r ranging from 0.261-0.311). Symptom severity did not correlate with faecal loading. Conclusion: These results suggest that there is considerable inter-observer variation in the radiological assessment of faecal loading, irrespective of the training or method used by the observer, and that there is very poor correlation with colonic transit. The diagnosis of constipation, and the assessment of severity, is best performed clinically.

  12. Oxygen Fugacity of Abyssal Peridotites Along the Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, M.; Birner, S.; Cottrell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The oxygen budget of the Earth's mantle is important in understanding how our planet evolves chemically over time. The Gakkel Ridge is the world's slowest spreading ridge [1], and exposes peridotites along its axis that record the activity of oxygen in the upper mantle. Our samples comprise relatively fertile lherzolites and harzburgites (Cr#=0.13-0.17, 3.1-8.3% modal cpx [2]) as well as refractory harzburgites (Cr#=0.43-0.55, 0.2-1.0% modal cpx [2]). Using spinel peridotite oxygen barometry [3], we calculated the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of a suite of 10 peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge in order to investigate how melt processes affect the oxygen budget of the Earth's interior. We show that the low-Cr# lherzolites and harzburgites range from -0.1 to +0.6 log units relative to the QFM buffer, consistent with the global abyssal peridotite array, whereas high-Cr# refractory harzburgites have low fO2 values, ranging from -0.7 to -2.7 log units below QFM, with the most refractory samples falling significantly lower than the global array. Because D'Errico et al. (submitted) interprets the refractory samples as recording ancient melt extraction, the low fO2 recorded by these samples may originate in the geologic past, perhaps even in a different tectonic setting. While LREE enrichment in the refractory harzburgites [2] provides evidence for refertilization by an infiltrating melt that could have recently imprinted reducing conditions, we see no corresponding increase in TiO2 content in the spinels, which weakens this hypothesis. Further research on additional refractory harzburgites is needed to constrain whether the reduced nature of these samples is telling us something about the effect of extreme melt extraction on fO2 at ridges, or whether these samples record a unique history that obscures processes operating at ridges today. [1] Coakley and Cochran, EPSL (1998), [2] D'Errico et al., submitted, [3] Bryndzia and Wood, American Journal of Science (1990)

  13. Feature Selection as a Time and Cost-Saving Approach for Land Suitability Classification (Case Study of Shavur Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamzeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability classification is important in planning and managing sustainable land use. Most approaches to land suitability analysis combine a large number of land and soil parameters, and are time-consuming and costly. In this study, a potentially useful technique (combined feature selection and fuzzy-AHP method to increase the efficiency of land suitability analysis was presented. To this end, three different feature selection algorithms—random search, best search and genetic methods—were used to determine the most effective parameters for land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the Shavur Plain, southwest Iran. Next, land suitability classes were calculated for all methods by using the fuzzy-AHP approach. Salinity (electrical conductivity (EC, alkalinity (exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, wetness and soil texture were selected using the random search method. Gypsum, EC, ESP, and soil texture were selected using both the best search and genetic methods. The result shows a strong agreement between the standard fuzzy-AHP methods and methods presented in this study. The values of Kappa coefficients were 0.82, 0.79 and 0.79 for the random search, best search and genetic methods, respectively, compared with the standard fuzzy-AHP method. Our results indicate that EC, ESP, soil texture and wetness are the most effective features for evaluating land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the study area, and uses of these parameters, together with their appropriate weights as obtained from fuzzy-AHP, can perform good results for land suitability classification. So, the combined feature selection presented and the fuzzy-AHP approach has the potential to save time and money for land suitability classification.

  14. Non-chondritic HSE budget in Earth's upper mantle evidenced by abyssal peridotites from Gakkel ridge (Arctic Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Zhou; Snow, Jonathan E.; Brügmann, Gerhard; Hellebrand, Eric; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    2009-06-01

    Constraints on the highly siderophile element (HSE: including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd and Re) budget of the upper mantle upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridges have until now been based on samples that have experienced varying degrees of alteration, partial melting and secondary igneous processes. Here we present results from a set of abyssal peridotites that have been relatively unaffected by these phenomena. Eighteen abyssal peridotites from two localities along the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) were selected for this study. Samples from one locality (PS66-238) are extremely fresh, while those from HLY0102-D70 are typical abyssal serpentinites. Comparison of HSE data between fresh peridotites and weathering products supports the contention that HSE are stable during serpentinization, but that Pd and Re are mobile during subsequent weathering. HSE budgets of spinel lherzolites suggest that all platinum group elements (PGEs: including Os, Ir, Ru, Pt and Pd) are compatible during very low degree of partial melting (5-8%), whereas Re behaves as an incompatible element. Harzburgites from each locality were subjected to ~ 12% fractional partial melting, which is lower than that expected for total consumption of sulfides in mantle peridotites (ca. 16%). The harzburgites are depleted in PPGE (Pt, Pd) and Re relative to IPGE (Os, Ir, Ru), which reflects the extraction of sulfide melt along with the silicate melt. Low bulk-rock contents of both Na 2O and TiO 2 in the fresh PS66-238 lherzolites indicate that they were not transformed from harzburgites through melt refertilization, but represent pristine fertile mantle rocks. Their systematic suprachondritic Ru/Ir and Pd/Ir ratios, but chondritic Pt/Ir ratios, cannot be ascribed to partial melting or secondary igneous processes. This signature may reflect the primary HSE signature of the Earth's upper mantle. Non-chondritic HSE patterns discovered in PS66-238 lherzolites are consistent with the primitive upper

  15. A comparative study on effect of plain- and wavy-wall confinement ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Deepakkumar

    -wall confinement, whereas, to the best knowledge of the authors, the study of flow characteristics with wavy-wall cross confinement is lim- ited. In particular, this is the first attempt for identifying the wake characteristics of cylinder confined by ...

  16. Plain radiography in children with spoke wheel injury: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaar, Annelie; Karsten, Ingrid H. C. M.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Maas, Mario; Bakx, Roel; van Rijn, Rick R.; Schep, Niels W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle spoke injury (BSI) mostly occurs in children as a result of entrapment of the leg in the bicycle spokes. No guideline or protocol exists that defines what type of radiography is indicated to diagnose or rule out a fracture commonly associated with these injuries. The aim of this study was

  17. DOE ZERH Case Study: Hammer and Hand, Pumpkin Ridge Passive House, North Plains, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning custom home in the marine climate that got a HERS 49 without PV, or HERS 5 with PV, with 2x4 24” on center walls plus 8” exterior cavity together dense-packed with R-60 cellulose; daylight basement with R-29 rigid EPS foam under slab; vented attic with R-86 blown cellulose; minisplit heat pump; ducted with HRV; 15.5 SEER; 10 HSPF.

  18. Assessing the Impact of Air Pollution on Grain Yield of Winter Wheat - A Case Study in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Sun, Hongyong; Feike, Til; Zhang, Xiying; Shao, Liwei; Chen, Suying

    2016-01-01

    The major wheat production region of China the North China Plain (NCP) is seriously affected by air pollution. In this study, yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed with respect to the potential impact of air pollution index under conditions of optimal crop management in the NCP from 2001 to 2012. Results showed that air pollution was especially serious at the early phase of winter wheat growth significantly influencing various weather factors. However, no significant correlations were found between final grain yield and the weather factors during the early growth phase. In contrast, significant correlations were found between grain yield and total solar radiation gap, sunshine hour gap, diurnal temperature range and relative humidity during the late growing phase. To disentangle the confounding effects of various weather factors, and test the isolated effect of air pollution induced changes in incoming global solar radiation on yield under ceteris paribus conditions, crop model based scenario-analysis was conducted. The simulation results of the calibrated Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model indicated that a reduction in radiation by 10% might cause a yield reduction by more than 10%. Increasing incident radiation by 10% would lead to yield increases of (only) 7%, with the effects being much stronger during the late growing phase compared to the early growing phase. However, there is evidence that APSIM overestimates the effect of air pollution induced changes on radiation, as it does not consider the changes in radiative properties of solar insulation, i.e. the relative increase of diffuse over direct radiation, which may partly alleviate the negative effects of reduced total radiation by air pollution. Concluding, the present study could not detect a significantly negative effect of air pollution on wheat yields in the NCP.

  19. Metabolic enzyme activities of abyssal and hadal fishes: pressure effects and a re-evaluation of depth-related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerringer, M. E.; Drazen, J. C.; Yancey, P. H.

    2017-07-01

    Metabolic enzyme activities of muscle tissue have been useful and widely-applied indicators of whole animal metabolic capacity, particularly in inaccessible systems such as the deep sea. Previous studies have been conducted at atmospheric pressure, regardless of organism habitat depth. However, maximum reaction rates of some of these enzymes are pressure dependent, complicating the use of metabolic enzyme activities as proxies of metabolic rates. Here, we show pressure-related rate changes in lactate and malate dehydrogenase (LDH, MDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in six fish species (2 hadal, 2 abyssal, 2 shallow). LDH maximal reaction rates decreased with pressure for the two shallow species, but, in contrast to previous findings, it increased for the four deep species, suggesting evolutionary changes in LDH reaction volumes. MDH maximal reaction rates increased with pressure in all species (up to 51±10% at 60 MPa), including the tide pool snailfish, Liparis florae (activity increase at 60 MPa 44±9%), suggesting an inherent negative volume change of the reaction. PK was inhibited by pressure in all species tested, including the hadal liparids (up to 34±3% at 60 MPa), suggesting a positive volume change during the reaction. The addition of 400 mM TMAO counteracted this inhibition at both 0.5 and 2.0 mM ADP concentrations for the hadal liparid, Notoliparis kermadecensis. We revisit depth-related trends in metabolic enzyme activities according to these pressure-related rate changes and new data from seven abyssal and hadal species from the Kermadec and Mariana trenches. Results show that, with abyssal and hadal species, pressure-related rate changes are another variable to be considered in the use of enzyme activities as proxies for metabolic rate, in addition to factors such as temperature and body mass. Intraspecific increases in tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes with depth of capture, independent of body mass, in two hadal snailfishes suggest improved nutritional

  20. Vitamin D and plain type: a study of male patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, N. L.; Effendy, E.; Amin, MM

    2018-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder in which there is an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Evidence related to vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia is aresidence. Because influenced by geographical location this can affect sun exposure to individuals living in the area because the source of vitamin D for humans is exposure to sunlight. For determining differences in serum levels of vitamin D based on residence in the highland and lowland male schizophrenic patient. This study was an analytical study, by RS Jiwa Prof. dr. M. Ildrem Medan, approach to see the comparison 60 samples (30 patients live in the Highland and Lowland). Sample inspection for serum vitamin D using ELFA method. The results showed median levels of vitamin D subjects living in high land Tanah Karo was 22.20ng/mL with minimum-maximum levels of 19.3-34.5ng/mL and in the low land Pemko Medan vitamin D levels higher with median 27.95ng/mL with the minimum-maximum level of vitamin D 20.4-42.6ng/mL. Analysis using the Mann Whitney U test showed significant differences between the levels of vitamin D based on residence with a value of p = 0.001.

  1. An Observational Study on Quantifying the Distance of Supercell-Boundary Interaction in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Kathleen Marie

    Several case studies and numerical simulations have confirmed that baroclinic boundaries provide enhanced horizontal and vertical vorticity, wind shear, helicity, and moisture that induce stronger updrafts, higher reflectivity, and stronger low-level rotation in supercells. However, the distance at which a boundary will provide such enhancement is less well-defined. Previous studies have identified distances ranging from 5 km to 200 km, and only focused on tornadogenesis rather than all forms of severe weather. To better aid short-term forecasts, the actual distances at which supercells produce severe weather in proximity to a boundary needs to be assessed. In this study, the distance between a large number of supercells and nearby surface boundaries (including warm fronts, stationary fronts, and outflow boundaries) is measured throughout the lifetime of each storm; the distance at which associated reports of large hail, strong winds, and tornadoes is also collected. Data is gathered from SPC storm reports, WPC surface analyses, ASOS archives, and NCDC radar archives. The Integrated Data Viewer (IDV) from Unidata is used to analyze the distance of the supercell from the boundary every twenty minutes. These distances are then used to interpolate the distance at which severe and significantly severe reports occurred; reports are grouped by severe type (tornado, hail, or wind), then by boundary type (warm front, stationary front, or outflow). Using these distributions, the range from the boundary at which each type of severe weather is produced is identified per boundary type to assist forecasters. Overall, the range at which tornadoes are more likely to be produced is generally closer to the boundary than hail and wind reports for all three boundary types, likely owing to the enhanced helicity present near a boundary. Statistical analyses are used to assess the sensitivity of report distributions to report type, boundary type, distance from the boundary, and boundary

  2. Is there a relationship between abyssal scleractinian corals and the global oceanic conveyor belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, N. B.; Oskina, N. S.; Savilova, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    The investigation data on Scleractinia of the abyssal zone have been generalized. Based on an analysis of maps of the distribution pattern of these corals, it can be concluded that there is a close correlation between the spread of their species and the position of the ocean currents that form the global oceanic conveyor belt. The maps were compiled from published and our own data collected on expeditions of the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. We analyzed data on 106 stations. The location of the global oceanic conveyor belt was shown in the maps. The distribution pattern of abyssal coral species confirms our assumption that there are two possible ways of origin of abyssal fauna. We suppose that the genera Fungiacyathus and Leptopenus are ancient and have evolved in deep oceanic layers, while the species D. parvulus obviously originated from shallow-water ancestors and then migrated deep into the abyssal zone as a result of the transition to neotenic development.

  3. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, subsidies are the amounts of government payments in order to provide all society members with minimum well-being. In several countries such as Iran, the agriculture sector is supported by different methods to achieve goals such as increasing farmers' income, supporting domestic producers and eliminating dependence on imports, preserving employment and reducing poverty. A significant part of agriculture subsidies has been allocated to energy resources, chemical fertilizers, seeds, agriculture machines, vaccines, animal toxins, the interest on bank loans, insurance fees, certain airplane services, distributing young saplings, and government guaranteed purchase of products. However, examining the subsidies system in Iran reveals that most government payments are in the agriculture sector and more specifically on energy resources. Recently, the extra low cost of energy in the agriculture sector, which has had certain government supports, has resulted in low productivity and environmental damage, and has resulted in increased demand for agricultural products due to population growth, changes in life pattern, deviation in energy cost in agricultural sector, environment destruction and influences on sustainable agriculture indicators. Moreover, among different production units, agriculture has the closest relationship with the environment. This relationship is a mutual.On the one hand, erosion and destruction of the environment along with pollution growth and shortage of water resources negatively influences the production and efficiency of agricultural products, and on the other hand, agricultural pollutants and irregular use of chemical fertilizers in this sector impose indispensable damages to the environment.This study aims to apply a partial equilibrium model in order to examine direct and indirect effects of reduction of energy subsidies on economic and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability in the Qorveh

  4. Study on modernization processes in the coating metal surfaces (plain bearings by thermal spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IRIMIE

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge accumulated within the metal coating through thermal spraying allows the understanding of aspects related to the coat structure phenomena, in this case of the routs that need to be followed in order to create strong and stabile connections between the coats subsided through thermal spraying, between the particles that compose those coats, respectively. However, all this knowledge does not ensure the understanding of some practical situations that are apparently paradoxes, as for instance the absence of tin bronze adherence to ignobly steel holders, the perfect adherence of bronze to the aluminum on the same types of holders, in the context in which both elements, tin and aluminum, respectively are found in equal quantity in the two type of bonze that maintain them in solid solutions (below 10%.The parallel study in the sinter antifriction domain has offered information regarding the optimal correlation between the composition of antifriction material and the required type of application, the optimal pinches level and the way that this morphological characteristic may be influenced. By experimental research it is necessary to determine the conditions under which such coverage can be obtained by thermal spraying of the metal coatings.

  5. Study of Aerosol Liquid Water Content based on Hygroscopicity Measurements at High Relative Humidity in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y.; Zhao, C.

    2013-12-01

    Aerosol has significant effects on direct/indirect climate forcing, visibility, tropospheric chemistry and human health. Water can represent an extensive proportion of the mass of aerosol particles, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particulate matter. In this study, a new method is proposed to estimate the aerosol liquid water content at high relative humidity, based on aerosol hygroscopic growth factors, particle number size distribution and relative humidity measured during the Haze in China (HaChi) campaign of July-August, 2009. The aerosol liquid water content estimated by this method is compared to the results calculated by a thermodynamic equilibrium model (ISORROPIA II). The calculation results from these two methods agree well at high relative humidity above 60% with the correlation coefficient of 0.9658. At relative humidity lower than 60%, the thermodynamic equilibrium model underestimates the aerosol liquid water content. The discrepancy is mainly caused by the ISORROPIA II model, which considers only limited chemical species. The mean and maximum value of aerosol liquid water content during July-August, 2009 in the North China Plain reached 1.69×10^{-4}g/m^3 and 9.71×10^{-4}g/m^3, respectively. Aerosol liquid water content is highly related to the relative humidity. There exists a distinct diurnal variation of the aerosol liquid water content, with lower values during daytime and higher ones during night time. The contribution to the aerosol liquid water content from the accumulation mode is dominating among all the aerosol particle modes.

  6. Impact of crop field burning and mountains on heavy haze in the North China Plain: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Long

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the provincial statistical data and crop field burning (CFB activities captured by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, we extracted a detailed CFB emission inventory in the North China Plain (NCP. The WRF-CHEM model was applied to investigate the impact of CFB on air pollution during the period from 6 to 12 October 2014, corresponding to a heavy haze incident with high concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm. The WRF-CHEM model generally performed well in simulating the surface species concentrations of PM2.5, O3 and NO2 compared to the observations; in addition, it reasonably reproduced the observed temporal variations of wind speed, wind direction and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH. It was found that the CFB that occurred in southern NCP (SNCP had a significant effect on PM2.5 concentrations locally, causing a maximum of 34 % PM2.5 increase. Under continuous southerly wind conditions, the CFB pollution plume went through a long-range transport to northern NCP (NNCP; with several mega cities, including Beijing, the capital city of China, where few CFBs occurred, resulting in a maximum of 32 % PM2.5 increase. As a result, the heavy haze in Beijing was enhanced by the CFB, which occurred in SNCP. Mountains also play significant roles in enhancing the PM2.5 pollution in NNCP through the blocking effect. The mountains blocked and redirected the airflows, causing the pollutant accumulations along the foothills of mountains. This study suggests that the prohibition of CFB should be strict not only in or around Beijing, but also on the ulterior crop growth areas of SNCP. PM2.5 emissions in SNCP should be significantly limited in order to reduce the occurrences of heavy haze events in the NNCP region.

  7. Determination of hydrogeological conditions in large unconfined aquifer: A case study in central Drava plain (NE Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keršmanc, Teja; Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-04-01

    In several countries, many unregulated landfills exits which releasing harmful contaminations to the underlying aquifer. The Kidričevo industrial complex is located in southeastern part of Drava plain in NW Slovenia. In the past during the production of alumina and aluminum approximately 11.2 million tons of wastes were deposit directly on the ground on two landfills covering an area of 61 hectares. Hydrogeological studies were intended to better characterized conditions bellow the landfill. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of Quaternary unconfined aquifer were analyzed with lithological characterization of well logs and cutting debris and XRF diffraction of silty sediments on 9 boreholes. Hydrogeological conditions: hydraulic permeability aquifer was determined with hydraulic tests and laboratory grain size analyses where empirical USBR and Hazen methods were applied. Dynamics of groundwater was determined by groundwater contour maps and groundwater level fluctuations. The impact of landfill was among chemical analyses of groundwater characterised by electrical conductivity measurements and XRF spectrometry of sand sediments. The heterogeneous Quaternary aquifer composed mainly of gravel and sand, is between 38 m and 47.5 m thick. Average hydraulic permeability of aquifer is within the decade 10-3 m/s. Average hydraulic permeability estimated on grain size curves is 6.29*10-3 m/s, and for the pumping tests is 4.0*10-3 m/s. General direction of groundwater flow is from west to east. During high water status the groundwater flow slightly changes flow direction to the southwest and when pumping station in Kidričevo (NW of landfill) is active groundwater flows to northeast. Landfills have significant impact on groundwater quality.

  8. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Helena; Taylor, John D; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Todt, Christiane; Ikebe, Chiho; Rabone, Muriel; Glover, Adrian G

    2017-01-01

    We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ' cf ' as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  9. Abyssal fauna of the UK-1 polymetallic nodule exploration area, Clarion-Clipperton Zone, central Pacific Ocean: Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Wiklund

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first DNA taxonomy publication on abyssal Mollusca from the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific ocean, using material collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE environmental survey cruise ‘AB01’ to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL polymetallic-nodule exploration area ‘UK-1’ in the eastern CCZ. This is the third paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules. Taxonomic data are presented for 21 species from 42 records identified by a combination of morphological and genetic data, including molecular phylogenetic analyses. These included 3 heterodont bivalves, 5 protobranch bivalves, 4 pteriomorph bivalves, 1 caudofoveate, 1 monoplacophoran, 1 polyplacophoran, 4 scaphopods and 2 solenogastres. Gastropoda were recovered but will be the subject of a future study. Seven taxa matched published morphological descriptions for species with deep Pacific type localities, and our sequences provide the first genetic data for these taxa. One taxon morphologically matched a known cosmopolitan species but with a type locality in a different ocean basin and was assigned the open nomenclature ‘cf’ as a precautionary approach in taxon assignments to avoid over-estimating species ranges. One taxon is here described as a new species, Ledella knudseni sp. n. For the remaining 12 taxa, we have determined them to be potentially new species, for which we make the raw data, imagery and vouchers available for future taxonomic study. The Clarion-Clipperton Zone is a region undergoing intense exploration for potential deep-sea mineral extraction. We present these data to facilitate future taxonomic and environmental impact study by making both data and voucher materials available through curated and accessible biological collections.

  10. Reducing the impact of unplanned urbanization on a riparian ecosystem: a case study on designing a plan for sustainable utilization of flood plains on river Ravi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.U.

    2005-01-01

    This work emphasizes that utilization of flood plain must be preceded by a study that shows the extent of the flood plain with the primary objective to management and maintaining the integrity of riparian areas for their multiple values. One such design is presented here where the riparian land is used for designing a municipal waste water treatment plant in order to provide a reward feedback to river Ravi. Since the space is becoming expensive for setting up of a treatment plant, this high risk piece of land instead of being used for land filling and housing schemes should be used for designing multipurpose environmentally sustainable projects. The treatment plant is designed to mimic the functional properties of riparian corridor flood plains. This design is based on integrated series of interconnected basins including a sedimentation basin, infiltration basin and a created wetland. This system would promote ground water recharge and passively remove pollutants through a combination of filtering, settling and biological treatment mechanisms and providing an attractive recreation and learning environment for the community at large. Additionally, benefits of such treatment will allow a direct recycling of water and nutrients for beneficial use; the sewage becomes a valuable natural resource that is not simply disposed of untreated. (author)

  11. Analytical study of the effects of the Low-Level Jet on moisture convergence and vertical motion fields at the Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bian, X.; Zhong, S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) is located in a region that is strongly affected by a prominent meteorological phenomenon--the Great Plains Low-Level Jet (LLJ). Observations have shown that the LLJ plays a vital role in spring and summertime cloud formation and precipitation over the Great Plains. An improved understanding of the LLJ characteristics and its impact on the environment is necessary for addressing the fundamental issue of development and testing of radiational transfer and cloud parameterization schemes for the general circulation models (GCMs) using data from the SGP CART site. A climatological analysis of the summertime LLJ over the SGP has been carried out using hourly observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Wind Profiler Demonstration Network and from the ARM June 1993 Intensive Observation Period (IOP). The hourly data provide an enhanced temporal and spatial resolution relative to earlier studies which used 6- and 12-hourly rawinsonde observations at fewer stations.

  12. PMMA-hydroxyapatite composite material retards fatigue failure of augmented bone compared to augmentation with plain PMMA: in vivo study using a sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabmotlagh, Mohammad; Bachmaier, Samuel; Geiger, Florian; Rauschmann, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most commonly used void filler for augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral fracture, but the differing mechanical features of PMMA and osteoporotic bone result in overload and failure of adjacent bone. The aim of this study was to compare fatigue failure of bone after augmentation with PMMA-nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) composite material or with plain PMMA in a sheep model. After characterization of the mechanical properties of a composite material consisting of PMMA and defined amounts (10, 20, and 30% volume fraction) of HA, the composite material with 30% volume fraction HA was implanted in one distal femur of sheep; plain PMMA was implanted in the other femur. Native non-augmented bone served as control. Three and 6 months after implantation, the augmented bone samples were exposed to cyclic loading and the evolution of damage was investigated. The fatigue life was highest for the ovine native bone and lowest for bone-PMMA specimens. Bone-composite specimens showed significantly higher fatigue life than the respective bone-PMMA specimens in both 3- and 6-month follow-up groups. These results suggest that modification of mechanical properties of PMMA by addition of HA to approximate those of cancellous bone retards fatigue failure of the surrounding bone compared to augmented bone with plain PMMA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A study of building the hydrogeological apparent model with geoelectrical measurements for the Chia-Nan Coastal Plain of SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, P. Y.; Tsai, J. P.; Chang, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the study we used the resistivity measurements collected in the Chia-Nan coastal plain of SW Taiwan to establish a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeological apparent model. The resistivity measurements include data from half-Schlumberger surveys conducted during the year of 1990-2000 across the entire area and from the recent two-dimensional resistivity surveys for characterizing the recharge zone boundaries. Core records from monitoring wells in the area were used for the training data to help determining the resistivity ranges of the gavel, sand, and muddy sediments in the coastal plain. These resistivity measurements were inverted and converted into 1-D data form and interpolated for rendering a three dimensional resistivity volume that represents the general resistivity distribution in the coastal-plain systems. In addition we used water resistivity data from the observation wells to calculating the formation factors (FI) and to render the FI model. We then compared the FIs with indexed core records near some of the resistivity surveys sites, and concluded the range of the FIs for different materials in a statistical sense. Lastly we transfer the FI model into the gravel-sand-clay apparent model with the classification criteria from previous petrophysical analysis. Because there are more resistivity measurements than the limited geological boreholes, the apparent model is better to represent the detailed sedimentary structures than the traditional over-simplified conceptual models.

  14. Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejiba, Fayçal; Schamper, Cyril; Chevalier, Antoine; Deleplancque, Benoit; Hovhannissian, Gaghik; Thiesson, Julien; Weill, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The La Bassée floodplain area is a large groundwater reservoir controlling most of the water exchanged between local aquifers and hydrographic networks within the Seine River basin (France). Preferential flows depend essentially on the heterogeneity of alluvial plain infilling, whose characteristics are strongly influenced by the presence of mud plugs (paleomeander clayey infilling). These mud plugs strongly contrast with the coarse sand material that composes most of the alluvial plain, and can create permeability barriers to groundwater flows. A detailed knowledge of the global and internal geometry of such paleomeanders can thus lead to a comprehensive understanding of the long-term hydrogeological processes of the alluvial plain. A geophysical survey based on the use of electromagnetic induction was performed on a wide paleomeander, situated close to the city of Nogent-sur-Seine in France. In the present study we assess the advantages of combining several spatial offsets, together with both vertical and horizontal dipole orientations (six apparent conductivities), thereby mapping not only the spatial distribution of the paleomeander derived from lidar data but also its vertical extent and internal variability.

  15. Examination of abyssal sea floor and near-bottom water mixing processes using Ra-226 and Rn-222

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Since Broecker's (1965) original work, extensive studies have been made on abyssal near-bottom water-mixing processes using the radioactive parent-daughter pair radium-226 (Ra) - radon-222 (Rn). One assumption critical to all of these studies is that sediments immediately under a given water column are the source of excess radon (=Rn concentration - Ra concentration) found in bottom waters. Since 1965 theoretical works of increasing complexity have tried to explain areal variations of excess radon and radium. However, Key et al. (1979b) have reported the only extensive measurements of radium and radon in bottom water and sediments at the same location. This dissertation is an expansion of that work both in theory and in scope. A diagenetic sediment model based on the work of Schink and Guinasso (1978), Cochran (1979), and Key et al. (1979b) was developed to model Ra-Rn in near-surface abyssal sediments. In order to maximize model application information, the degrees of freedom were minimized by measuring as many of the model parameters as possible. The most glaring discrepancy found was that measured near-surface total radium profiles could not be fit using plutonium-derived bioturbation rates. There is an implication that plutonium profiles modeled with currently accepted bioturbation models do not give a true indication of the real biologically induced mixing process. After adjusting for this problem in the source function, diagenetic theory explains near-surface radon-distributions adequately. Using both the adjusted diagenetic model and the empirical model developed by Key et al. (1979b), reasonable agreement was found between the sedimentary radon deficit and near-bottom water surplus. Inadequacy of present diagenetic theory makes any attempt to differentiate sedimentary radium sources academic

  16. Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, ZhiQiang; Lin, Weili; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiaobin; Fuentes, Jose D.; Xue, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP), to the east of the Loess Plateau, experiences severe regional air pollution. During the daytime in the summer, the Loess Plateau acts as an elevated heat source. The impacts of such a thermal effect on meteorological phenomena (e.g., waves, precipitation) in this region have been discussed. However, its impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality have not been reported. It is hypothesized that the thermal effect of the Plateau likely modulates the boundary layer structure and ambient concentrations of pollutants over the NCP under certain meteorological conditions. Thus, this study investigates such effect and its impacts using measurements and three-dimensional model simulations. It is found that in the presence of daytime westerly wind in the lower troposphere (∼ 1 km above the NCP), warmer air above the Loess Plateau was transported over the NCP and imposed a thermal inversion above the mixed boundary layer, which acted as a lid and suppressed the mixed layer growth. As a result, pollutants accumulated in the shallow mixed layer and ozone was efficiently produced. The downward branch of the thermally-induced Mountain-Plains Solenoid circulation over the NCP contributed to enhancing the capping inversion and exacerbating air pollution. Previous studies have reported that low mixed layer, a factor for elevated pollution in the NCP, may be caused by aerosol scattering and absorption of solar radiation, frontal inversion, and large scale subsidence. The present study revealed a different mechanism (i.e., westerly warm advection) for the suppression of the mixed layer in summer NCP, which caused severe O 3 pollution. This study has important implications for understanding the essential meteorological factors for pollution episodes in this region and forecasting these severe events. - Highlights: • Low mixed layer exacerbates air pollution over the North China Plain (NCP) • Warm advection from the Loess

  17. A clinical retrospective study of the detectable ability of the advanced colorectal cancer by plain abdominal multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Kazufumi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuo, Kengo

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of plain CT for diagnosis of advanced colorectal cancer retrospectively. During 2 years between December 1999 and November 2001, 26 patients with advanced colorectal cancer underwent abdominal CT scan (Toshiba ASTEIONMULTI). The patients had received no special preparation for CT scan except for avoiding breakfast. The sensitivity of CT scan in detecting tumors was 76.9%. Moreover, cancers originated in the cecum, ascending colon and descending colon were all detectable by CT. Ninety-two percent of cancers occupying more than 2/3 of circumference of the colonic wall were detectable. These evidences may indicate that plain CT is useful for detecting colorectal cancers with little patients' burden as well as providing information about their extension and metastasis, when colorectal cancer is suspected by patients' symptom. (author)

  18. The rôle of the complete Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    Ocean currents flowing close to or across the equator are strongly constrained by the change in sign of f, the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector, across the equator. We investigate these currents using a shallow water model that includes both the locally vertical and locally horizontal components of the Earth's rotation vector, thus accounting for the complete Coriolis force. We therefore avoid making the so-called "traditional approximation" that retains only the part of the Coriolis force associated with the locally vertical component of the rotation vector. Including the complete Coriolis force contributes an additional term to the fluid's potential vorticity, which may partially balance the change in sign of f as fluid crosses the equator over suitably shaped bathymetry. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water, which crosses the equator northwards in the western Atlantic ocean where the local bathymetry forms an almost-zonal channel. We show that this bathymetry facilitates the current's equatorial crossing via the action of the "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force. We illustrate this process using both analytical and numerical solutions for flow of an abyssal current over idealised equatorial topography. We also consider the one-dimensional geostrophic adjustment of a body of fluid across the equator, and show that the "non-traditional" contribution to the fluid's angular momentum permits a larger cross-equatorial transport. These results underline the importance of including the complete Coriolis force in studies of the equatorial ocean, particularly in the weakly-stratified abyssal ocean where the non-traditional component is most pronounced.

  19. Study on Strength and Ultrasonic Velocity of Air-Entrained Concrete and Plain Concrete in Cold Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-shuai Shang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive testing technology is essential in the quality inspection of repair, alteration, and renovation of the existing engineering, especially for concrete structure in severe environment. The objective of this work is to deal with the behavior of ultrasonic velocity and mechanical properties of plain concrete and air-entrained concrete subjected to freeze-thaw cycles (F-T-C. The ultrasonic velocity and mechanical properties (tensile strength, compressive strength, cubic compressive strength, and splitting strength of C30 air-entrained concrete and plain concrete with different water-cement ratio (water-cement ratio was 0.55, 0.45, and 0.50, resp. after F-T cycles were measured. The influences of F-T cycles on ultrasonic velocity and mechanical properties of C30 air-entrained concrete and plain concrete were analyzed. And the relationship between mechanical properties and ultrasonic velocity was established. The experimental results can be useful for the design of new concrete structure, maintenance and life prediction of existing concrete structure such as offshore platform and concrete dock wall.

  20. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomicrobiology of Archaeal Communities Isolated from an Off-axis Abyssal Hill Fault Scarp on the East Pacific Rise Flank at 9° 27'N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, C. J.; Haymon, R.; Holden, P.; Lamontagne, M.

    2003-12-01

    Although heat flow studies suggest that ~70% of the hydrothermal heat loss in the oceans occurs in the abyssal hill terrain on the flanks of mid-ocean ridges, very few off-axis hydrothermal sites have been discovered. In May 2002, sedimentary blowout structures of probable hydrothermal origin were discovered along East Pacific Rise at 9° 27'N on an off-axis abyssal hill bounded by a fault scarp covered with orange-brown microbial flocculations. Recovered samples of these flocculations have presented an opportunity to study the unknown nature and role of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microbial communities on the ridge flanks. Furthermore, the archaeal communities that we have identified in the samples are useful "microbial tracers" which can be used to locate off-axis areas of moderate-to-high temperature fluid flow (>50° C). In this study, we used molecular techniques to isolate, amplify, and sequence community archaeal RNA sequences from fault scarp flocculations collected with a slurp pump system mounted in the Alvin basket. Molecular phylogenies based on 16S rRNA were constructed. Phylogenetic relationships of isolated clones were used to infer temperature preferences of archaeal communities. We identified 12 clones that clustered within thermophilic or hyperthermophilic clades within Archaea suggesting that moderately high temperature fluid (>50° C) exited the seafloor along this abyssal hill fault scarp. Our studies also suggest that these communities mediate the formation of Fe-sulfide mineral phases. Analysis of the samples with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) and X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDS) revealed unique iron sulfide mineral phases with anomalously low Fe/S ratios in direct association with microbial communities.

  2. Dissolved organic carbon characteristics in surface ponds from contrasting wetland ecosystems: a case study in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC is a significant component of carbon and nutrient cycling in fluvial ecosystems. Natural wetlands, as important DOC sources for river and ocean ecosystems, have experienced extensive natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change, hydrological variations and land use change in recent years. The DOC characteristics in surface ponds from contrasting wetlands in the Sanjiang Plain, Northeastern China were investigated. Surface ponds at seven sites (two natural phialiform wetlands, three natural riparian wetlands, one degraded wetland and one artificial wetland, i.e., rice paddy were monitored during the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010. The results show that the surface ponds at the five natural wetland sites exhibited a wide range of DOC concentrations (10.06–48.73 mg L−1 during the study period. The DOC concentrations showed no annual differences (P > 0.05 at all the wetland sites, except one of the phialiform wetland sites. The two phialiform wetlands exhibited higher DOC concentrations than the three riparian wetlands (P < 0.05. The DOC concentration in the surface pond at the artificial wetland site was relatively low (P < 0.05 compared to that at the degraded wetland site. The C/C ratios (the color per carbon unit ratio, Abs400/DOC concentration showed inconsistent variations among these seven wetland sites, while the E4/E6 ratio (Abs465/Abs665, fulvic acid/humic acid from the surface pond in the rice paddy land exerted 42.07–55.36% reductions (P < 0.05, compared to those at the five natural wetland sites. Furthermore, the E4/E6 ratio in the surface pond at the rice paddy site was significantly lower compared to that at the degraded wetland site (P < 0.05, which indicated that disturbance to wetland DOC in surface ponds might be stronger when natural wetlands were converted to rice paddies in comparison with

  3. Integration of LiDAR and cropmark remote sensing for the study of fluvial and anthropogenic landforms in the Brenta-Bacchiglione alluvial plain (NE Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfo, Andrea; Mozzi, Paolo; Abbà, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    The geomorphological study of alluvial plains takes great advantage from the integration of detailed altimetry with high-resolution images, especially in the lower-relief sectors, like those in the distal plain of the Brenta and Bacchiglione rivers near the city of Padua (mean slope 1-0.8‰). The LiDAR data which were specifically acquired for this research (Riegl LMS-Q560, mean density 7 points/m2, overall area 123 km2), were classified and interpolated in order to map fluvial and anthropogenic landforms. The acquisition was carried out in a moment of minimal vegetation luxuriance (March 2011), in order to minimize ground cover. The DEM (z accuracy hand augerings and description of stratigraphic sections in pits, in order to validate the remote sensing interpretations. The detailed topography allowed the identification and mapping of low rise interfluves and scarps (morphology of the multi-stratified archeological mound in the historical center of Padua. The remote sensing of cropmarks is the most appropriate method to complete the mapping of the numerous fluvial forms that have little or no topographic expression being too small (i.e. minor crevasse channels and splays) and/or flattened by anthropogenic activity (mainly plowing). LiDAR intensity permitted a precise mapping of LGM deposits that have shown peculiar reflectivity related to specific soil characteristics (i.e., presence of calcic horizons in well-drained, elevated position). High resolution images and LiDAR DEM allow the analysis of this largely anthropized low-plain environment at cell-size scale of 0.5-1 m, i.e. approximating the original complexity of the alluvial sedimentary environment. The results bring advances in the comprehension of the Last Glacial Maximum and Holocene evolution of the Brenta-Bacchiglione plain. The large-scale mapping of paleohydrographic features led to the recognition of different fluvial styles adopted by the Brenta River: i) braided to wandering paleochannels, 100

  4. Ship Track for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Estuary to the Abyss 2004" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office...

  5. The Plains of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic plains units of various types comprise at least 80% of the surface of Venus. Though devoid of topographic splendor and, therefore often overlooked, these plains units house a spectacular array of volcanic, tectonic, and impact features. Here I propose that the plains hold the keys to understanding the resurfacing history of Venus and resolving the global stratigraphy debate. The quasi-random distribution of impact craters and the small number that have been conspicuously modified from the outside by plains-forming volcanism have led some to propose that Venus was catastrophically resurfaced around 725×375 Ma with little volcanism since. Challenges, however, hinge on interpretations of certain morphological characteristics of impact craters: For instance, Venusian impact craters exhibit either radar dark (smooth) floor deposits or bright, blocky floors. Bright floor craters (BFC) are typically 100-400 m deeper than dark floor craters (DFC). Furthermore, all 58 impact craters with ephemeral bright ejecta rays and/or distal parabolic ejecta patterns have bright floor deposits. This suggests that BFCs are younger, on average, than DFCs. These observations suggest that DFCs could be partially filled with lava during plains emplacement and, therefore, are not strictly younger than the plains units as widely held. Because the DFC group comprises ~80% of the total crater population on Venus the recalculated emplacement age of the plains would be ~145 Ma if DFCs are indeed volcanically modified during plains formation. Improved image and topographic data are required to measure stratigraphic and morphometric relationships and resolve this issue. Plains units are also home to an abundant and diverse set of volcanic features including steep-sided domes, shield fields, isolated volcanoes, collapse features and lava channels, some of which extend for 1000s of kilometers. The inferred viscosity range of plains-forming lavas, therefore, is immense, ranging from the

  6. Prospective study on ultrasonography plus plain radiography in predicting residual obstruction after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for ureteral stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, M C; Leung, Y L; Wong, B B W; Chu, S M; Lee, F; Tam, P C

    2002-03-01

    To compare ultrasonography (US) and plain radiography with intravenous urography (IVU) in predicting ureteral obstruction after in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. From April 1998 to September 2000, 100 consecutive patients with solitary ureteral stones were treated by primary in situ ESWL. ESWL failures were salvaged by ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Ninety-three patients completed the follow-up assessment. US and IVU were performed when plain radiography showed no residual stone. The occurrence of hydronephrosis on US was compared with IVU, the reference standard for ureteral obstruction. Of the 93 patients, 72 were men and 21 women (mean age 52 years; mean stone size 11.2 mm). ESWL successfully treated 70 ureteral stones (75%), and the 23 failures were treated by ureteroscopic lithotripsy. Sixty-nine patients without hydronephrosis on US had no ureteral obstruction on IVU. Of the 24 patients who had hydronephrosis on US, 8 had ureteral obstruction on IVU. Of the 85 patients who had no ureteral obstruction on IVU, 69 patients showed no evidence of hydronephrosis on US. However, all patients with ureteral obstruction on IVU demonstrated hydronephrosis on US. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value concerning sonographic hydronephrosis in the prediction of ureteral obstruction was 100%, 81%, 33%, and 100%, respectively. US alone could not define the cause of ureteral obstruction. Plain abdominal radiography plus US is highly sensitive for screening ureteral obstruction after primary in situ ESWL for ureteral calculi. It can save up to 74% of patients from the potential risk of IVU. The detection of the cause of obstruction by IVU is only necessary when sonographic evidence of hydronephrosis is present.

  7. Defining an Ecologically Ideal Shallow Groundwater Depth for Regional Sustainable Management: Conceptual Development and Case Study on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xihua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The depth and fluctuation of shallow groundwater influence water supply to land surface vegetation. Knowledge of an ecologically ideal depth range of shallow groundwater for a vegetation ecosystem can be crucial for sustainability of regional water resource management and ecological conservation. In this study, we developed a conceptual model that identifies an upper and a lower boundary of shallow groundwater for sustaining present vegetation ecosystems, termed ecologically ideal shallow groundwater depth (EISGD. We then applied the conceptual model to the Sanjiang Plain (10.9 × 104 km2 in northeast China in order to gain insights into sustainable shallow groundwater usage in this intensively irrigated agricultural region. Using soil capillary rise, plant rooting depth, extinction depth, and the actual groundwater depth, we identified an upper boundary range of EISGD between 0.5 and 2.8 m and a lower boundary range of EISGD between 2.0 and 14.3 m for different vegetation covers in the Sanjiang Plain. Based on the ranges, we estimated allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal (i.e., without degrading the present vegetation ecosystem for the region and identified an area of 2.54 × 1010 m2 with a total of 9.14 × 108 m3 water deficit. Currently, the entire Sanjiang Plain has a total volume of 45.30 × 108 m3 EISGD allowable shallow groundwater withdrawal, thus the plain’s northeast region can be considered as having a high allowable pumping capacity. This study demonstrates that application of an EISGD concept can be useful for developing regional management strategies and plans for ecological protection and sustainable groundwater utilization.

  8. CAN PALYNOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO PLANT DIVERSITY CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES? THE WETLAND PLANTS IN SOUTHERN PO PLAIN AS A CASE STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Buldrini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Po Plain has long been modified by natural and human factors. The present plant landscape is almost entirely anthropogenic. Many hydro-hygrophilous species, quite common until a few decades ago, are now very rare and in danger of extinction, so conservation programmes are necessary for their protection and maintenance. It is known that the former vegetation can be reconstructed thanks to palynological data, but assessing the real presence of a given species is not always possible. This work aims to understand whether palynology can give information about the presence and identification of hydro-hygrophilous species, supporting the classical flora analyses commonly conducted on herbarium data. In some cases, these species are well characterized from a morphopalynological and phytogeographical viewpoint: the plant occurrence may be suggested even by pollen findings in surface-samples. Discovering the presence of some of these species by pollen morphotypes offers a real opportunity to gear the reintroduction/reinforcing programmes, but ecological analysis will obviously be essential to ascertain the real suitability of the chosen sites, according to the ecological requirements of the species. Our analysis refers to wetlands of the southern Po plain within the Modena Province, where detailed palynological data about present and historical local flora were available.

  9. Demographic indicators of change in a deposit-feeding abyssal holothurian community (Station M, 4000 m)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Lemon, Larissa; Sherman, Alana D.; Smith, Kenneth L.

    2016-03-01

    Holothurians are among the most abundant benthic megafauna at abyssal depths, and important consumers and bioturbators of organic carbon on the sea floor. Significant fluctuations in abyssal holothurian density are often attributed to species-specific responses to variable particulate organic carbon flux (food supply) stemming from surface ocean events. We report changes in densities of 19 holothurian species at the abyssal monitoring site Station M in the northeast Pacific, recorded during 11 remotely operated vehicle surveys between Dec 2006 and Oct 2014. Body size demographics are presented for Abyssocucumis abyssorum, Synallactidae sp. 1, Paelopatides confundens, Elpidia sp. A, Peniagone gracilis, Peniagone papillata, Peniagone vitrea, Peniagone sp. A, Peniagone sp. 1, and Scotoplanes globosa. Densities were lower and species evenness was higher from 2006-2009 compared to 2011-2014. Food supply of freshly-settled phytodetritus was exceptionally high during this latter period. Based on relationships between median body length and density, numerous immigration and juvenile recruitment events of multiple species appeared to take place between 2011 and 2014. These patterns were dominated by elpidiids (Holothuroidea: Elasipodida: Elpidiidae), which consistently increased in density during a period of high food availability, while other groups showed inconsistent responses. We considered minimum body length to be a proxy for size at juvenile recruitment. Patterns in density clustered by this measure, which was a stronger predictor of maximum density than median and mean body length.

  10. Contribution to the hydrogeological, geochemical and isotopic study of Ain El Beidha and Merguellil (Kairouan plain) aquifers: Implication for the dam-aquifer relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ammar, Safouan

    2007-01-01

    In the semiarid central part of Tunisia the water resources are becoming increasingly rare because of the scarcity and irregularity of the precipitation and a steadily growing need for fresh water. This study addresses the use of geochemical and isotopic data to analyze the relationship between the El Haouareb dam and the Ain El Beidha and the Kairouan alluvial plain aquifers systems for durable groundwater management. In the Ain El Beidha basin the hydrogeological and geochemical investigations showed that: - The general direction of the groundwater flow is mainly from the SW to the NE, i.e. towards the hydraulic sill of El Haouareb which allows the connection between the Ain El Beidha basin and the Kairouan plain, - The salinity distribution displays a zonation in apparent relationship with the lithological variation of the aquifer formation, - Mineral exchange between groundwater and the aquifer matrix is the dominant process in determining groundwater salinity. The isotopic data confirm the flow directions of groundwater and shows that the recharge of Ain El Beidha aquifers takes place from the floods of the Khechem and Ben Zitoun wadies and also by preferential infiltration of runoff at the front of hill slopes area. Close to preferential recharge areas, groundwater 3H contents reflect a recent input of surface water, whereas the radiocarbon data indicate a longer residence time downstream. The isotopic characteristics of Ain El Beidha groundwater (small space and temporal changes) authorize the use of averaged values for the dam-aquifer water exchange. Under natural conditions, groundwater recharge of the alluvial aquifer of Kairouan plain occurs by infiltration of the Merguellil floods and from the Ain el Beidha groundwater flow close the karstic hydraulic sills. Since the construction of the El Haouareb dam, these natural mechanisms have been strongly modified: the dam waters infiltrate into the karst, mix with the Ain el Beidha groundwater, and feed the

  11. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  12. Use Of Radar-Rainfall Data for the Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study: Regional Scale Hydrologic and Salinity Modeling and Management Scenario Analysis for Chenier Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meselhe, E. A.; Michot, B.; Chen, C.; Habib, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The Chenier Plain, in Southwest Louisiana, extends from Vermilion Bay to Sabine Lake in southeast Texas. It has great economic, industrial, recreational, and ecological value. Over the years, human activities such as dredging ship channels and access canals, building roads, levees, and hydraulic structures have altered the hydrology of the Chenier Plain. These alterations have affected the fragile equilibrium of the marsh ecology. If no action is taken to restore the Chenier Plain, land loss through conversion of marsh to open water would continue. The Southwest Coastal Louisiana Feasibility Study aims at evaluating proposed protection and restoration measures and ultimately submitting a comprehensive plan to protect and preserve the Chenier Plain at the regional scale. The proposed alternatives include marsh creation, terracing, shoreline protection, and freshwater introduction and salinity control structures. A regional scale hydrodynamic and salinity transport model was developed to screen and assess the proposed restoration measures. A critical component of this modeling effort is local rainfall. The strong spatial variability and limited availability of ground-level precipitation measurements limited our ability to capture local rainfall. Thus, a radar-based rainfall product was used as a viable alternative to the rain gauges. These estimates are based on the National Weather Service from the Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimator (MPE) algorithm. Since the model was used to perform long-term (yearly) simulations, the 4x4 km2 MPE estimates were represented as daily accumulations. The use of the radar-rainfall product data improved the model performance especially on our ability to capture the spatial and temporal variations of salinity. Overall, the model is improving our understanding of the circulation patterns and salinity regimes of the region. The circulation model used here is the MIKE FLOOD software (Danish Hydraulic Institute, DHI 2008) which dynamically

  13. The characteristic and influence factors of extinction depth of shallow groundwater on the high-latitude region: a case study on the Sanjiang Plain, northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihua

    2018-03-01

    Accurate estimation of extinction depth of shallow groundwater (EDSG) and identification of its influence factors are important for sustainable management of groundwater resources, ecological protection, and human health in intensively irrigated region. In this study, the ratio of actual groundwater depth and EDSG (RAE) method was used to understand the spatial variability of EDSG in the Sanjiang Plain, one of China's largest grain production bases and China's largest inland freshwater wetland region. The study showed a large spatial variation of EDSG in the region. Spatially, the sites, which were in the northeast and center had the deepest and the shallowest EDSG, whereby, indicate that it has higher and lower pumping potential capacity. Many factors including climate, soil parameters, vegetation and topography affected the EDSG. We also identified an area of 3.86 × 10 10  m 2 , which accounting for 35.3% of the entire Sanjiang Plain, has exceeded the ESGD by over exploited for years. Knowledge of the variation and influence factors of EDSG for a certain plant system and the current shallow groundwater condition in the higher latitude region can be a key to the development of preventive actions for large quantity pumping groundwater and protection regional and sustainable development of irrigated agriculture.

  14. Hydrochemistry and boron isotopes as natural tracers in the study of groundwaters from North Chianan Plain, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, hydrochemistry and boron isotopes are successfully applied to elucidate hydrogeological processes by the use of natural tracers. The hydrochemical analysis identifies four end-members in the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater from the North Chianan plain groundwater district. A few groundwater contain extraordinary chlorine concentrations of up to 48,000 mg l(-1). However, the hydrochemistry of groundwater only reveals that high saline water is a dominant factor in groundwater hydrochemistry. It is thought that these groundwater experienced precipitation of carbonates during seawater evaporation that did not involve the precipitation of gypsum. Boron isotopes are very efficient tracers in determining the source of salinisation. The boron isotopes reveal the results of mixing of evaporated seawater and water-sediment interaction. In general, the boron isotope ratio of the groundwater is controlled by a two-end-member mixing system, which is composed of evaporated seawater (isotopically heavy) and fresh surface water (isotopically light). Due to a long lagoonal period in the coastal plain, the groundwaters in the downstream area generally have high Cl/B ratios and relatively heavy boron isotope ratios while those in the upstream area are composed of low Cl/B and light boron isotopes. However, there is not a resolvable mixing trend between the Cl/B ratio and the isotopic composition of boron. It is probably obscured by a highly variable boron isotope ratio in fresh surface water and through fractionation associated with water-rock interaction. Both factors would decrease the boron isotope ratio but one effect cannot be distinguished from the other.

  15. Tietkens Plain karst - Maralinga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    The Tietkens Plain karst is located to the north of Maralinga village which is on the crest of the Ooldea Range on the north and east margin of the Nullarbor Plain in western South Australia. The geology of the carbonate rocks in the Maralinga area is summarised. On Tietkens Plain from 1955 to 1963 nuclear weapons tests dispersed radioactive materials over the Maralinga area. Six nuclear devices were detonated in the air and one was exploded a few metres below the surface. The effect such explosions have on the karst and the possible rate of recovery of its surface are discussed. This report is the record of a visit to the Maralinga area from the 15th -21st November 1986 which involved an inspection of the karst surface together with collection of water, soil and rock samples. Results of the measurements made in order to assess water quality and water contamination by radioactive nuclides are presented. The implications arising from the presence of radioactive materials on the surface and the possibility of their entering and contaminating the groundwater in the area are discussed in the context of the chemistry of uranium and plutonium. The potential for transmission of contaminants through groundwater conduits and aquifers in the dolomite is discussed. Evidence is produced to show that the caves of the Nullabor Plain are not contaminated at present and are unlikely to be so in the future. 21 refs., 2 figs. 3 tabs., ills

  16. Geographical information systems as a tool in limnological studies An applied case study in a shallow .lake of a plain area, Buenos Aires province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz, Orlando; Romanelli, Asuncion; Martinez, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The understanding of the hydrological functioning and the interaction among the different water bodies in an area is essential when a sustainable use of the hydric resources is considered. The aim of the present paper is to assess both hydrological-limnological methods and GIS as an integrated methodology applied to the study of shallow lakes, and the hydrological behavior of shallow wetlands in plain areas. La Salada is an areic permanent shallow lake with an area of 5,78 km 2 located near La Dulce town (SE of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). In this paper we applied methods and tools of the Geographical information Systems in order to assess both, the evolution and state of the wetland. Topographic profiles, showing the relationship among the lake and the other aquatic systems, and also a multi temporal assessment of the morphometric parameters were performed by using a Digital Terrain Model of the area. A sample grid was designed to obtain bathymetric, hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. The chemical water composition is homogeneous in area and depth. changes in the conductivity values along depth, the isotopic contents and the Gibbs diagram showed that the evaporation is the main process controlling the water chemistry. Physical-chemical parameters established water quality and uses of the lake.

  17. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-01-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ( 40 K). However, 137 Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations

  18. Role of Surface Energy Exchange for Simulating Wind Turbine Inflow: A Case Study in the Southern Great Plains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Wharton

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is used to investigate choice of land surface model (LSM on the near surface wind profile, including heights reached by multi-megawatt (MW wind turbines. Simulations of wind profiles and surface energy fluxes were made using five LSMs of varying degrees of sophistication in dealing with soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks for the Department of Energy (DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM Central Facility in Oklahoma, USA. Surface flux and wind profile measurements were available for validation. WRF was run for three, two-week periods covering varying canopy and meteorological conditions. The LSMs predicted a wide range of energy flux and wind shear magnitudes even during the cool autumn period when we expected less variability. Simulations of energy fluxes varied in accuracy by model sophistication, whereby LSMs with very simple or no soil–plant–atmosphere feedbacks were the least accurate; however, the most complex models did not consistently produce more accurate results. Errors in wind shear were also sensitive to LSM choice and were partially related to energy flux accuracy. The variability of LSM performance was relatively high suggesting that LSM representation of energy fluxes in WRF remains a large source of model uncertainty for simulating wind turbine inflow conditions.

  19. Marine diatom study and stratigraphy of cenozoic sediments in the coastal plain between Morro da Jureia and Barra do Una, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant-Vildary, S.; Soguio, K.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of sediments obtained from cores of four wells drilled by Nuclebras, in the coastal plain of State of Sao Paulo, have been here studied from diatom flora viewpoint. The irregular surface of the crystalline pre-Cambrian basements rocks is locally covered by the Pliocene Pariquera-Acu Formation - like deposits, whose contact with the Quaternary sediments is flat, being situated about 40 m bellow the present sea-level. The contact between the Holocene Santos Formation and the probable Pleistocene Cananeia Formation is very difficult to be recognized. It has been tentatively established based on two radiocarbon ages. Dominantly clayey-silty intervals from the wells F-003 and F-004, probably related to the Cananeia Formation, have been selectively sampled and studied for definition of their diatom flora assemblage. (author)

  20. Impact of the Loess Plateau on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality in the North China Plain: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Ming; Ma, ZhiQiang; Lin, Weili; Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xiaobin; Fuentes, Jose D; Xue, Ming

    2014-11-15

    The North China Plain (NCP), to the east of the Loess Plateau, experiences severe regional air pollution. During the daytime in the summer, the Loess Plateau acts as an elevated heat source. The impacts of such a thermal effect on meteorological phenomena (e.g., waves, precipitation) in this region have been discussed. However, its impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer structure and air quality have not been reported. It is hypothesized that the thermal effect of the Plateau likely modulates the boundary layer structure and ambient concentrations of pollutants over the NCP under certain meteorological conditions. Thus, this study investigates such effect and its impacts using measurements and three-dimensional model simulations. It is found that in the presence of daytime westerly wind in the lower troposphere (~1 km above the NCP), warmer air above the Loess Plateau was transported over the NCP and imposed a thermal inversion above the mixed boundary layer, which acted as a lid and suppressed the mixed layer growth. As a result, pollutants accumulated in the shallow mixed layer and ozone was efficiently produced. The downward branch of the thermally-induced Mountain-Plains Solenoid circulation over the NCP contributed to enhancing the capping inversion and exacerbating air pollution. Previous studies have reported that low mixed layer, a factor for elevated pollution in the NCP, may be caused by aerosol scattering and absorption of solar radiation, frontal inversion, and large scale subsidence. The present study revealed a different mechanism (i.e., westerly warm advection) for the suppression of the mixed layer in summer NCP, which caused severe O3 pollution. This study has important implications for understanding the essential meteorological factors for pollution episodes in this region and forecasting these severe events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of long-term land subsidence by combination of InSAR and time series analysis - Application study to Kanto Plains of Japan -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, T.; Rokugawa, S.; Matsushima, J.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR is an application technique of synthetic aperture radars and is now drawing attention as a methodology capable of measuring subtle surface deformation over a wide area with a high spatial resolution. In this study, the authors applied the method of measuring long-term land subsidence by combining InSAR and time series analysis to Kanto Plains of Japan using 28 images of ENVISAT/ASAR data. In this measuring method, the value of land deformation is set as an unknown parameter and the optimal solution to the land deformation amount is derived by applying a smoothness-constrained inversion algorithm. The vicinity of the Kanto Plain started to subside in the 1910s, and became exposed to extreme land subsidence supposedly in accordance with the reconstruction efforts after the Second World War and the economic development activities. The main causes of the land subsidence include the intake of underground water for the use in industries, agriculture, waterworks, and other fields. In the Kujukuri area, the exploitation of soluble natural gas also counts. The Ministry of Environment reported in its documents created in fiscal 2006 that a total of 214 km2 in Tokyo and the six prefectures around the Plain had undergone a subsidence of 1 cm or more per a year. As a result of long-term land subsidence over approximately five and a half years from 13th January, 2003, to 30th June, 2008, unambiguous land deformation was detected in six areas: (i) Haneda Airport, (ii) Urayasu City, (iii) Kasukabe-Koshigaya, (iv) Southern Kanagawa, (v) Toride-Ryugasaki, and (vi) Kujukuri in Chiba Prefecture. In particular, the results for the Kujukuri area were compared with the leveling data taken around the same area to verify the measuring accuracy. The comparative study revealed that the regression formula between the results obtained by time series analysis and those by the leveling can be expressed as a straight line with a gradient of approximately 1, though including a bias of about

  2. Cracked Plain, Buried Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    4 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cracked plain in western Utopia Planitia. The three circular crack patterns indicate the location of three buried meteor impact craters. These landforms are located near 41.9oN, 275.9oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the lower left.

  3. Revision of the genus Nybelinella (Teleostei, Bythitidae) with a new Atlantic, abyssal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jørgen G

    2017-03-23

    The genus Nybelinella belongs to the aphyonid clade within the Bythitidae. This mainly abyssal genus is known from 30 specimens. The present revision is based on 24 specimens, of which a scientific examination of four specimens has been published earlier. As a consequence, the generic diagnosis from Nielsen et al. (1999) is here modified. Of the 24 specimens 22 are referred to N. erikssoni (Nybelin, 1957), one to N. brevidorsalis Shcherbachev, 1976 and one to a new species, N. brevianalis n. sp., herein described.

  4. Groundwater overexploitation: why is the red flag waved? Case study on the Kairouan plain aquifer (central Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massuel, Sylvain; Riaux, Jeanne

    2017-09-01

    In many parts of the world, groundwater users regularly face serious resource-depletion threat. At the same time, "groundwater overexploitation" is massively cited when discussing groundwater management problems. A kind of standard definition tends to relegate groundwater overexploitation only as a matter of inputs and outputs. However, a thorough state-of-the-art analysis shows that groundwater overexploitation is not only a matter of hydrogeology but also a qualification of exploitation based on political, social, technical, economic or environmental criteria. Thus, an aquifer with no threat to groundwater storage can rightly be considered as overexploited because of many other prejudicial aspects. So, why is groundwater overexploitation so frequently only associated with resource-depletion threat and so rarely related to other prejudicial aspects? In that case, what really lies behind the use of the overexploitation concept? The case of the Kairouan plain aquifer in central Tunisia was used to analyze the way that the overexploitation message emerges in a given context, how groundwater-use stakeholders (farmers, management agencies and scientists) each qualify the problem in their own way, and how they see themselves with regard to the concept of overexploitation. The analysis shows that focusing messages on overexploitation conceals the problems encountered by the various stakeholders: difficulties accessing water, problems for the authorities in controlling the territory and individual practices, and complications for scientists when qualifying hydrological situations. The solutions put forward to manage overexploitation are at odds with the problems that arise locally, triggering tensions and leading to misunderstandings between the parties involved.

  5. Variation horizontale du flux particulaire à micro- et méso-échelle dans la plaine abyssale de Californie (4 100 m de profondeur)

    OpenAIRE

    Crassous, Philippe; Khripounoff, Alexis

    1994-01-01

    Nine sediment traps were assembled in triplicate on a frame and deployed at 100 m above the bottom in the California abyssal plain (4 100 m depth) for ten days. The distances between traps were from 30 cm to 11 km. The main flux measured during this period was 167 mg m(-2) day(-1) with a minimum of 43 mg m(-2) d(-1) and a maximum of 283 mg m(-2) d(-1). This high variation of the particulate flux at the kilometric scale was also observed at a metric scale: for example, the particulate flux mea...

  6. Aerosol optical properties in the North China Plain during HaChi campaign: an in-situ optical closure study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The largest uncertainty in the estimation of climate forcing stems from atmospheric aerosols. In early spring and summer of 2009, two periods of in-situ measurements on aerosol physical and chemical properties were conducted within the HaChi (Haze in China project at Wuqing, a town between Beijing and Tianjin in the North China Plain (NCP. Aerosol optical properties, including the scattering coefficient (σsp, the hemispheric back scattering coefficient (σbsp, the absorption coefficient (σap, as well as the single scattering albedo (ω, are presented. The diurnal and seasonal variations are analyzed together with meteorology and satellite data. The mean values of σsp, 550 nm of the dry aerosol in spring and summer are 280±253 and 379±251 Mm−1, respectively. The average σap for the two periods is respectively 47±38 and 43±27 Mm−1. The mean values of ω at the wavelength of 637 nm are 0.82±0.05 and 0.86±0.05 for spring and summer, respectively. The relative high levels of σsp and σbsp are representative of the regional aerosol pollution in the NCP. Pronounced diurnal cycle of $σsp, σap and ω are found, mainly influenced by the evolution of boundary layer and the accumulation of local emissions during nighttime. The pollutants transported from the southwest of the NCP are more significant than that from the two megacities, Beijing and Tianjin, in both spring and summer. An optical closure experiment is conducted to better understand the uncertainties of the measurements. Good correlations (R>0.98 are found between the values measured by the nephelometer and the values calculated with a modified Mie model. The Monte Carlo simulation shows an uncertainty of about 30 % for the calculations. Considering all possible uncertainties of measurements, calculated σsp and σbsp agree well

  7. Hydrology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M Amatya; Callahan Timothy J.; Carl C. Trettin; Hakkila Jon

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  8. Hyrdology and water budget for a forested atlantic coastal plain watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott V. Harder; Devendra M. Amatya; Timothy J. Callahan; Carl C. Trettin; Jon Hakkila

    2007-01-01

    Increases in timber demand and urban development in the Atlantic Coastal Plain over the past decade have motivated studies on the hydrology, water quality, and sustainable management of coastal plain watersheds. However, studies on baseline water budgets are limited for the low-lying, forested watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The purpose of this study was to...

  9. FLEXURAL IMPROVEMENT OF PLAIN CONCRETE BEAMS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, this study carryout experimental, numerical and analytical investigation to study the behaviour of plain concrete (PC) beams strengthened with High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (HPFRC) layer using three different jacketing configurations and tested in flexure. Results show significant improvement in ...

  10. Tipping into the abyss: with more than a virtual parachute?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Tompsett

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Any application of information and communication technology in education (ICTE sits, at times uncomfortably, at the intersection of three key disciplines: technology, education and sociology (including reflexivity. To confuse matters, any specific study may need to take account of specific knowledge within subdisciplines, such as organisational management and technology transfer, and of knowledge within the domain of application (e.g. nursing, social work, fashion, etc.. Researchers must build a consistent model of knowledge that can integrate disparate methodologies, research goals and even conflicting interpretations of the same terminology. Without this, the ICTE research field will be dominated by what is simply novel, irrespective of the relevance of particular changes to educational practice. If existing models in this field are as limited as suggested by Moule, when should lecturers and teachers, with no motivation to use technology for its own sake and no additional financial support, review progress in this field for effective examples of innovative practice, let alone wide-scale change? On most of the criteria that could be introduced to compare two papers, the views of Moule and Salmon appear almost diametrically opposed and a detailed comparison would seem of limited value. Instead, this paper asks a more fundamental question: what could be the basis within this research community for establishing coherence within the field and ensuring that research can justify actual changes in educational practice?

  11. Three new species of deep-sea Gromia (Protista, Rhizaria) from the bathyal and abyssal Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothe, Nina; Gooday, Andrew J.; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We describe three new species of the genus Gromia from bathyal and abyssal depths in the Weddell Sea. The new species are characterized by a combination of morphological and molecular criteria. All three species possess a distinct oral capsule and a layer of ‘honeycomb membranes’, which form the ...

  12. Preliminary study of uranium in Pennsylvanian and lower Permian strata in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, and the Northern Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunagan, J.F. Jr.; Kadish, K.A.

    1977-11-01

    Persistent and widespread radiometric anomalies occur in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata in the subsurface of the northern Great Plains and the Powder River Basin. The primary host lithology of these anomalies is shale interbedded with sandstone, dolomite, and dolomitic sandstone. Samples from the project area indicate that uranium is responsible for some anomalies. In some samples there seems to be a correlation between high uranium content and high organic-carbon content, which possibly indicates that carbonaceous material acted as a trapping mechanism in some strata. The Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks studied are predominantly marine carbonates and clastics, but there are rocks of fluvial origin in the basal Pennsylvanian of Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota and in the Pennsylvanian and Permian deposits on the east flank of the Laramie Mountains. Fine-grained clastic rocks that flank the Chadron arch in western Nebraska are possibly of continental origin. The trend of the Chadron arch approximately parallels the trend of radiometric anomalies in the subsurface Permian-Pennsylvanian section. Possible source areas for uranium in the sediments studied were pre-Pennsylvanian strata of the Canadian Shield and Precambrian igneous rocks of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains

  13. Policy, law, and public opposition: the prospects for abyssal ocean waste disposal in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite-Powell, Hauke L.; Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di

    1998-05-01

    The ocean is one of several media available for the disposal of society's wastes. Recently, its use for this purpose has been curtailed sharply. In this paper, we describe the potential role of the ocean in an economically optimal multimedia waste disposal framework, review international agreements and U.S. laws regulating ocean disposal, and discuss the role of public perceptions and environmental agendas in present policies governing ocean disposal. Our focus is on the disposal in the abyssal ocean of wastes such as sewage sludge. We conclude that while the U.S. ban on ocean waste disposal may be reasonable in view of uncertainties about environmental costs, the effective ban on limited disposal for research purposes is more difficult to justify. A restoration of public trust in government institutions and in the waste management industry is a likely prerequisite for the relaxation of public opposition to any change in the present prohibitions.

  14. Speculations about the upper Miocene change in abyssal Pacific dissolved bicarbonate delta13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, M.L.; Keigwin, L.D. Jr

    1979-01-01

    New data from three Tasman Sea cores support Kleigwin's observation that the delta 13 C of Pacific benthic foraminifera (and by inference bottom-water TCO 2 ) decreased by 0.7 per thousand at about 6.5 Myr B.P. Simple box models are developed and used to test several hypotheses about the cause of the delta 13 C decrease. The authors favor the idea that the delta 13 C shift was due to a rapid change in TCO 2 cycling within the oceans (such as would result from either a decrease in upwelling rate, or an increase in the fraction of PO 4 3- reaching the deep oceans in particulate organic matter and a corresponding drop in the performed PO 4 3- concentration). The delta 13 C decrease across the shift might reflect either a global decrease in upwelling rate, or a different abyssal circulation pattern before the shift. (Auth.)

  15. Late Pliocene Changes in Abyssal Southern Ocean Ventilation: New Insights from the Subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, L. M.; Hendy, I. L.; Moore, T. C.; Lyle, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    New stable isotope records from subantarctic southeast Pacific cores MV0502-4JC (50°20'S, 148°08'W, 4286m) and ELT 25-11 (50°02'S, 127°31'W, 3969m) suggest that the late Pliocene climate transition (LPCT) at ~2.75 Ma marked a dramatic increase in cold, poorly ventilated water in the deepest portion of the Southern Ocean. This conclusion is based on a striking vertical stable isotopic gradient that developed between MV0502-4JC and shallower South Atlantic ODP Site 704 (46°52'S, 7°5'E, 2532 m) in the late Pliocene, a sharp contrast to the comparable benthic δ13C and δ18O values recorded at the two sites during the late Miocene. Similar to existing shallower records from the South Atlantic, benthic stable isotope records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 record a significant decrease in δ13C accompanied by an increase in δ18O in the Late Pliocene. While the δ13C decrease and δ18O increase recorded at the South Atlantic sites appears to represent the onset of a glacial pattern of oxygen isotope enrichment and reduced deep water ventilation in the Southern Ocean, the transition in MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11 signals a far more dramatic shift in conditions at abyssal depths. First, the benthic δ13C shift appears to be more extensive and prolonged in the deep subantarctic Pacific than in the South Atlantic, and second, the δ13C decrease was accompanied by an equally dramatic increase in benthic δ18O that stands out amongst other deep sea records prior to the late Pleistocene. In MV0502-4JC these δ13C and δ18O shifts amount to -1.05‰ and +1.1‰, respectively, over the period ~2.7 to 1.9 Ma (9.6-7.3 MBSF) and are followed by a dramatic return of the benthic δ13C values to pre-LPCT values after ~1.7 Ma that is also recorded in the planktonic record. These benthic δ13C and δ18O shifts likely indicate the accumulation of an ever-larger percentage of cold, poorly-ventilated AABW in the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, probably due to sea ice

  16. Interception of residual nitrate from a calcareous alluvial soil profile on the North China Plain by deep-rooted crops: A 15N tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, X.T.; Gao, Q.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    15 N-labeled nitrate was injected into different depths of an alluvial calcareous soil profile on the North China Plain. Subsequent movement of NO 3 - N and its recovery by deep-rooted maize (Zea mays L.) and shallow-rooted eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) were studied. Under conventional water and nutrient management the mean recoveries of 15 N-labeled nitrate from K 15 NO 3 injected at depths 15, 45, and 75 cm were 22.4, 13.8, and 7.8% by maize and 7.9, 4.9, and 2.7% by eggplant. The recovery rate by maize at each soil depth was significantly higher than by eggplant. The deeper the injection of nitrate the smaller the distance of its downward movement and this corresponded with the movement of soil water during crop growth. Deeper rooting crops with high root length density and high water consumption may therefore be grown to utilize high concentrations of residual nitrate in the subsoil from previous intensive cropping and to protect the environment. - Deep-rooted crops have a greater capacity than shallow-rooted crops to intercept residual nitrate from the subsoil and restrict its movement down to the shallow groundwater

  17. A long-term study of aerosol–cloud interactions and their radiative effect at the Southern Great Plains using ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Sena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical estimates of the microphysical response of cloud droplet size distribution to aerosol perturbations are commonly used to constrain aerosol–cloud interactions in climate models. Instead of empirical microphysical estimates, here macroscopic variables are analyzed to address the influence of aerosol particles and meteorological descriptors on instantaneous cloud albedo and the radiative effect of shallow liquid water clouds. Long-term ground-based measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM program over the Southern Great Plains are used. A broad statistical analysis was performed on 14 years of coincident measurements of low clouds, aerosol, and meteorological properties. Two cases representing conflicting results regarding the relationship between the aerosol and the cloud radiative effect were selected and studied in greater detail. Microphysical estimates are shown to be very uncertain and to depend strongly on the methodology, retrieval technique and averaging scale. For this continental site, the results indicate that the influence of the aerosol on the shallow cloud radiative effect and albedo is weak and that macroscopic cloud properties and dynamics play a much larger role in determining the instantaneous cloud radiative effect compared to microphysical effects. On a daily basis, aerosol shows no correlation with cloud radiative properties (correlation = −0.01 ± 0.03, whereas the liquid water path shows a clear signal (correlation = 0.56 ± 0.02.

  18. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Methods and Data from the Urban Land-Use-Gradient Study, Des Plaines and Fox River Basins, Illinois, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphson, Debbie L.; Arnold, Terri L.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Harris, Mitchell A.; Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2001-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected at 46 sites in the Fox and Des Plaines River Basins as part of the upper Illinois River Basin study of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The data, collected from 1999 to 2001, will be used to determine the effects of urbanization on streams in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. To examine the possible effects of urbanization on stream-water quality, the sampling sites were selected to represent a gradient of land use changing from agriculture into urban. Urban land use for the selected sites ranged from less than 1 percent urban to 92 percent urban. Data-collection methods are presented in the text portion of this report. Physical characteristics of the stream that were collected include descriptive and qualitative habitat and geomorphic measures. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), 11 major ions, 46 wastewater indicators, pH, and specific conductance. Aquatic communities were sampled to identify and quantify populations of selected algae, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. There were 72 unique fish species collected at all of the sites. The number of benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected at all the sites ranged from 15 to 48. The data and the associated data documentation are presented on a CD-ROM included with this report.

  19. Visibility of Different Intraorbital Foreign Bodies Using Plain Radiography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadrashid, Reza; Golamian, Masoud; Shahrzad, Maryam; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Shahmorady, Zahra; Fouladi, Daniel F; Sadrarhami, Shohreh; Akhoundzadeh, Leila

    2017-05-01

    The study sought to compare the usefulness of 4 imaging modalities in visualizing various intraorbital foreign bodies (IOFBs) in different sizes. Six different materials including metal, wood, plastic, stone, glass. and graphite were cut in cylindrical shapes in 4 sizes (dimensions: 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mm) and placed intraorbitally in the extraocular space of fresh sheep's head. Four skilled radiologists rated the visibility of the objects individually using plain radiography, spiral computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in accordance with a previously described grading system. Excluding wood, all embedded foreign bodies were best visualized in CT and CBCT images with almost equal accuracies. Wood could only be detected using MRI, and then only when fragments were more than 2 mm in size. There were 3 false-positive MRI reports, suggesting air bubbles as wood IOFBs. Because of lower cost and using less radiation in comparison with conventional CT, CBCT can be used as the initial imaging technique in cases with suspected IOFBs. Optimal imaging technique for wood IOFBs is yet to be defined. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupferman, S.L. (ed.)

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  1. Subseabed Disposal Project annual report, FY85 to termination of project: Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry Studies, October 1984 through May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupferman, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    This report covers the work of the Physical Oceanography and Water Column Geochemistry (POWCG) Studies Group of the Subseabed Disposal Project (SDP) from October 1984 to termination of the project in May 1986. The overview of the work includes an introduction, general descriptions of the activities, and a summary. Detailed discussions are included as appendices. During the period of this report the POWCG Studies Group held a meeting to develop a long-term research plan for the Nares Abyssal Plain, which was recently designated as a study area for the Environmental Study Group of the SDP. The POWCG Studies Group has also planned and participated in two interdisciplinary oceanographic missions to the Nares which have resulted in the acquisition of data and samples which can be used to begin to understand the workings of the ecosystem at the site, and for developing a preliminary site assessment. The papers in the appendices have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  2. Ship Sensor Observations for Estuary to the Abyss 2004: Exploring Along the Latitude 31-30 Transect - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Seward Johnson during the "Estuary to the Abyss 2004" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  3. A case study of the Great Plains low-level jet using wind profiler network data and a high resolution mesoscale model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, S.; Fast, J.D.; Bian, X.; Stage, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Great Plains low-level jet (LLJ) has important effects on the life cycle of clouds and on radiative and surface heat and moisture fluxes at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site. This diurnal phenomenon governs the transport and convergence of low-level moisture into the region and often leads to the development of clouds and precipitation. A full understanding of the life cycle of clouds at the SGP CART site and their proper representation in single column and global climate models cannot be obtained without an improved understanding of this important phenomenon.

  4. Tectonic origin of serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical signatures of abyssal origin preserved in a HP/LT subduction complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperdock, Emily H. G.; Raia, Natalie H.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.

    2018-01-01

    This study combines whole rock trace and major element geochemistry, and stable isotope (δD and δ18O) analyses with petrographic observations to deduce the origin and tectonic setting of serpentinization of ultramafic blocks from the exhumed HP/LT Aegean subduction complex on Syros, Greece. Samples are completely serpentinized and are characterized by mineral assemblages that consist of variable amounts of serpentine, talc, chlorite, and magnetite. δD and δ18O values of bulk rock serpentinite powders and chips (δD = - 64 to - 33‰ and δ18O = + 5.2 to + 9.0‰) reflect hydration by seawater at temperatures < 250 °C in an oceanic setting pre-subduction, or by fluids derived from dehydrating altered oceanic crust during subduction. Fluid-mobile elements corroborate the possibility of initial serpentinization by seawater, followed by secondary fluid-rock interactions with a sedimentary source pre- or syn-subduction. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses record limited melt extraction, exhibit flat REE patterns, and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. The geochemical signatures preserved in these serpentinites argue against a mantle wedge source, as has been previously speculated for ultramafic rocks on Syros. Rather, the data are consistent with derivation from abyssal peridotites in a hyper-extended margin setting or mid-ocean ridge and fracture zone environment. In either case, the data suggest an extensional and/or oceanic origin associated with the Cretaceous opening of the Pindos Ocean and not a subduction-related derivation from the mantle wedge.

  5. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  6. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  7. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  8. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Changes in Groundwater Quality in Arid Zones Using Geostatistical Methods(Case Study: Koohpaye– Segzi Plain in Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Abbasi Jondani

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The resultsshow thatwaterquality inKoohpaye– SegziPlainhavedramaticallyreduced in 1389than in1374.Most ofthechangeshave been occurrednearzayanderood river, as critical points have been appeared in Southern area of this plain. This show the effective role of zayanderood river in groundwater aquifer.

  9. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from optimized and alternative cereal cropping systems on the North China Plain: A two-year field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, B.; Ju, X.T.; Su, F.; Meng, Q.F.; Oenema, O.; Christie, P.; Chen, X.P.; Zhang, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of different crop rotation systems with their corresponding management practices on grain yield, greenhouse gas emissions, and fertilizer nitrogen (N) and irrigation water use efficiencies are not well documented. This holds especially for the North China Plain which provides the staple

  10. Pesticide use in the wheat-maize double cropping systems of the North China Plain: Assessment, field study, and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brauns, Bentje; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Song, Xianfang

    2018-01-01

    approval and application, and better monitoring strategies are being developed. However, sufficient and well-directed research on the accumulation and impact of different pesticides is needed for informed decision-making. In this study, current pesticide use, and recent and current research on water...... contamination by pesticides in the NCP are reviewed and assessed. Additionally, a small-scale field study was performed to determine if residuals from currently-used pesticides in the NCP can be detected in surface water, and in connected shallow groundwater. The contaminants of interest were commonly used....../or are still illegally in use. However, supported by our own data, we find that the monitoring in groundwater and surface water of currently permitted pesticides in China needs equal attention, and should therefore be increased....

  11. Data assimilation for groundwater flow modelling using Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter: Case study in Guantao, North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W.; Li, H.; Li, W.; Chen, F.; Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Data assimilation techniques are widely used in hydrology to improve the reliability of hydrological models and to reduce model predictive uncertainties. This provides critical information for decision makers in water resources management. This study aims to evaluate a data assimilation system for the Guantao groundwater flow model coupled with a one-dimensional soil column simulation (Hydrus 1D) using an Unbiased Ensemble Square Root Filter (UnEnSRF) originating from the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) to update parameters and states, separately or simultaneously. To simplify the coupling between unsaturated and saturated zone, a linear relationship obtained from analyzing inputs to and outputs from Hydrus 1D is applied in the data assimilation process. Unlike EnKF, the UnEnSRF updates parameter ensemble mean and ensemble perturbations separately. In order to keep the ensemble filter working well during the data assimilation, two factors are introduced in the study. One is called damping factor to dampen the update amplitude of the posterior ensemble mean to avoid nonrealistic values. The other is called inflation factor to relax the posterior ensemble perturbations close to prior to avoid filter inbreeding problems. The sensitivities of the two factors are studied and their favorable values for the Guantao model are determined. The appropriate observation error and ensemble size were also determined to facilitate the further analysis. This study demonstrated that the data assimilation of both model parameters and states gives a smaller model prediction error but with larger uncertainty while the data assimilation of only model states provides a smaller predictive uncertainty but with a larger model prediction error. Data assimilation in a groundwater flow model will improve model prediction and at the same time make the model converge to the true parameters, which provides a successful base for applications in real time modelling or real time controlling strategies

  12. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized "plain" cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers' interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts.

  13. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors – a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-01-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events

  14. Understanding of crop phenology using satellite-based retrievals and climate factors - a case study on spring maize in Northeast China plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Yanmin; Xie, Donghui; Wang, Peijuan; Wu, Menxin

    2014-03-01

    Land surface phenology is an efficient bio-indicator for monitoring terrestrial ecosystem variation in response to climate change. Numerous studies point out climate change plays an important role in modulating vegetation phenological events, especially in agriculture. In turn, surface changes caused by geo-biological processes can affect climate transition regionally and perhaps globally, as concluded by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2001. Large amounts of research concluded that crops, as one of the most sensitive bio-indicators for climate change, can be strongly influenced by local weather such as temperature, moisture and radiation. Thus, investigating the details of weather impact and the feedback from crops can help improve our understanding of the interaction between crops and climate change at satellite scale. Our efforts start from this point, via case studies over the famous agriculture region in the Northeast China's plain to examine the response of spring maize under temperature and moisture stress. MODIS-based daily green vegetation information together with frequent field specification of the surface phenology as well as continuous measurements of the routine climatic factors during seven years (2003-2009) is used in this paper. Despite the obvious difference in scale between satellite estimations and field observations, the inter- and intra-annual variation of maize in seven-years' growth was captured successfully over three typical spring maize regions (Fuyu, Changling, and Hailun) in Northeast China. The results demonstrate that weather conditions such as changes of temperature and moisture stress provide considerable contribution to the year-to-year variations in the timing of spring maize phenological events.

  15. [Soil organic carbon sequestration rate and its influencing factors in farmland of Guanzhong Plain: a case study in Wugong County, Shannxi Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ming-Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Take Wugong County as an example, soil carbon storage and soil carbon sequestration rate were calculated, the change law of farmland soil organic carbon was explored, and the relationship of farmland soil organic carbon and natural factors, human factors was further revealed. The results of the study showed that: (1) The soil organic carbon contents in 80% of the sampling sites were in the range of 8.0-12.0 g x kg(-1), and the organic carbon contents in 0-20 cm soils showed a normal distribution. (2) In 2011, the organic carbon density of the 0-20 cm farmland soil was 26.3 t x hm(-2), below the national average soil organic carbon density (33.45 t x hm(-2)) of the arable layer. In the last 30 years, the soil carbon sequestration rate in the 0-20 cm layer was 71.3 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1), and in the past five years, the carbon sequestration rate was 480 kg x (hm x a)(-1). The recent carbon sequestration rate was higher than the national average soil carbon sequestration rate of the arable layer [380.78 kg x (hm2 x a)(-1)]. (3) In the semi-humid plain region, soil organic carbon was mainly affected by soil types, landform types, organic fertilizer. Soil types accounted for 30.2% of the organic carbon variability; the landform types and the organic fertilizer could explain 37.7% and 32.1%, respectively. The results of the comprehensive analysis showed that the farmland soil organic carbon density of Wugong County in the past 30 years is increasing, and this probably relies on the utilization of chemical fertilizer and the returning straw. Further study should be conducted on the impact of the chemical fertilizer and returning straw.

  16. International Network Performance and Security Testing Based on Distributed Abyss Storage Cluster and Draft of Data Lake Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ByungRae Cha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The megatrends and Industry 4.0 in ICT (Information Communication & Technology are concentrated in IoT (Internet of Things, BigData, CPS (Cyber Physical System, and AI (Artificial Intelligence. These megatrends do not operate independently, and mass storage technology is essential as large computing technology is needed in the background to support them. In order to evaluate the performance of high-capacity storage based on open source Ceph, we carry out the network performance test of Abyss storage with domestic and overseas sites using KOREN (Korea Advanced Research Network. And storage media and network bonding are tested to evaluate the performance of the storage itself. Additionally, the security test is demonstrated by Cuckoo sandbox and Yara malware detection among Abyss storage cluster and oversea sites. Lastly, we have proposed the draft design of Data Lake framework in order to solve garbage dump problem.

  17. Identification of regional soil quality factors and indicators: a case study on an alluvial plain (central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Cevdet; Hüseyin Özaytekin, Hasan; Negiş, Hamza; Gümüş, İlknur; Dedeoğlu, Mert; Atmaca, Emel; Karaca, Ümmühan

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture largely depends on soil quality. The evaluation of agricultural soil quality is essential for economic success and environmental stability in rapidly developing regions. In this context, a wide variety of methods using vastly different indicators are currently used to evaluate soil quality. This study was conducted in one of the most important irrigated agriculture areas of Konya in central Anatolia, Turkey, to analyze the soil quality indicators of Çumra County in combination with an indicator selection method, with the minimum data set using a total of 38 soil parameters. We therefore determined a minimum data set with principle component analysis to assess soil quality in the study area and soil quality was evaluated on the basis of a scoring function. From the broad range of soil properties analyzed, the following parameters were chosen: field capacity, bulk density, aggregate stability, and permanent wilting point (from physical soil properties); electrical conductivity, Mn, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, pH, and NO3-N (from chemical soil properties); and urease enzyme activity, root health value, organic carbon, respiration, and potentially mineralized nitrogen (from biological properties). According to the results, the chosen properties were found as the most sensitive indicators of soil quality and they can be used as indicators for evaluating and monitoring soil quality at a regional scale.

  18. Groundwater Pollution Characteristics and Hydrochemical Properties of Typical Plain River-net Area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China: A Case Study in Suzhou City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Ruan, X.; Sun, H.; Pan, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Due to anthropogenic activities, tidal river water retention and other geological factors, groundwater quality in plain river-net area is vulnerable to pollution. Detailed chemical analysis results of 49 groundwater samples were carried out to identify groundwater pollution characteristics, hydrochemical properties and to assess groundwater quality and usability in Suzhou City, a typical plain area in Lower Yangtze River Delta, China. In order to protect, utilize and manage groundwater resources effectively, it is necessary to recognize the dominant processes responsible for hydrogeochemistry, groundwater pollution threats in study area. The results revealed ammonia concentration in confined and shallow groundwater ranges from 0.02 to 6.78 mg/L, 0.04 to 3.17 mg/L, respectively. Nitrite concentrations range from 0.004 to 1.01 mg/L, 0.004 to 3.66 mg/L, respectively. Iron concentrations range from 0.006 to 16.9 mg/L, 0.02 to 7.88 mg/L, respectively. Manganese concentrations range from 0.003 to 1.04 mg/L, 0.06 to 0.58 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of analytical results and water quality standards, majority of groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking, domestic as well as for industrial uses directly. Toxic metals and high levels ions should be removed if groundwater is supplied for different purposes. Salinity, sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate and sodium percentage values revealed that most of groundwater samples are suitable for irrigation purposes except only a few. The salinity hazard of study area is regarded as low to medium, and special management for salinity control is required in scattered regions. Results of suitability for industrial purposes according to calculated Langeliar saturation index and Larson Ratio showed that majority of samples are calcium carbonate depositing, whereas a few are calcium carbonate dissolving in nature. Results show that sodium, calcium and bicarbonate are the dominant ions of groundwater. Na-HCO3

  19. Effects of climate change on the length of growth stages and water requirement of wheat and barley (Case Study: Birjand Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The global climate is changing and, despite efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, weather variation is inevitable. Meanwhile, agriculture as a major water consumer will require adaptation to these variations, along with other challenges, to guarantee its persistence and sustainability. Given the arid and semi-arid climate of Iran, water, as a main limiting factor for agricultural production, plays an important role in determining the type of farming activities (Osamu et al., 2005. Crop water requirements and evapotranspiration are the main cause of water consumption in agricultural sector, the both accepted to face a dramatic increase in future under influence of increasing temperatures resulting from climate change (Koocheki et al., 2001. In this regard, the foreknowledge about future changes in climate and its effects on agricultural water use can be helpful for farmers and decision-makers. This study aimed to evaluate the climatic conditions of Birjand plain in the next two decades, and to investigate the effects of climate change on water consumption of wheat and barley as two main crops in this region. Materials and methods In the present survey, the effects of estimated climate change in Birjand plain on water requirement of wheat and barley and wheat yield in the 2010-2039 period were studied. Based on average weather data for the last thirty years from Birjand synoptic stations, climatic parameters of temperature and precipitation for the time period of 2010-2039 were simulated with LARS-WG5 using A1 scenario confirmed by the IPCC. Wind speed and relative humidity also were estimated for the future period. Common planting and harvesting dates were obtained from local farmers and Birjand Agriculture Organization and duration and crop coefficients (Kc for early, developmental, middle and final crop growth stages in the current period were extracted from FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56. For the future period

  20. Genetics, medicine, and the Plain people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kevin A; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2009-01-01

    The Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonite populations of Pennsylvania are descended from Swiss Anabaptist immigrants who came to the New World in the early eighteenth century. Today they live in many small endogamous demes across North America. Genetically, these demes have dissimilar allele frequencies and disease spectra owing to unique founders. Biological and social aspects of Old Order communities make them ideal for studies in population genetics and genomic medicine, and over the last 40 years, advances in genomic science coincided with investigational studies in Plain populations. Newer molecular genetic technologies are sufficiently informative, rapid, and flexible to use in a clinical setting, and we have successfully integrated these tools into a rural pediatric practice. Our studies with the Pennsylvania Plain communities show that population-specific genetic knowledge provides a powerful framework in which to prevent disease, reduce medical costs, and create new insights into human biology.

  1. Evolution of internal stresses in the plain ferritic steel studied by neutron diffraction in situ upon tensile straining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, V; Lukáš, P; Strunz, P; Kužel, R

    2009-03-04

    The present in situ neutron diffraction study aims to investigate the response of selected lattice planes in the polycrystalline material upon tensile loading. For this purpose, the 0.1C-0.4Mn construction steel was selected as a simple model material. The tensile deformation test was performed in the incremental mode in which each individual deformation step was followed by unloading. The neutron diffraction spectra were collected both upon loading and unloading and the behavior of the diffraction profiles in the elastic as well as in the plastic region of the deformation curve was examined in detail. Whereas the behavior of the lattice strains during straining and the evolution of the residual intergranular strains have already been described in other papers, the present work is focused mainly on profile broadening effects measured in the same deformation regime. The estimate of microstrain evolution was done by using the single-line profile analysis method. Comparison of microstrain values in the loaded/unloaded state and in the elastic and plastic regions offers an interesting possibility to estimate the contribution of the type II and type III microstrains.

  2. The determination, assessment, and design of "in-stream value" studies for the northern Great Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovee, Ken D.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive literature review was conducted to determine the discharge requirements of various components of a warm water fishery. Where exact hydrologic parameters were not measured directly in individual studies, they were estimated from inferred statements and knowledge of hydrologic variables leading to certain instream conditions. From this information it was possible to determine which components of the stream community would be most seriously affected by reduced discharges. In addition, a number of different methods used in the recommendation of minimum streamflows was reviewed. These methods were evaluated for their reliability and ease of use. It was concluded that a method for recommending minimum discharges should not sacrifice reliability for expediency. A methodology is proposed for the recommendation of minimum discharges for a warm water fishery. This method utilizes field measurements of critical stream areas and biological criteria determined from the used of indicator species. For large rivers, migration and spawning requirements are analyzed using the paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) as the indicator species. For smaller rivers, the suggested indicator species is the sauger (Stizostedion canadense). Rearing flows are determined on the basis of stream productivity by analyzing macroinvertebrate habits, and on the basis of fish habitat typing. The indicator species for determining adequate fish habitat is the stonecat (Notorus flavus). A number of variables were identified which might require a greater amount of in-stream flow than the fishery, per se. These variables included streamflow needs for riparian and other sub-irrigated vegetation, water quality parameters, anchor ice formation, and the relationship between discharge and sediment yield. Information concerning these variables is insufficient at this time to determine whether a variable will "over-ride" the streamflow requirement for the fishery itself. Further research is needed in these

  3. Impact of Sulphur Content on Coal Quality at Delta Plain Depositional Environment: Case study in Geramat District, Lahat Regency, South Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Linda Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in Geramat District of Lahat Regency, South Sumatra. An evaluation of the geological condition of the research area shown that the coal deposits were found in Muara Enim Formation as a coal-bearing formation. The method used was literature study, field observation and the laboratory work includes proximate and petrography analysis. The aim of this research is to determine the environmental condition of coal based on the change of total sulphur content and to know the relation between ash content to calorific value.  As the result of proximate analysis conducted on five samples of coal, the research area obtained total sulphur (0,21-1,54% adb, ash content (3,16 - 71,11% adb and gross calorific value (953 - 5676 cal/g. adb. Based on the result of maceral analysis showed the maceral percentage of coal in research area composed by vitrinite (77,8-87,4 %, liptinite (0,6 %, inertinite (8,0 – 17,6 % and mineral matter concentration in the form of pyrite (1,6-4,6 %. The average reflectance value of vitrinite (Rv of coal in the research area (0.54%. the results analysis shows that the coal in Muara Enim Formation on the research area is in the transitional lower delta plain depositional environment phase. Any changes in the sedimentary environment affected by sea water will be followed by changes in total sulphur and the higher ash content, on the contrary, the lower calorific value of the coal.

  4. Diagnosing the Nature of Land-Atmosphere Coupling: A Case Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U. S. Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanello, Joseph A. Jr.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Kennedy, Aaron; Kumar, Sujay V.

    2012-01-01

    Land-atmosphere (L-A) interactions play a critical role in determining the diurnal evolution of land surface and planetary boundary layer (PBL) temperature and moisture states and fluxes. In turn, these interactions regulate the strength of the connection between surface moisture and precipitation in a coupled system. To address model deficiencies, recent studies have focused on development of diagnostics to quantify the strength and accuracy of the land- PBL coupling at the process-level. In this paper, a diagnosis of the nature and impacts of local land-atmosphere coupling (LoCo) during dry and wet extreme conditions is presented using a combination of models and observations during the summers of 2006 and 2007 in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. A range of diagnostics exploring the links and feedbacks between soil moisture and precipitation are applied to the dry/wet regimes exhibited in this region, and in the process a thorough evaluation of nine different land-PBL scheme couplings is conducted under the umbrella of a high-resolution regional modeling testbed. Results show that the sign and magnitude of errors in land surface energy balance components are sensitive to the choice of land surface model, regime type, and running mode. In addition, LoCo diagnostics show that the sensitivity of L-A coupling is stronger towards the land during dry conditions, while the PBL scheme coupling becomes more important during the wet regime. Results also demonstrate how LoCo diagnostics can be applied to any modeling system (e.g. reanalysis products) in the context of their integrated impacts on the process-chain connecting the land surface to the PBL and in support of hydrological anomalies.

  5. Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Prasanna; Subbarao, Chandana; Subbarao, Chandragiri V

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), spiral computed tomography (SCT), plain (plain digi), and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiographs (contrast digi) in studying root canal morphology. The root canal anatomy was analyzed in 95 teeth using CBCT, pQCT, SCT, plain digi, and contrast digi. After flushing out the radiopaque dye, access cavities were sealed, and the teeth were subject to the modified canal staining and clearing technique. The number of root canals (Vertucci classification and Gulabivala's additional classes) was calculated by three calibrated endodontists and two maxillofacial radiologists. Erroneous or unsuccessful identifications of root canals were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (p = 0.05). The modified canal staining and clearing technique identified an average of 1.8 root canals per mandibular central incisor, 2.3 per maxillary first premolar, 3.9 per maxillary first molar, 3.8 per maxillary and mandibular second molar, and 4.3 per mandibular first molar. CBCT and pQCT were erroneous in 0.29% and 2.05% cases, whereas SCT, contrast digi, and plain digi were unsuccessful in 15.58%, 14.7%, and 23.8%, respectively. There was a significant difference between all the methods (p technique where there was no significant difference (p > 0.05). CBCT and pQCT were as accurate as the modified canal staining and tooth clearing technique in identifying root canal systems. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A missing-link in the tectonic configuration of the Almacık Block along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NW Turkey): Active faulting in the Bolu plain based on seismic reflection studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyitoğlu, Gürol; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan; Kaypak, Bülent; Esat, Korhan; Çağlayan, Ayşe; Gündoğdu, Oğuz; Güney, Yücel; Işık, Veysel; Pekkan, Emrah; Tün, Muammer; Avdan, Uğur

    2015-06-01

    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) starts to branch off in the western Bolu plain. The branches of the NAFZ in this location create the Almacık block which is surrounded by the latest surface ruptures of significant earthquakes that occurred between 1944 and 1999, but its northeastern part remains unruptured. The most recently formed rupture, that was a result of the 1999 November 12 Düzce earthquake, ended to the northwest of the Bakacak Fault. The connection between the Bakacak Fault and the main branch of the NAFZ via the Bolu plain has until now remained unknown. This paper establishes that the route of the missing link runs through the Dağkent, Kasaplar and Bürnük faults, a finding achieved with the help of seismic reflection studies. The paper also argues that the cross cutting nature of these newly determined faults and a stress analysis based on focal mechanism solutions of recent earthquakes demonstrate the termination of the suggested pull-apart nature of the Bolu plain.

  7. Does 'Plain Packaging' of Tobacco matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Clancy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The incremental tightening of the tobacco industry’s advertising capabilities led to the investment of billions of dollars into increasingly creative packaging. Today, packing remains one of the industry’s sole methods of promotion and marketing. The size, shape, colour, and font on cigarette packs serve to differentiate brands and promote a certain image associated with the given cigarette package Many studies in recent years have tested the association between pack standardisation and peoples’ attitudes, behaviours, and perceptions of tobacco packaging. The results show that plain packs are thought to be less attractive and associated with less positive characteristics, the health warnings are more salient, and smokers report feelings of wanting to smoke less when using standardised packs. Now we have the real life results from Australia, which show the tobacco control advances that are possible with standardised packaging. This must increase the pressure to have 'plain packaging' introduced throughout the EU.

  8. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  9. An integrated hydrogeochemical and isotopic approach to study groundwater Salinization in the overexploited aquifers of Indo-Gangetic Plain, a part of NCR Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, R.

    2017-12-01

    roundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas are highly vulnerable to salinity problems. Inadequate availability of surface water supply, vagaries of mansoonal rainfall and overexploitation due to population pressure and rapid landuse change induced decline in groundwater levels and salinization has been observed in many Asian cities. After green revolution, large part of Indo-Gangetic plain groundwater salinization has been reported. One such region is National Capital Region, Delhi- India's largest and the world's second largest agglomeration of people and economic hub of Northern India. The present study includes National capital territory, Delhi, Gurgaon and Faridabad. In the present study, different graphical plots, Piper plot, saturation index values (using PHREEQC), stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) and GIS is used to create the database for analysis of spatial variation in respective water quality parameters as well as to decipher the hydrogeochemical process occurring in the area. Major ions are analysed to describe the composition and distribution of salinization and dissolution/precipitation dynamics. It was observed that groundwater weathering is governed by carbonate and silicate weathering and reverse ion-exchange, however due to semi-arid climate evaporation is also playing a major role in groundwater chemistry and salinity of the area. δ18O and δD regression line of groundwater samples of the study area is below the LMWL also suggest from non-equilibrium fractionation during evaporation. Large lateral variation in chloride concentration indicates impact of evapotranspiration rate during recharge. Most of water facies are of Na-Cl. Stable isotope (δ18O and δD) analysis helps to identify evaporation and to better understand recharge processes and mixing dynamics in the study region. Limited availability of surface water supply, no pricing exists for groundwater extraction has resulted in a widespread decline in the water table and intermixing of

  10. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP): Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xue Wang; Xiubin Li

    2018-01-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA) has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence...

  11. Influence of point-of-sale tobacco displays and plain black and white cigarette packaging and advertisements on adults: Evidence from a virtual store experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnemaker, James; Kim, Annice; Shafer, Paul; Loomis, Brett; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John; Farrelly, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    We examined the potential impact of banning tobacco displays and mandating plain packaging and cigarette advertisements at the point of sale (POS) on adult outcomes. A virtual convenience store was created with scenarios in which the tobacco product display was either fully visible (status quo) or enclosed behind a cabinet (display ban), and cigarette packs and advertisements were either in full color (status quo) or black and white, text only (plain). A national convenience sample of 1313 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 4 conditions and given a shopping task to complete in the virtual store. Main outcomes were participants' self-reported urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts in the virtual store. Compared with recent quitters in the status quo conditions, recent quitters in the display ban condition had lower urges to smoke (β=-4.82, 95% CI=-8.16--1.49, p<0.01). Compared with current smokers in the status quo conditions, smokers in the display ban conditions were less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes in the virtual store (OR=0.05, 95% CI=0.03-0.08, P<0.01). Smokers exposed to plain packs and ads were significantly less likely to attempt to purchase cigarettes (OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.20-0.47, P<0.01) than those exposed to color packs and ads. Policies that ban the display of tobacco products or require plain packaging and advertising at the POS may help reduce adult smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  13. Intracavitary pulmonary aspergilloma: comparison of CT with plain chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chun Hwan; Im, Jung Gi; Yu, Eun Ju; Han, Man Chung

    1991-01-01

    Saprophytic intracavitary fungus ball is the most common form of pulmonary involvement of aspergillosis. Crescent-shaped air shadow surrounded by a creativity wall is known to be a characteristic of pulmonary aspergilloma on plain chest radiograph. However, in case of early lesion in which intracavitary aspergilloma is overlapped with adjacent destroyed lung or mediastinal and hilar density, the air meniscus can not be demonstrated on plain radiograph. In such a case, CT scan might provide additional information that suggests fungus ball. The aim of this study is to describe the variable CT appearances of pulmonary aspergilloma in addition to air meniscus sign and to correlate the findings on CT with those of plain radiograph and pathology. The diagnosis of intracavitary aspergilloma was suggested on both CT and plain radiograph in case that air-meniscus sign was visible. CT scans could add more diagnostic information over chest radiographs such as small peripheral air density or sponge-like air shadow

  14. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  15. Irrigation Water Availability and Winter Wheat Abandonment in the North China Plain (NCP: Findings from a Case Study in Cangxian County of Hebei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP is the major winter wheat producing area in China. Abandonment of this crop has, however, become more and more prevalent in this region since the late 1990s. Although the underlying causes of this phenomenon remain little understood, irrigation water availability (IWA has always been regarded as the key factor limiting winter wheat production on the NCP. The aim of this paper is to determine the role played by IWA in the abandonment of winter wheat, using evidence drawn from a case study in Cangxian County, Hebei Province. First-hand data were collected for this study from 350 households in 35 villages, using semistructured one-on-one questionnaires. Five types of irrigation water sources were defined and identified at the level of individual land plots: “ground and surface water”, “just groundwater”, “just rivers”, “just reservoirs”, and “no irrigation”. These levels correspond to a decreasing trend in the overall frequency of irrigation and thus provide a clear proxy indicator for IWA. The results from a series of multilevel multinomial models show that the higher the IWA, the less likely it is for a land plot to abandon winter wheat. Specifically, using “no irrigation” cases as a control group, the results show that land plots with more sources of irrigation water also tend to be characterized by greater IWA, including “ground and surface water” and “just groundwater”, and also have lower probabilities of abandoning winter wheat. In contrast, land plots with less IWA (less irrigation water sources, including “just reservoirs” and “just rivers”, are more likely to abandon winter wheat. The results also show that, in addition to IWA, soil quality and plot size at the plot level, as well as demographic characteristics, farm equipment, and land fragmentation at the household level and irrigation prices at the village level, all play additional significant roles in the cropping

  16. Perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among Mexican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Seema; Hammond, David; Reid, Jessica L; White, Christine M; Thrasher, James F

    2017-08-01

    Plain cigarette packaging, which seeks to remove all brand imagery and standardize the shape and size of cigarette packs, represents a novel policy measure to reduce the appeal of cigarettes. Plain packaging has been studied primarily in high-income countries like Australia and the UK. It is unknown whether the effects of plain packaging may differ in low-and-middle income countries with a shorter history of tobacco regulation, such as Mexico. An experimental study was conducted in Mexico City to examine perceptions of branded and plain cigarette packaging among smoking and non-smoking Mexican adolescents (n = 359). Respondents were randomly assigned to a branded or plain pack condition and rated 12 cigarette packages for appeal, taste, harm to health and smoker-image traits. As a behavioral measure of appeal, respondents were offered (although not given) four cigarette packs (either branded or plain) and asked to select one to keep. The findings indicated that branded packs were perceived to be more appealing (β = 3.40, p packaging may reduce brand appeal among Mexican youth, consistent with findings in high-income countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Pioneering studies of IQ by G.H. Thomson and J.F. Duff--an example of established knowledge subsequently 'hidden in plain sight'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2008-11-01

    Perhaps the earliest authoritative measurement of a social class gradient in IQ, with a stratification of occupations among the parents of children with different IQs, is seen in two fascinating papers published in 1923 and 1929 in the British Journal of Psychology. The authors were GH Thomson and JF Duff (both of whom were later knighted) and the papers' main findings were confirmed by later researchers. Results of an intelligence test administered to 13419 children aged 11-12 were analyzed according to parent's occupation. The average children's IQ at extremes of social class among their parents included clergymen-121, teachers-116 and bankers and managers-112 at the upper end; while at the lower end there were 'cripples and invalids'-94, cattlemen-93, hawkers and chimneysweeps-91, and the 'insane, criminal'-88. More than 100 specific categories of parental occupations were then combined into 13 social classes, with their children's average IQ as follows: Professional-112; Managers-110; Higher Commercial-109; Army, Navy, Police, Postmen-106; Shopkeeping-105; Engineers [ie. apprenticed craftsmen, such as mining engineers]-103; Foremen-103; Building trades-102; Metal workers, shipbuilders-101; Miscellaneous industrial workers-101; Miners and quarrymen-98; Agriculture-98; Labourers-96. A follow-up study compared an 'intelligent' group (IQ 136 plus) with a matched IQ 95-105 'control' group. IQ testing at age 11-12 was predictive of teacher's reports of higher levels of intelligence and health at age 16; and better performance in official examinations. The occupations of fathers, grandfathers and uncles were consistent with occupation being indicative of 'an inherited quality' (i.e. IQ) and there was regression from parents to grandparents and uncles among the 'intelligent' but not among controls. Other findings included a wider variance in intelligence among boys than girls, and descriptions of the predictive value of IQ in estimating future education, examinations

  18. Has Phytodetritus Processing by an Abyssal Soft-Sediment Community Recovered 26 Years after an Experimental Disturbance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Stratmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The first objective of this study was to measure recovery of phytodetritus processing by the benthic food web from a sediment disturbance experiment in 1989. The second objective was to determine the role of holothurians in the uptake of fresh phytodetritus by the benthic food web. To meet both objectives, large benthic incubation chambers (CUBEs; 50 × 50 × 50 cm were deployed inside plow tracks (with and without holothurian presence and at a reference site (holothurian presence, only at 4100 m water depth. Shortly after deployment, 13C- and 15N-labeled phytodetritus was injected in the incubation chambers and during the subsequent 3-day incubation period, water samples were taken five times to measure the production of 13C-dissolved inorganic carbon over time. At the end of the incubation, holothurians and sediment samples were taken to determine biomass, densities and incorporation of 13C and 15N into bacteria, nematodes, macrofauna, and holothurians. For the first objective, the results showed that biomass of bacteria, nematodes and macrofauna did not differ between reference sites and plow track sites when holothurians were present. Additionally, meiofauna and macrofauna taxonomic composition was not significantly different between the sites. In contrast, total 13C uptake by bacteria, nematodes and holothurians was significantly lower at plow track sites compared to reference sites, though the number of replicates was low. This result suggests that important ecosystem functions such as organic matter processing have not fully recovered from the disturbance that occurred 26 years prior to our study. For the second objective, the analysis indicated

  19. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Collin N; Kraemer, John D; Johnson, Andrea C; Mays, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. PMID:25897269

  20. Scales and Causes of Chemical Heterogeneity in the Oceanic Mantle: Abyssal Peridotites from Gakkel Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrand, E.; Snow, J. E.; Dick, H.; von der Handt, A.; Michael, P.

    2003-04-01

    We have obtained major and trace element mineral data on 80 residual abyssal peridotites from 19 dredge hauls, collected along Gakkel Ridge (spreading rate W to E: 13-10 mm/yr full). This data set allows us to address the extent and causes of along-ridge chemical variation as well as small- to local-scale heterogeneities. Gakkel Ridge can be divided into 3 regions: (1) the western region (west of 3^oE), characterized by normal-fault ridge morphology and complete basaltic crust; (2) a magma-poor region (3-19^oE), consisting mainly of abyssal peridotites and some basalts; and (3) the eastern region (east of 19^oE), dominated by basalts and subordinate peridotites. A giant point-source volcano at 20^oE divides the magma-poor from the eastern region. The magma-poor region can be divided into 4 domains from W to E. Domains A and B are devoid of basalts. Spinel Cr# in lhz varies between 0.14 and 0.21 (5 dr., n=23, 60 km along axis). In the easternmost B dredge haul, dunites were sampled (spinel Cr# 0.41-0.43), as yet the only evidence for local heterogeneity. Cpx are homogeneous on a dredge scale, but there is a clear distinction between the 3 western (A) and 2 eastern (B) dredges. In domain A, Na_2O is higher (˜0.9 vs ˜0.4 wt%) and REE patterns are less fractionated ((La/Nd)N: ˜1 vs ˜0.02). Domain C is basalt-dominated. Peridotites display large compositional variation (lhz, hzb, dun; Cr#: 0.15-0.53; LREE-depleted and -enriched within 1 dredge). The lowest Cr# in each dredge haul, which is relevant for estimating the regional degree of melting, varies from 0.16 to 0.21 and is therefore similar to domains A and B. Domain D consists exclusively of virtually cpx-free hzb and dun (4 dr., n=11, 40 km). The change from C to D is abrupt (<20 km). Cr#s between 0.53 and 0.60 are among the most depleted on the ocean floor, and not at all consistent with a spreading-rate dependent degree of melting. Most cpx REE patterns are LREE-enriched, 1 dunite is LREE-depleted, 2 hzb have

  1. Abyssal and deep circulation in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Ionian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artale, Vincenzo; Bensi, Manuel; Falcini, Federico; Marullo, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In the mid-1990s, experimental evidences on the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) were presented and it was shown that the Mediterranean abyssal circulation is not in a steady state but can be subjected to episodic sudden changes (Roether et al., 1996). In the last 10 years the Ionian Sea, the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean Sea, was subjected to relevant scientific interests from a theoretical and experimental point of view. Among these, there is the discovery of the BiOS (Bimodal Oscillating System), one new mechanism that drives a periodic (almost decadal) redistribution of surface and subsurface waters in the Eastern Mediterranean, with considerable feedbacks in the variability of the deep-water formation both in the southern Adriatic and in the Levantine and Aegean sub-basins (Gačić et al., 2010). In the Ionian Sea, numerous recent observational campaigns have been conducted to investigate the behaviour of deep and abyssal waters, at depths between 2000-4000m that are comparable to the mean global ocean depth (Rubino and Hainbucher, 2007; Bensi et al., 2013). There, advection, diffusion and vertical stability of the water masses can assume an important role on the internal quasi-periodical variability, creating the preconditions for catastrophic events such as the EMT or reversals of the Ionian circulation (Pisacane et al., 2006). Since there are no significant deep heat sources in the world ocean, waters that fill the deep ocean can only return to the sea surface as a result of downward mixing of heat from the sea surface to the bottom and vice versa and this occurs through eddy diffusion. Along our presentation, mainly through the analysis of the deepest CTD casts taken from 2009 to 2011 in the eastern basins and in particular in the Ionian Sea, we will show a significant change in the deep thermohaline structure (including its biogeochemical and hydrological characteristics), giving an indication on the time scale of the renewal of deep

  2. 49 CFR 229.64 - Plain bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plain bearings. 229.64 Section 229.64 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION....64 Plain bearings. A plain bearing box shall contain visible free oil and may not be cracked to the...

  3. Etude du point critique des paliers lisses alimentés à la graisse Study of Critical Point on Plain Bearings Lubricated by Grease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delneuville P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.

  4. Future Irrigation Requirement of Rice Under Irrigated Area - Uncertainty through GCMs and Crop Models : A Case Study of Indo-Gangetic Plains of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S. N.; Singh, H.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. G.; Porter, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Panwar, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the food basket of South Asia, characterised by predominantly cereal-based farming systems where livestock is an integral part of farm economy. Climate change is projected to have significant effects on agriculture production and hence on food and livelihood security because more than 90 per cent farmers fall under small and marginal category. The rising temperatures and uncertainties in rainfall associated with global warming may have serious direct and indirect impacts on crop production. A loss of 10-40% crop production is predicted in different crops in India by the end of this century by different researchers. Cereal crops (mainly rice and wheat) are crucial to ensuring the food security in the region, but sustaining their productivity has become a major challenge due to climate variability and uncertainty. Under AgMIP Project, we have analysed the climate change impact on farm level productivity of rice at Meerut District, Uttar Pradesh using 29 GCMs under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 during mid-century period 2041-2070. Two crop simulation models DSSAT4.6 and APSIM7.7 were used for impact study. There is lot of uncertainty in yield level by different GCMs and crop models. Under RCP4.5, APSIM showed a declining yield up to 14.5 % while DSSAT showed a declining yield level of 6.5 % only compared to the baseline (1980-2010). However, out of 29 GCMs, 15 GCMs showed negative impact and 14 showed positive impact under APSIM while it showed 21 and 8 GCMs, respectively in the case of DSSAT. DSSAT and APSIM simulated irrigation water requirement in future of the order of 645±75 mm and 730±107 mm, respectively under RCP4.5. However, the same will be of the order of 626 ± 99 mm and 749 ± 147 mm, respectively under RCP8.5. Projected irrigation water productivity showed a range of 4.87-12.15 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 6.77-12.63 kg ha-1 mm-1 through APSIM and DSSAT, respectively under RCP4.5, which stands an average of 7.81 and 8.53 kg ha-1 mm-1 during the

  5. Plain packaging of cigarettes: do we have sufficient evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith CN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Collin N Smith,1 John D Kraemer,2 Andrea C Johnson,1 Darren Mays1 1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC, USA; 2Department of Health Systems Administration, School of Nursing and Health Studies, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Tobacco industry marketing is a primary factor influencing cigarette smoking behavior and the cigarette pack has become an important marketing vehicle for tobacco companies. Standardized “plain” cigarette packaging is advocated as a public health policy to prevent and reduce morbidity and mortality caused by smoking by reducing youth smoking initiation and promoting cessation among smokers. Plain packaging was implemented in Australia in December 2012, and several other countries are considering doing so, but each faces foreseeable legal resistance from opponents to such measures. Tobacco companies have challenged these public health policies, citing international trade agreements and intellectual property laws. Decision-making in these court cases will hinge in part on whether the evidence indicates the public health benefits of plain packaging outweigh any potential harm to tobacco manufacturers’ interests. We reviewed the available evidence in support of plain packaging, finding evidence from observational, experimental, and population-based studies. Results indicate that plain packaging can reduce positive perceptions of smoking and dissuade tobacco use. Governments deciding to implement plain cigarette packaging measures can rely on this evidence to help make a strong case that plain packaging plays an important role in the context of comprehensive smoking prevention efforts. Keywords: cigarette smoking, tobacco, plain packaging, regulation, policy

  6. Plain Polynomial Arithmetic on GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, Sardar Anisul; Maza, Marc Moreno

    2012-01-01

    As for serial code on CPUs, parallel code on GPUs for dense polynomial arithmetic relies on a combination of asymptotically fast and plain algorithms. Those are employed for data of large and small size, respectively. Parallelizing both types of algorithms is required in order to achieve peak performances. In this paper, we show that the plain dense polynomial multiplication can be efficiently parallelized on GPUs. Remarkably, it outperforms (highly optimized) FFT-based multiplication up to degree 2 12 while on CPU the same threshold is usually at 2 6 . We also report on a GPU implementation of the Euclidean Algorithm which is both work-efficient and runs in linear time for input polynomials up to degree 2 18 thus showing the performance of the GCD algorithm based on systolic arrays.

  7. Assessment the Economic Damage of Inter-Basin Water Transfer on Cropping Pattern and Farmers’ Income Situation in the Origin Basin (Case Study: Water Transfer of Alamoutrood to Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Parhizkari

    2016-03-01

    building the dam, canals, streams and aqueducts. Even today, many projects are implemented in Iran that water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain is one of the most important of these projects. According to reports of Regional Water Company of Qazvin province and the specifications of inter-basin water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain will be out from the farmers availability of Alamut region about 370 million cubic meters of irrigation water. This issue has the huge impacts on cropping pattern and farmers economic and livelihood condition in the origin basin (Alamout region. Therefore, in this study a hydrological-economic modeling system to analysis the effects of water transfer project of Alamoutrood to Qazvin plain on cropping pattern, farmers gross profit and economic value of irrigation water in the Alamut region (origin basin was used. Materials and Methods: Nowadays different methods to analysis of the issues related to the management of water resources and agriculture are used. One of the most important of these methods is mathematical programming that in recent years are in use to solve problems of water resource management sector and analysis of the agricultural policies. In this study a hydrological-economic modeling system consists of the Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP and product function with Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES to analysis of the effects of inter-basin water transfer on land use, farmers income situation and economic value of irrigation water in the origin basin (Alamout region was used. The first time PMP model developed by Howitt (1995 to calibrate agricultural supply models have been used to link biophysical and economic information in an integrated biophysical and economic modelling framework and to assess impacts of agricultural policies and scenarios. These models are also accepted for analysing the impact of water resources management policies and scenarios. PMP model used in this paper is a

  8. Southern Great Plains Safety Orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatz, John

    2014-05-01

    Welcome to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site is managed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). It is very important that all visitors comply with all DOE and ANL safety requirements, as well as those of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the National Fire Protection Association, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and with other requirements as applicable.

  9. Ventilation of the abyssal Southern Ocean during the late Neogene: A new perspective from the subantarctic Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Lindsey M.; Hendy, Ingrid L.; Moore, Theodore C.; Lyle, Mitchell W.

    2009-09-01

    Benthic foraminiferal stable carbon isotope records from the South Atlantic show significant declines toward more "Pacific-like" values at ˜7 and ˜2.7 Ma, and it has been posited that these shifts may mark steps toward increased CO2 sequestration in the deep Southern Ocean as climate cooled over the late Neogene. We generated new stable isotope records from abyssal subantarctic Pacific cores MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11. The record from MV0502-4JC suggests that the Southern Ocean remained well mixed and free of vertical or interbasinal δ13C gradients following the late Miocene carbon shift (LMCS). According to the records from MV0502-4JC and ELT 25-11, however, cold, low δ13C bottom waters developed in the Southern Ocean in the late Pliocene and persisted until ˜1.7 Ma. These new data suggest that while conditions in the abyssal Southern Ocean following the LMCS were comparable to the present day, sequestration of respired CO2 may have increased in the deepest parts of the Southern Ocean during the late Pliocene, a critical period for the growth and establishment of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets.

  10. Analysis on the Change in Shallow Groundwater Level based on Monitoring Electric Energy Consumption - A Case Study in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wolfgang, K.; Steiner, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater has been over-pumped for irrigation in the North China Plain in the past decades causing a drastic decrease in the groundwater level. Shallow groundwater can be recharged by rainfall, and the aquifer could be rehabilitated for sustainable use. However, understanding and maintaining the balance of the aquifer - including climatic as well as anthropogenic influences - are fundamental to enable such a sustainable groundwater management. This is still severely obstructed by a lack of measurements of recharge and exploitation. A project to measure groundwater pumping rate at the distributed scale based on monitoring electric energy consumption is going on in Guantao County (456 km2) located in the southern part of the North China Plain. Considerably less costly than direct measurements of the pumping rate, this approach enables us to (a) cover a larger area and (b) use historic electricity data to reconstruct water use in the past. Pumping tests have been carried out to establish a relation between energy consumption and groundwater exploitation. Based on the results of the pumping tests, the time series of the pumping rate can be estimated from the historical energy consumption and serves as the input for a box model to reconstruct the water balance of the shallow aquifer for recent years. This helps us to determine the relative contribution of recharge due to rainfall as well as drawdown due to groundwater pumping for irrigation. Additionally, 100 electric meters have been installed at the electric transformers supplying power for irrigation. With insights gained from the pumping tests, real-time monitoring of the groundwater exploitation is achieved by converting the measured energy consumption to the water use, and pumping control can also be achieved by limiting the energy use. A monitoring and controlling system can then be set up to implement the strategy of sustainable groundwater use.

  11. Fatigue crack growth due to overloads in plain concrete using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The proposed model is able to capture size effect appropriately which is an important aspect in fracture mechanics study of concrete structures. Further, in another study by the same authors, Ray & Chandra Kishen (2010), they have employed the population growth model to study the fatigue crack propagation in plain ...

  12. Plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Ho; Lee, Eil Weong; Kim, Hyun Suk; Park, Ju Youn; Kim, Soo Hyun; Hong, Sung Hwan; Park, Hong Suk; Lee, Kwan Seop; Kang Ik Won

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the plain chest radiographic findings of smoke inhalation. Our study included 72 burn patients who had suffered smoke inhalation. On admission, all underwent serial portable chest AP radiography. We retrospectively reviewed the plain chest radiographs taken between admission and pootburn day five, evaluating the pattern, distribution, and time onset of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation. The lesions were also assessed for change. In 16 of 72 patients (22%), abnormal findings of direct injury to the respiratory system by smoke inhalation were revealed by the radiographs. Abnormal findings were 15 pulmonary lesions and one subglottic tracheal narrowing. Findings of pulmonary lesions were multiple small patchy consolidations (10/15), peribronchial cuffing (8/15), and perivascular fuzziness (6/15). Patterns of pulmonary lesions were mixed alveolar and interstitial lesion (n=3D9), interstitial lesion (n=3D5), and alveolar lesion (n=3D1). No interlobular septal thickening was observed. Pulmonary edema was distributed predominantly in the upper lung zone and perihilar region, with asymmetricity. Its time of onset was within 24 hours in 13 cases, 24-48 hours in two cases, and 48-72 hours in one. Five of 16 patients progressed to ARDS. Chest radiographs showed that pulmonary lesions caused by inhalation injury were due to pulmonary edema, which the pattern of which was commonly mixed alveolar and interstitial. (author)

  13. Abyssal sediment erosion from the Central Indian Basin: Evidence from radiochemical and radiolarian studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Gupta, S.M.; Padmavati, V.K.

    for radiochemical separation and puri- fication of U and Th isotopes using the stan- lard procedures of Krishnaswami and Sarin ( 1976 ). The isotopes were plated on platinum 91anchets and alpha assayed on an EG & G Or- :ec assembly. The quoted errors...

  14. Diagnostic value of plain abdominal radiographs in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The plain film of the abdomen (PAX) is still utilised in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis (Aap). Aim of this study was to evaluate the value of PAX in the diagnosis of Aap in children, since it continues to be a controversial subject. Design: A retrospective study. Setting: Department of Paediatric Surgery, Gazi ...

  15. A Land Systems Science Framework for Bridging Land System Architecture and Landscape Ecology: A Case Study from the Southern High Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Vadjunec

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resource-use decisions affect the ecological and human components of the coupled human and natural system (CHANS, but a critique of some frameworks is that they do not address the complexity and tradeoffs within and between the two systems. Land system architecture (LA was suggested to account for these tradeoffs at multiple levels/scales. LA and landscape ecology (LE focus on landscape structure (i.e., composition and configuration of land-use and land-cover change [LULCC] and the processes (social-ecological resulting from and shaping LULCC. Drawing on mixed-methods research in the Southern Great Plains, we develop a framework that incorporates LA, LE, and governance theory. Public land and water are commons resources threatened by overuse, degradation, and climate change. Resource use is exacerbated by public land and water policies at the state- and local-levels. Our framework provides a foundation for investigating the mechanisms of land systems science (LSS couplings across multiple levels/scales to understand how and why governance impacts human LULCC decisions (LA and how those LULCC patterns influence, and are influenced by, the underlying ecological processes (LE. This framework provides a mechanism for investigating the feedbacks between and among the different system components in a CHANS that subsequently impact future human design decisions.

  16. The macrofauna of the soil in systems of agricultural production: Answers to the perturbations and handling perspectives. A case of study in the Oriental Plains of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaens, T; Jimenez, J J; Schneidmadl, J; Lavelle, P

    1998-01-01

    During the last 20 years, numerous investigations were dedicated to the understanding of the relationships between soil macro-invertebrates and the abiotic factors that determine soil function. Important effects of macro-fauna activities were observed in soil organic matter dynamics, cycles of assimilable nutrients, soil structure and plant growth. Actual investigation in the Eastern Plains of Colombia (Investigation Centre of Carimagua and Matazul Farm) aims to identify sustainable and macrofauna-protecting systems of production; managing savanna results in important changes in soil faunal communities. Sowing improved pastures increases the activity of local macro-invertebrates populations (especially earthworms) and conserves the initial biodiversity of the savanna. On the other hand, monocrops have a dramatic effect on the whole soil macrofauna. An appropriate management of soil tillage and plant residues may minimize the negative effects of such monocrops. Other alternative is the use of rotations and/or juxtapositions of suitable and unfavorable situations, which may facilitates macrofaunal migrations from one system to another

  17. Petrological, magnetic and chemical properties of basalt dredged from an abyssal hill in the North-east pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyendyk, B.P.; Engel, C.G.

    1969-01-01

    OVER the years, samples of basalt from the oceanic crust have been taken mainly from seamounts, fracture zones and ridge and rise crests1-6, and rarely from the vast fields of abyssal hills which cover a large part of the deep-sea floor. The basalt sampled from the deeper regions of the oceanic crust (for example, on fault scarps) is a distinct variety of tholeiitic basalt, while alkali basalt is restricted to the volcanic edifices4. Oceanic tholeiitic basalt differs from alkali basalt and continental tholeiite chiefly in having a relatively low percentage of K2O (0.2 weight per cent)4. Some authors have speculated that this type of tholeiitic basalt is the major extrusion from the upper mantle and constitutes the predominant rock type in the upper oceanic crust. ?? 1969 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. “One Should Have Two Homelands”: Discord and Hope in Soma Morgenstern’s Sparks in the Abyss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Gellen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Soma Morgenstern’s three-part novel Sparks in the Abyss, written between 1930 and 1943, exudes a spirit of serenity and optimism at the same time that its narrative is structured by repeated scenes of conflict and violence. This paper seeks to account for the place of discord in the trilogy. Morgenstern uses the interwar Galician homeland as a site to articulate the possibility of traditional Jewish life in modern Europe. By inhabiting two homes—East and West, Galicia and Vienna, secularism and piety—Jews will be able to negotiate the inevitable discord and occasional brutality that they face in the world. The lessons learned by a Western secular Jew in pluralist Galicia create hope for the negotiation of difference, if not for the complete overcoming of violence, on the eve of World War II.

  19. Exploring perception of Indians about plain packaging of tobacco products: a mixed method research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eArora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed perceptions and support among the Indian populace about plain packaging for all tobacco products.12 focus group discussions (n=124, stakeholder analysis with 24 officials and an opinion poll with 346 participants were conducted between December 2011 - May 2012 , Delhi. Plain packages for tobacco products were favoured by majority of participants (69% and key stakeholders (92%. The majority of participants perceived that plain packaging would reduce the appeal and promotional value of the tobacco pack (>80%, prevent initiation of tobacco use among children and youth (>60%, motivate tobacco users to quit (>80%, increase noticeability and effectiveness of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packs (>90%,reduce tobacco usage (75% of key stakeholders. Majority of participants favoured light grey colour for plain packaging. This study provides key evidence to advocate with Indian Government and other countries in South Asia region to introduce plain packaging legislation for all tobacco products.

  20. Differences in tibial subchondral bone structure evaluated using plain radiographs between knees with and without cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions. The Oulu knee osteoarthritis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirvasniemi, Jukka [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Thevenot, Jerome; Podlipska, Jana [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Nieminen, Miika T.; Saarakkala, Simo [University of Oulu, Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu (Finland); University of Oulu, Infotech Oulu, Oulu (Finland); Oulu University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Oulu (Finland)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether subchondral bone structure from plain radiographs is different between subjects with and without articular cartilage damage or bone marrow lesions (BMLs). Radiography-based bone structure was assessed from 80 subjects with different stages of knee osteoarthritis using entropy of Laplacian-based image (E{sub Lap}) and local binary patterns (E{sub LBP}), homogeneity index of local angles (HI{sub Angles,mean}), and horizontal (FD{sub Hor}) and vertical fractal dimensions (FD{sub Ver}). Medial tibial articular cartilage damage and BMLs were scored using the magnetic resonance imaging osteoarthritis knee score. Level of statistical significance was set to p < 0.05. Subjects with medial tibial cartilage damage had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in the medial tibial subchondral bone region than subjects without damage. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were significantly higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in the medial trabecular bone region. Subjects with medial tibial BMLs had significantly higher FD{sub Ver} and E{sub LBP} as well as lower E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} in medial tibial subchondral bone. FD{sub Hor}, FD{sub Ver}, and E{sub LBP} were higher, whereas E{sub Lap} and HI{sub Angles,mean} were lower in medial trabecular bone. Our results support the use of bone structural analysis from radiographs when examining subjects with osteoarthritis or at risk of having it. (orig.)

  1. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  2. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in surface water and groundwater from different depths of aquifers: A case study at Jianghan Plain, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxin; Tong, Lei; Deng, Yamin; Li, Yonggang; Gan, Yiqun; Guo, Wei; Dong, Chuangju; Duan, Yanhua; Zhao, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of 14 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulfonamides) in groundwater and surface water at Jianghan Plain was investigated during three seasons. The total concentrations of target compounds in the water samples were higher in spring than those in summer and winter. Erythromycin was the predominant antibiotic in surface water samples with an average value of 1.60μg/L, 0.772μg/L and 0.546μg/L respectively in spring, summer and winter. In groundwater samples, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines accounted for the dominant proportion of total antibiotic residues. The vertical distributions of total antibiotics in groundwater samples from three different depths boreholes (10m, 25m, and 50m) exhibited irregular fluctuations. Consistently decreasing of antibiotic residues with increasing of depth was observed in four (G01, G02, G03 and G05) groundwater sampling sites over three seasons. However, at the sampling sites G07 and G08, the pronounced high concentrations of total antibiotic residues were detected in water samples from 50m deep boreholes instead of those at upper aquifer in winter sampling campaign, with the total concentrations of 0.201μg/L and 0.100μg/L respectively. The environmental risks posed by the 14 antibiotics were assessed by using the methods of risk quotient and mixture risk quotient for algae, daphnids and fish in surface water and groundwater. The results suggested that algae might be the aquatic organism most sensitive to the antibiotics, with the highest risk levels posed by erythromycin in surface water and by ciprofloxacin in groundwater among the 14 antibiotics. In addition, the comparison between detected antibiotics in groundwater samples and the reported effective concentrations of antibiotics on denitrification by denitrifying bacteria, indicating this biogeochemical process driven by microorganisms won't be inhibitory influenced by the antibiotic residues in groundwater. Copyright © 2016

  3. Acanthosis Nigricans among Northern Plains American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Blakely; Noonan, Curtis; Bentley, Bonnie; Conway, Kathrene; Corcoran, Mary; FourStar, Kris; Gress, Shannon; Wagner, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present cross-sectional and prospective data on acanthosis nigricans (AN) prevalence in the context of other risk factors for diabetes including high body mass index (BMI), abnormal blood pressure (BP), physical inactivity and family history of diabetes among Northern Plains American Indian (AI) children.…

  4. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; Kalb, Juan; Hemmingsson, Peter; Pinheiro, Miguel; Davenport, James; Guidi, Pier Luigi; Simoes da Silva, Ana Paula; Martinho, Goncalo; Spennacchio, Pietro; Postnov, Yury; Dreiangel, Niv; Junior, Nelson Gomes; Frangez, Igor; Bissell, Iain; Khan, Yasir; Toom, Alar; Bergen, Christiaan van; Liszka, Henryk; Moreno, Nestor; Patczai, Balázs; van den Bogaert, Max; Marquis, Christopher; Hussein, Amro Kamal; Andersen, Mette; Botezatu, Lozefina; Santos, Francisco Flores; Nery, Caio; Becirbegovc, Semin; Stoffel, Cristhopher Lucca; Ferrao, Paulo; Rakovac, Ivan; Darabos, Nikica; Sicchiero, Paolo; Tengiz, Kostava; Keiserman, Luciano; Yeap, Ewe Juan; Rocha de Souza, Andrè Luiz; Abdulsalam, Samir; Ramos, Acacio; Martinelli, Nicolú; Verfaillie, Stefaan; Silva, Carmen; Stufkens, Sjoerd; Chouliaras, Vasileios; da Costa, Daniel; Freihaut, Richard; Bulstra, Gythe; Burg, Alon; Rudge, Ben; Abdelwahab, Ali; Sirio, Adrian; Watson, Troy; Gaspar, Ana Rita; Sharp, Ian; Hossain, Munier; van Deurzen, Derek; van den Bekerom, Michel; Wiegerinck, Jan-Joost; van Eekeren, Inge; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  5. Plain strain problem of poroelasticity using eigenvalue approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A plain strain problem of an isotropic elastic liquid-saturated porous medium in poroelasticity has been studied. The eigenvalue approach using the Laplace and Fourier transforms has been employed and these transforms have been inverted by using a numerical technique. An application of infinite space with ...

  6. PLAINS GERBILS (GERBILLISCUS ROBUSTA) AS FOOD OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Skull and other bone contents were mostly (about 90%) of Gerbilliscus robusta, suggesting this rodent to still be an important food item of the barn owl in the ... Their biology and ecology on the plains have received but few studies (Senzota 1990, Reed 2011). Gerbils are ground dwelling rodents that have also been tamed ...

  7. Plain Language to Communicate Physical Activity Information: A Website Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Samantha R; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Daniel C; Stellefson, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Plain language techniques are health literacy universal precautions intended to enhance health care system navigation and health outcomes. Physical activity (PA) is a popular topic on the Internet, yet it is unknown if information is communicated in plain language. This study examined how plain language techniques are included in PA websites, and if the use of plain language techniques varies according to search procedures (keyword, search engine) and website host source (government, commercial, educational/organizational). Three keywords ("physical activity," "fitness," and "exercise") were independently entered into three search engines (Google, Bing, and Yahoo) to locate a nonprobability sample of websites ( N = 61). Fourteen plain language techniques were coded within each website to examine content formatting, clarity and conciseness, and multimedia use. Approximately half ( M = 6.59; SD = 1.68) of the plain language techniques were included in each website. Keyword physical activity resulted in websites with fewer clear and concise plain language techniques ( p websites with more clear and concise techniques ( p language techniques did not vary by search engine or the website host source. Accessing PA information that is easy to understand and behaviorally oriented may remain a challenge for users. Transdisciplinary collaborations are needed to optimize plain language techniques while communicating online PA information.

  8. Evaluating the Use of Plain Language in a Cancer Clinical Trial Website/App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Paula L; Carlisle, Regina; Cheatham, Chesley; O'Grady, Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Medically complex titles and descriptions found on clinical trial websites and online applications present a barrier to comprehension for users from the general public. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of plain language trial descriptions for user comprehension of basic trial details. Two hundred seventeen volunteers recruited from patient waiting areas completed 441 user tests of ten plain language trial descriptions. The majority of volunteers adequately comprehended the cancer type and basic inclusion/exclusion criteria from plain language trial descriptions. Difficulty comprehending the treatment being studied was seen in seven of ten descriptions tested. Revision and retesting of the seven trial descriptions showed continued user challenges in comprehending the treatment being studied. Plain language clinical trial descriptions integrated into a website/app allowed users to understand basic inclusion/exclusion criteria. Despite plain language used, discerning the treatment being studied may be difficult for some users. Integration of plain language descriptions into clinical trial online applications can help users understand trial basics. Further research regarding effective use of plain language to communicate the treatment being studied is needed.

  9. Formation mechanism of land subsidence in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haipeng; Cheng, Guoming

    2014-05-01

    Land subsidence is a progressive and gradual geological disaster, whose development is irreversible. Due to rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, land subsidence occurs commonly in the North China Plain, and has become the main environmental factor impacting sustainable economic and social development. This study presents a brief review on the current situation of land subsidence in the North China Plain. Then the hydrologic, hydrogeologic and anthropogenic conditions favorable for the formation of land subsidence are analyzed, indicating that the formation of land subsidence is mainly determined by local geological condition and enabling conditions, e.g. long-term excessive exploitation of groundwater and engineering construction. A correlation analysis was conducted in both the North China Plain and Cangzhou region, a typical area where severe land subsidence occurs, of the quantitative relationship between deep groundwater yield and the land subsidence. The analysis results indicate that the land subsidence volume accounts for 40% to 44% of deep water yield in the North China Plain, indirectly showing the proportion of released water from compressibility of the aquifer and the aquitard in deep groundwater yield. In Cangzhou region, this proportion was calculated as 58%, far greater than that of the North China Plain. This is induced by the local lithologic structure and recharge condition of deep groundwater in Cangzhou region. The analysis of soil samples in Cangzhou region shows that strong relations exist among different physical parameters, and good change laws of compression with depth and pressure are found for soil samples. The hydraulic conductivities of clay are six orders of magnitude greater than those of the aquifer, implying the strong hypothesis of land subsidence. This analysis provides data and scientific basis for further study on formation mechanism of land subsidence in Cangzhou region and objective evaluation of its

  10. Climate variability and Great Plains agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.J.; Katz, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The ways in which inhabitants of the Great Plains, including Indians, early settlers, and 20th century farmers, have adapted to climate changes on the Great Plains are explored. The climate of the Great Plains, because of its variability and extremes, can be very stressful to plants, animals and people. It is suggested that agriculture and society on the Great Plains have, during the last century, become less vulnerable to the stresses imposed by climate. Opinions as to the sustainability of agriculture on the Great Plains vary substantially. Lockeretz (1981) suggests that large scale, high cost technologies have stressed farmers by creating surpluses and by requiring large investments. Opie (1989) sees irrigation as a climate substitute, however he stresses that the Ogallala aquifer must inevitably become depleted. Deborah and Frank Popper (1987) believe that farming on the Plains is unsustainable, and destruction of shelterbelts, out-migration of the rural population and environmental problems will lead to total collapse. With global warming, water in the Great Plains is expected to become scarcer, and although improvements in irrigation efficiency may slow depletion of the Ogallala aquifer, ultimately the acreage under irrigation must decrease to levels that can be sustained by natural recharge and reliable surface flows. 23 refs., 2 figs

  11. Plain abdominal film and abdominal ultrasound in intestine occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodio, C.; Antico, E.; Montesi, A.; Zaccarelli, A.

    1991-01-01

    Plain film of the abdomen is widely used in the diagnostic evaluation of intestinal occlusion. Even though this technique can yield a panoramic and high-resolution view of gas-filled intestinal loops, several factors, such as type and duration of occlusion, neurovascular status of the intestine and general patient condition, may reduce the diagnostic specificy of the plain film relative to the organic or functional nature of the occlusion. From 1987 to 1989, fifty-four patients with intestinal occlusion were studied combining plain abdominal film with abdominal ultrasound (US). This was done in order to evaluate whether the additional information obtained from US could be of value in better determining the nature of the ileus. US evaluation was guided by the information already obtained from plain film which better demonstrates gas-filled loops. The results show that in all 27 cases of dynamic ileus (intestinal ischemia, acute appendicitis, acute cholecistis, acute pancreatitis or blunt abdominal trauma) US demonstrates: intestinal loops slightly increased in caliber, with liquid content, or loops containing rare hyperechoic particles, intestinal wall thickening and no peristalsis. In 27 cases of acute, chronic or complicated mechanical ileus (adhesions, internal hernia, intestinal neoplasm, peritoneal seedings) US shows: 1) in acute occlusion: hyperperistaltic intestinal loops containing inhomogeneous liquid; 2) in chronic occlusion: liquid content with a solid echigenic component; 3) in complicated occlusion: liquid stasis, frequent increase in wall thickness, moderate peritoneal effusion and inefficient peristalsis. In conclusion, based on the obtained data, the authors feel that the combination of plain abdominal film and abdominal US can be useful in the work-up of patient with intestinal occlusion. The information provided by US allows a better definition of the nature of the ileus

  12. Exploring geothermal structures in the Ilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chien-Ying; Shih, Ruey-Chan; Chung, Chen-Tung; Huang, Ming-Zi; Kuo, Hsuan-Yu

    2017-04-01

    The Ilan Plain in northeast Taiwan is located at the southwestern tip of the Okinawa Trough, which extends westward into the Taiwan orogeny. The Ilan Plain covered by thick sediments is clipped by the Hsuehshan Range in the northern side and the Central Range in the southern side. High geothermal gradients with plenteous hot springs of this area may result from igneous intrusion associated with the back-arc spreading of the Okinawa Trough. In this study, we use reflection seismic survey to explore underground structures in the whole Ilan Plain, especially in SanShin, Wujie, and Lize area. We aim to find the relationship between underground structures and geothermal forming mechanism. The research uses reflection seismic survey to investigate the high geothermal gradient area with two mini-vibrators and 240-channel system. The total length of seismic lines is more than 30 kilometers. The results show that alluvial sediments covering the area about 400 600 meters thick and then thin out to the west in SanShin area. In SanShin , the Taiyaqiao anticline in Hsuehshan Range has entered the plain area and is bounded by the Zhuoshui fault (south) and the Zailian fault (north). In Wujie and Lize , Zhuoshui fault cut through a strong reflector which is the top of the gravel layer near the bottom of the alluvial layer, while the SanShin fault seems to cut near very shallow strata. These two faults are a strike-slip fault with a bit of normal fault component distributing over a range of 600 meters. In Ilan Plain, the geothermal forming mechanism is controlled by anticlines and faults. The hydrothermal solution which migrates upward along these anticline or fault zones to the shallow part causing high geothermal gradients in these areas.

  13. Behaviour of fluid mobile elements during subduction and exhumation of abyssal peridotites: Example of serpentinites from Cuba and Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, F.; Guillot, S.; Godard, M.; Chauvel, C.; Andreani, M.

    2009-04-01

    Seawater interaction with abyssal peridotites at the sea floor is an important process for chemical exchange between lithosperic mantle and ocean at slow-spreading ridge. Serpentinites from oceanic lithosphere are known to represent an important sink for fluid mobile element, notably boron. In parallel we know extreme enrichment in fluid mobile element (As, Sb, B, U, Li) in high-pressure serpentine minerals (antigorite) coming from part of mantle wedge hydrated by slab's fluids released (Himalaya, Deschamps et al., in prep.). In order to constrain geochemical behaviour of fluid mobile element hosted by serpentine during subduction processes, we examined abyssal serpentinites coming from the accretionary wedge of Greater Carribean (Cuba and Dominican Republic). They represent subducted Atlantic oceanic lithosphere, which have experienced low to high- metamorphism (greenschist to eclogite facies), before being exhumed. These rocks are an opportunity to understand the chemical mobility of fluid mobile element during prograde metamorphism occurring along subduction surface. Here we present bulk-rock and in-situ composition of serpentinites and their primary and alteration-related phase obtained on (LA-)HR-ICP-MS. Except for a few cumulates, serpentinites have depleted compositions in agreement with a refractory mantle, but also strong enrichment in U, Pb, Th, Sr, and other fluid mobile element (e.g., U up to 10xPM) indicating extensive fluid-rock intercation. In-situ composition allows the distinction of two groups of serpentine. Group 1 is characterized by relatively flat and depleted REE patterns (Yb ≈ 0.5xChondrite) reflecting formation after olivine, while group 2 formed after pyroxene is characterized by slightly higher HREE content (Yb ≈ 1xChondrite) but light LREE depleted patterns and displays higher content in Sc, V, Ti and Co. Both groups are strongly enriched in B (up to 120 ppm), and reach values already observed in serpentinites from mantle wedge

  14. Controls of sedimentary supply and gravity driven deformation on the eastern Niger delta (Plio-Pleistocene) from the shoreline to the deep sea plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Cécile; Guillocheau, François; Rouby, Delphine; Nalpas, Thierry; Jermannaud, Paul; Raillard, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    We studied the evolution of the gravity flow sedimentary within a large shelf-edge delta (Eastern Niger delta) over the last 2,5Myr taking into account the influence of the contemporaneous gravity driven deformation and sedimentary supply. To do this, we mapped (i) the shoreline geometry and (ii) the associated turbiditic systems for 9 intervals using a classification based on three morphological end-members: erosive, constructive and depositional modes. We characterized the depositional profile of the passive margin delta from the littoral domain to the abyssal plain and its spatial and temporal variability. We showed that, at the scale of the delta, the depositional profile varied from (i) a shelf edge delta profile with a slope break at the location of the shoreline during progradation to (ii) a ramp profile characteristic of a mid-shelf delta during retrogradation. Thus, during a stratigraphic cycle, the delta front evolved from a prograding slope break during the development of the HST, to steepening clinoforms during the development of the LST that progressively flattened out during the TST to reach a ramp profile at the MFS. The turbiditic systems (including MTC) initiate near the shoreline, at the toe of the delta front. Also, they form preferentially down slope synthetic faults or within antithetic fault relays. They are initially erosive, becoming constructive further down slope and eventually depositional. They may become erosive again as they cut through the compressional structures. We showed that the stratigraphic state (progradation/retrogradation) controls the amount of sediment reaching the platform and strongly impacts the density of gravity flow sedimentary systems (low density during progradation and high density during progradation). On the other hand, the gravity driven deformation controls the slope of the sea-floor and, in doing so, their morphology (erosive/constructive/depositional). Within this framework, lateral migrations of the delta

  15. Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Site (SGP-ARM) is the oldest and largest of DOE's Arm sites. It was established in 1992. It consists of...

  16. Targeting the Plains of Venus from Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.

    2014-05-01

    Lowland plains house a spectacular array of poorly understood volcanic, tectonic, and impact features that are key to settling the continuing global stratigraphy debate and resolving how the only other accessible Earth-sized planet has evolved.

  17. Plain Language: Getting Started or Brushing Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes at NIH » NIH Office of the Director » Office of Communications & Public Liaison » Clear Communication » Plain ... This website consists of five sections and a checklist you can print. In each section, you will ...

  18. 44 CFR 10.14 - Flood plains and wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flood plains and wetlands. 10... Flood plains and wetlands. For any action taken by FEMA in a flood plain or wetland, the provisions of... Executive Order 11988, Flood Plain Management, and Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands (44 CFR...

  19. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa | Cornelius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Defining the concept 'plain language' has been hugely problematic since the origins of the socalled Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of 'plain language' abound, yet James (2008: 6) warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can't yet call ...

  20. Comparison of characteristics of chronic kidney diseases between Tibet plateau and plain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Deng, Yong-Ming; Li, Chuan; Gong, Yun-Bing; Mao, Zhi-Guo; Wu, Jun; Li, Su-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Tang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the pathological characteristics of chronic kidney diseases in the Tibet plateau and the plain. 77 cases from the Tibet plateau and 154 cases from the plain of renal biopsied patients with chronic kidney diseases were compared in a randomized, and parallel controlled manner. Pathological characteristics were defined according to the standards of WHO and associated classifications. The ration of sex was shown that most of patients in the plateau region were female, whereas those in the plain were male. The characteristics of pathological types were shown that the patients in the plateau region were primarily minimal change disease, but IgA nephropathy was rare; meanwhile, the proportional lupus nephritis (LN) ratio of the secondary glomerulonephritis in the plateau region was significantly lower than those in the plain region. The current data demonstrated that the most common kidney disease in the Tibet Plateau region is still the primary glomerulonephritis as the same as those in the plain region. However, the primary glomerular disease in the plateau region is minimal change disease, and the most common clinical manifestations are the nephrotic syndrome. The IgA nephropathy in the plain is the most frequent disease. In terms of the secondary renal diseases, Henoch-Schnolein purpura nephritis are dominated in the plateau region, whereas LN-based diseases are frequently found in the plain. There is a statistical significance existed between those two groups.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Filled PVC Tube Columns Confined By Plain PVC Socket

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaluddin N.; Azeez A. A.; Abd Rahman N.; Attiyah A. N.; Wan Ibrahim M. H.; Mohamad N.; Adnan S. H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study for concrete column filled poly vinyl chloride (PVC) tubes confined by plain socket with 5.8 & 6.8 mm thicknesses, 102 mm diameter and 100 mm depth. The total of five concrete filled columns using PVC tubes (CFT PVC) was tested to investigate the columns’ behaviour. The column is 700 mm height, 100 mm external diameter and 3.5 mm tube thickness with different thickness of plain socket. The results presented include maximum axial load, plain...

  2. A Plain English Map of the Chromosomes of the Fruit Fly Drosophila Melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Presents a plain English map of the chromosomes of the fruit fly that contains genes from very different kinds of studies. Represents the work of nearly a century by thousands of researchers using a tremendous variety of techniques. (JRH)

  3. Progressive Failure Analysis of Plain Weaves Using Damage Mechanics Based Constitutive Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kollegal, M; Chatterjee, S. N; Flanagan, G

    2006-01-01

    The behavior of plain woven fabric composites is studied using three-dimensional finite elements which allows detailed modeling of the geometric complexities and spatial material variations within the fabric...

  4. Carbon isotopic changes in benthic foraminifera from the western South Atlantic: Reconstruction of glacial abyssal circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lohmann, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Oxygen- and carbon-isotopic analyses have been performed on the benthic foraminifer Planulina wuellerstorfi in seven Late Quaternary cores from the Vema Channel-Rio Grande Rise region. The cores are distributed over the water-depth interval of 2340 to 3939 m, which includes the present transition from North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) to Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). The carbon-isotopic records in the cores vary as a function of water depth. The shallowest and deepest cores show no significant glacial-interglacial difference in δ 13C. Four of the five cores presently located in the NADW have benthic foraminiferal δ 13C that is lower during glacial isotopic stages. Based on bathymetric gradients in δ 13C, we conclude that, like today, there were two water masses present in the Vema Channel during glacial intervals: a water mass enriched in 13C overlying another water mass depleted in 13C. The largest gradient of change of δ 13C with depth, however, occurred at 2.7 km, ˜ 1 km shallower than the present position of this gradient. On the basis of paleontologic and sedimentologic evidence, we consider it unlikely that the NADW:AABW transition shallowed to this level. Reduced carbon-isotopic gradients between the deep basins of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last glaciation suggest that production of NADW was reduced. Lower production of NADW may have modified the local abyssal circulation pattern in the Vema Channel region.

  5. Chemistry and mineralogy of pyrite-enriched sediments at a passive margin sulfide brine seep: abyssal Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commeau, Robert F.; Paull, Charles K.; Commeau, Judith A.; Poppe, Lawrence J.

    1987-03-01

    Pyrite is rapidly accumulating at the contact between the Cretaceous limestones of the Florida Platform and the hemipelagic sediments of the abyssal Gulf of Mexico. Sediments sampled with the submersible "Alvin" in 3266 m of water are associated with a dense community of organisms that depend on chemosynthetic primary production as a food source. Analysis of the chemistry, mineralogy, and textural composition of these sediments indicate that iron sulfide mineralization is occurring at the seafloor within an anoxic micro-habitat sustained by the advection of hydrogen sulfide-charged saline brines from the adjacent platform. The chemosynthetic bacteria that directly overlie the sediments oxidize hydrogen sulfide for energy and provide elemental sulfur that reacts with iron monosulfide to form some of the pyrite. The sediments are mixtures of pyrite (˜ 30 wt.%), Ba sbnd Sr sulfates (˜ 4 wt.%), clays, and locally derived biogenic carbonates and are progressively being cemented by iron sulfides. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide produces locally acidic conditions that corrode the adjacent limestones. Potential sources of S, H 2S, Fe, Ba, and Sr are discussed.

  6. Hiding video in plain sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiene, Carolyn P.; Rosiene, Joel A.

    2000-05-01

    With the increasing number of digital transmissions, there is an opportunity to utilize existing broadcast channels to send hidden video transmissions. This presentation outlines and demonstrates a technique to insert a hidden video channel within a larger standard video feed, or 'hide in plain sight.' The approach outlined consists of three parts: data (or video) insertion, data security, and data recovery. These three components are essential to complete a secured digital transmission. To insert the data, knowledge of the standard (for example, MPEG 1, 2, or 4) is used to place the information to be hidden into the compressed data stream post quantization. Since the encoder has perfect knowledge of the receiver's model, it is possible to place the data in the compressed data in a manner that is visually un-intrusive. The technique to hide the data will be presented and an example given. Since, the data (or video) to be inserted may be of a sensitive nature, it is necessary to provide a level of security, which will render the video stream useless if its presence is detected. Both, spatial and temporal dispersion are used to reduce the likelihood of detection with the addition of a modulation of the signal to reduce the image to noise unless the key is known. The intended viewer of the embedded data (or video stream), with knowledge of the key recovers the data by encoding the incoming video stream with the appropriate standard, and extracting the data prior to quantization. While the work in this paper focuses on the insertion of hidden video into a broadcast signal, the same technique serves to prevent tampering to the broadcast signal, since modification of the image data will corrupt the hidden signal. In this way, this provides a level of tamper protection/detection for video, which may be used in legal proceedings.

  7. Use of plain carbon steel and configuration management program for the metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.M.; Kalsoom, T.

    2006-01-01

    The application of Configuration Management (CM) and structural plain carbon steels for metal industry is studied. Requirements of surface treatment and heat treatment are also defined to achieve maximum for metal industry. Triangle of materials, properties and applications is discussed with in the role of CM. Equivalent plain carbon steel have been suggested, based on structural applications. Operating conditions for the required surface treatment e.g. paint, galvanizing or other coatings are studied. Role of CM is highlighted for these activities. (author)

  8. Survey of groundwater chemical pollution in the Borazjan plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber Mozafarizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate due to its high water solubility, poor absorption and having stable composition in the water, has been studied as the best index to indicate groundwater contamination. Borazjan, located in the north of Bushehr province, is one of fertile plains which nitrate contamination of groundwater has occurred in the most parts of it. Detecting the source of pollution and the most vulnerable areas were the aims of this study. Material and Methods: In this study, hydrochemical quality, especially in terms of nitrate, sulfate, chloride sodium, spatial and temporal variations and the origin of them in the groundwater of Borazjan plain, are studied. Groundwater samples from 12 wells were collected in April and August 2012 and assessed to determine the parameters of hydrochemistry and pollution. Results: Based on these results, severe nitrate contamination of groundwater, especially in the southern part of the plain, by agricultural activities, cesspool wells, domestic sewage and livestock and poultry wastewater the influence of the effluent from the aviculture, were occurred. Also, the quality of groundwater resources showed that concentration of Cl- , Na+, SO42- , and NO3- are more than standard limit and only in some areas of plain, concentration of ions such as NO3- and Na+ is less than the standard limit. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, using chemical fertilizers in terms of time period and amount of consumption should be properly managed. Furthermore, domestic wastewater, livestock and poultry wastewater should be controlled and the monitoring system for measuring the exact quantity and quality of groundwater resources must be completed.

  9. Application of flood index in monitoring Flood-plain ecosystems (by the example of the Middle Ob flood-plain)

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotnov, V. P.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of regional hydroecological monitoring has been developed for the flood-plain of the Middle Ob. Its object is to control the state of flood-plain ecosystem productivity for organization of scientific, regional-adopted and ecologically regulated nature management. For this purpose hydroecological zoning of flood-plain territory performed, the most representative stations of water-gauge observations for each flood-plain zone organized, the scheme of flood-plain flooding was prepared...

  10. Effects of plain packaging on decision-making and reward for nicotine cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin LE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Laura E Martin1,21Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USAAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Efforts to reduce smoking prevalence include changes to policies that are expected to have impacts on smoking behaviors. Plain packaging has been introduced as a method to reduce the appeal of smoking by removing such branding information as pack colors and brand logos from cigarette packages. Behavioral studies of plain packaging demonstrate reductions in the appeal of cigarette packages, changes in smoking behaviors, and expected reductions in smoking initiation. Neuroimaging studies of branding demonstrate that the neural systems of rewards and cognitive control are associated with processing brand information (eg, logos. Neuroimaging studies in smokers demonstrate that the neural systems of reward respond to images of cigarettes and are associated with reductions in cognitive control responses. The current review discusses the state of research on plain packaging in terms of a biopsychosocial model of addiction in which behavioral studies of plain packaging can identify psychological and social changes related to packaging, whereas neuroimaging studies can identify biological changes underlying the psychological and social impacts of packaging. Together, these studies show that plain packaging may reduce positive perceptions of smoking by reducing related reward responses in the brain, thus increasing the likelihood that smokers will be able to resist the urge to smoke, and perhaps quit smoking altogether.Keywords: smoking, plain packaging, neuroimaging, branding, reward

  11. Herbage productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana | Fleischer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biomass productivity of the Winneba plains of Ghana was measured between January 1990 and February 1992. Ten sampling sites were chosen for the study. An area of 5.0 m W 5.0 m was demarcated and within it an area of 1.0 m W 1.0 m was harvested at monthly intervals, clipped by means of sickle at 5 cm above ...

  12. San Andreas Fault in the Carrizo Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The 1,200-kilometer (800-mile)San Andreas is the longest fault in California and one of the longest in North America. This perspective view of a portion of the fault was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), which flew on NASA's Space Shuttle last February, and an enhanced, true-color Landsat satellite image. The view shown looks southeast along the San Andreas where it cuts along the base of the mountains in the Temblor Range near Bakersfield. The fault is the distinctively linear feature to the right of the mountains. To the left of the range is a portion of the agriculturally rich San Joaquin Valley. In the background is the snow-capped peak of Mt. Pinos at an elevation of 2,692 meters (8,831 feet). The complex topography in the area is some of the most spectacular along the course of the fault. To the right of the fault is the famous Carrizo Plain. Dry conditions on the plain have helped preserve the surface trace of the fault, which is scrutinized by both amateur and professional geologists. In 1857, one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded in the United States occurred just north of the Carrizo Plain. With an estimated magnitude of 8.0, the quake severely shook buildings in Los Angeles, caused significant surface rupture along a 350-kilometer (220-mile) segment of the fault, and was felt as far away as Las Vegas, Nev. This portion of the San Andreas is an important area of study for seismologists. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times.The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60

  13. Three-dimensional stress analysis of plain weave composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, John D.

    1989-01-01

    Techniques were developed and described for performing three-dimensional finite element analysis of plain weave composites. Emphasized here are aspects of the analysis which are different from analysis of traditional laminated composites, such as the mesh generation and representative unit cells. The analysis was used to study several different variations of plain weaves which illustrate the effects of tow waviness on composite moduli, Poisson's ratios, and internal strain distributions. In-plane moduli decreased almost linearly with increasing tow waviness. The tow waviness was shown to cause large normal and shear strain concentrations in composites subjected to uniaxial load. These strain concentrations may lead to earlier damage initiation than occurs in traditional cross-ply laminates.

  14. The Use of Super Absorbent Polymer as a Sealing Agent in Plain Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Daoud; Moayyad Al-Nasra

    2016-01-01

    The super absorbent polymer (SAP) has the ability to absorb relatively large amount of water and convert it into gel at the same time the volume increases proportionally. These properties are found to be very useful and effective in plain concrete. Also the use of super absorbent polymer in concrete is proven to have many positive effects on the properties of concrete in its both stages; fresh concrete and hardened concrete. This study focuses on the water tightness properties of plain con...

  15. Turkey Creek—a case study of ecohydrology and integrated watershed management in the low-gradient Atlantic Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Timothy Callahan; William Hansen; Carl Trettin; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Patrick Meire

    2015-01-01

    Water yield, water supply and quality, wildlife habitat, and ecosystem productivity and services are important societal concerns for natural resource management in the 21st century. Watershed-scale ecohydrologic studies can provide needed context for addressing complex spatial and temporal dynamics of these functions and services. This study was...

  16. Impact of Irrigated Agroecosystems on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains and North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Cao, G.; Shen, Y.; Gates, J. B.; Reedy, R. W.; Zheng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Overabstraction of groundwater for irrigation in semiarid regions is depleting the worlds’ largest aquifers at much greater rates than these aquifers are being replenished by recharge. This study evaluates groundwater sustainability in the US High Plains (US HP) and North China Plain (NCP) where intensive irrigation has resulted in large water table declines. A variety of approaches were used to evaluate impacts of irrigation on groundwater resources, including GRACE satellite data, unsaturated zone profiling, and groundwater quantity and quality data. Cultivation (40% of area) and irrigation (12%) are less intensive in the US HP than in the NCP (80% cultivated, 50% irrigated). Irrigation is estimated to consume ~97% of groundwater resources in the US HP and ~70% in the NCP. Although only ~10% of groundwater resources has been consumed in the US HP (330 km3 out of 3,900 km3), the problem lies in the uneven spatial distribution. Groundwater depletion is greatest in the Central High Plains (CHP) where water table declines of up to 1.5 m/yr have been recorded in individual wells and regional declines of up to 30 m have been found over a 7,000 km2 area since irrigation began in the 1950s to 1960s. This depletion indicates an irrigation deficit of ~75 mm/yr over 60 yr (specific yield 15%). Recharge rates in the CHP are extremely low (median ~10 mm/yr) with reductions in groundwater storage exceeding recharge by ~10 times. High correlations between GRACE and measured water storage changes (R = 0.7 - 0.8) show that the satellite can accurately track regional changes in water storage. Groundwater in the NCP has declined from a depth of ~1 m in the 1960s to 20 to 40 m in the Piedmont region since expansion of irrigation beginning in the 1970s. Groundwater level declines in individual hydrographs range from 0.5 to 1.0 m/yr, indicating irrigation deficits ranging from 100 to 200 mm/yr (specific yield 20%). Lower groundwater storage changes from GRACE satellites relative to

  17. Carpal pseudoerosions: a plain X-ray interpretation pitfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawer, Richard [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Budzik, Jean Francois [Univ. Catholique de Lille (France). Service d' Imagerie Medicale; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires; Demondion, Xavier [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; CHRU Lille (France). Lab. d' Anatomie; Forzy, Gerard [Univ. Catholique de Lille, Lomme (France). Lab. de Biologie; Cotten, Anne [Univ. Lille 2 (France). Service d' Imagerie Musculosquelettique; Univ. Nord de France, Boulogne sur Mer (France). Unite de Recherche EA 4490, Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires

    2014-10-15

    To examine in detail images of pseudoerosion of the wrist and hand on plain radiographs. The study was conducted with 28 cadaver wrists. During a single imaging session three techniques - plain radiography, tomosynthesis, and computed tomography - were used to visualize the wrist and hand specimens. For each technique, 20 radio-ulno-carpo-metacarpal sites known to present bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed by two radiologists using a standard system to score the cortical bone: normal, pseudoerosion, true erosion, or other pathology. Cohen's concordance analysis was performed to determine inter-observer and intra-observer (for the senior radiologist) agreement by site and by technique. Serial sections of two cadaver specimens were examined to determine the anatomical correlation of the pseudoerosions. On the plain radiographs, the radiologists scored many images as pseudoerosion (7.3 %), particularly in the distal ulnar portion of the capitate, the distal radial portion of the hamate, the proximal ulnar portion of the base of the third metacarpal, the proximal radial portion of the base of the fourth metacarpal, the distal ulnar portion of the hamate, and the proximal portion of the base of the fifth metacarpal. The computed tomography scan revealed that none of these doubtful images corresponded to true erosions. The anatomical correlation study showed that these images could probably be attributed to ligament insertions, thinner lamina, and enhanced cortical bone transparency. Knowledge of the anatomical carpal localizations where pseudoerosions commonly occur is a necessary prerequisite for analysis of plain radiographs performed to diagnose or monitor rheumatoid arthritis. (orig.)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Concrete Filled PVC Tube Columns Confined By Plain PVC Socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of an experimental study for concrete column filled poly vinyl chloride (PVC tubes confined by plain socket with 5.8 & 6.8 mm thicknesses, 102 mm diameter and 100 mm depth. The total of five concrete filled columns using PVC tubes (CFT PVC was tested to investigate the columns’ behaviour. The column is 700 mm height, 100 mm external diameter and 3.5 mm tube thickness with different thickness of plain socket. The results presented include maximum axial load, plain socket confinement effect, the mode of failure, and lateral PVC strain. The axial load enhancement of PVC-concrete columns confined using plain socket shows an increment of 21.3% up to 55.2% and axial strain from 21% to 40% compared with displacement for control composite columns at 192 kN ultimate load.

  19. Shallow S-Wave Velocity Structures in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Min Lin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The western coastal plain of Taiwan borders the Western Foot hills, which is a fold-and-thrust zone and one of Taiwan's major seismic zones. Earth quakes from the Western Foot hills are a frequent cause of disaster in the western coastal plain. In this study, array measurements of microtremors were conducted at seven sites through out the western coastal plain. At each site, four arrays (S, M, L, and XL arrays of different sizes were considered. The largest radius of each array ranged from 32 m to 1 km. The Maximum Likelihood Method of Frequency-Wavenumber (F-K analyses was used to obtain phase velocity dispersion curves. After the inversion of the dispersion curves with the initial models decided by Genetic Algorithm (GA searching, shallow S-wave velocity structures for the western coastal plain were estimated.

  20. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V. [eds.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  1. Imaging suspected cervical spine injury: Plain radiography or computed tomography? Systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, Gavin [Diagnostic Radiographer, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester General Hospital, Turner Road, Colchester, CO4 5JL Essex (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gavincain8@hotmail.com; Shepherdson, Jane; Elliott, Vicki; Svensson, Jon [Faculty of Health and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge, CB1 9PT Cambridgeshire (United Kingdom); Brennan, Patrick [UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Health Science Building, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2010-02-15

    Aim: (1) to establish which modality offers the greatest accuracy in the detection of cervical spine injury (CSI) Following trauma: plain radiography or computed tomography (CT), and (2) make an evidence-based recommendation for the initial imaging modality of choice. Method: A systematic literature review was performed to identify primary research studies which compare the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography and CT with the results of a reference standard in the detection of CSI. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Science Direct and Pubmed Central databases was conducted. Results: Ten studies were identified. Critical appraisal identified limitations among all studies. There was heterogeneity in the sensitivity estimates for plain radiography, whereas estimates for CT were consistently high. Examination of the reported sensitivities shows that CT outperforms plain radiography in the detection of CSI. Conclusion: CT is superior to plain radiography in the detection of CSI. However, the optimal imaging strategy depends on the patients' relative risk of injury. If at high-risk cervical CT is indicated. If at low-risk the increased cost and radiation exposure mean that screening CT may not be warranted, good-quality plain radiographs are sufficient.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis for a Plain Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Belhamra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nonlinear dynamic behavior for a plain classic bearing (fluid bearing lubricated by a non-Newtonian fluid of a turbo machine rotating with high speed; this type of fluid contains additives viscosity (couple-stress fluid film. The solution of the nonlinear dynamic problem of this type of bearing is determined with a spatial discretisation of the modified Reynolds' equation written in dynamic mode by using the optimized short bearing theory and a temporal discretisation for equations of rotor motion by the help of Euler's explicit diagram. This study analyzes the dynamic behavior of a rotor supported by two couple-stress fluid film journal lubricant enhances the dynamic stability of the rotor-bearing system considerably compared to that obtained when using a traditional Newtonian lubricant. The analysis shows that the dynamic behavior of a shaft which turns with high velocities is strongly nonlinear even for poor eccentricities of unbalance; the presence of parameters of couple stress allows strongly attenuating the will synchrony (unbalance and asynchrony (whipping amplitudes of vibrations of the shaft which supports more severe conditions (large unbalances.

  3. Spatial variability and uncertainty in ecological risk assessment: A case study on the potential risk of cadmium for the little owl in a Dutch river flood plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Leuven, R.S.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines a procedure that quantifies the impact of different sources of spatial variability and uncertainty on ecological risk estimates. The procedure is illustrated in a case study that estimates the risks of cadmium for a little owl (Athene noctua vidalli) living in a Dutch river flood

  4. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 5: Coastal zones case study and generalization. [economic benefits of weather forecasting by SEASAT satellites to the coastal plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic losses sustained in the U.S. coastal zones were studied for the purpose of quantitatively establishing economic benefits as a consequence of improving the predictive quality of destructive phenomena in U.S. coastal zones. Improved prediction of hurricane landfall and improved experimental knowledge of hurricane seeding are discussed.

  5. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The levelized cost of energy (LCOE from wave energy converters (WECs needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power take-off (PTO system consisting of a discrete displacement cylinder (DDC, which will allow different hydraulic cycles to operate at constant pressure levels. This setup increases the conversion efficiency, as well as decouples the electricity production from the pressure variations within the hydraulic cycle when waves are passing. The new PTO system leads to different load characteristics at the floater itself compared to the actual setup where the turbine/generator is directly coupled to the fluctuating hydraulic pressure within the PTO system. This paper calculates the structural reliability of the different available plain bearings planned to be mounted at the new PTO system based on a probabilistic approach, and the paper gives suggestions for fulfilling the minimal target reliability levels. The considered failure mode in this paper is the brittle fatigue failure of plain bearings. The performed sensitivity analysis shows that parameters defining the initial crack size have a big impact on the resulting reliability of the plain bearing.

  6. An environmentally sound method for disposal of both ash and sludge wastes by mixing with soil: a case study of Bangkok plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkpian, Preeda; Leong, Shing Tet; Laortanakul, Preecha; Juntaramitree, Jutamas

    2002-02-01

    This study reported the test done on ash-sludge mixture for amendment of soil in pot experiments. Ash-sludge mixture ratio studies revealed that 1:5 fly ash-sludge mixture and 1:10 bottom ash-sludge mixture were the optimum mixture ratio that minimized toxic element and provided sufficient nutrients. Experiments indicated that ash-sludge mixtures is more suitable for amendment of acid soil than neutral soil which can increase soil pH and reduce available heavy metal toxicity. The maximum heavy metal adsorption occurred in a pH range of 4 to 6 for all soil studied. The finding also revealed that fly ash application seemed more effective than bottom ash, due to its higher loading rate and metal contents. Heavy metal toxicity was monitored using seed germination test. Marigold and tomato seeds were the two crops selected for this test. Seed germination test result shows that percentage of seed germination increased in pot experiments with sludge only and ash-sludge mixtures. In addition, higher percentages of seed germination were observed to vary with longer incubation time (1-8 weeks). After week 12 of the incubation period, percentage of seed germination began to decline, as a result of reduced soil pH and release of toxic heavy metals.

  7. Evaluation of Holocene pollen records from the Romanian Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomescu

    2000-05-01

    This study is a critical review of pollen analyses carried out on Holocene sequences from 15 sites in and near the Romanian Plain. Three sites come from natural sediments, 10 sites are from anthropogenic deposits and two are from both anthropogenic and natural settings. The general reconstruction is of a steppe-forest-steppe vegetation through the Holocene. The nature of the deposits, however, casts doubts on this reconstruction. Deposits of archaeological sites generally yield pollen spectra that are influenced by human activities and thus unsuitable for vegetation reconstructions. Loess deposits are also unfavorable for pollen preservation because of high pH and porosity. Consequently, pollen spectra from loess deposits are strongly biased by selective pollen destruction. Research and experiments carried out by several authors suggest that spectra dominated by Asteraceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae or Pinus pollen in soils and loess are a result of selective pollen destruction, especially if low pollen concentrations, progressive pollen deterioration or high frequencies of deteriorated or unidentifiable pollen are evidenced. The fact that pollen records from the Romanian Plain come from loess, alkaline peat or archaeological sites reduces their reliability for reconstructions of vegetation. The vegetation history of similar regions in Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey suggests that early Holocene steppe vegetation was gradually replaced by forest or forest-steppe vegetation in the late Holocene. Records from lake sediments are required to find out whether the Holocene vegetation history of the Romanian Plain was similar.

  8. Diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis by plain radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkko, E.

    1989-01-01

    The usefulness of plain radiography in the diagnosis of lumbar central spinal stenosis was studied in 116 patients using computed tomography (CT) as a reference. The most significant signs found in central spinal stenosis were short pedicles, high narrow intervertebral foramina, small interlaminar windows and deep posterior concavity of the vertebral bodies. The sensitivity of plain radiography in the diagnosis of central spinal stenosis as compared to CT was 66%, the specificity was 93% and the accuracy was 86%. The midsagittal and interpedicular diameters were measured from plain radiograms and were compared with corresponding CT diameters. In approximately half of the cases, the sagittal diameters were compatible. The maximum error was 6 mm. On average, the interpedicular distances were measured as too wide. The reliability of CT measurements were established by taking the measurements from the vertebral column of a moose calf, and then comparing these to the real measurements obtained with a calibrated ruler. The maximal differences were 2 mm. (author). 24 refs.; 8 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Serpentinization of abyssal peridotites from the MARK area, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Sulfur geochemistry and reaction modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.C.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2003-01-01

    The opaque mineralogy and the contents and isotope compositions of sulfur in serpentinized peridotites from the MARK (Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Kane Fracture Zone) area were examined to understand the conditions of serpentinization and evaluate this process as a sink for seawater sulfur. The serpentinites contain a sulfur-rich secondary mineral assemblage and have high sulfur contents (up to 1 wt.%) and elevated ??34Ssulfide (3.7 to 12.7???). Geochemical reaction modeling indicates that seawater-peridotite interaction at 300 to 400??C alone cannot account for both the high sulfur contents and high ??34Ssulfide. These require a multistage reaction with leaching of sulfide from subjacent gabbro during higher temperature (???400??C) reactions with seawater and subsequent deposition of sulfide during serpentinization of peridotite at ???300??C. Serpentinization produces highly reducing conditions and significant amounts of H2 and results in the partial reduction of seawater carbonate to methane. The latter is documented by formation of carbonate veins enriched in 13C (up to 4.5???) at temperatures above 250??C. Although different processes produce variable sulfur isotope effects in other oceanic serpentinites, sulfur is consistently added to abyssal peridotites during serpentinization. Data for serpentinites drilled and dredged from oceanic crust and from ophiolites indicate that oceanic peridotites are a sink for up to 0.4 to 6.0 ?? 1012 g seawater S yr-1. This is comparable to sulfur exchange that occurs in hydrothermal systems in mafic oceanic crust at midocean ridges and on ridge flanks and amounts to 2 to 30% of the riverine sulfate source and sedimentary sulfide sink in the oceans. The high concentrations and modified isotope compositions of sulfur in serpentinites could be important for mantle metasomatism during subduction of crust generated at slow spreading rates. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  10. Mountains and plains Denver's geologic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1967-01-01

    A slice of geologic history is exposed to view in the Denver, Colorado area. Denver is situated on the High Plains near the east front of the Rocky Mountains. As one travels westward from Denver toward the mountains, successively older rocks are crossed from the geologically young rocks of the High Plains and the South Platte River valley to the older rocks of the foothills and the ancient rocks of the mountains. Thus, within a few miles,the journey turns back the pages of time in a lifesized textbook that vividly illustrates the geologic events that shaped the landscape.

  11. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed

    2017-04-20

    The pack is a marketing tool for the tobacco industry - its shape, colour, fonts, descriptors and logos attract and mislead smokers. Health warnings on cigarette packs serve as a knowledge reminder for smokers to quit smoking. Plain packaging eliminates brand imagery elements from cigarette packs and has many benefits, including the reduction of intention to smoke and the denormalization of smoking behaviour. The tobacco industry has devised pack and product marketing innovations that thwart the effectiveness of health warnings. Plain packaging policy needs to address these innovations by restricting their use and preventing them from undermining health warnings.

  12. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmeng Ye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%. During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas.

  13. Hydrogeological characteristics of the Paraíba do Sul river flood plains: a case study of a mining area in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo dos Santos Targa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sand mining activity in the São Paulo part of the Paraíba do Sul River Valley started in the 1950s, in the area of Jacareí municipality, located in the Southwestern part of the basin. From there, it advanced by the neighboring municipalities, fostered by urbanization and industrialization processes, especially of São Paulo Metropolitan Region. The lack of detailed hydrogeological studies in this area motivated this study that had the objective of verifying the hypothesis that sand mining pits interfere on the quality and storage of the water in the quaternary sedimentary aquifer. This study focused specifically in the eastern part of the Tremembé Municipality, São Paulo State, in a mining place called “Mineração Paraíso”. The investigation involved infiltration and flow tests, laboratory analyses of soil physical parameters and estimation, water quality indices and infrastructure construction for equipment installation including piezometers, dynamic penetration tests – (SPT - Standard Penetration Test, wells opening and office analyses. The soil physical parameters analyses revealed high porosity (66% in the friable soils. This in addition to the high levels of transmissivity (15.5 m2/h measured in Well 1 and 33 m2/h in Well 3, obtained from the flow test, increases the speed of the transportation of solutes including bacteria, to the underground water. Results of the granulometric analyses showed that the sand mining technique is not only predatory, but also inefficient, since the sand at the bottom of the pit is left unexploited, as well as the bentonite clay found in the deeper layers. According to the penetration tests (SPT, the aquifer has an average thickness of 5.5 m and an upper layer of impermeable organic clays that confine the sand deposits. Furthermore, an aquiclude composed of green bentonitic clays was identified just below the confined layer. However, it is necessary to point out that the confinement condition

  14. Comparative study of esterases in deltamethrin and diazinon resistant Rhipicephalus microplus and Hyalomma anatolicum ticks collected from the Trans-Gangetic plains of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ruchi Singh; Sangwan, Arun Kumar; Sangwan, Nirmal; Ghosh, Mayukh; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-09-01

    A comparative analysis of esterases in susceptible and resistant ticks revealed six types of esterases (EST-1b, EST-2b, EST-3b, EST-4b, EST-5b and EST-6b) in Rhipicephalus microplus and four types (EST-1h, EST-2h, EST-3h, EST-4h) in Hyalomma anatolicum using α-naphthyl acetate substrate. Inhibition studies with eserine sulfate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, copper sulphate and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride revealed a marked variation in band intensity between susceptible and resistant ticks, with the latter being more intense. Qualitative expression of EST-4b along with an extra band of EST-5b and EST-6b were indicative of deltamethrin and diazinon resistance in R. microplus, whereas qualitative expression of EST-4h was probably responsible for diazinon resistance in H. anatolicum. The data suggest that increased esterase activity may represent a detoxification strategy leading to the development of resistance in these tick populations.

  15. Influence of premium vs masked cigarette brand names on the experienced taste of a cigarette after tobacco plain packaging in Australia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaczkowski, Gemma; Durkin, Sarah; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-03-12

    Few studies have experimentally assessed the contribution of branding to the experience of smoking a cigarette, compared with the inherent properties of the product. This study examined the influence of cigarette brand name on the sensory experience of smoking a cigarette. Seventy-five Australian smokers aged 18-39 years smoked two 'premium' cigarettes, one with the brand variant name shown and one with the brand variant name masked (which provided 'objective' ratings). Unknown to participants, the two cigarettes were identical. At recruitment, participants rated their expected enjoyment, quality and harshness of several premium cigarette brands. Branded cigarettes were rated as having a significantly more favorable taste (M(SE) = 64.14(2.21)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 58.53(2.26), p = .031). Branded cigarettes were also rated as being less stale (M(SE) = 36.04(2.62)) than masked cigarettes (M(SE) = 43.90(2.60), p = .011). Purchase intent tended to be higher among those shown the branded cigarette compared to the masked cigarette (χ 2 (1) = 3.00, p = .083). Expected enjoyment and quality of the brand variant (enjoyment: b = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.11, 0.51, p  .05). This pattern was not observed for cigarette harshness. A premium brand variant name can enhance the subjective experience of a cigarette. Further, smokers' expectations of such brand variants contribute to the smoking experience as much, if not more than, the actual qualities of the product.

  16. Degenerative disc disease as a cause of back pain in the thalassaemic population: a case-control study using MRI and plain radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desigan, S.; Hall-Craggs, M.A.; Ho, C.-P. [Department of Imaging, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Eliahoo, J. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Research and Development Directorate, London (United Kingdom); Porter, J.B. [University College Hospital, Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this study was to test our observation that back pain in thalassemic patients could be caused by premature and extensive lumbar degenerative disc disease, when compared to non-thalassemic patients with back pain. Sixteen thalassemic patients with their sex- and age-matched controls were recruited into the study, 12 with thalassemia major, and 4 with thalassemia intermedia. Both the thalassemia patients and control subjects suffered from back pain, which was subjective rather than measured/pain scored. All subjects underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine, and 11 of the cases and 8 controls had lumbar spine radiographs. Each lumbar disc was scored for radiographic appearances and MR features of disc degeneration and disc protrusion. Proportion values for these parameters and median scores were derived at each disc level, and were analyzed and compared. There was a statistically-significant difference between proportion values of cases and controls for the MR features (P value=0.01, n=16) and the radiographic features (P value=0.01, n=11 cases, n=8 controls) of disc degeneration. The median disc level scores for the thalassemic group were uniformly high across all lumbar discs, and at all levels except at L 4/5. The control group conversely demonstrated a predilection for disc degeneration at L4/5 level. The distribution of lumbar disc degeneration in thalassemic patients with back pain is more extensive, severe and multi-level in nature compared to matched controls, and disc degeneration should be considered as a significant cause of back pain in this population group. (orig.)

  17. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. [land use, image enhancement, winter wheat, agriculture, water resources, and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L.; Ulaby, F. T.; Davis, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Improvement in the land use classification accuracy of ERTS-1 MSS multi-images over Kansas can be made using two distances between neighboring grey tone N-tuples instead of one distance. Much more information is contained texturally than spectrally on the Kansas image. Ground truth measurements indicate that reflectance ratios of the 545 and 655 nm wavebands provide an index of plant development and possibly physiological stress. Preliminary analysis of MSS 4 and 5 channels substantiate the ground truth interpretation. Results of the land use mapping experiment indicate that ERTS-1 imagery has major potential in regionalization. The ways in which land is utilized within these regions may then be studied more effectively than if no adequate regionalization is available. A model for estimating wheat yield per acre has been applied to acreage estimates derived from ERTS-1 imagery to project the 1973 wheat yields for a ten county area in southwest Kansas. The results are within 3% of the preharvest estimates for the same area prepared by the USDA. Visual identification of winter wheat is readily achieved by using a temporal sequence of images. Identification can be improve by stratifying the project area into subregions having more or less homogeneous agricultural practices and crop mixes.

  18. Characterization and interaction of precipitation, river water and groundwater in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta - A case study in the Plain of Reeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Nguyen, Le; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Merz, Bruno; Apel, Heiko

    2016-04-01

    An understanding of the interactions between surface water and groundwater systems in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta (VMD) is important not only for water resources planning and management, but also for the livelihood of the majority of the population in the delta. Precipitation and ground water, but also river water is used as drinking water in the communes of the Delta. Particularly the ground water is increasingly exploited, but the important processes like river - aquifer interaction and ground water recharge rates are largely unknown. This study thus aims at the characterization of processes between the different water resources. For this the different water sources were sampled over longer time periods and analysed for isotopic composition (2H, 18O). Additionally surface and ground water levels were recorded, as well as the temperature profile at and under the river bed in order to identify the river-ground water interaction. First results indicate that the isotopic composition and the local meteoric water line of the precipitation is very similar to the GNIP data for Bangkok, indicating similar isotopic sequestration and origin of the rainfall in the region (near ocean areas of SE-Asia). The isotopic composition of precipitation and river water exhibits a strong seasonal signal indicating the monsoonal influence. During the monsoon season both precipitation and river water is depleted in stable isotopes, while the dry season shows an enriched composition. This also indicates the different composition of the river water over the seasons. During the rainy season the portion of rain water, i.e. surface runoff stemming from the Mekong basin but also direct rainfall contribution in the Mekong Delta is considerably larger, as expected. The enriched composition during the dry season indicates a larger ground water, i.e. base flow portion, but also a generally higher evaporation due to the lower atmospheric moisture. The isotopic composition of the ground water differs

  19. Alcohol Warning Label Perceptions: Do Warning Sizes and Plain Packaging Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdani, Mohammed; Smith, Steven M

    2017-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of stringent alcohol warning labels. Our experiment tested whether increasing the size of an alcohol health warning lowers product-based ratings. We examined whether plain packaging lowers ratings of alcohol products and the consumers who use them, increases ratings of bottle "boringness," and enhances warning recognition compared with branded packaging. A total of 440 adults (51.7% female) viewed one of three warning sizes (50%, 75%, or 90% of label surface) on either a plain or branded bottle of distilled spirits, wine, and beer. Participants also rated alcohol bottles on product-based (assessing the product itself), consumer-based (assessing perceptions of consumers of the product), and bottle boringness ratings, and then attempted to recognize the correct warning out of four choices. As expected, the size of warning labels lowered product-based ratings. Similarly, plain packaging lowered product-based and consumer-based ratings and increased bottle boringness but only for wine bottles. Further, plain packaging increased the odds of warning recognition on bottles of distilled spirits. This study shows that plain packaging and warning size (similar to the graphic warnings on cigarette packages) affect perceptions about alcohol bottles. It also shows that plain packaging increases the likelihood for correct health warning recognition, which builds the case for alcohol warning and packaging research and policy.

  20. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  1. Plain language as alternative textualisation | Cornelius | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain language is a form of intra-lingual translation, a process during which particular interventions are brought to bear on a complex text, such as an act, in order to fit the linguistic competence of a particular target audience (Bhatia, 1983; 1993). In this way, complicated content is unlocked and meaning mediated. The aim is ...

  2. Radiocesium in wheat of the Po plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominici, G.; Malvicini, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Cs-137 measurements of many wheat samples, which was cultivated in Po plain during 1986 and 1987, are reported. A relationship is also shown between the quantity of Cs-137, which is contained in total fall-out, and that in the wheat by direct deposition

  3. Porosity Prediction of Plain Weft Knitted Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Owais Raza Siddiqui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearing comfort of clothing is dependent on air permeability, moisture absorbency and wicking properties of fabric, which are related to the porosity of fabric. In this work, a plug-in is developed using Python script and incorporated in Abaqus/CAE for the prediction of porosity of plain weft knitted fabrics. The Plug-in is able to automatically generate 3D solid and multifilament weft knitted fabric models and accurately determine the porosity of fabrics in two steps. In this work, plain weft knitted fabrics made of monofilament, multifilament and spun yarn made of staple fibers were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the developed plug-in. In the case of staple fiber yarn, intra yarn porosity was considered in the calculation of porosity. The first step is to develop a 3D geometrical model of plain weft knitted fabric and the second step is to calculate the porosity of the fabric by using the geometrical parameter of 3D weft knitted fabric model generated in step one. The predicted porosity of plain weft knitted fabric is extracted in the second step and is displayed in the message area. The predicted results obtained from the plug-in have been compared with the experimental results obtained from previously developed models; they agreed well.

  4. Hydrogeochemical analysis for Tasuj plain aquifer, Iran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, groundwater quality monitoring and protection are essential to sustain the Tasuj plain aquifer. For this purpose, a fundamental understanding of hydrogeochemi- cal processes and hydrogeological conditions for an aquifer system is important (Adams et al. 2001;. Keywords. Graphical method; hydrogeochemistry ...

  5. Necrotizing fasciitis : plain radiographic and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Dae; Park, Jeong Hee; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Lim, Jong Nam; Heo, Tae Haeng; Park, Dong Rib [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate the plain radiographic and CT findings of the necrotizing fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed the radiologic findings of 4 cases with necrotizing fasciitis. Three cases were proven pathologically. We evaluated pattern and extent of the gas shadows in plain films. CT findings were analysed, with emphasis on : (a) gas pattern, (b) extent, (c) location and involved site, (d) associated focal abscess, and (e) swelling of the adjacent muscles. On plain radiographs, four cases showed streaky or mottled gas densities in the pelvis, three cases in the perineum, one case in the abdomen, and two cases in the thigh. On CT images, gas pattern was mottled and streaky appearance with swelling of the adjacent muscles. Gas shadows located in the extraperitoneal space in four cases, fascial layer in four cases, and subcutaneous layer in four cases. There were gas shadows in pelvic wall, perineum, abdominal wall, buttock, thigh, and scrotum. Focal low density lesion suggestive of focal abscess was not visualized. Plain radiography is useful for early diagnosis of the necrotizing fasciitis and CT is very useful for detection of precise location and extent of the disease. CT is also useful for differentiation of necrotizing fasciitis from focal abscess and cellulitis.

  6. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    a problem, as Kimble (1992: 14-15) argues in the following quote: […] It is no criticism that Plain .... Formulas do not consider the motivation, interests, purpose, and social and cultural background and context of .... way that gives a cooperative, motivated person a good chance of understanding the document at first reading, ...

  7. Unusual plain film appearance of extrapleural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranner, G.; Kullnig, P.; Dirnhofer, R.; Sigrist, T.

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of extrapleural hematoma, proven during autopsy, are presented. Plain chest films did not demonstrate the typical signs of an extrapleural mass lesion. The roentgenologic differential diagnosis of a free or partially encapsulated pleural effusion, as well as the pathogenesis of extrapleural hematoma is discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Great plains regional climate assessment technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great Plains region (GP) plays important role in providing food and energy to the economy of the United States. Multiple climatic and non-climatic stressors put multiple sectors, livelihoods and communities at risk, including agriculture, water, ecosystems and rural and tribal communities. The G...

  9. Geodatabase compilation of hydrogeologic, remote sensing, and water-budget-component data for the High Plains aquifer, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Natalie A.; Gonzales-Bradford, Sophia L.; Flynn, Amanda T.; Qi, Sharon L.; Peterson, Steven M.; Stanton, Jennifer S.; Ryter, Derek W.; Sohl, Terry L.; Senay, Gabriel B.

    2013-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies almost 112 million acres in the central United States. It is one of the largest aquifers in the Nation in terms of annual groundwater withdrawals and provides drinking water for 2.3 million people. The High Plains aquifer has gained national and international attention as a highly stressed groundwater supply primarily because it has been appreciably depleted in some areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has an active program to monitor the changes in groundwater levels for the High Plains aquifer and has documented substantial water-level changes since predevelopment: the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study is part of a series of regional groundwater availability studies conducted to evaluate the availability and sustainability of major aquifers across the Nation. The goals of the regional groundwater studies are to quantify current groundwater resources in an aquifer system, evaluate how these resources have changed over time, and provide tools to better understand a systems response to future demands and environmental stresses. The purpose of this report is to present selected data developed and synthesized for the High Plains aquifer as part of the High Plains Groundwater Availability Study. The High Plains Groundwater Availability Study includes the development of a water-budget-component analysis for the High Plains completed in 2011 and development of a groundwater-flow model for the northern High Plains aquifer. Both of these tasks require large amounts of data about the High Plains aquifer. Data pertaining to the High Plains aquifer were collected, synthesized, and then organized into digital data containers called geodatabases. There are 8 geodatabases, 1 file geodatabase and 7 personal geodatabases, that have been grouped in three categories: hydrogeologic data, remote sensing data, and water-budget-component data. The hydrogeologic data pertaining to the northern High Plains aquifer is included in three separate

  10. Writing Government Policies and Procedures in Plain Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Don

    2008-01-01

    Plain language involves more than just a few simple techniques, such as using everyday words, short sentences, and active voice. Although there is no single definition, "plain language" basically stands for several dozen well-established principles of clear communication. In this article, the author discusses the significance of plain language…

  11. 49 CFR 215.111 - Defective plain bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing. 215.111 Section 215.111... § 215.111 Defective plain bearing. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if the car has a plain bearing— (a) That is missing, cracked, or broken; (b) On which the bearing liner— (1) Is...

  12. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  13. 7 CFR 650.25 - Flood-plain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... delineates the base flood plain by using detailed HUD flood insurance maps and other available data, as... practicable alternatives to the proposed project that would not cause adverse effects on the base flood plain... beneficial values in base (100-year) flood plains as part of technical and financial assistance in the...

  14. 49 CFR 215.113 - Defective plain bearing wedge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective plain bearing wedge. 215.113 Section 215... Suspension System § 215.113 Defective plain bearing wedge. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if a plain bearing wedge on that car is— (a) Missing; (b) Cracked; (c) Broken; or (d) Not located...

  15. Plains Energy Services Ltd. 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Plains Energy Services Ltd. (Plains) is a two year old public company in the oil and gas service industry. It provides an integrated pool of services, concentrating on the life cycle of oil and gas wells as the driver for its expansion. Although the industry saw a marked decrease in well drilling activity for 1998, Plains was able to sustain a consistent income and cash flow because of its focus on ensuring access to the well during drilling, completion, production and abandonment. For 1998, revenue reached a record $93.3 million, an 85 per cent increase over 1997. This report presented Plain's major achievements for 1998. These included the completed construction of a technical, machining and manufacturing facility to enhance the development and implementation of technology and equipment among all business units. The company also introduced coiled tubing drilling services in the North American marketplace, as well as the first commercial version of a casing inspection tool. Plain's also introduced production logging through their wireline services business and applied for four new patents in relation to downhole tool development. In 1998, the company consolidated their operations into four divisions including consolidation of administration, benefits, banking and related overhead services. This report also described the company's efforts in addressing the year 2000 challenge. The company's consolidated financial statements were presented for the benefit of shareholders. These included statements of earnings and deficit, balance sheets, as well as statements of changes in financial position. Notes to the consolidated financial statements included highlights of significant accounting policies, changes in accounting policies, acquisitions, discontinued operations, and capital assets. tabs., figs

  16. Braid-plain dynamics and bank erosion along the Matanuska River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, J. H.

    2009-12-01

    bedrock bluffs defining the valley wall flank the braid plain, they form an obviously resistant braid-plain margin, but erosion resistance appears to have also been provided by previously unmapped intermittent bedrock 0-2 m above river level, locally exposed and elsewhere mantled by glacial or riverine sediment in bluffs up to 75 m high. Braid-plain process changes since 1949 include incision that created a terrace 2-3 m high within the braid plain in the lower river near Palmer and at a mid-river location, and channel narrowing and conversion from braided to single-thread within 5 km downstream of the Matanuska Glacier, likely as a result of changes to locations or amounts of glacier drainage. Constraining estimates of future erosion in braided rivers is more likely to be successful by considering bank erodibility, the process of local, episodic braid-plain expansion, and process changes such as incision or channel planform conversion, rather than restricting analysis to strictly historical erosion rate studies.

  17. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  18. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: Implications for aquifer susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Eimers, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O2) and nitrate (NO 3-) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of NO3- found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 ??g/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone.

  19. Intent to remarry among Chinese elderly widowers: an oasis or an abyss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Marcus Y L; Ho, Winnie W N

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the intent to remarry and the predictors for such intent with psychosocial variables, this study used male interviewers to interview 180 Chinese elderly widowers. A structured questionnaire on singlehood and intent to remarry, which developed out of a pilot in-depth focus-group study, was used. Data were analyzed with nonparametric tests and logistic regression. The intent to remarry was predicted by younger age, inability to meet sexual needs, and dissatisfaction with widowhood. A total of 40% of these widowers who wanted a partner considered finding one from Mainland China. The sex-related findings were very different from previous studies on Chinese men. They showed that there should be professional support to help them to better adjust to late-life marriage. In addition, the study uncovered the need to expand the scope and enhance the sensitivity of current general practitioners and geriatric services to address issues beyond medical concerns.

  20. Insights into the abundance and diversity of abyssal megafauna in a polymetallic-nodule region in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J; Ziegler, Amanda F; Dahlgren, Thomas G; Glover, Adrian G; Goineau, Aurélie; Gooday, Andrew J; Wiklund, Helena; Smith, Craig R

    2016-07-29

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Pacific. Nonetheless, benthic communities in this region remain poorly known. The ABYSSLINE Project is conducting benthic biological baseline surveys for the UK Seabed Resources Ltd. exploration contract area (UK-1) in the CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle, we surveyed megafauna at four sites within a 900 km(2) stratum in the UK-1 contract area, and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area, allowing us to make the first estimates of abundance and diversity. We distinguished 170 morphotypes within the UK-1 contract area but species-richness estimators suggest this could be as high as 229. Megafaunal abundance averaged 1.48 ind. m(-2). Seven of 12 collected metazoan species were new to science, and four belonged to new genera. Approximately half of the morphotypes occurred only on polymetallic nodules. There were weak, but statistically significant, positive correlations between megafaunal and nodule abundance. Eastern-CCZ megafaunal diversity is high relative to two abyssal datasets from other regions, however comparisons with CCZ and DISCOL datasets are problematic given the lack of standardised methods and taxonomy. We postulate that CCZ megafaunal diversity is driven in part by habitat heterogeneity.

  1. Insights into the abundance and diversity of abyssal megafauna in a polymetallic-nodule region in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Diva J.; Ziegler, Amanda F.; Dahlgren, Thomas G.; Glover, Adrian G.; Goineau, Aurélie; Gooday, Andrew J.; Wiklund, Helena; Smith, Craig R.

    2016-07-01

    There is growing interest in mining polymetallic nodules in the abyssal Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ) in the Pacific. Nonetheless, benthic communities in this region remain poorly known. The ABYSSLINE Project is conducting benthic biological baseline surveys for the UK Seabed Resources Ltd. exploration contract area (UK-1) in the CCZ. Using a Remotely Operated Vehicle, we surveyed megafauna at four sites within a 900 km2 stratum in the UK-1 contract area, and at a site ~250 km east of the UK-1 area, allowing us to make the first estimates of abundance and diversity. We distinguished 170 morphotypes within the UK-1 contract area but species-richness estimators suggest this could be as high as 229. Megafaunal abundance averaged 1.48 ind. m-2. Seven of 12 collected metazoan species were new to science, and four belonged to new genera. Approximately half of the morphotypes occurred only on polymetallic nodules. There were weak, but statistically significant, positive correlations between megafaunal and nodule abundance. Eastern-CCZ megafaunal diversity is high relative to two abyssal datasets from other regions, however comparisons with CCZ and DISCOL datasets are problematic given the lack of standardised methods and taxonomy. We postulate that CCZ megafaunal diversity is driven in part by habitat heterogeneity.

  2. Map showing distribution of small-scale deformation structures in a part of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina and adjacent Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, R.C.; Houser, B.B.

    1983-01-01

    As a contribution to the assessment of neotectonics in the area of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, field traverses were made between Columbia, S.C., and Augusta, Ga., in 1975 and early 1976 in order to locate and describe small-scale deformation structures within exposed Coastal Plain rocks. The study covered most of the area between the Fall Line (northwest margin of the Coastal Plain) and the Orangeburg (Citronelle) escarpment (fig. 1).

  3. A New Method to Define the VI-Ts Diagram Using Subpixel Vegetation and Soil Information: A Case Study over a Semiarid Agricultural Region in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Watanabe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The VI-Ts diagram determined by the scatter points of the vegetation index (VI and surface temperature (Ts has been widely applied in land surface studies. In the VI-Ts diagram, dry point is defined as a pixel with maximum Ts and minimum VI, while wet point is defined as a pixel with minimum Ts and maximum VI. If both dry and wet points can be obtained simultaneously, a triangular VI-Ts diagram can be readily defined. However, traditional methods cannot define an ideal VI-Ts diagram if there are no full ranges of land surface moisture and VI, such as during rainy season or in a period with a narrow VI range. In this study, a new method was proposed to define the VI-Ts diagram based on the subpixel vegetation and soil information, which was independent of the full ranges of land surface moisture and VI. In this method, a simple approach was firstly proposed to decompose Ts of a given pixel into two components, the surface temperatures of soil (Tsoil and vegetation (Tveg, by means of Ts and VI information of neighboring pixels. The minimum Tveg and maximum Tsoil were then used to determine the wet and dry points respectively within a given sampling window. This method was tested over a 30 km × 30 km semiarid agricultural area in the North China Plain through 2003 using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. The wet and dry points obtained from our proposed method and from a traditional method were compared with those obtained from ground data within the sampling window with the 30 km × 30 km size. Results show that Tsoil and Tveg can be obtained with acceptable accuracies, and that our proposed method can define reasonable VI-Ts diagrams over a semiarid agricultural region throughout the whole year, even for both cases of rainy season and narrow range of VI.

  4. A New Method to Define the VI-Ts Diagram Using Subpixel Vegetation and Soil Information: A Case Study over a Semiarid Agricultural Region in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Qinxue; Matsushita, Bunkei; Fukushima, Takehiko; Ouyang, Zhu; Watanabe, Masataka

    2008-10-07

    The VI-Ts diagram determined by the scatter points of the vegetation index (VI) and surface temperature (Ts) has been widely applied in land surface studies. In the VI-Ts diagram, dry point is defined as a pixel with maximum Ts and minimum VI, while wet point is defined as a pixel with minimum Ts and maximum VI. If both dry and wet points can be obtained simultaneously, a triangular VI-Ts diagram can be readily defined. However, traditional methods cannot define an ideal VI-Ts diagram if there are no full ranges of land surface moisture and VI, such as during rainy season or in a period with a narrow VI range. In this study, a new method was proposed to define the VI-Ts diagram based on the subpixel vegetation and soil information, which was independent of the full ranges of land surface moisture and VI. In this method, a simple approach was firstly proposed to decompose Ts of a given pixel into two components, the surface temperatures of soil (T soil ) and vegetation (T veg ), by means of Ts and VI information of neighboring pixels. The minimum T veg and maximum T soil were then used to determine the wet and dry points respectively within a given sampling window. This method was tested over a 30 km × 30 km semiarid agricultural area in the North China Plain through 2003 using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. The wet and dry points obtained from our proposed method and from a traditional method were compared with those obtained from ground data within the sampling window with the 30 km × 30 km size. Results show that T soil and T veg can be obtained with acceptable accuracies, and that our proposed method can define reasonable VI-Ts diagrams over a semiarid agricultural region throughout the whole year, even for both cases of rainy season and narrow range of VI.

  5. The Australian experience following plain packaging: the impact on tobacco branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    Brands are critical to tobacco marketing. Industry stakeholders predicted that plain packaging, by removing key tangible branding dimensions, would restrict new products and brand differentiation. However, manufacturers respond innovatively to limit regulatory impact. This study investigates brand strategy following plain packaging's introduction to Australia. Brand portfolios were determined using 2006-15 tobacco ingredient reports. These detail the brand and variant names sold and are provided annually as part of a voluntary agreement between the Australian Government and leading manufacturers. Post-plain packaging brand ranges were verified using retail price lists and a supermarket retail audit using a method used previously to verify a period of pre-plain packaging data. The verification process identified some data inaccuracies from one manufacturer which resulted in the issuing of corrected data. After plain packaging the leading manufacturers continued with extensive brand ranges differentiated by price. All launched new products. While total brand numbers fell from 29 to 24, the mean number of variants for the leading 12 brands grew from 8.9 to 9.7. Substantial variant name modifications occurred with 50 new or modified names in 2012-13. Among leading brands, the incidence of variant colour names increased from 49.5 to 79.3%. New brands and variants were not inhibited by the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. After plain packaging, leading brand variant numbers expanded by 9 to 116 and colour variant names increased by 73.6% and became the norm-lighter colours (blue, gold and silver) dominated, perpetuating notions of less harmful cigarettes. [Correction added on 09 September 2016, after first online publication: The figures in the last sentence of the Abstract are now corrected from 'expanded by 116' to 'expanded by 9 to 116'.]. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Reform of Medium Education and Physical education: an abyss for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson dos Santos Bastos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It develops analyzes on the reform of secondary education proposed by Provisional Measure . 746, now Law 13.415/17, and its implications in the future of Physical Education. Part of the following scientific question: What are the perspectives for the future of Physical Education in the face of the reform of secondary education proposed by the new educational policy? As methodological strategy a documentary study was developed, having as a source of analysis the texts of the MP and the law that ratifies it, besides the notes published by different entities related to education and Physical Education. The study indicates that the reform of high school will imply significantly in Physical Education in three fields: in its teaching in basic education, in teacher training and in teaching work.

  7. Habitat heterogeneity of hadal trenches: Considerations and implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A.; Jamieson, Alan J.

    2018-02-01

    The hadal zone largely comprises a series of subduction trenches that do not form part of the continental shelf-slope rise to abyssal plain continuum. Instead they form geographically isolated clusters of deep-sea (6000-11,000 m water depth) environments. There is a growing realization in hadal science that ecological patterns and processes are not driven solely by responses to hydrostatic pressure, with comparable levels of habitat heterogeneity as observed in other marine biozones. Furthermore, this heterogeneity can be expressed at multiple scales from inter-trench levels (degrees of geographical isolation, and biochemical province), to intra-trench levels (variation between trench flanks and axis), topographical features within the trench interior (sedimentary basins, ridges, escarpments, 'deeps', seamounts) to the substrate of the trench floor (seabed-sediment composition, mass movement deposits, bedrock outcrop). Using best available bathymetry data combined with the largest lander-derived imaging dataset that spans the full depth range of three hadal trenches (including adjacent slopes); the Mariana, Kermadec and New Hebrides trenches, the topographic variability, fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and distribution of seabed sediments of these three trenches have been assessed for the first time. As well as serving as the first descriptive study of habitat heterogeneity at hadal depths, this study also provides guidance for future hadal sampling campaigns taking into account geographic isolation, total trench particulate organic matter flux, maximum water depth and area.

  8. Abundance and size distribution dynamics of abyssal epibenthic megafauna in the northeast Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhl, Henry A

    2007-05-01

    The importance of interannual variation in deep-sea abundances is now becoming recognized. There is, however, relatively little known about what processes dominate the observed fluctuations. The abundance and size distribution of the megabenthos have been examined here using a towed camera system at a deep-sea station in the northeast Pacific (Station M) from 1989 to 2004. This 16-year study included 52 roughly seasonal transects averaging 1.2 km in length with over 35600 photographic frames analyzed. Mobile epibenthic megafauna at 4100 m depth have exhibited interannual scale changes in abundance from one to three orders of magnitude. Increases in abundance have now been significantly linked to decreases in mean body size, suggesting that accruals in abundance probably result from the recruitment of young individuals. Examinations of size-frequency histograms indicate several possible recruitment events. Shifts in size-frequency distributions were also used to make basic estimations of individual growth rates from 1 to 6 mm/month, depending on the taxon. Regional intensification in reproduction followed by recruitment within the study area could explain the majority of observed accruals in abundance. Although some adult migration is certainly probable in accounting for local variation in abundances, the slow movements of benthic life stages restrict regional migrations for most taxa. Negative competitive interactions and survivorship may explain the precipitous declines of some taxa. This and other studies have shown that abundances from protozoans to large benthic invertebrates and fishes all have undergone significant fluctuations in abundance at Station M over periods of weeks to years.

  9. Plain radiographic evaluation of children with obstructive adenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolo, E.S.; Ahmed, A.O.; Kazeem, M.J.; Nwaorgu, O.G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There are several methods of evaluating adenoidal size pre-operatively. Plain nasopharyngeal radiography is a common investigative modality: it has been advocated, and also condemned. Aim: This study was intended to assess nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids using plain X-rays; and also to find correlation if any, with the symptomatology. Methods: This is a retrospective study carried out between January and December 2008. The case notes and plain X-rays of the nasopharynx of 34 paediatric patients with clinical features of obstructive adenoids were analyzed. Results: A total of 34 children were studied, 22 (64.7%) were males and 12 (35.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 10 years: mean age was 3.55 years, standard deviation 2.723. Majority (67.6%) of the children were in the age group 0-4 years. The lowest symptomatology assessment score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest symptomatology scores. The minimum adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio was 0.35 and the maximum was 0.94. There was no significant difference in the mean adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio of males and females (t = 0.407; p = 0.692). Many (75.0%) of the children with moderate to severe nasopharyngeal airway obstruction by the adenoids were in the age bracket 0-4 years. The lowest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio score was 0 and the highest was 3. Children 4 years and below had the highest adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio scores. There was a very weak nonsignificant correlation between the symptomatology assessment score and the radiological assessment score (r = 0.168; p = 0.375). Conclusion: The adenoidal-nasopharyngeal ratio is reliable in assessing the nasopharyngeal airway in children with obstructive adenoids.

  10. The effect of cigarette branding and plain packaging on female youth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Structural Reliability of Plain Bearings for Wave Energy Converter Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2016-01-01

    The levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from wave energy converters (WECs) needs to be decreased in order to be able to become competitive with other renewable electricity sources. Probabilistic reliability methods can be used to optimize the structure of WECs. Optimization is often performed...... for critical structural components, like welded details, bolts or bearings. This paper considers reliability studies with a focus on plain bearings available from stock for the Wavestar device, which exists at the prototype level. The Wavestar device is a point absorber WEC. The plan is to mount a new power...

  12. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morard, Raphaël; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Darling, Kate F.; Lecroq-Bennet, Béatrice; Winther Pedersen, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Pawlowski, Jan; Mulitza, Stefan; de Vargas, Colomban; Kucera, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Deep-sea sediments constitute a unique archive of ocean change, fueled by a permanent rain of mineral and organic remains from the surface ocean. Until now, paleo-ecological analyses of this archive have been mostly based on information from taxa leaving fossils. In theory, environmental DNA (eDNA) in the sediment has the potential to provide information on non-fossilized taxa, allowing more comprehensive interpretations of the fossil record. Yet, the process controlling the transport and deposition of eDNA onto the sediment and the extent to which it preserves the features of past oceanic biota remains unknown. Planktonic foraminifera are the ideal taxa to allow an assessment of the eDNA signal modification during deposition because their fossils are well preserved in the sediment and their morphological taxonomy is documented by DNA barcodes. Specifically, we re-analyze foraminiferal-specific metabarcodes from 31 deep-sea sediment samples, which were shown to contain a small fraction of sequences from planktonic foraminifera. We confirm that the largest portion of the metabarcode originates from benthic bottom-dwelling foraminifera, representing the in situ community, but a small portion (DNA is preserved in a range of marine sediment types, the composition of the recovered eDNA metabarcode is replicable and that both the similarity structure and the diversity pattern are preserved. Our results suggest that sedimentary eDNA could preserve the ecological structure of the entire pelagic community, including non-fossilized taxa, thus opening new avenues for paleoceanographic and paleoecological studies.

  13. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morard

    2017-06-01

    the entire pelagic community, including non-fossilized taxa, thus opening new avenues for paleoceanographic and paleoecological studies.

  14. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  15. Data report for current meters on mooring CMME-2, 1981-82; Atlantic study ar EN-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mooring designated CMME-2 was installed by R/V Endeavor on the northern Hatteras Abyssal Plain in an acoustically measured water depth of 5410 corrected meters. It was recovered after 333 days of operation. All five meters were recovered. The speed sensor on the top meter failed after 3.5 months; therefore its speed and direction files are short. The bottom meter failed during installation and produced no data. CMME-2 is the second mooring in a planned series of moorings near the center of the study area E-N3. The series of moorings is designed to determine the long-term mean flow in the study area. The data collected will be used as input in a numerical circulation model of the region. In addition the long time series of data will allow the study of energetic fluctuations at low frequencies. The mean speeds recorded are lower than those from the earlier record. In contrast to the previous data there appears to be no subsurface speed maximum. There is a fairly consistent northerly flow on which is superimposed a more variable east-west flow. A seasonal trend may be present: flow to the east in spring, flow to the south in the fall, and flow to the north in winter. 4 references, 56 figures, 4 tables

  16. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  17. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  18. Hidden Learning in plain sight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølberg, Jan

    and confidence in science. However, the study found that while teachers recognized that their students had developed many important skills and qualities, they were generally unable to describe these learning outcomes in detail due to a focus on curricular goals that did not include such qualities or skills......This study is based on a 5-year development project aimed at improving student engagement in science through introduction of innovation in science teaching. Early results found interesting discrepancies between students’ and teachers’ perception of student learning outcomes. While students did....... The study indicates that important learning outcomes may be lost to teachers and thereby also to the students even though changes to the students ability to participate in science class activities obviously changed. An increased focus on student learning that includes a broader understanding of learning...

  19. The Kansas Anthropologist Reminlscence Project for Senior Plains Anthropologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlin F. Hawley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Remember the days of old, consider the years of many generations, ask thy father and he will show thee, thy elders, and they will tell thee. Deuteronomy 32: 7. For the past six years, 'The Kansas Anthropologist' has published an ongoing series of reminiscences or retrospective articles by senior Great Plains archaeologists. The aim of the project is to collect reminiscences from senior anthro­pologists regarding their experiences in pre-and post-World War II Plains archaeology, biological anthropology, and ethnology. The historian John Lukacs (1966:x once offered an elegant and concise comment on the value of history, one that I offer here: "I believe that history, as a form of thought, is one of the most precious and perhaps unique rational posssessions of Western civilizations. The character of a person may appear best from the reconstruc­tion of the history of his life; the same is true of the character of nations. The very history of a prob­lem may reveal its essential diagnosis. There is no human endeavor that may not be approached and studied profitably through its history." Fortunately, there hardly needs to be a justification anymore for such a project, as is attested by the recent prolifera­tion of research into the history of archaeology and anthropology on virtually a global scale.The intention of these retrospective articles is not to explore or diagnose any particular problem but rather to create a mosaic of first person narrratives informed by personal experience and illustrated with photos and anecdotes to illuminate the development of Plains anthropology in the 20th Century.

  20. ABYSSES OF FIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Santana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to think the genesis of the poetry in the artistic universe of Mário de Sá-Carneiro, a poet who undertakes literary criticism from within his own writings while reckoning with the specificities of art. Following the path of some of the iconic figures of modern times, such as Baudelaire, Rimbaud and Mallarmé, Sá-Carneiro inscribes his poetry in a tradition of a whole lineage of poets for whom writing is above all a hand-to-hand with language.

  1. Determining the Appropriate Economic Strategy to Conserve Groundwater Resources in Qazvin Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abozar Parhizkari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Qazvin plain is one of the capable plains in Iran to produce of agricultural goods. Unfortunately, due to inordinate shafts digging and irregular use of groundwater the level of groundwater has been decreased during two last decades so that water balance is negative now. To conserve the groundwater resources in this plain, strategies and appropriate policies are needed and this requires a better understanding of farmers’ behavior. Therefore, in the present study in order to investigate farmers' behavior in using of groundwater and determine appropriate strategies to conserve of groundwater resources in Qazvin plain, positive mathematical programming and production function with constant elasticity of substitution were used. The investigated strategies included increase in water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation strategy and were investigated under various scenarios. The required data were registered information related to 2011-2012 collected from relevant departments in Qazvin province. The model was solved using GAMS 23/9 software. The results showed that all the investigated strategies led to water saving however the average gross profit changes decreased by 3.13, 8.61 and 5.54 percent with increasing water price, decrease in water availability and deficit irrigation, respectively. Finally, considering the less reduction in average gross profit, the irrigation water pricing and then deficit irrigation strategies were proposed to conserve groundwater resources in Qazvin plain.

  2. Similarity of Cross-Sectional Characteristics of Costal Plain Streams of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesely, W. S.; Parola, A. C.

    2005-05-01

    The Coastal Plain physiographic region of the southeastern United States encompasses over 1.2 million km2. Analysis of data from six separate geomorphic studies conducted in five of the 19 states having a Coastal Plain region suggests that streams of the Coastal Plain region have very similar correlations betweein bankfull cross section area (R2 = 0.92, n = 123) and discharge (R2 = 0.85, n = 77) with drainage basin area, despite geographic and hydrologic differences. Analysis of these data also shows that bankfull cross section area for southeastern Coastal Plain streams is 47% less than that indicated for other eastern US rivers by Dunne and Leopold (1978). Furthermore, estimates of bankfull discharge have an average return period of 1.14 years on the annual series. These bankfull flows range from 6.2-90% of the 1.5-year flow, often considered to represent the bankfull flow condition, and 4.4-75% of the 2-year flow, which some have suggested for restoration design. The strong correlation of these data supports the concept of using regional morphologic data for initiating assessments and should be considered as an important component of restoration design for streams of the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  3. Quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph combined with computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yan; Peng Kewen; Zhang Houde; Shen Bixian; Xiao Hanxin; Cai Juan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for quantitative analysis of bowel gas by plain abdominal radiograph and computer graphics. Methods: Plain abdominal radiographs in supine position from 25 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 20 health controls were studied. A gastroenterologist and a radiologist independently conducted the following procedure on each radiograph. After the outline of bowel gas was traced by axe pen, the radiograph was digitized by a digital camera and transmitted to the computer with Histogram software. The total gas area was determined as the pixel value on images. The ratio of the bowel gas quantity to the pixel value in the region surrounded by a horizontal line tangential to the superior pubic symphysis margin, a horizontal line tangential to the tenth dorsal vertebra inferior margin, and the lateral line tangential to the right and left anteriosuperior iliac crest, was defined as the gas volume score (GVS). To examine the sequential reproducibility, a second plain abdominal radiograph was performed in 5 normal controls 1 week later, and the GVS were compared. Results: Bowel gas was easily identified on the plain abdominal radiograph. Both large and small intestine located in the selected region. Both observers could finish one radiographic measurement in less than 10 mins. The correlation coefficient between the two observers was 0.986. There was no statistical difference on GVS between the two sequential radiographs in 5 health controls. Conclusion: Quantification of bowel gas based on plain abdominal radiograph and computer is simple, rapid, and reliable

  4. The Pliocene Citronelle Formation of the Gulf Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, George Charlton

    1916-01-01

    In the spring of 1910 the writer, working under the direction of T. Wayland Vaughan, geologist in charge of Coastal Plain investigations, undertook a study of the later Tertiary formations of the Gulf Coastal Plain. According to the plans outlined before the work was begun, the beds that had formerly been grouped under the names Lafayette formation and Grand Gulf formation were to be studied with a view to their possible separation into more satisfactory stratigraphic units that might be correlated with other formations which, on the basis of their fossils, had been assigned to their proper positions in the geologic time scale. The original plan included a study of the post-Vicksburgian Tertiary deposits from western Florida to Mississippi River and correlations with formations previously recognized in Florida, southern Alabama, and Louisiana. This plan was subsequently modified to extend the investigation as far west as Sabine River. The field work was interrupted and the office work was delayed by calls for geologic work in other areas, so that the preparation of the reports could not be begun until the spring of 1914.

  5. Potential future impacts of climatic change on the Great Plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1991-01-01

    A synopsis is provided of approaches to impact studies in the Great Plains, findings from studies of future impacts are summarized, and opportunities for enhancing understanding of future impacts are discussed. Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture, water resources, forestry, recreation/tourism, and energy are summarized. Impact analyses need to look more rigorously at variability in climate, the probabilities of various climatic conditions, and the sensitivity of social and economic activities to climatic variability. Most economic impact studies have assumed no adaptive behavior on the part of economic decision makers. Credible impact assessments require an improved understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of sectors to climatic conditions, particularly variability. The energy sector in the Great Plains region is likely to be more sensitive to political developments in the Middle East than to climatic variability and change. Speculation and analysis of climate impacts have focused on supply conditions and demands, yet the sector is more keenly sensitive to policy implications of climatic change, such as the potential for fossil fuel taxes or other legislative or pricing constraints. 28 refs

  6. Trace metal enrichment in agricultural soils of Jianghan Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Ying, S.; Daniel, J. N.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Schaefer, M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coal consumption in China is increasing annually due to constantly rising energy demand. As a result, a massive amount of coal combustion byproducts, particularly in the form of fly ash, are expelled from power plants and distributed through atmospheric transport. The fly ash is eventually deposited on to land, potentially contaminating agricultural soils. Coal fly ash contains high concentration of a suite of toxic trace metals including lead, chromium, and arsenic. In this study, we surveyed the concentration of trace metals in agricultural soils at 131 sites within a 20 km radius of Yangluo Power Plant, a 2400 MW plant within the highly populated Jianghan Plain of Central China. Using X-ray fluorecence (XRF) spectrometry, the total concentration of trace metals in homogenized surface and subsurface soil samples were measured to calculate the corresponding enrichment factor at each site. Our initial findings demonstrate that Pb is enriched in a majority of sites, independent of land use, whereas As and Cr are generally not enriched in this region. Further studies using Pb isotopes as a source-tracing tool will help determine the Pb pollution's origin. Ultimately, the results of this study may inform whether crops grown within the Jianghan Plain have the potential of being contaminated by metals emitted from coal power plants.

  7. From the epipelagic zone to the abyss: Trophic structure at two seamounts in the subtropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic - Part II Benthopelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Anneke; Stefanowitsch, Benjamin; Christiansen, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Specific mechanisms, driving trophic interactions between seamount associated fishes and the pelagic community may be highly variable in different seamount systems. This study investigated the trophic structure and the main prey of benthopelagic fishes from the summit and slope regions of Ampère and Senghor, two shallow seamounts in the subtropical and tropical NE Atlantic, and the adjacent deep-sea plains. For the identification of food sources and nutritional links to the pelagic realm a combination of stomach content and stable isotope ratio (δ13C and δ15N) analyses was used. δ13C ranged from -22.2‰ to -15.4‰ and δ15N covered a total range of 8.0-15.9‰. Feeding types of fish species comprised mainly zooplanktivores and mixed feeders, but also benthivores, piscivores, and predator-scavengers. Based on epipelagic particulate organic matter, they occupied trophic positions between the 2nd and 4th trophic level. Differences in stomach contents and stable isotope signatures indicate a resource partitioning among the benthopelagic fish fauna through distinct habitat choice, vertical feeding positions and prey selection. Topographic trapping of vertically migrating zooplankton on the summit seemed to be of minor importance for food supply of the resident near-bottom fishes, rather horizontal current-driven advection of the planktonic prey was assumed as major factor. Vertically migrating micronekton and mesopelagic fishes show up as key players within the food webs at Ampère and Senghor Seamounts and the adjacent deep-sea plains.

  8. A Surficial Hydrogeologic Framework for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.; Krantz, David E.; Newell, Wayne L.; Martucci, Sarah K.

    2005-01-01

    Sands and Gravels (Subregion 5) are relatively homogeneous in terms of hydrogeology, although an examination of results from small-scale studies within the Coastal Plain demonstrates that even these areas are quite variable, locally. Moderate topographic relief and primarily permeable surficial sediments promote good drainage of the land surface in Subregion 4, for example, but drainage is commonly poor in the Coastal Lowlands (Subregion 1) due to flat topography and low elevations. Agriculture is common in both subregions, although artificial drainage is typically required to support cultivation in Subregion 1. Important physiographic differences are evident among the remaining three subregions, although sediment textures within the Middle Coastal Plain Mixed Sediment Texture (Subregion 2), the Inner Coastal Plain Dissected Outcrop Belt (Subregion 6), and the Alluvial and Estuarine Valleys (Subregion 7) are variable even at the regional scale.

  9. Multi-Stage Partial Melting Beneath Gakkel Ridge: Evidence From PGE And Os Isotopic Compositions Of Fresh Abyssal Peridotites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Bruegmann, G.; Hellebrand, E.; Snow, J. E.; von der Handt, A.

    2006-12-01

    Eleven fresh spinel peridotites from the ultra-slow spreading Gakkel Ridge (dredge PS66-238, ten lherzolites and one harzburgite) have been analyzed for major and trace elements, PGE and Os isotopes. The low Cr# in spinel (Cr#=15-28) indicates that these rocks are among the most fertile abyssal peridotites suggesting 5- 12% of partial melting. The degree of partial melting calculated from the Yb contents in the cpx (Yb=1.02-1.33 ppm) ranges between 3-8%, which is lower than that estimated by the Cr# in spinel. The high relative concentrations of LREE in the cpx, i.e., (Ce/Yb)N=0.04-1.48, from all the samples suggest that they have been enriched during metasomatism after partial melting. All PGE are well correlated with each other, but not with Re. Os/Ir ratios in all lherzolites are chondritic (Os/Ir=1.01±0.08), but both Ru/Ir and Pd/Ir ratios are supra-chondritic (1.20±0.09 and 1.28±0.31, respectively). These features and the PGE patterns are similar to those recently estimated for the primitive upper mantle (PUM)[1]. The average normalized PGE concentration, however, is higher than the PUM value (0.01 vs. 0.008 × CI, respectively). The PGEs/Ir ratios do not show any correlation with the partial melting indices (spinel Cr# or bulk Al2O3). This suggests that the PGEs are not fractionated and behave compatibly during low degrees of partial melting, probably due to the presence of residual sulfide. Interestingly, the Re/Os varies systematically and correlates well with indices of partial melting. This indicates that Re has not been significantly added or removed - like the LREE - during recent metasomatism and also implies that Re essentially behaves like a lithophile element during partial melting. The Os isotopic composition of the Gakkel peridotites varies from very depleted (^{187}Os/^{188}Os=0.1139) in the harzburgite to relatively radiogenic (^{187}Os/^{188}Os=0.1286) in the lherzolites indicating a heterogeneous upper mantle beneath the Gakkel Ridge

  10. Occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the Spring River flood plain and tributary flood plains, Cherokee County, Kansas, 2009--11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2013-01-01

    Historical mining activity in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD), located in parts of southeast Kansas, southwest Missouri, and northeast Oklahoma, has resulted in a substantial ongoing input of cadmium, lead, and zinc to the environment. To provide some of the information needed to support remediation efforts in the Cherokee County, Kansas, superfund site, a 4-year study was begun in 2009 by the U.S. Geological Survey that was requested and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A combination of surficial-soil sampling and coring was used to investigate the occurrence and variability of mining-related lead and zinc in the flood plains of the Spring River and several tributaries within the superfund site. Lead- and zinc-contaminated flood plains are a concern, in part, because they represent a long-term source of contamination to the fluvial environment. Lead and zinc contamination was assessed with reference to probable-effect concentrations (PECs), which represent the concentrations above which adverse aquatic biological effects are likely to occur. The general PECs for lead and zinc were 128 and 459 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. The TSMD-specific PECs for lead and zinc were 150 and 2,083 milligrams per kilogram, respectively. Typically, surficial soils in the Spring River flood plain had lead and zinc concentrations that were less than the general PECs. Lead and zinc concentrations in the surficial-soil samples were variable with distance downstream and with distance from the Spring River channel, and the largest lead and zinc concentrations usually were located near the channel. Lead and zinc concentrations larger than the general or TSMD-specific PECs, or both, were infrequent at depth in the Spring River flood plain. When present, such contamination typically was confined to the upper 2 feet of the core and frequently was confined to the upper 6 inches. Tributaries with few or no lead- and zinc-mined areas in the basin—Brush Creek

  11. Application of MEDALUS Method for Desertification Mapping in SEJZI plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshandehmehr, L.; Soltani, S.; Sepehr, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to the UNCCD definition, "Desertification" is land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. According to this definition, natural and anthropogenic processes have main roles in desertification severity. The MEDALUS methodology is a practical approach to assess the status of desertification and evaluating of desertification risk. In this study, have been developed a regional model for desertification assessment and mapping in SEJZI plain (Eastern Isfahan) based on MEDALUS methodology. At first step, main factors and indicators affecting on desertification process were identified. According to the local condition, seven factors include: climate, soil, vegetation cover, ground water, water erosion, wind erosion and policy and management were recognized. Each factor included several indicators accounting as factor quality determination. These indicators quantified based on their influences on desertification process. For each indicator a score ranging from 100 to 200 have been assigned and desertification weighting was extracting. Ultimately, desertification severity was classified in four level including low, moderate, severe and high severe. Results showed that 1.69% of study area classified as moderate class, 34.86% classified as severe and 63.45% involved high severe class. The climate and management and policy were the most important factors affecting on desertification process. Keywords: Desertification, MEDALUS, SEJZI Plain, Desertification Mapping

  12. Correlation of plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with surgical findings in thoracolumbar disc disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldby, N.J.; Dyce, J.; Houlton, J.E.F.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a prospective study to compare the plain radiographic and lumbar myelographic findings with the surgical findings in 70 cases of suspected thoracolumbar disc protrusion in the dog are reported. The aim was to assess the relative accuracy of disc lesion localisation using plain and contrast radiography. From the plain radiographs, the affected disc space was correctly identified in 40 cases (57.1 per cent), and incorrectly identified in seven. More than one site was identified in 11; in eight of these dogs, the affected disc space was strongly suspected. It was not possible to identify an affected disc in 12 cases. The site of disc protrusion was accurately identified by myelography in 60 dogs (85.7 per cent). In four dogs, myelography was helpful in identifying an adjacent disc and, in a further two, cord swelling was found at surgery. In one dog, neither disc material nor cord swelling was identified. Three myelograms were non-diagnostic

  13. Characteristics of irrigation tube wells on major river flood plains in Bauchi State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Sadiq

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Water for traditional irrigation on flood-plains in Bauchi State is obtained from the Jama’are, Gongola and Komadugu river systems. The plains are replenished during rainy season and farmers often drill wells to irrigate their farm lands. Wells are drilled by jetting techniques and most of the farmers’ plots are less than 1 hectare. Well yield varies from 0.6 to 9.4 Ls-1 and water is drawn from a depth of 12 m. From the mean yield, the results indicate higher water abstraction from tube wells located at Jama’are flood plains. The study recommended appropriately locating wells and greater investment in extension services in order to facilitate the growth of farmer associations.

  14. Stratigraphy of Venusian Plains: Comparison of Price [1995] and Basilevsky and Head [1995] Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Burba, G. A.; Kryuchkov, V. P.

    1996-03-01

    A comparison of the Price map, in which plains units were identified based on the prominence of lava flow morphology, with the Kryuchkov map, based on Basilevsky and Head model of Venus stratigraphy, revealed that at least in the area under study (40-80 degrees N, 140-260 degrees E) the plains units of Price are mixtures of formations of different ages. Her approach provides evidently the generally correct ranging of large regions of the planet according to their average age but it misses the key events of the geologic history of Venus such as an emplacement of distinctive stratigraphic members of the venusian plains. This should be taken into account when the determined crater densities and corresponding ages are interpreted.

  15. Reproduction among protobranch bivalves of the family Nuculidae from sublittoral, bathyal, and abyssal depths off the New England coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltema, Rudolf S.; Williams, Isabelle P.

    2009-09-01

    Protobranch bivalve species of the family Nuculidae pass through either a planktonic lecithotrophic larval stage or a direct non-planktonic development. Oogenesis of the three sublittoral species examined is synchronous. Deposition of egg masses by Nucula delphinodonta and spawning by Nucula annulata and Nucula proxima occur only during summer months. Among the four bathyal and abyssal species, Ennucula similis, Ennucula granulosa, Deminucula atacellana, and Brevinucula verrilli, oogenesis is asynchronous and there is no discernable pattern of periodicity of spawning. Absence of periodicity in reproduction in these deep-sea species is confirmed by examination of individuals from dredge samples taken at different times of the year. The median apparent fecundity among both sublittoral and deep-sea species is directly related to size (i.e. shell length) and age. Among the Nuculidae the median apparent fecundity is greater among sublittoral than bathyal and abyssal species. The geographic distribution of a species depends on its capacity to disperse. The dispersal of the planktonic lecithotrophic larvae of the sublittoral species N. annulata and N. proxima is limited to the continental shelf of the northwestern Atlantic by inshore bottom circulation and because these very small planktonic larvae (lecithotrophic larvae have a very wide amphi-Atlantic distribution extending from 60°N to 40°S latitude along the North and South American coasts and from 55°N to ca. 19°S from off Europe southwards to the coast of West Africa as a consequence of dispersal by planktonic lecithotrophic larvae along the seafloor. The amphi-Atlantic dispersal must occur stepwise between deep-sea populations (e.g., off Greenland). Such a geographic distribution indicates a widespread dispersal and is supported by the genetic similarity that has been described between North American and western European populations of D. atacellana.

  16. Radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from Hachinohe, the Kamikita Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitoki, Eri; Nakamura, Toshio; Matsumoto, Yui; Tsuji, Sei-ichiro; Fujine, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated stratigraphy and chronology by analyses of Holocene sediments and radiocarbon dating of sediment cores from the Kamikita Plain. On the Kamikita Plain, which faces the Pacific coast of Northeast Japan, marine and fluvial terraces covered with tephras derived from Towada and Hakkoda volcanoes are well developed. We clarified that Towada Chuseri tephra and fluvial deposits consisted of volcanic sediments influenced an alluvial depositional system in the Kamikita Plain after a maximum of the Jomon Transgression. (author)

  17. Analysis of farming types’ characteristics in the Boianu Plain (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Vijulie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the distribution and dimensional structure of the farms depending on their legal status, and the owners’ perceptions on the current status. The main research methods used in the study were: direct observation method, digital mapping, statistical analysis, surveying (semi-structured interview and SWOT analysis. The Boianu Plain is by excellence an agricultural region. Its arable land is worked/operated by three main categories of farms: individual holdings, family farming associations and farming societies. Production obtained within individual holdings is always lower comparative to family farming associations and especially to farming societies. Partnership helps farmers to join their technical and financial means in order to increase the annual production and, implicitly, gain profit. In this respect, the farmers’ perception resulted from the semi-structured interviews is a good evaluation instrument. The most critical issue at local level is making individual farmers aware of the benefits of family association and/or farmland leasing. The SWOT analysis reveals the possibility of an efficient management as driven by the way that the existing opportunities are able to mitigate or completely remove the weaknesses. The Boianu Plain has a very good agricultural potential in a highly favourable environment, but poorly capitalized.

  18. Plain Language Summary: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Neil; Hollingsworth, Deena B; Mahoney, Kathryn; O'Connor, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    This plain language summary serves as an overview in explaining benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, abbreviated BPPV. This summary applies to patients ≥18 years old with a suspected or potential diagnosis of BPPV and is based on the 2017 "Clinical Practice Guideline: Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (Update)." The evidence-based guideline includes research to support more effective diagnosis and treatment of BPPV. The guideline was developed as a quality improvement opportunity for managing BPPV by creating clear recommendations to use in medical practice.

  19. research notes and comments: Regional density functions and growth patterns in major plains of China, 1982-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Fahui Wang

    2001-01-01

    This research analyzes the spatial patterns of regional development in China through the change of population density functions from 1982 to 1990, using several online digital data sets. To minimize the influence of physical environment on population densities, the study areas are limited to four major plains of China: the Northeast (Dongbei), North China (Huabei) and Hubei-Hunan (Lianghu) Plains, and the Sichuan Basin. A gravity-based delineation approach is used to delineate the influen ce ...

  20. Re-analysing tobacco industry funded research on the effect of plain packaging on minors in Australia: Same data but different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal A. Diethelm

    2017-11-01

    Our findings suggest a decline of smoking prevalence in minors following the introduction of plain packaging in Australia. They differ substantially from those presented in an industry-funded study on the effects of plain packaging on smoking prevalence in minors in Australia, which used the same data.

  1. Effects of controlled agricultural practices on water quality in the Minnesota sand-plain aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.W.; Stoner, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of Minnesota's sand plains indicate that ground-water chemistry is related to agricultural practices. Surficial sand-plain aquifers cover 8,000,000 acres of Minnesota and are a major source of water for domestic use, irrigation, and some municipal systems. The sand-plain aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that are from 20 to greater than 100 feet thick and are covered by a thin sandy loam that generally is less than 2 feet thick. Sand-plain aquifers are recharged by the downward percolation of precipitation through the soil root zone and the unsaturated zone in the sand to the water table. The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation and forms the top of the sand-plain aquifer. Sand-plain aquifers are susceptible to contamination by agricultural chemicals (fertilizers and pesticides), if downward-percolating recharge water contains these chemicals. The concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and some other chemical constituents fluctuate seasonally and differ with depth below the water table (Anderson, 1989). Despite the availability of water-quality data for about 260 wells that were collected during previous studies in three U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project areas in Minnesota, it is not known how concentrations of agricultural chemicals in ground water relate to the rate and timing of fertilizer and pesticide application or to the tillage practices used. Field-scale research is needed to determine the effects of different farming practices on the concentrations of nitrate, pesticides, and other agricultural chemicals in ground water in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

  2. Quantifying local-scale dust emission from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Anisimov, Anatolii

    2017-01-23

    Dust plumes emitted from the narrow Arabian Red Sea coastal plain are often observed on satellite images and felt in local population centers. Despite its relatively small area, the coastal plain could be a significant dust source; however, its effect is not well quantified as it is not well approximated in global or even regional models. In addition, because of close proximity to the Red Sea, a significant amount of dust from the coastal areas could be deposited into the Red Sea and serve as a vital component of the nutrient balance of marine ecosystems. In the current study, we apply the offline Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4) to better quantify dust emission from the coastal plain during the period of 2009-2011. We verify the spatial and temporal variability in model results using independent weather station reports. We also compare the results with the MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero). We show that the best results are obtained with 1 km model spatial resolution and dust source function based on Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) measurements. We present the dust emission spatial pattern, as well as estimates of seasonal and diurnal variability in dust event frequency and intensity, and discuss the emission regime in the major dust generation hot spot areas. We demonstrate the contrasting seasonal dust cycles in the northern and southern parts of the coastal plain and discuss the physical mechanisms responsible for dust generation. This study provides the first estimates of the fine-scale spatial and temporal distribution of dust emissions from the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain constrained by MERRAero and short-term WRF-Chem simulations. The estimate of total dust emission from the coastal plain, tuned to fit emissions in MERRAero, is 7.5 ± 0.5 Mt a. Small interannual variability indicates that the study area is a stable dust source. The mineralogical composition analysis shows that the coastal plain

  3. Can Computed Tomography Scout Radiography Replace Plain Film in the Evaluation of Patients with Acute Urinary Tract Colic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ege, G.; Akman, H.; Kuzucu, K.; Yildiz, S. [Istanbul International Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of computed tomography (CT) scout view in detecting ureteral stones and whether CT scout radiography can replace plain film in the evaluation of patients with acute urinary tract colic. Material and Methods: Between January 2000 and 2002, 110 patients with ureterolithiasis were prospectively evaluated for the detection of ureteral stones on CT scout radiographs. The findings were compared with those of plain films. All patients were examined with plain film, CT scout radiography, and unenhanced helical CT. CT scans were performed within 24 h of plain films. Each CT scout radiograph was interpreted without knowledge of the findings on plain film. Results: 111 stones were detected by unenhanced helical CT. Mean stone size was 3.9 mm (range 1-10 mm). Of all stones, 57 (52%) were visible on plain film; 44 (40%) were seen on CT radiographs. The sensitivity of 79 small stones (<5 mm) on CT scout radiography was 29% and of abdominal radiography 37%. For 32 big stones (>5 mm), the sensitivity of CT scout radiography was 66% and of abdominal radiography 87.5%. Conclusion: In this study, plain film was more sensitive than CT scout radiography in revealing ureteral calculi. However, the detection of stones 5 mm or larger had a sensitivity of 66% on CT scout radiographs; 77% (44/57) of the stones visible on plain films were also seen on CT scout radiographs. We therefore believe that CT scout radiography can be used as a baseline study in most patients with big ureteral stones.

  4. The Accra plains c. AD 1400 - 1800: An overview of trade, politics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper demonstrates synthesis of multi-source data for elucidating trends in the development of European-African mercantilism, urbanism, state formation, indigenous cultural complexes in the Accra Plains in c. AD 1400-1800. Institute of African Studies: Research Review Volume Research Review Supplement 17 2006: ...

  5. Towards groundwater neutral cropping systems in the Alluvial Fans of the North China Plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Wang, G.; Vos, J.; Meinke, H.; Li, B.G.; Huang, J.K.; Werf, van der W.

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater levels in the North China Plain (NCP), the bread basket of China, have dropped more than one meter per year over the last 40 years, putting at risk the long term productivity of this region. Groundwater decline is most severe in the Alluvial Fans where our study site is located.

  6. Simulating the dynamics of linear forests in great plains agroecosystems under changing climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; J. Brandle; Michele Schoeneberger; D. Buettner

    2004-01-01

    Most forest growth models are not suitable for the highly fragmented, linear (or linearly shaped) forests in the Great Plains agroecosystems (e.g., windbreaks, riparian forest buffers), where such forests are a minor but ecologically important component of the land mosaics. This study used SEEI)SCAPE, a recently modified gap model designed for cultivated land mosaics...

  7. The grazing capacity of the plains in the Etosha National Park ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of elementary trials was conducted to study the grazing capacity of the major plains areas in the Etosha National Park. The yield data were compared with rainfall and game census data. The results suggest that the Chudop-Twee Palms area is severely overgrazed and that Gemsbokvlakte, Charitsaubvlakte and ...

  8. Holocene paleogeographies of the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) and their geoarchaeological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vött, A.; Brückner, H.; Schriever, A.; Luther, J.; Handl, M.; van der Borg, K.

    2006-01-01

    Sediments from the Palairos coastal plain (Akarnania, northwest Greece) were studied to establish paleogeographical scenarios of Holocene landscape evolution. Near coast vibracore profiles revealed regressive sedimentary sequences, the base of which is dominated by marine sand and/or lagoonal mud.

  9. Spatial variation in seed bank dynamics of two annual brome species in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual bromes decrease forage production in northern central plains rangelands of North America. Early life history stages are when plants are most failure-prone, yet studying death post-germination and prior to emergence is difficult. In seed bank collections conducted over the course of two growin...

  10. Conization of the cervix uteri. Complications in connection with plain catgut or silk suturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmskov, A; Qvist, N; Møller, A

    1984-01-01

    During a retrospective study on postoperative complications in 213 patients who had undergone conization, a (non-significant) reduction in the bleeding rate from 27.9% to 18.6% was found when using silk sutures (102 patients) instead of plain catgut (111 patients) for adaption of the edges of the...

  11. Perceptions of plain packaging among young adult roll-your-own smokers in France: a naturalistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallopel-Morvan, Karine; Moodie, Crawford; Eker, Figen; Beguinot, Emmanuelle; Martinet, Yves

    2015-03-01

    We explored, for the first time, young adult roll-your-own smokers' response to using plain packaging in real-world settings. Naturalistic research was employed, where 133 French young adult smokers (18-25 years of age) used plain roll-your-own packs for 10 days; the plain packs they were provided with contained their usual brand of rolling tobacco and displayed the name of their usual brand. Participants were recruited in five cities in France (Paris, Marseille, Metz, Nantes, Toulouse) and completed two questionnaires to measure their response to their own branded packs and the plain packs. Both questionnaires assessed pack perceptions, brand attachment, product perceptions (eg, taste, quality, natural), feelings about smoking (satisfying, pleasurable), feelings when using the pack in front of others (embarrassment, image), warning response (credibility, awareness of risks) and smoking-related behaviour (eg, consumption, quitting). Compared to their own fully branded packs, plain packs were associated with less positive pack and product perceptions, lower brand attachment and less positive feelings about smoking and feelings when using the pack in front of others. Participants were also more likely to report feeling like reducing consumption and quitting when using the plain packs, and more likely to feel like missing out on rolling a cigarette. No significant differences between the two pack types (plain and branded) were found in terms of credibility of warnings and perceptions of level of tar. The study suggests that the impacts of plain packaging for roll-your-own cigarette smokers are the same as for smokers of factory-made cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. 18 CFR 801.8 - Flood plain management and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flood plain management... COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.8 Flood plain management and protection. (a) Periodic inundation of lands along waterways has not discouraged development of flood hazards areas. Major floods cause loss of life...

  13. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    250 CME July 2013 Vol. 31 No. 7. Dermatology nursing in the community: The Mitchell's Plain experience. Dermatology is an important element of community nursing. J Stevens, RN, RM, CPN, PG Dip Derm Nursing. Clinical and Dermatology Nurse Practitioner, Mitchell's Plain Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South ...

  14. Analyzing the Various Approaches of Plain Language Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Betsy A., And Others

    1986-01-01

    Proposes a two-phase evaluation of the plain language laws that are designed to ensure that consumers can understand and use the personal business contracts they sign so that the best model for plain language legislation can be identified. (DF)

  15. Clinical and Plain Radiograph Pattern of Joint Dislocations and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plain radiograph is an integral part of early assessment of patients' evaluation, though newer imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ... Conclusion: The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated and a conventional plain radiograph is still valuable as a first line investigative modality in ...

  16. Assessment of Wild Ungulates in the Karnali Flood Plain of Bardia National Park, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya Nidhi GAUTAM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of ungulates depends on the habitat factors and prey-predator interaction. This study aims to explore the habitat preference of ungulates and their relation with associated predators in the Bardia National Park, Nepal. The study was based on the transect survey and indirect observation of ungulates. Spotted deer recorded the highest density and blue bull recorded the lowest. Hog deer preferred mostly flood plains habitat and barking deer preferring mixed hardwood forest and tall grass flood plains. However, barking deer completely avoided the riverine forest and flood plain habitats. Swamp deer preferred Phata (grassland and blue bull was recorded only in flood plains. The higher concentration of ungulates’ pellet groups were found in areas close to water sources. The study concluded that different habitat features influence the distribution and abundance of ungulates. The higher density of spotted deer and hog deer suggests these species as the major prey base to maintain viable populations of tigers in the park.

  17. Probabilistic health risk assessment for arsenic intake through drinking groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C. P.; Chen, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    An abundant and inexpensive supply of groundwater is used to meet drinking, agriculture and aquaculture requirements of the residents in the Pingtung Plain. Long-term groundwater quality monitoring data indicate that the As content in groundwater in the Pingtung Plain exceeds the maximum level of 10 g/L recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). The situation is further complicated by the fact that only 46.89% of population in the Pingtung Plain has been served with tap water, far below the national average of 92.93%. Considering there is a considerable variation in the measured concentrations, from below the detection limit (health risk assessment may be insufficient for health risk management. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater by local residents in the Pingtung Plain. The probabilistic risk assessment for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the drinking groundwater is achieved using Monte Carlo simulation technique based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of inorganic As intake through drinking groundwater consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who drink high As content groundwater.

  18. Comparison of the sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies among conventional plain radiography, computed tomography and ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aras, M H; Miloglu, O; Barutcugil, C; Kantarci, M; Ozcan, E; Harorli, A

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity for detecting foreign bodies among conventional plain radiography, CT and ultrasonography in in vitro models. Methods Seven different materials were selected as foreign bodies with dimensions of approximately 1×1×0.1 cm. These materials were metal, glass, wood, stone, acrylic, graphite and Bakelite. These foreign bodies were placed into a sheep's head between the corpus mandible and muscle, in the tongue and in the maxillary sinus. Conventional plain radiography, CT and ultrasonography imaging methods were compared to investigate their sensitivity for detecting these foreign bodies. Results Metal, glass and stone can be detected with all the visualization techniques used in the study in all of the zones. In contrast to this, foreign bodies with low radiopacity, which could be detected in air with CT, became less visible or almost invisible in muscle tissue and between bone and muscle tissue. The performance of ultrasonography for visualizing foreign bodies with low radiopacity is relatively better than CT. Conclusions Ultrasonography detects and localizes superficial foreign bodies with low radiopacity in the tissues of the body more effectively than CT and conventional plain radiography. However, CT is a more effective technique for visualization of foreign bodies in air than ultrasound and conventional plain radiography. PMID:20100917

  19. Two depositional models for Pliocene coastal plain fluvial systems, Goliad Formation, south Texas Gulf Coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, H.D.; Galloway, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Goliad Formation consists of four depositional systems-the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems in the southwest and the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems in the northeast. Five facies are recognized in the Realitos and Mathis bed-load fluvial systems: (1) primary channel-fill facies, (2) chaotic flood channel-fill facies, (3) complex splay facies, (4) flood plain facies, and (5) playa facies. A model for Realitos-Mathis depositional environments shows arid-climate braided stream complexes with extremely coarse sediment load, highly variable discharge, and marked channel instability. Broad, shallow, straight to slightly sinuous primary channels were flanked by wide flood channels. Flood channels passed laterally into broad, low-relief flood plains. Small playas occupied topographic lows near large channel axes. Three facies are recognized in the Cuero and Eagle Lake mixed-load fluvial systems: (1) channel-fill facies, (2) crevasse splay facies, and (3) flood plain facies. A model for Cuero-Eagle Lake depositional environments shows coarse-grained meander belts in a semi-arid climate. Slightly to moderately sinuous meandering streams were flanked by low, poorly developed natural levees. Crevasse splays were common, but tended to be broad and ill-defined. Extensive, low-relief flood plains occupied interaxial areas. The model proposed for the Realitos and Mathis fluvial systems may aid in recognition of analogous ancient depositional systems. In addition, since facies characteristics exercise broad controls on Goliad uranium mineralization, the proposed depositional models aid in defining target zones for Goliad uranium exploration

  20. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  1. Assessment of bioaerosol pollution over Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Shrivastava, J N; Satsangi, G P; Kumar, Ranjit

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol plays a very important role in climate change and public health. It affects cloud condensation nuclei and causes a number of epidemic diseases. The correlations of aerosol with epidemic diseases are due to the biotic components of aerosol. The present study deals with the measurements and characterization of bioaerosol over Indo-Gangetic plain. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are much higher than the recommended value set by NAAQS in India. Bacterial and fungal concentrations are in the reported range. Bacterial concentration is higher than fungal concentration. Gram-positive bacteria contribute 75% while gram-negative bacteria contribute 25% only. A total seven types of fungi are identified in aerosols. Aspergillus niger is dominant. Meteorological parameters play important roles in growth and presence of microorganism in the air. Bacterial concentrations are governed mainly by temperature while fungal concentration is influenced by relative humidity.

  2. Plain bearing stresses due to forming and oil film pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke-Veliz, A; Reed, P A S; Syngellakis, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Wang, D; Wahdy, N; Merritt, D, E-mail: allan.burke@itesm.m [MAHLE Engine Systems UK Ltd, 2 Central park Drive, Rugby CV23 0WE (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing critical stress ranges arising in automotive plain bearings during engine operations. An industry-produced and run simulation program provides information on oil film pressure and overall bearing deformation during accelerated performance tests. This code performs an elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication analysis accounting for the compliance of the housing and journal. Finite element analyses of a multilayer bearing are performed to assess the conditions responsible for possible fatigue damage over the bearing lining. The residual stresses arising from the forming and fitting process are first assessed. The stress analyses over the engine cycle show the intensity and distribution of cyclic tensile and compressive stresses in the bearing. The location of maximum stress range is found to be consistent with the damage observed in accelerated fatigue tests. Critical zones are identified in the lining for possible fatigue crack initiation and growth studies.

  3. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  4. Andersson lesions of whole spine magnetic resonance imaging compared with plain radiography in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Shin, Kichul; Song, Yoonah; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the characteristics of Andersson lesions using whole spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with plain radiography in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). A total of 62 patients with AS who had undergone whole spine MRI and plain radiography were retrospectively enrolled in this study. We compared the number of discovertebral units (DVUs) with Andersson lesions with clinical and radiographic indices such as erythrocyte sediment rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score (mSASSS). Fifty-three patients (85.5 %) by whole spine MRI and 23 patients (37.1 %) by plain radiography had at least one Andersson lesion. We found 129 DVUs with Andersson lesions (11.1 %) by MRI and 35 DVUs by plain radiography over all the spine levels. Andersson lesions by MRI were most commonly detected at the lower thoracic spine (from T7-8 to T12-L1). Among the 151 total Andersson lesions by whole spine MRI, 41 were identified as central disc type, 26 as anterior peripheral disc type, 44 as posterior peripheral disc type, and 40 as diffuse disc type. However, the number of Andersson lesions did not correlate with ESR, CRP, BASDAI, BASFI, or mSASSS (p > 0.05 for all). Our study indicates that the presence of Andersson lesions in patients with AS is clearly underestimated. MRI is a superior technique for detecting early Andersson lesions compared with plain radiography.

  5. Plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric and dietary characteristic: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Yang, Yoon Jung

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to provide useful insights into plain water intake of Korean adults according to life style, anthropometric, and dietary characteristics. The data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The subjects were 14,428 aged 20-64 years. Water intake was estimated by asking the question "How much water do you usually consume per day?". Dietary intake was estimated by 24-hour dietary recall. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire including 63 food items was also administered. The mean plain water intake for men and women were 6.3 cup/day and 4.6 cup/day, respectively. Plain water intake increased as lean body mass, waist circumference, and body mass index levels increased, except for percentage of body fat. As energy and alcohol intakes increased, plain water intake increased. As total weight of food intake and total volume of food intake increased, plain water intake increased. Plain water intake increased as consumption of vegetables increased. Plain water intake increased as frequencies of green tea, alcoholic drink, and all beverages were increased in men. Plain water intake increased with increased frequencies of green tea, milk, soy milk, and alcoholic drink and decreased frequencies of coffee and soda in women. Our results suggest that persons who had a higher waist circumference or lean body mass and women with higher BMI consumed more plain water. The persons eating high quality diet, or the persons who had more vegetables, green tea, milk, soy milk, or alcoholic drink consumed more plain water.

  6. Sensory Evaluation And Analysis Of Physico-Chemical Parameters Of Some Plain Set Yoghurt Brands Sold In Matara Municipal Area Of Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.G.U Hemamali

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Production selling consumption and concern of plain set yoghurt show incitement in the last few time periods in Sri Lanka. New plain set yoghurt brands are coming to the Sri Lankan market very quickly too. The aim of this study was an attempt to do sensory evaluation and compare the physical and chemical parameters of some selected plain set yoghurt brands sold in Matara municipal area of Sri Lanka. Five different brands of plain set yoghurt samples were selected on the basis of preliminary survey done. Then all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were test for organoleptic characters such as color aroma appearance thickness taste sourness sweetness and over all acceptability. After that all the selected plain set yoghurt samples were analyzed with their physical and chemical parameters such as syneresis effect pH titratable acidity total protein content. By doing analysis of sensory evaluation the brand 12 was the least acceptable product while brand 15 was the most acceptable product by thirty untrained panelists. It also revealed that the thickness with appearance and taste had significant influence p0.05 on over all acceptability of the plain set yoghurt brand. According to the results obtained all physico-chemical parameters significantly differ p0.05 between the plain set yoghurt brands too. Hence plain set yoghurt manufacturers must give attention on improvement of thickness taste and appearance for better consumer acceptance and for better production. Overall plain set yoghurt quality assessment needs good care on quality control during processing.

  7. An End-to-End DNA Taxonomy Methodology for Benthic Biodiversity Survey in the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, Central Pacific Abyss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian G. Glover

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen increased survey and sampling expeditions to the Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ, central Pacific Ocean abyss, driven by commercial interests from contractors in the potential extraction of polymetallic nodules in the region. Part of the International Seabed Authority (ISA regulatory requirements are that these contractors undertake environmental research expeditions to their CCZ exploration claims following guidelines approved by the ISA Legal and Technical Commission (ISA, 2010. Section 9 (e of these guidelines instructs contractors to “…collect data on the sea floor communities specifically relating to megafauna, macrofauna, meiofauna, microfauna, nodule fauna and demersal scavengers”. There are a number of methodological challenges to this, including the water depth (4000–5000 m, extremely warm surface waters (~28 °C compared to bottom water (~1.5 °C and great distances to ports requiring a large and long seagoing expedition with only a limited number of scientists. Both scientists and regulators have recently realized that a major gap in our knowledge of the region is the fundamental taxonomy of the animals that live there; this is essential to inform our knowledge of the biogeography, natural history and ultimately our stewardship of the region. Recognising this, the ISA is currently sponsoring a series of taxonomic workshops on the CCZ fauna and to assist in this process we present here a series of methodological pipelines for DNA taxonomy (incorporating both molecular and morphological data of the macrofauna and megafauna from the CCZ benthic habitat in the recent ABYSSLINE cruise program to the UK-1 exploration claim. A major problem on recent CCZ cruises has been the collection of high-quality samples suitable for both morphology and DNA taxonomy, coupled with a workflow that ensures these data are made available. The DNA sequencing techniques themselves are relatively standard, once good samples have been

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF WHEAT LEAF AND STEM RUST IN THE CENTRAL GREAT PLAINS OF THE USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversmeyer, M. G.; Kramer, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) is grown throughout the grasslands from southern Mexico into the prairie provinces of Canada, a distance of nearly 4200 km. The total area seeded to wheat varies considerably each year; however, from 28 to 32 million ha are planted in the Great Plains of the United States alone. Generally in the central Great Plains, an area from central Texas through central Nebraska, 15 million ha are seeded to winter wheat each year. A wide range of environmental conditions exist throughout this area that may affect the development and final severity of wheat leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina L), stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis), and stem rust (caused by P. graminis Pers. f. sp tritici) epidemics and the subsequent reduction in wheat yields. Variation in severity of rust epidemics in this area depends on differences in crop maturity at the time of infection by primary inoculum, host resistance used, and environmental conditions. The interrelationships among time, host, pathogen and environment are complex, and studying the interactions is very difficult. Historically, cultivars with new or different leaf rust resistance genes become ineffective after several years of large-scale production within the Great Plains, and then cultivars carrying new or different resistance genes must be developed and released into production. This is the typical "boom and bust" cycle of the cereal rust resistance genes in the central Great Plains.

  9. Dynamics of cultural transmission in Native Americans of the high Great Plains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Lycett

    Full Text Available Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the "Great Plains culture." Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of "Plains culture" may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a "melting pot," the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious.

  10. Presence of trace elements in fishes from the Chaco-Pampeana plain (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra V. Volpedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Chaco-Pampean plain is one of the greatest plains worldwide; present a wetland macro system (lagoons, marshes, rivers, streams, channels. The water quality of these environments is diverse and has different trace elements natural (As, F, Mo and V and anthropogenic (Cr, Cu and Pb. The Chaco Pampean plain has an important diversity of fish species however the species of commercial importance are limited. This paper presents the reviews of the studies related to the presence of trace elements in tissues of commercial fishes (shad Prochilodus lineatus and silversides Odontesthes bonariensis in the Chaco-Pampean plain in recent decades and a discussion about associated information gaps is presented. The presence of trace elements in commercial fish muscle is a major problem for food security. The results showed that most of the elements present in shad are in lower levels than the maximum limits set by the Argentine Food Code (CAA, 2014. In the case of Pb present in the muscle of the shad, the determined values exceed those considered by the European Food Safety Authority. In the case of silversides the values of As, Pb, Hg are mostly lower than those maximum recommended by the Argentine Food Code. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, the lower limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response (BMDL values associated with health risk for As.

  11. Dynamics of cultural transmission in Native Americans of the high Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Culture is a phenomenon shared by all humans. Attempts to understand how dynamic factors affect the origin and distribution of cultural elements are, therefore, of interest to all humanity. As case studies go, understanding the distribution of cultural elements in Native American communities during the historical period of the Great Plains would seem a most challenging one. Famously, there is a mixture of powerful internal and external factors, creating-for a relatively brief period in time-a seemingly distinctive set of shared elements from a linguistically diverse set of peoples. This is known across the world as the "Great Plains culture." Here, quantitative analyses show how different processes operated on two sets of cultural traits among nine High Plains groups. Moccasin decorations exhibit a pattern consistent with geographically-mediated between-group interaction. However, group variations in the religious ceremony of the Sun Dance also reveal evidence of purifying cultural selection associated with historical biases, dividing down ancient linguistic lines. The latter shows that while the conglomeration of "Plains culture" may have been a product of merging new ideas with old, combined with cultural interchange between groups, the details of what was accepted, rejected or elaborated in each case reflected preexisting ideological biases. Although culture may sometimes be a "melting pot," the analyses show that even in highly fluid situations, cultural mosaics may be indirectly shaped by historical factors that are not always obvious.

  12. Landscape history and man-induced landscape changes in the young morainic area of the North European Plain — a case study from the Bäke Valley, Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böse, Margot; Brande, Arthur

    2010-10-01

    The Bäke creek valley is part of the young morainic area in Berlin. Its origin is related to meltwater flow and dead-ice persistence resulting in a valley with a lake-creek system. During the Late Glacial, the slopes of the valley were affected by solifluction. A Holocene brown soil developed in this material, whereas parts of the lakes were filled with limnic-telmatic sediments. The excavation site at Goerzallee revealed Bronze Age and Iron Age burial places at the upper part of the slope, as well as a fireplace further downslope, but the slope itself remained stable. Only German settlements in the 12th and 13th centuries changed the processes in the creek-lake system: the construction of water mills created a retention system with higher ground water levels in the surrounding areas. On the other hand, deforestation on the till plain and on the slope triggered erosion. Therefore, in medieval time interfingering organic sediments and sand layers were deposited in the lower part of the slope on top of the Holocene soil. The new soil which formed on top of these sediments was transformed by ploughing until the 19th century. In 1905/06 the lower part of the slope was reshaped by the construction of the Teltow Canal, following the valley of the former Bäke creek. Finally, the whole area was levelled by infill after World War II.

  13. Chemical weathering outputs from the flood plain of the Ganga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, Michael J.; Chapman, Hazel J.; Tipper, Edward; Galy, Albert; De La Rocha, Christina L.; Ahmad, Talat

    2018-03-01

    Transport of sediment across riverine flood plains contributes a significant but poorly constrained fraction of the total chemical weathering fluxes from rapidly eroding mountain belts which has important implications for chemical fluxes to the oceans and the impact of orogens on long term climate. We report water and bedload chemical analyses from the Ganges flood-plain, a major transit reservoir of sediment from the Himalayan orogen. Our data comprise six major southern tributaries to the Ganga, 31 additional analyses of major rivers from the Himalayan front in Nepal, 79 samples of the Ganga collected close to the mouth below the Farakka barrage every two weeks over three years and 67 water and 8 bedload samples from tributaries confined to the Ganga flood plain. The flood plain tributaries are characterised by a shallow δ18O - δD array, compared to the meteoric water line, with a low δDexcess from evaporative loss from the flood plain which is mirrored in the higher δDexcess of the mountain rivers in Nepal. The stable-isotope data confirms that the waters in the flood plain tributaries are dominantly derived from flood plain rainfall and not by redistribution of waters from the mountains. The flood plain tributaries are chemically distinct from the major Himalayan rivers. They can be divided into two groups. Tributaries from a small area around the Kosi river have 87Sr/86Sr ratios >0.75 and molar Na/Ca ratios as high as 6. Tributaries from the rest of the flood plain have 87Sr/86Sr ratios ≤0.74 and most have Na/Ca ratios caused by dissolution of Na carbonate salts. The compositions of the carbonate and silicate components of the sediments were determined from sequential leaches of floodplain bedloads and these were used to partition the dissolved cation load between silicate and carbonate sources. The 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca ratios of the carbonate inputs were derived from the acetic-acid leach compositions and silicate Na/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr ratios derived from

  14. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeganey, Neil; Russell, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    In December 2012, Australia became the first country to require all tobacco products be sold solely in standardised or 'plain' packaging, bereft of the manufacturers' trademarked branding and colours, although retaining large graphic and text health warnings. Following the publication of Sir Cyril Chantler's review of the evidence on the effects of plain tobacco packaging, the Ministers of the United Kingdom Parliament voted in March 2015 to implement similar legislation. Support for plain packaging derives from the belief that tobacco products sold in plain packs have reduced appeal and so are more likely to deter young people and non-smokers from starting tobacco use, and more likely to motivate smokers to quit and stay quit. This article considers why support for the plain packaging policy has grown among tobacco control researchers, public health advocates and government ministers, and reviews Australian survey data that speak to the possible introductory effect of plain packaging on smoking prevalence within Australia. The article concludes by emphasising the need for more detailed research to be undertaken before judging the capacity of the plain packaging policy to deliver the multitude of positive effects that have been claimed by its most ardent supporters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of plain package branding and graphic health warnings on adolescent smokers in the USA, Spain and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J Craig; Netemeyer, Richard G; Burton, Scot; Kees, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an experimental test of the effects of plain pack branding and graphic health warnings (GHWs) in three different countries for an important and vulnerable population, that is, adolescents who are experimenting with smoking. The effects of plain pack branding (logo present, logo absent), and graphic visual warning level (absent, low, medium, high) are studied experimentally for their impact on adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting in the USA, Spain and France. A total of 1066 adolescents who were experimenting with smoking served as participants in the study. A quota sample produced 375 respondents in the USA, 337 in Spain and 354 in France. Overall findings indicate that the GHWs were effective in impacting adolescent cigarette craving, evoked fear, pack feelings and thoughts of quitting. The plain pack effects were not as strong, yet reduced craving, increased fear, and decreased pack feelings for all three samples combined, and for US adolescent smokers individually, irrespective of the GHWs. For French adolescent smokers, plain pack effects for craving were limited to low/moderate GHW levels. For Spanish adolescent smokers, plain pack feeling effects were limited to the absence of the GHWs. The results show that plain packs can independently strengthen the more instantaneous, direct effects (short of quitting thoughts) found with the GHWs. Yet, the plain pack results were attenuated for Spanish and French adolescent smokers, who are currently exposed to GHWs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Surface motion in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan after removal of groundwater withdrawal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K.; Ching, K.

    2011-12-01

    The widespread groundwater pumping was proposed to obscure the tectonic signals expected from the blind thrust faults in the metropolitan Los Angeles. In Taiwan, the tip of westward propagated frontal blind thrust has been suggested to be located beneath the Western Coastal Plain by analyses of the horizontal GPS velocities and the geological uplift rates due to the convergence between the Philippine Sea and the Eurasian plates. However, the serious land subsidence has been consistently occurred in the Western Coastal Plain because of the artificial groundwater pumping for the development of agriculture in western Taiwan. The most significant subsidence rate is observed up to 109.4 mm/yr. The effect of groundwater pumping may disturb the pattern of the horizontal velocities caused by the movement of blind thrust. As a result, ignoring the groundwater withdrawal effects will make misunderstandings on the assessment of location and kinematic characteristics of the blind thrust in western Taiwan by analysis of horizontal velocities only. In this study, to obtain a reasonable horizontal velocity field for evaluating the fault behavior in western Taiwan, we therefore used more than 704 precise leveling measurements and 20 continuous GPS observations between 2000 and 2008 in the Western Coastal Plain of Taiwan to estimate and correct the effects of groundwater pumping. The contour of land subsidence rates in the Western Coastal Plain show a concentric-circle-like pattern with the peak subsidence rates of over 800 and 900 mm/yr at the northeastern and center area of the plain. Next, we will invert the vertical velocities for the land subsidence rate resulted from the groundwater withdrawal, using a dislocation model in an elastic half-space material. The accuracy of this dislocation model will also be assessed in this study. Then the corrections of horizontal velocities will be provided from this model to help us understand the reliable tectonic signals.

  17. The groundwater intrinsic vulnerability map of S. Eufemia Lamezia Plain (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Cuiuli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study area is the plain of S. Eufemia Lamezia (Calabria located in correspondence of the homonymous gulf, along the Tyrrhenian coast. The method used for the construction of the vulnerability map of the superficial acquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain is the SINTACS. This method provides an estimate of vulnerability through the calculation of the Vulnerability Index, for each cell, with which it has been discretized the zone of study. The territory has been divided into areas characterized by vulnerability degree from medium to very high, passing through the intermediate terms. In the southern sector of the plain, where the depth of groundwater is variable, between 4,00 m and 0,50 m from the ground level, are located: the industrial/ handcrafted area of Lamezia Terme, the areas with the greatest agricultural and zootechnical yields, tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. They represent a potential pollution risk for the superficial aquifer. In the northern sector, where the depth of groundwater is variable between 38,00 m from ground level (inland areas to 1,00 m from ground level (along the coast, the practiced agricultural activities, are different from those of the southern sector of the plain (olive trees, citrus groves, arable land, etc., but here there are too tourist facilities and private houses along the coast. These various activities contribute, even in this area to outline a potential risk of pollution to the superficial aquifer of S. Eufemia Lamezia plain which, however, is slightly less worrying than in the south sector.

  18. Studies of the reproductive biology of deep-sea megabenthos. V. The Echinoderm species Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and Psychropotes depressa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, P.A.; Muirhead, A.

    1985-09-01

    Specimens of the holothurians Benthodytes sordida, Psychropotes longicauda and P. depressa were examined from a number of stations (2300m-4780m) in the Porcupine Seabight and Abyssal Plain. All three species are gonochoric and show marked interspecific differences in gonad morphology. In the females of each species fecundity was low. Maximum oocyte size was 500 μm for Benthodytes sordida, 1.8mm for Psychropotes depressa and a massive 3mm for P. longicauda. In the males of each species spermatogenesis appeared typical of holothurians except where there was evidence of heavy parasitic infestation. There is no evidence of reproductive seasonality. (author)

  19. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  20. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters. Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about 31

  1. Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad G. Stevens, P.E.; Troy K. Simonsen; Kerryanne M. Leroux

    2012-06-09

    In fiscal year 2005, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to undertake a broad array of tasks to either directly or indirectly address the barriers that faced much of the Great Plains states and their efforts to produce and transmit wind energy at the time. This program, entitled Great Plains Wind Energy Transmission Development Project, was focused on the central goal of stimulating wind energy development through expansion of new transmission capacity or development of new wind energy capacity through alternative market development. The original task structure was as follows: Task 1 - Regional Renewable Credit Tracking System (later rescoped to Small Wind Turbine Training Center); Task 2 - Multistate Transmission Collaborative; Task 3 - Wind Energy Forecasting System; and Task 4 - Analysis of the Long-Term Role of Hydrogen in the Region. As carried out, Task 1 involved the creation of the Small Wind Turbine Training Center (SWTTC). The SWTTC, located Grand Forks, North Dakota, consists of a single wind turbine, the Endurance S-250, on a 105-foot tilt-up guyed tower. The S-250 is connected to the electrical grid on the 'load side' of the electric meter, and the power produced by the wind turbine is consumed locally on the property. Establishment of the SWTTC will allow EERC personnel to provide educational opportunities to a wide range of participants, including grade school through college-level students and the general public. In addition, the facility will allow the EERC to provide technical training workshops related to the installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. In addition, under Task 1, the EERC hosted two small wind turbine workshops on May 18, 2010, and March 8, 2011, at the EERC in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Task 2 involved the EERC cosponsoring and aiding in the planning of three transmission workshops in the midwest and western regions. Under Task

  2. PATTERNS OF THE MAXIMUM RAINFALL AMOUNTS REGISTERED IN 24 HOURS WITHIN THE OLTENIA PLAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA VLĂDUŢ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 hours within the Oltenia Plain. The present study aims at rendering the main features of the maximum rainfall amounts registered in 24 h within the Oltenia Plain. We used 30-year time series (1980-2009 for seven meteorological stations. Generally, the maximum amounts in 24 h display the same pattern as the monthly mean amounts, namely higher values in the interval May-October. In terms of mean values, the highest amounts are registered in the western and northern extremity of the plain. The maximum values generally exceed 70 mm at all meteorological stations: D.T. Severin, 224 mm, July 1999; Slatina, 104.8 mm, August 2002; Caracal, 92.2 m, July 1991; Bechet, 80.8 mm, July 2006; Craiova, 77.6 mm, April 2003. During the cold season, there was noticed a greater uniformity all over the plain, due to the cyclonic origin of rainfalls compared to the warm season, when thermal convection is quite active and it triggers local showers. In order to better emphasize the peculiarities of this parameter, we have calculated the frequency on different value classes (eight classes, as well as the probability of appearance of different amounts. Thus, it resulted that the highest frequency (25-35% is held by the first two classes of values (0-10 mm; 10.1-20 mm. The lowest frequency is registered in case of the amounts of more than 100 mm, which generally display a probability of occurrence of less than 1% and only in the western and eastern extremities of the plain.

  3. Influence of glacial landform hydrology on phosphorus budgets of shallow lakes on the Boreal Plain, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plach, Janina M.; Ferone, Jenny-Marie; Gibbons, Zabrina; Smerdon, Brian D.; Mertens, Alexander; Mendoza, Carl A.; Petrone, Richard M.; Devito, Kevin J.

    2016-04-01

    A comparative study of three shallow lake catchments in contrasting glacial landscapes (coarse-textured outwash, fine-textured-till hummocky moraines and glacio-lacustrine clay-till plains) demonstrated a distinct landform control on the proportion and type of surface and groundwater sources influencing total phosphorus ([P]) and total dissolved phosphorus ([DP]) concentrations, and P budgets of lakes on the Boreal Plain of the Western Boreal Forest, Alberta, Canada. Lakes located on fine-textured landforms had high [P] and [DP] (median 148 and 148 μg L-1 glacio-lacustrine plains; 99 and 63 μg L-1 moraine, respectively) linked to shallow groundwater loadings from near-surface peat with high [P] from adjacent wetlands. In contrast, the lowest lake [P] and [DP] (median 50 and 11 μg L-1, respectively) occurred on the coarse-textured landform, reflecting greater inputs of deep mineral-groundwater with low [P] from quartz-rich substrates. Annual lake P budgets reflected lake connectivity to the surrounding landform and relative contributions of P by surface versus groundwater. They also reflected distinct scales of groundwater (larger-scale versus short, shallow-flow paths) with differing [P] between landform types and occurrence of internal biogeochemical P cycling within landforms. A regional lake survey reflected trends from the catchment-scale, linking landform type to potential P sources as well as topographic position to potential trophic status across the Boreal Plain. Together, the results provide a conceptual framework for the scale of interactions between lakes and surrounding source waters influencing P loadings in differing hydrogeological landscapes, important to management strategies and predicting impacts of land-use disturbances on productivity of Boreal Plain lakes.

  4. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness.

  5. Uranium favorability of late Eocene through Pliocene rocks of the South Texas Coastal Plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, J.V.; Thomas, N.G.; Brogdon, L.D.; Jones, C.A.; Martin, T.S.

    1977-02-01

    The results of a subsurface uranium favorability study of Tertiary rocks (late Eocene through Pliocene) in the Coastal Plain of South Texas are given. In ascending order, these rock units include the Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand. The Vicksburg Group, Anahuac Formation, and Fleming Formation were not considered because they have unfavorable lithologies. The Yegua Formation, Jackson Group, Frio Clay, Catahoula Tuff, Oakville Sandstone, and Goliad Sand contain sandstones that may be favorable uranium hosts under certain environmental and structural conditions. All except the Yegua are known to contain ore-grade uranium deposits. Yegua and Jackson sandstones are found in strand plain-barrier bar systems that are aligned parallel to depositional and structural strike. These sands grade into shelf muds on the east, and lagoonal sediments updip toward the west. The lagoonal sediments in the Jackson are interrupted by dip-aligned fluvial systems. In both units, favorable areas are found in the lagoonal sands and in sands on the updip side of the strand-plain system. Favorable areas are also found along the margins of fluvial systems in the Jackson. The Frio and Catahoula consist of extensive alluvial-plain deposits. Favorable areas for uranium deposits are found along the margins of the paleo-channels where favorable structural features and numerous optimum sands are present. The Oakville and Goliad Formations consist of extensive continental deposits of fluvial sandstones. In large areas, these fluvial sandstones are multistoried channel sandstones that form very thick sandstone sequences. Favorable areas are found along the margins of the channel sequences. In the Goliad, favorable areas are also found on the updip margin of strand-plain sandstones where there are several sandstones of optimum thickness

  6. Spatial Soil Temperature and Moisture Monitoring Across the Transylvanian Plain, in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Weindorf, David; Haggard, Beatrix; Moraru, Paula Ioana; Sopterean, Mara Lucia

    2011-01-01

    The Transylvanian Plain, Romania is an important region for agronomic productivity. However, limited soils data and adoption of best management practices hinder land productivity. Soil temperatures of the Transylvanian Plain were evaluated using a set of twenty datalogging stations positioned throughout the plain. Soil temperatures were monitored at the surface and at 10, 30, and 50 cm depths, and soil moisture was monitored at 10 cm. Preliminary results indicate that most soils of the Transylvanian Plain will have a mesic temperature regime. However, differences in seasonal warming and cooling trends across the plain were noted. These have important implications for planting recommendations. Growing degree days (GDDs) are preferred over maturity ratings, because they can account for temperature anomalies. The crop being considered for this study was corn. The base temperature (BT) was set at 10oC, and the upper threshold was 30oC. Two methods were used to calculate GDDs; 1) minimum and maximum daily temperatures, and 2) 24 h of averaged temperature data. Growing degree days were run from 110-199 day of year (DOY) to represent approximate planting date to tasseling. The DOY that 694 accumulated growing degree days (AGDDs) was reached at each site was then analyzed to identify differences across the TP. Three sites failed to reach 694 AGDDs by DOY 199, and were excluded from comparisons to other results. Averaged values were used to create spline interpolation maps with ArcMap 9.2 (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA). The southeastern portion of the TP was found to tassel a month earlier assuming a planting date of 109 DOY. Four DeKalb® corn hybrids were then selected based on GDDs to tasseling, drydown, drought tolerance, and insect resistance. With a better understanding of the GDD trends across the TP, more effective planting and harvesting could be accomplished by Romanian farmers to maximize agronomic production.

  7. Seven new and four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from the abyssal manganese nodule field (Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, North-Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljutina, Maria A.; Miljutin, Dmitry M.

    2012-09-01

    The descriptions of seven new and supplemental descriptions of four known species of the genus Acantholaimus (Nematoda: Chromadoridae) from about 5,000 m depth in the abyssal manganese nodule field of the French Claim of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (north-eastern tropical Pacific) are given. A. arthrochaeta sp. n. differs from other Acantholaimus species in having jointed cephalic setae. A. barbatus sp. n. is characterized by long cephalic setae and the presence of numerous somatic setae at the level of the pharynx. A. cornutus sp. n. possesses strong onchia and rugae and short cephalic setae. A. robustus sp. n. is characterized by a very large body size, two very large onchia, strongly developed rugae, and cervical setae grouped in threes. A. sieglerae sp. n. is a comparatively small species, though with very large onchia. A. tchesunovi sp. n. can be differentiated from the other species by the lateral differentiation of the body cuticle, consisting of 6-7 longitudinal rows of pores. A. veitkoehlerae sp. n. has a narrow elongate anterior end, two cervical setae, and strong onchia. A. angustus and A. occultus were found about 5,200 km from their type localities in the Peru Basin, south-east Pacific. A. iubilus and A. maks were previously found in different parts of the Atlantic and in the Peru Basin.

  8. Assessing aquifer storage and recovery feasibility in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas

    OpenAIRE

    W. Benjamin Smith; Gretchen R. Miller; Zhuping Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Study region: The Gulf Coast and Carrizo-Wilcox aquifer systems in the Gulf Coastal Plains of Texas. Study focus: Aquifer storage and recovery is a water storage alternative that is underutilized in Texas, a state with both long periods of drought and high intensity storms. Future water storage plans in Texas almost exclusively rely on surface reservoirs, subject to high evaporative losses. This study seeks to identify sites where aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) may be successful, especial...

  9. A review on the establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai; Wang, Chuanhai; Hua, Wenjuan

    2017-04-01

    This paper reviewed some specific conceptions of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) while found that the traditional definition of 'catchment' may be difficult to meet in plain areas. According to the review of development history and current situation of hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas in China, 4 stages were shown besides the recent 10 years, i.e., 'golden stage(1952-1966)', 'backward stage(1966-1986)', 'short recovery stage(1986-1989)' and 'stagnant stage(1986-2006)'. It gets new impetus since 2006 with some investigation work promoted by the government. Furthermore, some historic problems during establishing experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas were revealed based on the document literature and a few meaningful lessons were drawn from the past. It was also the first time to collect and classify the details of both 11 representative experimental areas in China and abroad, after that a brief comparison about the measurement level and research directions was made between two regions. Additionally, we took the experimental research work in the plain of Taihu Lake Basin as example and introduced the particular research goals and the corresponding establishing process, including how to design the experimental area, eg, size, location, land use type, arranging the measurement instruments et al. We hope such case can provide a reference for newly-building, recovering and extending hydrological experimental areasin plain areas in the future. Finally, this paper prospected the future development in establishment and research in hydrological experimental areas (catchments) in plain areas. It may be more common to see the cooperation between model scientists and field experts. Because of the comprehensive goals in water problems, researchers from various fields would work together in the future experimental research work. Scale study and modelling in plain areas will be a promising branch after some typical experimental areas

  10. The characteristics of weakly forced mountain-to-plain precipitation systems based on radar observations and high-resolution reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xian; Sun, Juanzhen; Chen, Mingxuan; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Yingchun; Ying, Zhuming

    2017-03-01

    The metropolis of Beijing in China is located on a plain adjacent to high mountains to its northwest and the gulf of the Bohai Sea to its southeast. One of the most challenging forecast problems for Beijing is to predict whether thunderstorms initiating over the mountains will propagate to the adjacent plains and intensify. In this study, 18 warm season convective cases between 2008 and 2013 initiating on the mountains and intensifying on the plains under weak synoptic forcing were analyzed to gain an understanding of their characteristics. The statistical analysis was based on mosaic reflectivity data from six operational Doppler radars and reanalysis data produced by the Four-Dimensional Variational Doppler Radar Analysis System (VDRAS). The analysis of the radar reflectivity data shows that convective precipitation strengthened on the plains at certain preferred locations. To investigate the environmental conditions favoring the strengthening of the mountain-to-plain convective systems, statistical diagnoses of the rapid-update (12 min) 3 km reanalyses from VDRAS for the 18 cases were performed by computing the horizontal and temporal means of convective available potential energy, convective inhibition, vertical wind shear, and low-level wind for the plain and mountain regions separately. The results were compared with those from a baseline representing the warm season average and from a set of null cases and found considerable differences in these fields between the three data sets. The mean distributions of VDRAS reanalysis fields were also examined. The results suggest that the convergence between the low-level outflows associated with cold pools and the south-southeasterly environmental flows corresponds well with the preferred locations of convective intensification on the plains.

  11. Placentation in the plains zebra (Equus quagga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W R Twink; Stansfield, Fiona; Wilsher, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    The placenta and fetal gonads of 12 pregnant plains zebra (Equus quagga), estimated to be between 81 and 239 days of gestation, were examined. The diffuse, microcotyledonary zebra placenta appeared, developmentally, to be 3-4 weeks behind its counterpart in horse pregnancy and this, together with the presence of small and long-lived endometrial cups, low levels of zebra chorionic gonadotrophin in maternal serum and few accessory corpora lutea in the maternal ovaries during the first half of gestation, made zebra pregnancy more similar to donkey than horse pregnancy. Zebra fetal gonads enlarged after 80 days of gestation and their interstitial cells stained positively for 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17,20 lyase steroid enzymes while the trophoblast stained for aromatase. This confirmed that zebra fetal gonads, like those of the horse and donkey, can synthesise C19 androgens, which can then be aromatised by the placenta to C18 oestrogens. It is remarkable that such unusual feto-placental mechanisms of production of gonadotrophic and steroid hormones has persisted unchanged within the genus Equus despite the many physical adaptations and the considerable loss of chromosomes that have occurred during the evolution of its member species.

  12. Recognition of Plain Objects Using Local Region Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Al; Sakata, Katsutoshi; Das, Dipankar; Kuno, Yoshinori

    Conventional interest point based matching requires computationally expensive patch preprocessing and is not appropriate for recognition of plain objects with negligible detail. This paper presents a method for extracting distinctive interest regions from images that can be used to perform reliable matching between different views of plain objects or scene. We formulate the correspondence problem in a Naive Bayesian classification framework and a simple correlation based matching, which makes our system fast, simple, efficient, and robust. To facilitate the matching using a very small number of interest regions, we also propose a method to reduce the search area inside a test scene. Using this method, it is possible to robustly identify objects among clutter and occlusion while achieving near real-time performance. Our system performs remarkably well on plain objects where some state-of-the art methods fail. Since our system is particularly suitable for the recognition of plain object, we refer to it as Simple Plane Object Recognizer (SPOR).

  13. Level IV Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  14. Level III Ecoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions for the Mississippi Alluvial Plain were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in...

  15. The innovation of nuclear science and technology supporting for the central plains economic zone construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nuclear agronomy support for the central plains economic zone construction, radiation chemical new material support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear medical support for the central plains economic zone construction, nuclear instrument and meter industry support for the central plains economic zone construction and the development trend of related disciplines. (author)

  16. The Great Plains IDEA Gerontology Program: An Online, Interinstitutional Graduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gregory F.

    2011-01-01

    The Great-Plains IDEA Gerontology Program is a graduate program developed and implemented by the Great Plains Interactive Distance Education Alliance (Great Plains IDEA). The Great Plains IDEA (Alliance) originated as a consortium of Colleges of Human Sciences ranging across the central United States. This Alliance's accomplishments have included…

  17. No (more) logo: plain packaging and communicative agency

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Pottage

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco industry’s archives suggest that the global campaign for the plain packaging of tobacco products originated in 1986, when the Canadian Medical Association passed a resolution calling for cigarettes to be sold in packages bearing only a brand name and the health message ‘this product is injurious to your health’. In most jurisdictions, regulations requiring the apposition of health warnings to cigarette packs have been in force for decades. Proposals for plain packaging aim to go f...

  18. Spatial analysis of health risk assessment with arsenic intake of drinking water in the LanYang plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. F.; Liang, C. P.; Jang, C. S.; Chen, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater is one of the most component water resources in Lanyang plain. The groundwater of the Lanyang Plain contains arsenic levels that exceed the current Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (Taiwan EPA) limit of 10 μg/L. The arsenic of groundwater in some areas of the Lanyang Plain pose great menace for the safe use of groundwater resources. Therefore, poor water quality can adversely impact drinking water uses, leading to human health risks. This study analyzed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of arsenic-affected groundwater in the arseniasis-endemic Lanyang plain. Geostatistical approach is widely used in spatial variability analysis and distributions of field data with uncertainty. The estimation of spatial distribution of the arsenic contaminant in groundwater is very important in the health risk assessment. This study used indicator kriging (IK) and ordinary kriging (OK) methods to explore the spatial variability of arsenic-polluted parameters. The estimated difference between IK and OK estimates was compared. The extent of arsenic pollution was spatially determined and the Target cancer risk (TR) and dose response were explored when the ingestion of arsenic in groundwater. Thus, a zonal management plan based on safe groundwater use is formulated. The research findings can provide a plan reference of regional water resources supplies for local government administrators and developing groundwater resources in the Lanyang Plain.

  19. A Comparison of Plain Radiography with Computer Tomography in Determining Coronal and Sagittal Alignments following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solayar GN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Optimal coronal and sagittal component positioning is important in achieving a successful outcome following total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Modalities to determine post-operative alignment include plain radiography and computer tomography (CT imaging. This study aims to determine the accuracy and reliability of plain radiographs in measuring coronal and sagittal alignment following TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, consecutive study of 58 patients undergoing TKA was performed comparing alignment data from plain radiographs and CT imaging. Hip- knee-angle (HKA, sagittal femoral angle (SFA and sagittal tibial angle (STA measurements were taken by two observers from plain radiographs and compared with CT alignment. Intra- and inter-observer correlation was calculated for each measurement. RESULTS: Intra-observer correlation was excellent for HKA (r>0.89 with a mean difference of 0.95 and STA (r>0.8 compared to SFA (r=0.5. When comparing modalities (radiographs vs CT, HKA estimations for both observers showed the least maximum and mean differences while SFA observations were the least accurate. CONCLUSION: Radiographic estimation of HKA showed excellent intra- and inter-observer correlation and corresponds well with CT imaging. However, radiographic estimation of sagittal plane alignment was less reliably measured and correlated less with CT imaging. Plain radiography was found to be inferior to CT for estimation of biplanar prosthetic alignment following TKA.

  20. Eco-environmental quality evaluation of Huaibei Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.; Zhu, Y.; Lü, H.; Li, Y.; Zhou, X.; Chen, Y.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, the destruction of the ecological environment in Huaibei Plain has limited the development of the economy. Doing research on eco-environment quality evaluation methods may be helpful to the recovery of the eco-environment in Huaibei Plain and the construction of ecological civilization. A new assessment system was introduced in this paper on the basis of a traditional eco-environmental evaluation method; the NPP index was used to replace biological abundance index and vegetation coverage index. This new method was used to evaluate the eco-environment quality of Huaibei Plain. Results indicate that: (a) the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain has been getting worse since 1990, but has improved since 2000; (b) the water-network density index is the key factor which affects the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain; (c) If human activities, pollution control, land degradation and urban area development are not taken into consideration, the eco-environment of Huaibei Plain in dry years will be serious.

  1. Validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maravilla, L.M.; Castillo, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    The article is about the study on the validity of plain film radiograph (KUB) in the diagnosis of urolithiasis in Filipino patients. This is based on the fact that 75% to 85% of stones are composed of calcium phosphate. Radiolucent, uric acid, urate, xanthine and matrix stones which comprised 5% to 8% cases may also contain radiographically detectable amounts of calcium oxalates. The study will also determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of KUB. 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Annual crop type classification of the U.S. Great Plains for 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Daniel M.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the spatial and temporal availability of crop classification data. In this study, nearly 16.2 million crop observation points were used in the training of the US Great Plains classification tree crop type model (CTM). Each observation point was further defined by weekly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, annual climate, and a number of other biogeophysical environmental characteristics. This study accounted for the most prevalent crop types in the region, including, corn, soybeans, winter wheat, spring wheat, cotton, sorghum, and alfalfa. Annual CTM crop maps of the US Great Plains were created for 2000 to 2011 at a spatial resolution of 250 meters. The CTM achieved an 87 percent classification success rate on 1.8 million observation points that were withheld from model training. Product validation was performed on greater than 15,000 county records with a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.76.

  3. Using Radon and Radium isotopes to trace submarine groundwater discharge in Yilan Plain, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2015-04-01

    The Yilan Plain which located in the northeast Taiwan was selected for submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) study. The geomorphic and climatic conditions induce lush rain drenched mountains and create abundant groundwater resource in the Yilan Plain. The annual precipitation in 2014 is 2025 mm with most of the precipitation concentrated on autumn (from September to November). In this study, radon and radium isotopes are used as tracers for SGD survey. The 224Ra (t1/2 =3.6 days) was measured by a delayed coincidence counter (RaDeCC). The 222Rn (t1/2 =3.8 days) was measured by RAD-7 equipped with RAD H2O and RAD AQUA system. The river-water samples were collected from the main stream of Lanyang River and its tributaries from upstream to river mouth. The spring-water samples were collected at 8 sites in April, July and October 2014. Ten surface seawater samples along the coastline of the Yilan Plain were collected in August 2014. Our results show the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra in springs ranging from 3400 to 30850 Bq/m3 and 0.02 to 0.29 Bq/m3, and there are no significant differences between wet and dry seasons. Unexpectedly, the springs are characterized with high 222Rn and low 224Ra activities. For river samples, the activities of 224Ra in downstream and river mouth (0.18 to 1.48 Bq/m3) are higher than upstream (0 to 0.3 Bq/m3). The average activity of 224Ra in downstream samples which collected in April (0.98 Bq/m3) has the highest value than other seasons (0.41-0.51 Bq/m3). In coastal seawater, the activities of 222Rn and 224Ra ranged from 0 to 366 Bq/m3 and 0.10 to 1.14 Bq/m3 in August 2014. In summary, this study points out in some coastal regions of the Yilan Plain, where without riverine input, have high 222Rn and 224Ra activities in seawater. We suggest the SGD plays an important role on land-sea exchange along the coastline of the Yilan Plain. Compare with the spring water samples, the 224Ra activities in coastal seawater are 3-4 times higher than

  4. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  5. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  6. Distribution, typology and assessment of degraded soils Piedmont Plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kussainova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Identification of land degradation is essential to check the problem and to implement the remedial measures needed. The study area falls under parts of foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, that is an arid region in climate. Recent data on the status of study area refer to the 80s of the last century, and the intensive use of them led to a significant anthropogenic transformation. This study was carried out in 2015-2016 as part of a project aimed to study features and causes of land degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan. Under the conditions of rainfed soil degradation manifests itself in the development of erosion processes, agro depletion of soils, reducing the productivity of agriculture. The use of land for irrigation often accompanied by secondary salinization. In this regard, at present there is need to assess current state of the soil, with the identification of changes in their properties as a result of the impact of various anthropogenic factors and creation of new electronic soil maps and applied the powerful capabilities of advanced remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS techniques to identify the geomorphological units and degradation risk assessment. Satellite imagery in addition to the field and laboratory studies to identify salinity-induced soil degradation was adopted in this study. Morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils in degraded sites in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, were depicted. The main results of a thorough evaluation of soil degradation in foothill plains Zhetysu Ridge, Kazakhstan, are presented. The data revealed that extent of salinity-induced degradation was generally related to some physical properties of soil, uncontrolled livestock grazing and previous soil management practices. These results are useful as the basis for designing soil conservation and restoration programs, as a base line for evaluating the performance of conservation

  7. Problem-based learning for radiological technologists: a comparison of student attitudes toward plain radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashita, Takayoshi; Tamura, Naomi; Kisa, Kengo; Kawabata, Hidenobu; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2016-09-05

    Knowledge and skill expected of healthcare providers continues to increase alongside developments in medicine and healthcare. Problem-based learning (PBL) is therefore increasingly necessary in training courses for radiological technologists. However, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of PBL to completely introduce it in our education programs. As a Hypothesis, it seems that a change occurs in the student's attitudes by participating in PBL practical training. There is the Semantic Differential (SeD) technique as a method to identify student's attitudes. We conceived that PBL could be appropriately evaluated by using SeD technique. In this paper, we evaluated PBL for plain radiography practical training using the SeD technique. Thirty-eight third-year students studying radiological technology participated. PBL was introduced to practical training in plain radiography positioning techniques. Five sessions lasting 5 h each were delivered over a 5-week period during November to December 2012. The clinical scenario was an emergency case with multiple trauma requiring plain radiography. Groups comprising approximately eight students created workflows for trauma radiography with consideration of diagnostic accuracy and patient safety. Furthermore, students groups conducted plain radiography on a patient phantom according to created workflows and were then guided by feedback from professional radiologists. All students answered SeD questionnaires to assess views on plain radiography before instruction to provide preliminary practical training reports and after completing practical training. The factors were identified using factor analysis of the questionnaires, which were answered before and after each practical training session. On evaluation of the relationships between factors and question items according to factor loading, we identified "reluctance", "confidence", and "exhaustion" as the predominant attitudes before practical training. Similarly, we identified

  8. Lacustrine-fluvial interactions in Australia's Riverine Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Justine; Pietsch, Timothy; Gontz, Allen; Olley, Jon

    2017-06-01

    Climatic forcing of fluvial systems has been a pre-occupation of geomorphological studies in Australia since the 1940s. In the Riverine Plain, southeastern Australia, the stable tectonic setting and absence of glaciation have combined to produce sediment loads that are amongst the lowest in the world. Surficial sediments and landforms exceed 140,000 yr in age, and geomorphological change recorded in the fluvial, fluvio-lacustrine and aeolian features have provided a well-studied record of Quaternary environmental change over the last glacial cycle. The region includes the Willandra Lakes, whose distinctive lunette lakes preserve a history of water-level variations and ecological change that is the cornerstone of Australian Quaternary chronostratigraphy. The lunette sediments also contain an ancient record of human occupation that includes the earliest human fossils yet found on the Australian continent. To date, the lake-level and palaeochannel records in the Lachlan-Willandra system have not been fully integrated, making it difficult to establish the regional significance of hydrological change. Here, we compare the Willandra Lakes environmental record with the morphology and location of fluvial systems in the lower Lachlan. An ancient channel belt of the Lachlan, Willandra Creek, acted as the main feeder channel to Willandra Lakes before channel avulsion caused the lakes to dry out in the late Pleistocene. Electromagnetic surveys, geomorphological and sedimentary evidence are used to reconstruct the evolution of the first new channel belt following the avulsion. Single grain optical dating of floodplain sediments indicates that sedimentation in the new Middle Billabong Palaeochannel had commenced before 18.4 ± 1.1 ka. A second avulsion shifted its upper reaches to the location of the present Lachlan River by 16.2 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these events is consistent with palaeohydrological records reconstructed from Willandra Lakes and with the record of

  9. Location of irrigated land classified from satellite imagery - High Plains Area, nominal date 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Sharon L.; Konduris, Alexandria; Litke, David W.; Dupree, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (nominal date 1992) was used to classify and map the location of irrigated land overlying the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer underlies 174,000 square miles in parts of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water-quality study of the High Plains aquifer as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. To help interpret data and select sites for the study, it is helpful to know the location of irrigated land within the study area. To date, the only information available for the entire area is 20 years old. To update the data on irrigated land, 40 summer and 40 spring images (nominal date 1992) were acquired from the National Land Cover Data set and processed using a band-ratio method (Landsat Thematic Mapper band 4 divided by band 3) to enhance the vegetation signatures. The study area was divided into nine subregions with similar environmental characteristics, and a band-ratio threshold was selected from imagery in each subregion that differentiated the cutoff between irrigated and nonirrigated land. The classified images for each subregion were mosaicked to produce an irrigated-land map for the study area. The total amount of irrigated land classified from the 1992 imagery was 13.1 million acres, or about 12 percent of the total land in the High Plains. This estimate is approximately 1.5 percent greater than the amount of irrigated land reported in the 1992 Census of Agriculture (12.8 millions acres).

  10. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  11. Potential nitrogen critical loads for northern Great Plains grassland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symstad, Amy J.; Smith, Anine T.; Newton, Wesley E.; Knapp, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service is concerned that increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion and agricultural activities could adversely affect the northern Great Plains (NGP) ecosystems in its trust. The critical load concept facilitates communication between scientists and policy makers or land managers by translating the complex effects of air pollution on ecosystems into concrete numbers that can be used to inform air quality targets. A critical load is the exposure level below which significant harmful effects on sensitive elements of the environment do not occur. A recent review of the literature suggested that the nitrogen critical load for Great Plains vegetation is 10-25 kg N/ha/yr. For comparison, current atmospheric nitrogen deposition in NGP National Park Service (NPS) units ranges from ~4 kg N/ha/yr in the west to ~13 kg N/ha/yr in the east. The suggested critical load, however, was derived from studies far outside of the NGP, and from experiments investigating nitrogen loads substantially higher than current atmospheric deposition in the region.Therefore, to better determine the nitrogen critical load for sensitive elements in NGP parks, we conducted a four-year field experiment in three northern Great Plains vegetation types at Badlands and Wind Cave National Parks. The vegetation types were chosen because of their importance in NGP parks, their expected sensitivity to nitrogen addition, and to span a range of natural fertility. In the experiment, we added nitrogen at rates ranging from below current atmospheric deposition (2.5 kg N/ha/yr) to far above those levels but commensurate with earlier experiments (100 kg N/ha/yr). We measured the response of a variety of vegetation and soil characteristics shown to be sensitive to nitrogen addition in other studies, including plant biomass production, plant tissue nitrogen concentration, plant species richness and composition, non-native species abundance, and soil inorganic

  12. Sodium‑chromium covariation in residual clinopyroxenes from abyssal peridotites sampled in the 43°-46°E region of the Southwest Indian Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, Monique; Brunelli, Daniele

    2018-03-01

    Mantle-derived peridotites sampled at three dredge sites between the Discovery and Indomed fracture zones on the Southwest Indian Ridge axis are analyzed for petrography and major and trace element mineral compositions. While textures and microstructures are those typical of normal residual peridotites these rocks display a large compositional variation encompassing the whole spectrum of abyssal peridotites even at the scale of a single dredge site (≤ 1 km). Particularly, clinopyroxenes in peridotites dredged at 44.03°E show a huge variation in sodium contents positively correlated with chromium concentrations. Observed Nasbnd Cr enrichments exceed the commonly reported contents of the spinel abyssal peridotites. Similar values are also found in very few peridotite samples collected at ultra-slow spreading ridges. Major substitutions governing the compositions of these clinopyroxenes suggest that Nasbnd Cr covariation is caused by a more rapid decrease in Al-Tschermak's molecule with respect to the sodic components jadeite ± kosmochlor, as Cr/Al increases and modal clinopyroxene decreases. We conclude that sodium and chromium enrichments must have occurred contemporaneously with aluminum depletion, i.e., during partial melting. Our modelling suggests that partial, non-modal, melting of a depleted peridotite in association with addition of sodium, by percolation of a Na-rich melt in the upwelling mantle, or Na diffusion from a nearby alkaline melt, may explain this enigmatic and counterintuitive trend. A) SWF-26-2-5: Lherzolite; B) SWF-26-2-7: Harzburgite; C) SWF-26-2-11: Lherzolite; D) SWF-26-2-9: Lherzolite with large pyroxene clusters; E) SWF-27-1-12: Harzburgite. Scale bar = 5 cm. Data show that the compositions of these peridotites do not follow fractional melting trends but plot toward Sm and Ce enrichments relative to Yb at decreasing Yb contents. In the same sampling site, clinopyroxenes highly enriched both in Na2O (> 1 wt.%) and Cr2O3 (> 1.5 wt.%) have

  13. Investigation on Vulnerability of Tabriz-plain Unconfined Aquifer

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    M. Tabarmayeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is more expensive to remove pollution from groundwater than to prevent it. Delineation areas that arevulnerable to surface pollutants is one of methods to prevent pollution of groundwater resources. Focusing on this issue, DRASTIC model was used for evaluation of vulnerability of Tabriz-plain aquifer to pollution and the aquifer vulnerability map was prepared. The study shows that main zone of the aquifer’s groundwater is low to modrate vulnerability to pollution (DRASTIC Index of 120-40 that consist of about 55.84% and areas with low, moderate to high, and high risk zones comprise 21.81,22.08.% and 0.26% of the studied area, respectively Two tests of sensitivity analyses were carried out: the map removal and the single-parameter sensitivity analyses. Based on the characteristics of the studied area, the results from both map removal and single-parameter sensitivity analyses showed that the depth to water table has the most significant impact on the vulnerability risk zone. By overlaying of the vulnerability and landuse maps the areas where are subjected to potential release of pollutants from the agricultural activities were determined .Nitrate ion concentration and SINTACS model confirms the results of the vulnerability assessment.

  14. Geoarchaeologic and paleopedologic evidences for the holocene paleoenvironmental evolution of the Crisuri plain (Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Josan; Sever Dumitrascu; Dan Petrea

    2007-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the correlation established between the fossil soils identified within several archaeological sites from Crisuri Plain as well as the information that could be obtained by analysing their content in artefacts and paleozoological remains and takes into account the validity of some consecrated points of view, almost unanimously accepted concerning the paleoenvironmental evolution of the North Western part of Romania. Some very popular "clichés" such as the ...

  15. Estimating shallow groundwater recharge in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains using SWAT

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, H.; Cornish, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    Metadata only record A physically based catchment model (SWAT) was used for recharge estimation in the headwaters of the Liverpool Plains in NSW, Australia. The study used water balance modelling at the catchment scale to derive parameters for long-term recharge estimation. The derived parameters were further assessed at a subcatchment scale. Modelling results suggest that recharge occurs only in wet years, and is dominated by a few significant years or periods. The results were matched by...

  16. Factors influencing the road mortality of snakes on the Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    OpenAIRE

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