WorldWideScience

Sample records for abusive female same-sex

  1. States of emergence: Writing African female same-sex sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Brenna M

    2017-04-03

    Tracing a series of intertextually linked short stories from the 1990s to the present by women writers from Nigeria and its diaspora-Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Unoma Azuah, Chinelo Okparanta, and Lola Shoneyin-I suggest that although the figure of the African lesbian appears "new" in the context of heightened contemporary attention to the issue of homosexuality, this figure has a literary history. Ghanaian Ama Ata Aidoo's novel Our Sister Killjoy: Or, Reflections From A Black-Eyed Squint (1977) inaugurates this formation, in which the imagining of female same-sex desire is entangled with articulating the experience of migration under the shadow of imperial histories. In these short stories, the emphasis on the difficulties of love in puritanical times and transnational places produces the figure of the African lesbian as a symbol of appealingly human vulnerability, resilience, and complexity.

  2. Olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in female rats: Role of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, M B; Barradas-Moctezuma, M; Herrera-Covarrubias, D; Carrillo, P; Corona-Morales, A A; Perez, C A; García, L I; Manzo, J; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-11-01

    The dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males during cohabitation, but not in ovariectomized (OVX) females, primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Herein we tested the effects of QNP on OVX, EB-only primed females. Females received a systemic injection (every four days) of either saline (Saline-conditioned) or QNP (QNP-conditioned) and then cohabited for 24h with lemon-scented stimulus females (CS+), during three trials. In test 1 (female-female) preference was QNP-free, and females chose between the CS+ female and a novel female. In test 2 (male-female) they chose between the CS+ female and a sexually experienced male. In test 1 Saline-conditioned females displayed more hops & darts towards the novel female, but QNP-conditioned females displayed more sexual solicitations towards the CS+ female. In test 2 Saline-conditioned females displayed a clear preference for the male, whereas QNP-conditioned females displayed what we considered a bisexual preference. We discuss the effect of dopamine and ovarian hormones on the development of olfactory conditioned same-sex preference in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Female same-sex families in the dialectics of marginality and conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobočan, Ana Marija

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the continuum between the personal and public roles of families, where two women parent together in Slovenia, against the background of the current marginal position of same-sex families in regard to rights and symbolic status, in claiming the position of same-sex parenting in the context of family models as well as in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) movement agendas. It briefly outlines the situation in Slovenia in regard to homosexuality, and then moves to discussing the outcomes of the processes and experiences of lesbian mothers that are transgressing the borders of parental and homosexual identities. These outcomes are: "justifying" and demonstrating the "appropriateness" of family life in non-heteronormative families, constructing strategies for claiming a joint parental identity, and building a sense of belonging by forming a community that is both homosexual and parental. The article draws extensively on the lived (motherhood) experiences and stories of families where parents are two female partners and reads them as negotiating a constantly shifting place between a marginal status in the broader society and a conformist character in the perspective of their non-normative sexuality. In the article, it is recognized that same-sex families in Slovenia are entering the political agenda and are thus involved in transforming both contexts-the family and homosexual identities.

  4. A Population-Based Comparison of Female and Male Same-Sex Parent and Different-Sex Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K

    2018-03-01

    This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  5. A narrative exploration of how female same-sex couples' decision to marry affects family support

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. Despite the fact that same-sex marriage was legalised in South Africa in 2006, predominant societal attitudes towards gay couples remain negative. In the face of this opposition, samesex couples who choose to marry are often in need of support, but may find that support lacking because of the stigma associated with being gay. This study sought to explore what happens with family support in particular when a gay couple chooses to marry legally. Using a narrative qualitative method, inf...

  6. Representations of same-sex relationships between female characters in all-ages comics: Princess Princess Ever After and Lumberjanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillingham, Erica

    2018-04-25

    Representations of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) characters in comics for an all-ages readership have emerged in the United States in the early twenty-first century. This essay examines the narrative constructions of same-sex relationships between female characters in two all-ages speculative fiction comics, Princess Princess Ever After by Katie O'Neill, and Lumberjanes, created by Shannon Watters, Grace Ellis, Noelle Stevenson, and Brooke Allen.

  7. Piloting relationship education for female same-sex couples: Results of a small randomized waitlist-control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Scott, Shelby B; Dyar, Christina; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Hutsell, David W; Kuryluk, Amanda D

    2017-10-01

    Relationship education represents a promising, nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive adaptation of relationship education was developed specifically for female same-sex couples (The Strengthening Same-Sex Relationships Program, Female version; SSSR-F). SSSR-F includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) as well as new content to address unique challenges faced by this population (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 37 couples) was conducted to evaluate program feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. Three proximal outcomes targeted by SSSR-F (communication, perceived stress, social support) and 3 distal outcomes (global relationship satisfaction, instability, and confidence) were assessed at pre- and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Results of multilevel models accounting for nonindependence in dyadic data indicated statistically significant program effects on positive and negative couple communication, relationship satisfaction, and relationship confidence and small, nonsignificant program effects on stress, social support, and relationship instability. Analyses of follow-up data suggest maintenance of effects on the proximal but not the distal outcomes. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. Overall, findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of SSSR-F, highlighting the potential value of culturally sensitive relationship education for same-sex couples. Continued efforts are needed to increase sustainability of program effects on global relationship quality over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Civic Competence of Dutch Children in Female Same-Sex Parent Families: A Comparison With Children of Opposite-Sex Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; Gartrell, Nanette; Roeleveld, Jaap; Ledoux, Guuske

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether Dutch children reared in families headed by female same-sex parents differ in civic competence from Dutch children reared by opposite-sex parents. The participants, drawn from a national sample, included 32 children (11-13 years old) parented by female same-sex couples who were matched on demographic characteristics…

  9. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  10. Butching it up: an analysis of same-sex female masculinity in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru-Utumpala, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals.

  11. Wage differentials of males and females in same-sex and different-sex couples in Canada, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper utilizes five cycles of the General Social Survey in consecutive years from 2006 through 2010 to address the issue of differential wages amongst members of same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. We find that men in gay couples have wages that are statistically indistinguishable from those of males in heterosexual relationships. By contrast, a sizeable and statistically significant earnings premium exists for lesbians in same-sex couples.

  12. Same sex families and children

    OpenAIRE

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership) and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal ...

  13. Same sex families and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction comprises the information on two main forms of same sex families, civic partnership (same sex partnership and same sex marriage. Countries and various status modalities of legal regulations are mentioned. The main part of the text is dedicated to presentation of the findings of the most recent research on various aspects regarding children of same sex partnerships. It comprises presentations grouped in four main chapters: acceptance of same sex partnerships, acceptance of legal recognition of the same sex partnerships, family plans of homosexual teenagers, and raising children within and by the same sex partners. Also the real life cases mirroring legal changes through their life destinies are presented, such is e.g. the Irish way to legalization of the same sex partnerships. In addition, a love story of two women crowned by giving birth of their four children is mentioned. Reasons against and negative reactions the author puts under the title Homophobia. In the Concluding remarks, the author presents the most recent examples of legal changes happened in Norway, Ecuador, and in the American states of California and Connecticut. It was also stated that in European countries of low birth rate, the same sex families are inevitably identified as one of demographically valuable source of creating and raising children, which is worthy to be supported, rather than being hindered without reason and discriminated. Although different than a model of heterosexual family, same sex partnerships neither are harrowing to traditional family values, nor reflex of any kind of promiscuous, antisocial behavior, avoidance of parenthood, and negation of family. Quite opposite, these families are an outcome of endeavors of homosexuals not to be deprived of family, parenthood and all of other values of stabile, monogamous, emotional/sexual socially accepted and legally recognized and regulated conventional family. .

  14. Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Parenting: An Effect of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2017-01-01

    The definition of family in Australia has been continuously changing over the past four decades. The 21 st century has brought with it various images of family, with an increase of awareness to same-sex families; however, the acceptance of such family structures does not appear to be widespread and is often determined by sex. Substantive literature demonstrates differences between men and women in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, with theory suggesting that gender role norms may explain this. Despite large efforts to determine sex differences in attitudes toward same-sex parenting, little research, and even less in Australia, has been done to investigate whether there are differences in reasons behind negative attitudes toward same-sex parenting between men and women. To further this understanding, an Australian sample (N= 790) ranging in age from 18-78 completed a survey regrading attitudes toward same-sex parenting, in addition to relevant demographic information. Participants reported more positive attitudes about parenting by lesbians as compared to parenting by gay men. Reasons behind attitudes toward same-sex parenting also differed between males and females. Results suggested that the impact of socially prescribed gender norms may affect prejudice toward same-sex families. Despite an increase in tolerance for sexual minorities recently, policies that continue to discriminate against same-sex parenting rights demonstrates the importance of continuing to identify potential influences of same-sex family prejudice to reduce the potentially negative impacts associated with the prejudice.

  15. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Children in Same-Sex Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodnikov, V. V.; Chkanikova, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    In Russia, sociologists do not have reliable statistical data as to the number of same-sex unions and the number of children being brought up in these families, and non-Russian studies on the topic are flawed and misleading. Russians are said to be antagonistic to the idea of children being raised in same-sex households. People are concerned over…

  17. The Stability of Same-Sex Cohabitation, Different-Sex Cohabitation, and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Charles Q.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to the emerging demographic literature on same-sex couples by comparing the level and correlates of union stability among 4 types of couples: (a) male same-sex cohabitation, (b) female same-sex cohabitation, (c) different-sex cohabitation, and (d) different-sex marriage. The author analyzed data from 2 British birth cohort…

  18. Treating infidelity in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Christopher R; Prince, Stacey E

    2005-11-01

    Psychotherapy with same-sex couples does not differ markedly from standard couple therapies; this is also true for treating couples facing infidelity. However, same-sex couples often design their relationships differently, without tradition and formal marital contracts to prescribe behavior. Based on clinical experience and the empirical research, this article addresses the differing norms involved in affirmatively treating infidelity in gay and lesbian couples within the framework of integrative behavioral couple therapy (IBCT). Two cases illustrate the process and outcome of IBCT with same-sex couples.

  19. Same-sex marriage and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  20. Gender Stereotypes in Same-Sex Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bro, Jesper Koch; Jensen, Ditte; Stokholm, Martin Valdemar Sachse; Kristoffersen, Simone Ryegaard; Tranberg, Line Falk

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through five qualitative interviews with people that currently are or have been in same-sex relationship, analyzed by applying the theories of social constructivism by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann and Queer theorist Judith Butler, the project explores heterosexual stereotypes in same-sex relationships. The result is a thoroughgoing analysis where it appears from the interviews as if the interviewed people reproduce heterosexual stereotypical gender roles in their relationships...

  1. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  2. Birds gone wild: same-sex parenting in albatross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Marlene; Bailey, Nathan W

    2008-12-01

    Same-sex behavior in animals fascinates scientists as well as laypeople, partly because of implications about sexual orientation in humans. After all, if animals engage in homosexuality, can it be dismissed as 'unnatural'? A recent paper by Young and colleagues documents long-term female pairs in >30% of Laysan albatross on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. The unrelated females bred successfully, challenging ideas about cooperative breeding, alternative reproductive strategies and perhaps even the evolution of sexual orientation.

  3. Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisch, Morten; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -sex marriage for 4914 men and 3419 women in Denmark who married a same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004. RESULTS: Mortality was markedly increased in the first decade after same-sex marriage for men who married between 1989 and 1995 (SMR = 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.01, 2.50), but much less so...... for men who married after 1995, when efficient HIV/AIDS therapies were available (SMR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.68). For women who married their same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004, mortality was 34% higher than was mortality in the general female population (SMR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09, 1.63). For women......, and for men marrying after 1995, the significant excess mortality was limited to the period 1 to 3 years after the marriage. CONCLUSIONS: Despite recent marked reduction in mortality among gay men, Danish men and women in same-sex marriages still have mortality rates that exceed those of the general...

  4. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  5. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  6. The Argument for Same-Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Widiss, Deborah; Tebbe, Nelson; Gilreath, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    159 University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra 21 (2010) Professors Tebbe and Widiss revisit the arguments they made in "Equal Access and the Right to Marry" and emphasize their belief that distinguishing between different-sex marriage and same-sex marriage is inappropriate. They lament the sustained emphasis on the equal-protection and substantive-due-process challenges in the Perry litigation and suggest that an equal-access approach is more likely to be successful on appeal. Professor...

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, Religiosity, and Same-sex Sexual Attraction and the Acceptance of Same-sex Sexuality and Gender Non-conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Merry, Michael S.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes would function differently in adolescents with and without same-sex attractions. Data for this study were collected by means of a paper questionnaire completed by 1,518 secondary school students (mean age = 14.56 years, SD = 1.05) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The sample was 48.1% female and 51.9% male. Approximately one third of adolescents in the sample were of a non-Western ethnic background (32.3%, n = 491) and 7.5% of the participants (n = 114) reported experiencing same-sex attractions. Results of our analyses showed that adolescents in our sample who were male, of non-Western ethnicity, and who were more religious (as indicated by frequency of religious service attendance), were less accepting of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity in comparison to female, Western and less religious peers. We also found a significant interaction effect between religiosity and sexual attractions, but only in relation to evaluation of same-sex attracted, gender nonconforming females. The negative effect of religiosity on acceptance of same-sex attracted, gender non-conforming females was stronger among those adolescents who reported same-sex attractions. PMID:23687403

  8. Substance Abuse Among Female Senior Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the prevalence of substance abuse among female secondary school students in Anambra State. Design: This is a cross sectional study. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on smoking, use of sedatives and alcohol drinking habits from 725 ...

  9. Boys Affiliate More than Girls with a Familiar Same-Sex Peer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Quinn, Amanda; Stella, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from ethnographic, observational, and experimental studies with humans converges to suggest that males affiliate more than females with unrelated, familiar same-sex peers, but this has never been examined directly. With this aim, we compared frequency of affiliation with a single, randomly chosen, familiar same-sex peer for the two sexes…

  10. Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality: the role of risky impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P

    2010-12-23

    Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female) on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34) and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  11. Sex Differences in Same-Sex Direct Aggression and Sociosexuality: The Role of Risky Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine P. Cross

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in same-sex direct aggression and sociosexuality are among the most robust in the literature. The present article evaluated the hypothesis that both can be explained by a sex difference in the willingness to take impulsive risks. Self-report data were gathered from 3,775 respondents (1,514 female on same-sex aggression, sociosexuality, and risky impulsivity. Risky impulsivity was higher for men than for women (d = .34 and path analysis showed it to be a common cause of same-sex aggression and sociosexuality for both sexes. However, it did not completely mediate the sex differences in same-sex aggression and sociosexuality. The results suggest that same-sex aggression and sociosexual behavior share a common psychological mechanism, but that fully explaining sex differences in aggression requires a more sensitive assay of impulsive risk and a consideration of dyadic processes.

  12. Religious and Political Conservatism and Beliefs About Same-Sex Parenting in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alexandre Costa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AimDuring the last decade, there have been political changes regarding the rights of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT individuals in Portugal, such as the right to marry. However, parenting by same-sex couples is not legally allowed. The purpose of this study was to assess Portuguese heterosexuals’ beliefs about same-sex parenting, and the role of religious and political conservatism in shaping these beliefs.MethodA total of 993 participants, aged between 18 and 69 years (M = 34; SD = 11, responded to one of three questionnaires that included a case vignette depicting a different-sex, a female same-sex, or a male same-sex couple wishing to adopt a child. Participants were then asked to evaluate whether the couple would be suitable to adopt a child, and whether they anticipated any social and emotional problems with the child.ResultsParticipants consistently anticipated more children’s social and emotional problems if they were adopted by a same-sex couple. Men evaluated same-sex couples less favourably than women, and even less so the male same-sex couple.ConclusionIt was found that both religious conservatism and right-wing political leaning were associated with more sexual prejudicial beliefs regarding same-sex couples.

  13. Meanings intrafamilial sexual abuse for female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hilario Maranhão

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article came from the monographic study “Resilience and Sexual Violence: a study of adolescents victimized by sexual abuse assistance” (MARANHÃO, 2008, in which was investigated the building resilience in victimized adolescents. Resilience is characterized as overcoming adversity, setting up as something procedural, promoted by the interaction of personal and collective protection, in particular context of risk or social vulnerability. We made the trimming about the meanings and feelings of sexual victimization within the family from the perception of adolescents between 12 and 16 years of age that received care in a Specialized Reference Social Assistance in 2010. The research is qualitative, having as theoretical-methodological referential the Historic-Cultural Theory. Data collection was used by semi-structured interview. We realize that the profile of the victims are set up by females, the beginning of sexual abuse occurred between childhood and preadolescence. The profile of perpetrators are men, adults, acting the role of the stepfather, father and uncle. Despite an abject sense, adolescents could not break the cycle of violence. Friends, extended family, and the work of professionals emerged as support for the redefinition of the abusive relationships.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Research on Same-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.; Lodge, Amy Caroline; Xu, Minle

    2014-01-01

    Research on same-sex relationships has informed policy debates and legal decisions that greatly affect American families, yet the data and methods available to scholars studying same-sex relationships have been limited. In this article the authors review current approaches to studying same-sex relationships and significant challenges for this research. After exploring how researchers have dealt with these challenges in prior studies, the authors discuss promising strategies and methods to advance future research on same-sex relationships, with particular attention given to gendered contexts and dyadic research designs, quasi-experimental designs, and a relationship biography approach. Innovation and advances in the study of same-sex relationships will further theoretical and empirical knowledge in family studies more broadly and increase understanding of different-sex as well as same-sex relationships. PMID:25598552

  15. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  16. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  17. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  18. Same-Sex and Race-Based Disparities in Statutory Rape Arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Chenoweth, Stephanie; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    This study tests a liberation hypothesis for statutory rape incidents, specifically that there may be same-sex and race/ethnicity arrest disparities among statutory rape incidents and that these will be greater among statutory rape than among forcible sex crime incidents. 26,726 reported incidents of statutory rape as defined under state statutes and 96,474 forcible sex crime incidents were extracted from National Incident-Based Reporting System data sets. Arrest outcomes were tested using multilevel modeling. Same-sex statutory rape pairings were rare but had much higher arrest odds. A victim-offender romantic relationship amplified arrest odds for same-sex pairings, but damped arrest odds for male-on-female pairings. Same-sex disparities were larger among statutory than among forcible incidents. Female-on-male incidents had uniformly lower arrest odds. Race/ethnicity effects were smaller than gender effects and more complexly patterned. The findings support the liberation hypothesis for same-sex statutory rape arrest disparities, particularly among same-sex romantic pairings. Support for race/ethnicity-based arrest disparities was limited and mixed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Declining Segregation of Same-Sex Partners: Evidence from Census 2000 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent media and scholarly attention describing the “disappearance” of traditionally gay neighborhoods, urban scholars have yet to quantify the segregation of same-sex partners and determine whether declining segregation from different-sex partners is a wide-spread trend. Focusing on the 100 most populous places in the United States, I use data from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census to examine the segregation of same-sex partners over time and its place-level correlates. I estimate linear regression models to examine the role of four place characteristics in particular: average levels of education, aggregate trends in the family life cycle of same-sex partners, violence and social hostility motivated by sexual orientation bias, and representation of same-sex partners in the overall population. On average, same-sex partners were less segregated from different-sex partners in 2010 than in 2000, and the vast majority of same-sex partners lived in environments of declining segregation. Segregation was lower and declined more rapidly in places that had a greater percentage of graduate degree holders. In addition, segregation of female partners was lower in places that had a greater share of female partner households with children. These findings suggest that sexual orientation should be considered alongside economic status, race, and ethnicity as an important factor that contributes to neighborhood differentiation and urban spatial inequality. PMID:24187412

  20. Same-Sex Adoption as a Welfare Alternative? Conservatism, Neoliberal Values, and Support for Adoption by Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Samuel L; Whitehead, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing on national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships.

  1. Sexual Abuse among Female Secondary School Students in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sexual abuse is one of the most stressful life events and is associated with many adverse consequences including physical and mental health problems, substance abuse and criminality Methods: This study was a cross sectional study that was conducted among female secondary school students in ...

  2. 'Legal Family Formats for (Same-Sex) Couples', chapter 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Thevenon, O. & Neyer G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes in a comprehensive but compact manner the legal recognition that same-sex couples have been gaining in Europe. In 40 years a growing number of European countries has started to make marriage and/or other ‘legal family formats' available to same-sex couples. Simultaneously the

  3. Similar Others in Same-Sex Couples' Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Bauermeister, Jose; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory R; de Vries, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Same-sex couples experience unique minority stressors. It is known that strong social networks facilitate access to psychosocial resources that help people reduce and manage stress. However, little is known about the social networks of same-sex couples, in particular their connections to other same-sex couples, which is important to understand given that the presence of similar others in social networks can ameliorate social stress for stigmatized populations. In this brief report, we present data from a diverse sample of 120 same-sex couples in Atlanta and San Francisco. The median number of other same-sex couples known was 12; couples where one partner was non-Hispanic White and the other a person of color knew relatively few other same-sex couples; and there was a high degree of homophily within the social networks of same-sex couples. These data establish a useful starting point for future investigations of couples' social networks, especially couples whose relationships are stigmatized or marginalized in some way. Better understandings of the size, composition, and functions of same-sex couples' social networks are critically needed.

  4. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  5. Children's Judgments and Reasoning About Same-Sex Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Sarah; Helwig, Charles C; Cosentino, Nicole

    2018-05-01

    Children's (5-, 7- to 8-, and 10- to 11-year-olds), and adolescents' (13- to 14-year-olds) judgments and reasoning about same-sex romantic relationships were examined (N = 128). Participants' beliefs about the acceptability and legal regulation of these relationships were assessed, along with their judgments and beliefs about excluding someone because of his or her sexual orientation and the origins of same-sex attraction. Older participants evaluated same-sex romantic relationships more positively and used more references to personal choice and justice/discrimination reasoning to support their judgments. Younger participants were less critical of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships and were more likely to believe it was not acceptable to violate this law. Beliefs about origins of same-sex attraction showed age-specific patterns in their associations with evaluations. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. "Lesbian"/female same-sex sexualities in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Ashley; Migraine-George, Thérèse

    2017-04-03

    Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.

  7. Black LGB Identities and Perceptions of Same-Sex Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee PhD Canditate, Jess

    2018-01-10

    The 2015 SCOTUS ruling legalizing same-sex marriage was hailed as a universal victory for the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community, but the pervasive support mobilized to achieve this goal may mask important dissension and inequality within the community. Specifically, how race may shape or perpetuate inequalities in the LGB community through same-sex marriage largely has been absent from the discussion. Focusing on the perceived impact of same-sex marriage in respondents' lives, I investigate the relationship between Black LGBs' perception of same-sex marriage legalization and their intersectional identities and community membership. Drawing from the 2010 Social Justice Sexuality Project survey, I explain the complexity of the attitudes of Black LGBs to the legalization of same-sex marriage and illustrate that (1) Black LGBs exhibit heterogeneous interpretation of the effects of same-sex marriage legalization on their lives based on their racial and sexual identities, and (2) same-sex marriage may provide Black LGBs the rationale to affirm their racial community membership as sexual minorities. This study pushes our understanding of the relationship between intersectional identities and individuals' perceptions of the self, identity-based community memberships, and social institutions.

  8. Gay marriage, same-sex parenting, and America's children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children. To evaluate that concern, William Meezan and Jonathan Rauch review the growing body of research on how same-sex parenting affects children. After considering the methodological problems inherent in studying small, hard-to-locate populations--problems that have bedeviled this literature-the authors find that the children who have been studied are doing about as well as children normally do. What the research does not yet show is whether the children studied are typical of the general population of children raised by gay and lesbian couples. A second important question is how same-sex marriage might affect children who are already being raised by same-sex couples. Meezan and Rauch observe that marriage confers on children three types of benefits that seem likely to carry over to children in same-sex families. First, marriage may increase children's material well-being through such benefits as family leave from work and spousal health insurance eligibility. It may also help ensure financial continuity, should a spouse die or be disabled. Second, same-sex marriage may benefit children by increasing the durability and stability of their parents' relationship. Finally, marriage may bring increased social acceptance of and support for same-sex families, although those benefits might not materialize in communities that meet same-sex marriage with rejection or hostility. The authors note that the best way to ascertain the costs and benefits of the effects of same-sex marriage on children is to compare it with the alternatives. Massachusetts is marrying same-sex couples, Vermont and Connecticut are offering civil unions, and several

  9. Economic Benefits from Same-Sex Weddings in New Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study estimates the potential economic impact of samesex weddings on the State of New Jersey and concludes that the gain would be substantial. If New Jersey were to give same-sex couples the right to marry, that is marriage itself and not civil unions, the State would likely experience a surge in spending on weddings by same-sex couples who currently live in New Jersey, as well as an increase in wedding and tourist spending by same-sex couples from other states. The analysis outlined in ...

  10. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  11. Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Agardh

    Full Text Available Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group's health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954 representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations, mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10-25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6-16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3, sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9-4.6, and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4-3.3. This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people.

  12. Health Risks in Same-Sex Attracted Ugandan University Students: Evidence from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agardh, Anette; Ross, Michael; Östergren, Per-Olof; Larsson, Markus; Tumwine, Gilbert; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Simpson, Julie A.; Patton, George

    2016-01-01

    Widespread discrimination across much of sub-Saharan Africa against persons with same-sex sexuality, including recent attempts in Uganda to extend criminal sanctions against same-sex behavior, are likely to have profound effects on this group’s health, health care access, and well-being. Yet knowledge of the prevalence of same-sex sexuality in this region is scarce. This study aimed to systematically examine prevalence of same-sex sexuality and related health risks in young Ugandan adults. We conducted two cross-sectional survey studies in south-western Uganda targeting student samples (n = 980, n = 1954) representing 80% and 72% of the entire undergraduate classes attending a university in 2005 and 2010, respectively. A questionnaire assessed items concerning same-sex sexuality (same-sex attraction/fantasies, same-sex sexual relations), mental health, substance use, experience of violence, risky sexual behavior, and sexual health counseling needs. Our findings showed that same-sex sexual attraction/fantasies and behavior were common among male and female students, with 10–25% reporting having sexual attraction/fantasies regarding persons of the same-sex, and 6–16% reporting same-sex sexual relations. Experiences of same-sex sexuality were associated with health risks, e.g. poor mental health (2010, AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.3), sexual coercion (2010, AOR 2.9; CI: 1.9–4.6), and unmet sexual health counseling needs (2010, AOR 2.2; CI: 1.4–3.3). This first study of young adults in Uganda with same-sex sexuality found high levels of health needs but poor access to health care. Effective response is likely to require major shifts in current policy, efforts to reduce stigmatization, and reorientation of health services to better meet the needs of this vulnerable group of young people. PMID:26982494

  13. Religiosity, Spirituality, and Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Gay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes toward same-sex marriage have changed dramatically over the last decade. U.S. adults are becoming more supportive of same-sex marriage, and there are a number of reasons for this change. Our research examines the relationship between cohort, religiosity, spirituality, and attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using data from the 2012 and 2014 General Social Surveys, we examine the differential impact of religiosity and spirituality by cohort on attitudes toward same-sex marriage. We present models for four separate cohorts: The Millennials, Generation X, the Baby Boomers, and the Silent Generation. The Millennial cohort exhibits significant differences from the other birth cohorts. The results of our analyses locate various changes in these attitudes and provide directions for future research.

  14. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.

  15. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  16. Stability of Self-Reported Same-Sex and Both-Sex Attraction from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yueqin; Xu, Yishan; Tornello, Samantha L

    2016-04-01

    This study examined how sexual attraction varied across age, gender of participant, and gender of romantic partner, from adolescence to early adulthood. Comparisons between same-sex and both-sex attracted individuals were of particular interest. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth), we examined the responses of participants who reported experiencing same-sex attractions or both-sex attractions at least once within four waves (n = 1889). Results indicated that same-sex attractions became more stable over time, whereas both-sex attraction remained unstable even into adulthood. Compared with males, females were less stable in same-sex attraction, but more stable in both-sex attraction. The majority of people who reported same-sex attraction did not report having a same-sex romantic partner before they entered adulthood, and those who reported a same-sex romantic partner were more likely to maintain their same-sex attraction than those who did not. As males got older, the gender of their romantic partner tended to become more consistent with their sexual attraction. However, for females, the consistency between the gender of their romantic partner and sexual attraction did not change over time.

  17. Three-Year Follow-Up of Same-Sex Couples Who Had Civil Unions in Vermont, Same-Sex Couples Not in Civil Unions, and Heterosexual Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Rothblum, Esther D.; Solomon, Sondra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study was a 3-year follow-up of 65 male and 138 female same-sex couples who had civil unions in Vermont during the 1st year of that legislation. These couples were compared with 23 male and 61 female same-sex couples in their friendship circles who did not have civil unions and with 55 heterosexual married couples (1 member of each was a…

  18. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  19. Heterosexual experience prevents the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Chena-Becerra, Florencia; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2017-03-01

    Sexual partner preferences can be strengthened, weakened or even drastically modified via Pavlovian conditioning. For example, conditioned same-sex partner preference develops in sexually-naïve male rats that undergo same-sex cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Here, we assessed the effect of prior heterosexual experience on the probability to develop a conditioned same-sex preference. Naïve or Sexually-experienced males received either Saline or QNP and cohabited during 24h with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4days for a total of three trials and resulted in four groups (Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced, QNP-naïve, QNP-experienced). Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that Saline-naïve, Saline-experienced and QNP-experienced displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex). By contrast, only QNP-naïve males displayed a same-sex preference. Accordingly, QNP-experienced males were not affected by the conditioning process and continued to prefer females. We discuss the effects of copulation and D2 agonists on the facilitation and/or disruption of conditioned partner preferences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  1. Female Suicide and Wife Abuse: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Dorothy Ayers

    1987-01-01

    Research suggests that wife abuse may be significant precipitant of female suicide. Case studies and data from several societies suggest that if a woman's support group does not defend her when she is victimized, suicide may be form of revenge. Research focused on relationship between domestic violence and female suicide should be priority for…

  2. Nice guys finish last: same-sex sexual behavior and pairing success in male budgerigars

    OpenAIRE

    Puya Abbassi; Nancy Tyler Burley

    2012-01-01

    In budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a social parrot in which females are socially dominant, males of all ages engage in a set of behaviors with other males that closely resembles the repertoire used in heterosexual courtship. One adaptive hypothesis for this tendency, the "courtship practice hypothesis," posits that males with greater experience in same-sex activities develop superior skills that increase their courtship success with females. To test this hypothesis, we measured individ...

  3. Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.

  4. The Nigeria Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act , 2013 and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no ground for the arguments in support of legalization of same sex marriage other than that it gives weight to the recognition and protection of human ... the Nigeria Act emphasizes our common humanity as fellow beings with the instinct for not only self- preservation but also for the elongation of the human species.

  5. Psychiatry and same sex marriage: are we involved?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    includes the right to adopt children for gay and lesbian couples. ... judgment, stability, reliability, or general social or vocational capabilities ... including step siblings, half siblings, same sex parents and ... children. One study, which compared parenting ... styles of homosexual and heterosexual fathers, concluded that.

  6. Ethical naturalism and same sex marriage | Ushie | Sophia: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quest by persons in same-sex relationship to consummate their sexual affiliations in marriage, solemnize and legalize it, has recently assumed global attention, especially, partly due to the judgment of the Supreme Court of the United States of America which legalize the practice nationwide as well as the decision of the ...

  7. Il matrimonio same sex nella Repubblica di San Marino?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Iannaccone

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioneSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. La questione del matrimonio tra persone dello stesso sesso in Italia: brevi cenni circa lo stato del dibattito nella giurisprudenza - 3. Il matrimonio same sex nella Repubblica di San Marino?

  8. Brain activation associated to olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; García, Luis I; Toledo-Cárdenas, Rebeca; Pfaus, James G; Manzo, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Sexual preferences can be strongly modified by Pavlovian learning. For instance, olfactory conditioned same-sex partner preference can occur when a sexually naïve male cohabits with an scented male during repeated periods under the effects of enhanced D2-type activity. Preference is observed days later via social and sexual behaviors. Herein we explored brain activity related to learned same-sex preference (Fos-Immunoreactivity, IR) following exposure to a conditioned odor paired with same-sex preference. During conditioning trials males received either saline or the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) and cohabitated during 24 h with a stimulus male that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. In a drug-free final test we assessed socio/sexual partner preference between the scented male and a receptive female. The results indicated that QNP-conditioned males developed a same-sex preference observed via contact, time spent, olfactory investigations, and non-contact erections. By contrast, saline-conditioned and intact (non-exposed to conditioning) males expressed an unconditioned preference for the female. Four days later the males were exposed to almond scent and their brains were processed for Fos-IR. Results indicated that the QNP-conditioned group expressed more Fos-IR in the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh), medial preoptic area (MPA), piriform cortex (Pir) and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) as compared to saline-conditioned. Intact males expressed the lowest Fos-IR in AcbSh and VMH, but the highest in MPA and Pir. We discuss the role of these areas in the learning process of same-sex partner preferences and olfactory discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invisible Victims: Delayed Onset Depression among Adults with Same-Sex Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Paul Sullins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of elevated depression risk recently discovered among adult persons raised by same-sex parents with possible precipitating conditions in childhood has not previously been acknowledged. This study tests whether such inattention is supportable. Logistic regression based risk ratios were estimated from longitudinal measures of mental health outcomes observed in three waves (at ages 15, 22, and 28 of the US National Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health (n=15,701. At age 28, the adults raised by same-sex parents were at over twice the risk of depression (CES-D: risk ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.4–4.6 as persons raised by man-woman parents. These findings should be interpreted with caution. Elevated risk was associated with imbalanced parental closeness and parental child abuse in family of origin; depression, suicidality, and anxiety at age 15; and stigma and obesity. More research and policy attention to potentially problematic conditions for children with same-sex parents appears warranted.

  10. Predictors of school engagement among same-sex and heterosexual adoptive parents of Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-10-01

    Little research has explored parental engagement in schools in the context of adoptive parent families or same-sex parent families. The current cross-sectional study explored predictors of parents' self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, in a sample of 103 female same-sex, male same-sex, and heterosexual adoptive parent couples (196 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about positive or neutral topics (e.g., their child's good grades) reported more involvement and greater satisfaction with schools, regardless of family type. Parents who reported more contact by teachers about negative topics (e.g., their child's behavior problems) reported better relationships with teachers but lower school satisfaction, regardless of family type. Regarding the broader school context, across all family types, parents who felt more accepted by other parents reported more involvement and better parent-teacher relationships; socializing with other parents was related to greater involvement. Regarding the adoption-specific variables, parents who perceived their children's schools as more culturally sensitive were more involved and satisfied with the school, regardless of family type. Perceived cultural sensitivity mattered more for heterosexual adoptive parents' relationships with their teachers than it did for same-sex adoptive parents. Finally, heterosexual adoptive parents who perceived high levels of adoption stigma in their children's schools were less involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma, whereas same-sex adoptive parents who perceived high levels of stigma were more involved than those who perceived low levels of stigma. Our findings have implications for school professionals, such as school psychologists, who work with diverse families. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual Minority Stress and Same-Sex Relationship Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis of Research Prior to the U.S. Nationwide Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Fine, Mark; Liang, Yue; Li, Jiayao; Mills-Koonce, W Roger

    2017-10-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to analyze 179 effect sizes retrieved from 32 research reports on the implications that sexual minority stress may have for same-sex relationship well-being. Sexual minority stress (aggregated across different types of stress) was moderately and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being (aggregated across different dimensions of relationship well-being). Internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship well-being, whereas heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management were not. Moreover, the effect size for internalized homophobia was significantly larger than those for heterosexist discrimination and sexual orientation visibility management. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with same-sex relationship quality but not associated with closeness or stability. Sexual minority stress was significantly and negatively associated with relationship well-being among same-sex female couples but not among same-sex male couples. The current status of research approaches in this field was also summarized and discussed.

  12. Couple-level Minority Stress: An Examination of Same-sex Couples' Unique Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; LeBlanc, Allen J; de Vries, Brian; Alston-Stepnitz, Eli; Stephenson, Rob; Woodyatt, Cory

    2017-12-01

    Social stress resulting from stigma, prejudice, and discrimination-"minority stress"-negatively impacts sexual minority individuals' health and relational well-being. The present study examined how being in a same-sex couple can result in exposure to unique minority stressors not accounted for at the individual level. Relationship timeline interviews were conducted with 120 same-sex couples equally distributed across two study sites (Atlanta and San Francisco), gender (male and female), and relationship duration (at least six months but less than three years, at least three years but less than seven years, and seven or more years). Directed content analyses identified 17 unique couple-level minority stressors experienced within nine distinct social contexts. Analyses also revealed experiences of dyadic minority stress processes (stress discrepancies and stress contagion). These findings can be useful in future efforts to better understand and address the cumulative impact of minority stress on relational well-being and individual health.

  13. Same-sex family unions in Israeli law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia Einhorn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal problems encountered by same-sex spouses in Israeli law are more complicated than those encountered in other democratic, developed countries. This stems from the fact that under Israeli law many areas of family law, first and foremost marriage and divorce, are governed by religious law, which is opposed to the legal recognition of such relationships. It is also not possible for such couples to establish a registered partnership in Israel, since partnerships can only be established for commercial purposes. A spectrum of family unions has nonetheless developed, gaining state recognition in various respects, mostly owing to the liberal approach of the Israel Supreme Court. Yet, it would appear that only legislation will be able resolve the outstanding problems. In its absence, a legal status is not conferred upon same-sex family unions and as such they are regarded as purely contractual arrangements. Other subject-matters in this article include: the extent of recognition granted to such family unions established abroad, by marriage or registered partnership; spouses’ rights and obligations regarding maintenance obligations and property relations; child adoption in Israel, especially if the child is unrelated to the spouses; parenthood if one spouse is the biological mother and the other a surrogate; the extent of recognition of foreign adoption orders; the dissolution of such family unions and succession.

  14. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Chi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined Chinese university students’ attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels, higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China. Key words: Chinese university students, same-sex attraction and behavior, gender differences

  15. Public health implications of same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffie, William C

    2011-06-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as "minority stress," with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group.

  16. Relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Y; Horne, Sharon G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship characteristics of women in interracial same-sex relationships with respect to their current level of stress, internalized homophobia, perceived relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, and social support. Four groups were compared according to their current type of race relationship (ethnic minority women with White partners, White partners only, both ethnic minority partners, and White women with ethnic minority partners). No significant differences were found in terms of children and income; however, ethnic minority women with ethnic minority partners reported lower education attainment than the other groups. Relationally, there were no significant differences by race relationship for social support, relationship equality, relationship satisfaction, or stress. Internalized homophobia was lowest for interracial partnerships (ethnic minority paired with White partner). These findings are discussed in relationship to minority stress.

  17. Public Health Implications of Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as “minority stress,” with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group. PMID:21493934

  18. Difference-in-Differences Analysis of the Association Between State Same-Sex Marriage Policies and Adolescent Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raifman, Julia; Moscoe, Ellen; Austin, S Bryn; McConnell, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Adolescents who are sexual minorities experience elevated rates of suicide attempts. To evaluate the association between state same-sex marriage policies and adolescent suicide attempts. This study used state-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) data from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2015, which are weighted to be representative of each state that has participation in the survey greater than 60%. A difference-in-differences analysis compared changes in suicide attempts among all public high school students before and after implementation of state policies in 32 states permitting same-sex marriage with year-to-year changes in suicide attempts among high school students in 15 states without policies permitting same-sex marriage. Linear regression was used to control for state, age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year, with Taylor series linearized standard errors clustered by state and classroom. In a secondary analysis among students who are sexual minorities, we included an interaction between sexual minority identity and living in a state that had implemented same-sex marriage policies. Implementation of state policies permitting same-sex marriage during the full period of YRBSS data collection. Self-report of 1 or more suicide attempts within the past 12 months. Among the 762 678 students (mean [SD] age, 16.0 [1.2] years; 366 063 males and 396 615 females) who participated in the YRBSS between 1999 and 2015, a weighted 8.6% of all high school students and 28.5% of students who identified as sexual minorities reported suicide attempts before implementation of same-sex marriage policies. Same-sex marriage policies were associated with a 0.6-percentage point (95% CI, -1.2 to -0.01 percentage points) reduction in suicide attempts, representing a 7% relative reduction in the proportion of high school students attempting suicide owing to same-sex

  19. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören

    2016-01-01

    (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were......Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho...

  20. Same-sex marriage in South Africa: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Swanepoel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The status of same-sex partnerships is currently a hotly debated issue in various jurisdictions and also in South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa2 prohibits unfair discrimination by the State, inter alia, on grounds of gender, sex and sexual orientation. The question that arises is whether the legal definition of marriage, being a relationship between one man and one woman, constitutes discrimination, and if so, whether such discrimination is unfair. The legal position has become acute in South Africa. Legal uncertainty prevails with regard to the legal status of such couples. Various applications have been brought before branches of the High Court and the Constitutional Court for relief relating to particular personal and patrimonial consequences of marriage. In some cases the respective courts had to establish on an ad hoc basis whether a long term relationship indicative of a marriage-like relationship existed in order to bestow the particular relief requested by the applicant couple. The very fact that an ad hoc determination has to be made because, of course, there is no celebration of a valid marriage creates an untenable situation for such couples. The question posed above, forms the focal point of serious, and often insulting, legal debate. This contribution endeavors to give a brief overview of the various viewpoints, and thereafter to add to the debate.

  1. Risk of epilepsy in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yanyan; Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Christensen, Kaare

    2018-01-01

    Background: There is a complex interaction between female and male sex hormones and the risk of epilepsy. Whether prenatal exposure to higher levels of sex hormones affects the development of epilepsy in childhood or later in life is not well known. The sex hormone environment of fetuses may...... be affected by the sex of the co-twin. We estimated the risk of epilepsy for twins with an opposite-sex (OS) co-twin compared with twins with a same-sex (SS) co-twin. Methods: From the Danish Twin Registry, we identified OS female twins (n = 11,078), SS female twins (n = 19,186), OS male twins (n = 11...

  2. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  3. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  4. [The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J

    Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and

  5. Domestic Abuse and Gender Inequality: An overview of the current debate

    OpenAIRE

    McFeely, Clare; Whiting, Nel; Lombard, Nancy; McGowan, Mhairi

    2013-01-01

    Domestic abuse is a global phenomenon which adversely affects individuals who experience it and creates social and financial burdens for the societies in which it occurs. While abuse can be perpetrated by women against male partners and occurs in same sex relationships, domestic abuse is overwhelmingly perpetrated by men against female partners. As a result, the United Nations has identified domestic abuse as a form of gender based violence that is predominantly experienced by women and pe...

  6. Voting to Ban Same-Sex Marriage: Interests, Values, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Rory; Diaz, Maria-Elena D.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 through 2008, initiatives proposing to ban same-sex marriage were on the ballot in 28 states. Although same-sex marriage opponents scored lopsided victories in most cases, voting outcomes varied substantially at the county level. This article examines sources of that variation and argues that opposition to same-sex marriage should be…

  7. The brain reaction to viewing faces of opposite- and same-sex romantic partners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semir Zeki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We pursued our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies of the neural correlates of romantic love in 24 subjects, half of whom were female (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual and half male (6 heterosexual and 6 homosexual. We compared the pattern of activity produced in their brains when they viewed the faces of their loved partners with that produced when they viewed the faces of friends of the same sex to whom they were romantically indifferent. The pattern of activation and de-activation was very similar in the brains of males and females, and heterosexuals and homosexuals. We could therefore detect no difference in activation patterns between these groups.

  8. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A; Sandfort, Theo G M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety disorder. Little is known about this, even though it is now well documented that depression and anxiety are more prevalent among persons with same-sex attraction. Data, derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), allowed us to compare patients with a same-sex (n = 122) and an exclusively opposite-sex (n = 1658) attraction. Persons with same-sex attraction included persons who were attracted to both sexes. Data were collected by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and paper-and pencil questionnaires. Seven percent of the patients reported any same-sex orientation. Clinical expression of depression and anxiety did not differ in relation to sexual attraction. Regarding substance use, same-sex attracted women reported more drug use than heterosexual women (drug use: 16.2% vs. 6.6%, P = 0.003). Regarding stressful childhood experiences, men with any same-sex attraction reported more sexual abuse during childhood than men with a heterosexual orientation (20.4% vs. 8.5%, P = 0.005). For women with same-sex attraction substance use (especially illicit drug use) might be a coping mechanism to deal with existing symptoms or with the minority stressors they have to deal with; for same-sex attracted men stressful childhood experiences might reflect an aspect of etiology.

  9. Sickness-induced changes in physiology do not affect fecundity or same-sex behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Báez Ramos, Patricia; Demas, Gregory E

    2018-02-01

    Previous work in our lab has shown that early-life infection affects female reproductive physiology and function (i.e., smaller ovaries, abnormal estrous cycles) and alters investigation and aggression towards male conspecifics in a reproductive context. Although many studies have investigated the effects of postnatal immune challenge on physiological and behavioral development, fewer studies have examined whether these changes have ultimate effects on reproduction. In the current study, we paired Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) and simulated a bacterial infection in early life by administering lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to male and female pups on pnd3 and pnd5. In adulthood, hamsters were paired with novel individuals of the same sex, and we scored an array of social behaviors (e.g., investigation, aggression). We then paired animals with individuals of the opposite sex for 5 consecutive nights, providing them with the opportunity to mate. We found that females exhibited impaired reproductive physiology and function in adulthood (i.e., smaller ovaries and abnormal estrous cycles), similar to our previous work. However, both LPS-treated males and females exhibited similar same-sex social behavior when compared with saline-treated controls, they successfully mated, and there were no significant changes in fecundity. These data suggest that the physiological changes in response to neonatal immune challenge may not have long-term effects on reproductive success in a controlled environment. Collectively, the results of this study are particularly important when investigating the relationships between physiology and behavior within an ultimate context. Animals exposed to early-life stress may in fact be capable of compensating for changes in physiology in order to survive and reproduce in some contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  11. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  12. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  13. "More Closeted Than Gayness Itself": The Depiction of Same-Sex Couple Violence in Newspaper Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Michelle L; Webber, Gretchen R

    2017-10-01

    Same-sex intimate partner violence (IPV) lacks mainstream news media coverage. News media report on those stories that are most prominent, and these stories are often shaped and presented within a White, heterosexual, upper-class, male framework. This framework largely ignores or misrepresents those that do not fit these characteristics, resulting in a gap in research and coverage of same-sex IPV. This article explores whether U.S. newspapers cover same-sex IPV, how often, and how same-sex couple violence is portrayed in newspapers when covered. Twenty-five newspaper articles published from 2005 to 2015, 10 years prior to the U.S. Supreme Court decision that legalized same-sex marriage, were located and analyzed. Findings indicate sparse newspaper coverage of IPV in same-sex couples. Ten articles highlight the lack of coverage and knowledge related to same-sex couple IPV. Eighteen articles address same-sex IPV as a social issue and highlight resource concerns, police involvement, and heteronormativity and heterosexism. Sixteen articles depict specific instances of IPV in same-sex couples. The overall lack of coverage and how same-sex IPV is covered remains problematic and limited. More mainstream and accurate coverage is needed to effectively address this social issue. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

  14. Attitudes toward Same-Sex Attraction and Behavior among Chinese University Students: Tendencies, Correlates, and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xinli; Hawk, Skyler T

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese university students' attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, the socio-demographic correlates of these attitudes, and the potential gender differences in both tendencies and correlates. A total of 2,644 Chinese university students (49.7% male, mean age = 20.27 years) indicated generally negative attitudes toward same-sex attraction and behavior, with males reporting more negative attitudes than females. More years in university (i.e., higher grade levels), higher levels of maternal education, growing up in an urban area, and more frequent Internet use significantly predicted more positive attitudes. Gender significantly moderated one correlate: For female participants, a higher university grade was related to more positive attitudes; this correlation was not significant for male participants. The findings suggest valuable directions for related intervention practices for young people in China.

  15. State-level marriage equality and the health of same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Acosta, Katie L; Wright, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states' legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples.

  16. Assessing attitude toward same-sex marriage: scale development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannutti, Pamela J; Lachlan, Kenneth A

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the results of three studies conducted to develop, refine, and validate a scale which assessed heterosexual adults' attitudes toward same-sex marriage, the Attitude Toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ASSMS). The need for such a scale is evidenced in the increasing importance of same-sex marriage in the political arena of the United States and other nations, as well as the growing body of empirical research examining same-sex marriage and related issues (e.g., Lannutti, 2005; Solomon, Rothblum, & Balsam, 2004). The results demonstrate strong reliability, convergent validity, and predictive validity for the ASSMS and suggest that the ASSMS may be adapted to measure attitudes toward civil unions and other forms of relational recognition for same-sex couples. Gender comparisons using the validated scale showed that in college and non-college samples, women had a significantly more positive attitude toward same-sex marriage than did men.

  17. Mortality among men and women in same-sex marriage: a national cohort study of 8333 Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We studied overall mortality in a demographically defined, complete cohort of gay men and lesbians to address recent claims of markedly shorter life spans among homosexual persons. We calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) starting 1 year after the date of same-sex marriage for 4914 men and 3419 women in Denmark who married a same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004. Mortality was markedly increased in the first decade after same-sex marriage for men who married between 1989 and 1995 (SMR=2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.01, 2.50), but much less so for men who married after 1995, when efficient HIV/AIDS therapies were available (SMR=1.33; 95% CI=1.04, 1.68). For women who married their same-sex partner between 1989 and 2004, mortality was 34% higher than was mortality in the general female population (SMR=1.34; 95% CI=1.09, 1.63). For women, and for men marrying after 1995, the significant excess mortality was limited to the period 1 to 3 years after the marriage. Despite recent marked reduction in mortality among gay men, Danish men and women in same-sex marriages still have mortality rates that exceed those of the general population. The excess mortality is restricted to the first few years after a marriage, presumably reflecting preexisting illness at the time of marriage. Although further study is needed, the claims of drastically increased overall mortality in gay men and lesbians appear unjustified.

  18. Homosexuality, Religion, and the Family: The Effects of Religion on Americans' Appraisals of the Parenting Abilities of Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew L

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing body of research focuses on Americans' attitudes toward same-sex couples as parents, very few include measures of religion, and those that do fail to capture its multidimensional nature. Furthermore, many past studies relied on convenience samples of college students, or samples gathered outside the United States. Multivariate analyses of the 2012 General Social Survey-a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States-reveal that a slim majority of Americans still do not believe same-sex couples can parent as well as male-female couples, and the religious beliefs, behaviors, and affiliations of Americans are significantly and at times differentially associated with appraisals of same-sex couples' parenting abilities. It appears that although religion is generally associated with more negative appraisals of the parenting abilities of same-sex couples, it is not uniformly so. Americans' immediate religious and cultural context can shape their appraisals of homosexuality in diverse ways.

  19. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  20. Differences in Religiousness in Opposite-Sex and Same-Sex Twins in a Secular Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda J; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Möller, Sören; Christensen, Kaare; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Hvidt, Niels Christian

    2016-02-01

    Sex differences in religion are well known, with females generally being more religious than males, and shared environmental factors have been suggested to have a large influence on religiousness. Twins from opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) pairs may differ because of a dissimilar psycho-social rearing environment and/or because of different exposures to hormones in utero. We hypothesized that OS females may display more masculine patterns of religiousness and, vice versa, that OS males may display more feminine patterns. We used a web-based survey conducted in Denmark, which is a secular society. The survey included 2,997 twins aged 20-40 years, identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. We applied la Cour and Hvidt's adaptation of Fishman's three conceptual dimensions of meaning: Cognition, Practice, and Importance, and we used Pargament's measure of religious coping (RCOPE) for the assessment of positive and negative religious coping patterns. Differences between OS and SS twins were investigated using logistic regression for each sex. The analyses were adjusted for dependence within twin pairs. No significant differences in religiousness and religious coping were found for OS and SS twins except that more OS than SS females were members of the Danish National Evangelical Lutheran Church and fewer OS than SS females were Catholic, Muslim, or belonged to other religious denominations. Moreover, OS males at age 12 had higher rates of church attendance than did SS males. This study did not provide evidence for masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to religiousness. Nor did it show any significant differences between OS and SS males except from higher rates of church attendance in childhood among males with female co-twins.

  1. Restricted Freedom: Negotiating Same-Sex Identifications in the Residential Spaces of a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msibi, Thabo; Jagessar, Valenshia

    2015-01-01

    International higher education research focused on students who claim same-sex identifications in university residential spaces has tended to prioritise the "gay as victim" discourse, often leading to the pathologising of same-sex identification. While there is emerging research seeking to challenge this dimension of scholarship by…

  2. Intact Marriages in which One Partner Dis-Identifies with Experiences of Same-Sex Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Pawlowski, Lisa M.; Tan, Erica S. N.

    2003-01-01

    This study is of heterosexually married couples in which one partner reports having experienced same-sex attraction and both partners report satisfaction with their marriage despite facing such constraints. Analysis suggested a number of themes related to how spouses learned about their partners' experiences of same-sex attraction, motivations for…

  3. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…

  4. Client Discourses on the Process of Seeking Same-Sex Couple Counselling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jan; Peel, Elizabeth; Owen-Pugh, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    How same-sex couples manage the process of seeking help for their relationships is an under-researched area. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people who had engaged in same-sex couple counselling, and were analysed using discourse analysis. The ways in which the couples positioned themselves as part of a "minority…

  5. Comparing Trans-Spectrum and Same-Sex-Attracted Youth in Australia: Increased Risks, Increased Activisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany; Hillier, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Tran-spectrum youth include those who are gender questioning, transgender, intersex, genderqueer, and androgynous. Drawing on data from an Australian study of more than 3,000 same-sex-attracted and trans-spectrum youth aged 14 to 21, this article compares a group of 91 trans-spectrum youth from the study to "cisgender" same-sex-attracted…

  6. Multiple Identity Considerations among African American Christian Men Experiencing Same-Sex Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark A.; Nowacki-Butzen, Stephanie; Brooks, D. Fredrica

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored the experiences of African American men who identified as Christian and experienced same-sex attraction. Participants completed an online questionnaire addressing experiences of same-sex attraction; meaning attributed to their attractions; the sharing of their experiences with others; and perceptions regarding the intersection…

  7. National and state-specific health insurance disparities for adults in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2014-02-01

    We examined national and state-specific disparities in health insurance coverage, specifically employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) coverage, for adults in same-sex relationships. We used data from the American Community Survey to identify adults (aged 25-64 years) in same-sex relationships (n = 31,947), married opposite-sex relationships (n = 3,060,711), and unmarried opposite-sex relationships (n = 259,147). We estimated multinomial logistic regression models and state-specific relative differences in ESI coverage with predictive margins. Men and women in same-sex relationships were less likely to have ESI than were their married counterparts in opposite-sex relationships. We found ESI disparities among adults in same-sex relationships in every region, but we found the largest ESI gaps for men in the South and for women in the Midwest. ESI disparities were narrower in states that had extended legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, and broad domestic partnerships. Men and women in same-sex relationships experience disparities in health insurance coverage across the country, but residing in a state that recognizes legal same-sex marriage, civil unions, or broad domestic partnerships may improve access to ESI for same-sex spouses and domestic partners.

  8. Polyamory, Social Conservatism and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate in the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The arguments against same-sex marriage used by the Christian right and other social conservatives in the US have shifted in character. Drawing upon the work of Stanley Kurtz, they have increasingly suggested that same-sex marriage will necessarily lead to the legal recognition of polygamous...

  9. In defense of tradition: Religiosity, conservatism, and opposition to same-sex marriage in North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Toorn, J.; Jost, J. T.; Packer, D. J.; Noorbaloochi, S.; van Bavel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual

  10. "Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

  11. Counselors' Attitudes toward Domestic Violence in Same-Sex versus Opposite-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jamye R.; Fedewa, Alicia L.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is often perceived to occur only in heterosexual relationships. However, domestic violence is also prevalent in same-sex relationships. The majority of the research indicates that counselors perceive same-sex domestic violence differently than heterosexual domestic violence. This literature review synthesizes the research…

  12. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…

  13. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  14. In Defense of Tradition: Religiosity, Conservatism, and Opposition to Same-Sex Marriage in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Toorn, Jojanneke; Jost, John T; Packer, Dominic J; Noorbaloochi, Sharareh; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-10-01

    Arguments opposing same-sex marriage are often made on religious grounds. In five studies conducted in the United States and Canada (combined N = 1,673), we observed that religious opposition to same-sex marriage was explained, at least in part, by conservative ideology and linked to sexual prejudice. In Studies 1 and 2, we discovered that the relationship between religiosity and opposition to same-sex marriage was mediated by explicit sexual prejudice. In Study 3, we saw that the mediating effect of sexual prejudice was linked to political conservatism. Finally, in Studies 4a and 4b we examined the ideological underpinnings of religious opposition to same-sex marriage in more detail by taking into account two distinct aspects of conservative ideology. Results revealed that resistance to change was more important than opposition to equality in explaining religious opposition to same-sex marriage.

  15. Let’s Talk About Same Sex: How Social Workers Can Make Judges Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Boys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have created a diverse toolbox of literature reporting that same sex cohabitating relationships are strikingly similar to heterosexual marriages in amicus curiae briefs submitted to the courts. However, judges are trained to fit information into legal frameworks and to ignore data that does not fit the rhetoric of a case. The following article aims to fit existing data on same sex relationships into the framework judges will use to decide whether same sex marriage can be prohibited. The primary precedent used to support same sex marriage is based on the analogy of a case prohibiting marriage discrimination based on race. The legal framework created by this case requires social work policy practitioners to frame research in terms of the evolution that has occurred in scientific understanding of same sex attraction and public opinion. A simple shift in the discourse used to frame the data can significantly impact whether judges listen.

  16. [Accomplices under influence, teachers-lovers, "Incestigators" or pimps… Who are females child abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailleau, Virginie; Thirioux, Bérangère; Harika-Germaneau, Ghina; Jaafari, Nematollah

    2017-12-01

    According to victimization surveys, the percentage of females among child abusers is much higher than 2 or 5% as usually reported in the devoted literature. The under-estimated percentage of child sexual abuses committed by females would result from the dissimulation of sexual acts within nursing care, a gender bias in favor of women among child protection system professionals and low disclosures. Sexual abuses committed by females are often more harmful for children than sexual abuses committed by males. Although a few female child abusers suffers from psychiatric disorders, most of them are psychologically and emotionally dependent from a man or have psychopathic, manipulative and sometimes sadistic personality traits. Female child abusers are a heterogeneous population either acting under the influence of a man or initiating actively the offending for pedophile or financial motivations. Deconstructing the persistent myths about female child abusers is necessary to better identify these women, treat them and prevent relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits.

  18. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G. L. Lee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity. We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231 in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  19. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-07-28

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people.

  20. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers’ Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Goldstein, Adam O.; Pan, William K.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers’ tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  1. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  2. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a number of parent-reported measures of child health. Perceived stigma is negatively associated with mental health. Through improved awareness of stigma these findings play an important role in

  3. Self-Mutilating Behavior of Sexually Abused Female Adults in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Isin; Kora, Kaan; Yuksel, Sahika; Sezgin, Ufuk

    1998-01-01

    Self-mutilating behavior (SMB), suicide, and eating disorders are examined in adult females (N=42) in relation to childhood sexual abuse. A statistically significant relationship was found between SMB and suicide attempts. Findings support the contention that SMB and sexual abuse are closely related to eating disorders. (Author/EMK)

  4. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  5. Gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and same-sex sexual attraction and the acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collier, K.L.; Bos, H.M.W.; Merry, M.S.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the role of gender, ethnicity, religiosity, and sexual attraction in adolescents’ acceptance of same-sex sexuality and gender non-conformity. Using an intersectionality perspective, we also tested whether the effects of gender, ethnicity, and religiosity on adolescents’ attitudes

  6. Same-Sex and Different-Sex Cohabiting Couple Relationship Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Brown, Susan L; Stykes, J Bart

    2016-08-01

    Relationship stability is a key indicator of well-being, but most U.S.-based research has been limited to different-sex couples. The 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) provides an untapped data resource to analyze relationship stability of same-sex cohabiting, different-sex cohabiting, and different-sex married couples (n = 5,701). The advantages of the SIPP data include the recent, nationally representative, and longitudinal data collection; a large sample of same-sex cohabitors; respondent and partner socioeconomic characteristics; and identification of a state-level indicator of a policy stating that marriage is between one man and one woman (i.e., DOMA). We tested competing hypotheses about the stability of same-sex versus different-sex cohabiting couples that were guided by incomplete institutionalization, minority stress, relationship investments, and couple homogamy perspectives (predicting that same-sex couples would be less stable) as well as economic resources (predicting that same-sex couples would be more stable). In fact, neither expectation was supported: results indicated that same-sex cohabiting couples typically experience levels of stability that are similar to those of different-sex cohabiting couples. We also found evidence of contextual effects: living in a state with a constitutional ban against same-sex marriage was significantly associated with higher levels of instability for same- and different-sex cohabiting couples. The level of stability in both same-sex and different-sex cohabiting couples is not on par with that of different-sex married couples. The findings contribute to a growing literature on health and well-being of same-sex couples and provide a broader understanding of family life.

  7. The Impact of Creating Civil Unions for Same-Sex Couples on Delaware’s Budget

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jody L.; Konnoth, Craig J.; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report analyzes the impact on Delaware’s state budget of introducing civil union rights for same-sex couples. It estimates that a law recognizing civil unions between same-sex partners will cost the State $1.18 million over the three years following the measure, or only $390,000 per year. The costs and benefits accrued will change every year, as the number of same-sex couples entering civil unions each year will change. The State will see savings in expenditures on state means-tested pub...

  8. Affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2014-08-01

    The affectionless control parenting has been associated with depression in recipients. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this parenting style on dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. The subjects were 666 Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental rearing was evaluated by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the care and protection subscales. Parental rearing was classified into four types, i.e., optimal parenting (high care/low protection), affectionate constraint (high care/high protection), neglectful parenting (low care/low protection), and affectionless control (low care/high protection). Dysfunctional attitudes were evaluated by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. Males with paternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with paternal optimal parenting (P=.016). Similarly, females with maternal affectionless control had higher achievement scores than those with maternal optimal parenting (P=.016). The present study suggests that affectionless control by the same-sex parents increases dysfunctional attitudes about achievement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law

  10. SAME SEX UNIONS OF LIFE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In several cases the the European Court of Justice (ECJ interpreted the provisions of the Agreement on the European Community in terms of homosexual rights. The practice of the ECJ in the last five years (2008-2013 shows the tendency to expand the rights of homosexual persons. The paper brings the analysis of four decision of the ECJ in the cases where it decided on the issue of discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. In the first two verdicts, the Court refused to compare marriage and common-law marriage to the same-sex union of life, thus limiting same-sex partners to achieve certain rights. In other two cases the Court made step forward and compared marriage and same-sex union of life but only if both, marriage and same-sex union of life are regulated by national law.

  11. Same-Sex Sexuality and Educational Attainment: The Pathway to College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2017-01-01

    Research finds lower levels of academic performance among sexual minority high school students, but some studies suggest sexual minorities have higher levels of educational attainment in adulthood. To further our understanding of how and why sexual orientation is associated with educational success, this study turns attention to the pathways to college completion, examining points along educational trajectories in which sexual minorities fall behind or surpass their heterosexual peers. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, we find that sexual minority women are less likely than women with no same-sex sexuality to complete college, in part due to their high school performance and transition into college. Men who experience same-sex sexuality only in adolescence struggle in high school, but men who experience same-sex sexuality for the first time in adulthood are more likely to earn a college degree than men who do not experience same-sex sexuality.

  12. Shall we marry? Legal marriage as a commitment event in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Ellen; Tracy, Allison J; Page, Konjit V; Luong, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    This study is a part of an exploratory study of 50 married and unmarried same-sex couples in Massachusetts conducted by the Wellesley Centers for Women following legalization of same-sex marriage in Massachusetts in 2004. This article examines whether and how legalization of same-sex marriage impacted same-sex partners' commitment to one another, presentation to others as a couple, and treatment as a couple by others. Roughly one-quarter of the couples studied chose not to mark their commitment with ceremonies of any kind, while nearly three-fourths of the couples had either commitment (non-legal) ceremonies, legal weddings, or both. While decisions to legally marry largely were based on gaining legal protections, unforeseen impacts on self and relationships with family, friends, and the larger society revealed multiple layers of meaning. Implications of the study for public policy and social change are discussed.

  13. Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the rights and responsibilities. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examined the law surrounding marriage rights and ...

  14. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  15. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women:an interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Charlotte; Eccles, Fiona Juliet Rosalind; Armitage, Jocelyn Rebecca; Murray, Craig David

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Results: Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) naviga...

  16. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  18. Same-sex attraction in a birth cohort: prevalence and persistence in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; Paul, Charlotte; Herbison, Peter

    2003-04-01

    There is a continuing debate about the importance of social versus biological factors in the expression of same-sex attraction. Investigation of prevalence, continuities, and changes over time among young adults growing up in a country with a relatively accepting climate to homosexuality is likely to illuminate this debate. Analyses were therefore undertaken of self-reported same-sex attraction at age 21 and 26, in a cohort of about 1000 people born in 1972/3 in one New Zealand city. Participants were also asked about same-sex behaviour and attitudes to same-sex relationships. By age 26, 10.7% of men and 24.5% of women reported being attracted to their own sex at some time. This dropped to 5.6% of men and 16.4% of women who reported some current same-sex attraction. Current attraction predominantly to their own sex or equally to both sexes (major attraction) was reported by 1.6% of men and 2.1% of women. Occasional same-sex attraction, but not major attraction, was more common among the most educated. Between age 21 and 26, slightly more men moved away from an exclusive heterosexual attraction (1.9% of all men) than moved towards it (1.0%), while for women, many more moved away (9.5%) than towards (1.3%) exclusive heterosexual attraction. These findings show that much same-sex attraction is not exclusive and is unstable in early adulthood, especially among women. The proportion of women reporting some same-sex attraction in New Zealand is high compared both to men, and to women in the UK and US. These observations, along with the variation with education, are consistent with a large role for the social environment in the acknowledgement of same-sex attraction. The smaller group with major same-sex attraction, which changed less over time, and did not differ by education, is consistent with a basic biological dimension to sexual attraction. Overall these findings argue against any single explanation for homosexual attraction.

  19. Disparities in health insurance among children with same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Blewett, Lynn A

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine disparities in health insurance coverage for children with same-sex parents and to investigate how statewide policies such as same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions affect children's private insurance coverage. We used data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey to identify children (aged 0-17 years) with same-sex parents (n = 5081), married opposite-sex parents (n = 1369789), and unmarried opposite-sex parents (n = 101678). We conducted multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the relationship between family type and type of health insurance coverage for all children and then stratified by each child's state policy environment. Although 77.5% of children with married opposite-sex parents had private health insurance, only 63.3% of children with dual fathers and 67.5% with dual mothers were covered by private health plans. Children with same-sex parents had fewer odds of private insurance after controlling for demographic characteristics but not to the extent of children with unmarried opposite-sex parents. Differences in private insurance diminished for children with dual mothers after stratifying children in states with legal same-sex marriage or civil unions. Living in a state that allowed second-parent adoptions also predicted narrower disparities in private insurance coverage for children with dual fathers or dual mothers. Disparities in private health insurance for children with same-sex parents diminish when they live in states that secure their legal relationship to both parents. This study provides supporting evidence in favor of recent policy statements by the American Academy of Pediatricians endorsing same-sex marriage and second-parent adoptions.

  20. Breaking up is hard to do: Women's experience of dissolving their same-sex relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B

    2017-01-02

    While prior research has compared same-sex to heterosexual relationships, very little attention has been paid to the unique experiences of women dissolving same-sex relationships, especially in the context of shifting legal and social policies. The current study examined the experience of 20 women who dissolved their same-sex relationship between 2002 and 2014. Participants were drawn from a longitudinal sample of same-sex and heterosexual couples and were interviewed using a semi-structured protocol. Interviews focused on three primary research questions: reasons for dissolution, emotional reactions, and role of legal status. While reasons for dissolution largely mirrored literature on women in heterosexual relationships, emotional reactions and the role of legal status were both influenced by sexual minority-specific factors related to minority stress and the recent societal changes pertaining to legal relationship recognition. Results are interpreted in a framework of minority stress and the ongoing legacy of institutional discrimination experienced by women in same-sex relationships.

  1. In sickness and in health: same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Andrew M; Mialon, Hugo M; Peng, Handie

    2012-10-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between same-sex marriage laws and sexually transmitted infections in the United States using state-level data from 1981 to 2008. We hypothesize that same-sex marriage laws may directly affect risky homosexual behavior; may affect or mirror social attitudes toward gays, which in turn may affect homosexual behavior; and may affect or mirror attitudes toward non-marital sex, which may affect risky heterosexual behavior. Our findings may be summarized as follows. Laws banning same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea rates, which are a proxy for risky heterosexual behavior. They are more closely associated with syphilis rates, which are a proxy for risky homosexual behavior. However, these estimates are smaller and less statistically significant when we exclude California, the state with the largest gay population. Also, laws permitting same-sex marriage are unrelated to gonorrhea or syphilis, but variation in these laws is insufficient to yield precise estimates. In sum, the findings point to a modest positive association--if any at all--between same-sex marriage bans and syphilis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Same-sex partner bereavement in older women: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Charlotte F A; Eccles, Fiona J R; Armitage, Jocelyn R; Murray, Craig D

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lack of existing literature, the current research explored experiences of same-sex partner bereavement in women over the age of 60. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight women. Transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three themes were identified which elaborated the experiences of older women who had lost a same-sex partner: (1) being left alone encapsulated feelings of isolation and exclusion; (2) navigating visibility centred on how homophobia led to a lack of recognition of the women's grief; and (3) finding new places to be authentic related women's need for new relationships in which they could be themselves. The findings indicate that existing models of partner bereavement may provide useful frameworks when seeking to understand the experiences of older women who have lost their same-sex partners. The findings indicate that in addition to the experiences of partner bereavement noted in research with heterosexual widows, older women who lose same-sex partners may face particular challenges, which can impact upon psychological well-being and adjustment to loss. These challenges appear to result from past and current homophobic and heterosexist attitudes within the UK culture. A range of interventions at individual, group, health service, and societal levels may be beneficial in improving the psychological well-being of older women who lose a same-sex partner.

  3. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  4. [Surrogate pregnancy with regard to marriage between persons of the same sex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    After first defining surrogacy, distinguishing between cases in which the pregnancy results from the surrogate's own egg or a donor egg, and examining the different configurations of male homosexual families, the authors outline French and foreign legislation and provide a summary of the literature and of French working group hearings. Arguments for and against lifting the ban on surrogacy for gay couples are examined. The main arguments for lifting the ban are the following: 1) the same-sex couple's desire to start a family from their own gene pool, 2) current obstacles to adoption, 3) the notion of equality between heterosexual and homosexual couples, 4) frequent recourse to surrogacy abroad, which is not only very costly but also leaves the child in a state of legal limbo on its return to France, and 5) the lack of access to therapeutic alternatives. Some arguments against lifting the ban are of a medical nature: (1) physical and psychological risks for the surrogate, 2) the fact that exchanges between the mother and fetus during pregnancy are more complex than previously thought (microchimerism, epigenetics) and never negligible, and 3) the physical and psychological risks for the child. Other arguments are of an ethical nature: 1) surrogacy may undermine the status of motherhood, 2) surrogacy is becoming a societal rather than a medical issue, implying a profound bioethical upheaval, 3) the increasing commercialization of the human body, 4) subjugation of women to men's desires, 5) the risks for the surrogate's own couple and children, and for the host couple, 6) unavoidable financial aspects, and (7) the risk of abuse. The aim of this study is to bring together all the factors potentially influencing the health consequences of surrogacy, for both the mother and the child, especially if surrogacy were to be legalized for male homosexual couples. Surrogacy raises issues far beyond purely medical considerations and is primarily a societal issue that must be

  5. Same-Sex Domestic Violence: Prevalence, Unique Aspects, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Carroll, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a significant public health issue. Prevalence rates for same-sex domestic violence vary because of methodological issues related to recruitment and definitions of sexual orientation. However, such prevalence rates are currently considered to be similar to slightly greater than other-sex prevalence rates. Research has identified differences between same-sex domestic violence and other-sex domestic violence, including internalized and externalized stressors associated with being a sexual minority that interact with domestic violence to create or exacerbate vulnerabilities, higher risk for complex trauma experiences, and difficulties accessing services. This review provides a critical review of the literature, focusing upon empirical findings regarding same-sex domestic violence.

  6. Characteristics of activities that affect the development of women's same-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R

    2014-01-01

    The author utilized semistructured interviews with 56 women to explore how a wide range of activities affected the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships. The researcher was able to identify and describe some aspects of the process by which eight characteristics of activities that are more or less present in various social contexts have the potential to impact whether these contexts are more or less conducive or hindering to the development of women's same-sex attractions and relationships. Activities were more apt to nurture the development of the participants' same-sex attractions and relationships when the activity (a) included lesbians, (b) was composed primarily of women, (c) affirmed women, (d) facilitated bonding, (e) featured a climate of acceptance of lesbians/gays/bisexuals, (f) did not feature a climate that emphasized heteronormativity, (g) was perceived as gender neutral, and (h) generated or drew participants who were similar to each other.

  7. The Mediator Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Symptoms in Female Survivors of CSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David; Jauregui, Paula

    2016-04-24

    Child abuse is a traumatic experience that may have psychological consequences such as dysfunctional beliefs. The aim of this study was to analyze the impulsive behaviors (alcohol abuse, gambling, drug abuse, eating disorders, Internet abuse, videogame abuse, shopping and sex addiction) in sexual abuse survivors and to study the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the appearance of impulsive behaviors in adult female victims. The sample consisted of 182 adult women who had suffered childhood sexual abuse (CSA), mostly referred by associations for the treatment of childhood abuse and maltreatment. Sexual abuse was found to be positively related to the domains of Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Autonomy. Moreover, these domains were significantly related to impulsivity and impulsive behaviors. Finally, the Disconnection/Rejection domain was found to mediate between CSA and eating disorders and alcohol abuse. These results may provide important guidance for clinical intervention. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Suicide in married couples in Sweden: Is the risk greater in same-sex couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Charlotte; Andersson, Gunnar; Dalman, Christina; Cochran, Susan; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2016-07-01

    Minority sexual orientation is a predictor of suicide ideation and attempts, though its association with suicide mortality is less clear. We capitalize on Sweden's extensively linked databases, to investigate whether, among married individuals, same-sex marriage is associated with suicide. Using a population-based register design, we analyzed suicide risk among same-sex married women and men (n = 6456), as compared to different-sex married women and men (n = 1181723) in Sweden. We selected all newly partnered or married individuals in the intervening time between 1/1/1996 and 12/31/2009 and followed them with regard to suicide until 12/31/2011. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). The risk of suicide was higher among same-sex married individuals as compared to different-sex married individuals (IRR 2.7, 95 % CI 1.5-4.8), after adjustment for time at risk and socioeconomic confounding. Sex-stratified analyses showed a tentatively elevated risk for same-sex married women (IRR 2.5, 95 % CI 0.8-7.7) as compared to different-sex married women. Among same-sex married men the suicide risk was nearly three-fold greater as compared to different-sex married (IRR 2.895 % CI 1.5-5.5). This holds true also after adjustment for HIV status. Even in a country with a comparatively tolerant climate regarding homosexuality such as Sweden, same-sex married individuals evidence a higher risk for suicide than other married individuals.

  9. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment among female faculty and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.

  11. The Impact on New Hampshire's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This analysis, co-authored by the Institute for Gay and Lesbian Strategic Studies (IGLSS) and UCLA’s Williams Project on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on New Hampshire’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $500,000 each year for the State. This net impact will be the result of savings in expenditures on state means-teste...

  12. The Impact of Washington's Budget of Allowing Same-Sex Couples to Marry

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad; Kukura, Elizabeth; Lau, Holning S.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis estimates the impact of allowing same-sex couples to marry on Washington’s state budget. Using the best data available, we estimate that allowing same-sex couples to marry will result in a net gain of approximately $3.9 million to $5.7 million each year for the State. This net impact will result from savings in expenditures on state means-tested public benefits programs and from an increase in sales tax revenue from weddings and wedding-related tourism.

  13. The Labor Supply and Tax Revenue Consequences of Federal Same-Sex Marriage Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The issue of same-sex marriage legalization is increasingly part of the national political dialogue. This legalization would have a number of economic impacts, one of the most direct being a change in income tax payments, through the so-called marriage penalty. I estimate the effects of same-sex marriage legalization on federal income tax revenue. These estimates rely critically on the responsiveness of labor supply and marital choice to changes in the tax code. I present new evidence on both...

  14. Discrimination in same-sex survivor amendments to the Canada Pension Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Ruth

    2002-12-01

    On 31 July 2002, the British Columbia Supreme Court granted certification of a class proceeding involving same-sex surviving spouses who were denied survivor's benefits under the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) due to their sexual orientation. On 10 July 2002, a similar proceeding in Ontario survived a motion to strike by the government and is headed to trial. If successful, thousands of gay men and women whose same-sex partners died between 17 April 1985 and 1 January 1998 may finally be eligible for monthly survivor's benefits.

  15. Impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Simon Robert; McNair, Ruth; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Children with same-sex attracted parents develop well in terms of their health and wellbeing. There are many recognised factors that have an impact on child health, in general, including individual, family and wider social mediators. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of family structure and socio-demographic characteristics on child health and wellbeing in Australian same-sex parent families. A cross-sectional survey of self-identified same-sex attracted parents from across Australia was used to collect information on child health and wellbeing between May and December 2012. Mixed-effects multiple linear regression models were used to identify associations between family structure/socio-demographic characteristics and child wellbeing. Child health outcomes were measured using the Child Health Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In same-sex parent families, biological relationships, parental gender and parental education were not significantly associated with health and wellbeing. Parental income, rurality and stable parental relationships were associated with health and wellbeing, and living in a single-parent household was associated with poorer wellbeing. Stable dual parent families offer good outcomes for children with same-sex attracted parents. Family processes are most important. This study does not support the assertion that children require both male and female parents, nor that biological relationships are essential to health and wellbeing. This study provides scientific data from a cross-sectional Australian-based study to describe and understand health determinants for children in family contexts that comprise same-sex parent and all family contexts. It recommends equitable, stigma-free family support. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Conceptions of privacy and the non-disclosure of same-sex behaviour by behaviourally-bisexual men in heterosexual relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrimshaw, Eric W; Downing, Martin J; Cohn, Daniel J; Siegel, Karolynn

    2014-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to why some behaviourally-bisexual men (i.e., men who have sex with both men and women) choose not to disclose their same-sex behaviour. Using Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory, we report on the ways these men conceptualise their same-sex behaviour as private, and thus feel justified in not disclosing it to family, friends and female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 203 non-disclosing behaviourally-bisexual men in New York City. The men offered a number of privacy rules to justify their non-disclosure, including: (1) their same-sex behaviours were their own business and nobody else's, (2) others had no reason to know, (3) the topic of sexual behaviour was too personal, (4) they were private people in general and (5) it was inappropriate to discuss same-sex behaviour in many contexts. Some privacy rules were used more often to justify non-disclosure to friends and family than to female partners. These findings provide insights into the reasons for non-disclosure among behaviourally-bisexual men, offer support for and extend CPM theory for the management of sexual information and offer insights into the importance of privacy for the design and delivery of health-promotion services for this population.

  17. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. "It's a Catch-22": Same-Sex-Attracted Young People on Coming Out to Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Explores teen-initiated communication with parents about same-sex attraction, coming out, and adolescent sexuality. Reports the findings of a qualitative study on teen and parent reactions as well as a number of strategies which emerged that may help maintain healthy relationships in the face of developing sexuality. (Author/SD)

  19. Conscientious Objection to Creating Same-Sex Unions: An International Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M. van den; MacDougall, B.; Bonthuys, E.; Norrie, Kenneth McK.

    2012-01-01

    In jurisdictions that recognize same-sex marriages and unions, the question arises as to the extent to which civic officials who normally preside at such unions can refuse such participation for religious reasons. This paper examines this issue in the context of four jurisdictions: Scotland,

  20. A Theoretical Analysis of Sex Differences In Same-Sex Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Robert J.; Kinder, Bill N.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates sex differences in same-sex friendships of 312 undergraduate students in terms of the intersection and social penetration model of relationship development, and Bem's theory of sex role orientation. Finds significant sex-related differences in depth, duration, and involvement. (FMW)

  1. Changes in Reported Sexual Orientation Following US States Recognition of Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S. Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. Methods. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. Results. We used data from the Nurses’ Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one’s reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Conclusions. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports. PMID:27736213

  2. A scale on beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-I-Bort, Hector

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we developed a new instrument named Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment on Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF). The scale was developed to assess of the adults' beliefs about negative impacts on children who are raised by same-sex parents. An initial pool of 95 items was generated by the authors based on a review of the literature on homophobia and feedback from several focus groups. Research findings, based on a sample of 212 university students (mean age 22 years, SD = 8.28), supported the reliability and validity of the scale. The final versions of the SBCASSF included items reflecting the following two factors: individual opposition (α = .87) and normative opposition (α = .88). Convergent validity of the scale is demonstrated by predictable correlations with beliefs about the cause of same-sex sexual orientation and the support for gay and lesbian rights. Our study reveals a strong positive association between high scores on SBCASSF and beliefs that the origin of same-sex sexual orientation is learned and opposition to gay and lesbian rights.

  3. 75 FR 32247 - Extension of Benefits to Same-Sex Domestic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... systemic inequality undermines the health, well-being, and security not just of our Federal workforce, but... appropriate actions to ensure that the benefits being provided to employees' spouses and their children are also being provided, at an equivalent level wherever permitted by law, to their employees' same-sex...

  4. The Division of Paid Labor in Same-Sex Couples in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, E.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the division of paid labor among gay male and lesbian couples in the Netherlands. We hypothesize that same-sex couples have a more equal division of paid labor than different-sex couples, partly because of lower marriage and fertility rates, and partly because equity norms are

  5. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  6. Registered Domestic Partnerships, Same-Sex Marriage, and the Pursuit of Equality in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, Marion C.

    2011-01-01

    Policies in California are examined to inform analysts of the process by which legal recognition of same-sex relationships may be achieved. Content analysis was conducted of relevant legislation, court cases, and voter initiatives, along with interviews with state legislators to gain an eyewitness understanding of the social climate surrounding…

  7. Religion and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G; Acevedo, Gabriel A; Ramos-Wada, Aida I

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This study examines links between multiple aspects of religious involvement and attitudes toward same-sex marriage among U.S. Latinos. The primary focus is on variations by affiliation and participation, but the possible mediating roles of biblical beliefs, clergy cues, and the role of religion in shaping political views are also considered.Methods. We use binary logistic regression models to analyze data from a large nationwide sample of U.S. Latinos conducted by the Pew Hispanic Forum in late 2006.Results. Findings highlight the strong opposition to same-sex marriage among Latino evangelical (or conservative) Protestants and members of sectarian groups (e.g., LDS), even compared with devout Catholics. Although each of the hypothesized mediators is significantly linked with attitudes toward same-sex marriage, for the most part controlling for them does not alter the massive affiliation/attendance differences in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.Conclusions. This study illustrates the importance of religious cleavages in public opinion on social issues within the diverse U.S. Latino population. The significance of religious variations in Hispanic civic life is likely to increase with the growth of the Latino population and the rising numbers of Protestants and sectarians among Latinos.

  8. The Religious Practices of Youth and Its Relation to their Attitude on Same-Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalyn C. Tabora

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to identify the relationship of religious practices of college students from sectarian and non-sectarian sector, and their attitude towardssame-sex marriage. The issue of same-sex marriage is considered as one of the sensitive concerns in the Philippines society since it is a Catholic influenced country. The respondents in this study were total of 781 college students from 385 samples of Adamson University and 396 samples of Polytechnic University of the Philippines who were selected through stratified sampling method. In addition, data were gathered for the entire month of September 2015 through online and self-administered surveys. The results revealed that college students from both sectors have different general attitudes toward same-sex marriage despite of being highly involved to their religious practices. Respondents from Adamson University, sectarian sector, opposed to the issue, while college students from PUP, non-sectarian sector, supported same-sex marriage. Further, this study found out that spiritual association of an educational institution plays a small but a significant role in explaining attitude towards same-sex marriage.

  9. Children of Same-Sex Parents: In and out of the Closet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Juliet E.; Mourot, Jon E.; Aros, Megan

    2012-01-01

    An estimated 14 million children are parented by gay or lesbian couples. Research indicates that children of same-sex parents are as well adjusted as their peers of opposite-sex parents. However, previous research has yet to examine how these youth negotiate their own process of coming out about their families to others. We sought to identify the…

  10. Same-sex attraction, gender nonconformity, and mental health: The protective role of parental acceptance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, G.; Bos, H.M.W.; Overbeek, G.J.; Sandfort, T.

    2015-01-01

    The current study assessed, separately for boys and girls, the moderating effects of mother/father acceptance in the relationship of same-sex attraction (SSA) and gender nonconformity (GNC) with psychological distress and social anxiety. Data were collected from 1,121 secondary school students (539

  11. Evaluating the welfare of the child in same-sex families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Guido

    2011-07-01

    Within the field of medically assisted reproduction, the welfare of the child is advanced as the major argument to decide the acceptability of certain applications. This argument, however, needs a complex framework in order to be understood and used properly. The effect of empirical evidence regarding the welfare of the child on people's judgments about the acceptability of same-sex families will differ for utilitarians and deontologists. Deontologists who are opposed to same-sex families will not change their mind when confronted with reassuring evidence. However, utilitarians also frequently use the evidence wrongly or draw the wrong conclusions. The reasonable welfare standard is put forward to avoid counterintuitive judgments and to block comparative reasoning that may follow from the use of heterosexual families as a control in follow-up research. Finally, a number of problems related to the use of parental sexual orientation as a criterion are discussed. The discrimination against same-sex families will not be overturned by empirical evidence about the welfare of the children. Children in same-sex families are generally doing well but their situation could be improved if their parents' relationship were to be socially and legally recognized.

  12. Differential Associations and Daily Smoking of Adolescents: The Importance of Same-Sex Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofziger, Stacey; Lee, Hye-Ryeon

    2006-01-01

    This article examines whether the importance of parents, siblings, best friends, and romantic interests are sex-specific in predicting daily juvenile smoking. Juveniles who smoke daily are strongly influenced by prosmoking attitudes and behaviors of same-sex family members. However, peers remain the most important associations in predicting daily…

  13. Pastoral care and gays against the background of same-sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the article is to show how the hegemony of heteronormativity compromises attempts at gay-friendly pastoral care and counselling with sexual minorities. Ecclesial resolutions with regard to same-sex relationships are based on Biblical propositions, theologies of heterosexual marriage, and often also on social ...

  14. Instrumentality, Expressivity, and Relational Qualities in the Same-Sex Friendships of College Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L.; Beesley, Denise; Hurst, Rebecca; Saldana, Star; Licuanan, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Using the relational-cultural model (Jordan, Kaplan, Miller, Stiver, & Surrey, 1991), the authors hypothesized that instrumentality, expressivity, and the individual affective experience of same-sex friendships would predict increased relationship mutuality, with college women and men showing different predictive patterns. Overall, results…

  15. Relationship Quality and Domestic Violence in Women's Same-Sex Relationships: The Role of Minority Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2005-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature addressing relationship quality and domestic violence in women's same-sex relationships, few studies have empirically examined how stress specific to living as a lesbian or bisexual woman might correlate with these relationship variables. Degree of outness, internalized homophobia, lifetime and recent experiences…

  16. Identity, Discourse, and Safety in a High School Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Terence A.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have called for discussions of same-sex marriage in schools as one way of ending the curricular silence around lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) people. Yet, concerns about how students might talk about LGBTQ people can contribute to teachers' reluctance to initiate such discussions. Queer theory suggests that…

  17. The Significance of Living Together and Importance of Marriage in Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships.

  18. Same Sex Attraction, Homophobic Bullying and Mental Health of Young People in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Helen; Lloyd, Katrina; Schubotz, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the relationship between same-sex attraction, experience of bullying in school and mental health measured using the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12). A random sample of 16 year olds, drawn from the Child Benefit Register, was invited to take part in the 2005 Young Life and Times survey, which is a…

  19. Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples: Counseling Psychologists as Social Change Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon S.; Riggle, Ellen D. B.

    2011-01-01

    The denial of civil marriage rights is a specific example of minority stress that can negatively affect the psychosocial well-being of self-identified lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals in same-sex partnerships, their families, and their allies. Counseling psychologists have an important role in addressing the…

  20. Attitudes towards same-sex parenting in Italy: the influence of traditional gender ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioverno, Salvatore; Baiocco, Roberto; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Verrastro, Valeria; D'Amore, Salvatore; Green, Robert-Jay

    2018-04-20

    This study aimed to examine the role of gender ideology, religiosity and political conservatism on attitudes toward same-sex parenting in Italy at a time when same-sex parent families are undergoing attacks from ideological campaigns opposing non-traditional gender roles and families. We collected data from 4,187 heterosexual respondents about attitudes towards two-father and two-mother parenting, homonegativity, attitudes toward traditional masculinity and femininity, religious involvement and political conservatism. We conducted multiple group structural equation model analyses to test whether sex moderated any of the estimated associations among variables. Results showed that traditional beliefs about femininity were directly associated with negative attitudes towards two-mother and two-father parenting, while traditional beliefs about masculinity had a significant direct effect only on two-father parenting. Homonegativity partially mediated the association between religiosity, political conservatism and traditional beliefs about masculinity and femininity on negative attitudes toward both types of same-sex parenting. Gender differences were found for the indirect effects of political conservatism and religiosity on attitudes towards same-sex parenting. The theoretical contributions and implications of the findings are discussed.

  1. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jennifer J; Perlesz, Amaryll; Schofield, Margot J; Pitts, Marian K; Brown, Rhonda; McNair, Ruth; Barrett, Anna; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2010-03-09

    While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories) caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time within internal family relationships and social supports. Further

  2. Understanding resilience in same-sex parented families: the work, love, play study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNair Ruth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While families headed by same-sex couples have achieved greater public visibility in recent years, there are still many challenges for these families in dealing with legal and community contexts that are not supportive of same-sex relationships. The Work, Love, Play study is a large longitudinal study of same-sex parents. It aims to investigate many facets of family life among this sample and examine how they change over time. The study focuses specifically on two key areas missing from the current literature: factors supporting resilience in same-sex parented families; and health and wellbeing outcomes for same-sex couples who undergo separation, including the negotiation of shared parenting arrangements post-separation. The current paper aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the design and methods of this longitudinal study and discuss its significance. Methods/Design The Work, Love, Play study is a mixed design, three wave, longitudinal cohort study of same-sex attracted parents. The sample includes lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender parents in Australia and New Zealand (including single parents within these categories caring for any children under the age of 18 years. The study will be conducted over six years from 2008 to 2014. Quantitative data are to be collected via three on-line surveys in 2008, 2010 and 2012 from the cohort of parents recruited in Wave1. Qualitative data will be collected via interviews with purposively selected subsamples in 2012 and 2013. Data collection began in 2008 and 355 respondents to Wave One of the study have agreed to participate in future surveys. Work is currently underway to increase this sample size. The methods and survey instruments are described. Discussion This study will make an important contribution to the existing research on same-sex parented families. Strengths of the study design include the longitudinal method, which will allow understanding of changes over time

  3. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  4. Adolescent Same-Sex Attraction and Academic Outcomes: The Role of School Attachment and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Wilkinson, Lindsey

    2007-11-01

    Schools create environments in which some sexual feelings, behaviors, and relationships are stigmatized, and this may have negative consequences for adolescents with nonheterosexual romantic attractions. This stigma can lead them to withdraw and disengage from school at a critical time of preparation for adulthood, which can compromise opportunities for future success. Previous research has demonstrated that sexual minority youth report greater levels of school-related problems, including a weaker sense of attachment to school and more trouble with teachers and peers. This lack of social integration is likely to affect their educational success. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and the newly collected Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement study provide the first opportunity to fully explore whether and to what extent same-sex attracted youth enter adulthood with an educational disadvantage. In this study, we examine (1) whether same-sex attracted adolescents have lower levels of academic success, (2) if their lower academic success is explained by a lack of social integration at school, and (3) whether these relationships differ for boys and girls. Results suggest that same-sex attracted students, particularly boys, do suffer academically, and that this is in part a result of school-related problems and risk factors such as emotional distress and substance use; however, a great deal of the disadvantage fails to be explained by these factors. Additionally, while same-sex attracted boys show poorer academic performance, same-sex attracted girls do not, suggesting that gender may shape how sexual minority youth experience and respond to marginalizing school environments.

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Couples' Relationships: Female Survivors' Reports in Therapy Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Follette, Victoria M.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of female child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors showed relationship themes. The two most frequent were difficulties with emotional communication or intimacy and polarized positions on control. Whereas these themes were correlated with survivors' CSA characteristics, sexual difficulties were correlated with survivors' level of current…

  6. Clinical Correlates and Repetition of Self-Harming Behaviors among Female Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John; Theriault, Chantal; Cinq-Mars, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated self-harming behaviors in 149 female adolescent victims of sexual abuse, first, by determining the rates of nine types of self-mutilating behavior at intake and nine months later and, second, by investigating comorbidity of clinical correlates associated with these behaviors. The adolescents were divided into three groups…

  7. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  8. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  9. Risk of sex-specific cancers in opposite-sex and same-sex twins in Denmark and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Linda Juel; Skytthe, Axel; Möller, Sören

    2015-01-01

    -scale prospective twin study compared opposite-sex (OS) and same-sex (SS) twins to test the impact of intrauterine exposures on cancer risk. Based on the Danish and Swedish twin and cancer registries, we calculated incidence rate ratios for OS and SS twins while standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95......% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for OS/SS twins compared with the general population. RESULTS: A total of 18,001 cancers were identified during 1943-2009. No significant differences were observed between OS and SS twins, neither for the sex-specific cancers nor for cancer at all sites. All...... to prenatal testosterone - does not increase the risk of sex-specific cancers in OS females. Furthermore, the study supports that twinning per se is not a risk factor of cancer. IMPACT: Findings are reassuring as they fail to provide evidence for the hypothesis that endocrine or other difference...

  10. Sex-specific substance abuse treatment for female healthcare professionals: implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Brand, Michael; Rojas, Julio; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Gender plays a significant role in the development and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Sex-specific treatment for girls and women has recurrently proven more effective, with better outcomes than traditional treatment. Research on impaired healthcare professionals (HCPs) has largely focused on men, garnering little attention for women and sex differences. With the increasing numbers of female HCPs, it is imperative to identify potential sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our study compared a convenience sample of male and female HCPs with substance abuse disorders treated in an outpatient program to identify sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our sample consisted of 96 HCPs (54 men, 42 women) and 17 non-healthcare professional (N-HCP) women. All of the participants were evaluated using the program's clinical interview and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Chart review data contained categorical variables, qualitative variables, diagnoses, and psychological test scores. A second analysis was conducted through two separate comparisons: the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired male HCPs and the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired female N-HCPs. Statistically significant differences indicated more male participants received prior treatment and more intensive treatment than female participants. More female subjects reported being diagnosed as having a comorbid psychiatric condition and taking psychotropic medications. Several statistically significant differences in the PAI scores were found. Among female HCPs, elevations were found in anxiety, depression, paranoia, and borderline personality disorder. Substantive differences, although not statistically significant, were elevations in somatic complaints and anxiety disorders in female HCPs. In the comparison of female HCPs and N-HCPs, the only statistically significant difference was the significantly higher

  11. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  12. Attitudes towards same-sex marriage in Portugal: predictors and scale validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, João Manuel; Lopes, Diniz; Cameira, Miguel; Nogueira, Conceição

    2014-12-19

    The goal of the present research was to validate a Portuguese version of Pearl and Galupo's (2007) Attitudes toward Same-Sex Marriage Scale (ATSM). Participants were 1,402 heterosexual men and women that completed an on-line questionnaire. The final 15-item scale formed a single factor showing high internal consistency (α = .95). This one factor structure was backed-up by a confirmatory factorial analysis. In a general way, the results indicate a clearly positive attitude toward same-sex marriage (overall mean was 63.79, SD = 12.66, above the scale mid-point, t(1401) = 55.55, p sex marriage. On the whole, these results indicate that the Portuguese ATSM version is a reliable instrument for carrying out scientific research and measuring and monitoring public opinion on this subject.

  13. Perceived Cross-Orientation Infidelity: Heterosexual Perceptions of Same-Sex Cheating in Exclusive Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Benjamin L; Bowman, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    For individuals in exclusive romantic relationships, the dynamics of sexual experimentation are nuanced. Extradyadic behavior outside of a relationship may be perceived as cheating or infidelity, with much of those perceptions driven by the biological sex of the perceiver. This study significantly reframes seminal research on perceptions of cheating with third-party friends by Kruger et al. (2013), to further nuance an evolutionary threat-based model. In doing so, this furthers our understanding of the associated perceptions of individuals in heterosexual relationships when confronted by partners' cheating with their same-sex cross-orientation friends. Results indicate that perceptions of same-sex infidelity vary widely depending on the nature of the behaviors, with decreasing attribution given to sexual and erotic behaviors, close relational behaviors, and casual social interaction behaviors, respectively. Implications are discussed for a variety of sexual communities, as well as the impact of gender and relational status on perceptions of infidelity.

  14. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  15. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

  16. Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela

    2015-02-09

    In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = child and subsequently physical violence from their parents, and women who had not undergone either of these events (x(2) = 3.48, df 112/1, p = <.05). Investment in treatment in these areas during the prison sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses

  17. An analysis of factors affecting attitudes toward same-sex marriage: do the media matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    OpenAIRE

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or neg...

  19. Advances in the understanding of same-sex and opposite-sex sexual harassment

    OpenAIRE

    Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2017-01-01

    Sexual harassment has traditionally been studied as men's harassment of women. This has led to a lack of knowledge about same sex harassment, and women harassing peers. This has also downplayed the inherent sexual nature of sexual harassment acts. While keeping in mind that sexual harassment is undesirable and causes distress, one needs to consider that many acts that are perceived as unwanted may not primarily be motivated by a wish to derogate but rather by an interest in soliciting short-t...

  20. 'Can I be bridesmaid?' Combining the personal and political in same-sex weddings

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2008-01-01

    The availability of same-sex weddings poses a number of personal and political dilemmas for couples who decide that they wish to go through a ceremony of recognition or civil partnership. In this article I argue that British couples are acutely aware of the political ramifications of their decisions and I focus attention on the interplay between the personal and political in decisions that couples make on the types of ceremony they want. For example, some couples want very prominent, high pro...

  1. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.

  2. Minority Stress and Same-Sex Relationship Satisfaction: The Role of Concealment Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepping, Christopher A; Cronin, Timothy J; Halford, W Kim; Lyons, Anthony

    2018-04-30

    Most lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people want a stable, satisfying romantic relationship. Although many of the predictors of relationship outcomes are similar to those of heterosexual couples, same-sex couples face some additional challenges associated with minority stress that also impact upon relationship quality. Here, we investigate the association between minority stressors and relationship quality in a sample of 363 adults (M age = 30.37, SD = 10.78) currently in a same-sex romantic relationship. Internalized homophobia and difficulties accepting one's LGB identity were each negatively associated with relationship satisfaction via heightened concealment motivation. We also examined the protective role of identity affirmation on relationship quality, finding a direct positive relationship between the two variables. Minority stressors were negatively associated with couple relationship satisfaction via heightened concealment motivation. The finding that identity affirmation directly predicted increased couple satisfaction also highlights the important role of protective factors in same-sex couple relationships. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  3. Health Communication With Same-Sex and Other-Sex Friends in Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Brian; Mehta, Clare; Alfonso, Jacqueline

    2017-09-01

    Objective We examined health-related communication between same-sex and other-sex friends and how communication was related to health-related behavior. Participants Data from 243 emerging adults attending college ( Mage = 18.96, SD = 1.43; 55.6% male) were analyzed. Methods Participants completed measures assessing the frequency in which they talked about and made plans to engage in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors with friends, as well as how often they engaged in exercise and nutrition-related behaviors. Results In general, participants reported more health-related communication with same-sex friends. Health-related communication with same-sex friends was positively related to health behaviors for men and women. However, the pattern of results differed for men and women depending on the topic of communication and the behavior being examined. Conclusion Our study extends the literature by examining the role of sex of friends in health communication and planning and how interactions with friends relate to health-promoting behavior.

  4. Current active and passive smoking among adults living with same sex partners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Checa, Irene; Espejo, Begoña

    2017-05-19

    To assess the association between current active and passive tobacco smoking and living with a same-sex partner in Spain. We analysed data from two cross-sectional national surveys of the Spanish population 15 years and older (2011-Encuesta Nacional de Salud en España and 2014-Encuesta Europea de Salud en España). Analyses included only people living with their partner. Associations were calculated using multiple logistic regressions adjusting for gender, social class and age. Current active and passive smoking were significantly associated with living with same sex partners (odds ratio: 2.71 and 2.88), and particularly strong among women. Spanish adults living with same-sex partners are at higher risk of active and passive smoking. This risk varies by gender. Spanish national surveys should include items on sexual orientation for improved data on health disparities. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Interactional dynamics of same-sex marriage legislation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how people form opinions and make decisions is a complex phenomenon that depends on both personal practices and interactions. Recent availability of real-world data has enabled quantitative analysis of opinion formation, which illuminates phenomena that impact physical and social sciences. Public policies exemplify complex opinion formation spanning individual and population scales, and a timely example is the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. Here, we seek to understand how this issue captures the relationship between state-laws and Senate representatives subject to geographical and ideological factors. Using distance-based correlations, we study how physical proximity and state-government ideology may be used to extract patterns in state-law adoption and senatorial support of same-sex marriage. Results demonstrate that proximal states have similar opinion dynamics in both state-laws and senators' opinions, and states with similar state-government ideology have analogous senators' opinions. Moreover, senators' opinions drive state-laws with a time lag. Thus, change in opinion not only results from negotiations among individuals, but also reflects inherent spatial and political similarities and temporal delays. We build a social impact model of state-law adoption in light of these results, which predicts the evolution of state-laws legalizing same-sex marriage over the last three decades.

  6. 'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others.

  7. Daily Exposure to Negative Campaign Messages Decreases Same-Sex Couples’ Psychological and Relational Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, D; Fingerhut, A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout history, the rights of stigmatized minority group members have been subject to popular debate and voter referenda. The impact of the resulting devaluing social discourse on the well-being of minority group members remains unknown. For example, exposure to the discourse leading up to decisions on same-sex marriage may have negative consequences for sexual minority individuals and same-sex couples. We examined the impact of exposure to same-sex marriage campaign messages (e.g., comme...

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect, and Psychiatric Disorders in Nonviolent and Violent Female Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauffer, Nicole; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2017-12-01

    Although the percentage of crimes committed by females has increased over the last 20 years in the United States, most research focuses on crimes by males. This article describes an examination of the extent to which childhood maltreatment predicts violent and nonviolent offending in females and the role of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, girls with substantiated cases of physical and sexual abuse and neglect were matched with nonmaltreated girls (controls) on the basis of age, race, and approximate family socioeconomic class, and followed into adulthood ( N  = 582). Information was obtained from official arrest records and participant responses to a standardized structured psychiatric interview. Women with a history of any childhood maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect were at significantly increased risk for having an arrest for violence, compared to control women. Except for those with a history of physical abuse, abused and neglected women were also at increased risk for arrest for a nonviolent crime, compared to controls. In bivariate chi-square comparisons, the three groups of women (violent offenders, nonviolent offenders, and nonoffenders) differed significantly in the diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and dysthymia, but not major depressive disorder, and violent female offenders had significantly higher rates of these disorders compared to nonoffenders. However, with controls for age and race, PTSD was the only psychiatric disorder to distinguish women arrested for a violent crime compared to a nonviolent crime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.32, confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.84-21.68, p  < 0.01), and PTSD moderated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and violent offending (AOR = 5.55, 95% CI = 1.49-20.71): women with histories of childhood maltreatment were equally likely to have an arrest for violence, regardless

  9. Sexual stigma and symbolic violence experienced, enacted, and counteracted in young Africans' writing about same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle

    2016-07-01

    There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub

  10. The Prevalence and Comorbidity between Delinquency, Drug Abuse, Suicide Attempts, Physical and Sexual Abuse, and Self-Mutilation among Delinquent Hispanic Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Jeanette; Curry, Theodore R.

    2007-01-01

    Representative data show that drug abuse, delinquency, and suicide attempts are major concerns among adolescent Hispanic females. Although comorbidity research indicates that such problems tend to be related to each other, this research largely neglects Hispanic females. Using data from presentence investigations on 141 Hispanic girls sentenced to…

  11. Condyloma acuminata in a 3-year-old female: Sexual abuse or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alia Abbas Rizvi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Condyloma acuminata (also known as anogenital warts or venereal warts a sexually transmitted disease (STD is usually seen in younger adults. However, genital warts have been reported in all age groups of children including infants. The possibility of sexual abuse is a major concern in the evaluation of children with genital warts. We hereby report a case of genital warts in a three year old female child.

  12. Same-Sex Couples' Decisions and Experiences of Marriage in the Context of Minority Stress: Interviews From a Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2016-08-01

    In the emerging context of marriage equality, it is important to explore the reasons for and experience of marriage for long-term same-sex couples, including the role of minority stress. In Wave 3 of the population-based, longitudinal CUPPLES Study we interviewed 21 long-term same-sex couples (14 female, 7 male) who resided in 12 different states and who were legally married. Couple members ranged in age from 37 to 84 and reported being together as a couple from 15 to 41 years. Seven couples lived in states that did not recognize their marriage at the time of the interview. Legal protection and social validation emerged as the two primary domains that captured couples' lived experiences of marriage. Minority stress experiences emerged in the narratives in the context of couples' long-term commitment, the availability of civil marriage, and couples' participation in activist efforts on behalf of marriage equality for themselves and others.

  13. Identification of Sexually Abused Female Adolescents at Risk for Suicidal Ideations: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  15. Is the union civil? Same-sex marriages, civil unions, domestic partnerships and reciprocal benefits in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry-Sumner, I.; Curry-Sumner, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The legal recognition of same-sex relationships has been a legislative Gordian knot for almost three decades in the United States of America. Few issues have been so polarising as the debate surrounding the opening of marriage to same-sex couples. The aim of this article is to provide a clear

  16. What's wrong with me? Coming to terms with same sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Brian

    2011-10-01

    Many, if not all, young people question what is wrong with them when they begin to realise that they are attracted to people of the same sex. This can be because of feelings of confusion, guilt and shame, which can develop in reaction to the society in which they live; feelings that are often mirrored by the families of the young people concerned. This article explains the theories behind sexuality to help nurses provide unprejudiced, appropriate support and information to children and young people seeking help.

  17. Young men's perspectives on family support and disclosure of same-sex attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Julie; Kubicek, Katrina; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen; Kipke, Michele D

    2008-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face myriad challenges when deciding to disclose their sexual orientation to family members. Key to this decision is consideration of how disclosure may influence the support they receive from family. This paper explores a diverse sample of YMSM's (N = 43) perspectives on disclosure of their same-sex attractions to key family members and its impact on family support. Several stages/categories of disclosure are described and some YMSM seemed to continue to move between categories. Additionally, relationships after disclosure included negotiations between the expression of their sexual orientation and the maintenance of family support.

  18. Same-Sex Sexualities and the Globalization of Human Rights Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the past decade, a “double movement of globalization” has taken place in the realm of gay rights. On the one hand, a globalization of human rights has occurred, whereby human rights have become a key criterion by which the “progress” of nations is evaluated. On the other hand, there has been a globalization of same-sex sexualities as identities. These movements have the potential to conflict with, rather than complement, each other in terms of progressing toward a greater recognition of ga...

  19. Analysis of factors associated with same-sex relationships (gays and lesbians in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallego Villa, Oscar Mauricio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes the same sex couple relationships in Bogota’s context by comparing a group of people with current partner and one without a partner. Using a non-probabilistic convenience sampling through a snowball design a in-depth interview was a applied to a sample of 60 homosexual (30 men, 30 women. They were asked about aspects of the affective experience (formation of the relationship, satisfaction, conflict management. The results show the participants have a positive view of their couple’s life, without significant differences in the perception of the two groups in the aspects evaluated

  20. Quality of college students' same-sex friendships as a function of personality and interpersonal competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, Candice C; Barry, Carolyn McNamara; Sherman, Martin F; Grover, Rachel L

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate personality traits and interpersonal competencies as predictors of the quality of same-sex friendships in young adulthood. Undergraduate students (N = 176), who attended a mid-Atlantic U.S., medium-sized university, completed self-report surveys on their personality, interpersonal competence, and friendship quality. Sex, class status, extraversion, agreeableness, and interpersonal competencies were associated with higher friendship quality, but only the interpersonal competence of self-disclosure significantly predicted friendship quality after controlling for sex, class status, and the five personality factors.

  1. Same-Sex Sexual Attraction Does Not Spread in Adolescent Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brakefield, Tiffany A.; Mednick, Sara C.; Wilson, Helen W.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Peers have a powerful effect on adolescents' beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Here, we examine the role of social networks in the spread of attitudes towards sexuality using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Although we found evidence that both sexual activity (OR = 1.79) and desire to have a romantic relationship (OR = 2.69) may spread from person to person, attraction to same sex partners did not spread (OR = 0.96). Analyses of comparable power t...

  2. Same sex couples and marriage: Negotiating relational landscapes with families and friends

    OpenAIRE

    Smart, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the decision to enter into a marriage and/or to conduct a commitment ceremony, this paper explores how same-sex couples negotiate their relationships with both family and friends at the point at which they make decisions about who to invite to their ceremony. The ceremony is argued to be a 'fateful moment' at which point lesbians and gay men necessarily take stock of relationships which are meaningful to them. It is argued that the data from the qualitative interviews on which thi...

  3. Conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats is facilitated by oxytocin and dopamine: effect on sexually dimorphic brain nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Tecamachaltzi-Silvarán, Miriam B; Díaz-Estrada, Victor X; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Pfaus, James G; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2015-04-15

    Conditioned same-sex partner preference can develop in male rats that undergo cohabitation under the effects of quinpirole (QNP, D2 agonist). Herein, we assessed the development of conditioned same-sex social/sexual preference in males that received either nothing, saline, QNP, oxytocin (OT), or QNP+OT during cohabitation with another male (+) or single-caged (-). This resulted in the following groups: (1) Intact-, (2) Saline+, (3) QNP-, (4) OT-, (5) QNP+, (6) OT+ and (7) QNP/OT+. Cohabitation occurred during 24h in a clean cage with a male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days for a total of three trials. Social and sexual preference were assessed four days after the last conditioning trial in a drug-free test in which experimental males chose between the scented familiar male and a novel sexually receptive female. Results showed that males from groups Intact-, Saline+, QNP- and OT- displayed a clear preference for the female (opposite-sex), whereas groups QNP+, OT+ and QNP/OT+ displayed socio/sexual preference for the male partner (same-sex). In Experiment 2, the brains were processed for Nissl dye and the area size of two sexually dimorphic nuclei (SDN-POA and SON) was compared between groups. Males from groups OT-, OT+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a smaller SDN-POA and groups QNP+ and QNP/OT+ expressed a larger SON. Accordingly, conditioned same-sex social/sexual partner preference can develop during cohabitation under enhanced D2 or OT activity but such preference does not depend on the area size of those sexually dimorphic nuclei. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Requests for assisted reproduction formulated by same-sex couples consulting physicians in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouannet, P; Spira, A

    2014-08-01

    In order to determine the characteristic features of requests for assisted reproduction formulated by same-sex couples consulting physicians in France, we conducted a study in collaboration with professional organizations, general practitioners, gynecologists and obstetricians who distributed an email questionnaire among their recruitment. In our sample, 191 physicians (71% of responders) reported that 1040 homosexual couples expressed desire to become parents in 2011-2012. Nearly all of the physicians (94%) reported that the couples sought assistance before participating in an assisted reproduction technology (ART) program in a foreign country, but 35% reported that advice was solicited concerning natural reproduction and 48.5% reported requests for advice concerning inseminations performed by the woman herself. Most of the physicians responded to all or part of the requests and 61% of those who had been consulted reported they had directly participated in preparing an ART program in a foreign country. Among the 270 physicians who participated in this study, 162 (60%) believed that ART should be assessable to homosexual couples in France, but less than half of them were in favor of reimbursement by the national health insurance fund. Although biased and non-representative, this study shows that assisted reproduction, with or without medical intervention, is a real-life phenomenon for many homosexual couples, and for many physicians, even before same-sex marriage became legal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement, methods, and divergent patterns: Reassessing the effects of same-sex parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Simon; Powell, Brian

    2015-07-01

    Scholars have noted that survey analysis of small subsamples-for example, same-sex parent families-is sensitive to researchers' analytical decisions, and even small differences in coding can profoundly shape empirical patterns. As an illustration, we reassess the findings of a recent article by Regnerus regarding the implications of being raised by gay and lesbian parents. Taking a close look at the New Family Structures Study (NFSS), we demonstrate the potential for misclassifying a non-negligible number of respondents as having been raised by parents who had a same-sex romantic relationship. We assess the implications of these possible misclassifications, along with other methodological considerations, by reanalyzing the NFSS in seven steps. The reanalysis offers evidence that the empirical patterns showcased in the original Regnerus article are fragile-so fragile that they appear largely a function of these possible misclassifications and other methodological choices. Our replication and reanalysis of Regnerus's study offer a cautionary illustration of the importance of double checking and critically assessing the implications of measurement and other methodological decisions in our and others' research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Minority Stress and Stress Proliferation Among Same-Sex and Other Marginalized Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J.; Frost, David M.; Wight, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from 2 largely isolated approaches to the study of social stress—stress proliferation and minority stress—the authors theorize about stress and mental health among same-sex couples. With this integrated stress framework, they hypothesized that couple-level minority stressors may be experienced by individual partners and jointly by couples as a result of the stigmatized status of their same-sex relationship—a novel concept. They also consider dyadic minority stress processes, which result from the relational experience of individual-level minority stressors between partners. Because this framework includes stressors emanating from both status- (e.g., sexual minority) and role-based (e.g., partner) stress domains, it facilitates the study of stress proliferation linking minority stress (e.g., discrimination), more commonly experienced relational stress (e.g., conflict), and mental health. This framework can be applied to the study of stress and health among other marginalized couples, such as interracial/ethnic, interfaith, and age-discrepant couples. PMID:25663713

  7. An instance of secularization? The Finnish online discussion of the issue of same-sex marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Hokka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010 one of Finland’s four national TV channels aired a panel discussion dealing with gay and lesbian rights in society. Among the debaters were members of parliament from various parties, well-known actors and other public figures, as well as a priest, a bishop and other religious spokespeople. Afterwards, a great number of people publicly expressed their views on same-sex marriages. The ways the Lutheran Church treated the same-sex couples, as well as the reasons and outcomes of a vast number of resignations from the Church were discussed, particularly in the online discussion forums. The public discussion spread rapidly, especially through the social media. Resignations from the Church are often perceived as a clear sign of the decline of religious beliefs and practices, which is an integral aspect of the secularization process. But lately the whole notion of a secularization of society has been questioned and a growing number of researchers have stated that the concepts of resacralization, desecularization, or a resurgence of religion would actually better describe the current situation than the theory of secularization. The aim of this article is to examine whether the concept of secularization still has some explanatory power at least in the Nordic countries. Another aim is to contemplate what kind of knowledge this special case has to offer when rethinking secularization.

  8. Minority Stress and Stress Proliferation Among Same-Sex and Other Marginalized Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Wight, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    Drawing from 2 largely isolated approaches to the study of social stress-stress proliferation and minority stress-the authors theorize about stress and mental health among same-sex couples. With this integrated stress framework, they hypothesized that couple-level minority stressors may be experienced by individual partners and jointly by couples as a result of the stigmatized status of their same-sex relationship-a novel concept. They also consider dyadic minority stress processes, which result from the relational experience of individual-level minority stressors between partners. Because this framework includes stressors emanating from both status- (e.g., sexual minority) and role-based (e.g., partner) stress domains, it facilitates the study of stress proliferation linking minority stress (e.g., discrimination), more commonly experienced relational stress (e.g., conflict), and mental health. This framework can be applied to the study of stress and health among other marginalized couples, such as interracial/ethnic, interfaith, and age-discrepant couples.

  9. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High rates of same-sex attraction/gender nonconformity in the offspring of mothers with thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy: proposal of prenatal thyroid model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sabuncuoglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Both youngsters and adults with same-sex attraction are at greater risk for negative health outcomes. Despite mounting efforts to determine the biological background, a satisfactory conclusion has not been reached and there is a need to explore alternate factors like functioning of thyroid system during pregnancy. A retrospective chart review was undertaken of 790 eligible children and adolescents who had been admitted to child psychiatry between 2005 and 2013. This population consisted of 520 (65% males and 270 (35% females, aged 8 to 17 years. Fifteen mothers (1.8% were found to have a history of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. Sixteen youngsters (2% had a history of same-sex attraction. Twelve overlapping cases with both same-sex attraction and maternal thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy were identified, which was extremely significant (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. The association was also significant for each sex (P<0.0001, by Fisher’s exact test. There is evidence that thyroid gland plays a crucial and decisive role in determining sexual orientation in people. Maternal thyroid dysfunctions during pregnancy may result in homosexual orientation in the offspring.

  11. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  12. Denial of service to same-sex and interracial couples: Evidence from a national survey experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian; Schnabel, Landon; Apgar, Lauren

    2017-12-01

    Legislatures and courts are debating whether businesses can deny services to same-sex couples for religious reasons. Yet, little is known about public views on this issue. In a national survey experiment, Americans ( n = 2035) responded to an experimental vignette describing a gay or interracial couple refused service. Vignettes varied the reason for refusal (religion/nonreligious) and by business type (individual/corporation). Results confirm greater support of service refusal by the self-employed than by corporations and to gay couples than to interracial couples. However, religious reasons for refusal to gay couples elicit no more support than do nonreligious reasons. In the first national study to experimentally analyze views on service refusal to sexual minorities, we demonstrate that views vary by several factors but not by whether the refusal was for religious reasons.

  13. Young female survivors of sexual abuse in Malaysia and depression: what factors are associated with better outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Suzaily; Tan, Susan Mooi Koon; Marimuthu, Sheila; Razali, Rosdinom; Muhamad, Nor Asiah

    2013-04-01

    Research in the field of child sexual abuse is lacking in Malaysia. The aims of this study are to identify the association between sociodemographic factors and depression among sexually abused females. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 51 young sexually abused female attendees at the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) clinic of Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a tertiary referral centre. Upon obtaining informed consent from participant and guardian, participants were screened for depression using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) and interviewed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children (K-SADS) for depressive disorders and K-SADS-PL (Present and Lifetime version) to diagnose depression. Sociodemographic data and details of the abuse were also obtained. Of the survivors, 33.3% were depressed. Univariate analysis showed significant association between legal guardianship, living environment and duration of abuse with depression, however, multivariate analyses later showed that the sole predictor for depression was living environment. Respondents who lived with others were 23-times more likely to be depressed as compared to those who lived with their parents. Depression is common among young survivors of sexual abuse. Those who lived with parents appeared to have a better outcome. Thus, further research to explore possible protective factors associated with living with parents is vital. This will help clinicians develop strategies to empower parents and families help these young survivors get back on track with their lives despite the abuse. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. A critical appraisal of assimilationist and radical ideologies underlying same-sex marriage in LGBT communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yep, Gust A; Lovaas, Karen E; Elia, John P

    2003-01-01

    Debates over same-sex marriage have reached the main stage of contemporary U.S. politics. The purpose of this essay is to identify and examine how sexual ideologies in U.S. LGBT communities inform and influence relationship construction in general and same-sex marriage in particular. To accomplish this, we first discuss the nature of sexual ideologies. Next, we identify current sexual ideologies in LGBT communities and examine some of their fundamental features and their implications for relationship construction with a focus on same-sex marriage. We conclude with a discussion of what is potentially gained and lost by same-sex matrimonial bonds and explore some of the prospects of relationship construction within LGBT communities in the future.

  15. A Research Note on Time With Children in Different- and Same-Sex Two-Parent Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Kate C; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Public debate on same-sex marriage often focuses on the disadvantages that children raised by same-sex couples may face. On one hand, little evidence suggests any difference in the outcomes of children raised by same-sex parents and different-sex parents. On the other hand, most studies are limited by problems of sample selection and size, and few directly measure the parenting practices thought to influence child development. This research note demonstrates how the 2003-2013 American Time Use Survey (n=44,188) may help to address these limitations. Two-tier Cragg's Tobit alternative models estimated the amount of time that parents in different-sex and same-sex couples engaged in child-focused time. Women in same-sex couples were more likely than either women or men in different-sex couples to spend such time with children. Overall, women (regardless of the gender of their partners) and men coupled with other men spent significantly more time with children than men coupled with women, conditional on spending any child-focused time. These results support prior research that different-sex couples do not invest in children at appreciably different levels than same-sex couples. We highlight the potential for existing nationally representative data sets to provide preliminary insights into the developmental experiences of children in nontraditional families.

  16. Psychiatric symptoms and same-sex sexual attraction and behavior in light of childhood gender atypical behavior and parental relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Witting, Katarina; Varjonen, Markus; Jern, Patrik; Johansson, Ada; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Kenneth Sandnabba, N

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relation between the level of current symptoms of depression and anxiety and recalled childhood gender atypical behavior (GAB), and quality of relationships with parents among men and women who reported same-sex sexual attraction or engaged in same-sex sexual behavior and men and women who did not. Matched pairs, 79 men (n = 158) and 148 women (n = 296), with equal levels of GAB were created of Finnish participants with either same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and participants without. The measures used were retrospective questionnaires. Ratings of maternal and paternal over-control and coldness differed as a function of same-sex sexual attraction or behavior. Childhood GAB was correlated with negative ratings of parental relationships. Both same-sex sexual attraction or behavior and a history of childhood GAB affected the reported levels of current depression and anxiety. Only gender typical participants with no same-sex sexual attraction or behavior reported significantly lower levels of symptoms. The findings suggest that childhood GAB is related to later distress both among hetero- and homosexual individuals. The elevated level of psychological distress among homosexual individuals, reported in several studies, might--to some extent--be caused by their generally higher levels of childhood GAB as opposed to a homosexual orientation per se.

  17. A critical engagement? Analysing same-sex marriage discourses in To Have and to Hold: The Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa (2008 – A queer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Lee McCormick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The legalisation of same-sex marriage in South Africa in November 2006 made the country the exemplar for gay and lesbian rights in Africa. The advocacy of, struggle for, and finally winning the right to marry was a euphoric victory for numerous gay and lesbian people. The various steps that had to be negotiated in order to pass the Civil Union Act are documented in To Have and to Hold: The Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa (2008, hereafter To Have and to Hold. The blurb at the back of To Have and to Hold describes the book as “invaluable for understanding [the same-sex marriage] journey and its legal, social, cultural and religious ramifications”. The editors of the volume, Judge, Manion and de Waal, add that the various stakeholders that supported same-sex marriage “adequately interrogated the role and function of marriage” (Judge et al. 2008: 12. In this article, I put this claim to the test by interrogating the legal, social, cultural and religious reasons put forward in favour of same-sex marriage in To Have and to Hold. From a queer point of view, same-sex marriage is problematic because it ignores the regulatory power of the state, the fact that marriage is a public tradition, the argument that the supposed “respectability” bestowed by marriage is a farce, and the contention that legal benefits should be given to people regardless of their marital status. I use queer linguistic tools to deconstruct the claim by the editors that the text represents a “critical engagement” with same-sex marriage (Judge et al. 2008: 1. I conclude the article by showing how, rather than opening a space for the “recognition of diverse sexualities and relationship forms” (Judge et al. 2008: 12, the Civil Union Act is limited to those people who self-identify as gay or lesbian.

  18. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  19. Anticipation of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato, Jorge; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize beliefs surrounding the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay couples. Participants were 768 Portuguese university students. Using a quasiexperimental design, participants were presented with identical descriptions of a couple interested in adopting a child, manipulating couple sexual orientation and child gender. Participants were then asked to anticipate three aspects of the sexual and gender development of the adopted child: sexual orientation, gender role behavior, and gender identity. MANOVAs and follow-up ANOVAs were conducted in order to analyze the data. Results indicated that participants, particularly males, considered children adopted by either lesbian or gay couples to have a lower probability of developing a normative sexual and gender identity than children adopted by heterosexual couples. Both men and women considered that children would emulate the sexual orientation of their same-sex parents, and that a boy's gender role behavior was more at risk if he was adopted by a lesbian couple. Moreover, men were apprehensive about the gender role behavior of a boy adopted by a gay male couple. Overall, these results indicate persistence of biased evaluations of the sexual and gender development of children adopted by lesbian and gay parents. Furthermore, both gender of the participant and gender of the child play an important role in these evaluations. Results are discussed and interpreted as a way of "doing gender" in the context of hegemonic masculinity.

  20. White cells facilitate opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic organisms are extremely diverse. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes a phenotypic switch from the white to the opaque phase in order to become mating-competent. In this study, we report that functionally- and morphologically-differentiated white and opaque cells show a coordinated behavior during mating. Although white cells are mating-incompetent, they can produce sexual pheromones when treated with pheromones of the opposite mating type or by physically interacting with opaque cells of the opposite mating type. In a co-culture system, pheromones released by white cells induce opaque cells to form mating projections, and facilitate both opposite- and same-sex mating of opaque cells. Deletion of genes encoding the pheromone precursor proteins and inactivation of the pheromone response signaling pathway (Ste2-MAPK-Cph1 impair the promoting role of white cells (MTLa in the sexual mating of opaque cells. White and opaque cells communicate via a paracrine pheromone signaling system, creating an environment conducive to sexual mating. This coordination between the two different cell types may be a trade-off strategy between sexual and asexual lifestyles in C. albicans.

  1. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. The grief experience of same-sex couples within an Irish context: tacit acknowledgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glackin, Michelle; Higgins, Agnes

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to explore the grief experience of same sex couples. To date, the majority of research in this area has focused on the bereavement experience of individuals whose partner has died from an AIDS/HIV-related illness. The research design used was descriptive exploratory. A multi-pronged sampling strategy was employed to generate participants. Seven people underwent in-depth interviews once the study had received ethical approval. Data were analysed by coding, comparing, and merging codes into higher order themes. Five themes subsequently emerged that captured the essence of the bereavement experience, namely:'tacit acknowledgement'; 'sculpting the distress'; 'multiple losses'; 'seeking support'; and 'journeying anew.' While not all bereaved gay or lesbian partners experience 'disenfranchized grief', particularly if their relationship with the deceased was not hidden, it is clear from the findings of this study that many of the participants did (Doka, 1989;Wallbank, 1998). Health care professionals need to consider their approach to people who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, if they are to provide support structures (formal and informal) to meet their unique needs.

  3. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  4. Reduced Metabolism in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and 18 FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% ± 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% ± 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  5. Reduced metabolism in brain "control networks" following cocaine-cues exposure in female cocaine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora D Volkow

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved.To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and ¹⁸FDG between female (n = 10 and male (n = 16 active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes versus a cocaine-cues video.Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05; females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6%±10 whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5%±18. SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001 whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45 (only at p<0.005. The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001 in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10, anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32, posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31, inferior parietal (BA 40 and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus.Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from "control networks" (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition. This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and HIV-Related Substance Use and Sexual Risk Across the Life Course Among Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R

    2017-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.

  7. Perceptions of Stigma and Self-Reported School Engagement In Same-Sex Couples with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Smith, JuliAnna Z

    2014-09-01

    Little research has explored same-sex parents' school engagement, although there is some evidence that same-sex parents' perceptions of openness versus exclusion in the school setting -as well as other interrelated contexts - may have implications for their relationships with and perceptions of their children's schools. The current cross-sectional study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationship between same-sex parents' perceptions of stigma in various contexts and their self-reported school involvement, relationships with teachers, and school satisfaction, using a sample of 68 same-sex adoptive couples (132 parents) of kindergarten-age children. Parents who perceived their communities as more homophobic reported higher levels of school-based involvement. Parents who perceived lower levels of sexual orientation-related stigma at their children's schools reported higher levels of school satisfaction. Parents who perceived lower levels of exclusion by other parents reported higher levels of school-based involvement and better relationships with teachers. However, perceived exclusion interacted with parents' level of outness with other parents, such that parents who were very out and reported high levels of exclusion reported the lowest quality relationships with teachers. Our findings have implications for scholars who study same-sex parent families at various stages of the life cycle, as well as for teachers and other professionals who work with diverse families.

  8. Effects of same-sex versus coeducational physical education on the self-perceptions of middle and high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirgg, C D

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this field experiment was to investigate the effects of attending either a coeducational or a same-sex physical education class on several self-perception variables. Middle and high school youth who had previously been in coeducational classes were assigned to either a same-sex or a new coeducational physical education class for a 10-lesson unit of basketball. Analyses were conducted at both the group and the individual levels. Self-perception variables examined included perceived self-confidence of learning basketball, perceived usefulness of basketball, and perceived gender-appropriateness of basketball. Results of hierarchical linear model group level analyses indicated that the variability in groups for self-confidence could be explained by grade, class type, and the interaction between gender and class type. At the individual level, multivariate results showed that, after the unit, males in coeducational classes were significantly more confident in their ability to learn basketball than males in same-sex classes. Also, males in same-sex classes decreased in confidence from pretreatment to posttreatment. Perceived usefulness of basketball emerged as the strongest predictor of self-confidence for learning basketball for both genders. In general, middle school students preferred same-sex classes, whereas high school students preferred coeducational classes.

  9. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  10. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Myths of Male Same-Sex Love in the Art of the Italian Renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Haughton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Visual culture has much to contribute to an understanding of the history of sexuality. Yet, to date, the depiction of pederasty in the art of the Renaissance has not been covered adequately by dominant theoretical paradigms. Moreover, the interpretive approach of traditional art historical discourse has been both limited and limiting in its timidity toward matters concerning the representation of sexual proclivity between males. This article will address the ways in which Italian Renaissance artistic depictions of some mythological narratives were enmeshed with the period’s attitudes toward sexual and social relationships between men. Particular attention is paid here to the manner in which, under the veneer of a mythological narrative, certain works of art embodied a complex set of messages that encoded issues of masculine behaviour and performance in the context of intergenerational same-sex erotic relationships.  The primary case studies under investigation for these concerns of gender and sexuality in this particular context are Benvenuto Cellini’s marble Apollo and Hyacinth (1545, and Giulio Romano’s drawing of Apollo and Cyparissus (1524. By incorporating pictorial analysis, social history, and gender and sexuality studies, new possibilities will be offered for evaluating these artworks as visual chronicles of particular sexual and cultural mores of the period. Furthermore, this article will consider how visual representation of these mythic narratives of erotic behaviour between males conformed to the culturally defined sexual and social roles relating to the articulation of power that permeated one of the greatest milestones in art history.

  12. Lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner: comparing male murderers to nonlethal abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo

    2007-04-01

    Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment.

  13. Preclinical Abuse Potential Assessment of Flibanserin: Effects on Intracranial Self-Stimulation in Female and Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, Matthew F; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S Stevens

    2016-03-01

    Flibanserin is a serotonin receptor subtype 1A agonist and 2A antagonist that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treating female sexual interest and arousal disorder. Little is known about the abuse potential of flibanserin. To examine abuse-related effects of flibanserin in rats using an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure previously used to evaluate the abuse potential of other drugs. Adult female and male Sprague-Dawley rats with electrodes implanted in the medial forebrain bundle were trained to press a lever for electrical brain stimulation under a "frequency-rate" ICSS procedure. In this procedure, increasing frequencies of brain stimulation maintain increasing rates of responding. Drugs of abuse typically increase (or "facilitate") ICSS rates and produce leftward and upward shifts in ICSS frequency-rate curves, whereas drugs that lack abuse potential typically do not alter or only decrease ICSS rates. Initial studies determined the potency and time course of effects on ICSS produced by acute flibanserin administration (1.0, 3.2 and 10.0 mg/kg). Subsequent studies determined the effects of flibanserin (3.2-18 mg/kg) before and after a regimen of repeated flibanserin administration (5.6 mg/kg/d for 5 days). Effects of the abused stimulant amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) were examined as a positive control. Flibanserin effects on ICSS frequency-rate curves in female and male rats were examined and compared with the effects of amphetamine. Baseline ICSS frequency-rate curves were similar in female and male rats. Acute and repeated administrations of flibanserin produced only decreases in ICSS rates, and rate-decreasing effects of the highest flibanserin dose (10 mg/kg) were greater in female than in male rats. In contrast to flibanserin, amphetamine produced an abuse-related increase in ICSS rates that did not differ between female and male rats. These results suggest that flibanserin has low abuse potential. In addition, this study

  14. Are Survey Respondents Lying about Their Support for Same-Sex Marriage? Lessons from a List Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Jeffrey R.; Phillips, Justin H.; Stollwerk, Alissa F.

    2016-01-01

    Public opinion polls consistently show that a growing majority of Americans support same-sex marriage. Critics, however, raise the possibility that these polls are plagued by social desirability bias, and thereby may overstate public support for gay and lesbian rights. We test this proposition using a list experiment embedded in the 2013 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. List experiments afford respondents an anonymity that allows them to provide more truthful answers to potentially sensitive survey items. Our experiment finds no evidence that social desirability is affecting overall survey results. If there is social desirability in polling on same-sex marriage, it pushes in both directions. Indeed, our efforts provide new evidence that a national opinion majority favors same-sex marriage. To evaluate the robustness of our findings, we analyze a second list experiment, this one focusing on the inclusion of sexual orientation in employment nondiscrimination laws. Again, we find no overall evidence of bias. PMID:27274575

  15. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  16. Gender ideology, same-sex peer group affiliation and the relationship between testosterone and dominance in adolescent boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Hans; T'Sjoen, Guy; Kaufman, J M; Vincke, J; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Although the role of testosterone in the aetiology of social dominance is often suggested, surprisingly few studies have addressed the relationship between sex steroid hormones and dominance as a personality trait. In this paper, the relationship between testosterone and dominance is studied in a sample of adolescent boys and girls, taking into account the moderating role of gender ideology and same-sex peer group orientation. A direct association between free testosterone (FT) and dominance was found in girls but not in boys. In boys, masculine ideology moderated the relationship between FT and dominance, while in girls the relationship between FT and dominance was moderated by same-sex peer group affiliation.

  17. Primary and secondary socialization impacts on support for same-sex marriage after legalization in the Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Lubbers, M; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement “gay marriage should be abolished.” This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one’s attitude toward same-sex marriage after its legalization (FNB2003; N = 2,124). Parents’ attitudes toward homosexuality during one’s youth strongly affect one’s attitude toward sam...

  18. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Trandafir

    2009-01-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data fo...

  19. Females are more vulnerable to drug abuse than males: evidence from preclinical studies and the role of ovarian hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Justin J; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-01-01

    Human and animal research indicates the presence of sex differences in drug abuse. These data suggest that females, compared to males, are more vulnerable to key phases of the addiction process that mark transitions in drug use such as initiation, drug bingeing, and relapse. Recent data indicate that the female gonadal hormone estrogen may facilitate drug abuse in women. For example, phases of the menstrual cycle when estrogen levels are high are associated with enhanced positive subjective measures following cocaine and amphetamine administration in women. Furthermore, in animal research, the administration of estrogen increases drug taking and facilitates the acquisition, escalation, and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Neurobiological data suggest that estrogen may facilitate drug taking by interacting with reward- and stress-related systems. This chapter discusses sex differences in and hormonal effects on drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of drug abuse. The neurobiological basis of these differences and effects are also discussed.

  20. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward…

  1. A victory for Italian same-sex couples, a victory for European homosexuals? A commentary on Oliari v Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zago, G.

    2015-01-01

    In Oliari and others v. Italy the European Court of Human rights established for the first time that the legislator’s failure to guarantee a legal framework recognizing non-marital same-sex relationships constitutes a violation of the right to respect for private and family life under article 8 of

  2. How a romantic relationship can protect same-sex attracted youth and young adults from the impact of expected rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M W; Jonas, Kai J.

    2014-01-01

    Same-sex attracted youth's well-being is jeopardized by components of minority stress, but this stress can be buffered by social support. What is unknown is whether a romantic relationship can also serve as a buffer. With an online survey we examined the link between components of minority stress,

  3. Invisibility, safety and psycho-social distress among same-sex attracted women in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Available work from North America indicates that same-sex attracted (SSA) individuals enjoy aspects of rural life but nonetheless report encountering homophobia and experiencing isolation from SSA networks. The experience of prejudice and social isolation are often associated with psycho-social distress among the general population of same-sex attracted individuals. Little is known of how SSA women experience life in rural areas of Australia and how this influences their psycho-social wellbeing. This was a small-scale qualitative study using guided interviews to explore the experience of SSA women living in rural areas of South Australia. Seven women identifying as same-sex attracted were interviewed. In addition, a woman who provides a counseling and support service for same-sex attracted women was also interviewed. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim and were then analysed for emergent themes. Summaries of the interviews, based on the emergent themes, were sent to all interviewees so that they could verify or challenge the validity of the emergent themes, as well as to allow them to remove any information they felt might identify them. Most women had felt 'different' while growing up; almost unanimously describing themselves as having been 'tomboys'. However, the lack of visible SSA role models in rural areas, together with a lack of SSA social networks, did not allow some of the women to identify and name their same-sex attraction. For many of the women in this study, it was visits to the state capital, where they had the opportunity to meet other SSA women, which precipitated them identifying themselves as same-sex attracted. In light of this new knowledge, some women denied their same-sex attraction and entered into heterosexual relationships, often entailing marriage. Other women entered same-sex relationships but tried to keep them invisible within their communities. Rural communities are frequently close-knit environments, where

  4. Discrimination, Internalized Homonegativity, and Attitudes Toward Children of Same-Sex Parents: Can Secure Attachment Buffer Against Stigma Internalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trub, Leora; Quinlan, Ella; Starks, Tyrel J; Rosenthal, Lisa

    2017-09-01

    With increasing numbers of same-sex couples raising children in the United States, discriminatory attitudes toward children of same-sex parents (ACSSP) are of increasing concern. As with other forms of stigma and discrimination, lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals are at risk for internalizing these societal attitudes, which can negatively affect parenting-related decisions and behaviors and the mental and physical health of their children. Secure attachment is characterized by positive views of the self as loveable and worthy of care that are understood to develop in early relationships with caregivers. Secure attachment has been associated with positive mental and physical health, including among LGB individuals and couples. This study aimed to test the potential buffering role of secure attachment against stigma internalization by examining associations among secure attachment, discrimination, internalized homonegativity (IH), and ACSSP in an online survey study of 209 U.S. adults in same-sex relationships. Bootstrap analyses supported our hypothesized moderated mediation model, with secure attachment being a buffer. Greater discrimination was indirectly associated with more negative ACSSP through greater IH for individuals with mean or lower levels, but not for individuals with higher than average levels of secure attachment, specifically because among those with higher levels of secure attachment, discrimination was not associated with IH. These findings build on and extend past research, with important implications for future research and clinical work with LGB individuals, same-sex couples, and their families, including potential implementation of interventions targeting attachment security. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  5. Perspectives on Same-Sex Sexualities and Self-Harm amongst Service Providers and Teachers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the perspectives of service providers working with Chinese lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) young people in Hong Kong secondary schools and maps the relationships between same-sex sexualities, religion, education and self-harm. Sixteen service providers, including secondary school teachers, social workers based on and off…

  6. Branded into submission: Brand attributes and hierarchisation behavior in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 experiments, the role of brand attributes in the process of nonconscious hierarchization in dyadic interactions was examined. Experiment 1 showed that in same-sex dyads, brands that are associated with an agent and that are rated high on the brand personality dimension of competence (Aaker,

  7. Relationship stigma and relationship outcomes in interracial and same-sex relationships: Examination of sources and buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Starks, Tyrel J

    2015-12-01

    Interracial and same-sex romantic relationships are more common and socially accepted in the United States than ever before; yet, stigmatization of these relationships persists, with consequences for relationship dynamics. We conducted an online survey study with adults living in the United States in interracial and same-sex relationships to examine associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with several relationship outcomes (i.e., investment, satisfaction, intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration, commitment, intimacy, trust, passion, love, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction), as well as the potential buffering roles of egalitarianism and dyadic coping. Regression analyses with 480 participants support that above and beyond individually experienced discrimination and other well-known predictors of relationship outcomes, relationship stigma from friends in particular was associated with lower relationship commitment, trust, love, and sexual communication, as well as greater odds of intimate partner aggression victimization. Egalitarianism and dyadic coping moderated some of the associations of relationship stigma from family, friends, and public with relationship outcomes, supporting their potential roles as buffers. These findings suggest many avenues for future research and implications for clinicians working with interracial and same-sex couples, individuals in those couples, and their families. Given increasing prevalence of interracial and same-sex relationships and marriages, more work should continue to explore these couples' experiences and how best to support them. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Same-sex legal marriage and psychological well-being: findings from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.

  9. Genetic and environmental effects on same-sex sexual behavior: a population study of twins in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Rahman, Qazi; Carlström, Eva; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2010-02-01

    There is still uncertainty about the relative importance of genes and environments on human sexual orientation. One reason is that previous studies employed self-selected, opportunistic, or small population-based samples. We used data from a truly population-based 2005-2006 survey of all adult twins (20-47 years) in Sweden to conduct the largest twin study of same-sex sexual behavior attempted so far. We performed biometric modeling with data on any and total number of lifetime same-sex sexual partners, respectively. The analyses were conducted separately by sex. Twin resemblance was moderate for the 3,826 studied monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs. Biometric modeling revealed that, in men, genetic effects explained .34-.39 of the variance, the shared environment .00, and the individual-specific environment .61-.66 of the variance. Corresponding estimates among women were .18-.19 for genetic factors, .16-.17 for shared environmental, and 64-.66 for unique environmental factors. Although wide confidence intervals suggest cautious interpretation, the results are consistent with moderate, primarily genetic, familial effects, and moderate to large effects of the nonshared environment (social and biological) on same-sex sexual behavior.

  10. The Mamas and the Papas: The Invisible Diversity of Families with Same-Sex Parents in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimalower, Lucy; Caty, Caren

    2009-01-01

    This literature review is intended for administrators, educators, and counselors to generate discussion and awareness of the issues facing families with same-sex parents in the United States, a demographic that is rapidly growing and needing service and attention from its communities. To provide educators with background into how these families…

  11. Rings for the Rainbow Family : Religious Opposition to the Introduction of Same-Sex Marriage in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, C.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    When Sweden introduced same-sex marriage in 2009, this change in legislation was preceded by a well-organized, professional campaign of an alliance of various religious leaders. Since political support for a gender neutral marriage law was substantial and public opinion in favor, the question that

  12. High School Religious Context and Reports of Same-Sex Attraction and Sexual Identity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsey; Pearson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to understand the association between high school religious context in adolescence and the reporting of same-sex attraction and sexual identity in young adulthood and how these associations vary by gender. Previous studies have considered how high school contexts shape the well-being of sexual minority youth, yet…

  13. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage After Legalization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing

  14. Primary and secondary socialization impacts on support for same-sex marriage after legalization in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement “gay marriage should be abolished.” This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing

  15. Is the union civil?
    Same-sex marriages, civil unions, domestic partnerships and reciprocal benefits in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Curry-Sumner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal recognition of same-sex relationships has been a legislative Gordian knot for almost three decades in the United States of America. Few issues have been so polarising as the debate surrounding the opening of marriage to same-sex couples. The aim of this article is to provide a clear picture of the current state of affairs in the United States as regards the recognition of formalised same-sex relationships. Following an overview of those States that prohibit any form of recognition to same-sex unions, this article focuses on the various registration forms currently operating in eleven jurisdictions in the U.S.A. Using the substantive law material gathered in this overview, these regimes will be compared and contrasted. It is ultimately concluded that despite the differences between the routes taken, uniform patterns are indeed discernible. It would appear that the name used to define these new relationship forms is absolutely crucial if one wishes to understand the political motives and compromises behind the legislation.

  16. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  17. Academic performance of opposite-sex and same-sex twins in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda; Petersen, Inge; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    confirm a masculinizing effect of a male co-twin regarding for instance perception and cognition it remains unclear whether intra-uterine hormone transfer exists in humans. Our aim was to test the potential influences of testosterone on academic performance in OS twins. We compared ninth-grade test scores...... not provide evidence for a masculinization of female twins with male co-twins with regard to academic performance in adolescence....... and teacher ratings of OS (n=1812) and SS (n=4054) twins as well as of twins and singletons (n=13,900) in mathematics, physics/chemistry, Danish, and English. We found that males had significantly higher test scores in mathematics than females (.06-.15 SD), whereas females performed better in Danish (.33...

  18. Cancer risk in opposite-sex and same-sex twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Ahrenfeldt, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are characterized by simultaneous development of two fetuses that share the womb. An interest in opposite-sex (OS) twins, twin pairs consisting of one male and one female, comes from animal studies that showed that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by the position of the fetus...

  19. Birth weight in opposite sex twins as compared to same sex dizygotic twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlebeke, J.F.; van Baal, G.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Neeleman, D.

    1993-01-01

    The question addressed in the present report is whether the large birth weight differences in dizygotic twin pairs of opposite sex (DZos), especially in 'male first' couples - observed by Blickstein and Weissman (Blickstein I, Weissman A. Birth weight discordancy in male-first and female-first pairs

  20. [Child sexual abuse: a study among 892 female students of a medical school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-qi; Han, Ping; Dunne, Michael P

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) among female students of a medical school and to explore the impact of CSA on the mental health and health related risk behaviors of the victims being sexually abused and to provide useful reference for CSA prevention. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 892 female students from a medical school by anonymous self-administered questionnaire during Oct. 2002. The questionnaire used for this study mainly included (1) general demographic information; (2) sexual experiences; (3) 12 forms of CSA. In this study, cases of CSA were defined as those who answered positively to one or more of the 12 questions relating to childhood sexual experiences (including non-physical contact CSA and physical contact CSA) occurring before age 16 with a person when a child did not want to. (4) Center for Epidemiologic Studies (CES)-Depression Scale; (5) Self Esteem Scale; (6) Risk Behaviors; (7) Health status' self-evaluation. Survey procedures were designed to protect students' privacy by allowing anonymous and voluntary participation. Students were seated separately, completed the self-administered questionnaire in their classrooms during a regular class period. Respondents were encouraged to participate in this survey, but given the sensitive nature of the subject, they could skip portion of the questionnaire if they were not comfortable with the questions. The completed questionnaires were sealed in envelopes by students themselves (the envelope was distributed with questionnaire at the same time), and then collected together. Data were analysed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Frequency, percentage, Chi-square test and t-test of statistics were used to analyze the CSA prevalence and explore the influence of CSA on mental health of students. Among 892 female students, 25.6% reported having experienced CSA (any one of 12 forms non-physical contact and physical

  1. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica D. Ulibarri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  2. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  3. Preferences and Ratings of Partner Traits in Female Survivors of Childhood Abuse With PTSD and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberz, Klara A; Müller-Engelmann, Meike; Priebe, Kathlen; Friedmann, Franziska; Görg, Nora; Herzog, Julia Isabell; Steil, Regina

    2017-11-01

    There is growing empirical evidence for an association between childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. We tested whether revictimized survivors of severe to extreme severities of child sexual abuse (CSA) and severe severities of child physical abuse (CPA) differed from nonvictimized healthy controls in their trait preferences in intimate partners and their current mate choice. In a sample of 52 revictimized female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after CSA/CPA and 52 female healthy controls, the validated Intimate Partner Preferences Questionnaire (IPPQ) was used to assess (a) the desirability of tenderness, dominance, and aggression traits in potential partners, and (b) the presence of these traits in their current intimate partners. Factors potentially associated with partner preference and mate choice, for example, chronicity of traumatic events and lower self-esteem, were explored. Our results showed that, in general, revictimized PTSD patients did not have a preference for dominant or aggressive partners. However, revictimized women displayed a significantly larger discrepancy than did healthy controls between their preferences for tenderness traits and their ratings of the presence of tenderness traits in their current partners. Our results indicated that revictimized patients had lower self-esteem values; however, these values were associated with higher demands for tenderness traits. Furthermore, our results revealed that compared with patients who experienced early-onset childhood abuse (CA), those who experienced later onset CA were more accepting of dominant traits in potential partners. Women who had experienced IPV rated their current partners to be overly dominant. A higher tolerance of dominance traits might increase the risk of IPV in a specific subgroup of abused women (women with a later onset of abuse experiences and experiences of IPV).

  4. Object relations and interpersonal problems in sexually abused female patients: an empirical study with the SCORS and the IIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernhof, Karin; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined how retrospective reports of experiencing traumatic sexual abuse in childhood relates to both the development of self-representations and object representations and the occurrence of interpersonal problems. A total of 30 psychosomatic female patients who reported sexual abuse in childhood were compared with a corresponding number of eating-disordered patients and a nonclinical control group. The object relations technique (ORT; Phillipson, 1955), evaluated using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1985, 1991b), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, & Ureno, 1988) were used to measure the groups. The patients reporting sexual abuse achieved significantly lower scores in the cognitive scales of the SCORS; in the affective scales, they differed from the control group but not from the patients with an eating disorder. Concerning interpersonal problems, the patients reporting childhood sexual abuse reported interpersonal conflicts more frequently. The results of the study support the influence of traumatic sexual abuse on the formation of self-representations and object representations and on the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts.

  5. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested. PMID:27458482

  6. Sexual desire, communication, satisfaction, and preferences of men and women in same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Diane; Blair, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    In an online study, measures of subjective sexual experiences in one's current relationship were compared across four groups: Men and women in mixed-sex (i.e., heterosexual) and same-sex (i.e., homosexual) relationships. Results indicated far more similarities than differences across the four groups, with groups reporting almost identical sexual repertoires, and levels of sexual communcation with partner. Men reported experiencing somewhat more sexual desire than women, while women reported slightly higher levels of general sexual satisfaction than men. Those in same-sex relationships reported slightly higher levels of sexual desire than those in mixed-sex relationships. Compared to the other three groups, heterosexual men reported deriving somewhat less satisfaction from the more tender, sensual, or erotic sexual activities. Implications of these findings for sex therapists are discussed.

  7. Do Trust and Sexual Intimacy Mediate Attachment's Pathway Toward Sexual Violence Occurring in Same Sex Romantic Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Nicolas; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    2017-07-01

    This study tested a serial mediation model examining how dyadic trust and sexual intimacy mediate the relationship between insecure romantic attachment and perpetrated sexual violence occurring between same sex intimate partners (sexual SSIPV). A community sample of adults ( N = 310; 203 women, 107 men) involved in a committed (6 months or longer) same sex romantic relationship completed an encrypted online questionnaire package which included psychometric measures designed to assess the aforementioned variables. Controlling for gender effects, analyses conducted using bootstrapping procedures supported full mediation pathways for both attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. That is, attachment anxiety and avoidance were both directly associated to the perpetration of sexual SSIPV, and these relationships were both fully mediated by dyadic trust and sexual intimacy, in that respective order.

  8. Identity Transformation During the Transition to Parenthood Among Same-Sex Couples: An Ecological, Stress-Strategy-Adaptation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjian; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Wood, Claire; Fine, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews the current research on the potential stressors associated with identity transformation experienced by same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood and the coping strategies they employ. By integrating disparate findings into an ecological, stress-strategy-adaptation framework, we demonstrate that the identity transformation experiences among same-sex couples during the transition to parenthood (a) involve various adaptive processes of navigating different stressors via their human agency within multiple nested contexts; (b) are products of the intersections of individual characteristics, relational dynamics, LGBT community culture, and heterosexual sociostructural norms; and (c) are complicated by social contextual factors such as social class, race/ethnicity, family structure, and the sociocultural environment associated with geographic location. Last, several avenues for future inquiry are suggested.

  9. "We are Two of the Lucky Ones": Experiences with Marriage and Wellbeing for Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Heather R; Dalla, Rochelle L; Dreesman, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Happy marriages provide protective health benefits, and social support is a key factor in this association. However, previous research indicates one of the greatest differences between same- and different-sex couples is less social support for same-sex couples. Our goal was to examine the extent to which formal markers of couple status (e.g., marriage) impact wellbeing among same-sex married partners. Using a mixed-methods approach, data were collected from 218 primarily White gay and lesbian individuals in the Midwest. Quantitative analysis revealed individuals in a prior formal union with a different-sex partner reported the lowest levels of sexuality specific social support and acceptance. Qualitative analysis revealed four primary impacts of marriage on support from family, friends, and co-workers: no change, increased support, decreased support, and a synthesis of mixed support. Three mechanisms prompting change in the family were identified and are presented.

  10. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical...... to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different......-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995–2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings...

  11. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ...

  12. Supranational Cultural Norms, Domestic Value Orientations and the Diffusion of Same-sex Union Rights in Europe, 1988–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, J.; Lutter, M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of policy diffusion is gaining increasing attention among social scientists. Following world society theory, a burgeoning literature reports a positive relationship between national linkages to global cultural norms and the diffusion of public policies. However, previous analyses do not simultaneously control for time-varying domestic cultural orientations. In order to conduct a stricter test of this theory, this article examines the wave of same-sex union (SSU) laws in Europe. Wh...

  13. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    OpenAIRE

    Amani El-Alayli; Erin Kent

    2011-01-01

    Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private) physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how publ...

  14. Coming Out to Dad: Young Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences Disclosing Same-Sex Attraction to Their Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A; Pingel, Emily S; Harper, Gary W; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men (YGBM) and their fathers. Based on a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in YGBM's coming-out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers' responses compared with sons' expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers' responses. Semistructured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 24 years were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants' narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The YGBM who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers' responses commonly differed from sons' expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers' responses, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of same-sex attraction, religious and sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. Particularly striking was the pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the YGBM's stories. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  16. Effect of Registered Partnership on Labor Earnings and Fertility for Same-Sex Couples: Evidence From Swedish Register Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldén, Lina; Edlund, Lena; Hammarstedt, Mats; Mueller-Smith, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The expansion of legal rights to same-sex couples is a foot in a number of Western countries. The effects of this rollout are not only important in their own right but can also provide a window on the institution of marriage and the rights bundled therein. In this article, using Swedish longitudinal register data covering 1994-2007, we study the impact of the extension of rights to same-sex couples on labor earnings and fertility. In 1994, registered partnership for same-sex couples was introduced, which conferred almost all rights and obligations of marriage--a notable exception being joint legal parenting, by default or election. The latter was added in the 2002 adoption act. We find registered partnership to be important to both gays and lesbians but for different reasons. For gays, resource pooling emerges as the main function of registered partnerships. For lesbians, registered partnership appears to be an important vehicle for family formation, especially after the 2002 adoption act. In contrast to heterosexual couples (included for comparison), we find no evidence of household specialization among lesbians. The lack of specialization is noteworthy given similar fertility effects of registered partnership (after 2002) and the fact that lesbian couples were less assortatively matched (on education) than heterosexual couples--children and unequal earnings power being two factors commonly believed to promote specialization.

  17. Public and Private Physical Affection Differences between Same-Sex and Different-Sex Couples: The Role of Perceived Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani El-Alayli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its connection with relationship satisfaction, research on physical affection is scarce and fails to disentangle private and public displays of affection. It is important to examine both types if marginalized couples are less comfortable displaying affection publicly. The present study examined whether same-sex couples display less public (but not private physical affection than different-sex couples due to stronger feelings of relationship marginalization. It also examined how public/private affection and marginalization relate to relationship satisfaction. Women in committed same-sex and different-sex relationships completed surveys of public affection, private affection, marginalization, and relationship satisfaction online. As predicted, women in same-sex relationships displayed less public affection than those in different-sex relationships, an effect mediated by general societal marginalization. Both private and public affection predicted higher relationship satisfaction, whereas feelings of marginalization by friends/family predicted lower relationship satisfaction. We discuss implications for relationship counseling and propose new ways of looking at marginalization.

  18. A randomized waitlist-controlled trial of culturally sensitive relationship education for male same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Sarah W; Weitbrecht, Eliza M; Kuryluk, Amanda D; Hutsell, David W

    2016-09-01

    Relationship education, effective in improving relationship quality among different-sex couples, represents a promising and nonstigmatizing approach to promoting the health and stability of same-sex couples. A new culturally sensitive relationship education program was developed specifically for male same-sex couples, which includes adaptations of evidence-based strategies to build core relationship skills (e.g., communication skills training) and newly developed content to address unique challenges faced by this group (e.g., discrimination; low social support). A small randomized waitlist-control trial (N = 20 couples) was conducted to evaluate the program. To assess program efficacy, dyadic longitudinal data (collected at pre- and postprogram and 3-month follow-up) were analyzed using multilevel models that accounted for nonindependence in data from indistinguishable dyads. Results indicated significant program effects in comparison to waitlist controls on couple constructive and destructive communication, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. Gains in each of these areas were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Although there was no evidence of within-person program effects on social support, satisfaction, or relationship instability immediately postprogram, all 3 showed within-person improvements by follow-up. Ratings of program satisfaction were high. In summary, study findings support the feasibility, acceptability, and initial efficacy of the program and highlight the potential value of culturally sensitive adaptations of relationship education for same-sex couples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Same-Sex Marriages (or Civil Unions/Registered Partnerships in Slovak Constitutional Law: Challenges and possibilities

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    Marián Sekerák

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In February 2015, Slovakia held a referendum ʻfor the protection of the traditional family.ʼ It was indirectly aimed against the potential legalization of same-sex marriages or civil unions. Owing to the initiative of the Slovak President, the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic (CCSR reviewed four proposed referendum questions, while one of them was later declared unconstitutional. I attempt to point out the flaws in the CCSR’s judgment while looking for an argumentation in favour of the recognition of same-sex marriages/civil unions. I argue that Slovak constitutional law provides several principles for such recognition, which include: civic equality, similarity, equal access, democratic state, and the right to privacy. These principles are compared with the recent ground-breaking judgments of the US Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights. Finally, I briefly scrutinise the objection that recognising a right for same-sex unions means excessive judicial activism and judicializes politics.

  20. Psychology and the politics of same-sex desire in the United States: an analysis of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L; Windell, Eric P

    2011-08-01

    Psychological science has assumed an increasingly explicit role in public policies related to same-sex desire in the United States. In this article, we present a historical analysis of the relationship between policy discourse and scientific discourse on homosexuality produced within U.S. psychology over the 20th and early 21st centuries through the lens of three cases: Bowers v. Hardwick (1986), Lawrence v. Texas (2003), and Perry v. Schwarzenegger (2010). Our analysis suggests that, for the majority of its disciplinary history, psychology produced knowledge that supported a status quo of legal and cultural subordination for same-sex-attracted individuals. The discipline's shift in understanding of homosexuality, reflected in a 1975 policy statement of the American Psychological Association, reversed this relationship and opened up space for advocacy for social and political change regarding homosexuality. Our analysis of policy decisions rendered by the courts reveals the increasingly important role psychological science has assumed in challenging the legal subordination of same-sex-attracted individuals, though the basis upon which psychological science has sought to inform policy remains limited. We conclude with a critical discussion of the type of knowledge claims psychologists have traditionally used to advocate for gay and lesbian rights, suggesting the vitality of a narrative approach which can reveal the meaning individuals make of legal subordination and political exclusion.

  1. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  2. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Ou?draogo, Saide Yacine Y.A.; Sisawo, Ebrima J.; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-01

    Background Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. Methods The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried o...

  3. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  4. Family Trauma and Dysfunction in Sexually Abused Female Adolescent Psychiatric Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…

  5. A comparison of anthropometric, metabolic and reproductive characteristics of young adult women from opposite-sex and same sex twin pairs

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    Pirkko eKorsoff

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal exposure to androgens has been linked to masculinization of several traits. We aimed to determine whether putative female intra-uterine exposure to androgens influences PCOS-related phenotypes, including anthropometric, metabolic and reproductive parameters using a twin design.Methods: Two cohorts of Finnish twins born in 1975-1979 and 1983-1987 formed the basis for the longitudinal FinnTwin16 (FT16 and FinnTwin12 (FT12 studies. Self-reported anthropometric characteristics, disease status and reproductive history were compared between 679 same-sex (SS and 789 opposite-sex (OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 34 ± 1.1 from the wave 5 of data collection in FT16. Serum lipid and lipoprotein subclass concentrations measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared in 226 SS and 169 OS female twins (mean age ± SD: 24 ± 2.1 from wave 4 of data collection in FT12 and FT16. Results: Anthropometric measures, the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 did not differ significantly between females from SS and OS twin pairs at age 34. Similarly, the prevalence of infertility, age at first pregnancy and number of induced and spontaneous abortions did not differ significantly between these two groups of women. The serum lipid and lipoprotein profile did not differ between females from SS and OS twins at age 24. Conclusion: We found no evidence that androgen overexposure of the female fetus affects obesity, metabolic profile or reproductive health in young adult females. However, these results do not exclude the possibility that prenatal androgen exposure in females could be adversely associated with intermediate phenotypes of PCOS later in life.

  6. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  7. Childhood sexual abuse experiences and its associated factors among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town, Gammo Goffa zone, Southern Ethiopia: a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Mekuria, Aleme; Nigussie, Aderajew; Abera, Muluemebet

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse is a major social problem in Africa including Ethiopia. Moreover, little has been explored about the pattern of childhood sexual abuse in the context of high school students in Ethiopia in general and in Arbaminch town in particular. Thus, the present study aims to assess the prevalence and associated factors of childhood sexual abuse among adolescent female high school students in Arbaminch town. Methods A school- based, cross-sectional study was conducted a...

  8. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Markus; Ross, Michael W; Tumwine, Gilbert; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7-5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.0, respectively). Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1-4.8), exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7-3.9), frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9-5.8), and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04-3.3). The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-5.8) and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6-7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.4) persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of same-sex sexuality experienced students. Targeted interventions that integrate mental

  9. Determinants of unmet needs for healthcare and sexual health counselling among Ugandan university students with same-sex sexuality experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Larsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research from sub-Saharan Africa has shown that persons with same-sex sexuality experience are at elevated risk for ill health due to sexual risk taking, stigma, and discrimination. However, studies of healthcare seeking among young people in this region with same-sex sexuality experience are limited. Objective: To identify determinants of unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively, among Ugandan university students with experience of same-sex sexuality. Design: In 2010, 1,954 Ugandan university students completed a questionnaire assessing socio-demographic factors, mental health, alcohol usage, sexual behaviours, and healthcare seeking. The study population consisted of those 570 who reported ever being in love with, sexually attracted to, sexually fantasised about, or sexually engaged with someone of the same sex. Results: Findings showed that 56% and 30% reported unmet healthcare and sexual health counselling needs, respectively. Unmet healthcare needs were associated with poor mental health and exposure to sexual coercion (OR 3.9, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 2.7–5.7; OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3–3.0, respectively. Unmet sexual health counselling needs were significantly associated with poor mental health (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.1–4.8, exposure to sexual coercion (OR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.7–3.9, frequent heavy episodic drinking (OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.9–5.8, and number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.3. The associations between poor mental health, sexual coercion, and unmet healthcare needs (AOR 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1–8.5; AOR 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3–5.8 and unmet needs for sexual health counselling (AOR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.6–7.1; AOR 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4–5.4 persisted after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, number of sexual partners, and frequent heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions: These findings indicate that exposure to sexual coercion and poor mental health may influence healthcare seeking behaviours of

  10. The severity of childhood abuse and neglect in relationship to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among female sex workers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.; Bogaerts, S.; Bijleveld, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood is examined in a sample of 123 female indoor sex workers in the Netherlands. It was hypothesized that the severity of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with the

  11. [Prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner abuse in female users of public health services in Mexico: a comparative analyses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Valdez-Santiagob, Rosario; Barroso-Quiab, Abigail; Híjar, Martha; Rojas, Rosalba; Del Río-Zolezzi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of the prevalence in intimate partner violence during the years 2003 and 2006 in Mexico, identifying factors associated with its severity, comparing our results with findings from 2003. Data from the Encuesta Nacional de Violencia contra las Mujeres (ENVIM 2006) was used; it has urban-rural national representation of female users of Mexican public health services. A total of 22,318 women above 14 years of age were interviewed. A multinomial logistic regression model was adjusted. The dependent variable was the Index of Intimate Partner Abuse. Intimate partner abuse increased 17% in comparison to the year 2003. Women's personal history of childhood abuse (ORA= 5.12, 95% CI4.15-6.30) and rape (ORA = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.66-4.62) were the most important women's factors that were found associated with severe violence. Male partner's daily alcohol consumption increased eleven fold the possibility of severe violence; higher disagreement with traditional female gender roles and higher education of both partners were protective factors. Factors associated with violence and their severities were consistent with findings reported in 2003. Intimate partner violence is a highly prevalent social problem which requires comprehensive strategies supporting empowerment of women through higher education, early detection and care of those battered, as well as structured interventions to prevent violence in future generations.

  12. The Role of Sexually Explicit Material (SEM) in the Sexual Development of Black Young Same-Sex-Attracted Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anthony; Ogunbajo, Adedotun; Trent, Maria; Harper, Gary W.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Sexually explicit material (SEM) (including Internet, video, and print) may play a key role in the lives of Black same-sex sexually active youth by providing the only information to learn about sexual development. There is limited school-and/or family-based sex education to serve as models for sexual behaviors for Black youth. We describe the role SEM plays in the sexual development of a sample of Black same-sex attracted (SSA) young adolescent men ages 15–19. Adolescents recruited from clinics, social networking sites, and through snowball sampling were invited to participate in a 90-min, semi-structured qualitative interview. Most participants described using SEM prior to their first same-sex sexual experience. Participants described using SEM primarily for sexual development, including learning about sexual organs and function, the mechanics of same-gender sex, and to negotiate one’s sexual identity. Secondary functions were to determine readiness for sex; to learn about sexual performance, including understanding sexual roles and responsibilities (e.g., “top” or “bottom”); to introduce sexual performance scripts; and to develop models for how sex should feel (e.g., pleasure and pain). Youth also described engaging in sexual behaviors (including condom non-use and/or swallowing ejaculate) that were modeled on SEM. Comprehensive sexuality education programs should be designed to address the unmet needs of young, Black SSA young men, with explicit focus on sexual roles and behaviors that may be inaccurately portrayed and/or involve sexual risk-taking (such as unprotected anal intercourse and swallowing ejaculate) in SEM. This work also calls for development of Internet-based HIV/STI prevention strategies targeting young Black SSA men who maybe accessing SEM. PMID:25677334

  13. Conscientious Objectors and the Marrying Kind : Rights and Rites in Dutch Public Discourse on Marriage Registrars with Conscientious Objections against Conducting Same-Sex Weddings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    The opening up of civil marriage to same-sex couples in the Netherlands in 2001 and the existing legal recognition of conscientious objections among civil servants had created the legal and political possibility of marriage registrars with conscientious objections against conducting same-sex

  14. Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among Adolescents Reporting "Unsure" Sexual Identity or Heterosexual Identity Plus Same-Sex Attraction or Behavior: Forgotten Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Montoro, Richard; Igartua, Karine; Thombs, Brett D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare risk of suicide ideation and attempts in adolescents with 1) gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB) identity, 2) "unsure" identity, or 3) heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior, to heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction/fantasy or behavior. Method: A total of 1,856 students 14 years…

  15. Victimization, gender, nonconformity and contexts. The importance of gender and gender nonconformity on same-sex attracted Dutch youth's perceived experiences of victimization across social contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lisdonk, J.; van Bergen, D.D.; Hospers, H.; Keuzenkamp, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education

  16. The Importance of Gender and Gender Nonconformity for Same-sex Attracted Dutch Youth’s Perceived Experiences of Victimization across Social Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lisdonk, Jantine; van Bergen, Diana D.; Hospers, Harm J.; Keuzenkamp, Saskia

    In this survey study, the impact of gender and gender nonconformity on Dutch same-sex-attracted youth's perceived experiences of same-sex sexuality-related victimization was systematically compared across social contexts. Participants were between ages 16 and 18 and enrolled in secondary education

  17. Social Work Faculty Support for Same-Sex Marriage: A Cross-National Study of U.S. and Anglophone Canadian MSW Teaching Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, Michael R.; Luke, Katherine P.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Gutierrez, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Attention to same-sex marriage has increased in the past decade. This study examines the perceptions of same-sex marriage among social work faculty. Faculty play a critical role in preparing future social workers for competent, ethical practice--including advocacy for social policies inclusive of sexual minorities. The present study investigates…

  18. Same-sex sexual relationships in the national social life, health and aging project: making a case for data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Maria T; Grossman, Brian R

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the previously unexplored subsample of respondents who reported at least 1 same-sex sexual relationship (SSSR) in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). The NSHAP collected data from 3,005 adults (aged 57-85). Approximately 4% (n = 102) of respondents reported at least one SSSR. These sexual minority elders were younger, more educated, were more likely to be working, had fewer social supports, and better physical health. Results may indicate crisis competence in sexual minority elders. Collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data in larger, US-based probability samples would inform the development of appropriate community-based services and supports.

  19. Same-sex marriage, autoimmune thyroid gland dysfunction and other autoimmune diseases in Denmark 1989-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Morten; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have been little studied in gay men and lesbians. We followed 4.4 million Danes, including 9,615 same-sex married (SSM) persons, for 47 autoimmune diseases in the National Patient Registry between 1989 and 2008. Poisson regression analyses provided first hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) comparing rates between SSM individuals and persons in other marital status categories. SSM individuals experienced no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the risk of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction was increased, notably Hashimoto's thyroiditis (women(SSM), RR = 2.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.74-4.55) and Graves' disease (men(SSM), RR = 1.88; 95% CI 1.08-3.01). There was also an excess of primary biliary cirrhosis (women(SSM), RR = 4.09; 95% CI 1.01-10.7), and of psoriasis (men(SSM), RR = 2.48; 95% CI 1.77-3.36), rheumatic fever (men(SSM), RR = 7.55; 95% CI 1.87-19.8), myasthenia gravis (men(SSM), RR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.36-14.4), localized scleroderma (men(SSM), RR = 7.16; 95% CI 1.18-22.6) and pemphigoid (men(SSM), RR = 6.56; 95% CI 1.08-20.6), while Dupuytren's contracture was reduced (men(SSM), RR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.39-0.99). The excess of psoriasis was restricted to same-sex married men with HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 10.5; 95% CI 6.44-15.9), whereas Graves' disease occurred in excess only among same-sex married men without HIV/AIDS (men(SSM), RR = 1.99; 95% CI 1.12-3.22). Lesbians and immunologically competent gay men in same-sex marriage face no unusual overall risk of autoimmune diseases. However, the observed increased risk of thyroid dysfunction in these lesbians and gay men deserves further study.

  20. The Specific Role of Childhood Abuse, Parental Bonding, and Family Functioning in Female Adolescents With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Brunner, Romuald; Holz, Birger; Parzer, Peter; Giannone, Francesca; Reichl, Corinna; Fischer, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This study examined a broad variety of adverse childhood experiences in a consecutive sample of female adolescent inpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD; n = 44) compared with a clinical control (CC; n = 47) group with mixed psychiatric diagnoses. BPD was diagnosed using a structured clinical interview; different dimensions of childhood adversity were assessed using the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire, the Parental Bonding Instrument, and the Family Assessment Device. A history of childhood adversity was significantly more common in patients with BPD than in the CC group. Using a multivariate model, sexual abuse (OR = 13.8), general family functioning (OR = 8.9), and low maternal care (OR = 7.6) were specific and independent predictors of adolescent BPD. The results increase our knowledge of the specific role of different dimensions of childhood adversity in adolescent BPD. They have important implications for prevention and early intervention as they highlight the need for specific strategies for involving the family.

  1. Sexual abuse, family violence, and female delinquency: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Veronica M; McCloskey, Laura Ann

    2003-06-01

    The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation.

  2. Being both and acting 'man': exploring patterns of masculinisation among young same-sex-attracted men in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-five same-sex-attracted rural young Thai men were interviewed three times to investigate how their sexual subjectivity changed over an 18-month period after they completed high school and moved into a new life-phase. Many young men grew up with strong gender-based understandings of homosexuality, in which a masculine (top) partner is seen as complementing a feminine (bottom) partner. The discursive division between the masculine and feminine domains became increasingly blurred in the actual practice of dating, forcing the young men to develop new understandings of homosexuality and same-sex relations. The shift from a rural to urban environment, the use of the Internet and the experience of falling in love played important roles in this experimentation with new, increasingly masculine presentations of the self, also influenced by a modern urban masculine aesthetic. The paper concludes that the encounter between 'traditional' gender-based homosexuality and new ideas, in which masculine object-choice is important in defining sexual identity leads to a variety of fluid ideas and expressions. This process created confusion among some, and opportunities for exploration of new ways of defining sexual subjectivities among others.

  3. Kenyan Religious Leaders' Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G M; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country's specific context. A total of 212 Catholic, Islamic, and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire specifically developed for this study. The leaders' perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in Kenya's Constitution were considered to be applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one's religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders' mind-sets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities.

  4. Kenyan Religious Leaders’ Views on Same-Sex Sexuality and Gender Nonconformity: Religious Freedom versus Constitutional Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbote, David Kuria; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Waweru, Esther; Zapfel, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Religion plays an important role in framing the public discourse on sexuality, especially in countries where religion fully permeates social life. We explored the perspectives of Kenyan religious leaders on sexual and gender diversity in their country’s specific context. Two hundred and twelve Catholic, Islam and Protestant leaders from urban centers and rural townships completed a self-administered questionnaire, specifically developed for this study. The leaders’ perspectives were predominantly negative. Limited acceptance was conditional on sexual minorities not engaging in same-sex practices or seeing such practices as sinful. A substantial minority (37%) endorsed the use of violence for maintaining social values, especially regarding homosexuality and gender nonconformity. The majority of religious leaders agreed on the difference between civil law and religious doctrine. Human rights principles enshrined in the Kenya Constitution were seen as also applicable to sexual and gender minorities. Decriminalization of same-sex sexuality was seen as against one’s religion. Perspectives were less negative if leaders were familiar with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons. Interventions that promote intergroup contact could be effective in changing religious leaders’ mindsets and advancing human rights and health for sexual and gender minorities. PMID:27982708

  5. 'Struggling to be the alpha': sources of tension and intimate partner violence in same-sex relationships between men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Tamar; Stephenson, Rob; Freeland, Ryan; Finneran, Catherine; Hadley, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In countries such as the USA, gay and bisexual men experience high rates of intimate partner violence. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to this form of violence. In this study, we examine gay and bisexual men's perceptions of sources of tension in same-sex male relationships and how these may contribute to intimate partner violence. We conducted seven focus-group discussions with 64 gay and bisexual men in Atlanta, GA. Focus groups examined men's reactions to the short-form revised Conflicts Tactics Scale to determine if each item was considered to be intimate partner violence if it were to occur among gay and bisexual men. Analysts completed a thematic analysis, using elements of grounded theory. The sources of tension that men identified included: gender role conflict, dyadic inequalities (e.g. differences in income, age, education), differences in 'outness' about sexual identity, substance use, jealousy and external homophobic violence. Results suggest that intimate partner violence interventions for gay and bisexual men should address behavioural factors, while also focusing on structural interventions. Interventions that aim to reduce homophobic stigma and redefine male gender roles may help to address some of the tension that contributes to intimate partner violence in same-sex male relationships.

  6. Homophobia: An Impulsive Attraction to the Same Sex? Evidence From Eye-Tracking Data in a Picture-Viewing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Radel, Remi; Grob, Emmanuelle; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Chanal, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Some models suggest that homophobia can be explained as a denied attraction toward same-sex individuals. While it has been found that homophobic men have same-sex attraction, these results are not consistent. This study drew on the dual-process models to test the assumption that sexual interest in homosexual cues among men high in homophobia will depend on their specific impulses toward homosexual-related stimuli. Heterosexual men (N = 38) first completed a scale measuring their level of homonegativity. Then, they performed a manikin task to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward homosexual stimuli (IAHS). A picture-viewing task was performed with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess participants' viewing time of the visual area of interest (i.e., face and body). IAHS positively predicted the viewing time of homosexual photographs among men with a high score of homonegativity. Men with a high homonegativity score looked significantly longer at homosexual than at heterosexual photographs but only when they had a high IAHS. These findings confirm the importance of considering the variability in impulsive processes to understand why some (but not all) men high in homophobia have homosexual interest. These findings reinforce the theoretical basis for elaborating a dual-process model for behaviors in the sexual context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Religion and the rainbow struggle: does religion factor into attitudes toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    The provision of civil liberties to LGBT persons has become part of a global movement in societies across the world. In Brazil, a recent judicial ruling for the first time established the right for homosexual couples to enter into civil unions, despite the presence of widespread disapproval of homosexuality among the population and opposition from prominent religious groups. Picking up on this issue, the following study examines whether religion may factor into the attitudes Brazilians hold toward homosexuality and same-sex civil unions. Using data from the Brazilian Social Research Survey, we find that the most restrictive views toward homosexuality and the strongest opposition to same-sex civil unions are most prevalent among devoted followers of historical Protestant, Pentecostal, and Catholic faith traditions, whereas adherents of Afro-Brazilian and spiritist religions, as well as those with no religious commitment, are inclined to assume a more tolerant moral posture toward such issues. The findings point to religion as a potential influence in future public policy initiatives and social movements involving LGBT issues in Brazil.

  8. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  9. Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: A Multi-Site Study of Male and Female Prison Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissier, Bernadette; Motivans, Mark; Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined whether there were program differences with respect to post-release outcomes in 20 federal in-prison substance abuse programs which used a cognitive-behavioral treatment approach. Recidivism and post-release drug use were examined for a sample of 1,343 individuals--1,065 men and 278 women. Discrete time proportional…

  10. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  11. Same-Sex Marriage and the Assimilationist Dilemma: A Research Agenda on Marriage Equality and the Future of LGBTQ Activism, Politics, Communities, and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mary

    2018-01-10

    This special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality, examines the impact of the marriage equality movement and the resulting landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) that legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S., on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) activism, politics, communities, and identities. The articles in this issue examine the complicated ways in which the discourse used in same-sex marriage court cases is related to heteronormative discursive frames; the lived reality of married same-sex couples and the complex ways in which they think about marriage and heteronormativity; the ways that heteronormativity is racialized, which affects how African Americans perceive the impact of same-sex marriage on their lives; how same-sex marriage has influenced public opinion and the likelihood of anti-gay backlash; and the impact of same-sex marriage on family law. In this article, I draw on the empirical research from these articles to develop a theoretical framework that expands a multi-institutional (MIP) approach to understanding social movements and legal change. I build on and develop three conceptual tools: the assimilationist dilemma, discursive integration and cooptation, and truth regime. I conclude by laying out an agenda for future research on the impact of same-sex marriage on LGBTQ movements, politics, identities, and communities.

  12. The Effectiveness of Group Assertiveness Training on Happiness in Rural Adolescent Females With Substance Abusing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojjat, Seyed Kaveh; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Norozi Khalili, Mina; Shakeri Chenarani, Maryam; Hamidi, Mahin; Akaberi, Arash; Rezaei Ardani, Amir

    2015-06-12

    Parental substance abuse confronts children with a variety of psychological, social, and behavioral problems. Children of substance abusing parents show higher levels of psychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression and exert lower levels of communication skills. Weak social skills in this group of adolescents put them at a higher risk for substance abuse. Many studies showed school based interventions such as life skill training can effective on future substance abusing in these high risk adolescences. The participants consisted of 57 middles schools girls, all living in rural areas and having both parents with substance dependency. The participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=28) and control (n=29) groups. The data were collected before and six weeks after training in both group. The intervention group received eight sessions of group assertiveness training. Participants were compared in terms of changes in scores on the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire and the Gambrills-Richey Assertion Inventory. The total score for happiness change from 43.68 ±17.62 to 51.57 ±16.35 and assertiveness score changed from 110.33±16.05 to 90.40±12.84. There was a significant difference in pretest-posttest change in scores for intervention (7.89±4.13) and control (-2.51±2.64) groups; t (55) =2.15, p = 0.049. These results suggest that intervention really does have an effect on happiness and assertiveness. Determining the effectiveness of these school based interventions on other life aspects such as substance abuse calls for further study on these rural adolescent girls.

  13. Religion and Gay Marriage: The Use of Religion in the Debate Concerning Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Røkke, Frida

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s the issue of same-sex marriage has been publicly debated in the United States. This debate has lasted for several decades and gone through court cases and ballot measures to find a solution to the question. As several states legalized same-sex marriage the situation became tense and the demand to find a solution grew. In the summer of 2015, the United States Supreme Court handled the question of federal legalization of same-sex marriage and ruled in favor of it. As the propone...

  14. Stable Same-Sex Friendships with Higher Achieving Partners Promote Mathematical Reasoning in Lower Achieving Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Kiuru, Noona; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and one year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Models) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning. PMID:26402901

  15. The Civil Marriage and the Constitution: the Constitutional Court decision on same-sex marriage in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Contesse Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses the Chilean Constitutional Court’s decision regarding  the definition of marriage in Chile, which reserves the right to marry exclusively to a man and a woman. The article grounds the discussion on a robust conception of the equal dignity of individuals and analyzes the separate opinions of the justices of the Court, emphasizing some technical legal issues such as the prevalence of separate opinions and the references to international human rights law in almost all of them. The article argues that, considering the development of international human rights law and the crafting of claims as fundamental rights claims, it is only a matter of time before the legislature addresses the issue of same-sex marriage, following the Court’s statement that it is the legislature’s duty to do so.

  16. The effectiveness of same-sex versus opposite-sex role models in advertisements to reduce alcohol consumption in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, S

    1994-01-01

    The differential effectiveness of same- versus opposite-sex role models in persuading teenagers to reduce alcohol consumption was investigated. Based on an actual set of commercials, four 1-min videos were constructed, in which either boys or girls discuss how alcohol adversely affects either boys or girls. These were shown to either teenage boys or girls, resulting in a 2(Sex of Source) x 2(Sex of Subjects [Ss]) factorial design. Ss rated the credibility of the source, the persuasibility of the message, said how much and how often they drank currently, and whether they intended to decrease their future alcohol consumption. Three studies were conducted, in a coeducational (N = 95), boys' (N = 98), and girls' (N = 102) school, respectively. The overall pattern in the data showed that as predicted, same-sex role models were more effective, and that moderate drinkers were more influenced than heavy drinkers; both findings having implications for teenage health education campaigns.

  17. Coming out to dad: Young gay and bisexual men’s experiences disclosing same-sex attraction to their fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura A.; Pingel, Emily S.; Harper, Gary; Bauermeister, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between young gay and bisexual men and their fathers. Using a phenomenological framework, this study investigated the role of fathers in young gay and bisexual men’s coming out experience, focusing on how fathers responded to disclosure of same-sex attraction, how fathers’ responses compared with sons’ expectations, and what sons perceived as having influenced their fathers’ responses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 30 gay and bisexual men ages 18–24 were conducted as part of a larger study; topics explored in the interview included experiences coming out to family and others. Nineteen participants’ narratives included discussion about their fathers and were included in the current analyses. The young gay and bisexual men who were interviewed perceived a complex range of responses upon coming out to their fathers, ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to physical violence. Participants spoke of fathers who were accepting in different manners and who often held contradictory attitudes about same-sex attraction. Fathers’ responses commonly differed from sons’ expectations, which were informed by homophobic talk and gendered expectations. Sons spoke about what informed their expectations as well as what they perceived as influencing their fathers’ response, including gender norms, beliefs regarding the cause of SSA, religious views, sociopolitical views, and concerns about HIV/AIDS. The pervasive influence of hegemonic masculinity throughout the young gay and bisexual men’s stories was particularly striking. The implications of these findings for future research and intervention development are discussed, as well as study strengths and limitations. PMID:24989422

  18. Prevalence of Same-Sex Sexual Behavior and Associated Characteristics among Low-Income Urban Males in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  20. Sexual Violence Perpetration by Adolescents in Dating versus Same-Sex Peer Relationships: Differences in Associated Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, Merle E.; Swahn, Monica H.; Choi, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the risk and protective factors for youth sexual violence (SV) perpetration across different types of relationships. This study examined factors associated with perpetrating SV against a dating partner and a same-sex peer. Methods: Analyses were based on data from a survey conducted in 2004 with public school boys and girls in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N = 4,131) in a high-risk, urban school district in the United States. SV perpetration was defined broadly to include forcing someone, about the same age and of the same or opposite sex as the respondent, to have sex or to do something sexual that they did not want to do. Analyses examined the associations between risk and protective factors and SV perpetration, adjusting for SV victimization and demographic characteristics. Results: Findings revealed that 2.1% of respondents reported perpetration against a same-sex peer and 3.2% reported perpetration against a date during the past 12 months. Victims of SV for each relationship type were more likely than non-victims to perpetrate SV. A combination of factors across the individual, relationship, and community level were significantly associated with SV perpetration and there were both shared and unique factors across the relationship types. Conclusion: Data suggest that programs to prevent SV perpetration for both relationship types should start when students are young, with particular focus on middle school boys. Prevention efforts should have slightly different foci to address these 2 types of SV perpetration. PMID:23930146

  1. Mental health help seeking patterns and associations among Australian same sex attracted women, trans and gender diverse people: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth P; Bush, Rachel

    2016-07-04

    Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Eight key stakeholders were interviewed, and a convenience sample of 1628 Australian SSAW completed an online survey in 2015. This included several scales to measure mental health, community connectedness and resilience; and measured past 12 month help seeking behaviour, enablers, barriers and preferences for mental health care. Chi-square analyses and binary logistic regression analyses examined demographic associations with mental health. Correlations between help seeking, mental and physical health, and connectedness were run. A high proportion (80 %) of the total sample had perceived mental health problems over the past 12 months. Over half had depression, and over 96 % had anxiety. Trans and gender diverse participants were twice as likely as female participants to have mental health problems, and lesbians were least likely. High levels of past 12 month help seeking included 74.4 % seeing a GP, 44.3 % seeing a psychologist/counsellor, 74.7 % seeking family/friends support and 55.2 % using internet based support. Professional help was prioritised by those with higher mental health need. Trans participants were most likely to have sought professional help and participated in support groups, but least likely to have sought help from friends or family. The most common barriers to help seeking were discrimination and lack of LGBTI sensitivity of services, particularly for gender diverse, queer and pansexual participants. Enablers included mainstream community connectedness, having a trustworthy GP, and

  2. Mental health help seeking patterns and associations among Australian same sex attracted women, trans and gender diverse people: a survey-based study

    OpenAIRE

    McNair, Ruth P.; Bush, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Same sex attracted women (SSAW) are disproportionately affected by depression and anxiety, due to experiences of sexuality and gender based discrimination. They access mental health services at higher rates than heterosexual women, however with lower levels of satisfaction. This study examined the range of professional and social help seeking by same-sex attracted women, and patterns according to sexual orientation and gender identity subgroup. Methods Eight key stakeholders were i...

  3. "I Liked Girls and I Thought They Were Pretty": Initial Memories of Same-Sex Attraction in Young Lesbian and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Sara I; Rubin, Jennifer D; Bauermeister, José A

    2016-08-01

    There is little research on what is meant by the concept of "feeling attracted" and even less about what same-sex attraction looks and feels like for individuals. Without insight into the phenomenon of same-sex attraction, researchers risk misunderstanding the role of sexual attraction in sexual identity development and risk mis-categorizing individuals in research designs that compare LGBTQ and heterosexual samples. The current study draws from semi-structured interviews (n = 30) with young lesbian-, bisexual-, and queer-identified women (ages 18-24) about their initial memories of same-sex attraction. Two questions were pursued using qualitative analytic strategies. We examined the age that participants remembered first experiencing same-sex attraction using content analysis. Two age groups emerged as distinct: those with experiences of same-sex attraction in childhood and those with initial attractions in later adolescence. We also examined key elements in participants' descriptions of early same-sex attraction using thematic analysis. The role of embodied feelings, relationships with other young women, and social environments including media images emerged as central to initial experiences of attraction. Findings highlight how early experiences of same-sex attraction produced different types of interpretations within individuals and, in turn, these interpretations informed how participants did or did not take up LGBTQ identity labels. These findings may help guide the development of more refined measurement tools for researchers hoping to sample sexual minorities and can contribute to developing more effective supports for individuals who experience same-sex attraction but may not adopt LGBTQ identity labels and, as a result, are routinely missed in outreach efforts.

  4. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  5. Same-sex partnerships in Portugal
    From de facto to de jure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As far as cohabitation is concerned, two opposite but simultaneous trends can be detected. In the field of different-sex relationships the trend appears to be that of deregulation, while in the field of same-sex relationships the opposite trend seems to be discernible. Same-sex couples claim for their outside legitimisation of their relationship and demand increasing State intervention on this matter. The purpose of this article is to determine how the Portuguese legislature should deal with these demands. This being so, a brief description of Act 7/2001, as the first piece of Portuguese legislation that offered legal protection to same-sex relationships, is provided. According to this legislation, the legal situation of same-sex relationships is almost identical to the situation of different-sex cohabiting couples. The description will only stress the differences when appropriate. Against this background, it will be possible to reflect on the current legal situation of same-sex relationships in Portugal and determine which further steps the Portuguese legislature should take along the path of according a legal status to same sex relationships. There are two different possibilities, namely opening civil marriage or introducing a form of registered partnership. The advantages and the disadvantages of each one of them will be discussed according to the guiding principles of the Portuguese legal system.

  6. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

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    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  7. Sexual abuse and risky sexual behaviors among young female hawkers in Burkina Faso: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y A; Sisawo, Ebrima J; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-01-04

    Young street hawkers in Burkina Faso are increasingly exposed to workplace hazards such as physical and sexual abuse, and also unsafe sexual practices. The objectives of this study were to identify the socio-demographic status and work characteristics of young female hawkers, describe their sexual behavior and their experience with regards to sex-related violence at the workplace. The study used a mixed design combining qualitative and quantitative methods. It was carried out in two traffic stations in Burkina Faso namely Bittou customs station and Boromo bus station. Female hawkers aged 13 - 24 years were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey and local key informants were recruited to partake in an in-depth interview. The recruitment was based on their duties related to the hawkers. The study included 264 participants in the survey and 16 interviewees. The survey showed that three quarter of participants had primary education or lower. About half of them had been sexually harassed, with clients, public members and co-hawkers as the most common source of assault. Most (68.6%) hawkers were sexually active; among them 43.7% had received money or gifts for sex. Positive factors associated with commercial sex include working in Boromo and age above 17, while negative factors include being Muslim and having female genital mutilation. The interviews confirmed the relationship between hawking and the socio-economic situation of participant's family, and pointed out societal factors that expose hawkers to risky sexual behaviors. This study provides a better understanding of young female hawking activity in Boromo and Bittou. Implementing an empowerment program for female street vendors and their families, and an efficient surveillance system might help reduce these hazards.

  8. The Scope of Sexual, Physical, and Psychological Abuse in a Bedouin-Arab Community of Female Adolescents: The Interplay of Racism, Urbanization, Polygamy, Family Honor, and the Social Marginalization of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study of the abuse--especially sexual--of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these…

  9. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Gender Nonconformity, Homophobic Peer Victimization and Mental Health: How Same-Sex Attraction and Biological Sex Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Gabriël; Baams, Laura; Bos, Henny M.W.; Overbeek, Geert J.; Sandfort, Theo G.M.

    2018-01-01

    We assessed whether homophobic name-calling accounts for the relationship between gender nonconformity and mental health (social anxiety and psychological distress) in a sample of 1,026 Dutch adolescents (boys: n = 517) aged 11–16 years (Mage = 13.4). We also explored whether this hypothesized mediation differs by sexual attraction and biological sex. Data were collected by means of paper–pencil questionnaires at five secondary schools located in urban areas in the Netherlands. Mediation analysis indicated that gender nonconformity was related with both social anxiety and psychological distress partially via homophobic name-calling. Moderated mediation analysis further showed that the mediating role of homophobic name-calling varied according to levels of same-sex attraction (SSA) and biological sex. The mediation effects increased in magnitude when levels of SSA increased and were significant only for adolescents with mean and high levels of SSA. The mediation effects were significant for boys and girls in general, although the mediation effects were stronger for boys than for girls. Our findings emphasize the importance of research and school-level interventions to focus on factors that promote acceptance of cross-gender behaviour among adolescents. PMID:26099017

  11. Top, Bottom, and Versatile Anal Sex Roles in Same-Sex Male Relationships: Implications for Relationship and Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Garcia, Christopher P

    2018-06-01

    Across much of the gay and bisexual male research on sexual position self-label (i.e., calling oneself a top, bottom, or versatile), there exist two commonalities: (1) studies tend to focus almost entirely on individual, relationally single androphilic men; (2) studies rarely account for relationships and relationship dynamics. In response, we explored the role of self-label over sexual and relationship satisfaction among gay and bisexual partnered men. Specifically, we looked at whether adopted sexual position identities were consonant or dissonant (i.e., matching or mismatching) with enacted behavior in relationships and how that impacted men's attitudes toward different relational attributes. Through an online survey, we sampled 169 men in same-sex relationships, asking them questions about their ideal penetrative role identities and their reality penetrative roles with their partner. We then asked them to rate their relationship on 10 sexual and interpersonal attributes. Multiple regression modeling suggested ideal-reality penetrative role dissonance was predictive of sexual dissatisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationships and, to a lesser extent, bottoms who topped. In contrast, penetrative role dissonance was predictive of relationship satisfaction among tops who bottomed in their relationship, but not bottoms who topped. We conclude that a potential reason for this paradox among tops who bottom may be sexual altruism. That is, men may be satisfied with other aspects within their relationships, understand their partner's anal sex preferences, and accommodate that position in response to their initial relationship satisfaction.

  12. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  13. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities. PMID:20582155

  14. Sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence as predictors of HIV-related sexual risk during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, H; Chao, B S

    1995-03-01

    This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.

  15. Essentialism and Islamic Theology of Homosexuality: A Critical Reflection on an Essentialist Epistemology toward Same-Sex Desires and Acts in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M

    2017-01-01

    Although most traditional Muslim scholars condemn same-sex desires and acts, revisionist Muslim scholars have offered a more tolerant approach on this issue over the last two decades. Building on an essentialist approach to same-sex desires and acts, these scholars have argued that Islam accepts difference and diversity, including sexual diversity, as part of God's creation. Homosexuality, which in their view is an innate disposition to the same sex, is an alternative sexuality and, thus, accepted by the Qur'an and Islam. This article argues that an essentialist approach is not suitable to defend all manifestations of same-sex desires and acts, not only because it is narrow (as it excludes both bisexual Muslims and homosexual Muslims who believe that their sexual orientation is socially constructed), but also because it cannot even argue the case for the view of homosexuality as inborn. This article proposes to open up the debate beyond essentialism and constructivism, which both have their limitations, to accommodate a more inclusive and tolerant Islamic approach to same-sex desires and acts.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaptagin eKhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F young adults (18-25 years were recruited from the community without regard to diagnosis and balanced to have equal exposure to 0-4 plus types of maltreatment. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure scale assessed severity of exposure to 10 types of maltreatment across each year of childhood. Major depression (MDD and current symptoms were evaluated by SCID, interview and self-report. Predictive analytics assessed importance of exposure at each age and evaluated whether exposure at one or two ages was a more important predictor than number, severity or duration of maltreatment across childhood.RESULTS: The most important predictors of lifetime history of MDD was non-verbal emotional abuse (NVEA in males and peer emotional abuse (EA in females at 14 years of age, and these were more important predictors across models than number of types of maltreatment (Males: t9=16.39, p<10-7; Females t9=5.78, p<10-4. Suicidal ideation was predicted, in part, by NVEA and peer EA at age 14, but most importantly by parental verbal abuse at age 5 in males and sexual abuse at age 18 in females. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for sensitive exposure periods when maltreatment maximally impacts risk for depression, and provides an alternative interpretation of the ACE study results. These findings fit with emerging neuroimaging evidence for regional sensitivity periods. The presence of sensitive exposure periods has important implications for prevention, preemption and

  17. Federal Employees Health Benefits and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Insurance Programs' Coverage Exception for Children of Same-Sex Domestic Partners. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    This action amends the rule to create a regulatory exception that allows children of same-sex domestic partners living overseas to maintain their Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) and Federal Employees Dental and Vision Program (FEDVIP) coverage until September 30, 2018. Due to a recent Supreme Court decision, as of January 1, 2016, coverage of children of same-sex domestic partners under the FEHB Program and FEDVIP will generally only be allowed if the couple is married, as discussed in Benefits Administration Letter (BAL) 15-207 dated October 5, 2015. OPM recognizes there are additional requirements placed on overseas federal employees that may not apply to other civilian employees with duty stations in the United States making it difficult to travel to the United States to marry same-sex partners.

  18. Legalization of Same-Sex Partnerships and the Possibility of "the Politics of Recongnition" : Learning from a Debate in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    佐藤, 美和

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I show importance of interpreting legalization of same-sex partnerships as a process of "the politics of recognition" for gay and lesbian, through featuring on the argument about legalization of partnerships in U.S.A. In the first section, I survey evolution of lawsuits to demand the right to marry for same-sex couples, from that in 70's to Goodridge decision of the Massachusetts Supreme Court in 2003. From Beahr decision of the Hawaii Supreme Court in 1993 to Goodridge decisio...

  19. Addressing the service linkage problem. Increasing substance abuse treatment engagement using personalized feedback interventions in heavy-using female domestic violence shelter residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Richard L; Baer, John S

    2003-11-01

    Two personalized substance abuse assessment and feedback interventions were tested for effectiveness in engaging female domestic violence shelter residents in substance abuse treatment. One hundred forty-seven residents were assessed for quantity andfrequency of substance use, negative consequences due to use, motivation to change substance use behavior, and psychopathological symptoms related to substance abuse. Assessment identified (33) 22% of participants as heavy substance users. Twenty of the 33 heavy-using residents received one of two personalized substance use feedback interventions:face-to-face feedback or writtenfeedbackplaced in shelter mailboxes. Treatment engagement was defined as attending at least one substance abuse treatment session within 30 days after the intervention. Results showed a significant difference in treatment engagement rates in favor of the face-to-face feedback group (60% vs. 0%). The results provide preliminary data suggesting that substance abuse assessment can be effectively accomplished in the shelter environment and that the face-to-face feedback procedure may be an effective intervention to bridge the service linkage problem between domestic violence services and substance abuse treatment.

  20. Patterns of cumulative abuse among female survivors of intimate partner violence: links to women's health and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lorraine; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Willson, Andrea; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Scott-Storey, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the Women's Health Effects Study, a community sample of women (N = 309) who recently left an abusive partner, this study examines patterns of cumulative abuse experiences over the life course, their socioeconomic correlates, and associations with a range of health outcomes. Latent class analysis identified four groups of women with differing cumulative abuse profiles: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Dominant, Child Abuse and IPV, All Forms, and All Forms Extreme. We find a relationship pattern between cumulative abuse and socioeconomic circumstances, and significantly worse health outcomes among women with the All Forms Extreme profile. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Prenatal exposure to testosterone and functional cerebral lateralization: a study in same-sex and opposite-sex twin girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, C.C.C.; Goozen, S.H.M. van; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2004-01-01

    In animals it has been shown that exposure to sex hormones is influenced by intrauterine position. Thus fetuses located between two male fetuses are exposed to higher levels of testosterone (T) than fetuses situated between two female fetuses or one female and one male fetus. In a group of

  2. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction : Differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Boschloo, Lynn; Schoevers, Robert A.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or

  3. Depression and anxiety in patients with and without same-sex attraction: differences in clinical expression, lifestyle factors, and vulnerability indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Boschloo, L.; Schoevers, R.A.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare clinical expressions (severity and loneliness), lifestyle factors (substance use), and vulnerability indicators (stressful childhood experiences) in patients with any same-sex attraction versus heterosexual patients diagnosed with depression and/or

  4. Identity Implications of Influence Goals: A Revised Analysis of Face-Threatening Acts and Application to Seeking Compliance with Same-Sex Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.; Aleman, Carlos G.; Leatham, Geoff B.

    1998-01-01

    Challenges and revises politeness theory by analyzing potential implications for both parties' face when the logical preconditions for seeking compliance are framed by specific influence goals. Tests undergraduate students' imagining asking favors, giving advice, and enforcing obligations with same-sex friends. Finds perceived face threats varied…

  5. Factorial Invariance of the Scale Beliefs about Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families in Spanish, Chilean, and Hispanic University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Soler, Marcos; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Berrios-Riquelme, José

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factorial invariance of the Scale on Beliefs About Children's Adjustment in Same-Sex Families (SBCASSF) across countries in three samples: Chilean, Spanish, and Hispanic university students. The scale analyzes attitudes toward the consequences of the rearing and education of children by parents with a homosexual sexual…

  6. Morally sensitive issues and cross-border movement in the EU. The cases of reproductive matters and legal recognition of same-sex relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koffeman, Nelleke Renate

    2015-01-01

    Within the European Union there is considerable diversity in morally sensitive issues like legal recognition of same-sex relationships and reproductive matters such as abortion, assisted human reproduction and surrogacy. Cross-border movement within the EU exposes and affects this diversity, as it

  7. Gender Differences in College Students' Perceptions of Same-Sex Sexual Harassment: The Influence of Physical Attractiveness and Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Yenys; Muscarella, Frank; Szuchman, Lenore T.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined college students' perceptions of same-sex harassment as a function of the observer's gender, the initiator's physical attractiveness, and observers' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Ninety-six college students read a scenario portraying a professor's sexual advances toward a student. The Perception of Harassment…

  8. Popularity among Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Peers: A Process-Oriented Examination of Links to Aggressive Behaviors and Depressive Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Ranney, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Popularity has been linked to heightened aggression and fewer depressive symptoms. The current study extends this literature by examining the unique contributions of same-sex and cross-sex popularity to children's development, as well as potential mediating processes. Third- and 4th-graders (212 boys, 250 girls) provided data at 3 time points over…

  9. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe: Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, S.; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries' economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  10. Tolerance towards homosexuality in Europe : Population composition, economic affluence, religiosity, same-sex union legislation and HIV rates as explanations for country differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slenders, Susanne; Sieben, I.J.P.; Verbakel, Ellen

    This study aims to explain variation in the level of tolerance towards homosexuality between European countries. Results of multi-level regression analyses on 40 countries from the 2008 wave of the European Values Study show that countries’ economic affluence and laws on same-sex unions are

  11. Effect of same-sex marriage laws on health care use and expenditures in sexual minority men: a quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Grasso, Chris; Mayer, Kenneth; Safren, Steven; Bradford, Judith

    2012-02-01

    We sought to determine whether health care use and expenditures among gay and bisexual men were reduced following the enactment of same-sex marriage laws in Massachusetts in 2003. We used quasi-experimental, prospective data from 1211 sexual minority male patients in a community-based health center in Massachusetts. In the 12 months after the legalization of same-sex marriage, sexual minority men had a statistically significant decrease in medical care visits (mean = 5.00 vs mean = 4.67; P = .05; Cohen's d = 0.17), mental health care visits (mean = 24.72 vs mean = 22.20; P = .03; Cohen's d = 0.35), and mental health care costs (mean = $2442.28 vs mean = $2137.38; P = .01; Cohen's d = 0.41), compared with the 12 months before the law change. These effects were not modified by partnership status, indicating that the health effect of same-sex marriage laws was similar for partnered and nonpartnered men. Policies that confer protections to same-sex couples may be effective in reducing health care use and costs among sexual minority men.

  12. Peer relationships and adolescents' academic and non-academic outcomes: same-sex and opposite-sex peer effects and the mediating role of school engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D; Martin, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    The literature has documented theoretical/conceptual models delineating the facilitating role of peer relationships in academic and non-academic outcomes. However, the mechanisms through which peer relationships link to those outcomes is an area requiring further research. The study examined the role of adolescents' perceptions of their relationships with same-sex and opposite-sex peers in predicting their academic performance and general self-esteem and the potentially mediating role of school engagement in linking these perceived peer relationships with academic and non-academic outcomes. The sample comprised 1,436 high-school students (670 boys, 756 girls; 711 early adolescents, 723 later adolescents). Self-report measures and objective achievement tests were used. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was performed to test the hypothesized model and its invariance across gender and age groups. Perceived same-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with academic performance and general self-esteem. Perceived opposite-sex peer relationships yielded positive direct and indirect links with general self-esteem and an indirect positive link with academic performance, but mediation via school engagement was not as strong as that of perceived same-sex peer relationships. These findings generalized across gender and age groups. Adolescents' same-sex and opposite-sex peer relationships seem to positively impact their academic performance and general self-esteem in distinct ways. It appears that school engagement plays an important role in mediating these peer relationship effects, particularly those of same-sex peer relationships, on academic and non-academic functioning. Implications for psycho-educational theory, measurement, and practice are discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Stability and change in same-sex attraction, experience, and identity by sex and age in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Nigel; van Roode, Thea; Cameron, Claire; Paul, Charlotte

    2013-07-01

    Gaps remain in knowledge of changes in sexual orientation past adolescence and early adulthood. A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort was used to examine differences by age and sex in change in sexual attraction between 21 (1993/1994) and 38 years (2010/2011), sexual experiences between 26 and 38 years, and sexual identity between 32 and 38 years. Any same-sex attraction was significantly more common among women than men at all ages. Among women, any same-sex attraction increased up to age 26 (from 8.8 to 16.6 %), then decreased slightly by age 38 (12.0 %); among men, prevalence was significantly higher at age 38 (6.5 %) than 21 (4.2 %), but not in the intermediate assessments. It is likely that the social environment becoming more tolerant was responsible for some of the changes. Same-sex attraction was much more common than same-sex experiences or a same-sex identity, especially among women, with no major sex differences in these latter dimensions. Women exhibited much greater change in sexual attraction between assessments than men; for change in experiences and identity, sex differences were less marked and not statistically confirmed. Changes in the respective dimensions appeared more likely among those initially with mixed attraction and experiences, and among those initially identifying as bisexual, but this did not account for the sex difference in likelihood of change. These results provide contemporary information about the extent and variation of reported sexual attraction, experiences, and identity that we show continues across early and mid-adulthood.

  14. The scope of sexual, physical, and psychological abuse in a Bedouin-Arab community of female adolescents: The interplay of racism, urbanization, polygamy, family honor, and the social marginalization of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbedour, Salman; Abu-Bader, Soleman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Abu-Rabia, Aref; El-Aassam, Salman

    2006-03-01

    This is an exploratory study of the abuse-especially sexual-of female adolescents in a conservative and traditional Bedouin-Arab community in southern Israel. The objectives were (1) to examine the rate of sexual abuse, (2) to examine the rate of physical and psychological abuse, and (3) to develop regression models to predict these forms of abuse. : A self-administered survey that measured demographic characteristics and psychological abuse was distributed to 217 female high-school students (aged 14-18 years). Sexual and physical abuse were measured via the Finkelhor's scale [Finkelhor, D. (1979). Sexually victimized children. New York: Free Press]. Sixty-nine percent of the participants (n=149) reported no sexual abuse experiences, 16% reported one or two experiences, 11% reported three or four, and 4% reported more than four. Most participants indicated that they had been physically abused at least once by their father (37.1%), mother (43.7%), or siblings (44%) during the previous month. More than 50% of the participants reported being psychologically abused by members of their immediate families. Mother's age and closeness to mother significantly predicted physical abuse, and marital satisfaction and mother's age significantly predicted psychological abuse. This study addresses a topic that has never before been fully investigated--the maltreatment of females in a conservative, tribal Arab community. Although this was an exploratory study, the results attest that female abuse is a serious social problem in this community, and that the rate of abuse exceeds that of other Palestinian groups. These findings demonstrate an immediate need for professional intervention and prevention to address this problem.

  15. That Man Behind the Curtain: Investigating the Sexual Online Dating Behavior of Men Who Have Sex With Men but Hide Their Same-Sex Sexual Attraction in Offline Surroundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Richard; Weber, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how men who have sex with men (MSM) use chat and dating sites based on theories of stigma-related offline behavior and online self-disclosure. We hypothesize that hidden MSM (those who self-label as heterosexual or who hide their same-sex sexual attraction from family, friends, acquaintances, or a female romantic partner) differ from open MSM in how they behave on gay chat and dating sites and in offline gay venues. Drawing on a survey of 12,002 MSM, we show that hidden MSM tend to mask their identity on gay chat and dating sites while avoiding offline gay venues. They also focus more strongly on online sexual activities (e.g., masturbating during online chats) when using gay chat and dating sites. However, they spend the same amount of time on these sites, and they use them to initiate offline sexual encounters as often and as fast as open MSM.

  16. Emergence of Sex Differences in the Development of Substance Use and Abuse during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  17. When Perspective Taking Creates a Motivational Threat: The Case of Conservatism, Same-Sex Sexual Behavior, and Anti-Gay Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooijman, Marlon; Stern, Chadly

    2016-06-01

    Taking another person's perspective has generally been found to foster positive attitudes. We propose that perspective taking can lead to more negative attitudes when people imagine an experience that threatens their current motivations and goals. We test this idea by examining how taking the perspective of a male same-sex couple influences political conservatives' attitudes. Across four studies, we demonstrate that (a) the extent to which conservatives (but not liberals) imagine same-sex sexual behavior predicts more anti-gay attitudes, (b) this effect is in part attributable to conservatives experiencing greater disgust, and (c) having conservatives reappraise disgust as not necessarily signaling the threat of disease eliminates this effect. These findings indicate that perspective taking can foster negative attitudes when the content of perspective taking threatens current motivations. The proposed ideas provide unique insights toward developing a more comprehensive framework of how perspective taking shapes attitudes. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  18. Good versus poor therapeutic alliances with non-accepting parents of same-sex oriented adolescents and young adults: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpigel, Maya S; Diamond, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic themes and processes associated with five good versus five poor parent-therapist alliances among a sample of non-accepting parents of sexual minority youth/young adults participating in family therapy were examined. The Consensual Qualitative Research approach was used to analyse of therapy notes and follow-up interviewsfrom good and poor alliances. In good alliances, parents adopted relationship building as a goal, considered essentialist causal attributions of same-sex orientation, acknowledged positive aspects of their child, and perceived the therapist as empathic and accepting. Parents with poor alliances rejected relationship building as a goal, rebuffed essentialist causal attributions, dismissed the possibility of their own coming out, nullified positive aspects of their child, sought to change their child's sexual orientation, blamed therapists for validating their child's same-sex orientation, and pressured therapists for information about their child. Clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Mandl, RC

    2006-01-01

    Global gray matter brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been associated to disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors. Global white matter brain tissue volume decreases were related to genetic risk factors for the disease. However, which focal gray and white matter brain regions...... best reflect the genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia remains unresolved. 1.5-T MRI brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared to 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic healthy control...... twin-pairs using voxel-based morphometry. Linear regression analysis was done in each voxel for the average and difference in gray and white matter density separately, in each twin-pair, with group (discordant, healthy) and zygosity (monozygotic, dizygotic) as between subject variables, and age, sex...

  20. Associations within school-based same-sex friendship networks of children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviours: a cross-sectional social network analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Ruth E.; Sebire, Simon J.; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L.; Jago, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Background Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Friendship groups are potentially an important influence on children’s physical activity and sedentary time. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Moreover, ...

  1. Same-sex marriage and other moral taboos : cultural acceptances, change in American public opinion and the evidence from the opinion polls

    OpenAIRE

    MORINI, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Published online: 25 January 2017 Creative Commons Licence This article analyzes the evolution of gay and lesbian rights and same-sex marriage in American public opinion. It describes how Obergefell v. Hodges, state-level decisions and the public opinion trends can be considered as the outcome of a grassroots coordinated campaign which began more than a decade ago and was able to conquer the majority of Americans. It also focuses on the American public opinion trends related to moral is...

  2. Beyond Same-Sex Attraction: Gender-Variant-Based Victimization Is Associated with Suicidal Behavior and Substance Use for Other-Sex Attracted Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ioerger

    Full Text Available Gender-variant-based victimization is victimization based on the way others perceive an individual to convey masculine, feminine, and androgynous characteristics through their appearance, mannerisms, and behaviors. Previous work identifies gender-variant-based victimization as a risk factor for health-risking outcomes among same-sex attracted youths. The current study seeks to examine this relationship among other-sex attracted youths and same-sex attracted youth, and determine if gender-variant-based victimization is similarly or differentially associated with poor outcomes between these two groups. Anonymous data from a school-based survey of 2,438 racially diverse middle and high school students in the Eastern U.S. was examined. For other-sex attracted adolescents, gender-variant-based victimization was associated with a higher odds of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, regular use of cigarettes, and drug use. When compared to same-sex attracted adolescents, the harmful relationship between gender-variant-based victimization and each of these outcomes was similar in nature. These findings suggest that gender-variant-based victimization has potentially serious implications for the psychological wellbeing and substance use of other-sex attracted adolescents, not just same-sex attracted adolescents, supporting the need to address gender expression as a basis for victimization separate from sexuality- or gender-minority status. The impact that gender-variant-based victimization has on all adolescents should not be overlooked in research and interventions aimed at addressing sexual orientation-based and gender-variant-based victimization, substance use, and suicide prevention.

  3. [Experience assisting an AIDS-infected homosexual patient and his same-sex partner make a do-not-resuscitate decision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jang; Lai, Pei-Yu; Liou, Siao-Ying; Ko, Wen-Chien; Ko, Nai-Ying

    2012-10-01

    Family members play an important role in the process of writing advance directives. Homosexual men infected with HIV often wish to authorize their intimate same-sex partner or friends rather than immediate family members to make medical decisions on their behalf. Although same-sex marriage is currently illegal in Taiwan, HIV infected homosexual patients are able to write advance directives appointing their same-sex partner to be their surrogate decision maker for end-of-life medical decisions. This case report describes an experience assisting a homosexual patient with HIV to write his advance directives. The nurse assisted the patient and his partner to make a self-determined decision not to resuscitate. Family conferences held to discuss the patient's decisions regarding resuscitation helped legitimize his partner's primary role in making end-of-life healthcare decisions on his behalf. As an advocate for patient rights, nurses should understand the law as it relates to homosexuality and end-of-life decision making, inform patients on the durable power of autonomy, and help execute their advance directives.

  4. Beyond Homonegativity: Understanding Hong Kong People's Attitudes About Social Acceptance of Gay/Lesbian People, Sexual Orientation Discrimination Protection, and Same-Sex Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Tien Ee Dominic; Chu, Tsz Hang

    2017-09-13

    This study examined attitudes about social acceptance, discrimination protection, and marriage equality for gay/lesbian people with a representative sample of 1,008 Hong Kong Chinese adults via a telephone survey. Despite majority endorsement of homosexuality (52.29% positive vs. 34.12% negative) and discrimination protection (50.72% favorable vs. 14.64% opposed), attitudes toward same-sex marriage diverged (32.79% favorable vs. 39.41% opposed). There was a sharp distinction in accepting gay/lesbian people as co-workers (83.57%) and friends (76.92%) versus relatives (40.19%). Having more homosexual/bisexual friends or co-workers contributed to greater endorsement of social acceptance and discrimination protection but not same-sex marriage. Age, religion, political orientation, and homonegativity consistently predicted attitudes toward social acceptance, discrimination protection, and same-sex marriage, whereas gender-role beliefs, conformity to norms, and cultural orientations had varying impacts. This article informs theory and advocacy by disentangling homonegativity from attitudes about gay/lesbian issues and highlighting the centrality of family-kinship and relative-outsider delineation in Chinese societies.

  5. Safe on My Phone? Same-Sex Attracted Young People’s Negotiations of Intimacy, Visibility, and Risk on Digital Hook-Up Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kath Albury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on focus group interviews with same-sex attracted Australian men and women aged 18-29, to reflect on their accounts of the perceived risks and opportunities offered by hook-up apps such as Grindr, Blendr, and Hornet. Until recently, scholarly accounts of same-sex attracted men hooking up online have primarily focused on measuring the safety of sexual encounters in relation to HIV and “risky” sexual practices. This article extends previous health-related studies by considering the ways that the exchange of sexually explicit digital self-portraits (or selfies feature within digital sexual negotiations and also exploring same-sex attracted women’s perceptions of safety and risk in relation to dating and hook-up apps and websites. It draws on recent scholarship on Grindr and other geo-locative hook-up apps to explore the material role that mobile phones and apps play in establishing a sense of safety, intimacy, and/or risk within flirtations and sexual interactions and the ways that young people’s “off-label” (or non-sexual uses of hook-up apps might facilitate (and diminish their sense of queer identity and visibility.

  6. Clinical Phenomenology of Childhood Abuse-Related Complex PTSD in a Population of Female Patients: Patterns of Personality Disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Thomaes, K.; Smit, J.H.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Veltman, D.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draijer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves a variety of personality disturbances presumed to result from repeated interpersonal trauma such as child abuse. As Complex PTSD patients are a heterogeneous population, we searched for clinically relevant personality-based subtypes.

  7. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-09-20

    This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15-18. Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  8. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toscano Sharyl E

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.

  10. Same-sex sexual attraction, behavior, and practices of Jewish men in Israel and the association with HIV prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi

    2016-01-01

    In order to efficiently direct efforts and resources required for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Israel, it is necessary to define their particular behaviors, estimate their size, and asses the HIV-burden. This cross-sectional study included a sub-sample from a random representative National study performed in Israel, which included Jewish males aged 18-44 who completed online anonymous questionnaires regarding their sexual attraction and practices, commercial sex-work, as well as condom and substances' use. Additionally, participants were asked to identify themselves as gay, bisexual, or heterosexual. National estimates regarding prevalence of risk-behaviors and HIV-infection among MSM were based on the Statistical Abstract of Israel and the National HIV Registry, respectively. Of the total sample of 997 men, 11.9% reported lifetime male sex encounters, while 4.5% and 3.7% self-identified as gay or bisexual, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gays/bisexuals aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and in Tel-Aviv 33,839. HIV prevalence among MSM was estimated at 0.7% in Israel and 1.0% in Tel-Aviv. MSM were more likely to live in Tel-Aviv, had higher levels of education, and were scored higher on several determinants of sexual risk in comparison to those attracted to women, including early sexual debut, greater number of sexual partners, ever paid/been paid for sex, sexually coerced, and substance use. In conclusion, MSM were involved in greater risk behaviors than those who only had female sex partners. Most MSM were living in Tel-Aviv and their estimated HIV prevalence was 1.0%.

  11. Homosexual orientation-from nature, not abuse: A critique of Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013), using instrumental variable models, argued that child abuse causes homosexual orientation, defined in part as any same-sex attractions. Their instruments were various negative family environment factors. In their analyses, they found that child sexual abuse (CSA) was more strongly related to homosexual orientation than non-sexual maltreatment was, especially among males. The present commentary therefore focused on male CSA. It is argued that Roberts et al.'s "abuse model" is incorrect and an alternative is presented. Male homosexual behavior is common in primates and has been common in many human societies, such that an evolved human male homosexual potential, with individual variation, can be assumed. Cultural variation has been strongly influenced by cultural norms. In our society, homosexual expression is rare because it is counternormative. The "counternormativity model" offered here holds that negative family environment weakens normative controls and increases counternormative thinking and behavior, which, in combination with sufficient homosexual potential and relevant, reinforcing experiences, can produce a homosexual orientation. This is a benign or positive model (innate potential plus release and reinforcement), in contrast to Roberts et al.'s negative model (abuse plus emotional compensation or cognitive distortion). The abuse model is criticized for being based on the sexual victimological paradigm, which developed to describe the female experience in rape and incest. This poorly fits the gay male experience, as demonstrated in a brief non-clinical literature review. Validly understanding male homosexuality, it is argued, requires the broad perspective, as employed here.

  12. Health, Trust, or “Just Understood”: Explicit and Implicit Condom Decision-Making Processes Among Black, White, and Interracial Same-Sex Male Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K.; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A.; Grisham, Kirk; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male couples’ decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 same-sex male couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as “just understood.” White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner’s suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple–level, HIV prevention interventions. PMID:23912774

  13. Anorexia and bulimia nervosa in same-sex and opposite-sex twins: lack of association with twin type in a nationwide study of Finnish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevuori, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hoek, Hans W; Sihvola, Elina; Rissanen, Aila; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that either prenatal feminization or masculinization hormone influences in utero or later socialization affects the risk for anorexia and bulimia nervosa and disordered eating in members of opposite-sex twin pairs. Finnish twins (N=2,426 women, N=1,962 men with known zygosity) from birth cohorts born 1974-1979 were assessed at age 22 to 28 years with a questionnaire for eating disorder symptoms. Based on the questionnaire screen, women (N=292), men (N=53), and their cotwins were interviewed to assess diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (per DSM-IV and broad criteria). In women from opposite-sex twin pairs, the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad anorexia nervosa was not significantly different than that of women from monozygotic pairs or same-sex dizygotic pairs. Of the five male anorexia nervosa probands, only one was from an opposite-sex twin pair. Bulimia nervosa in men was too rare to be assessed by zygosity; the prevalence of DSM-IV or broad bulimia nervosa did not differ in women from opposite- versus same-sex twin pairs. In both sexes, the overall profile of indicators on eating disorders was rather similar between individuals from opposite- and same-sex pairs. The authors found little evidence that the risk for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or disordered eating was associated with zygosity or sex composition of twin pairs, thus making it unlikely that in utero femininization or masculinization or socialization effects of growing up with an opposite-sex twin have a major influence on the later development of eating disorders.

  14. Supporting same-sex mothers in the Nordic child health field: a systematic literature review and meta-synthesis of the most gender equal countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael B; Lang, Sarah N

    2016-12-01

    To explore the needs of and support given to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents within the Nordic child health field. The number of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents is growing around the world. However, they face fear, discrimination and heteronormativity within the child health field. The Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland) rank as the most gender equal countries in the world; therefore, they may support lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents to a greater extent. Systematic literature review and meta-synthesis. A systematic search was conducted for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents' experiences in the child health field, which consists of prenatal, labour and birth, postnatal and child health clinics, using PubMed, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts and CINAHL, as well as searching the grey literature, from 2000-2015. Ten articles were included. A quality assessment and a meta-synthesis of the articles were performed. Nearly all studies were qualitative, and most articles had at least one area of insufficient reporting. Only two countries, Sweden and Norway, had lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered and inter-sex parents reporting on the child health field. However, gay, bisexual, transgender and inter-sex parents' perspectives were nonexistent in the literature; therefore, the results all relate to same-sex mothers. Five themes were found: Acceptance of Same-sex Mothers, Disclosing Sexual Orientation, Heteronormative Obstacles, Co-mothers are Not Fathers, and Being the Other Parent. Same-sex mothers are generally accepted within the Nordic child health field, but they still face overt and covert heteronormative obstacles, resulting in forms of discrimination and fear. Co-mothers feel invisible and secondary if they are not treated like an equal parent, but feel noticed and important when they are given equal support. Changes at the

  15. Same-sex parenting, assisted reproduction and gender asymmetry: reflecting on the differential effects of legislation on gay and lesbian family formation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabete Imaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an anthropological approach to examine how laws governing family formation in Spain affect same-sex couples seeking to become parents, in particular the cultural causes and implications of such laws. It highlights how the same laws are has a different impact on gay couples and lesbian couples. Legislation combines with other factors to favour and expand the possibilities of accessing motherhood for women in lesbian couples while limiting the possibilities of parenthood for men in gay couples. Moreover, the persistence of certain cultural models of fatherhood and motherhood can be observed, which further constrain parenthood access options and the forming of new family models.

  16. 'Not that cheapo China con-job': Alterity, Race and Same Sex Desire in 'Jarum Halus', a Malaysian Film Adaptation of 'Othello'

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, Mark Thornton

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses Jarum Halus (dir. Mark Tan, 2008), a Malaysian film adaptation of Othello, in terms of interlinked figures of difference and alterity. In particular, the essay argues that the film “translates” Shakespeare in such a way as to understand race and same-sex desire as urgently linked thematics. As Chinese, Daniel/Othello functions as the central figure of alterity, with the film highlighting the extent to which his non-Malay status reflects back on discourses of race inside c...

  17. Moderators of the relationship between masculinity and sexual prejudice in men: friendship, gender self-esteem, same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Christopher; Levant, Ronald F

    2014-04-01

    Masculinity has been found to predict the sexual prejudice of heterosexual men against gay men. The present study investigated the role of four variables as moderators of the relationships between two masculinity constructs (endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology and gender role conflict) and sexual prejudice in men. The hypothesized moderators were: direct and indirect friendships with gay men, gender self-esteem, acknowledged same-sex attraction, and religious fundamentalism. A total of 383 men completed 8 scales plus a demographic questionnaire. Direct friendship strengthened the positive relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice, contrary to hypothesis. This finding could mean that high masculinity ideology scores reduced the likelihood that a man with many gay friends would let go of his prejudice. Direct friendship did not moderate the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice nor did indirect friendship moderate either relationship; however, both forms of friendship predicted prejudice, as hypothesized. Gender self-esteem strengthened the positive relationships between both masculinity variables and sexual prejudice as hypothesized. Same-sex attraction weakened the relationship between gender role conflict and sexual prejudice as hypothesized, but contrary to hypothesis did not moderate the relationship between masculinity ideology and sexual prejudice. Religious fundamentalism predicted prejudice, but showed no significant moderation. The results were discussed in terms of limitations and suggestions for future research and application. In conclusion, this line of investigation appears promising and should be continued and the present findings can be utilized in anti-prejudice social marketing campaigns and in counseling.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  19. Female and Male Perceptions of Ideal Body Shapes: Distorted Views among Caucasian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence D.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1992-01-01

    Using body silhouettes, 87 college women and 118 college men indicated their own body shapes and shapes they and same-sex and other-sex peers find most attractive. Focus was on whether women overestimate desirability of thin figures among female peers. Males and females misjudged same-sex peers' preferences compared with ideals. (SLD)

  20. Acesso ao casamento no Brasil: uma questão de cidadania sexual An issue of sexual citizenship: accessing same-sex marriage in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Arriada Lorea

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A instituição do casamento deve estar acessível a todos os cidadãos, independentemente de sua orientação sexual, sob pena de discriminação vedada na Constituição Federal. Contribui para essa conclusão a jurisprudência que, utilizando-se da analogia, tem reconhecido uniões estáveis entre pessoas do mesmo sexo sem que para isso seja obstáculo o fato de a Constituição prever que a união estável se dê "entre o homem e a mulher". Essa interpretação deve ser ampliada para o casamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. É importante compreender que não se trata de alcançar um novo direito a gays e lésbicas, mas apenas assegurar-lhes o direito que já possuem: de não serem discriminados. Sustentar a necessidade de uma lei para regular o casamento gay é ignorar que a regulação do casamento deve ser uma só, sob pena de discriminação, porque é injustificado tratamento distinto para casais homossexuais.The institution of marriage must be available to all citizens, irrespective of their sexual orientation, otherwise we have a case of discrimination, forbidden by the Constitution. Jurisprudence in Brazil has used analogy to recognize stable unions between same sex couples, even if the Constitution foresees stable unions as being "between a man and a woman." Such legal interpretation must be widened, ensuring same-sex marriage. From the juridical viewpoint then, it is a matter of securing a right that gays and lesbians already have, the right to be accepted and not suffer discrimination. It is not a matter of creating a new, specific, 'gay' or 'lesbian' right. Those who claim the need for a specific law regulating same-sex marriage seem to ignore the fact that the regulation of heterosexual and homosexual marriage must be rigorously the same in both cases.

  1. Associations within school-based same-sex friendship networks of children's physical activity and sedentary behaviours: a cross-sectional social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Ruth E; Sebire, Simon J; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Thompson, Janice L; Jago, Russell

    2018-02-21

    Physical activity in children is associated with better physical and mental health but many children do not meet physical activity guidelines. Friendship groups are potentially an important influence on children's physical activity and sedentary time. This paper examines the association between children of physical activity and sedentary time in school-based same-sex friendship networks, for both moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Moreover, considering the methodological challenges of conducting and interpreting these analyses, we provide examples of how to analyse these data and interpret results to encourage further work in the area. Accelerometer data for 1223 children, aged 8-9 years, were collected in 2015-2016 and analysed in 2017. Mean accelerometer minutes of MVPA and sedentary time were calculated. Children named up to four school friends and same-sex school-based friendship networks were constructed. Network models, which include correlation between friends, were fitted by sex. Both MVPA and sedentary time were found to be associated via the friendship networks, for both boys and girls. The network autocorrelation was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.26) for boys' MVPA, and 0.14 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.21) for sedentary time. Network autocorrelation between girls was weaker, with 0.13 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.19) for MVPA and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05 to 0.17) for sedentary time. Physical activity and sedentary time of boys and girls are associated with the physical activity and sedentary time respectively of others within same-sex friendship networks, and these associations are comparable to other known factors. In this study, the correlation between friends was stronger for boys than girls, and stronger for MVPA than for sedentary time. These findings suggest that friendship networks play a part in understanding children's physical activity and sedentary time and could play a valuable role in developing effective interventions.

  2. Perceived stress, external locus of control, and social support as predictors of psychological adjustment among female inmates with or without a history of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asberg, Kia; Renk, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing number of women who are incarcerated across the United States, the current study investigated the relationships among female inmates' perceptions of their own stress, external locus of control (LOC), social support adequacy, and various aspects of psychological functioning. Generally, female inmates with a self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse did not differ from their nonabused counterparts on the variables of interest. Results suggested that female inmates' perceptions of higher stress, a higher degree of external LOC, and inadequate social support correlated with greater symptoms of depression and hopelessness as well as lower self-esteem. In regression analyses, stress and social support were significant predictors for depression and anxiety. In contrast, stress was the only significant predictor of hopelessness and self-esteem. Finally, none of the predictors examined here was significant in the prediction of traumatic stress. Overall, findings suggested the importance of stress and social support in the prediction of female inmates' adjustment, specifically their symptoms of depression and anxiety.

  3. Integrating HIV Prevention and Relationship Education for Young Same-Sex Male Couples: A Pilot Trial of the 2GETHER Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Feinstein, Brian A; Bettin, Emily; Swann, Gregory; Whitton, Sarah W

    2017-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV, and most new HIV infections occur in serious relationships. This pilot study assessed the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the 2GETHER couples-based HIV prevention and relationship education intervention for young same-sex male couples. We enrolled 57 young male couples (N = 114) into a four-session hybrid group and individual intervention. We assessed acceptability via post-session surveys and exit interviews, and we examined preliminary efficacy at a two week posttest. The vast majority of participants (93%) reported exclusively positive impressions of 2GETHER, and all components received high mean ratings. We observed decreases in HIV risk behavior, increases in information, motivation and behavioral skills related to HIV prevention, and improvement in relationship investment between pretest and posttest. Integrating relationship education and sexual health programming may be an effective way to reduce HIV transmissions in young male couples.

  4. When "In Your Face" Is Not Out of Place: The Effect of Timing of Disclosure of a Same-Sex Dating Partner under Conditions of Contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K Dane

    Full Text Available In a series of experiments we examined heterosexuals' reactions to the timing of disclosure of a gender-matched confederate's same-sex dating partner. Disclosure occurred in a naturalistic context-that is, it occurred when meeting, or expecting to soon meet, a same-sex attracted individual, who voluntarily shared this information with the participant as a natural part of a broader topic of discussion. The confederate, when disclosing early rather than later, was approached more closely (Prestudy and liked more (Studies 1-2. Those experiencing early disclosure, compared with later, were less drawn to topics of lower intimacy (Study 1, were happier and more excited about meeting the confederate, and more likely to choose to be alone with the confederate for a one-on-one discussion (Study 2. Further, women experiencing early disclosure were more willing to introduce the same-gender confederate to their friends (Study 2. The benefits of knowing sooner, rather than later, continued to apply even when participants were given further time to process the disclosure. To explore the underlying reasons for the more favorable experiences of upfront disclosure, we examined participants' memory of the information shared by the confederate (Study 3. Results revealed that those who experienced delayed disclosure were more likely to incorrectly recall and negatively embellish information related to the confederate's sexual orientation, suggesting that early disclosure resulted in a reduced tendency to focus on the confederate's sexuality as a defining feature. These positive findings for early timing are discussed in light of previous studies that have found benefits for delayed disclosure and those that have failed to investigate the effects of timing of 'coming out' under conditions of contact.

  5. Health, trust, or "just understood": explicit and implicit condom decision-making processes among black, white, and interracial same-sex male couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Chadwick K; Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Dworkin, Shari; Wilson, Patrick A; Grisham, Kirk K; McReynolds, Jaih; Vielehr, Peter; Hoff, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    Among gay and bisexual men, primary partners are a leading source of HIV infection. Trust, intimacy, and advancements in HIV treatment may impact same-sex male (SSM) couples' decisions to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). This qualitative study explored how Black, White and interracial couples discussed, and made decisions regarding condoms. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 SSM couples in the New York and San Francisco metropolitan areas. Stratified purposive sampling was used to include Black (n = 16), White (n = 17), and interracial (Black-White) (n = 15) couples. Twenty-six couples were concordant HIV-negative and 22 were HIV-discordant. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Some couples described explicit processes, which involved active discussion, while others described implicit processes, where condom-use decisions occurred without any explicit discussion. These processes also differed by race and HIV status. Black couples tended to report condom-use as "just understood." White, HIV-discordant couples decided not to use condoms, with some identifying the HIV-positive partner's suppressed viral load and high CD4 count as deciding factors. After an unplanned episode of UAI, White, HIV-negative couples tended to discontinue condom use while Black HIV-negative couples decided to revert to using condoms. HIV prevention efforts focused on same-sex, male couples must consider the explicit/implicit nature of condom decision-making processes. Understanding differences in these processes and considering relationship dynamics, across race and HIV status, can promote the development of innovative couple-level, HIV prevention interventions.

  6. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  7. Increased synthetic drug abuse and trends in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female drug users from 2010-2014 from Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanming; Guo, Wei; Li, Guiying; He, Shufang; Lu, Hongyan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the trend of addiction drug use and its relationship with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female drug users (FDUs). Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted during 2010-2014 among FDUs in Beijing to collect information on addiction drug usage, sexual behaviors, and STI prevalence. Characteristics were analyzed and compared between traditional and synthetic drug users among FDUs by logistic regression method. A total of 3859 FDUs were surveyed during 2010-2014, with the median age being 32.7 years old. The proportion of synthetic drug users among FDUs increased from 43.7% in 2010 to 70.7% in 2014. Compared with traditional drug users, synthetic drug users were younger (P drug FDUs. However, the engagement of commercial sexual activities (P drug users were significantly higher than traditional drug users. Synthetic drug abuse appears to be correlated with commercial sex behavior and higher syphilis prevalence among FDUs. Tailored strategies on health education to curb the prevalence of synthetic drug abuse are urgently needed in Beijing.

  8. Provision of Healthcare Services to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria: Students' Attitudes Following the Passage of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Jolly, Kate; Gale, Nicola K; Ifaniyi, Oluwafemi A; Somefun, Esther O; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Fakayode, Victoria A

    2016-08-01

    After signing of the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act 2013 in Nigeria, media reports portray widespread societal intolerance toward the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of university undergraduates in Lagos state, Nigeria, toward provision of healthcare services for men who have sex with men (MSM), because the 2014 same-sex marriage prohibition law stipulates a jail sentence for organizations providing services to MSM. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires to collect information, including homophobic attitudes and views on access to healthcare, from 4000 undergraduates in 10 randomly selected faculties in two universities. During analysis, inter-university and inter-faculty comparison was carried out between medical and nonmedical students. Outright denial of healthcare services to MSM was supported by 37.6% of the 3537 undergraduates who responded, whereas denial of HIV prevention services was supported by 32.5%. However, compared with 38.7% and 34.1% of undergraduates from other faculties, 23.7% and 18.2% of medical students agreed that healthcare providers should not provide services to MSM and that MSM should not have access to HIV prevention services, respectively (P = 0.000). Although a significant proportion of the medical students supported the statement that doctors and other healthcare workers should be compelled to give priority to other groups before MSM (29.4% of medical vs. 47.2% of students from other faculties), a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of students. The homophobic statement with the highest support was that doctors and healthcare workers should be compelled to report MSM who come to access treatment (48.1% of medical vs. 57.4% of students from other faculties). A very high proportion of the undergraduate students had a negative attitude toward provision of healthcare services to MSM in

  9. Bodies That Don't Matter: Possibilities of Female Homoeroticism in Twelfth Night

    OpenAIRE

    松尾, 江津子

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to consider (non-)representation of female same-sex love in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night in the cultural and political context of early modern England. The first question here is whether female homoeroticism existed in early modern English society. Valerie Traub shows how female same-sex desire and sexual activity did exist in spite of the lack of their historical documents in early modern England. According to her, female homoerotic desire was regarded as“ insign...

  10. The Moderating Role of Parental Warmth on the Relation Between Verbal Punishment and Child Problem Behaviors for Same-sex and Cross-sex Parent-Child Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonas, Maria Roberta L.; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between parental verbal punishment and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in Filipino children, and the moderating role of parental warmth in this relation, for same-sex (mothers-girls; fathers-boys) and cross-sex parent-child groups (mothers-boys; fathers-girls). Measures used were the Rohner Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control Scale (PARQ/Control), the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBC), and a discipline measure (DI) constructed for the study. Participants were 117 mothers and 98 fathers of 61 boys and 59 girls who responded to a discipline interview, the Parental Acceptance-Rejection and Control scale (PARQ/Control) and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist via oral interviews. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses (with Bonferroni-corrected alpha levels) revealed that maternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to internalizing and externalizing outcomes in boys and girls whereas paternal frequency of verbal punishment was positively related to girls’ externalizing behavior. Significant interactions between verbal punishment and maternal warmth in mother-girl groups were also found for both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. While higher maternal warmth ameliorated the impact of low verbal punishment on girls’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors, it exacerbated the effect of high verbal punishment on negative outcomes. PMID:26752797

  11. Relationship Power Among Same-Sex Male Couples in New York and San Francisco: Laying the Groundwork for Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions Focused on Interpersonal Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Zakaras, Jennifer M; Campbell, Chadwick; Wilson, Patrick; Grisham, Kirk; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen

    2017-09-01

    Research is clear that power differentials between women and men shape women's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risks; however, little research has attempted to examine power differentials within same-sex male (SSM) couples and whether these influence sexual risk outcomes. To produce the first quantitative scale that measures power in SSM relationships, the current work was a Phase 1 qualitative study that sought to understand domains of relationship power and how power operated in the relationship among 48 Black, White, and interracial (Black-White) SSM couples recruited from San Francisco and New York. Interview domains were focused on definitions of power and perceptions of how power operated in the relationship. Findings revealed that couples described power in three key ways: as power exerted over a partner through decision-making dominance and relationship control; as power to accomplish goals through personal agency; and as couple-level power. In addition, men described ways that decision-making dominance and relationship control could be enacted in the relationship-through structural resources, emotional and sexual influence, and gender norm expectations. We discuss the implications of these findings for sexual risks and HIV care and treatment with SSM couples that are focused on closing gaps in power.

  12. NEW TENDENCIES REGARDING SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN THE MEMBER STATES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: – A BRIEF INSIDE AND OUTSIDE PERSPECTIVE –

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONE-ITXARO ELIZONDO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual orientation discrimination has been recently outlined within the Plenary Session of the European Parliament that took place in Brussels, on 24th May 2012 as a priority in the fight against discrimination of all kind, making a “call on EU member states to consider giving access to cohabitation, registered partnerships or marriage to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT people”. Taking this statement as a starting point, this paper aims first to briefly analyse the European Union’s legislation defending sexual orientation discrimination and its limits. After that, a comparison between the Spanish and Romanian legislations will be made, choosing thus two countries within the EU that have very different paths and views in this matter, finally assessing the recent Tribunal Constitucional judgment regarding the constitutionality of same-sex marriage. In the same line our analysis will also focus on giving an overview of the EU panorama focusing on those countries that have extreme and opposite views about the matter. This study would not be complete without taking into account the contrary situation that is taking place in certain non-Member States of EU such as: Ukraine, Russia or Moldova. This fact was also highlighted by the European Parliament in the last Plenary Session saying that “in the European Union [and in other European states, referring to the recent situations occurred in Ukraine, Russian Federation or Moldova], the fundamental rights of LGBT people are not yet fully upheld”.

  13. Drawing the Line: Same-sex adoption and the jurisprudence of the ECtHR on the application of the “European consensus” standard under Article 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Nozawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main criteria that the European Court of Human Rights uses in determining the parameters of the margin of appreciation has been to find a consensus among the state parties to the Convention as to the definition or interpretation of a specific right.  The way the Court has implemented the methodology of finding a "European consensus" of the discriminatory practice of states under Article 14 has been problematic. Firstly, it is unclear when the Court takes into consideration the practice of member states of the European Council. Secondly, it is unclear how it defines the comparative group and the threshold necessary in defining a consensus. This note looks at the application of the Court of this standard in cases concerning same-sex adoption in light of its most recent decision in X. and Others v. Austria (2013. It is argued that the application of the standard in practice has yielded variable jurisprudence, is inconsistently applied, and risks further fragmenting Contracting States' obligations under the Convention. In using the consensus standard as an interpretive comparative tool, the Court should allow a narrow margin of appreciation only where there is substantial consensus on an issue. It is the author's position that its negative iteration, or the notion that a lack of consensus should yield a wide margin, should not be maintained, as this approach risks further deteriorating the protection of fundamental rights.

  14. How Do Females With PTSD and Substance Abuse View 12-Step Groups? An Empirical Study of Attitudes and Attendance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najavits, Lisa M; de Haan, Hein; Kok, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Self-help groups are beneficial for many people with addiction, predominantly through 12-step models. Yet obstacles to attendance also occur. We explored attendance patterns and attitudes toward self-help groups by 165 outpatient females with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), the first study of its kind. Cross-sectional self-report data compared adults versus adolescents, and those currently attending self-help versus not attending. We also explored attendance in relation to perceptions of the PTSD/SUD relationship and symptom severity. Adults reported higher attendance at self-help than adolescents, both lifetime and currently. Among current attendees, adults also attended more weekly groups than adolescents. Yet only a minority of both age cohorts attended any self-help in the past week. Adults perceived a stronger relationship between PTSD and SUD than adolescents, but both age groups gave low ratings to the fact that self-help groups do not address PTSD. That item also had low ratings by both those currently attending and not attending self-help. Analysis of those not currently attending identified additional negative attitudes toward self-help (spirituality, addiction as a life-long illness, sayings, and the fellowship). Symptom severity was not associated with attendance, but may reflect a floor effect. Finally, a surprising finding was that all-female groups were not preferred by any subsample. Conclusions/Importance. Creative solutions are needed to address obstacles to self-help among this population. Addressing trauma and PTSD, not just SUD, was valued by females we surveyed, and may be more helpful than all-female groups per se.

  15. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  17. Gambling Type, Substance Abuse, Health and Psychosocial Correlates of Male and Female Problem Gamblers in a Nationally Representative French Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Guignard, R; Richard, J B; du Roscoät, E; Beck, F

    2017-06-01

    Many studies carried out on treatment-seeking problem gamblers (PG) have reported high levels of comorbid substance use disorders, and mental and physical health problems. Nevertheless, general population studies are still sparse, most of them have been carried out in the United States or Canada, and gender differences have not always been considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the type of games, and psychological and physical correlates in male and female PG in a nationally representative French sample. The total sample studied involved 25,647 subjects aged 15-85 years, including 333 PG and 25,314 non-problem gamblers (NPG). Data were extracted from a large survey of a representative sample of the French general population. They were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, type of gambling activity, substance use, psychological distress, body mass index, chronic disease, and lack of sleep. Overall, there were significant differences between PG and NPG in gender, age, education, employment and marital status, substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin), psychological distress, obesity, lack of sleep and type of gambling activity. Although male and female PG had different profiles, the gambling type, especially strategic games, appeared as an important variable in the relationship between gender and problem gambling. This research underlines the importance of considering gender differences and gambling type in the study of gambling disorders. Identifying specific factors in the relationship between gender, gambling type and gambling problems may help improve clinical interventions and health promotion strategies.

  18. Structural stigma and the health and wellbeing of Australian LGB populations: Exploiting geographic variation in the results of the 2017 same-sex marriage plebiscite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Francisco; Todd, Abram

    2018-05-14

    Lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) people experience poorer life outcomes than heterosexual people, with ongoing debates about the aetiology of these differences. Minority stress theory draws attention to the importance of structural stigma, which concerns hostile social environments for sexual minorities that constrain their opportunity structures. Yet few studies have operationalised structural stigma and tested its influence, with most focusing on the US context; even fewer studies examine the underlying mechanisms. This study expands the available evidence to Australia, which constitutes an interesting case study due to the implementation in late 2017 of a national postal plebiscite on same-sex marriage legislation. It also adds to knowledge by theorising and testing the mediating role of perceived social support in explaining the association between structural stigma and the life outcomes of LGB people. The analyses leverage geographical variation at the electorate level (n = 150) in the share of 'No' voters in the plebiscite as a measure of structural stigma. This aggregate-level information is merged to individual-level data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey, a large, national probability sample (n∽15,000). Multilevel regression models yield results which are consistent with minority stress theory and previous US scholarship: LGB people report comparatively worse life satisfaction, mental health and overall health in constituencies with higher shares of 'No' voters, controlling for a large set of individual- and aggregate-level confounds. Perceived social support mediates a large portion of the effects of structural stigma on LGB outcomes. These findings have significant implications for policy and practice, highlighting the need for interventions aimed at reducing community levels of structural stigma and increasing social support to LGB populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the Relationship Between Birth Weight for Gestational Age and Adult Blood Pressure Using Participants From a Cohort of Same-Sex Siblings, Discordant on Birth Weight Percentile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Linda G; Buka, Stephen L; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Gillman, Matthew W; Susser, Ezra; Lumey, L H

    2017-09-01

    Many studies have described an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure (BP). Debate continues, however, over the magnitude and validity of the association. This analysis draws on the Early Determinants of Adult Health study (2005-2008), a cohort of 393 US adults (mean age 43 years; 47% male), including 114 same-sex sibling pairs deliberately sampled to be discordant on sex-specific birth weight for gestational age (BW/GA) in order to minimize confounding in studies of fetal growth and midlife health outcomes. Every quintile increment in BW/GA percentile was associated with a 1.04-mm Hg decrement in adult systolic BP (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.14, 0.06) and a 0.63-mm Hg decrement in diastolic BP (95% CI: -1.35, 0.09), controlling for sex, age, site, smoking, and race/ethnicity. The relationship was strongest among those in the lowest decile of BW/GA. Adding adult body mass index to the models attenuated the estimates (e.g., to -0.90 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.94, 0.14) for systolic BP). In the sibling-pair subgroup, associations were slightly stronger but with wider confidence intervals (e.g., -1.22 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.20, 2.75) for systolic BP). In conclusion, we found a small inverse relationship between BW/GA and BP in cohort and sibling-pair analyses, but the clinical or public health significance is likely limited. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Sex differences in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstinence. In this review, sex differences in drug abuse are discussed for humans and in animal models. The possible neuroendocrine mechanisms mediating these sex differences are discussed.

  1. Health Care Use, Health Behaviors, and Medical Conditions Among Individuals in Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partnerships: A Cross-Sectional Observational Analysis of the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS), 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Hanmer, Janel; Yu, Lan; Matthews, Derrick D; Kavalieratos, Dio

    2016-06-01

    Prior research documents disparities between sexual minority and nonsexual minority individuals regarding health behaviors and health services utilization. However, little is known regarding differences in the prevalence of medical conditions. To examine associations between sexual minority status and medical conditions. We conducted multiple logistic regression analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2003-2011). We identified individuals who reported being partnered with an individual of the same sex, and constructed a matched cohort of individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. A total of 494 individuals in same-sex partnerships and 494 individuals in opposite-sex partnerships. Measures of health risk (eg, smoking status), health services utilization (eg, physician office visits), and presence of 15 medical conditions (eg, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, HIV, alcohol disorders). Same-sex partnered men had nearly 4 times the odds of reporting a mood disorder than did opposite-sex partnered men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.96; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.85-8.48]. Compared with opposite-sex partnered women, same-sex partnered women had greater odds of heart disease (aOR=2.59; 95% CI, 1.19-5.62), diabetes (aOR=2.75; 95% CI, 1.10-6.90), obesity (aOR=1.92; 95% CI, 1.26-2.94), high cholesterol (aOR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.03-3.50), and asthma (aOR=1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Even after adjusting for sociodemographics, health risk behaviors, and health conditions, individuals in same-sex partnerships had 67% increased odds of past-year emergency department utilization and 51% greater odds of ≥3 physician visits in the last year compared with opposite-sex partnered individuals. A combination of individual-level, provider-level, and system-level approaches are needed to reduce disparities in medical conditions and health care utilization among sexual minority individuals.

  2. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Michael; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether abused and neglected children differ from other children in their nonverbal attachment and communicative behavior. Found that in comparison (1) abused children avoided contact and interaction and (2) abused females exhibited more avoidance than males. (PD)

  3. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  4. Association Between Depression and Elder Abuse and the Mediation of Social Support: A Cross-Sectional Study of Elder Females in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Compte, Mireya; Giraldo-Rodríguez, Liliana; Ochoa-Laginas, Adriana; Gaitan-Rossi, Pablo

    2018-04-01

    We assessed the association between depression and elder abuse, and the mediation effect of social support among elder women in Mexico City. A total of 526 noninstitutionalized elder women, residing in Mexico City and attending public community centers were selected. Logistic regressions and structural equation models (SEM) were estimated. One fifth of the elderly women were at risk of depression, one third suffered some type of abuse in the past 12 months, and 82% reported low social support. Logistic models confirmed that depression was statistically associated with elder abuse and vice versa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97 and 1.96, respectively). In both models, social support significantly reduced the association between these variables leading to study these associations through SEM. This approach highlighted that social support buffers the association between depression and elder abuse. Findings underline the relevance of programs and strategies targeted at increasing social support among urban older adults.

  5. Descrição de um processo terapêutico em grupo para adolescentes vítimas de abuso sexual Description of therapeutic group process with sexual abused female teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Saldanha Padilha

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Pessoas que sofreram abuso sexual na infância ou adolescência carregam seqüelas emocionais provenientes do abuso, em diferentes graus. Este estudo teve como objetivo geral a análise de um processo terapêutico em grupo desenvolvido com adolescentes do sexo feminino, vítimas de abuso sexual intrafamiliar, visando diminuir seqüelas do abuso e melhorar seu repertório de enfrentamento. O processo de quinze sessões foi dividido em quatro fases, com objetivos específicos: (I Preparação - dessensibilizar para facilitar a auto-exposição; (II Revelação e exposição de sentimentos - facilitar a revelação do abuso sexual; (III Aceitação - discutir a aceitação do abuso sexual e seu lugar na história de vida da pessoa; e (IV Prevenção - facilitar a aprendizagem de comportamentos de autoproteção que impeçam a revitimização. Os resultados mostraram que exposições graduais ao tema feitas em grupo podem facilitar a revelação, a expressão de sentimentos e a aceitação do abuso na história de vida das participantes.People who suffered sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence carry a great number of abuse-related sequela. The aim of this study was the analysis of a therapeutic group process developed with female teenagers who were victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse. It aimed for the sequela reduction left by the sexual abuse, and improve their tools for facing up to the abuse situation. The process was composed of fifteen sessions, divided into phases, each one having an specific aim: Preparation - desensitization to facilitate the self-exposure; Revelation and feelings exposure - to facilitate the sexual abuse revelation, and promote the feelings exposure; Acceptance - to discuss the sexual abuse acceptance, and its place in the person's life history; Prevention - to facilitate the learning of self protection behaviors that prevent their selves from revictimization. The results show that the gradual exposures to the subject

  6. Out & Online; effectiveness of a tailored online multi-symptom mental health and wellbeing program for same-sex attracted young adults: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jo-Anne M; Klein, Britt; McLaren, Suzanne; Austin, David W; Molloy, Mari; Meyer, Denny; McLeod, Bronte

    2014-12-23

    Same-sex attracted young adults have been found to experience higher rates of mental health problems and greater difficulties in accessing specialist mental health care services compared to their heterosexual peers. Internet-based mental health interventions have the potential to be more engaging and accessible to young adults compared to those delivered face-to-face. However, they are rarely inclusive of lesbian women and gay men. Thus, the current study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of an online mental health and wellbeing program, Out & Online (http://www.outandonline.org.au), in comparison to a wait-list control group, for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms in same-sex attracted young adults aged between 18 and 25 years. We are recruiting, through media and community organisations, 200 same-sex attracted young adults with anxiety and/or depressive symptoms and mild to moderate psychological distress (Kessler-10 score between 16 to 21). Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention (the online program) or the wait-list control group based on a permuted blocked randomisation method to allow for stratification by gender. Participants in the intervention group will receive a tailored program for up to three types of mental health difficulties simultaneously. The primary outcome of anxiety and/or depressive symptoms, and secondary outcomes related to psychological distress, wellbeing and health behaviour will be measured at pre-intervention (0 week), post-intervention (8 weeks) and at a 3-month follow-up (20 weeks). This online mental health and wellbeing program will be one of the first online interventions to be designed specifically to be relevant for same-sex attracted individuals. If the program is found to be effective it will improve access to specialist same-sex attracted-relevant mental health services for young adults and will facilitate wellbeing outcomes for these individuals. This program will also be a significant development

  7. Epidemiology of male same-sex behaviour and associated sexual health indicators in low- and middle-income countries: 2003-2007 estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, C F; Konda, K; Segura, E R; Lyerla, R

    2008-08-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published and unpublished data from research and public health information systems on the prevalence of male-to-male sex in the total male population; as well as among men who have sex with men (MSM), data on prevalence of heterosexual activity and heterosexual unions; prevalence of condom use with male and female partners; and prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Key indicators were defined (a) among men in the general population: prevalence of sex with a man ever and last year; (b) among MSM: prevalence of heterosexual experiences ever and last year; proportion of male-female transgenders; proportion of sex workers; prevalence of HIV and other STIs, condom use in last sexual encounter; consistent condom use with men last year; never used a condom with a man. With help from key informants, study searches were conducted in Pubmed, LILLACS, institutional databases, conference records and other sources. Methodology and quality of information were assessed, and the best data available for 2003-7 were selected. Indicator estimates from each study were used to propose regional estimate ranges. A total of 83 new entries were entered into the database in addition to the previous 561, totalling 644. Of these, 107 showing 2003-7 data were selected. Many new studies came from sub-Saharan Africa, portraying hidden HIV epidemics among MSM. The most frequently reported estimate was HIV infection, with high estimate ranges in most of the regions, except for Middle East and North Africa and Eastern Europe. The next most frequently reported was lifetime frequency of heterosexual sex, showing that roughly 50% of MSM ever had sex with a woman. The small number of newer studies reporting prevalence of "sex with a man in last 12 months" between 2003 and 2007, did not warrant enough new evidence to revise our 2005 size estimates for MSM populations. A considerable number of new studies with estimates of

  8. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  9. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  10. Factors Influencing the Nutritional Health and Food Choices of African American HIV-Positive Marginally Housed and Homeless Female Substance Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Meena; Fisher, Celia B.

    2010-01-01

    The toll of HIV/AIDS and drug abuse on economically disadvantaged women of color in the United States is a public health problem of epidemic proportions. Malnutrition, believed to be pervasive in this population, exacerbates the devastating health effects of addiction and HIV. This study documented dietary deficiencies in this population and…

  11. Hyperresponsiveness of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in female borderline personality disorder subjects with a history of sustained childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, Thomas; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Wouters, Luuk; Goekoop, Jaap G.; DeRijk, Roel H.; van den Brink, Wim

    2002-01-01

    Background: High coincidence of childhood abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been reported in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Animals exposed to early trauma show increased stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

  12. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, T.; Westenberg, H. G.; den Boer, J. A.; van den Brink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Disturbances of affect, impulse regulation, and autoaggressive behavior, which are all said to be related to an altered function of the central serotonergic (5-HT) system, are prominent features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high coincidence of childhood physical and sexual abuse is

  13. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  14. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  15. Alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use amongst same-sex attracted women: results from the Western Australian Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Health and Well-Being Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus Alexandra

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use has been reported to be higher amongst lesbian and bisexual women (LBW than their heterosexual counterparts. However, few studies have been conducted with this population in Australia and rates that have been reported vary considerably. Methods A self-completed questionnaire exploring a range of health issues was administered to 917 women aged 15-65 years (median 34 years living in Western Australia, who identified as lesbian or bisexual, or reported having sex with another woman. Participants were recruited from a range of settings, including Perth Pride Festival events (67.0%, n = 615, online (13.2%, n = 121, at gay bars and nightclubs (12.9%, n = 118, and through community groups (6.9%, n = 63. Results were compared against available state and national surveillance data. Results LBW reported consuming alcohol more frequently and in greater quantities than women in the general population. A quarter of LBW (25.7%, n = 236 exceeded national alcohol guidelines by consuming more than four standard drinks on a single occasion, once a week or more. However, only 6.8% (n = 62 described themselves as a heavy drinker, suggesting that exceeding national alcohol guidelines may be a normalised behaviour amongst LBW. Of the 876 women who provided data on tobacco use, 28.1% (n = 246 were smokers, nearly double the rate in the female population as a whole. One third of the sample (33.6%, n = 308 reported use of an illicit drug in the previous six months. The illicit drugs most commonly reported were cannabis (26.4%, n = 242, meth/amphetamine (18.6%, n = 171, and ecstasy (17.9%, n = 164. Injecting drug use was reported by 3.5% (n = 32 of participants. Conclusion LBW appear to use alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs at higher rates than women generally, indicating that mainstream health promotion messages are not reaching this group or are not perceived as relevant. There is an urgent

  16. The immediate eff ect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-07-01

    In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; psex practices. The negative effects of HIV treatment and care in MSM reinforce the unintended consequences of such legislation on global goals of HIV eradication. Strategies to reach MSM less likely to engage in HIV testing and care in highly stigmatised environments are needed to reduce time to HIV diagnosis and treatment. National Institutes of Health.

  17. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  18. Obergefell contra Hodges: la sentencia de la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos sobre el matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo // Obergefell v. Hodges: The judgement of the Supreme Court of the United States on same-sex marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delgado Ramos

    2017-07-01

    On 26 June 2015, the Supreme Court of the United States through its judgement Obergefell v. Hodges consecrated the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, ending an intensive and extensive debate which had deeply divided American society since the last third of the 20th century. Throughout this work the right to marry in the United States is analyzed from the perspective of its legal frame and its jurisprudential evolution, both at State and federal levels, to conclude with an analysis of Obergefell v. Hodges and their dissenting opinions.

  19. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  20. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  1. Same-Sex Behavior and its Relationship with Sexual and Health-Related Practices Among a Population-Based Sample of Women in Puerto Rico: Implications for Cancer Prevention and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Salgado, Marievelisse; Colón-López, Vivian; Perez, Cynthia; Muñoz-Masso, Cristina; Marrero, Edmir; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P

    2016-01-01

    This secondary data analysis aimed to estimate the prevalence of same-sex behavior and sexual and health-related practices of a population-based sample (n=560) of women aged 16-64 years in Puerto Rico (PR). Data collection included interviews and biologic samples. Seven percent of the sample had had sex with other women (WSW). Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that WSW had higher odds of history of cancer, having ≥ 7 lifetime sexual partners, using sex toys and sharing them, and use of tobacco and illicit drugs. Future research is needed to address the health needs of WSW, including cancer-related risk factors and sexual practices.

  2. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  3. Cannabinoid receptor expression and phosphorylation are differentially regulated between male and female cerebellum and brain stem after repeated stress: implication for PTSD and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guoqiang; Carlton, Janis; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Fullerton, Carol; Li, He; Ursano, Robert

    2011-09-08

    Recent study demonstrated a close relationship between cerebellum atrophy and symptom severity of pediatric maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It has also been known that females are more vulnerable than males in developing anxiety disorders after exposure to traumatic stress. The mechanisms are unknown. Because cannabinoid receptors (CB₁ and CB₂) are neuroprotective and highly expressed in the cerebellum, we investigated cerebellar CB expression in stressed rats. Young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 40 unpredictable electric tail-shocks for 2h daily on 3 consecutive days. CB₁ and CB₂ mRNA and protein levels in rat cerebellum and brain stem were determined using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Two-way ANOVA revealed significant gender and stress effects on cerebellar CB₁ mRNA expression, with females and non-stressed rats exhibiting higher CB₁ mRNA levels than the males (3 fold, pstressed rats (30%, pstress increased the level of phosphorylated CB₁ receptors, the inactivated CB₁, in rat cerebellum (pstress interaction. Thus, repeated severe stress caused greater CB₁ mRNA suppression and CB₁ receptor phosphorylation in female cerebellum that could lead to increased susceptibility to stress-related anxiety disorders including PTSD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  5. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  6. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  7. Vigilância e anonimato em aplicativos mobile: um estudo sobre a privacidade em relações homoafetivas no digital | Surveillance and anonymity in mobile applications: a study about the privacy in digital same sex relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela do Corral Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo busca compreender de que forma homens que utilizam os aplicativos de relacionamento Tinder, Grindr e Scruff – considerando seus pontos de semelhanças e de especificidades, conforme serão detalhadas ao longo deste estudo – experienciam facetas de suas identidades e constroem práticas de sociabilidade, fazendo uso ou não do anonimato, na vivência de relações homoafetivas. Além disso, a pesquisa analisa de que forma estas plataformas digitais se configuram como heterotopias e “armários digitais”, nos quais os sujeitos desenvolvem formas de resistência e proteção a práticas de vigilâncias sociais on e off-lines. Palavras-chave: Privacidade; Anonimato; Identidade; Sociabilidade; Aplicativos de Relacionamento. ABSTRACT This article seeks to understand how men who use the relationship applications Tinder, Grindr and Scruff – considering their similarities points and specificities, as will be detailed in the course of this study – experience facets of their identities and build sociability practices making use or not of anonymity, in experiences of same sex relations. Furthermore, the research examines how these digital platforms are configured as heterotopias and "digital lockers" in which subjects develop forms of resistance and protection to the surveillances practices on and off-lines. Keywords: Privacy; Anonymity; Identity; Sociability; Relationship Applications.

  8. Drug abuse among the students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Drug abuse is the willful misuse of either licit or illicit drugs for the purpose of recreation, perceived necessity or convenience. Drug abuse is a more intense and often willful misuse of drugs often to the point of addiction. In the eastern world the incidence shows a decline or a static pattern but the number of drug addicts is still enormous.. The major drug of abuse are heroin and marijuana but designer drugs are shown to be on the increase. The aim of the study is to determine the ratio of the drug abuse in student. For this purpose we selected different institutions including “the university of Lahore”, “Forman Christian college”(private sector and Punjab university(Govt sector and conducted survey in 500 student. High proportion of students was found abusing drugs. From this study, we came across multiple factors which are the main cause of drug abuse in medical student including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, as well as personality disorder like antisocial personality disorder. The most commonly abused drugs include stimulants, opioids, and benzodiazepines, antihistamines. Although survey have indicated high rate of illicit and prescription drugs misuse among college students, few have assessed the negative consequences, personel concerns, or interest in intervention for drugs use. Drug abuse although regarded as a personality disorder, may also be seen as worldwide epidemic with evolutionary genetic, physiology and environmental influences Controlling and affecting human behavior. Globally, the use has reached all time high. The study showed males are more drug abusers as compared to females. The drug abuse ratio in students of private sector is more as compared to Govt sector.

  9. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  10. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  11. Trauma Symptoms in Abused Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are many traumatic events (including natural disasters, physical, psychological and sexual abuse that may befall children and there is clear evidence that such experiences can produce a plethora of negative psychological effects. Children’s exposure to such traumas has been associated with a wide variety of negative mental health outcomes, including anxiety and depression, post-traumatic stress and dissociation and anger and aggression. It seems that the impacts of traumatic events are significantly related to type and intensity of trauma. Materials & Method: Through a systematized clustral sampling 3042 male and female students from junior high school who were participated in a survey study for investigating point prevalence of child abuse, completed Trauma Symptoms Checklist for Children-Alternate Version (TSCC-A and Child Abuse Self-report Scale (CASRS. After recognition of abused children, they were compared based on trauma symptoms. TSCC-A is a self-report measure of post-traumatic distress and related psychological symptomatology in male and female children aged 8-16 years. It is useful in the evaluation of children who have experienced traumatic events, including physical and sexual assault, victimization by peers, major losses, the witnessing of violence done to others and natural disasters. TSCC-A makes no reference to sexual issues. CASRS is a self-report scale to assess child abuse and neglect with 38 items and four subscales (psychological abuse, neglect, physical and sexual abuse. Results: Considering the type of traumatic experiences, the results showed that abused children significantly received higher scores in scales and subscales of TSCC-A than nonabused group. They specially reported more symptoms (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, anger and dissociation comparing normal children. Conclusion: It is concluded that the type and rate of traumatic event is related to intensity of symptomatology.

  12. Perspectives on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra-Flanders, Wilson; Clark, Jennifer C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 70 Brazilian participants (46 females and 24 males) who responded to the cross-cultural survey on family violence and abuse, nearly half of the participants provided no examples of extreme, moderate, or mild elder abuse. In the sample of responses that were provided, the most commonly cited form of abuse overall was psychological…

  13. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  14. A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Bonnie

    Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…

  15. Contributions of Neuroimaging to Understanding Sex Differences in Cocaine Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, ML; Sawyer, EK; Howell, LL

    2011-01-01

    A consistent observation in drug abuse research is that males and females show differences in their response to drugs of abuse. In order to understand the neurobiology underlying cocaine abuse and effective treatments, it is important to consider the role of sex differences. Sex hormones have been investigated in both behavioral and molecular studies, but further evidence addressing drug abuse and dependence in both sexes would expand our knowledge of sex-differences in response to drugs of a...

  16. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  17. Teachers That Sexually Abuse Students: An Administrative and Legal Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen; Biggs, John S.

    This book examines sexual abuse and provides a plan of action for educators in schools. Following a historical perspective and a report on the extent of the problem in chapters 1 and 2, chapter 3 presents case studies of abuse involving adult males and female students, adult males and male students, and adult females and male students. Chapter 4,…

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  19. ¿Qué sabemos sobre los hombres que maltratan a su pareja? Una revisión sistemática What do we know about men who abuse their female partner? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Carrasco-Portiño

    2007-07-01

    más eficaces.OBJECTIVES: To analyze articles published in scientific journals from 2000 to 2005 that specifically focus on men who abuse their female partner, and to identify characteristics that the quantitative empirical studies have in common. METHODS: A systematic review of articles published from January 2000 to June 2005 on the topic of men who abuse their female partner was conducted by searching the following databases: EconLit, Embase, Eric, Francis, Índice Médico Español, ISI Web of Knowledge (Web of Science and Current Contents, Medline, Psicodoc, PsycInfo, and Sociological Abstracts. RESULTS: Of the 944 studies identified, victim-specific articles were eliminated, and 61 (6.5% were analyzed. Of these, violence-related journals had published 34 (55.7%; medical sciences journals had published only 4 (6.6%. North American institutions had published 47 of the 61 articles (77.0%, most of which were from the United States of America (70.5%, and only 1 article (1.6% came from Latin America (Puerto Rico. Of the 29 articles that employed quantitative analysis, 19 (65.5% examined the etiology of and risk factors related to domestic violence, and 10 (34.5% focused on interventions geared toward the aggressor. CONCLUSIONS: Few scientific studies were found that tackled the causes of violence against the female partner, and those that did used epidemiological methods that fell short of quantifying the causes of partner violence. Studies that approach the issue from a curative angle do not provide enough evidence on the effectiveness of programs aimed at abusers. No articles were found in public health journals. The absence of scientific literature on this topic could be impeding informed policy-making and hindering efforts to put more effective intervention programs in place.

  20. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  1. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Longman-Mills

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  2. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  3. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  4. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Estudo de mecanismos e fatores relacionados com o abuso sexual em crianças e adolescentes do sexo feminino Study of mechanisms and factors related to sexual abuse in female children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Drezett

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar mecanismos e fatores relacionados com o abuso sexual, comparando suas freqüências entre vítimas crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo de 617 vítimas de abuso sexual atendidas entre julho de 1994 e agosto de 1999 pelo Centro de Referência da Saúde da Mulher; 71 crianças (idade OBJECTIVE: to study the frequency of sexual abuse in children and adolescents and its related factors. METHODS: retrospective analysis of 617 cases of sexual abuse, assisted between July 1994 and August 1999 at the Women's Health Reference Center, divided into two groups: 71 children (age or =10 and <20 years. The analyzed variables were: sexual crime; embarrassment; presumption of violence; characteristics and number of abusers; the victim's situation at the moment of the crime; and occurrence of physical traumas. Epi Info 6 software was utilized to gather data, and the results were analyzed by the chi-square test. RESULTS: significant statistic results were found. 90.8% of the adolescents were victims of rape, and 46.5% of the children suffered sexual assault. The presupposed violence (PV was more frequent in the group of children (63.4% and a serious threat in the group of adolescents (63.2%. Innocentia consilli was exclusive PV among 100% of children and 59.5% of adolescents. 84.5% of children were molested by identifiable abusers, most frequently family members. Perpetrators were unknown in 72.3% of the cases of adolescent abuse. 42.3% of sexual abuse of children occurred in their homes, and 28.2% at the abuser's. Adolescents were approached during daily activities (34.8% and on their way to work or school (28.4%. Most patients did not have genital or extragenital trauma. CONCLUSIONS: children suffered sexual assault, perpetrated by a known abuser through presupposed violence in private places. Adolescents were raped by unknown individuals, under serious threat, in nondomestic places.

  6. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse: The Role of Perpetrator Gender, Victim's Response, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.

  7. The Cumulative Burden Borne by Offspring Whose Mothers Were Sexually Abused as Children: Descriptive Results from a Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Jennie G.; Trickett, Penelope K.; Harris, William W.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2009-01-01

    This multigenerational study empirically demonstrates the extent to which offspring whose parents experienced childhood abuse are at increased risk of being abused or neglected. Females with substantiated childhood sexual abuse and nonabused comparison females were assessed at six points spanning 18 years in a prospective, longitudinal study.…

  8. Female sexual function in urological practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzevier, Hendrik Willem

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we describe in chapter two the evaluation of female sexual function in an outpatient urologic clinic related to different urological complaints. Sexual abuse appeared to be a quite frequent problem in urological practice. In chapter three sexual abused patients are evaluated in

  9. Mulheres vítimas de violência sexual: meios coercitivos e produção de lesões não-genitais Female victims of sexual abuse: coercive methods and non-genital injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Naves dos Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo analisar os meios coercitivos utilizados pelos ofensores sexuais e a produção de lesões não-genitais em mulheres crianças, adolescentes e adultas, vítimas de estupro e atentado violento ao pudor notificados pela Delegacia de Defesa da Mulher e examinados no Núcleo de Perícias Médico-Legais de Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1996 a 2000. Na distribuição dos casos segundo a idade, utilizou-se o critério estabelecido pelo Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. A violência física foi o constrangimento mais empregado contra adultas (44,1% e adolescentes (25,0%, seguida da grave ameaça em 36,5% e 17,0% dos casos, respectivamente. A violência presumida pela innocentia consilii ocorreu em 94,1% das crianças e 42,8% das adolescentes. Lesões não-genitais de natureza leve foram evidenciadas em 7,8% dos casos, acometendo crianças (3,0%, adolescentes (7,2% e adultas (14,4%, produzidas sem o uso de armas (75,0%. Quando utilizadas, constatou-se que o número de casos com lesões decresce frente ao emprego de facas (14,3% e revólveres (10,7% contra vítimas adultas e adolescentes.This study aims to analyze the coercive methods used by sex offenders and the occurrence of non-genital injuries in female children, adolescent, and adult victims of sexual abuse reported to the Women's Police Precinct and examined at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1996 to 2000. Age distribution followed the criteria established by Brazil's Statute for Children and Adolescents (the prevailing legislation on issues pertaining to minors. Physical violence was the most frequently used form of coercion against adults (44.1% and adolescents (25.0%, followed by serious threat in 36.5% and 17.0% of the cases, respectively. Presumed violence by innocentia consilii occurred in 94.1% of the children and 42.8% of the adolescents. Minor non-genital injuries were found in 7

  10. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  11. The Child Sexual Abuse Epidemic in Addis Ababa: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychological trauma and physical complaints presented by victims include symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion: It was found out that child sexual abuse cases presented to the legal office was not properly managed. Female children appear to be more prone to sexual abuse than their male counterparts.

  12. Characteristics of Pregnant Teen Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment admission (“other female teen admissions”). Note that TEDS is a census of all admissions to treatment facilities reported to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) by State substance abuse agencies. IN BRIEF X X Between 2007 and 2010, about 57,000 ...

  13. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  14. Classification of Frequency Abused Drugs amongst Nigerian Youth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive (simple percentage) and inferential statistics (t-test, chi square and ANOVA) were used in analyzing the quota for the students. The result showed that male students are more susceptible to drug abuse than their female counterpart, that students mainly abuse drugs such as Alcohol, Cigarettes, Indian hemp, and ...

  15. Psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifically, females with experience of sexual abuse were found to be more susceptible to develop depression, panic anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders than unabused females. Thus, parents, and teachers should give the necessary care and protection to female children. Primary bio-psychosocial care services ...

  16. Fighting Child Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesanayi Gwirayi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated secondary school pupils’ views on strategies that can be used to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA. A survey design was adopted as the operational framework for data gathering. Data were collected from three secondary schools, all in the Gweru district of Zimbabwe. The sample comprised 268 secondary pupils (50% female; M age = 15.42, SD = 1.376. Each participant was asked to write down three main strategies that can be used to fight CSA on a given questionnaire. The responses were then analyzed using the thematic content analysis technique. The study revealed that most pupils believed that CSA can be prevented through teaching them about it and also reporting to the police. Another significant finding was that pupils’ responses tended to vary with gender and level of education. Whereas female respondents suggested that CSA can be fought by avoiding strangers, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends, their male counterparts suggested teaching the community about CSA, forming new clubs, and enacting life imprisonment for perpetrators, among other suggestions. In terms of level of education, Form 2 participants suggested avoiding strangers, staying home at night, whereas their Form 4 counterparts suggested lessons for Guidance and Counseling, saying no to sexual advances, and having reliable friends. These findings unequivocally demonstrate the need to vigorously engage secondary school pupils in activities aimed at fighting CSA to safeguard their inalienable human rights.

  17. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  18. Physical Child-Abuse in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Sayyari

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Child-abuse (physical, mental and sexual is considered as one of the important problems faced by persons specialized in behavioral Sciences and Forensic Medicine, physicians and pediatricians. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the status of physical child-abuse in Tehran. Materials & Methods: Forty-five pediatric residents, trained for this purpose, conducted this ten-day study in three teaching hospitals (Children's Medical Center, Bahrami Hospital, Hazrat Ali-Asghar Hospital. A questionnaire on physical child-abuse, designed and proposed by the WHO, was completed for 3019 children (male=1578, 52.3% female=1441, 47.7% less than 18 years of age, who attended the emergency department of the above hospitals. The children and their parents were interviewed and physical examination was performed for the children. Results: A total of 347 children (male=14.5%, female =9.6%, which is 12.2% of the total number of children studied, were physically abused. Injuries were mostly present on the face, upper extremities, back and lower extremities, among which 12.8% of the cases were severe and 87.2% were moderate in intensity. Fathers and mothers were responsible for 51.2% and 34.1% of the cases of child-abuse respectively. Among the persons responsible for causing child-abuse, 34.1% had themselves been physically abused during their childhood period and 26.4% had physically abused children before. Hyperactivity, bed-wetting and an unwanted child were among the most common causes of child-abuse. Conclusion: Factors precipitating child-abuse included: large numbers of children in the family drug addiction of one of the family members, and acute or severe psychological stress during the past 6 months. Using the Chi-square test, a significant relationship (P value=0.00l was found to exist between physical child-abuse and demographic factors such as age, sex, site of residence, history of divorce or separation of the parents and

  19. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  20. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  1. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  4. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  6. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome.

  7. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  8. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  9. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  10. Sexual Abuse and Eating Disorders: A Test of a Conceptual Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Margaret M.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2001-01-01

    Tested a model that hypothesized an indirect relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders, with the effects of sexual abuse being mediated through bodily shame and body disparagement. Surveys of female undergraduate students indicated that 60 percent had been sexually abused, 8 percent had diagnosable eating disorders, and 72.7 percent…

  11. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  12. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  13. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...

  14. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  15. [Intimate partner violence: study with female nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borrego, María Aurora; Vaquero Abellán, Manuel; Bertagnolli, Liana; Muñoz-Gomariz, Elisa; Redondo-Pedraza, Rosa; Muñoz-Alonso, Adoración

    2011-08-01

    Describe gender-based violence by intimate partners against female nurses in a sample of nurses in Andalucia, Spain. Descriptive transversal study. Hospitals and primary health care districts in Andalucia. Six hundred and twenty-two female nurses that work as nurses in the eight provinces in Andalucia (Spain). Social-demographic characteristics and presence of abuse (psychological, physical and sexual). 78.5% of the nurses were married or with a regular partner and had the economic income based on both salaries; 71.1% had a child or an elderly dependent person. It was proved that there can be a statistical association between abuse and: marital status; life together; familiar economic support and children and/or dependent elderly person. The average age was 42.5±8.1 years old (22-62 years) and presented statistical age differences comparing both groups: abused (average 44 years) and non-abused (average 41.8 years). Between the married couples studied, 21.7% of them belong to the social class I and 16.9% to the social class II. Between all studied nurses, 33.0% suffered abuse, among which 75.1% were psychologically abused. Of all the abuse cases 60% were less severe and 40% more serious. It was confirmed the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against nurses, which was predominantly psychological abuse, but others classes of abuse were present too. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A corpus-based analysis of the discursive construction of gender identities via abusive language

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Harthi, Tahir; Hardie, Andrew; McEnery, Tony

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the discursive construction of gender identities through the use of abusive language in YouTube comments sections. The study attempts to answer the following overarching research question: How is abusive language used in the construction of gendered identities by Arabic-speaking posters on YouTube? A corpus of more than 2 million words of YouTube comments is constructed to study discourses involving terms of abuse and abusive swearing targeted at males and females. Th...

  18. [Characteristic features of female murderers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patla, Mariusz; Teleśnicki, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    65 female murderers were observed in the Forensic Psychiatry Ward. In 61 cases the victims were closely connected with the victim. The intellectual capacity of these women was similar to the average population. 41 women were abused before murder. Only in 7% of cases pathological abnormalities in CNS were not observed. In the examined group 5% were classified as insane.

  19. Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-07-01

    Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation

  20. LIVED EXPERIENCES OF THE ABUSED ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rey U. Acob

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study determined individual lived experiences of the abused elderly in the provinces of Leyte and Biliran. Methods: The study utilized qualitative phenomenology. Interviews are made and recorded, then later transcribed verbatim. Collaizi’s method is used as method of analysis to obtain themes of the lived experiences of the ten abused key informants. Results: Based from results, most of the abused entities are female, widowed aging 6o to 65 years old, earning less than 2000 pesos per month and are dependently living in a nuclear family structure for 40 years. Based on their responses to the open-ended guide questions, key informants revealed emotional mistreatment being the most extensive type of abuse. Physical and sexual maltreatment are also evident amidst their old age. Family members and employers are the main identified perpetrators of the elderly. Bruises on most covered areas in their body, rope burns, torn undergarments, being touched without consent are some of the objective indicators of abuse. Themes such as family violence and workplace mistreatment are the most common form of abuse experienced. Conclusion: Based from the findings, it is recommended that the local government and concerned stakeholders to timely review existing rules protecting vulnerable adults especially its implementation.