WorldWideScience

Sample records for abusive alcohol consumption

  1. Abusive Consumption Of Alcohol By Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Danielle Bezerra Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the abusive consumption of alcohol in the elderly in the municipality of Santa Cruz - PB. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study, with quantitative approach with a sample of 170 elderly. To perform the study, three instruments were used: the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test - Geriatric Version (MAST-G. The data were analyzed in the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS - version 21. Results: 14.7% of the elderly were classified by the MAST-G score as elderly individuals presenting problems related to alcohol abuse, the majority of whom were male, single, with education above 05 years, who reside alone, and present some pathology and make use of medications. Conclusion: the research points out the need for multiprofessional work in health in Primary Care, in order to develop health actions that include the prevention of alcohol consumption and minimize the deleterious effects of consumption, in order to reduce the number of undesirable events arising from the use of that substance. Keywords: Primary health care; Alcohol; Old man.

  2. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  3. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  6. [Social impact of abusive alcohol consumption in Spain: consumption, cost and policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivano Scandurra, Rosario; García-Altés, Anna; Nebot, Manel

    2011-01-01

    Although it has declined in recent decades, alcohol consumption in Spain is still high compared with other European countries. The consumption pattern shows a converging trend with Europe, with a decrease in consumption of wine and an increase in the consumption of beer. Likewise, mortality related to alcohol consumption has also declined in the last twenty years, but remains a major cause of death. The direct healthcare costs and indirect costs of diseases totally and partially attributable to alcohol consumption in 2007 was 2669.74 million. The effective tax regime in Spain gravel alcohol very little, so a substantial increase, in line with some European countries, could be an option to be considered for accelerating the reduction of the burden of morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

  7. MAOA genotype, family relations and sexual abuse in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Åslund, Cecilia; Nordquist, Niklas; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. In the county of Västmanland, Sweden, all 17-18-year-old students were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and provide a saliva sample during class hours. A total of 2263 students completed the questionnaire (77.4%) and a saliva sample was provided by 2131 participants. Failed MAOA u-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype analyses and internal non-responses left 851 boys and 735 girls (total n=1586) to be investigated. Alcohol use disorder identification test was used to measure hazardous alcohol consumption. MAOA u-VNTR was used to measure biological risk in interaction with poor family relations and experience of sexual abuse. The model was also adjusted for non-independent socioeconomic variables, separated parents, type of housing and parental unemployment. Results showed that the MAOA u-VNTR, in interaction with psychosocial risk factors, such as the quality of family relations and sexual abuse, was related to high alcohol consumption among adolescents. Girls, carrying the long MAOA u-VNTR variant showed a higher risk of being high alcohol consumers, whereas among boys, the short allele was related to higher alcohol consumption. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a relation between MAOA u-VNTR and alcohol consumption and that this relation is modulated by environmental factors. Furthermore, the present study also supports the hypothesis that there is a sex difference in the G*E interaction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  10. [Alcohol consumption, smoking and drug abuse among teenagers - a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, T; Yngvadottir, A; Benediktsdottir, B

    1994-12-01

    Many of the social and health problems of teenagers today are related to the use of intoxicating drugs. In 1990 the use of Lions Quest began in primary schools in Iceland. With Lions Quest the young are taught life skills in order to be helped to live a healthy life without tobacco, alcohol or other intoxicating drugs. The aim of this study, therefore, was to try to determine what factors influence teenage use of intoxicants and whether the attitudes and drug consumption of those teenagers who had participated in Lions Quest were any different from those who had not. The research is a continuation of a comparative study where students were administered questionnaires to ascertain their attitudes toward life and toward the use of intoxicating substances. In 1989 the survey covered 566 students 12-13 years of age and three years later in 1992 reached 500 of the former respondents when they were 15-16 years old. "The schools were chosen such that the study reflected the attitudes of students both in sparsely and in densely settled areas. The study showed that of the 15-16 year olds 18.6% smoked daily, 44.4% had felt the effects of alcohol four times or more, and 5% had a history of repeated drug abuse (cannabis, sniffing solvents, etc.) The use of various intoxicating substances is strongly correlated, a fact that supports the hypothesis that attitudes toward life and conditions that lead to the use of one type of drug also support the use of other drugs. Those teenagers who used drugs had a great deal in common as regards attitudes toward life and the pattern of family relations. They were not as close to their families as were teenagers who did not use drugs, were seldom home in the evening and had few interests in common with their parents. The parents were more often divorced, smoking in the home was more common and alcohol consumption had more frequently caused family problems. These teenagers were more easily influenced, were more dependent on their friends, had

  11. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  12. Risk modifying effect of social capital on measures of heavy alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, harms, and secondhand effects: national survey findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2005-04-01

    To examine associations between social capital and individual risk for alcohol abuse and harms and identify protective effect mechanisms. Multilevel multivariate analysis with individual level data from a national panel survey of drinking and a contextual measure of social capital reflecting college mean aggregate reports of student volunteerism. Outcomes include heavy episodic (binge) drinking, frequent drinking, frequent drunkenness, diagnosable alcohol abuse, intentional drunkenness, acquisition of binge drinking, harms, secondhand effects from others' drinking. United States, 119 four year colleges. Representative samples of youth ages 18-24 surveyed in 1997 and 1999 using an anonymous mailed questionnaire (total n = 27 687). Students from colleges with higher levels of social capital reported reduced risks for binge drinking (adjusted OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.69, p = 0.002), frequent drunkenness (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.98, p = 0.04), acquisition of binge drinking in college (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.95, p = 0.03), and alcohol abuse (adjusted OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.91, p = 0.02) in multilevel multivariate analyses that controlled for individual volunteering, the measure on which social capital was based. Higher levels of social capital protected against multiple drinking related harms (adjusted OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.90, p = 0.02) and secondhand drinking effects (adjusted OR, 0.30, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.58, p = 0.0003). Significant cross level interactions exist between fraternity/sorority membership and social capital for measures of risky drinking. Harm reduction primarily reflects consumption modification. Social capital exerts strong protective effects on alcohol abuse and harm in college including among high risk students.

  13. Determinants of Alcohol Consumption By College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Elia Kacapyr; Samira Choudhury

    2006-01-01

    This paper exploits a random survey of 704 Ithaca College students regarding their demographics and alcohol consumption. Regression analysis is used to explore a variety of issues including: gender differences in alcohol consumption, whether marijuana and alcohol are complements or substitutes, underage drinking, the drinking habits of athletes, family history and alcohol abuse, the efficacy of specific policies designed to curb alcohol consumption by students. A separate logistic regression ...

  14. Alcohol consumption and awareness of the risks related in alcohol-abuse in high school students: evidence from a Health Education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelone, A M; Rossi, R; Bartolomei, G; Di Carlo, D; Fabiani, L; Necozione, S; di Orio, F

    2013-01-01

    The unceasing and widespread increase of alcohol consumption represents an important problem for the European Union. For this reason, we wanted to investigate the patterns of alcohol consumption among high-school students of Rieti, a city in central Italy, and of surrounding rural areas. Furthermore, the study intends to investigate students' awareness on alcohol-related health risks and on the consequences of driving in a state of intoxication. In the investigation 7 schools including senior high schools and technical schools were involved, for a total of 669 students aged between 15 and 19 years. As part of a program of health education, a self-administered anonymous questionnaire was proposed to each student. A descriptive and multivariate analysis was carried out. The prevalence of usual drinkers was equal to 12.7 per cent. The logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between usual consumption of alcohol and the attendance of Technical Institutes (OR=3.43; 95% IC: 2.07 - 5.69), and the residence in rural areas (OR=2.19; 95% IC: 1.38 - 3.47). The area of residence in the multivariate analysis loses significance. Only 54.6 % of the students answered the questions regarding the state of driving under the effect of alcohol; of these, 11.0 % declared of having driven at least once under the effect of alcohol, whereas 18.0 % declared that they had been passengers of a driver who was drunk. The answer to the question whether the consumption of alcohol is harmful to health was "no" for 15.7 % of usual drinkers against 2.2 % of the non drinkers or occasional (episodic) drinkers. Our study shows that the drinking habits of high school students of Rieti are worse for those attending technical schools. Usual drinkers show lower consciousness of alcohol-related harm. Our study may provide clues useful for the identification of the target population at high risk for alcohol abuse in order to create targeted prevention programs.

  15. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  16. Drug and alcohol abuse and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G A

    1994-01-01

    An uncontrolled, retrospective study of 58 consecutive patients admitted to a hospital substance abuse unit assessed the effects of alcohol consumption on cholesterol levels. From the dietary histories completed by 54 of the patients, it was found that the alcoholics consumed a high-calorie diet containing a high percentage of foods with a high cholesterol content, but in small quantities. Most of their caloric intake was derived from the alcohol. Abusers of substances other than alcohol had a low-calorie intake of the same quality as alcoholics. It appears that low consumption of alcohol rather than something intrinsic in alcohol or other drugs is related to low levels of total cholesterol in persons consuming a high cholesterol-containing diet. The author also suggests that an unexplained relationship between low cholesterol levels and some gastrointestinal malignancies may be due to the effects of alcohol on the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Alcohol Consumption among College Students: Chief Student Affairs Officers' Perspectives on Evidence-Based Alcohol Consumption Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stender, David F., III

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students can lead to negative consequences for those consuming alcohol as well as for their classmates. The 2002 report from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Task Force on College Drinking described a "three-in-one" evidence-based approach for alcohol consumption reduction…

  18. Alcohol Use / Abuse in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sogi Uematzu, Cecilia; Perales Cabrera, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency of alcohol use/abuse, its distribution by gender and age and associated risk factors in undergraduate medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A mental health survey data base from 1115 medical students on a public university of Lima City was used. RESULTS: The frequency of CAGE positive, indicator of drinking problem, was 13,7%. The alcohol consumption onset mean age was earlier in the younger students, especially in women. Multivariate analysis showed signif...

  19. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  20. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....

  1. Association of average daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking and alcohol-related social problems: results from the German Epidemiological Surveys of Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Ludwig; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Pabst, Alexander; Orth, Boris

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the combined effect of average volume and binge drinking in predicting alcohol-related social problems and estimates the proportion of alcohol-related harms related to specific drinking patterns that could be prevented if transferred to a low-risk drinking group. Data came from the 1997 and 2000 German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) (age: 18-59 years; response rate: 65% and 51%, respectively). The pooled sample consisted of 12,668 current drinkers. By using nine categories of average daily intake and three groups of binge drinking, individuals were grouped into 22 mutual exclusive groups. Social problems were defined as the occurrence of 'repeated family quarrels', 'concern of family members or friends', 'loss of partner or friend' or 'physical fight or injury' in relation to alcohol. The effect of average daily intake is modified by binge drinking frequency such that the association was strongest in those with four or more binge drinking occasions during the last 30 days. Within each binge drinking group, adjusted relative risks (aRR) increased with alcohol intake up to a certain threshold and decreased thereafter. Overall, compared to the reference group (alcohol-related social problems than volume. Alcohol-related social harms especially among drinkers with moderate volume per day may be reduced by targeting prevention strategies towards episodic heavy drinkers.

  2. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  4. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Grou...

  5. Episodic Alcohol Consumption by Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Pereverzev, Vladimir Alexeevich

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThis paper presents evidence that even rare episodic alcohol consumption by young people is not harmless. Unsafe rare episodic alcohol consumption by youths (students) was reflected in the reduced attention concentration and lower academic buoyancy, compared to those who completely abstain from alcohol. Key Words: Alcohol, youth, students, attention concentration, academic buoyancy 

  6. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among undergraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol consumption implies the ingestion of any alcoholic drink or beverage. When digested, alcohol is metabolized by the liver to release its active ingredient, ethanol. Alcohol misuse is a very important global health problem with a pattern of abuse varying in different parts of the world. According to the World ...

  7. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  8. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...

  9. Implicações do uso do álcool na comunidade indígena Potiguara Implications of alcohol abuse and consumption in the Potiguara indigenous community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rízia Félix de Melo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Em função do crescimento do uso e do abuso do álcool nas populações indígenas do Brasil, esta pesquisa se propôs a investigar o consumo do álcool na comunidade Potiguara do Estado da Paraíba, devido à especificidade cultural e regional desta etnia. Trata-se de um estudo de campo exploratório. A amostra foi composta por 55 índios, maiores de 18 anos e de ambos os sexos. O instrumento utilizado foi uma entrevista semiestruturada aplicada individualmente. Para a análise dos dados, foi utilizado o software SPSS e Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Os resultados revelaram que 41,8% da amostra estudada têm, pelo menos, um membro da família que faz uso de bebida alcoólica, em sua maioria destiladas, e que o uso ocorre em idade precoce, estando desvinculado da cultura e de rituais. Dos entrevistados 27,3% afirmaram que a bebida traz diversos problemas para toda a família, inclusive com a morte. Pode-se concluir que, na população indígena estudada, o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas já ocorre de forma abusiva e precoce, necessitando-se de um trabalho mais efetivo de prevenção e de resgate da cultura desta comunidade.Due to the growth of usage and alcohol abuse in indigenous populations of Brazil, this research aims to investigate alcohol consumption in the Potiguara community, in the State of Paraíba, considering its specific cultural and regional differences of ethnicity. This is an exploratory field study. The sample consisted of 55 Indians, aged over 18 years and of both sexes. The instrument was a semistructured interview administered individually. For data analysis, we used the SPSS software and qualitative analysis. The results revealed that 41.8% of the sample have at least one family member who uses alcohol, mostly distilled, and that use starts at an early age, being detached from the culture and rituals. Of the respondents 27.3% said that drinking brings many problems for the entire family, including death. We can concluded

  10. Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Manzo-Avalos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is correlated with a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. Acute alcohol abuse causes damage to and functional impairment of several organs affecting protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mitochondria participate with the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate and the generation of increased amounts of NADH. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during fetal development induces a wide spectrum of adverse effects in offspring, such as neurologic abnormalities and pre- and post-natal growth retardation. Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as well as resveratrol. This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers.

  11. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  12. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...

  13. Circulating cytokines as biomarkers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achur, Rajeshwara N; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2010-03-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long-term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels, and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake.

  14. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  15. Alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Henrique Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population

  16. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of...

  17. Verbal learning and memory in alcohol abusers and polysubstance abusers with concurrent alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M W; Drake, A I; Grant, I

    1998-07-01

    To define the combined effects of drug and alcohol abuse on verbal learning and memory, 70 alcoholic and 80 polysubstance abuse (PSA) individuals with concurrent alcohol abuse were compared on a list learning task, the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Despite demonstrating similar learning strategies, response styles, and error patterns, the PSA group nontheless exhibited significantly greater recall deficits than the alcoholic group on the CVLT. These deficits were particularly evident in those who were heaviest abusers of cocaine. PSA participants did not, however, evidence greater recognition memory deficits. This pattern of greater deficits on recall than on recognition memory, as well as poor consolidation, is consistent with the initiation-retrieval difficulties of patient groups with subcortical dysfunction. It is concluded that the combined use of alcohol and drugs, cocaine in particular, may compound memory difficulties beyond what is typically observed in alcoholic individuals.

  18. On monitoring unrecorded alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unrecorded alcohol consumption is a global problem, with about 25% of all alcohol consumption concerning this category. There are different forms of unrecorded alcohol, legally produced versus illegally produced, artisanal vs industrially produced, and then surrogate alcohol, which is officially not intended for human consumption. Monitoring and surveillance of unrecorded consumption is not well developed. The World Health Organization has developed a monitoring system, using the Nominal Group Technique, a variant of the Delphi methodology. Experiences with this methodology over the past two years are reported. Finally, conclusions for the monitoring and surveillance at the national level are given.

  19. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  20. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse: general physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Debasish; Singh, Jaspreet

    2005-02-01

    Epidemiology, definitions, concepts and various other relevant aspects including management of drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. The role of general/primary care physicians has been highlited in the persepctive of substance-abuse disorders.

  3. Cancer morbidity in alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R

    1994-01-01

    significantly more frequently than expected (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.2-1.8). The risk of melanomas (RR = 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.8) was significantly lower than expected. The relative risks of cancer of the stomach, pancreas, kidney and endocrine system were only slightly increased. The study group did not develop more......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...

  4. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  5. Unrecorded Alcohol Consumption: Quantitative Methods of Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    unrecorded alcohol; methods of estimation In this paper we focused on methods of estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Present methods of estimation of unrevorded alcohol consumption allow only approximate estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption level. Tacking into consideration the extreme importance of such kind of data, further investigation is necessary to improve the reliability of methods estimation of unrecorded alcohol consumption.

  6. Analysis of ethyl sulfate in raw wastewater for estimation of alcohol consumption and its correlation with drugs of abuse in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Nicola; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Barcelo, Damia

    2014-09-19

    The increasing, generalized consumption of alcohol, especially among young people, generates great concern in our society due to its negative consequences on public health and safety. Besides the traditional, official methods employed for estimation of alcohol consumption, the monitoring of ethyl sulfate (EtS), a urinary biomarker of alcohol ingestion, in raw wastewater has been recently proposed as an additional tool to estimate alcohol use at community level through the so-called sewage epidemiology approach. In the presented study, a fast and reliable analytical method based on ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been optimized and further applied to the analysis of EtS in seven 24h composite samples collected along one week at the inlet of a large sewage treatment plant (STP) located in the Barcelona area. EtS was measured in the entire set of analysed samples, with concentrations ranging from 5.5 to 33μg/L, which correspond to an absolute alcohol consumption of around 11,000 (Wednesday) to 25,000 (Sunday) kg/day. The average per capita absolute alcohol consumption calculated was 18mL/day/inhabitant. Moreover, the levels of EtS measured throughout the week showed high correlation with those of some recreational illicit drugs and metabolites, namely, cocaethylene (r(2)=0.9391, n=5), benzoylecgonine (r(2)=0.9252, n=7), ecstasy (r(2)=0.8950, n=7), amphetamine (r(2)=0.8707, n=7) and cocaine (r(2)=0.6425, n=7), measured in the same samples. This study confirms that the analysis of EtS in raw wastewater can be a useful tool for the estimation of alcohol consumption in an anonymous, fast and economic way, and indicates that consumption of alcohol and some illicit drugs occurs often together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues of alcohol abuse and depression among teenagers, noting co-occurrence of these two problems and the special challenge co-occurrence poses for clinicians who must treat both problems aggressively. Looks at prevention of alcohol use and abuse among adolescents, considers assessment issues, and distinguishes between primary and…

  8. Analytical assessment of the effects of alcohol consumption on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D Edebatu, O E Osuagwu, E E Nwabuze, A I Chijioke, I R N Jecinta ... Recognition of the consequences of alcohol and abuse on physical and mental health as well as socio-occupational life are necessary steps for initiating appropriate action to reduce the harm/dangers from alcohol consumption. This work was motivated ...

  9. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative...... alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol...... for observational studies and RCTs. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between...

  10. Tattoos, piercings, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have found a link between body tattoos or piercings and risky behavior. However, these studies only examined survey data but not real behavior. Young men (mean = 20.6 years) and women (mean = 20.2 years) leaving a bar were asked whether they wore tattoos and piercings or not and were requested to breathe into a breathalyzer in order to evaluate their alcohol consumption. It was found that participants with piercings and/or tattoos as well as combined piercings and tattoos revealed higher levels of alcohol consumption. Piercings and tattoos could serve as signs of alcohol consumption for educators, parents, and physicians. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  11. Interventions to cope with alcohol abuse: integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Jorge Guimarães

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.

  12. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  13. Alcohol expectancies as a mediator of the relation between impulsivity and alcohol consumption in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Susan C; Short, Jerome L

    2009-01-01

    Past research on alcohol consumption in minority groups has focused on examining differences in the level of drinking. However, research has yet to fully examine racial differences in the factors that might mediate alcohol consumption. The current study sought to test whether alcohol expectancies mediated the relation of impulsivity on alcohol consumption for an Asian American sample. Participants included 57 Asian American and 70 Caucasian undergraduate students. Results showed that positive alcohol expectancies fully mediated the pathway between dimensions of impulsivity and alcohol use for Asian Americans. For Caucasian participants, only impulsivity predicted alcohol use. Future research on alcohol use and abuse by Asian Americans should consider the role of alcohol expectancies in different social contexts.

  14. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  15. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Symptoms: A Multidimensional Model of Common and Specific Etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Carey, Kate B.; Wills, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model hypothesizing differential pathways from five predictors to alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms. The participants were college students (N= 2,270) surveyed on two occasions in a 6-month prospective design. Social norms, perceived utility of alcohol use, and family history of alcohol problems were indirectly associated with Time 2 (T2) abuse and dependence symptoms through influencing level of alcohol consumption. Poor behavioral control had a direct eff...

  16. Dealing with alcohol abuse in general practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . They are then faced with further guilt, and drink again in response. Patients should be assisted to break this cycle. Alcohol abuse is a chronic disease, and relapse is part of the condition. Patients should be encouraged to seek help.

  17. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...

  18. Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Angela M; Kaptoge, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam S

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-risk limits recommended for alcohol consumption vary substantially across different national guidelines. To define thresholds associated with lowest risk for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, we studied individual-participant data from 599 912 current drinkers withou...

  19. 78 FR 20932 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... 20933

  20. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  1. [Alcohol Abuse and Associated Factors in Student Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Ramírez, Jessica Liliana Pinto; Martínez-Villalba, Andrés Mauricio Rangel; López, Paul Anthony Camacho

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have confirmed high prevalence of alcohol abuse in adolescent students from Bucaramanga, Colombia. However, few studies on the associated factors have been carried out. Assessment of prevalence of alcohol abuse and associated factors in student children and adolescents from Bucaramanga. A random sample of adolescent students completed an anonymous questionnaire about the consumption of alcohol, illegal and legal substances, together with the CAGE questionnaire and a series of scales and questionnaires assessing risk factors for alcohol abuse. To adjust for confusing variables, a multivariate analysis was performed using a logistic regression model. 2916 students were surveyed with an average age between 10 and 22, and a mean of 14.4 years (SD 1.65), 51.1% were female, 36% were in the last two years of high school (10(th) and 11(th) grades), and 17.66% were in private schools. The alcohol abuse pattern as measured by the CAGE scale was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.3 - 16.0%). The associated factors were: age (OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.27), having a smoking or consuming alcohol sibling (OR: 1.48, 95% CI, 1.01 - 1.17) antisocial behavior (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.12 - 4.32) and best friend who uses illicit substances (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.06 - 2.76), best friend who smokes or drinks alcohol (OR 2.01, 95% CI, 1.40 - 2.88). One out of 7 students showed a pattern of alcohol abuse. The associated factors were the influence of friends, family, age and antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with alcohol intake and alcohol abuse among women in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Eloah Machado

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.

  3. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, Km; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  4. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  5. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  6. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635...

  7. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis...., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  8. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  9. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  10. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June... Buzas, PhD. Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  11. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National...

  12. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  13. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  14. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD...

  15. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2017, Bethesda...

  16. 77 FR 2304 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Special Emphasis..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  17. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM... Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Terrance Level...

  18. 76 FR 34719 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  19. 75 FR 43534 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  20. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  1. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  2. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  3. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review.... Srinivas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Extramural...

  4. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  5. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch...

  6. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  7. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Initial Review... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  8. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date... Person: Abraham P. Bautista, PhD, Executive Secretary, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  9. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  10. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  11. 75 FR 9421 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD 20852...

  12. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  13. 75 FR 13293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-443-2861. marmillotp...

  14. 75 FR 10489 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  15. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural...

  16. 77 FR 1706 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  17. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-010. Date: July 18, 2012. Time: 1... . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA...

  18. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National...

  19. 76 FR 34718 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-8599...

  20. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2081...

  1. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 18-19, 2013. Closed...

  2. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 6-7, 2012. Closed: June 6...

  3. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Date: February 8-9, 2012. Closed...

  4. 75 FR 20852 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 9-10, 2010. Closed: June 9...

  5. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting. Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: June 8-9, 2011. Closed: June 8...

  6. 77 FR 68135 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. [[Page 68136

  7. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  8. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  9. 78 FR 71628 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 4-5, 2014. Closed...

  10. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 19-20, 2012. Closed...

  11. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 12-13, 2011. Closed...

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  13. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...... changed significantly in the same direction as the developments in alcohol consumption. The changes in the consumption levels of alcohol in general -- and wine in particular -- are influenced by many factors of which health arguments may have played a crucial role. The alcohol policies of the European...... countries have become more restrictive during the last decades. Using data on alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries we discuss the questions of whether the intake of alcohol is associated with (liver) diseases. Our empirical analysis provides us...

  14. [Harmful alcohol consumption: prevalence, trends, health burden, reduction strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Грузева, Татьяна С; Дуфинец, Василий А; Замкевич, Виктория Б

    2016-01-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption constitutes a significant cause of the global burden of disease, causing more than 200 different diseases, 5.9% of all deaths worldwide, causing substantial medical and social costs, major economic loss, slowing progress towards the strategic goals of human development. to substantiate approaches to the formation of a national strategy to combat the harmful use of alcohol in Ukraine based on the analysis of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related health and social problems and international experience and recommendations of WHO. The study was based on analysis of the extent and patterns of alcohol consumption in Ukraine, levels, structure and dynamics of morbidity and mortality from diseases associated with alcohol abuse; investigation of preventive activities in primary healthcare, the existing problems and doctors' needs for prevention alcohol abuse, national and international experience on this problem.This work usesbibliosemantic, medical, statistical, sociological, epidemiological methods. The information base are: European Health for All Database (HFA-DB)for 2000-2012,Center of Medical Statistics, Ministry of Health of Ukraine for 2000-2015, questionnaire survey of physicians in primary care, strategic and policy documents of WHO, WHO Regional Office for Europe. In Ukraine, as in most countries in the WHO European Region prevalence of alcohol is high. In the ranking of the WHO European Region Ukraine ranks fifth in alcohol consumption per capita. The structure of consumption of alcoholic drinks is dominated by strong spirits (48%). There has been a negative trend for this indicator from 5.4 liters in 2002 to 15.6 liters in 2012.The dominant pattern of alcohol consumption is characterized by early onset of alcohol consumption, significant frequency, large doses, mostly strong alcohol beverages, with significant share of low-quality alcohol. This factor contributes to high levels of morbidity. A total of546.3 thousandpeople

  15. Stuttering, alcohol consumption and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, Milly; McAllister, Jan; Skinner, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Limited research has been published regarding the association between stuttering and substance use. An earlier study provided no evidence for such an association, but the authors called for further research to be conducted using a community sample. The present study used data from a community sample to investigate whether an association between stuttering and alcohol consumption or regular smoking exists in late adolescence and adulthood. Regression analyses were carried out on data from a birth cohort study, the National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohort included 18,558 participants who have since been followed up until age 55. In the analyses, the main predictor variable was parent-reported stuttering at age 16. Parental socio-economic group, cohort member's sex and childhood behavioural problems were also included. The outcome variables related to alcohol consumption and smoking habits at ages 16, 23, 33, 41, 46, 50 and 55. No significant association was found between stuttering and alcohol consumption or stuttering and smoking at any of the ages. It was speculated that the absence of significant associations might be due to avoidance of social situations on the part of many of the participants who stutter, or adoption of alternative coping strategies. Because of the association between anxiety and substance use, individuals who stutter and are anxious might be found to drink or smoke excessively, but as a group, people who stutter are not more likely than those who do not to have high levels of consumption of alcohol or nicotine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A rural and urban cross-sectional study on alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The abuse or harmful use of alcohol is a well known risk factor for disability and premature mortality. Aim: The study sought to ... One thousand, six hundred and sixty three (55.8%), gave history of alcohol consumption, while 1,315 (44.2%) had never consumed alcoholic drink. Frequent alcohol consumers were ...

  17. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more dr...

  18. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  19. Nationally recognized alcohol abuse prevention speaker on campus Dec. 10

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol abuse prevention is a hot topic on college campuses across the nation and Virginia Tech's Division of Student Affairs and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Task Force is committed to addressing the issue as it relates to Virginia Tech campus community.

  20. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: February 16-17, 2011. Closed: February 16, 2011, 5:30 p.m. to...

  1. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And...

  2. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice....C. App), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and... on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Date: September 22-23, 2010. Closed: September 22, 2010, 5:30 p.m...

  3. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis.... Contact Person: Beata Buzas, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  4. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis... Person: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and...

  5. 78 FR 35042 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD...

  6. Personality Variables in Alcohol Abuse in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Mark L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Studied the relationship between personality variables and alcohol abuse in college students. Results indicated that these personality variables were not strong predictors of alcohol abuse. However, subjects identified as being highly trait anxious or trait angry were more likely to abuse alcohol than subjects low on these variables. (Author)

  7. The long-term consequences of parental alcohol abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    unemployment is seen in families with evidence of alcohol abuse. In some respects mothers who are alcohol abusers seem to have a different effect on their children than fathers who are alcohol abusers. So, for example, there is a higher occurence of violence-related crimes and convictions for sexual offences...

  8. Alcohol consumption and tolerance of Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alcohol consumption and tolerance of the ascomycete Neurospora crassa was investigated in this study. This fungus is able to utilize both native alcohol and non-native alcohols as carbon sources, yet little is known about the enzymes involved in these processes. The deletion of alcohol dehydroge...

  9. [Descriptive study of alcohol consumption in adolescents of Gandia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sabater, A; Llorca-Tauste, J; Blasco-Roque, M; Escrivá-Aznar, G; Martínez-Puig, C; Marzá Gascó, A

    2014-01-01

    The morbidity and mortality in developed countries is related to habits acquired in adolescence. Alcohol is the drug most consumed by Spanish adolescents, making its abuse a concern for public health. To evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption of 4th year secondary school pupils in the city of Gandia, the defining characteristics of this population and the environment in which this takes place. This is a descriptive study of alcohol use in adolescents aged 15 to 18 years of Gandia, which was carried out through a survey of different issues related to health habits, nine of which relate to consumption alcohol. Of the 346 adolescents surveyed, 98% were minors, 93.3% had tried an alcoholic drink. Just under half (48.5%) took part in street binge-drinking, and 45.5% had got drunk at least once. Consumption was mainly during the weekend. More than three-quarters (76.6%) had their first contact with alcohol in the family. Alcohol use among adolescents is high, with consumption is mostly at weekends and with a high prevalence of alcohol intoxication, drinking in public places, and with friends. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Attention deficit disorder, alcoholism, and drug abuse: MMPI correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, J M; Horton, A M; Ahadpour, M

    1992-03-01

    Earlier research had demonstrated that alcoholics with attention deficit disorder residual type (ADDRT) differ from other alcoholics on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of drug abuse on the relationship of ADDRT and alcoholism as reflected on the MMPI. Groups of 48 male alcoholics, 28 ADDRT alcoholics, 25 ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers and 18 alcohol and drug abusers were all administered the MMPI. Significant differences were found between the alcoholic and ADDRT alcoholic groups on scales Pd, Sc, Si, F, and K. For the ADDRT alcohol and drug abusers versus the alcohol and drug abuser groups, they differed on scales K, Hs, D, Pd, Pa, Pt, Sc, Si, F, K, and L.

  11. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis....271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272, Alcohol...

  12. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  13. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda P. Dasanayake

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95%  CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95%  CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.

  14. Suicidal behavior in adolescents with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, D; Sher, L

    2009-06-01

    Depression, alcohol abuse and suicidality each continue to threaten adolescent populations throughout the world. The comorbidity between these diseases has been found to be up to 73% with consistent positive correlations between adolescent drinking, depression and suicidality. Alcohol abuse, depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents have also been found to have biochemical and genetic correlates. This article explores the contributing and causative factors and directional models underlying such prevalent comorbidities. Alcohol use is shown to be both a distal and proximal cause of suicide attempts in adolescent populations. Individuals with both alcoholism and depression who attempt or complete suicide often present with significantly high levels of aggression and impulsivity. These factors may be caused or nuanced by poor or underdeveloped coping skills as well as other comorbid psychiatric conditions. Such behaviors, alone or in comorbidity, may be a consequence of childhood abuse, social pressures, low self-esteem and/or delinquency- all of which may be particularly salient among adolescent populations. Such adolescent stressors are implicated as the cause for the self-medication model. Some studies suggest that depression encourages alcohol use as self-medication and then leads to suicidality, while others imply that the initial alcohol consumption is responsible for increasing depressive and suicidal symptoms in adolescents. This article discusses the social stigma associated with alcoholism, depression and suicidality, and how that may serve to enhance these disorders in adolescent populations. Many directional models are presented based on past research and as suggestions for future research. There is a lot that can be done by clinicians, legal and educational professionals and society at large that may help to prevent and treat such problems.

  15. Peer counseling: Drug and alcohol abuse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, R A

    1983-12-01

    A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.

  16. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called 'designer', drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. In this review, we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them.

  17. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. E. Razvodovsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus.

  18. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Ho, Li-Ming; Lee, Jie-Min; Hwang, Jhe-Yo

    2013-09-08

    The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol's price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (-0.820), wine (-0.955), whisky (-0.587), brandy (-0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan.

  19. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of

  20. Disability associated with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  2. Alcohol consumption in Colombian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Betancourth Zambrano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol consumption is conceived as a public health problem. Given the significant prevalence of consumption and its negative consequences, it is necessary to contribute to the prevention from the identification of populations at risk, such as the university, and the factors that influence the development of consumption. Objective: To identify and analyze the factors associated with alcohol consumption in university students from the South-western of Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study with a sample of 849 university students obtained by stratified random sampling was made. A questionnaire to characterize the consumption of alcohol and the sociodemographic factors was used for quantitative data collection. The analysis of the information included statistical descriptive for prevalence, consumption and polyconsumption pattern, as well as the relationship among the variables through the Chi-square test. Results: A prevalence of consumption of alcohol of 97.5% was found, most of the students reported consuming alcohol with their group of friends (76%, followed by the family (24.9%. The frequency of alcohol consumption is mainly given every month (25.8% and every fifteen days (18.8%. In addition, associations between sex and the frequency of alcohol consumption (p=000, the number of type of alcoholic beverages (p= 000 were found, where the men are the ones who most consumed and who mainly mixed different types of beverages. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption levels are maintained over time and it is necessary that universities are concerned by an integral education which make it possible to reduce alcohol consumption.

  3. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...... among persons who consumed up to 10, 10 to 20, and more than 20 gm of alcohol per day compared with non-drinkers were 0.93 (0.77-1.13), 0.82 (0.65-1.04), and 0.71 (0.55-0.92). The inverse relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection was even stronger when individuals with an indication...

  4. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  5. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome And Stillbirth (PASS) Network...

  6. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS...

  7. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol...

  8. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... 20892. Contact Person: Beata Buzas, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol...

  9. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93.272...

  10. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists...

  11. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists...

  12. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 6, 2013. Time: 8:00... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  13. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of PAR-11-169 NIAAA U34 applications. Date: January 7... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  14. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Basic Sciences. Date...: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855...

  15. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2014. Time: 8... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, T508, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas...

  16. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 28, 2013. Time: 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  17. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  18. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 5, 2013. Time: 8..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  19. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville...

  20. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol...

  1. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Aygen, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hypertension and lowering blood pressure with non-pharmacological treatment and lifestyle changes may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol while they also play an important role in reducing the cost of medical treatment. Reduction of alcohol consumption is one of the recommended lifestyle changes in the JNC VII report. Excessive amounts of alcohol consumption leads to an increase in blood pressure in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals...

  2. Oxytocin reduces alcohol consumption in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J R; Wenner, S M; Freestone, D M; Romaine, C C; Parian, M C; Christian, S M; Bohidar, A E; Ndem, J R; Vogel, I R; O'Kane, C M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) negatively affects millions of people every year in the United States, and effective treatments for AUD are still needed. The neuropeptide oxytocin has shown promise for reducing alcohol drinking in mice and rats. Because oxytocin also plays a key role in complex prosocial behaviors like bonding and attachment, we tested the effect of oxytocin on alcohol drinking in prairie voles, a species that both consumes high amounts of alcohol and forms oxytocin dependent social bonds in a manner similar to humans. Oxytocin treatment (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) reduced alcohol consumption in male and female prairie voles in animals that had access to 15% ethanol vs water every other day for 12 alcohol drinking sessions. In animals with continuous access to 15% alcohol and water, oxytocin (3.0mg/kg) reduced alcohol consumption only in the first hour of access after treatment, with no significant effects on consumption over the 24-hr period. In an open field locomotor test, oxytocin (1.0, 3.0, and 10.0mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect overall locomotor activity; however, ethanol (2g/kg, i.p.) increased locomotor activity in males and females, and produced anxiolytic effects (increased time in the center of an open field) in females only. Because prairie voles have been shown to match the alcohol consumption of their cage mate, we evaluated the relationship between cage mates' alcohol drinking. There was an overall pattern of social facilitation (consumption by one cage mate predicted consumption by the other cage mate); however, we found significant individual differences across cages in which many cages did not show significant matching, and, in some cases one cage mate's consumption negatively predicted the other cage mate's consumption. Overall, our data provide support for the potential of oxytocin as a treatment to reduce alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  4. Exposure to alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.

  5. Features and challenges of alcohol abuse treatment in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... inadequate skills and facilities rendering them unable to meet the ever increasing demand. Research into culturally adopted treatment intervention strategies is necessary to enhance the effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in Uganda. Keywords: Alcohol abuse, addiction treatment, Uganda, alcohol dependence, ...

  6. Prevalance of Alcohol Abuse in Calabar South Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the prevalence of alcohol abuse in Calabar South, Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Unlike earlier studies of alcohol use in Nigeria, the study focused on a segment of the population that is difficult to reach and probably at high risk of alcohol and drug abuse. In addition, the focus of ...

  7. Patterns of alcohol consumption in diverse rural populations in the Asian region

    OpenAIRE

    Huu Bich, Tran; Thi Quynh Nga, Pham; Ngoc Quang, La; Van Minh, Hoang; Ng, Nawi; Juvekar, Sanjay; Razzaque, Abdur; Ashraf, Ali; Masud Ahmed, Syed; Soonthornthada, Kusol; Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Alcohol abuse, together with tobacco use, is a major determinant of health and social well-being, and is one of the most important of 26 risk factors comparatively assessed in low and middle income countries, surpassed only by high blood pressure and tobacco. Objectives: The alcohol consumption patterns and the associations between consumption of alcohol and socio-demographic and cultural factors have been investigated in nine rural Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS...

  8. Drug and alcohol abuse by bulimic women and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulik, C M

    1987-12-01

    The author studied patterns of drug and alcohol abuse in 35 bulimic women, 35 healthy control subjects, and their first- and second-degree relatives. The bulimic women and their families had significantly higher rates of substance abuse disorders.

  9. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation.......30-2.49), prolonged stay at the hospital (RR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31), and admission to intensive care unit (RR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03-1.61). Clearly defined high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of postoperative mortality (RR = 2.68; 95% CI: 1.50-4.78). Low to moderate preoperative alcohol...

  10. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    countries - covering the period 1970-2006 - where both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis seem best described as trend-stationary variables. Therefore a fixed effects model including individual trends is applied in the analysis but also a more flexible non-linear functional form with fewer restrictions...... on the relationship between liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption is included. The conclusion is that the total level of alcohol consumption as well as the specific beverages - beer, wine and spirits - contributes to liver cirrhosis mortality, but the present study also reveals that directly addressing...... the question of panel unit roots and in this case subsequently applying a trend-stationary modeling methodology reduces the estimates of the impacts from alcohol consumption to liver cirrhosis. Finally, more restrictive alcohol policies seem to have positively influenced the country-specific development...

  11. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  12. Stressful situations in life, use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by elderly in Monterrey, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez

    2008-01-01

    This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...

  13. Alcohol consumption and gender in rural Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Shawn S Barnes1,4, Christian R Small2,4, Tui Agaapapalagi Lauilefue1, Jillian Bennett3, Seiji Yamada11University of Hawaii John A Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, USA; 2University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA; 3Hawaii Pacific University, Honolulu, HI, USA; 4Outbound Eye Health International, Honolulu, HI, USAIntroduction and aims: There are significant gender differences in alcohol consumption throughout the world. Here we report the results of an alcohol consumption survey on the rural island of Savaii, in the Pacific nation of Samoa.Design and methods: Eleven villages were selected for sampling using a randomized stratified cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1049 inhabitants over the age of 40 years (485 males and 564 females were surveyed about alcohol consumption over the past year, and a 72.2% participation rate was achieved.Results: A significant gender difference in alcohol consumption was found: 97.3% of women and 59.4% of men reported no alcohol consumption over the past year. This is one of the most significant gender differences in alcohol consumption in the world. No significant difference between genders was seen in those who consume only 1–5 alcoholic drinks per week (P=0.8454. However, significantly more males than females consumed 6–25 drinks per week (P<0.0001, 26–75 drinks per week (P<0.0001, and 75+ drinks per week (P<0.0001.Discussion and conclusion: This extreme gender difference in alcohol consumption is attributed to several factors, both general (alcoholic metabolism rates, risk-taking behaviors, general cultural taboos, etc and specific to Samoa (church influence, financial disempowerment, and Samoan gender roles.Keywords: Pacific, Samoa, gender, alcohol, behavior 

  14. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  15. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A; Richardson, Ben D; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann; Rossi, David James

    2016-08-31

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1-2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV-VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%-60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic differences in

  16. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93...

  17. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2 p.m. to November 3, 2010, 5 p.m...

  18. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIIAAA Member Conflict Applications: Epidemiology...

  19. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and...

  20. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  1. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L.; Larsen, Julie Rask; Glumer, Charlote

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. Methods: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week.  Results: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes...... a problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75–0.86, palcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Consumption Pattern of Alcoholic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was ...

  3. Experiences of alcohol consumption and taking antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ART) adherence among patients. Adoption of hegemonic notions of masculinity may encourage health-risk behaviours, such as alcohol consumption, and discourage health-enhancing behaviours, such as ART adherence among men.

  4. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  5. The dual nature of alcohol use and abuse in Mongolia: reflections through policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Sean C; Tsogtbaatar, Byamba

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol abuse has become recognized by numerous organizations in Mongolia as one of their primary public health challenges. Despite the crisis of alcohol abuse in Mongolia, the dominance of narcology in shaping the health system's response has allowed the alcohol industry to control the debate. The Mongolian population largely interprets the World Health Organization's (WHO) "standard drink" as a consumption guideline rather than a measure of abuse. In addition, the focus on high levels of dependence, as defined by narcology, has allowed the WHO to officially write off the problem, stating that less than 1% of the adult population can be categorized as "alcoholics." As the government focuses on new policy-based approaches to the issue, the rhetoric undermines participation and support, while the industry finds new ways to learn from narcology in their efforts to grow. However, by reinvesting profits from alcohol and a public health-focused approach, solutions can be found.

  6. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption and chronic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Clowry, Catherine M; Murray, Margaret M

    2016-01-01

    Drinking within recommended limits is highly prevalent in much of the world, and strong epidemiological associations exist between moderate alcohol consumption and risk of several major chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease, diabetes, and breast cancer. In many cases, plausible...... the observed associations have been termed impossible, clinical investigators have now successfully completed randomized trials of complex nutritional interventions in a variety of settings, along with trials of alcohol consumption itself of up to 2 years duration. The successful completion of these trials...

  8. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  10. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'hooghe, Marie B.; De Keyser, Jacques

    Evaluation of: Foster M, Zivadinov R, Weinstock-Guttman B et al. Associations of alcohol consumption with clinical and MRI measures in multiple sclerosis. J. Neuroimmunol. 243(1-2), 61-68 (2012). While the harmful effects of alcohol abuse are well documented, experimental and clinical data support a

  11. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  12. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  13. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... worker who is a staff member of a recognized alcohol treatment program; (5) Habitual or binge consumption...

  14. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-31

    drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace is probably about .30. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES94 Drug Abuse , Alcohol...8217Rev 2 89’ toyAS’I 0 13 zoo Integrity and Substance A-buseý Va-idity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and %Lcohol Abuse Frank L. Schmidt...nflegri’ty and S, c ,s EXECUTIVE SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Drug and alcohol abuse is a major problem in the workplace . In this report,

  15. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18......-88 in the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits was obtained in personal interviews using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall...... prevalence of H. pylori infection was 39.2%. There was a clear inverse dose-response-relation between reported alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection. The relation persisted after control for potential confounding factors. The adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) for H. pylori infection...

  16. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  17. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  18. Drug and alcohol abuse in patients with acute burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, J R; Dimsdale, J E; Rockwell, E; Carroll, W; Hansbrough, J

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed records of adult patients admitted to our burn unit who were reported to abuse drugs or alcohol from 1985 to 1988. The proportion of patients reported as abusing drugs increased significantly from 1987 to 1988, compared to previous years. However, there was no increase in the proportion of patients reported to abuse alcohol. Patients identified as abusing drugs had longer hospital stays, compared to patients who were not reported to abuse substances. Methamphetamine and cocaine were the drugs most often abused by patients who abused drugs or both drugs and alcohol. Mechanisms of burn injury in these patients included "accidental" burn injury related to acute intoxication, and self-injury due to psychosis or depression.

  19. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, R B; Gray, R H; Zacur, H

    1998-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol and caffeine on conception. Prospective observational study. Healthy volunteers in two manufacturing facilities. One hundred twenty-four women who provided daily urine samples for measurement of steroid hormones and hCG, and prospective information about alcohol and caffeine consumption. Probability of conception per 100 menstrual cycles. There was >50% reduction in the probability of conception during a menstrual cycle during which participants consumed alcohol. Caffeine consumption did not independently affect the probability of conception but may enhance alcohol's negative effect. Women who abstained from alcohol and consumed less than one cup of coffee or its equivalent per day conceived 26.9 pregnancies per 100 menstrual cycles compared with 10.5 per 100 menstrual cycles among those who consumed any alcohol and more than one cup of coffee per day. This study revealed an independent dose-related negative effect of alcohol consumption on the ability to conceive. Our results suggest that women who are attempting to conceive should abstain from consuming alcohol.

  20. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol

  1. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant... given of a joint meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...

  2. Access to alcohol outlets, alcohol consumption and mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Pereira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate residential exposure to alcohol outlets in relation to alcohol consumption and mental health morbidity (anxiety, stress, and depression. This was a cross-sectional study of 6,837 adults obtained from a population representative sample for the period 2006-2009 in Perth, Western Australia. The number of alcohol outlets was ascertained for a 1600 m service area surrounding the residential address. Zero-inflated negative binomial and logistic regression were used to assess associations with total alcohol consumption, harmful alcohol consumption (7-10 drinks containing 10 g of alcohol for men, 5-6 drinks for women and medically diagnosed and hospital contacts (for anxiety, stress, and depression, respectively. The rate ratio for the number of days of harmful consumption of alcohol per month and the number of standard drinks of alcohol consumed per drinking day was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.11 and 1.01 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.03 for each additional liquor store within a 1600 m service area, respectively. The odds ratio of hospital contact for anxiety, stress, or depression was 1.56 (95% CI: 0.98, 2.49 for those with a liquor store within the service area compared to those without. We observed strong evidence for a small association between residential exposure to liquor stores and harmful consumption of alcohol, and some support for a moderate-sized effect on hospital contacts for anxiety, stress, and depression.

  3. Alcohol consumption after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: 1-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Ilenia; Iossa, Angelo; Spinetti, Elena; Silecchia, Gianfranco

    2018-02-06

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) represents, at present, the most performed bariatric procedure worldwide with excellent long-term results on weight loss and comorbidities control. After the gastrectomy procedure, together with hormonal modification, several changes in taste and habits occur, including the potential modification in alcohol consumption. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the frequency and the amount of alcohol use before and after SG using a modified version of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) at 1-year follow-up and eventually to evaluate relationships between different ages and sexes. A total of 142 patients were prospectively enrolled and evaluated before and 1 year after SG with a modified AUDIT. The exclusion criteria were as follows: history of alcohol abuse, presence of psychopathology or cognitive impairments, diabetes mellitus type II decompensated, or previous gastrointestinal, liver, and pancreatic resective surgery. Subgroup analyses were performed between male and female and between under and over 40 years old. The median AUDIT score decreased from 2.70 (range 1-18) before surgery to 1.38 (range 1-7) after 1 year of SG, indicating a marked reduction in alcohol use. The most consumed alcoholic drink was beer (36.6%/n = 52) while after surgery the consumption of beer decreased considerably (21.1%/n = 30). The frequency of alcohol consumption also decreased: at baseline 45% of patients consumed alcoholic drinks "from 2 to 4 times per month", whereas 26 and 39.4% consumed alcohol "never" and "less than once a month," respectively. After surgery, nobody consumed more then six alcoholic drinks. No differences were found between the subgroups in terms of alcohol consumption and social behavior. The alcohol preference is modified and decreased 1 year after SG and this could be related to the strict nutritional follow-up and to the hormonal changes. Studies with large samples and long

  4. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  5. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  6. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse...

  7. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  8. Abstinence and alcohol consumption among students: the influence of personal, family and socio-cultural spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Bonito, Jorge; Boné, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Among young people, regular or alcohol abuse seems to ally with individual factors, which congregate to other generators behaviors health risk, in social environment, including family and school. The consumption of alcoholic beverages in the younger age groups, according to the World Development Report goes beyond 60%.Objective: This study aims to know the personal influences of family, of belonging to the group and the school environment, on the withdrawal and consumption habit...

  9. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    problems. About 10% of adult Americans have a serious alcohol problem. Excessive alcohol consumption may impair judgment and increase the risk of...no family history of alcoholism . The risk is far greater for children of alcoholic mothers than alcoholic fathers. The child of an alcoholic father...is at greater risk if the mother instilled in the child high esteem for the father. One characteristic of alcohol dependence is increasing tolerance

  10. Alcohol consumption in tertiary education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reavley Nicola J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults is an issue of significant public concern. With approximately 50% of young people aged 18-24 attending tertiary education, there is an opportunity within these settings to implement programs that target risky drinking. The aim of the current study was to survey students and staff within a tertiary education institution to investigate patterns of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, knowledge of current National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for alcohol consumption and intentions to seek help for alcohol problems. Methods Students of an Australian metropolitan university (with staff as a comparison group participated in a telephone interview. Questions related to knowledge of NHMRC guidelines, drinking behaviour, alcohol-related problems and help-seeking intentions for alcohol problems. Level of psychological distress was also assessed. Results Of the completed interviews, 774 (65% were students and 422 (35% were staff. While staff were more likely to drink regularly, students were more likely to drink heavily. Alcohol consumption was significantly higher in students, in males and in those with a history of earlier onset drinking. In most cases, alcohol-related problems were more likely to occur in students. The majority of students and staff had accurate knowledge of the current NHMRC guidelines, but this was not associated with lower levels of risky drinking. Psychological distress was associated with patterns of risky drinking in students. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with previous studies of tertiary student populations, and highlight the disconnect between knowledge of relevant guidelines and actual behaviour. There is a clear need for interventions within tertiary education institutions that promote more effective means of coping with psychological distress and improve help-seeking for alcohol problems, particularly among

  11. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  12. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, both observational (self-reported) and estimated by genetic instruments, is associated with a risk of atrial fibrillation and to determine whether people with high cardiovascular risk are more sensitive towards...... alcohol than people with low risk. METHODS: We used data for a total of 88,782 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 and 2001-2003 and the Copenhagen General Population Study 2003-2010. Information on incident cases of atrial fibrillation was obtained from a validated nationwide...... register. As a measure of alcohol exposure, both self-reported consumption and genetic variations in alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B/ADH1C) were used as instrumental variables. The endpoint was admission to hospital for atrial fibrillation as recorded in a validated hospital register. RESULTS: A total...

  13. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. MORTALITY FROM SUICIDE AND ALCOHOLISM, DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Radkevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO, the world takes place every year approximately 500 000 suicides and suicide attempts of 7 million. Since 1994, Russia ranks 2nd in the world after Lithuania, in the level of suicides, and is among the countries with the linear dependence of frequency of suicides on the level of alcohol consumption.Purpose. Install a quantitative connection between the frequency of suicide with alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism in the world.Material and method. For studies we used the mortality coefficient (MK from suicide and alcohol abuse (number of people/100 thousand of age standardized the population in 159 countries according to the WHO in 2004, the average daily consumption levels of alcoholic beverages: spirits, wine and beer (g/person/day according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. For data analysis we used correlation and regression methods.Results. We found significant positive correlation of mortality coefficient (MK from suicide for men and women with consumption of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine and beer and mortality from alcoholism. The gender differences are revealed. Included in the regression model independent variables (levels of alcohol consumption and mortality from alcoholism explain 66% and 52% of the variability in the frequency of suicides of men and women (dependent variables. A complete rejection of the consumption of alcohol reduces the MK from suicide of men in the world at 39.5 percent, in Russia — at 76.5%; women — 37.9%, in Russia — by 54.3%. According to the regression analysis the average daily level of consumption of strong alcohol in the world is 10.4 g (3.8 kg per year for men, in Russia — 91.8 g (of 33.5 kg per year. The increase in the consumption of strong alcohol to 3 g per day (1 kg per year increases the MK from suicide in men up to 10.8% (1.6 people in the world, in Russia — 2.4% (1.6 people. The increase in the MK of alcoholism of men

  15. The effect of alcohol and nicotine abuse on gene expression in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilce, Peter A

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol intake at levels posing an acute heath risk is common amongst teenagers. Alcohol abuse is the second most common mental disorder worldwide. The incidence of smoking is decreasing in the Western world but increasing in developing countries and is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Considering the longstanding history of alcohol and tobacco consumption in human societies, it might be surprising that the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol and smoking dependence are still incompletely understood. Effective treatments against the risk of relapse are lacking. Drugs of abuse exert their effect manipulating the dopaminergic mesocorticolimbic system. In this brain region, alcohol has many potential targets including membranes and several ion channels, while other drugs, for example nicotine, act via specific receptors or binding proteins. Repeated consumption of drugs of abuse mediates adaptive changes within this region, resulting in addiction. The high incidence of alcohol and nicotine co-abuse complicates analysis of the molecular basis of the disease. Gene expression profiling is a useful approach to explore novel drug targets in the brain. Several groups have utilised this technology to reveal drug-sensitive pathways in the mesocorticolimbic system of animal models and in human subjects. These studies are the focus of the present review.

  16. Neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Ballvé, Anna; Grau-López, Laia; Morillas, Rosa María; Planas, Ramón

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the different acute and chronic neurological manifestations of excessive alcohol consumption that affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Several mechanisms can be implicated depending on the disorder, ranging from nutritional factors, alcohol-related toxicity, metabolic changes and immune-mediated mechanisms. Recognition and early treatment of these manifestations is essential given their association with high morbidity and significantly increased mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  17. Alcohol Consumption, Types of Alcohol, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Wang, Jian; Huang, Xuemei; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence on alcohol consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) is equivocal. We prospectively examined total alcohol consumption and consumption of specific types of alcoholic beverage in relation to future risk of PD. The study comprised 306,895 participants (180,235 male and 126,660 female) ages 50-71 years in 1995-1996 from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past 12 months was assessed in 1995-1996. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were obtained from logistic regression models. A total of 1,113 PD cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 were included in the analysis. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with PD. However, the association differed by types of alcoholic beverages. Compared with non-beer drinkers, the multivariate ORs for beer drinkers were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.92) for drink/day, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.07) for 1-1.99 drinks/day, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.21) for ≥2 drinks/day. For liquor consumption, a monotonic increase in PD risk was suggested: ORs (95% CI) were 1.06 (0.91, 1.23), 1.22 (0.94, 1.58), and 1.35 (1.02, 1.80) for drinks/day, respectively (P for trend alcoholic beverage supported the robustness of these findings. The results for wine consumption were less clear, although a borderline lower PD risk was observed when comparing wine drinkers of 1-1.99 drinks/day with none drinkers (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.02). OUR RESULTS SUGGEST THAT BEER AND LIQUOR CONSUMPTION MAY HAVE OPPOSITE ASSOCIATIONS WITH PD: low to moderate beer consumption with lower PD risk and greater liquor consumption with higher risk. These findings and potential underlying mechanisms warrant further investigations.

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Types of Alcohol, and Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Liu

    Full Text Available The epidemiologic evidence on alcohol consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD is equivocal. We prospectively examined total alcohol consumption and consumption of specific types of alcoholic beverage in relation to future risk of PD.The study comprised 306,895 participants (180,235 male and 126,660 female ages 50-71 years in 1995-1996 from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past 12 months was assessed in 1995-1996. Multivariate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were obtained from logistic regression models.A total of 1,113 PD cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 were included in the analysis. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with PD. However, the association differed by types of alcoholic beverages. Compared with non-beer drinkers, the multivariate ORs for beer drinkers were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.92 for <1 drink/day, 0.73 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.07 for 1-1.99 drinks/day, and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.21 for ≥2 drinks/day. For liquor consumption, a monotonic increase in PD risk was suggested: ORs (95% CI were 1.06 (0.91, 1.23, 1.22 (0.94, 1.58, and 1.35 (1.02, 1.80 for <1, 1-1.99, and ≥2 drinks/day, respectively (P for trend <0.03. Additional analyses among exclusive drinkers of one specific type of alcoholic beverage supported the robustness of these findings. The results for wine consumption were less clear, although a borderline lower PD risk was observed when comparing wine drinkers of 1-1.99 drinks/day with none drinkers (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.53, 1.02.OUR RESULTS SUGGEST THAT BEER AND LIQUOR CONSUMPTION MAY HAVE OPPOSITE ASSOCIATIONS WITH PD: low to moderate beer consumption with lower PD risk and greater liquor consumption with higher risk. These findings and potential underlying mechanisms warrant further investigations.

  19. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  20. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  1. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND SELF ESTEEM IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suvitha; Dr. M. Navaneetha; Dr. Nappinai; Dr. Sridevy; Dr. E. Premila

    2017-01-01

    Back Ground: In India use of alcohol is higher in deprived communities contributing to thirty Percent of use to the male population and five percent of use to female population .And in recent years the alcohol use of young people is increased and as their age increases their quantity and frequency of intake has also been increased. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of self esteem and alcohol consumption in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with qua...

  2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol ...

  3. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  4. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  5. Alcohol Consumption, Unemployment And Their Association With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol Consumption, Unemployment And Their Association With Criminal Behaviour Among Inmates Convicted For Violent Crimes In Jos Prison, Nigeria. ... None of the prisoners obtained a diagnosis of dependence on any substance or was unemployed and neither were these criminals\\' psychopaths since their records ...

  6. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Awareness of Associated Neuro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigated alcohol consumption and awareness of associated neuropsychological implications in foetal and early childhood development in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. The design was descriptive survey and the sample was 300 expectant women who were drawn through ...

  8. Student estimations of peer alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Mcalaney, John; Pischke, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    : This article aims to discuss the link between the Social Norms Approach and the Health Promoting University, and analyse estimations of peer alcohol consumption among European university students. METHODS: A total of 4392 students from universities in six European countries and Turkey were asked to report...

  9. Lifetime Alcohol Abuse in Institutionalized World War II Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nathan; Eryavec, Goran

    1996-01-01

    The authors document the lifetime prevalence and etiological correlates of alcohol abuse in a sample of elderly World War II veterans. Subjects (mean age 74.2 years), residing in a veterans' long-term care facility were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. A second investigator gave the Modified Combat Exposure Scale and administered a checklist of pre-war and wartime variables. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol abuse was 53%. There was no correlation between alcohol abuse and any other psychiatric diagnosis. There was a significant correlation between the severity of combat stress and subsequent alcohol abuse. Veterans with alcohol abuse also had significantly more wartime head injuries. There was also a trend for the alcoholic group to have experienced more pre-war stressors. Examination of pre-war variables and the severity of the combat stress might help to identify veterans at risk for development of alcohol abuse. Copyright © 1996 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  11. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  12. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  13. Some childhood antecedents of drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, F S; Detels, R; Clark, V

    1975-11-01

    Unsatisfactory intrafamilial relationships and child-rearing practices have frequently been implicated as prime determinants of personalities that are susceptible to drug and alcohol abuse. Five thousand forty-four US Army soldiers were surveyed by anonymous questionnaires. The reported occurrence of a variety of activities, events and behaviors in childhood among drug and alcohol abusers were compared to non users. Childhood antecedents that were associated with non-use of illegal drugs and which showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between abusers and non-users of illegal drugs were: spanking, church attendance, first alcoholic drink after 15 years, and perceived "happy" parental marriage. These associations were found uithin white and non-white groups and in subjects with divorced or separated parents. There was no antecedent that showed as much as a 20% difference in reported occurrence between alcohol abusers and non-users.

  14. Alcohol consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Carrillo Lizbeth

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of alcohol consumption, including the popular Mexican liquor tequila, in relation to the incidence of gastric cancer. We conducted a population-based case-control study in Mexico City, with 220 gastric cancer cases and 752 population-based controls. A food frequency questionnaire was used to measure consumption of alcohol and other dietary items. Grams of ethanol were estimated by the Food Intake Analysis System 3.0 software. After adjustment for known risk factors, wine consumption was positively associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer (OR = 2.93; CI 95% 1.27-6.75 in the highest category of wine consumption, corresponding to at least 10 glasses of wine per month, with a significant trend (p = 0.005. This association remained among intestinal (OR = 2.16; CI 95% 0.68-6.92, p-value for trend = 0.031 and diffuse (OR = 4.48; CI 95% 1.44-13.94, p-value for trend = 0.018 gastric cancer cases. A borderline significant trend between GC risk and total ethanol intake was observed (p = 0.068. Consumption of beer and distilled alcoholic beverages including brandy, rum, and tequila was not associated with GC risk. The results indicate the need to focus on the study of the potential effects of different types of wine, with emphasis on components other than ethanol regarding the incidence of gastric cancer, even among populations with moderate to low levels of alcohol consumption.

  15. Attendance at alcohol-free and alcohol-service parties and alcohol consumption among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P; Clark, Melissa

    2010-06-01

    To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but the number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Domestic violence, alcohol and child abuse through popular music ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic violence and child abuses especially as perpetrated by men and linked to alcohol abuse is an issue well covered in what I term conventional liberal scholarship. In this I deploy Maria Lugones' decolonising feminism theory in which the position of the black women is at the bottom of the human hierarchy and the ...

  17. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  18. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate

  19. Alcohol consumption and distinct molecular pathways to colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Vogel, S. de; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    High alcohol consumption is related to colorectal cancer (CRC). Our objective was to study associations between alcohol consumption and risk of CRC according to characteristics of aetiological pathways: the chromosomal instability (CIN) and the microsatellite instability (MIN) pathway. We classified

  20. Drugs of abuse consumption in health professionals (physicians and nurses) from two outpatient services of first level attention in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Hidalgo Catalina; Vargas-Casas Gina Milena; Salcedo-Monsalve Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study to establish the prevalence of drugs of abuse consumption in physiciansand nurses in two health institutions in Bogota outpatient identify the frequency of consumption,to establish the prevalence of alcoholism using the CAGE questionnaire and explore the interestparticipate in prevention or reduction of consumption in the workplace. Materials and methods: Across-sectional study by applying an anonymous survey. Results: There were 58 questionnaires (38in physicians and 20 ...

  1. Vulnerability for Alcohol Use Disorder and Rate of Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Sloan, Matthew E; Stangl, Bethany L; Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-11-01

    Although several risk factors have been identified for alcohol use disorder, many individuals with these factors do not go on to develop the disorder. Identifying early phenotypic differences between vulnerable individuals and healthy control subjects could help identify those at higher risk. Binge drinking, defined as reaching a blood alcohol level of 80 mg%, carries a risk of negative legal and health outcomes and may be an early marker of vulnerability. Using a carefully controlled experimental paradigm, the authors tested the hypothesis that risk factors for alcohol use disorder, including family history of alcoholism, male sex, impulsivity, and low level of response to alcohol, would predict rate of binging during an individual alcohol consumption session. This cross-sectional study included 159 young social drinkers who completed a laboratory session in which they self-administered alcohol intravenously. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine whether risk factors for alcohol use disorder were associated with the rate of achieving a binge-level exposure. A greater percentage of relatives with alcoholism (hazard ratio: 1.04, 95% CI=1.02-1.07), male sex (hazard ratio: 1.74, 95% CI=1.03-2.93), and higher impulsivity (hazard ratio: 1.17, 95% CI=1.00 to 1.37) were associated with a higher rate of binging throughout the session. Participants with all three risk factors had the highest rate of binging throughout the session compared with the lowest risk group (hazard ratio: 5.27, 95% CI=1.81-15.30). Binge drinking may be an early indicator of vulnerability to alcohol use disorder and should be carefully assessed as part of a thorough clinical evaluation.

  2. Contextual Factors Related to Alcohol Abuse Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo; Vivo, Juana-María; Galiana, Laura; Gracia, Enrique

    2017-02-23

    The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs. This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on alcohol use, ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events and perceived social support and rejection. The sample was divided into hazardous and nonhazardous alcohol users, according to the AUDIT test scale. No differences were found between groups on demographic variables. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis supplemented with ROC curves revealed that Latin American immigrants as opposed to Spanish nationality, accumulating stressful life events, and perceiving low social support significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol abuse, with adequate predictive power. Contextual variables such as ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events, and lack of social support may explain harmful alcohol consumption. These variables should be taken into account in batterer intervention programs in order to reduce one of the most relevant risk factors of IPV: alcohol abuse.

  3. An Overview of Alcohol Use Abuse, and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    D.C.: National Defense University, 1989. 2 ibid. 3 Wrich, James. "The Impact of Substance Abuse at the Workplace ". Corporate Strategies for...25 ibid. 26 Axel, Helen. " Drugs of Abuse : Public Attitudes, Politics and Business". Corporate Strategies for Controlling Substance Abuse . 1986...Programming". Drug Abuse Services Research Series: Extent and Adeauacy of Insurance Coverage for Substance Abuse Services. Vol 2:154-165. Washington, D. C

  4. Alcohol consumption for simulated driving performance: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may decrease simulated driving performance in alcohol consumed people compared with non-alcohol consumed people via changes in SDSD, LPSD, speed, MLPD, LC and NA. More well-designed randomized controlled clinical trials are recommended.

  5. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  6. Alcohol consumption as a cause of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jennie

    2017-02-01

    There is increasing research evidence about the causal role of alcohol in cancer, accompanied by unclear and conflicting messages in the media. This paper aimed to clarify the strength of the evidence for alcohol as a cause of cancer, and the meaning of cause in this context. Recent epidemiological and biological research on alcohol and cancer was reviewed and summarized, drawing upon published meta-analyses identified from the Medline database and the archives of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. More recent epidemiological studies not included in these publications were also reviewed. A brief description of the nature of causal inference in epidemiology was used to frame discussion of the strength of the evidence that alcohol causes cancer, and contrast this with the case for a protective association of alcohol with cardiovascular disease. The usual epidemiological understanding of a cause is a factor that increases the incidence of a condition in the population. In the context of a body of epidemiological evidence of an association of alcohol consumption with a disease, the inference that it is a causal association requires alternative explanations of the observed finding to be judged unlikely. Even without complete knowledge of biological mechanisms, the epidemiological evidence can support the judgement that alcohol causes cancer of the oropharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver, colon, rectum and breast. The measured associations exhibit gradients of effect that are biologically plausible, and there is some evidence of reversibility of risk in laryngeal, pharyngeal and liver cancers when consumption ceases. The limitations of cohort studies mean that the true effects may be somewhat weaker or stronger than estimated currently, but are unlikely to be qualitatively different. The same, or similar, epidemiological studies also commonly report protection from cardiovascular disease associated with drinking but a high level of scepticism regarding these

  7. Alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years according to sociodemographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belen Villace

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years of age in the province of Córdoba who participated in the National Survey of Risk Factors, according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: a quantitative, analytic and cross-sectional study was undertaken in a sample of 240 young people. The alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate analysis, risk ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: the lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption corresponded to 79.17%, the one-year prevalence to 72.91% and the one-month prevalence to 57.08%, while episodic abuse and regular hazardous consumption corresponded to 25.55% and 24.19%. Consumption levels in the last month were higher among males (p=0.0028, single people (p=0.0001, with a secondary education degree (p=0.0306. CONCLUSION: in the province of Córdoba, drugs use, including alcohol, has not been an area of research interest in recent years, although alcohol abuse is associated with other risk factors, like accidents and violence, and is a factor of comorbidity and early mortality. Therefore, alcohol consumption in young people represents an area of concern and, once characterized, preventive actions should be adopted.

  8. West African Transnational Immigrants' Perspectives on Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshiswaka, Daudet Ilunga; Ibe-Lamberts, Kelechi; Osideko, Anuoluwapo

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is a common belief that alcohol consumption can lead to chronic ailments. While research shows that the prevalence of alcohol consumption among immigrants is associated with acculturation, there is a gap in the research with respect to examining alcohol consumption patterns within subgroups of immigrants such as transnational…

  9. Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence patterns and predictors of alcohol use and abuse among secondary school students in southern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: demographic factors and the influence of parents and peers. ... predictors and influence of peers and parents on students' alcohol use and binge drinking. Results: About 54% of students ...

  10. Alcohol Abuse and Depression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Okezie, Ngozi; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Cohen, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in patterns of the co-occurrence of alcohol abuse and depression in youth. Data were from 1,458 youth (ages 9-17) randomly selected from the community. The child and one parent/guardian in each household were interviewed regarding childhood psychopathology, alcohol and drug use, and a wide array of risk…

  11. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  12. Alcohol in America: taking action to prevent abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R

    1985-01-01

    ... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...

  13. The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    The Medical and Social Consequences of Alcohol Abuse. First of Two Articles. Dr Eluzai Hakim, FRCP Consultant Physician,. St Mary's Hospital, Newport, Isle of Wight. PO30 5TG UK*. Introduction. The prevalence of alcohol related illness in the. Southern Sudan is unknown, though there is anecdotal information that ...

  14. Cannabis and Alcohol Abuse Among First Psychotic Episode Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Gregory; Kunyvsky, Yehuda; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi; Raskin, Sergey; Abramowitz, Moshe Z

    2016-01-01

    Psychoactive substance abuse, which includes abuse of alcohol and street drugs, is common among first-episode psychosis patients, but the prevalence of cannabis abuse is particularly high. However, there have been very few reported studies concerning the occurrence of psychoactive substance abuse among first-episode psychotic individuals using standard toxicological testing. We study the prevalence of cannabis and alcohol abuse among first-psychoticepisode inpatients as well as compare the demographic, diagnostic, and psychopathological profiles of substance abusers versus nonusers. Subjects were recruited from the Jerusalem Mental Health Center between 2012 and 2014. Ninety-one consecutively admitted psychiatric patients diagnosed using the DSM-IV criteria with a first psychotic episode due to schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, bipolar disorder, brief psychotic episode, and psychosis NOS disorder entered the study. The diagnoses of schizophrenia (all types), psychosis NOS disorder, brief psychotic episode, and schizophreniform disorder were categorized as "only psychosis" and those of bipolar disorder manic episode with psychotic features (congruent and incongruent) and severe depression with psychotic features were categorized as "predominantly affective symptoms." Urine tests for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were performed during the first 48 hours of admission, and likewise self-report questionnaires were administered. Alcohol abuse and dependence were diagnosed by self-report. Of the 91 subjects in the study, 49 (53.8%) did not abuse any illegal psychoactive substance. Twenty patients (22%) abused only cannabis; 14 (15.4%) abused cannabis and another psychoactive substance; 54 (59.3%) of the subjects reported no alcohol abuse; 33 (36.3%) reported occasional drinking (between two and ten times a month); and 4 (4.4%) reported continuous repeated drinking (more than ten times a month). There was no correlation between the demographic characteristics and the

  15. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Longitudinal Association Of Alcohol Consumption To Periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Johanne; Hach, Maria; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    Objective: To analyse longitudinal relationship between alcohol consumption at three different time points and periodontitis in data of The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS). Methods: CCHS is a prospective study of general health and risk factors carried out in Denmark in 1983-1984, 1991......-1994, and in 2001-2003. Participants were randomly selected from the cohort of CCHS. In total 1,597 individuals aged 20-95 years underwent a periodontal examination in 2004-2007. The periodontal examination was based on full-mouth registration at 6 sites per tooth and included level of gingival margin, probing...... pocket depth (PPD) and calculation of clinical attachment level (CAL). Periodontitis was defined according to severe periodontitis as ≥2 interproximal sites with CAL ≥6mm (not on the same tooth) and ≥1 interproximal site with PPD ≥5mm (Page & Eke 2007). Alcohol consumption and relevant covariates were...

  17. College-Related Alcohol Beliefs and Problematic Alcohol Consumption: Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Adrian J; Prince, Mark A; Pearson, Matthew R

    2017-07-03

    College-related alcohol beliefs, or beliefs that drinking alcohol is central to the college experience, have been shown to robustly predict alcohol-related outcomes among college students. Given the strength of these associations, it is imperative to understand more proximal factors (i.e., closer in a causal chain leading to alcohol-related outcomes) that can explain these associations. The current research examined alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a potential mediator of the association between college-related alcohol beliefs and alcohol outcomes among college student drinkers. Participants were undergraduate students from a large southeastern university (Sample 1; n = 561) and a large southwestern university (Sample 2; n = 563) in the United States that consumed alcohol at least once in the previous month. Path analysis was conducted examining the concurrent associations between college-related alcohol beliefs, PBS use (both as a single facet and multidimensionally), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences (i.e., double mediation). In both samples, there was a significant double-mediated association that suggested that higher college-related alcohol beliefs is associated with lower PBS use (single facet), which is associated with higher alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. Multidimensionally, only one double-mediation effect (in Sample 2 only) was significant (i.e., college-related alcohol beliefs → manner of drinking PBS → alcohol consumptionalcohol-related consequences). Conclusions/Importance: These results suggest that targeting these college-related alcohol beliefs as well as PBS use are promising targets for college alcohol interventions. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  18. Alcohol Abuse and the Elderly: Comparison of Early & Late-Life Onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Lawrence; And Others

    Two types of elderly alcohol abusers are described. Early onset or long-term alcohol abusers are abusers with long-standing behavioral problems considered well known to the social service delivery system. Late-life onset elderly alcohol abusers are those whose drinking problems began in the later years, after age 50, often in response to stresses…

  19. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol interferes with the health, safety, or... alcohol abusers? 5.857 Section 5.857 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of...

  20. Substance abuse vulnerability in offspring of alcohol and drug abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, M E

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.

  1. Spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in Belgian cities: A wastewater-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaerts, Tim; Covaci, Adrian; Kinyua, Juliet; Neels, Hugo; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, scientific evidence has emerged that wastewater-based epidemiology can deliver complementary information concerning the use of different substances of abuse. In this study, the potential of wastewater-based epidemiology in monitoring spatial and temporal trends in alcohol consumption in different populations in Belgium has been examined. Concentrations of ethyl sulphate, a minor Phase-II metabolite of ethanol, in 163 influent wastewater samples from eight wastewater treatment plants in Belgium in the period 2013-2015 were measured with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and used to estimate alcohol consumption. The highest levels of alcohol consumption were detected in the metropoles Antwerp and Brussels compared to smaller villages. Annual variations were detected, with a higher alcohol consumption measured in 2013 compared with 2014. The weekly pattern showed a clear week and weekend difference in alcohol use, with intermediate levels on Monday and Friday. The results were extrapolated and a use of 5.6L pure alcohol per year per inhabitant aged 15+ has been estimated in Belgium. The comparison with available information on drinking habits of the Belgian population further demonstrated the usefulness of the wastewater-based epidemiology approach. This is the largest wastewater-based epidemiology study monitoring alcohol consumption to date, demonstrating that objective and quick information on spatio-temporal trends in alcohol consumption on a local and (inter)national scale can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Family history of alcohol abuse associated with problematic drinking among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Joseph W; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R; Lac, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH- same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH- females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Associated With Problematic Drinking Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Migliuri, Savannah; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Studies examining family history of alcohol abuse among college students are not only conflicting, but have suffered various limitations. The current report investigates family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) and its relationship with alcohol expectancies, consumption, and consequences. In the current study, 3753 student participants (35% FH+), completed online assessments. Compared to FH−same-sex peers, FH+ males and FH+ females endorsed greater overall positive expectancies, consumed more drinks per week, and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Further, FH+ females evaluated the negative effects of alcohol to be substantially worse than FH− females. An ANCOVA, controlling for age, GPA, race, and alcohol expectancies, resulted in family history main effects on both drinking and consequences. An interaction also emerged between gender and family history, such that FH+ males were especially vulnerable to high levels of alcohol consumption. Results reveal the scope of FH+ individuals in the college environment and the increased risk for these students, particularly male FH+ students, suggesting a need for researchers and college health personnel to focus attention and resources on this issue. PMID:20359831

  4. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  5. Federalizing medical campaigns against alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-03-01

    The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  6. [Which prevention programs effectively reduce the risk of alcohol consumption in young people?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buja, A; Vinelli, A; Baldovin, T; Gallimberti, L; Bardelle, G; Rausa, G; Baldo, V

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem and the Italian National Health Institute considers it the leading cause of death for people under 24 years old, mainly due to road accidents. This study summarizes the evidence emerging from three Cochrane Collaboration reviews, aiming to orient the choice of alcohol prevention programs for young people. The first review considered schemes implemented at school to prevent alcohol consumption under 18 years of age; the second concerned studies on programs to reduce alcohol abuse by means of social norms; the third examined 56 trials on schemes for preventing young people from drinking. In the first review, 6 of 11 alcohol prevention schemes showed some signs of efficacy, and 14 of 39 schemes to combat substance abuse generally induced a significantly alcohol use reduction. The second review included three specific programs for alcohol-related problems with a > 17-month follow-up and they were effective. In the third review, 15 of 39 schemes proved effective in the short-term, 9 of 12 with medium follow-up were no longer effective (and alcohol consumption even increased in 2), while 3 long-term trials and 2 of 3 community schemes proved effective. These Cochrane reviews did not assess all strategies for preventing alcohol abuse in the young which have been implemented in different countries, because many interventions has been conducted spontaneously without any evaluation of their efficacy. An international registry on substance abuse prevention measures is warranted, with shared criteria for assessing their effects, to orient public health policies.

  7. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  8. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Epidemiology, Prevention (1...

  9. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict Applications. Date: March 26, 2013. Time...

  10. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  11. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Neurosciences. Date: July...

  12. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Neuroscience. Date: March...

  13. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Metabolism and Health...

  14. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict SEP. Date: March 18, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  15. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Behavioral Sciences. Date...

  16. Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide in Hair for Detection of Alcohol Consumption in Patients After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; von Rothkirch, Gregor; Vettorazzi, Eik; Mueller, Alexander; Lohse, Ansgar W; Frederking, Dorothea; Seegers, Barbara; Nashan, Bjoern; Sterneck, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of alcohol misuse in orthotopic liver transplantation recipients is essential to offer patients support and prevent organ damage. Here, ethyl glucuronide, a metabolite of ethanol found in hair (hEtG), was evaluated for detection of alcohol consumption. In 104 transplant recipients, 31 with underlying alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and 73 with non-ALD, hEtG was determined in addition to the alcohol markers urine EtG, blood ethanol, methanol, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin. Results were compared with patients' self-reports in a questionnaire and with physicians' assessments. By physicians' assessments, 22% of the patients were suspected of consuming alcohol regularly, although only 6% of the patients acknowledged consumption of a moderate or high amount of alcohol. By testing all markers except for hEtG, alcohol consumption was detected in 7% of the patients. When hEtG testing was added to the assessment, consumption was detected in 17% of the patients. Hair-EtG determination alone revealed chronic alcohol consumption of >10 g/d in 15% of the patients. ALD patients had a positive hEtG result significantly more often than non-ALD patients did (32% versus 8%; P = 0.003). Also, the concentration of hEtG was higher in ALD patients (P = 0.049) and revealed alcohol abuse with consumption of >60 g ethanol per day in 23% of ALD and 3% of non-ALD patients. Patients' self-reports and physicians' assessments had a low sensitivity of 27% and 67%, respectively, for detecting regular alcohol intake as indicated by hEtG. Hair-EtG determination improved the detection of liver transplant patients who used alcohol, and revealed regular alcohol consumption in 32% of ALD and 8% of non-ALD patients.

  17. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  18. DOES ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF ALCOHOL USE AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071

  19. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unre...

  1. Estimate of the commercial value of underage drinking and adult abusive and dependent drinking to the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Susan E; Vaughan, Roger D; Foster, William H; Califano, Joseph A

    2006-05-01

    To document quantity and cash value of underage and adult Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV)-defined abusive and dependent drinking as well as underage drinking and adult DSM-IV-defined abusive and dependent drinking combined to the alcohol industry. Analysis of multiple cross-sectional national data sets. The 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 2001 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, the 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, the 2000 US Census, the 2000 to 2001 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, and the 2001 Adams Business Research. A total of 260,580 persons aged 12 years and older across 4 data sources. Underage drinking or pathological drinking defined as meeting the DSM-IV criteria for abusive or dependent drinking. Total amount of alcohol consumed and the cash value for alcohol consumed among underage and adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence as well as all underage drinkers combined with adult drinkers with DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence. The short-term cash value of underage drinking to the alcohol industry was 22.5 billion dollars in 2001-17.5% of total consumer expenditures for alcohol. The long-term commercial value of underage drinking is the contribution of underage drinking to maintaining consumption among adult drinkers with alcohol abuse and dependence, which was equal to at least 25.8 billion dollars in 2001. The combined value of illegal underage drinking and adult pathological drinking to the industry was at least 48.3 billion dollars, or 37.5% of consumer expenditures for alcohol, in 2001. Alternative estimates suggest that these costs may be closer to 62.9 billion dollars, or 48.8% of consumer expenditures for alcohol.

  2. Alcohol consumption, type of alcoholic beverage and risk of colorectal cancer at specific subsites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, B.W.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. de; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated associations between total alcohol consumption, specific alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) according to anatomical subsite. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated

  3. Acute Psychotic Symptoms due to Benzydamine Hydrochloride Abuse with Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Ayhan Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.

  4. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy.

  5. [Psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jahina Moura; Abreu, Angela Mendes; Portela, Luciana Fernandes

    2017-07-13

    The objectives were to assess the association between psychosocial stress at work and alcohol consumption patterns in offshore oil workers. This was a cross-sectional study of 210 workers on offshore oil rigs in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from July to September 2014. The data collection instrument was a self-completed multidimensional questionnaire. Exposure to stress was measured by the demand-control model and alcohol consumption pattern was measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Statistical analyses were based on the multivariate logistic regression model. Participants' mean age was 32.9 years (SD ± 8.1 years). Most were married (62.9%) and reported having a religion (84.5%); 15.2% reported abusive levels of alcohol consumption, 20.3% had finished university, and 56.6% had fewer than 5 years of offshore experience. All the participants were subject to 12-hour daily shifts for 15 days followed by 15 days off, and 62.4% worked on fixed shifts. The multivariate analyses showed that workers exposed to workplace stress (OR = 3.30; 95%CI: 1.18-9.27) had higher odds of alcohol abuse when compared to unexposed workers. The results help elucidate what is still a controversial issue in the literature, i.e., the relationship between psychosocial stress and alcohol consumption, and point to the need for further studies.

  6. Prevalence and the factors associated with binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and alcohol dependence: a population-based study of Chinese adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean H; Lee, Sing; Chow, Julie; Lau, Joseph; Tsang, Adley; Choi, Jacqueline; Griffiths, Sian M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the patterns of drinking, the relationship between binge drinking, alcohol abuse, and dependence, and the sociodemographic factors associated with problem drinking among Hong Kong Chinese. An anonymous, random telephone survey was conducted on 9860 Hong Kong Chinese adults from April to June, 2006. The age-adjusted prevalence amongst men for binge drinking was 14.4% with 5.3% of males being alcohol abusers and 2.3% dependent on alcohol. The corresponding figures for women were all lower at 3.6%, 1.4%, and 0.7%, respectively. Younger age groups showed the highest prevalence of these drinking problems. Among male binge drinkers, 18.7% were also alcohol abusers and 12.3% were alcohol dependent. Among female binge drinkers, 16% reported alcohol abuse and 9.9% reported dependence. Male binge drinkers were less likely to be older, less likely to be students but more likely to be employed in the service industry. Female binge drinkers were less likely to be over 60 years of age or married but more likely to be smokers. In both genders, smoking was significantly associated with the likelihood of binge drinking (OR = 3.6-12.3), alcohol abuse (OR = 3.0-12.1), and dependence (OR = 5.2-20.6). Although binge drinking has been well tolerated in Chinese culture, it is strongly associated with alcohol abuse and dependence in both genders in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that prevalence of problematic alcohol consumption warrants greater promotion of alcohol harms awareness. Higher rates of heavy drinking in younger-aged individuals may reflect changing lifestyle behaviors and herald higher future levels of alcohol-related health and social problems.

  7. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...... for infertility at Odense University Hospital during the period 1977-1980 were eligible for participation as cases. A control group was chosen consisting of 4305 women who had each delivered a healthy child with a gestational age over 258 days at the same hospital in the period 1977-1979. Data regarding...

  8. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... by section 333 of the Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and... connection with the performance of any program or activity relating to alcoholism or alcohol abuse education... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol...

  9. Measures of substance consumption among substance users, DSM-IV abusers, and those with DSM-IV dependence disorders in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Howard B; Chen, Chiung M; Yi, Hsiao-Ye

    2012-09-01

    Neither the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised (DSM-III-R), nor the DSM-IV uses measures of substance consumption as part of the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders. Therefore, this report examined the extent to which frequency and/or quantity of consumption across a broad spectrum of substances are associated with DSM-IV diagnoses of specific substance use disorders and whether there are informative hierarchical levels of consumption among users, abusers, and those who are substance dependent in the U.S. general population. The analyses focused on consumption data from respondents of the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Disorders. Multinomial logistic regression was used to predict DSM-IV diagnoses of dependence or abuse based on the continuous consumption measures. Among individuals who used substances, the substances with the greatest liability for dependence were nicotine first and cocaine second. For nearly all substances investigated, users without specific substance use disorders demonstrated lower levels of quantity and frequency of consumption relative to those with DSM-IV abuse and dependence disorders. Dose-response curves for the log odds of abuse and dependence suggested unidimensionality of abuse and dependence for frequency of alcohol drinking; frequency of cannabis use; frequency of opioid use; frequency of hallucinogen use; and, to a lesser extent, frequency of amphetamine use. However, the dose-response curves for the quantity of alcohol consumed demonstrated differential patterns for abuse and dependence such that alcohol dependence has a distinctly greater "quantity of use" relationship than that found among alcohol-abusing individuals. These results confirm the findings of others concerning the unidimensionality of abuse and dependence diagnoses when consumption variables alone are examined and suggest that consumption measures may be useful metrics gauging

  10. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press.

  11. [Perception of risk of school adolescents in relation to alcohol consumption and sexual behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio Filho, Francisco Jucier Luz; de Sousa, Pedro Ricardo Mesquita; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha; Nóbrega, Maria de Fátima Bastos; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; Pinheiro, Patrícia Neyva da Costa

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol use has been a major precipitating cause of situations of vulnerability in adolescence. The study aims to analyze the risk perception about the relationship of adolescent alcohol use and sexual behavior. The subjects were ten adolescents between 14 and 19, students from a public school in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Exploratory and descriptive qualitative approach based on the technique of focus group and systematized by means of five workshops. Teenagers recognize the risk between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior and emphasize that drinking facilitates the relations between sexual peers and indicate the influence of media in this process. The perception of adolescents and their relation to alcohol abuse and its consequences is particularly relevant to the implementation of public policies for preventing and fighting alcohol consumption at this stage of growth and development.

  12. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-08

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  13. Improper Consumption of Alcohol in Spanish Teenagers: Emergent Trends and Perceptions of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean culture the young consumption of alcohol represents a practice associated with a recreative culture tied to processes of group interaction and identity. Our aim is to offer a descriptive and differential analysis for levels of age and ingestion realized of the trends of consumption of alcohol, as well as the perceptions of risk and motivations of consumption in a group of 845 Spanish teenagers of the Principado de Asturias. The emergent trends are confirmed on habits of consumption of alcohol and the representative bosses of use/abuse of the style of juvenile leisure, as well as motivations and differential perceptions of risk by virtue of the mentality of the user. There are advanced market lines of prevention based on psychosocial interventions and socio community

  14. Shooting the Joy of the Rus' Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism in Soviet Movies, 1953-1991

    OpenAIRE

    Kikas, Merlin

    2012-01-01

    The current thesis examines how alcohol consumption and alcoholism were interpreted in Soviet movies between 1953 and 1991, taking into consideration the shifting ideological constraints and anti-alcohol campaigns, as well as alcohol and film politics. With the help of 43 films, this research explores the socio-cultural aspects of drinking as represented in Soviet films, uncovers the beliefs about alcohol consumption and alcoholism, and observes how films as cultural texts reflect society bac...

  15. Impact of cross-sectoral alcohol policy on youth alcohol consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Goeij, M.C. de; Jacobs, M.A.M.; Nierop, P. van; Veeken-Vlassak, I.A.; Mheen, D. van de; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Harting, J.; Kunst, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed larger reductions in alcohol consumption among adolescents aged 12-15. METHOD: Strong regional cross-sectoral alcohol policy was defined as participation in a regional alcohol prevention program. Stron...

  16. Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop icon Jim Morrison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the

  17. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.

  18. [Natural recovery and treatment recovery from drug and alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gómez, Augusto; Sierra Acuña, Diana Raquel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the concept of natural recovery (without formal treatment) from problems associated with alcohol, marijuana, cocaine and heroin abuse, each one alone or in any combination. Two groups of males (40 Ss between 18 and 60 years of age) and two groups of females (19 Ss between 18 and 55 years of age) with at least one year of abstinence were studied. The main issues considered were: reason for attending treatment or ceasing the use of substances, factors related to maintenance of abstinence, and difficulties and threats associated with abstinence. Several significant differences were found between groups with and without treatment, as well as between males and females, particularly regarding factors related to the maintenance of abstinence. In both cases family and affective links appear as the most relevant factors in the decision to stop using substances. On the other hand, commitment to one's goals and life project are the principal motives for maintaining abstinence or moderate consumption. This reflects the progressive transition from cognitive and emotional processes with external referents to processes with internal referents, associated with personal achievement.

  19. Current Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Greater Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Adam J; Porges, Eric C; Bryant, Vaughn E; Seider, Talia; Gongvatana, Assawin; Kahler, Christopher W; de la Monte, Suzanne; Monti, Peter M; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-11-01

    The acute consumption of excessive quantities of alcohol causes well-recognized neurophysiological and cognitive alterations. As people reach advanced age, they are more prone to cognitive decline. To date, the interaction of current heavy alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) consumption and aging remains unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that negative consequences of current heavy alcohol consumption on neurocognitive function are worse with advanced age. Further, we evaluated the relations between lifetime history of alcohol dependence and neurocognitive function METHODS: Sixty-six participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Current heavy EtOH drinkers were classified using National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria (EtOH heavy, n = 21) based on the Timeline follow-back and a structured clinical interview and compared to nondrinkers, and moderate drinkers (EtOH low, n = 45). Of the total population, 53.3% had a lifetime history of alcohol dependence. Neurocognitive data were grouped and analyzed relative to global and domain scores assessing: global cognitive function, attention/executive function, learning, memory, motor function, verbal function, and speed of processing. Heavy current EtOH consumption in older adults was associated with poorer global cognitive function, learning, memory, and motor function (ps alcohol dependence was associated with poorer function in the same neurocognitive domains, in addition to the attention/executive domain, irrespective of age (ps alcohol consumption is associated with significant impairment in a number of neurocognitive domains, history of alcohol dependence, even in the absence of heavy current alcohol use, is associated with lasting negative consequences for neurocognitive function. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  1. Impact of a new alcohol policy on homemade alcohol consumption and sales in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaev, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    To describe the effects of Russian policy since 2006 affecting price and availability on the consumption of recorded and unrecorded alcohol, with specific reference to homemade alcohol, and to investigate other factors affecting homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing. Consumption and preferred beverage data were collected from RLMS-HSE nationwide panel surveys from 1994 to 2013, with a detailed analysis of 2012 data (18,221 respondents aged 16+ years). Official statistics on manufactured alcohol sales, regional price increase and real disposable income were used. Homemade distilled spirits (samogon) consumption decreased together with that of recorded and unrecorded manufactured spirits since 2000. The consumption of spirits was partially replaced by the consumption of beer and wine. These trends in alcohol consumption were interrupted in 2008-2013. The interruption was more likely affected by the economic crisis and recession than by the new alcohol policy. Social networks and availability of unrecorded alcohol were more important predictors of homemade alcohol consumption and purchasing than was a recorded alcohol price increase. Homemade alcohol consumption does not replace the declining market for recorded spirits in Russia. The effects of economic and social factors on homemade alcohol consumption are greater than are the short-term effects of the new alcohol policy. The very recent (2015) reduction of the minimum unit price of vodka may be premature. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic Inequality in Concurrent Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Intarut, Nirun; Pukdeesamai, Piyalak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whilst several studies have examined inequity of tobacco use and inequity of alcohol drinking individually, comparatively little is known about concurrent tobacco and alcohol consumption. The present study therefore investigated inequity of concurrent tobacco and alcohol consumption in Thailand. Methods: The 2015 Health and Welfare Survey was obtained from Thailand’s National Statistical Office and used as a source of national representative data. Concurrent tobacco and alcohol co...

  3. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies pro...

  4. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Terminating Tenancy § 5.860 When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers? The lease must provide... to evict alcohol abusers? 5.860 Section 5.860 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary...

  5. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  7. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of posttraumatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A C; Browne, D; Bryant, R A; O'Donnell, M; Silove, D; Creamer, M; Horsley, K

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies investigating the impact of alcohol ingestion on the emergence of posttraumatic psychological symptoms have generated contradictory findings. One thousand forty-five patients, admitted to hospital following traumatic injury were assessed during hospitalisation for patterns of alcohol consumption prior to the injury and also during the month prior to reassessment at 3 months. Anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed post accident and at 3 months. In a sub sample (n=167), blood alcohol levels were measured at the time of admission to emergency departments. Moderate alcohol consumption prior to and following the accident predicted lower levels of psychological distress at 1 week and 3 months. No significant relationship was found between the blood alcohol level and psychiatric outcomes. PTSD predicted the emergence of alcohol abuse following the accident, suggesting self-medication in a subgroup of survivors. The impact of alcohol consumption upon injury severity and the nature of injury was not controlled for and some non-participation may have been related to patterns of alcohol consumption. We relied on retrospective reports of alcohol use obtained shortly after the traumatic injury to index prior alcohol use and these reports may have been influenced by mood states at the time of recall. Our follow-up was limited to 3 months and there is a need for longer-term assessment of the relationship between prior alcohol use and subsequent posttraumatic adjustment. Given the potential impact of alcohol use on traumatic injury and post-injury recovery, we advocate active screening and early intervention strategies that focus on moderate alcohol usage.

  8. The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2011-10-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect.The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast.THE MECHANISMS BY WHICH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION EXERTS ITS CARCINOGENIC EFFECT HAVE NOT BEEN DEFINED FULLY, ALTHOUGH PLAUSIBLE EVENTS INCLUDE: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism.Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control.In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women.In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption.

  9. Genetic moderators and psychiatric mediators of the link between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A

    2011-06-01

    This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  11. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Workplace: Consequences and Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Behrouz

    1985-01-01

    The numerous company programs in North America that have developed countermeasures against drug and alcohol abuse in the workplace, ranging from prevention, health promotion and education, to treatment and rehabilitation, provide instructive examples of an effective approach that in most cases has more than paid for its cost. (Author/CT)

  12. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  13. Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection attending public clinics in Western Kenya. DN Shaffer, R Njeri, AC Justice, WW Odero, WM Tierney. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...

  15. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health...

  16. Do general practitioners record alcohol abuse in the electronic medical records? A comparison of survey and medical record data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; van den Akker, M; van de Mheen, D

    2018-03-01

    Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse diagnoses in general practices in comparison to patients' self-reported rates of alcohol use disorder. Data of a total number of 2,349 patients were analyzed from the SMILE study, a large prospective cohort study conducted in The Netherlands. Two data collection strategies were combined: (1) Patient self-report data on alcohol consumption as well as other sociodemographic characteristics; (2) Medical record (ICPC codes) data of diagnoses of chronic and acute alcohol abuse of the same patients. GPs' registrations of diagnoses were compared with the self-report data using descriptive statistics. Based on the results of the patient reported data, 179 (14.8%) male participants had an alcohol use disorder. Of the total number of female patients, 82 (7.2%) had an alcohol use disorder. One of the male and none of the female patients with an alcohol use disorder were registered as such by the GP. This study found that 11.1% of the total patient sample reported an alcohol use disorder, of which a strikingly low number of patients were recorded as such by their GP. It is likely that low recognition due to barriers related to alcohol screening as well as registration avoidance due to the stigma around alcohol abuse play a role in low registration.

  17. Empty alcohol containers and breath alcohol analysis measures of alcohol consumption at a college volleyball championship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podstawski, Robert; Wesołowska, Elżbieta; Choszcz, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information on the amount of alcohol consumed by students during college sports events. It examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and the rank of the match, sex of the players (male vs. female league), and sex of the spectators. The study was carried out during an interdepartmental volleyball championship (cup system) at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland), which included 16 matches (in both male and female leagues). The research sample consisted of 2,683 students between ages 19 and 24 years (including 1,768 men and 915 women) who came to cheer on their peers at the matches. Two objective measurements of alcohol consumption were used: (a) the number of empty alcohol packages left behind by the spectators at the sports facilities after each match and (b) breath alcohol analysis tests given to volunteering spectators after each match (in which 323 persons consented to participate). Male league games were accompanied by more alcohol consumption than were female league games, and male spectators drank more than female spectators. The most drinking occurred among men watching the male league, and the least amount of drinking occurred among women watching the female league. Alcohol intoxication increased with the rank of the match mostly among men watching the male league. The sex of players and spectators seems to be a mediating factor in the relationship between the rank of a match and the amount of alcohol consumed.

  18. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  19. Childhood trauma and risky alcohol consumption: a study of Australian adults with low housing stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Carol; Magee, Christopher A; Lee, Jeong Kyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined whether recall of childhood trauma was associated with adult alcohol consumption in a sample of Australians with low housing security. The secondary aim was to examine whether risky alcohol consumption predicted subsequent housing instability. Sociodemographic factors were examined as potential moderators of these associations. This paper utilised data collected through the Journeys Home Study, a longitudinal study of a representative sample of individuals who were homeless or at risk of homelessness. This paper focused on 1224 participants aged 18 years and over. Data on alcohol use, childhood trauma and sociodemographic characteristics were collected through interviews at baseline. Homeless status at 6- to 12-month follow-up was assessed via interview. Logistic regression modelling was used to examine associations of alcohol consumption with childhood abuse, sociodemographic factors and changes in homelessness status. Self-reported recall of childhood experiences of violence was more likely among current drinkers, risky or not, than among abstainers. Recall of childhood neglect was more common among abstainers than among risky drinkers. The relationships between recall of childhood trauma and adult alcohol consumption are likely to be complex. Risky consumption may contribute to continuing homelessness among adults with unstable housing. [Correction added on 29 December 2014, after first online publication: The Results, and Discussion and Conclusion sections in the abstract have been replaced.]. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Drug and alcohol abuse by doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serry, N; Bloch, S; Ball, R; Anderson, K

    1994-04-04

    To determine whether doctors who abuse substances differ from controls in terms of their physical and psychological well-being, and their marital and occupational functioning. The 44 doctors concerned in all cases of substance abuse which came before the Medical Board of Victoria between 1984 and 1990 were invited to complete a demographic questionnaire, psychological tests and a semi-structured interview. A control group of 42 doctors, obtained from the Medical Register, was also invited, and the groups were compared. The study was carried out at St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne, under the auspices of the Medical Board of Victoria. Questionnaires were returned by 70% of the drug-dependent doctors and 83% of the controls. However, interviews were given by only 20% of the drug-dependent doctors. The groups differed significantly in terms of marital status (P < 0.002), overall health (P < 0.003), general wellbeing (P < 0.0009), and having experienced physical illness (P < 0.02) and psychiatric illness (P < 0.006) since graduation. No differences were found on the standardised questionnaires; this may reflect successful treatment. Substance abuse in medical practitioners is a major problem and is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention and early intervention are crucial.

  1. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Meanings of Alcohol Consumption in a Rural Community in Antioquia, Colombia, 2010-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Páez-Zapata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To understand the meaning that alcohol consumption has for a rural community. Materials and methods: A qualitative research project based on grounded theory and symbolic interactionism. The study had 18 participants and included key members of the community and territorial agents. Results: Alcohol consumption is seen as an emotional event allowing people expressing their feelings and emotions, especially when the culture doesn’t favor such expressions in sober conditions. Furthermore, alcohol helps to overcome difficulties because it is seen as an alternative for coping with painful situations. Conclusion: It is necessary to provide education focusing on emotional development, which is understood as an opportunity to get in touch with one’s emotions and express them. This will make it possible to offer solutions that are in tune with reality by proposing and formulating programs for health promotion and for preventing and addressing alcohol abuse and dependence.

  4. Comparison of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies in the Czech Republic and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilicová, Helena; Nome, Siri; Dobiášová, Karolína; Zvolský, Miroslav; Henriksen, Roger; Tulupova, Elena; Kmecová, Zuzana

    2017-06-01

    The Czech Republic is characterized by high alcohol consumption and is well known as the world's biggest consumer of beer. In contrast, the alcohol consumption in Norway is relatively low. In this article, we describe and discuss alcohol policy development in the Czech Republic since the mid-1980s to the present and its impact on the alcohol consumption and compare our findings, including the dynamics of the total alcohol consumption and the development of drinking patterns among young people, with the situation in Norway. The study uses the methodology of "process tracing". Selected national statistics, research outcomes and related policy documents were analyzed to identify possible relations between the alcohol consumption and the alcohol policy in two different environments and institutional/policy settings. There was a clear difference in alcohol consumption trends in both countries in the last three decades. Norway was characterized by low alcohol consumption with tendency to decline in the last years. In contrast, the Czech Republic showed an upward trend. In addition, alcohol consumption among Czech youth has been continuously increasing since 1995, whereas the opposite trend has occurred in Norway since the late 1990s. The results revealed that the alcohol-control policies of the Czech Republic and Norway were significantly different during the study period. Norway had a very restrictive alcohol policy, in contrast to the liberal alcohol policy adopted in the Czech Republic, in particular after political transition in 1990. Liberalization of social life together with considerable decline of alcohol price due to complete privatization of alcohol production and sale contributed to an increase of the alcohol consumption in the Czech Republic. Persistently high alcohol consumption among general population and its growth among young people in the Czech Republic pose social, economic and health threats. Norway could provide the inspiration to Czech politicians

  5. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Monteiro, Maristela; Roerecke, Michael; Smith, Blake; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the Americas in 2012. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH). The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality). Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012) compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost), especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  6. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas in 2012: implications for alcohol policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin D. Shield

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To describe the volume and patterns of alcohol consumption up to and including 2012, and to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption as measured in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost in the Americas in 2012. METHODS: Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health (GISAH. The burden of alcohol consumption was estimated in both deaths and DALYs lost based on mortality data obtained from WHO, using alcohol-attributable fractions. Regional groupings for the Americas were based on the WHO classifications for 2004 (according to child and adult mortality. RESULTS: Regional variations were observed in the overall volume of alcohol consumed, the proportion of the alcohol market attributable to unrecorded alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, prevalence of drinking, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking, with inhabitants of the Americas consuming more alcohol (8.4 L of pure alcohol per adult in 2012 compared to the world average. The Americas also experienced a high burden of disease attributable to alcohol consumption (4.7% of all deaths and 6.7% of all DALYs lost, especially in terms of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol is consumed in a harmful manner in the Americas, leading to a high burden of disease, especially in terms of injuries. New cost-effective alcohol policies, such as increasing alcohol taxation, increasing the minimum legal age to purchase alcohol, and decreasing the maximum legal blood alcohol content while driving, should be implemented to decrease the harmful consumption of alcohol and the resulting burden of disease.

  7. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...... intervention in relation to surgery as a good idea. They did not consider quit drinking as a major problem during their hospital stay and had all remained abstinent in this period. About half of the patients were ready or partly ready to participate in an alcohol intervention. Patient opinions...

  8. Alcohol Consumption by College Students and Related Liability Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Dennis E.

    1985-01-01

    Most litigation involving college students' alcohol consumption and related accidents claims negligence on the part of institutions or their agents. General trends may be predicted from past state court decisions. Colleges and universities may wish to reexamine their policies with regard to consumption of alcohol by their students. (MLF)

  9. Alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Lavandeira

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: No clear effect is observed for alcohol consumption. Due to the limited evidence, no conclusion can be drawn for beer or wine consumption. There is little research available on the effect of alcohol on lung cancer risk for people who have never smoked, and more studies are urgently needed on this topic.

  10. Socio-demographic correlates of alcohol consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized that the reasons and consequences of alcohol consumption are sport- related and mediated by selected demographic factors and ... of alcohol consumption reported were mainly behaviour offensive to others (42; 32.6%), damaged friendships (40; 29.6%), and poor academic performance (34; 26%).

  11. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  12. Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.J.I.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific

  13. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  14. Information About Alcohol Consumption as a Determinant of Responsibility Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Jeffrey S.; And Others

    For many years researchers have investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and human aggression. A "policy-capturing" methodology was used to determine how judgments of responsibility for aggressive behavior are influenced by information about a person's alcohol consumption, sex, and degree of injury to a victim. Male subjects (N=8)…

  15. Gender Differences in Problematic Alcohol Consumption in University Professors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisoto, Pablo; Vaca, Silvia L; López-Goñi, José J; Cacho, Raúl; Fernández-Suárez, Iván

    2017-09-15

    The role of job satisfaction and other psychosocial variables in problematic alcohol consumption within professional settings remains understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the level of problematic alcohol consumption among male and female university professors and associated psychosocial variables. A total of 360 professors (183 men and 177 women) of a large private university in Ecuador were surveyed using standardized instruments for the following psychosocial measures: alcohol consumption, job satisfaction, psychological stress, psychological flexibility, social support and resilience. Problematic alcohol consumption was found in 13.1% of participants, although this was significantly higher (χ² = 15.6; d.f. = 2, p job satisfaction. However, 83.3% of women with problematic alcohol use reported lower job satisfaction and higher psychological inflexibility. Results suggest that job satisfaction itself did not prevent problematic alcohol consumption in men; stress was associated with problematic consumption in men and psychological inflexibility in women. Findings from this study support the need to assess aspects of alcohol consumption and problematic behavior differently among men and women. Intervention strategies aimed at preventing or reducing problematic alcohol consumption in university professors must be different for men and women.

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Consumption Pattern of Alcoholic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High consumption of alcoholic and sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) remains a public health problem among the young adults. This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and consumption pattern of alcohol and SSBs among the undergraduate students. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain ...

  17. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA) tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB), heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of ...

  18. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...

  19. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: As efforts to reduce maternal and childhood mortality rates continue to yield results in Nigeria, it is time to put more emphases on the health of children. Alcohol consumption is one of the few modifiable risk factors for poor pregnancy outcome. This study assessed the consumption of alcohol among pregnant ...

  20. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  1. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  2. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Drugs and life style choices such as alcohol consumption and smoking are capable of independently altering levels of essential trace elements as well as tissue or organ function. The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter ...

  3. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly ...

  4. Alcohol consumption and symptoms as predictors for relapse of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuithof, Marlous; ten Have, Margreet; van den Brink, Wim; Vollebergh, Wilma; de Graaf, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption levels and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms may serve as easily quantifiable markers for AUD relapse after remission and might help prevention workers identify at-risk individuals. We investigated the predictive value of alcohol consumption and AUD symptoms on

  5. A Review of Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Robert; Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in genetic technologies have posed unexpected challenges to the ethical and legal framework guiding the application of the most recent advances in healthcare technologies. By and large, these challenges have been successfully met by the introduction by statutes such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). However, over the past several years, these advances in the ability to measure genetic (or heritable) contributions to medical illness have been joined by advances in epigenetic (or acquired) contributions to common medical illnesses. Unfortunately, the moral and legal framework for the use of these epigenetic technologies, which can objectively determine the presence of medical illnesses such as diabetes or the consumption of substances of abuse, is not as well developed. This communication provides an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetics and then reviews how some of the latest advances in this technology can now be used to assess the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Next, the possible mechanisms through which these tools could be employed clinically are discussed. Finally, the authors outline the potential for misuse of this technology and suggest that well-informed policy could play a critical role in shaping the optimal implementation of epigenetic technologies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Alcohol consumption and use of health care services in people with severe mental illness and stressful childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Huber, Christian G; Seixas, Azizi; Muenzenmaier, Kristina H; Lang, Undine E; Castille, Dorothy; Larkin, Stefan; Link, Bruce G

    2017-01-01

    People who suffer from severe mental illness often present with histories of abuse during childhood. Alcohol use disorders is a common co-morbidity of survivors of childhood abuse and neglect. This study analyzes the effects of stressful childhood experiences, a proxy for trauma, on the frequency of alcohol consumption and the utilization of health care services in a population of people with severe mental illness. There were 111 men (mean age: 35 years) and 72 women (mean age: 40.0 years) with severe mental illness that were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in New York City. The analysis focused on lifetime prevalence of stressful childhood experiences, alcohol consumption, and utilization of health care services over time. The longitudinal data were analyzed over 12 months with a level-2 model (multilevel modeling). Out of the participants, 41.5% reported a history of more than four types of abusive experiences. There were 33.3% that had a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse and 27.3% qualified for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of alcohol dependence throughout their lives. Stressful childhood experiences predicted an increased frequency of alcohol consumption over time. People with histories of childhood abuse had more often been to outpatient clinics and 12-step programs, but at the same time showed lower frequency rates of psychiatrist visits and visits to outpatient clinics. Childhood abuse is prevalent in people with severe mental illness and is related to an increased alcohol consumption. Despite an increased need of health care services, affected persons might encounter more barriers to access them.

  7. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; van Baaren, Rick B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-03-01

    This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. A two (sex) × two (movie: alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) between-subject design was used. Participants watched a contemporary movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. A total of 122 same-sex, young adult dyads (ages 18-29 years) participated in the experiment. Their actual alcohol consumption while watching was examined. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of the movie condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to movie alcohol increased alcohol consumption during the movie for men but not women. Identification and weekly alcohol consumption did not moderate the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayal can lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching the movie. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, T A

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  9. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...

  10. Vodka and violence: alcohol consumption and homicide rates in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex

    2002-12-01

    In Russia, rates of alcohol consumption and homicide are among the highest in the world, and already-high levels increased dramatically after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Rates of both, however, vary greatly among Russia's 89 regions. We took advantage of newly available vital statistics and socioeconomic data to examine the regional covariation of drinking and lethal violence. Log-log models were employed to estimate the impact of alcohol consumption on regional homicide rates, controlling for structural factors thought to influence the spatial distribution of homicide rates. Results revealed a positive and significant relationship between alcohol consumption and homicide, with a 1% increase in regional consumption of alcohol associated with an approximately 0.25% increase in homicide rates. In Russia, higher regional rates of alcohol consumption are associated with higher rates of homicide.

  11. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...... alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI...

  12. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  13. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathway: cellular cholesterol efflux and plasma cholesterol esterification. Eleven healthy middle-aged men consumed four glasses (40 g of alcohol) of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin), or carbonated m...

  14. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  15. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A; Avlund, K

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003, using a standard questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was defined as light, moderate and heavy drinking and used individually for each follow-up. The three follow-ups were summarized into long-term alcohol consumption. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relation between alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI = [1.1; 19.42]). Early consumption of alcohol may increase the odds of having periodontitis 20 years later. There is a need for further studies including larger populations to investigate both alcohol consumption measured at different points in time, and long-term alcohol consumption and periodontitis progression over time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The association between parental attitudes and alcohol consumption and adolescent alcohol consumption in Southern Ireland: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Murphy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol plays a complex role in society. A recent study showed that over half of Irish adults drink hazardously. Adolescents report increased levels of alcohol consumption. Previous research has inferred the influence of the parent on their adolescent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the association between adolescent alcohol consumption and their parent’s consumption pattern and attitude toward alcohol use in Southern Ireland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in November 2014. This involved distributing a survey to adolescents (n = 982 in their final two years of second level education and at least one of their parents from a local electorate area in Southern Ireland. This survey included: alcohol use, self- reported height and weight, smoking status, mental health and well-being along with attitudinal questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were utilised. Results A 37 % response rate was achieved. Over one-third (34.2 % of adolescents and 47 % of parents surveyed reported hazardous drinking. Over 90 % of parents disagreed with allowing their adolescent to get drunk and rejected the idea that getting drunk is part of having fun as an adolescent. The majority (79.5 % of parents surveyed believed that their alcohol consumption pattern set a good example for their adolescent. Multivariate logistic regression highlights the association between adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking by the father. Furthermore either parent permitting their adolescent to drink alcohol on special occasions was associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in the adolescent. Conclusion The findings of this research notes a liberal attitude to alcohol and increased levels of consumption by the parent are linked to hazardous adolescent drinking behaviour. Future action plans aimed at combatting adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption should also be aimed

  17. The association between parental attitudes and alcohol consumption and adolescent alcohol consumption in Southern Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eimear; O'Sullivan, Ian; O'Donovan, Derry; Hope, Ann; Davoren, Martin P

    2016-08-18

    Alcohol plays a complex role in society. A recent study showed that over half of Irish adults drink hazardously. Adolescents report increased levels of alcohol consumption. Previous research has inferred the influence of the parent on their adolescent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the association between adolescent alcohol consumption and their parent's consumption pattern and attitude toward alcohol use in Southern Ireland. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in November 2014. This involved distributing a survey to adolescents (n = 982) in their final two years of second level education and at least one of their parents from a local electorate area in Southern Ireland. This survey included: alcohol use, self- reported height and weight, smoking status, mental health and well-being along with attitudinal questions. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression were utilised. A 37 % response rate was achieved. Over one-third (34.2 %) of adolescents and 47 % of parents surveyed reported hazardous drinking. Over 90 % of parents disagreed with allowing their adolescent to get drunk and rejected the idea that getting drunk is part of having fun as an adolescent. The majority (79.5 %) of parents surveyed believed that their alcohol consumption pattern set a good example for their adolescent. Multivariate logistic regression highlights the association between adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking by the father. Furthermore either parent permitting their adolescent to drink alcohol on special occasions was associated with hazardous alcohol consumption in the adolescent. The findings of this research notes a liberal attitude to alcohol and increased levels of consumption by the parent are linked to hazardous adolescent drinking behaviour. Future action plans aimed at combatting adolescent hazardous alcohol consumption should also be aimed at tackling parents' attitudes towards and consumption of alcohol.

  18. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; van Tol, A; Vermunt, S H; Scheek, L M; Schaafsma, G; Hendriks, H F

    2001-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathway: cellular cholesterol efflux and plasma cholesterol esterification. Eleven healthy middle-aged men consumed four glasses (40 g of alcohol) of red wine, beer, spirits (Dutch gin), or carbonated mineral water (control) daily with evening dinner, for 3 weeks, according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. After 3 weeks of alcohol consumption the plasma ex vivo cholesterol efflux capacity, measured with Fu5AH cells, was raised by 6.2% (P alcoholic beverages. Plasma cholesterol esterification was increased by 10.8% after alcohol (P = 0.008). Changes were statistically significant after beer and spirits, but not after red wine consumption (P = 0.16). HDL lipids changed after alcohol consumption; HDL total cholesterol, HDL cholesteryl ester, HDL free cholesterol, HDL phospholipids and plasma apolipoprotein A-I all increased (P alcohol consumption stimulates cellular cholesterol efflux and its esterification in plasma. These effects were mostly independent of the kind of alcoholic beverage

  19. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  20. Ethnic differences in the predictors of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2007-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by ethnicity. Four hundred fifty-eight psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-19, completed measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Multiple regression analyses examined the joint and independent predictors of drug and alcohol abuse for European Americans, Latino Americans, and African Americans separately. Seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted drug abuse for all groups, and predicted alcohol abuse for European Americans and Latino Americans. However, several differences were noted with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the model. Such differences may reflect distinct risk factors for drug and alcohol abuse in these three ethnic groups and may also have implications for prevention and treatment programs.

  1. Fibronectin as predictor of cirrhosis in men who abuse alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P

    1988-01-01

    In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis....

  2. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of drug and alcohol abuse in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, E

    1996-01-01

    The major reasons why women abuse drugs and alcohol are presented with a focus on societal and psychologic bases. A structured format is provided for eliciting a history while motivating the patient to obtain adequate treatment. A workable treatment contract is presented. A three-stage method of treatment is described, which focuses on the following: (1) achieving abstinence, (2) maintaining abstinence, and (3) achieving sobriety (advanced recovery).

  4. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  5. Alcohol and drug problems and sexual and physical abuse at three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...

  6. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  7. Alcohol Consumption Increases Post-Operative Infection but Not Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri-operative interventions. MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched systematically. Observational studies reporting patients with a defined amount of alcohol consumption and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at reducing outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were performed separately for observational studies and RCTs. Thirteen observational studies and five RCTs were identified. Meta-analyses of observational studies showed more infections in those consuming more than two units of alcohol per day compared with drinking less in both unadjusted and adjusted data. No association between alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections but not mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol-refraining interventions in patients with high daily alcohol consumption appear to reduce infections. The impact in patients with lesser intake is unknown. Further studies are needed.

  8. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  9. Exposure to Alcohol Commercials in Movie Theaters Affects Actual Alcohol Consumption in Young Adult High Weekly Drinkers: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  10. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)

  11. Prospective effects of possible selves on alcohol consumption in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F; Park, Chang G; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L

    2015-02-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents' alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents' alcohol consumption. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sub-clinical Alcohol Consumption and Gambling Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Michael D; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Grant, Jon E

    2017-06-01

    While it is well established that gambling disorder is associated with alcohol use disorder, less is known regarding whether sub-clinical alcohol consumption increases gambling behavior. This study examined the effects of varying levels of alcohol consumption on clinical and cognitive measures. The sample consisted of 572 non-treatment seeking gamblers age 18-29 who were divided into three groups: non-current drinkers, current drinkers who did not qualify for an alcohol use disorder, and those with an alcohol use disorder (AUD). All subjects were assessed on gambling pathology, severity and impulsivity using the Structured Clinical Interview for Gambling Disorder, Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for Pathologic Gambling and the Barratt Impulsive Scale-11 and select cognitive tests. In all of the clinical measures, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group was significantly more likely than the non-current and current drinkers to be a pathologic gambler and to be impulsive, compulsive and depressed. On cognitive tasks, controlling for age, gender and education, the AUD group had significantly worse strategy use on a spatial working memory task than both other groups. This study suggests that the relationship between alcohol and gambling may only exist when pathology in both alcohol consumption and gambling behavior is present. Examining this relationship with alcohol consumption as a continuous variable would provide additional insight into the potential effects alcohol consumption has on gambling behavior.

  13. Alcohol consumption, masculinity, and alcohol-related violence and anti-social behaviour in sportspeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Forrest, Walter; Greenlees, Iain; Rhind, Daniel; Jowett, Sophia; Pinsky, Ilana; Espelt, Albert; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Sonderlund, Anders Larrabee; Vergani, Matteo; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. Cross-sectional. A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e.g., hit/assaulted, vandalism, sexual assault). Logistic regressions examined predictors of alcohol-related violence/aggression and anti-social behaviours. Significant bivariate relationships between masculinity, within-sport violence, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour were found for both men and women (p'smasculinity and alcohol consumption in men and women were related to an increased odds of having conducted an aggressive, violent and/or anti-social act in the past 12 months when intoxicated. Odds ratios were largest for relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport violence, and interpersonal violence/aggression (p'smasculinity and excessive drinking. Interventions that reduce excessive alcohol consumption, masculine norms and associated within-sport violence, could be effective in reducing alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in UK sportspeople. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The perceptions and habits of alcohol consumption and smoking among Canadian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical students attending the University of Calgary medical school. Of the 327 students enrolled, 175 of students responded to the questionnaire. Six percent of the students currently smoke while 24% of students reported cigarette smoking at some point in their life. Eighty-six percent of students currently drink, with a majority drinking fewer than 11 drinks per week. Fifteen percent of students were at an increased risk for problem drinking according to the CAGE questionnaire. An increased risk for problem drinking was significantly related to believing more strongly that getting drunk is acceptable on occasion and less strongly that increased alcohol has many negative health consequences, as well as feeling less in control of alcohol consumption. Medical students at the University of Calgary consume less alcohol and cigarettes than a comparable population. However, a high proportion of students are at risk for alcohol abuse according to the CAGE questionnaire. The results of this study suggest that although the quantity of alcohol consumed is not a substantial concern at this time, students might be at risk for future alcohol abuse.

  15. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  17. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  18. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Methamphetamine self-administration reduces alcohol consumption and preference in alcohol-preferring P rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Madeline C; Greager, Emilee M; Stafford, Jacob; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2018-01-01

    Subclinical levels of polysubstance use are a prevalent and understudied phenomenon. Alcohol is a substance commonly co-used with other substances of other drug classes. These studies sought to determine the consumption effects of combining alcohol drinking and methamphetamine (MA) self-administration. Male alcohol-preferring P rats had continuous access to a two-bottle alcohol drinking procedure in the home cage. Control rats remained alcohol naïve. Rats were also surgically implanted with intra-jugular catheters and trained to self-administer saline (control) or MA in daily 2-hour sessions. We first measured the acquisition and maintenance of MA intake in alcohol-consuming or control rats. MA intake was initially enhanced by alcohol consumption on a fixed ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement, but this effect did not prevail as the difficulty of the schedule (FR5 and progressive ratio) was increased. We next measured both alcohol consumption and preference before, during and after MA (or saline) self-administration. MA self-administration significantly reduced alcohol intake and preference ratios, a robust effect that persisted across several experimental variations. Interestingly, alcohol consumption rebounded following the cessation of MA self-administration. The effects of MA self-administration were specific to alcohol intake because it did not alter total fluid consumption or consumption of sucrose. MA self-administration did not impact blood-alcohol concentrations or alcohol-induced loss of righting reflex suggesting no effect of MA intake on the alcohol metabolism or sensitivity. Together, the results suggest that MA intake disrupts alcohol consumption and preferences but not the reverse in alcohol-preferring P rats. © 2016 The Authors.Addiction Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Prevalence of alcohol consumption among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of those who drank alcohol (42.6%) were experimenting with alcohol, though 5.4% drank due to addiction. Majority (39.3%) bought their drinks from stores and supermarkets. The most Common problems experienced by the drinkers were fatigue, alcohol made them behave in ways they later regretted and it hurt ...

  2. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Alcohol is consumed worldwide as a drink by humans. Regular and unlimited use of alcohol leads to toxicity and alcohol-induced pathological ... High fat diet (45 % of energy divided from fat) and water were administered by ad libitum feeding. After 6 weeks, rats were fasted for 24 h and anesthetized with ...

  3. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  4. Fat distribution and steroid hormones in women with alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, P; Ellsinger, B M; Sjöberg, C; Björntorp, P

    1990-10-01

    Anthropometric, hormonal and liver function parameters were examined in 18 premenopausal women with a history of early alcohol abuse, and compared with the data for randomly selected controls of the same age. The alcoholic women showed slightly elevated levels of transaminases, but no clinical or laboratory signs of advanced liver damage. These women were characterized by an increased waist-to-hip ratio, due to enlarged waist circumference. Several endocrine abnormalities were found, including irregular or absent menses as well as low oestrogen, progesterone and delta-4-androstendione levels. The concentration of free testosterone was high and that of sex-hormone-binding globulin was low. These data suggest abdominal distribution of body fat, as well as hyperandrogenicity in alcoholic, premenopausal women. It is postulated that the endocrine abnormalities might be responsible for the abdominal fat distribution.

  5. Alcohol drinking by parents and risk of alcohol abuse by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipkin, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE(S: To investigate associations between alcohol drinking by parents at different time of their life and alcohol use by adolescents.DESIGN: The longitudinal epidemiological study design was used to answer the proposed research questions. This study is based on the data of the Family and Children of Ukraine Study (FCOU, which is a prospective cohort study of women and children. PARTICIPANTS: Recruited subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record data were collected at the first antenatal clinic visit and at the delivery. The sample in the city of Dniprodzerzhynsk consists of 2148 women, their children and partners (if any, but at 15-17-years-old follow-up only data about 1020 participants were available. MAIN EXPOSURES: Use of alcohol by mother/father before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and at 15-17 years of child’s age.OUTCOME MEASURE: Use of alcohol by 15-17-year-old adolescent.RESULTS: Use of alcohol more than once a week by mother before pregnancy was associated with alcohol abuse by adolescents, unlike father’s use of alcohol before and during pregnancy. Use of alcohol both by mother and father during adolescence of their offspring was strongly associated with alcohol abuse by the child. In the multivariate analysis only alcohol use by mother during adolescence of the child was significantly associated with alcohol use by the adolescent.CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that concurrent social factors influence regular alcohol use among adolescents more intensively than early life factors.

  6. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jill P; Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-09-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3-7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or =24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion-an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727.

  7. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.

  8. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  9. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ..., National Institutes of Health, Shady Grove West, 9609 Medical Center Drive, Rockville, MD 20892, 240-276..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research...

  10. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.

  11. Trace Elements Profile among Alcohol Abusers in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    major occupation is farming and brewing of a local alcohol, burukutu from grains, usually guinea corn by fermentation for local consumption. It is predominantly a Christian ethnic group. There were 1,202 adults of ages 16 years and above with a total number of 320 families. Out of these 320 families, adults of 16 - 54 years ...

  12. EASING THE PAIN OF AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÁVALOS, MARÍA E.; FANG, HAI; FRENCH, MICHAEL T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals can react to financial stress in a variety of ways, such as reducing discretionary spending or engaging in risky behaviors. This paper investigates the effect of changing macroeconomic conditions (measured by the unemployment rate in the state of residence) on one type of risky behavior: excessive alcohol consumption. Using unique and recent panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and estimating fixed-effects models, we find that changes in the unemployment rate are positively related to changes in binge drinking, alcohol-involved driving, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Some differences are present among demographic groups, primarily in the magnitude of the estimated effects. These results contradict previous studies and suggest that problematic drinking may be an indirect and unfortunate consequence of an economic downturn. PMID:21913282

  13. The association between alcohol consumption patterns and adherence to food consumption guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Martín, José L; Galán, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2011-11-01

    To examine the association between alcohol consumption patterns and adherence to major food consumption guidelines in adults in Spain. Telephone survey of 12,037 persons, representative of the population age 18 to 64 years in the region of Madrid, conducted from 2000 to 2005. The threshold between average moderate and excessive drinking was 40 g alcohol/d in men and 24 g/d in women. Binge drinking was defined as intake of ≥80 g alcohol in men and ≥60 g in women during 1 drinking session in the last 30 days. Food consumption was measured with a 24-hour recall. Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. In total, 4.3% of study participants were excessive drinkers and 10.3% binge drinkers; 6.5% preferred spirits and 24.2% drank with meals. In comparison with never drinking, average moderate drinking with binge drinking was associated with excessive meat consumption (>1 serving/d). Excessive alcohol consumption without binge drinking was associated with insufficient intake of milk products (2 servings/d). Excessive drinkers with binge drinking more often did not meet the guidelines on consumption of fruit and vegetables (milk products, and meat. Excessive drinkers, with and without binge drinking, were more likely to skip a meal, especially breakfast. Consumption mainly of spirits was associated with insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and with skipping a meal. Finally, drinking at mealtimes was associated with poor adherence to most of the food consumption guidelines. No dietary differences between men and women were found in relation to alcohol consumption. Average excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, preference for spirits, and drinking alcohol at mealtimes are associated with poor adherence to major food consumption guidelines. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-06-21

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce A; Wolfson, Amy R

    2009-05-01

    Three independent lines of inquiry have found associations between alcohol use and academic performance, sleep and academic performance, and alcohol use and sleep. The present study bridges this research by examining the links among alcohol use, sleep, and academic performance in college students. Personal interview surveys were conducted with a random sample of 236 students (124 women) at a liberal arts college. The interviews measured alcohol consumption, gender, academic class, weekday and weekend bedtimes and rise times, and daytime sleepiness; 95% of the sample granted permission to obtain grade-point average (GPA) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores from official college records. Ordinary least squares regressions showed that alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). Women and students with late sleep schedules were more apt to report daytime sleepiness. SAT score was the strongest predictor of GPA. However, gender, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness also were significant predictors when other variables were controlled. In addition to alcohol's direct relationship with GPA, mediational analysis indicated that alcohol had indirect effects on sleepiness and GPA, primarily through its effect on sleep schedule. The findings show how alcohol use among college students is related to sleep-wake patterns and further support the connection between alcohol use and grades.

  16. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takvorian, S U; Merola, J F; Costenbader, K H

    2014-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex multisystem autoimmune disease whose pathogenesis is thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors. It is possible that common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, might modify risk of disease development in certain individuals. Here we aim to review the epidemiologic evidence related to the association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and the risk of developing SLE. A growing body of evidence suggests that cigarette smoking confers a short-term increased risk of SLE in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, alcohol consumption in moderate doses may have a protective effect against the development of SLE, although this is still debated. We also have reviewed proposed mechanistic explanations underlying the role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in SLE pathogenesis.

  17. Adolescents at risk for drug and alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, J

    1985-12-01

    Although all children have the potential for becoming destructively involved with psychoactive drugs, there is considerable evidence that youngsters with particular kinds of psychologic and family problems are at high risk for chemical dependency. These include youngsters with developmental deficiencies that interfere with their capacity to master the environment. Children with a strong family history of alcoholism or drug abuse also seem to be at high risk. Obviously, there is some overlap between these two groups, not only because parental drug abuse and alcoholism may damage the fetus, but because chemically dependent parents are more likely to abuse or neglect their children because of the impact of their own illness on their functioning as parents. In addition, families in which drug use is modeled as a typical behavior are more likely to produce adolescents who use drugs, although rigid rules against drug use are relatively ineffective in preventing adolescents from experimenting with drugs. Finally, certain behavior patterns in young childhood--particularly severe aggressiveness, rebelliousness, and learning problems at school--seem to be correlated with the development of chemical dependency during adolescence.

  18. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H

    2013-08-16

    Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted 'happy hour' promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs.

  19. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  20. Drinking to ease the burden: a cross-sectional study on trauma, alcohol abuse and psychopathology in a post-conflict context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Verena; Saile, Regina; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2016-06-24

    It is likely that alcohol use and abuse increase during and after violent conflicts. The most prominent explanation of this phenomenon has been referred to as self-medication hypothesis. It predicts that psychotropic substances are consumed to deal with conflict-related psychic strains and trauma. In northern Uganda, a region that has been affected by a devastating civil war and is characterized by high levels of alcohol abuse we examined the associations between war-trauma, childhood maltreatment and problems related to alcohol use. Deducing from the self-medication hypothesis we assumed alcohol consumption moderates the relationship between trauma-exposure and psychopathology. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey targeting war-affected families in post-conflict northern Uganda included data of male (n = 304) and female (n = 365) guardians. We used standardized questionnaires in an interview format to collect data on the guardians' socio-demography, trauma-exposure, alcohol consumption and symptoms of alcohol abuse, PTSD and depression. Symptoms of current alcohol use disorders were present in 46 % of the male and 1 % of the female respondents. A multiple regression model revealed the unique contributions of emotional abuse in the families of origin and trauma experienced outside the family-context in the prediction of men's alcohol-related symptoms. We found that alcohol consumption moderated the dose-effect relationship between trauma-exposure and symptoms of depression and PTSD. Significant interactions indicated that men who reported more alcohol-related problems experienced less increase in symptoms of PTSD and depression with increasing trauma-exposure. The gradual attenuation of the dose-effect the more alcohol-related problems were reported is consistent with the self-medication hypothesis. Hence, the functionality of alcohol consumption has to be considered when designing and implementing addiction treatment in post-conflict contexts.

  1. [Psychological variables and alcohol consumption in a sample of students of medicine: gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Maria; Ruta, Sara; Signorelli, Maria; Petralia, Antonino; Aguglia, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate in a sample of college students alcohol consumption in relation with socio-demographic and psychopathological variables. The psychopathological variables have been investigated through the Self-Report Symptom Inventory-Revised (SCL-90-R), the levels of alcohol consumption through the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). The total score, as well as the scores of the subscales and of the indices of the SCL-90-R, General Symptomatic Index (GSI) in particular, have been analysed also considering gender differences. A multivariate analysis have been performed adjusting for age and variables resulted to be statistically significant at the univariate analysis when comparing males vs. females. The correlations between AUDIT and psychopathological variables have been investigated. The sample was composed by 200 subjects (105 women, 95 men), average age of 21.85 ± 3.09. The 27% and 13% had values worthy of clinical attention (above the cut-off) of GSI and AUDIT. Women had higher values of total SCL-90-R and of the subscales somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression and anxiety. In addition, they presented significantly higher scores of GSI. Conversely, men had higher scores at the AUDIT. With the increase of the age the alcohol consumption increased; the latter was positively correlated with the variables sensitivity, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive. The consumption of alcohol negatively correlated with somatization and phobic anxiety. The psychopathological variables seem to have a great impact on the consumption of alcohol. The abuser of alcohol often tends to minimize his problem, so it is important to pay attention to the "alarm bells". It would therefore be desirable to adopt strategies of counseling and prevention dedicated to the university students.

  2. Patterns of alcohol consumption in the Seychelles Islands (Indian Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdrix, J; Bovet, P; Larue, D; Yersin, B; Burnand, B; Paccaud, F

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported drinking habits were examined in a random sample of 1067 persons aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles, a country in epidemiological transition where consumption of home-brewed, mostly unregistered beverages has been traditionally high. Alcohol consumption was calculated from respondents reporting at least one drink per week ('regular drinkers'). Among men, 51.1% were regular drinkers and had average intake of 112.1 ml alcohol a day. Among women, 5.9% were regular drinkers and had 49.7 ml alcohol a day. Frequency of drinking, but not amount per drinker, was slightly less in the 25-34-year than older-age categories. Home-brews (mostly palm toddy and fermented sugar cane juice) were consumed by 52% of regular drinkers and accounted for 54% of the total alcohol intake reported by all regular drinkers. Based on the reported consumption by regular drinkers only, the average annual alcohol consumption amounted respectively to 20.7 litres and 1.2 litres per man and woman aged 25-64 years, or, using extrapolation, 13.2 litres and 0.8 litres per man and woman respectively of the total population. These values may underestimate the true figures by half, since reported beer consumption accounted for 53% of beer sales. Socio-economic status was associated strongly and inversely with home-brew consumption, but slightly and positively with consumption of commercially marketed beverages. Alcohol intake was associated with smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and blood pressure, but not with age and body mass index. In conclusion, these data show high alcohol consumption in the Seychelles with an important gender difference, a large proportion of alcohol derived from home-brews, and opposite tendencies for the relationships between socio-economic status and home-made or commercially marketed beverages.

  3. Patterns of alcohol and drugs consumption in young soccer fans

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Anelise Lopes; Sarriera, Jorge Castellá

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and drug consumption among young soccer fans have been associated with violence in soccer context. This study aims to determine patterns of alcohol, marijuana and cocaine consumption in a sample of 1,130 soccer fans residents in the Rio Grande do Sul State, as well as to verify if there are differences regarding gender, age and if the participant is member of organized fan soccer or not. From a questionnaire available through Internet, soccer fan answered the frequency they generally ...

  4. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  5. Association of metabolic gene polymorphisms with alcohol consumption in controls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raimondi, S.C.; Benhamou, S.; Coutelle, C.; Garte, S.; Hayes, R.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Lazarus, P.; Marchand, L.L.; Morita, S.; Povey, A.; Romkes, M.; Zijno, A.; Taioli, E.

    2004-01-01

    The objectives were to study the association between metabolic genes involved in alcohol metabolism (CYP2E1 RsaI, CYP2E1 DraI, ADH1C, NQO1) and alcohol consumption in a large sample of healthy controls. Healthy subjects were selected from the International Collaborative Study on Genetic

  6. Volume of alcohol consumption, patterns of drinking and burden of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the volume of alcohol consumption, type of beverage, patterns of drinking and alcohol-attributable burden of disease among adults in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA) for the year 2002. Exposure data were taken from surveys, the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Status ...

  7. Alcohol consumption among pregnant women attending the ante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... required to change the attitude of the public and the knowledge and behavior of the pregnant women. Key words: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, Nigeria, Port Harcourt. Date of Acceptance: .... while analysis and presentation of results was performed with. EPI‑INFO ...

  8. Risky Sexual Behaviour Associated with Alcohol Consumption among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zamzar

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior has been found by several researchers, studies by (6), (7) had found that adolescents who use alcohol and drugs were more likely to have more sexual partners, more casual sex partners and higher risk of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.

  9. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  10. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  11. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  12. Nonfatal bicycle accident risk after an evening of alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; van Herwijnen, J.; Volkerts, E.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073311987; Olivier, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073067199

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: After an evening of alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) may reach intoxication levels above legal limits for operating a car or bicycle. In the Netherlands, legal limits for participating in traffic are 0.05% for experienced drivers and 0.02% for novice drivers. The

  13. Impact of cross-sectoral alcohol policy on youth alcohol consumption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, M.C. de; Jacobs, M.A.M.; Nierop, P. van; Veeken-Vlassak, I.A.; Mheen, D. van de; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Harting, J.; Kunst, A.E.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed

  14. Impact of Cross-Sectoral Alcohol Policy on Youth Alcohol Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; Jacobs, Monique A. M.; van Nierop, Peter; van der Veeken-Vlassak, Ivanka A. G.; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed larger

  15. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; van Baaren, R.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie:

  16. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie:

  17. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  18. The Effect of Alcohol Advertising on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in College Students: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The

  19. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  20. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20.......04 (1.03-1.06) observational for prescription antidepressant use, and 4.52 (0.99-20.5) causal and 0.98 (0.94-1.03) observational for hospitalization/death with depression. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the association between increased alcohol consumption and alcoholism is causal, without......-100 years randomly selected in 1991-2010 from the general population of Copenhagen, Denmark, and genotyped 68 486 participants for two genetic variants in two alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, ADH-1B (rs1229984) and ADH-1C (rs698). We performed observational and causal analyses using a Mendelian...

  1. College Student Employment and Drinking: A Daily Study of Work Stressors, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hou...

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  3. Pricing as a means of controlling alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anurag; Sinha, Kompal; Vandenberg, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Reducing the affordability of alcohol, by increasing its price, is the most effective strategy for controlling alcohol consumption and reducing harm. We review meta-analyses and systematic reviews of alcohol tax/price effects from the past decade, and recent evaluations of tax/price policies in the UK, Canada and Australia. While the magnitudes of price effects vary by sub-group and alcoholic beverage type, it has been consistently shown that price increases lead to reductions in alcohol consumption. There remains, however, a lack of consensus on the most appropriate taxation and pricing policy in many countries because of concerns about effects by different consumption level and income level and disagreement on policy design between parts of the alcoholic beverage industries. Recent developments in the research highlight the importance of obtaining accurate alcohol price data, reducing bias in estimating price responsiveness, and examining the impact on the heaviest drinkers. There is a need for further research focusing on the substitution effects of taxation and pricing policies, estimation of the true tax pass-through rates, and empirical analysis of the supply-side response (from alcohol producers and retailers) to various alcohol pricing strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Relationship between alcohol consumption and teen sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Augusto Ceballos Ospino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Varios autores han encontrado relación entre el consumo de alcohol y el haber tenido relaciones sexuales en adolescentes. Consumir alcohol entre los adolescentes es cada día más frecuente, tal vez por al hecho de que su consumo está más extendido y normalizado que el de otras sustancias.

  5. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking pattern among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco use are known risk factors for non communicable diseases especially among women. Brothel based female sex workers may be at increased risk of exposure to these two substances. Objective: To assess the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among female sex workers in two selected ...

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol abuse among university students from eastern Croatia: questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskulin, Maja; Petrović, Goranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Puntarić, Dinko; Milas, Josip; Dahl, Danielle; Rudan, Stjepan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol abuse among university students in Osijek, Croatia and its possible interconnections with gender, year of study, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area, sources of financing and type of residence during study. A validated questionnaire was self-administered to cross-faculty representative student sample of "J. J. Strossmayer" University of Osiek in June 2006. General demographic data, as well as data on academic features and student socio-economical status were obtained. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used for assessing the extent of alcohol consumption, with cut off value of 8 indicating possible alcohol problems. The majority of study participants 90.9% (755/831) had tried alcohol at least once in their life. Among this group, 43.8% (331/755) had an AUDIT total score of 8 or more: 69.2% (229/331) were males and 30.8% (102/331) were females. Among the study participants who screened positive, 70.4% (233/331) responded positively to simple advice focused on the reduction of hazardous drinking (AUDIT 8-15), 14.5% (48/331) needed brief counseling and continued monitoring (AUDIT 16-19), and 15.1% (50/331) clearly warranted further diagnostic evaluation for alcohol dependence (AUDIT 20 and above). Significantly different statistical data was found within the following factors: gender, repetition of year of study, faculty subject area and type of residence (chi2 = 76.232, p = 0.0000; Fisher exact test = 31.828, p = 0.0000; chi2 = 11.667, p = 0.0086 and chi2 = 6.639, p = 0.0362 respectively). Alcohol consumption resulting in risk behaviors is common among university students from eastern Croatia. These findings emphasize the need for comprehensive and effective preventative strategies directed towards student population.

  7. ALCOHOL ABUSE PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING IN PERM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petukhov Konstantin Alekseevich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.

  8. ALCOHOL ABUSE PROBLEMS AND SOCIAL WELL-BEING IN PERM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Алексеевич Петухов

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify ways to reduce the impact of risk factors of national modernization associated with alcohol consumption. In study it is used a method of formalize poll of adult residents of Perm region based on a multi-stage sample reflecting the population distribution by territory, sex, age and education. The timing of the survey - June 2012. Sample size was 1000 respondents. As a result, it was detected the number of relationships between social well-being of the respondents, their attitude to their own health and socio-demographic characteristics, on the one hand, and the attitude to the problem of alcohol abuse, anti-alcoholic legislative initiatives on the other. The obtained results may contribute to the expansion of the methodological and theoretical framework of the concept of "risk society", the enrichment of prognostic tools used to assess risk factors for regional socio-cultural development. Practical results includes the recommendations for improving the regulation of consumption of alcohol and prevention programs risk behavior.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-5-33

  9. Drug and alcohol abuse intervention in American Indian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais, F; LaBoueff, S

    1985-01-01

    American Indian tribes are seen as an anachronism by many non-Indian people. Most would acknowledge that Indians provided a colorful chapter in American history, but apart from contemporary Indian arts and crafts little serious thought is given to their way of life. In fact, however, Indian culture has survived a period of strong attack and today it is vital and growing. The historical conflicts between Indian and White ways of life are still not totally resolved, and there are major differences in thinking as to whether tribes should be assimilated into the larger culture or allowed to pursue an alternate cultural path. In its ambivalence toward Indian people the federal government has fostered a state of dependency which has made problem resolution extremely difficult. Federal policy has vacillated between paternalistic and repressive, which has led to much inertia within both Indian communities and those groups intended to help them. Currently there is a strong activist climate on Indian reservations and the result is a vigorous move toward self-determination. Not only are Indian people asking for self-government, but they are attempting to revitalize their traditional culture and maintain a unique alternative to the beliefs, values, and customs of the larger society. Within this historical/cultural context, drug and alcohol abuse exist as major problems for Indian people. Extant data point to alcoholism as perhaps the number one health problem for many tribes. The consequences of drug abuse are not as well documented, but recent survey data from Indian school students point to an extremely serious situation. Drug use rates are above national norms and appear to be rapidly increasing. Interventions in Indian communities must be congruent with the current movement toward self-determination. Externally imposed solutions, at a minimum, will not work and probably will only add to the sense of failure experienced by Indian people. The dynamics of drug and alcohol use

  10. Liquor landscapes: Does access to alcohol outlets influence alcohol consumption in young adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah; Trapp, Georgina; Hooper, Paula; Oddy, Wendy H; Wood, Lisa; Knuiman, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the impact of liquor licences on alcohol consumption, and none in young adults, the life stage when alcohol intake is at its highest. We examined associations between liquor licences (i.e., general licences, on-premise licences, liquor stores, and club licences) and alcohol consumption at 20-years (n=988) and 22-years (n=893), and whether changes in the licences between time-points influenced alcohol consumption (n=665). Only general licences were associated with alcohol consumption at 20-years (p=0.037), but by 22-years, all licences types were positively associated with alcohol consumption (pstores over time, alcohol consumption increased by 1.22g/day or 8% (p=0.030), and for each additional club licence, consumption increased by 0.90g/day or 6% (p=0.007). Limiting liquor licences could contribute to a reduction in young adults' alcohol intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors associated with alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and related consequences among high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Yu

    2006-02-01

    This research evaluated the risk factors associated with alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and related consequences among high school students in Taiwan. A total of 779 10th grade students from four randomly selected high schools in eastern Taiwan were included in the survey. Survey data were self-reported by students and analyzed using logistic regression methods. The results showed that alcohol consumption and problem drinking was 2.22-2.71-fold greater in male than in female adolescents. Parents and peer groups were the determinants influencing alcohol consumption, and these influences could be enhanced particularly by the drinking behaviors of fathers and peer groups, and the relationship of students with their peer groups. The probability of developing adolescent problem drinking was fourfold greater in students whose fathers had habits of drinking. Ethnicity had a notable impact on the risk of problem drinking. The occurrence of problem drinking among indigenous adolescents was 2.98-fold higher than among Hans, indicating a diversity of biological factors, social norms, and expectation for alcohol drinking between these two ethnic groups. This study suggests that a policy for preventing alcohol abuse among high school students should start by addressing the two major associated problems: a need to earn peer group recognition, and the lack of family support among at-risk students.

  12. Neuroimmune Pathways in Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Behavioral and Genetic Studies in Rodents and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gizelle; Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura B.; Mayfield, Jody; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2014-01-01

    Immune or brain proinflammatory signaling has been linked to some of the behavioral effects of alcohol. Immune signaling appears to regulate voluntary ethanol intake in rodent models, and ethanol intake activates the immune system in multiple models. This bidirectional link raises the possibility that consumption increases immune signaling, which in turn further increases consumption in a feed-forward cycle. Data from animal and human studies provide overlapping support for the involvement of immune-related genes and proteins in alcohol action, and combining animal and human data is a promising approach to systematically evaluate and nominate relevant pathways. Based on rodent models, neuroimmune pathways may represent unexplored, nontraditional targets for medication development to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent relapse. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are one class of anti-inflammatory medications that demonstrate antiaddictive properties for alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Expression of immune-related genes is altered in animals and humans following chronic alcohol exposure, and the regulatory influences of specific mRNAs, microRNAs, and activated cell types are areas of intense study. Ultimately, the use of multiple datasets combined with behavioral validation will be needed to link specific neuroimmune pathways to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25175860

  13. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  14. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot

  15. [Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on insulin sensitivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Tatjána; Fehér, János

    2009-12-06

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with lower risk for both cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. An explanation for these epidemiologic observations is not entirely clear. Alcohol raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Other potential beneficial mechanisms have been proposed including anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. The association between moderate alcohol consumption and insulin sensitivity is still under debate. Possible mechanisms include elevation of adiponectin level, reduction of C-reactive protein and suppression of free fatty acid release from adipose tissue.

  16. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  17. Chronic hydrocephalus and alcohol abuse in a young male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montisci, Massimo; Terranova, Claudio; Snenghi, Rossella; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2006-12-01

    The paper describes a case of suicide in a young man affected by compensated chronic hydrocephalus who was subject to alcohol abuse. The case was studied by means of a complex set of analyses, including circumstantial and clinical data, anatomohistopathological findings, and chemicotoxicologic tests. What clearly emerges in the case is the importance of a continuing neuropsychological follow-up in patients with shunted hydrocephalus. The forensic interest in the case is due to the peculiar autopsy findings discussed in relation to the possible causes of sudden death in subjects with hydrocephalus.

  18. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse in a general medical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, F S; Day, C M; Ungerleider, J T

    1979-08-10

    One hundred fifty consecutive, first-visit, general medical patients were simply and inexpensively screened by questionnaire, personal inquiry, and physical examination for drug and alcohol abuse. Seventeen (11.3%) currently used psychoactive drugs, excluding alcohol, and ten (6.7%) used drugs or alcohol on a daily basis to the point that the patient considered it an abuse problem. The majority of the drug and alcohol users recognized their problem on a short questionnaire that was part of a medical intake form. Almost all of the recognized abusers of drugs or alcohol subsequently entered treatment of their problem.

  19. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption among Men Consumers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Saeed; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor with acute and chronic health consequences and social impacts, which is more prominent among men. There is no precise statistics on the scope of alcohol consumption in Iran; however, there is some evidences showing an increasing trend, particularly among young generation. In order to evaluate the scope of this issue in Kerman, a large city in the south-east of Iran, this exploratory study was designed to approach a group of people having an experience of alcohol use in 2014. Samples were recruited to the study using a snowball sampling. 200 eligible subjects were questioned about the type of alcohol consumed, frequency of use, and other factors associated with alcohol consumption. In order to maximize the validity of responses, data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. The main alcoholic drinks consumed by individuals were the homemade distillates (46%), wine (22%), beer (14%), distilled spirits (11%), and medical alcohol (7%), respectively. The majority of individuals participating in the study (73%) used mostly homemade drinks; moreover, 63%, 26%, 9%, and 2% of subjects took monthly or less, two to four times a month, two to three times a week, and at least four times a week, respectively. Only 2% of the subjects were heavy consumers of alcoholic beverages. Due to the lack of control over homemade alcoholic beverages, its high levels can be a huge potential risk. Furthermore, it seems that both factors of access and price to be very effective in the amount of alcoholics taken by individuals. Therefore, further studies in this area will help to reduce the harm caused by alcohol consumption.

  20. Alcohol consumption among Oklahoma women: before and during pregnancy. The PRAMS Working Group. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, S J; Baker, K M; DePersio, S R; DeCoster, E C; Lorenz, R R

    1997-01-01

    The Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) utilizes a population-based survey of Oklahoma women with a recent live birth to examine the rates of alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy. Nearly one-half of Oklahoma women report using alcohol during the three months before pregnancy and one in thirteen women consume alcohol during the three months prior to delivery. Moderate to heavy alcohol use before pregnancy was associated with additional perinatal risk factors including unintended pregnancy, inadequate prenatal care, smoking, and physical abuse. Health providers play an important role in the prevention of alcohol related birth impairments such as fetal alcohol syndrome through early detection of problem drinking, patient education and appropriate referrals. However, one in four Oklahoma mothers report their health care provider did not talk to them about the harmful effects alcohol can have on their baby.

  1. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized...

  2. Temporal patterns of alcohol consumption and attempts to reduce alcohol intake in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank de Vocht

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Alcohol Toolkit Study (ATS is a monthly survey of approximately 1700 adults per month aged 16 years of age or more in England. We aimed to explore patterns of alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce alcohol use in England throughout the year. Methods Data from 38,372 participants who answered questions about alcohol consumption (March 2014 to January 2016 were analysed using weighted regression using the R survey package. Questions assessed alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C and attempts to reduce consumption. Results Sixty-seven percent of participants reported using alcohol, with a small negative trend of about 2 % reduction over 12 months in the studied period (P < 0.01. These include ~25 % higher risk drinkers and ~10 % regular binge drinkers. About 20 % of higher risk drinkers indicated they were attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption. Attempts were lowest in December (−20 %; 95 % CI 0–35 %, but increases significantly in January (+41 %; 95 % CI 16–73 % compared with other months (P < 0.001, indicating a small net gain; at least in attempts to reduce. However, there was no evidence that the increased motivation in January was accompanied by a reported decrease in consumption or binge drinking events. This could be an artefact of the use of AUDIT questions, but could also reflect a disconnect between attempting to reduce alcohol consumption and subsequent change; maybe as a result of lack of continuing support. Conclusions January is associated with moderate increased attempts to reduce alcohol consumption. However, we find little evidence of a change in alcohol consumption. In part, this may be due to temporal insensitivity of the AUDIT questions.

  3. Alcohol Consumption as a Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Pure) Alcohol Consumption Rates Among Adults (n = 85) .... .............. . 39 vi Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the...programs present alcohol use by adults favorably. A study of 15 of the top situation comedies and prime-time dramas in the United States over a six... Alcoholism has been found in greater numbers among persons suffering from anxiety disorders. Weissman (1988) reports that the risk of alcoholism in

  4. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of alcohol consumption with lipid profile in hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Kim, Kisok

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to be closely related with alterations in blood lipid levels as well as in blood pressure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and blood lipid levels in hypertensive men. A cross-sectional study involving participants (n = 2014) aged 20-69 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-2009. Demographic characteristics, dietary intake and medical history were obtained from the participants by questionnaire, and lipid levels were determined by analysis of blood samples. After adjusting for demographic and dietary factors, alcohol consumption was negatively associated with risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C; odds ratio (OR): 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-0.40 in heavy (≥30 g/day) drinkers; P for trend consumption (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53-2.72 in heavy drinkers; P for trend consumption. These data suggest that alcohol consumption differentially affected lipid measures according to the amount of alcohol intake in hypertensive men.

  6. Western Australian students' alcohol consumption and expenditure intentions for Schoolies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, the immediate post-school period (known as 'Schoolies') is associated with heavy drinking and high levels of alcohol-related harm. This study investigated students' intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies to inform interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm among this group. An online survey was administered to students in their senior year of schooling. Included items related to intended daily alcohol consumption during Schoolies, amount of money intended to be spent on alcohol over the Schoolies period, and past drinking behaviour. On average, participants (n=187) anticipated that they would consume eight standard drinks per day, which is substantially higher than the recommended maximum of no more than four drinks on a single occasion. Participants intended to spend an average of A$131 on alcohol over the Schoolies period. Although higher than national guidelines, intended alcohol consumption was considerably lower than has been previously documented during Schoolies events. The substantial amounts of money expected to be spent during Schoolies suggest this group has adequate spending power to constitute an attractive target market for those offering alternative activities that are associated with lower levels of alcohol-related harm.

  7. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mariaelena Pierobon; Mariam Barak; Sahel Hazrati; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Methods: Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Results: Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p = 0.04) and older s...

  8. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223 Alcohol...

  9. Alcohol dependence, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks and associated work characteristics in the Taiwan working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wan-Ju; Cheng, Yawen; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Chen, Chiou-Jong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between work characteristics and the risk of alcohol dependence across different employment types and occupations, including the pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of energy drinks and its association with alcohol dependence. A total of 13,501 men and 8584 women participated in a national survey in Taiwan. Alcohol dependence was defined as ≥2 points in the CAGE questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire recorded drinking behaviors, consumption of alcoholic energy drinks, employment type, occupation and a number of psychosocial work stressors, namely job demands, job control, employment security and workplace justice. Of the total, 9.4% of men and 0.8% of women were CAGE-positive, and 6.0% of men and 0.7% of women regularly consumed alcoholic energy drinks. In male and female regular consumers of alcoholic energy drinks, 38.7 and 23.3%, respectively, were alcohol-dependent. Multivariate regression analyses showed that male employees in manual skilled occupations, with lower workplace justice, having weekly working hours alcohol dependence. Certain occupational groups and workers with adverse psychosocial work characteristics should be targets for prevention of alcohol dependence. Alcoholic energy drink consumption should be taken into consideration while studying alcohol dependence in the work population in Taiwan.

  10. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused...

  11. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy: prevalence and provider assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana; Kettinger, Laurie; Uduhiri, Kelechi; Hurt, Lee

    2011-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of prenatal alcohol consumption and the extent of provider screening and discussion about alcohol use during pregnancy. Data were obtained from a stratified random sample of 12,611 mothers from Maryland who delivered live infants during the years 2001-2008 and completed the Maryland Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey. Analyses were conducted using Proc Surveyfreq in SAS 9.2. Nearly 8% (95% confidence interval 7.1-8.4) of mothers from Maryland reported alcohol consumption during the last 3 months of pregnancy. The highest prevalence of late-pregnancy alcohol consumption was reported by mothers who were non-Hispanic white, (10.9%, confidence interval 9.8-11.9), aged 35 years or older (13.4%, confidence interval 12.4-14.4), and college graduates (11.4%, confidence interval 10.2-12.6) (Pmothers reported that their prenatal care provider did not ask whether they were drinking alcoholic beverages, and 30% (confidence interval 28.3-30.8) reported that a healthcare provider did not counsel them about the consequences of alcohol use on the child. Reported screening and counseling were least prevalent among mothers who were non-Hispanic white, aged 35 years or older, and college graduates (P<.01). Despite the substantial number of women who continue to drink alcohol during pregnancy, healthcare providers do not routinely assess alcohol consumption or counsel all women about its harmful effects. Counseling was least prevalent among the same groups of women with the highest rates for drinking. Provider alcohol assessment, as recommended by the U.S. Surgeon General to prevent alcohol misuse, needs further promotion as a routine part of prenatal care. III.

  12. Joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on alcohol-related medical events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2017-01-01

    .001).Conclusions: High alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of alcohol-related medical events among those with low compared with high education. This interaction may be explained by differences in vulnerability and drinking patterns across educational groups. See video abstract at, http......Background: Alcohol-related mortality is more pronounced in lower than in higher socioeconomic groups in Western countries. Part of the explanation is differences in drinking patterns. However, differences in vulnerability to health consequences of alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...

  13. Alcohol consumption and reproductive health risks in rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the current study is to explore the perceived reproductive health risks associated with alcoholism from the perspective of rural communities in Kenya where abuse of illicit liquor especially among men has become an epidemic. Data for the study were gathered qualitatively through focus groups among community members and in-depth interviews with opinion leaders and key informants who were selected through a snowball method. All recorded data were analyzed through constructivist and interpretive techniques, which started with a line-by-line examination of transcripts for identification of emerging themes. Rural communities are aware of the lethal nature of the illicit liquor and the severe reproductive health problems associated with it among male consumers. Alcoholism also affects women's sexual and reproductive needs and is attributed to risky sexual behaviors in alcohol-discordant relationships, which puts them at a higher risk of HIV infection. Results indicate a need to address alcoholism in rural Kenya as a public health problem focusing on education and understanding of the long-term health consequences. Addressing the impact on male reproductive health is crucial because it impacts the wider community. Given the complex relationship between alcohol abuse and HIV/AIDS, it is also important for prevention interventions to target married women and non-alcohol consumers. Furthermore, engaging communities will ensure development of culture- and gender-specific interventions. Such engagement requires facilitation of health practitioners for development of meaningful community-based initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents: comparisons by gender and substance type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M

    2006-10-01

    The authors examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in 462 hospitalized adolescents, and the extent to which these associations may be affected by gender or by substance type. Participants completed a battery of psychometrically-sound, self-report measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the joint and independent predictors of drug abuse and alcohol abuse, for males and for females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted both drug and alcohol abuse, for both males and females. However, several differences were found with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the predictive models--with only delinquent predisposition making a significant independent contribution for all four conditions. We found distinct patterns of psychosocial predictor variables for drug and alcohol abuse, as well as distinct patterns for males and females. These results may reflect differing risk factors for drug abuse and alcohol abuse in adolescent psychiatric patients--and differing risk factors for males and females. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment.

  16. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Kasperski, Sarah J; Vincent, Kathryn B; Griffiths, Roland R; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2011-02-01

    Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from 1 large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%(wt) of students were classified as "low-frequency" energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%(wt) as "high-frequency" users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both nonusers (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.27 to 4.56, p = 0.007) and low-frequency users (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.10, 3.14, p = 0.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from nonusers on their risk for alcohol dependence. Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Identification of alcohol abuse and transition from long-term unemployment to disability pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Alcohol consumption, type of alcoholic beverage and risk of colorectal cancer at specific subsites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; de Goeij, Anton F P M; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2008-11-15

    Within the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer, we investigated associations between total alcohol consumption, specific alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) according to anatomical subsite. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Analyses were performed on 2,323 CRC cases, available after 13.3 years of follow-up. Compared to abstaining, alcohol consumption of >/=30.0 g/day ( approximately 3 alcoholic drinks) was positively associated with the risk of CRC (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06-1.65). Analyses restricted to subjects who reported to have consumed equal amounts of alcohol 5 years before baseline compared to baseline, showed elevated risk estimates for consumers of >/=30.0 g of total alcohol per day as well (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16-2.01). Suggestive of a subsite-specific effect, cancer risk seemed to increase from proximal colon through rectum; HR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.85-1.96 for proximal colon cancer, HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 0.94-2.11 for distal colon cancer, HR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.03-4.18 for rectosigmoid cancer and HR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.08-2.64 for rectal cancer. No associations were observed between consumption of alcoholic beverages and CRC risk when compared with the nondrinkers of the specific beverage and after adjustment for total alcohol intake. No evidence was found for sex-specific effects of alcohol and alcoholic beverages. In conclusion, our data showed a positive association between alcohol consumption and risk of CRC, which seemed to be mainly explained by the alcoholic content of alcoholic beverages, rather than other constituents. Also, cancer risk may vary according to anatomical subsite. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  20. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  1. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  2. Alcohol abuse, personality disorders, and aggression : The quest for a common underlying mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,

  3. [Alcohol consumption patterns and genotypes determining alcohol tolerance in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Constanza P; Flores, Sergio V

    2015-06-01

    Alleles involved in inefficient (ADH1B2*2 and ALDH2*2) or efficient (SNP6, ADH4 gene) alcohol metabolism may influence the risk of alcoholism. Alcoholism susceptibility has been classified as protector and risk-dependence phenotypes, associated with inefficient and efficient alcohol genetic metabolizing variants, respectively. To investigate the possible association between genetic protective and risk-dependence variants and alcohol intake patterns. Saliva DNA samples were obtained and the AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) questionnaire was applied to 210 university students aged between 18 and 25 years old. No statistically significant association between protective or risk-dependence genetic variants and alcohol pattern intake was detected. However, new categories of alcohol intake patterns-not included in the AUDIT questionnaire-were identified. No association between the protector and risk-dependence phenotypes and patterns of alcohol consumption was detected in this sample of students.

  4. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  5. [Consequences for the newborn of alcohol consumption during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, S; Simmat-Durand, L; Crenn-Hébert, C; Simonpoli, A-M; Vellut, N; Genest, L; Miossec, E; Lejeune, C

    2010-09-01

    This paper aims at showing the immediate and long-term consequences affecting newborns whose mothers did not reduce or stop their consumption of alcohol when they were pregnant; these women were chosen among women who also used psychoactive substances. A retrospective cohort was constituted of babies who were found to have been exposed in utero to one or more legal or illegal psychoactive substance(s) and who were born or hospitalized between 1999 and 2008 in a hospital near Paris. Among the cohort of 170 babies, 56 had mothers who had not modified their alcohol consumption when they were pregnant, 30 had mothers who had reduced their alcohol consumption, and 84 had mothers who declared having been abstinent. The babies born to mothers who did not modify their alcohol consumption when pregnant were more likely to be premature (30%) and hospitalized in the neonatology hospital unit (60.7%). They needed specific care for durations significantly longer than the babies exposed in utero to other psychoactive substances (Pconsumption when pregnant, these mothers should be identified and provided with better care. The successful strategies for early therapeutic interventions used in other countries should be studied as examples. This would make it possible to reduce the enormous financial, material and human costs that are a direct consequence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierobon, Mariaelena; Barak, Mariam; Hazrati, Sahel; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between alcohol and violence among Argentine youth. Data from the 2007 Argentina Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS), a nationally representative survey of middle school students, were examined using age-adjusted logistic regression models. Of the 1,328 participating students aged 13 to 15 years old, 51.9% reported drinking alcohol in the previous month, with higher rates among males (p=0.04) and older students (pbullying, used tobacco or drugs, or skipped school without permission were approximately twice as likely as other drinkers to have engaged in violent activities. Public health interventions targeting violence among young adolescents should be developed in combination with alcohol education programs. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  8. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lertpitakpong Chanida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1 cost components included in the estimation; (2 the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.

  9. Impact of Cross-Sectoral Alcohol Policy on Youth Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Jacobs, Monique A M; van Nierop, Peter; van der Veeken-Vlassak, Ivanka A G; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Harting, Janneke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-07-01

    Cross-sectoral alcohol policy is recommended to reduce youth alcohol consumption, but little evidence is available on its effectiveness. Therefore, we examined whether regions and municipalities in the Dutch province of Noord-Brabant with stronger cross-sectoral alcohol policy showed larger reductions in alcohol consumption among adolescents aged 12-15. Strong regional cross-sectoral alcohol policy was defined as participation in a regional alcohol prevention program. Strong municipal cross-sectoral alcohol policy was operationalized by measures on (a) sector variety: involvement of different policy sectors, and (b) strategy variety: formulation of different policy strategies. Relevant data from policy documents were searched for on the Internet. Data on trends in alcohol consumption were extracted from the 2007 and 2011 cross-sectional Youth Health Monitor that includes a random subset of adolescents aged 12-15 (n = 15,380 in 2007 and n = 15,437 in 2011). We used multilevel regression models. Two of the three regions in which municipalities participated in a regional alcohol prevention program showed a larger reduction in weekly drinking than the region in which municipalities did not participate (-12.2% and -13.4% vs. -8.3%). Municipalities with strong compared to weak sector variety showed a larger increase in adolescents' age at consuming their first alcoholic drink (0.63 vs. 0.42 years). Municipalities with strong strategy variety showed a decrease (-3.8%) in heavy weekly drinking, whereas those with weak variety showed an increase (5.1%). Cross-sectoral alcohol policy did not affect trends in other alcohol outcomes. Our results suggest that strong cross-sectoral alcohol policy may contribute to reducing some aspects of youth alcohol consumption. Monitoring policy implementation is needed to assess the full impact.

  10. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  11. [Excessive alcohol consumption: what is the burden on natural caregivers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoertel, N; Crochard, A; Limosin, F; Rouillon, F

    2014-04-01

    Data on the natural caregivers burdened by the excessive consumption of alcohol by members of the family circle or friends in the general population are lacking. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (i) to assess the burden of individuals with excessive alcohol consumption on natural caregivers and (ii) to examine the factors explaining the association between alcohol consumption and the level of burden. Data were derived from a national representative survey of the French adult population, conducted in 2013, that involved 1018 participants who had in their close environment a person consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. The level of burden was assessed using the Zarit Burden Scale (ZBI). The average score of the ZBI was 28.5 (SE=16.0). The average volume of alcohol consumed per day, heavy drinking days, as well as the consumers' profiles defined by the AUDIT-C were significantly associated with the level of burden. Following adjustments for the participants' characteristics and for the closeness between participants and individuals with excessive consumption, these associations remained significant. Following adjustments for these variables as well as demographic, social, behavioral and medical characteristics of individuals with excessive consumption, the associations between the level of burden and respectively consumers' profiles and heavy drinking days remained significant. At last, following adjustments for social, behavioral and medical characteristics of individuals with excessive consumption and for the closeness between them and participants, only the association between heavy drinking days and the level of burden remained significant. One out of five participants having in their close environment a person consuming excessive amount of alcohol reported an important burden. The association between the individuals' alcohol intake and the level of burden for natural caregivers was mainly influenced by social, behavioral and medical consequences of alcohol

  12. Glass shape influences consumption rate for alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-01-01

    High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions.

  13. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  14. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Silva Freire Coutinho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA. This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence, and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

  15. Effect of Chronic Alcohol Consumption on Phosphatidylcholine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between alcohol-induced oxidative stress and tissue phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PC-OOH) content of rat liver and brain. Methods: Ten Wistar rats were divided into two groups: one group was given 20 % ethanol (5 g/kg) and the other the same volume of normal saline, orally ...

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Vietnam, and the Use of 'Standard Drinks' to Measure Alcohol Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bui, Tan; Blizzard, C Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Van Truong, Ngoc Le; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark R; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2016-03-01

    To provide nationally representative data on alcohol consumption in Vietnam and to assess whether reported numbers of 'standard drinks' consumed have evidence of validity (particularly in rural areas where home-made alcohol is consumed from cups of varying size). A nationally representative population-based survey of 14,706 participants (46.5% males, response proportion 64.1%) aged 25-64 years in Vietnam. Measurements were made in accordance with WHO STEPS protocols. Data were analysed using complex survey methods. Among men, 80% reported drinking alcohol during the last year, and 40% were hazardous/harmful drinkers. Approximately 60% of men and alcohol during the last week, with one-in-four of the men reporting having consumed at least five standard drinks on at least one occasion. Numbers of standard drinks reported by men were associated with blood pressure/hypertension, particularly in rural areas (P alcohol consumption was provided by binary responses to questions on whether or not alcohol had been consumed during the reference period. Alcohol use and harmful consumption were common among Vietnamese men but less pronounced than in Western nations. Self-reports of quantity of alcohol consumed in terms of standard drinks had predictive validity for blood pressure and hypertension even in rural areas. However, using detailed measures of consumption resulted in only minor improvements in prediction compared to simple measures. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  17. Drugs of abuse consumption in health professionals (physicians and nurses from two outpatient services of first level attention in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Hidalgo Catalina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to establish the prevalence of drugs of abuse consumption in physiciansand nurses in two health institutions in Bogota outpatient identify the frequency of consumption,to establish the prevalence of alcoholism using the CAGE questionnaire and explore the interestparticipate in prevention or reduction of consumption in the workplace. Materials and methods: Across-sectional study by applying an anonymous survey. Results: There were 58 questionnaires (38in physicians and 20 nurses. The substances most consumed in both groups were alcohol, cigarettesand energy drinks, followed on medical by marijuana in nursing followed by barbiturates, antidepressants,amphetamines and opiates. The prevalence of alcoholism was greater than 8% in bothgroups. 58% of physicians and 70% of nurses would participate in the design of occupational healthprograms to reduce the consumption of psychoactive substances. Conclusions: The use of drugs ofabuse is higher that found in the literature for most of the substances in the general population andis similar to the revised health personnel. It recommends the formulation and implementation ofcorporate policy within the framework of occupational health work of these institutions, aimed atreducing and preventing the consumption of psychoactive substances.

  18. Alcohol outlet availability and excessive alcohol consumption in breast cancer survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Deshpande, Anjali D.; Lynskey, Michael; Pruitt, Sandi L.; Lian, Min; Jeffe, Donna B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer survivors who consume alcohol excessively are at increased risk of recurrence and have worse prognosis. Because the environments in which people live shape many health behaviors, there has been increased attention to how neighborhood environments (e.g., alcohol outlet availability) may influence alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that proximity to alcohol outlets increases the likelihood of excessive consumption (i.e., more than one drink/day) among breast cancer survivors independent of their personal or neighborhood characteristics. Methods With the Missouri Cancer Registry, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1047 female breast cancer survivors (aged 27–96 years) one year after diagnosis. Using telephone interviews, we obtained data regarding survivors’ alcohol consumption during the past 30 days and several covariates of alcohol use. We also obtained street addresses of all licensed alcohol outlets in Missouri and calculated the road network distance between a participant’s address of residence and the nearest alcohol outlet using a geographic information system. We used logistic regression to determine if distance was independently associated with excessive alcohol consumption or not. Results Eighteen percent of participants reported consuming more than one drink on average per day. Women who lived within 3 miles of the nearest outlet were more likely to report excessive alcohol consumption (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.08 – 4.05) than women who lived at least 3 miles from the nearest outlet in adjusted analysis. Discussion Opportunities exist to reduce excessive alcohol use among breast cancer survivors through policy (e.g., restricting number of alcohol outlets) and behavioral (e.g., counseling) interventions. PMID:23799690

  19. College student perceptions on campus alcohol policies and consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brenda L; Roberts, Katherine J; Donnelly, Joseph W; Rutledge, Imani N

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422 freshman students was surveyed during their first month at a 4-year public college. Findings indicated that the majority of students (89%) were aware of campus policies, yet of those who were aware, less than half (44%) were accepting of these campus rules and regulations. In addition, the majority (79%) of students drank at social events, despite this behavior being in direct violation of campus alcohol policies. However, those who supported campus rules consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who opposed or had no opinion of the rules. Also, those who supported the rules perceived that their peers and students in general consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who were opposed or had no opinion. This outcome supports the premise established by several theories of behavior change including the theory of planned behavior, which state that behavior is influenced less by knowledge than by attitude and intention.

  20. Factors associated with alcohol consumption among male high school students in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore factors associated with alcohol consumption among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred eighty-four male students from central Thailand were classified into 2 groups according to alcohol consumption during the past year (yes = 916, no = 4,268). Data were collected by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking behavior during the previous year from December 2007 to February 2008. Descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Seventeen point seven percent of male high school students in this study reported consuming alcohol. Most of the students (73.4%) were 15 years old or younger. Univariate analysis revealed socio-demographic factors, such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA), having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol consumption (p alcohol consumption: the educational level (OR MS3 = 2.69, 95% CI 2.07-3.49; OR MS5 = 5.50, 95% CI 4.25-7.13), cohabitants (OR Friends = 3.09, 95% CI 1.38-6.93), having a job earning money (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-1.66), having family members with alcohol/drug problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), and GPA (OR 3 = 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75). Approximately 38% drank more than 2 times a month, 35% drank more than 4 drinks each time, 60% experienced binge drinking, and 43% experienced drunkenness. These results suggest alcohol abuse preventive measures among male high school students should take into account education level, cohabitants, having a job earning money, family members with alcohol/drug problems and GPA. Education regarding the disadvantages of alcohol to risk groups could reduce the proportion of new and current drinkers.

  1. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  2. Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Kanteres, Fotis; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2010-07-01

    This contribution aims to examine systematically the evidence on the impact of the quality of unrecorded alcohol products on health consequences. Systematic computer assisted review of the literature. There are a number of pathways related to alcohol quality that may lead to acute or chronic health problems. The following constituents and contaminants of alcoholic beverages were identified as likely contributors to these problems: (i) toxic metals (e.g. lead) from contaminated water sources or unsuitable distillation equipment; (ii) volatile constituents, such as acetaldehyde or higher alcohols, which may be produced in significant amounts due to faults in production technology or microbiological spoilage; (iii) ethyl carbamate (urethane), a carcinogenic contaminant with major occurrence in certain fruit and sugarcane spirits; (iv) biologically active flavour compounds (e.g. coumarin in cosmetics used as non-beverage alcohol); (v) toxic compounds used to denature alcohol (e.g. methanol or diethyl phthalate). In addition, the often higher ethanol content may have detrimental health effects. These pathways should not be assumed as present for all subcategories of unrecorded alcohol, but are more relevant to certain types and geographic regions. A health impact of unrecorded alcohol over and above the effect of ethanol cannot be excluded. More research is urgently needed, especially with respect to liver disease and alcohol poisoning as endpoints. A feasible approach for new research on the effects of unrecorded alcohol could be based on a representative sample from low socioeconomic regions with high prevalence of unrecorded consumption.

  3. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K

    2014-01-01

    with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. IMPACT: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer....... cancer-specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association...... with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. CONCLUSION: There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer-specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated...

  5. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975...... and 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided...... if alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused...

  6. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Katherine R; Largo, Thomas W; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D

    2015-11-12

    Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking.

  7. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  8. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results.

  9. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  10. Do general practitioners record alcohol abuse in the electronic medical records? : A comparison of survey and medical record data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; van den Akker, M.; van de Mheen, D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse

  11. Alcohol consumption and cycling in contrast to driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeister, Carmen; Kronmaier, Markus

    2017-08-01

    In Germany, the legal blood alcohol limit for cyclists is much higher (0.16 percent) than the limit for drivers (0.05 percent) - as long as no crash has occurred. The proportion of police-recorded crashes with personal damage under the influence is higher for cyclists than drivers, and the blood alcohol concentrations are higher for cyclists than drivers. 63 women and 204 men who drive a car and use a bike and drink alcohol participated in the online study. In the sample, cycling under the influence (CUI) was more frequent and was observed more frequently among friends than driving under the influence (DUI). Persons who use a particular vehicle type more often in general and when they visit friends also use it more often after alcohol consumption. Persons who drink alcohol more often cycle more often after alcohol consumption. In all aspects covered, drink cycling was seen as more acceptable and less dangerous than drink driving. Persons who cycle more often under the influence observe drink cycling more often among their friends. They think they are less of a danger to themselves and others when cycling after alcohol consumption, and they agree less with the statement that one should leave one's bike parked after alcohol consumption. The attitudes that drinking is unsafe for one's own driving and that one should leave one's car parked are important predictors of (non-)drink driving. For cycling, the most important predictors are bike use frequency and observing drink cycling among friends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Cardiovascular risk parameters, metabolic syndrome and alcohol consumption by workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, María Teófila; López González, Ángel Arturo; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, María Victoria; Capdevila-García, Luisa; Terradillos-García, María Jesús; Aguilar-Jiménez, Encarna

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of alcohol consumption is high in the general population and generates specific problems at the workplace. To establish benchmarks between levels of alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk variables and metabolic syndrome. A cross-sectional study of 7,644 workers of Spanish companies (2,828 females and 4,816 males). Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk was assessed using Framingham calibrated for the Spanish population (REGICOR) and SCORE, and metabolic syndrome was assessed using modified ATPIII and IDF criteria and Castelli and atherogenic index and triglycerides/HDL ratio. A multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression and odds ratios were estimated. Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean values of the different parameters studied in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, for both sexes and with modified ATPIII, IDF and REGICOR and SCORE. The sex, age, alcohol, and smoking variables were associated to cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome. Physical exercise and stress are only associated to with some of them. The alcohol consumption affects all cardiovascular risk parameters and metabolic syndrome, being more negative the result in high level drinkers. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. The costs of hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effertz, Tobias; Verheyen, Frank; Linder, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption in Germany is a main threat to health. By using insurance claim data from the German Statutory Health Insurance and a classification strategy based on ICD10 diagnoses-codes we analyzed a sample of 146,000 subjects with more than 19,000 hazardous alcohol consumers. Employing different regression models with a control function approach, we calculate life years lost due to alcohol consumption, annual direct and indirect health costs, and the burden of pain and suffering measured by the Charlson-Index and assessed pain diagnoses. Additionally, we simulate the net accumulated premium payments over expenses in the German Statutory Health Insurance and the Statutory Pension Fund for hazardous alcohol consumers from a lifecycle perspective. In total, €39.3 billion each year result from hazardous alcohol consumption with an average loss of 7 years in life expectancy. Hazardous alcohol consumers clearly do not "pay their way" in the two main German social security systems and also display a higher intangible burden according to our definitions of pain and suffering.

  14. Alcohol consumption in early adolescence and medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás Santiesteban, Tania

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol consumptionin adolescents is a risky behavior that can be prevented. Objective. To determine health care and alcohol consumption pattern in early adolescence and its relation to determinants of health (biological, environmental, social and health system factors). A qualitative-quantitative, crosssectional study was carried out in the four schools belonging to Popular Council 8 of Mario Gutiérrez Ardaya health sector in May, 2013. The study universe was made up of adolescents aged 10-14. The sample was determined through a simple randomized sampling. Surveys were administered to adolescents, parents, educators and senior health staff members to determine alcohol consumption, medical care quality and level of knowledge on the problem. A nominal group with health professionals was created. Two hundred and eighty eight adolescents were included. 54.5% were alcohol users, of which 30.2% were 10-11 years old. Those classified as low risk were prevailing (55.6%). 100% of the senior health staff expressed the need for a methodology of care. 90.4% of education staff considered adolescence as a vulnerable stage. Relatives reported that there should be adolescent-specific medical appointments (61.8%). The nominal group's most important opinions were based on the main features that a consultation for adolescents should have and on the problems hindering proper care. Alcohol consumption was considered high and early start prevailed. Insufficient care to early adolescents who use alcohol was made evident. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  15. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  16. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to

  17. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    OpenAIRE

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century...

  18. Consumption of alcohol and risk of alcohol addiction among students in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Witowski, Łukasz; Pawlik, Aleksandra; Krysta, Krzysztof; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in our society is a known, and a widely discussed problem, due to the proven negative impact of excessive usage of spirits on health. Aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of consumption, and risk of an alcoholic disease among Polish students. Study was carried out using an authors' own questionnaire, made of a queries about amount and frequency of alcohol consumption, risky behaviors and knowledge about alcoholism. Research was conducted through community portals (f.e. facebook.com), and within 3 weeks time (from a 10(th) of January to 31(st) of January 2013) 1300 students from different Polish universities participated in it. Out of them, after removal of inadequate questionnaires, group of 1259 students (822 females, 437 males) was selected for further analysis. Average age equaled to 21.5, with the maximum of 27 and minimum of 18 years. For the statistical analysis StatSoft "Statistica" 10.0 software was used. The study shows that 95.5% of students use alcohol (mostly beer and vodka) and they tend to overuse it. 28.86% of respondents drank excessively more than 3 times during the month preceding research, 46% of subjects also had an alcoholic palimpsest more than once, 12.7% need an alcohol to enjoy a party and 0.83% of respondents can't control the amount of a one-time alcohol consumption. 3.32% of students may be in the group of a high alcoholism risk. Alcohol consumption is a common problem among Polish students. Most of respondents, mostly males, drink excessively and potentially risky for their health. There is a remarkable group of students endangered with alcohol addiction.

  19. Effects of alcohol-induced working memory decline on alcohol consumption and adverse consequences of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, William V; Day, Anne M; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M; Kahler, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose-dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trail Making Test-B). Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3 % male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30-day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one's ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use.

  20. Alcohol Consumption, Peer Influence and Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influences of Acohol Consumption peer influence and secodnary school stuents attitudes towards schol in some selected secodnary shools in Katsit, Kafanchan, Kaduna State. The study adopted a correlational research design and the population of this study was 200 senior students from four (4) ...