The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P; Urrutia, Maria T; Villarruel, Antonia M; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo ) in interventions targeting Hispanics.
... HIV/AIDS, Botswana, poverty, NGOs. RÉSUMÉ L\\'existence de la violence sexiste fut une source d\\'inquiétude dans les secteurs publics et privés ainsi que dans des organisations de la société civile au Botswana. Cette étude a mené une enquête sur le lien entre l\\'abus d\\'alcool, la violence sexiste et le VIH/SIDA. De plus ...
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda
Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants' mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among participants was 35%. Using multivariate logistic regression, factors independently associated with IPV included having experienced abuse as a child, a partner who had sex with someone else, and lower sexual relationship power. Our findings suggest the need for previous abuse screening and violence prevention services for FSWs in the Mexico-U.S. border region. Careful consideration of relationship dynamics such as infidelity and relationship power is warranted when assessing for IPV risk.
Williams, John K; Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa
We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest.
Seth, Puja; Wingood, Gina M; Robinson, LaShun S; Raiford, Jerris L; DiClemente, Ralph J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with risky sexual behavior and STIs among diverse groups of women. IPV was examined as a moderator of efficacy for an HIV/STI intervention. 848 African American women, 18-29, were randomly assigned to an HIV/STI intervention or control condition. Participants completed measures on sociodemographics, IPV, risky sexual behavior and received STI testing. IPV predicted inconsistent condom use and a risky sexual partner over 12-month follow-up. A significant interaction indicated that among women who experienced IPV, those in the intervention were more likely to test positive for Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Among intervention participants, those who experienced IPV were more likely to test TV-positive than those who did not. In an HIV intervention that did not specifically address IPV, women in the control condition were less likely to acquire TV than those in the intervention. Consideration of contextual/interpersonal factors is essential when developing HIV intervention programs.
González-Guarda, Rosa Maria; McCabe, Brian E; Leblanc, Natalie; De Santis, Joseph P; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias
The purpose of this study was to confirm the substance abuse, violence, HIV, and depression syndemic among Hispanic men, and to test whether stress and sociocultural factors, including acculturation, family support, and sexual orientation, predict this syndemic. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 164 Hispanic men using standardized measures for Hispanic Stress (Cervantes, Padilla, & Salgado de Snyder, 1991), substance abuse (Kelly et al., 1994), violence (Peragallo et al., 2005), risk for HIV (González-Guarda, Peragallo, Urrutia, Vasquez, & Mitrani, 2008), and depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale, CES-D; Radloff, 1977). Results from Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) supported the syndemic factor among Hispanic men. While family/cultural stress and homosexual identity were risk factors for the syndemic factor, family support was protective. More longitudinal research is needed to identify influences on the syndemic factor among diverse Hispanic communities. Interventions that address stress and enhance family supports may show promise in addressing and preventing syndemics among Hispanic men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others
Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)
Koenig, Linda J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Royce, Rachel A.; Wilson, Tracey E.; Callahan, Michelle R.; Fernandez, M. Isabel
Objectives. This study estimated the prevalence of violence during pregnancy in relation to HIV infection. Methods. Violence, current partnerships, and HIV risk behaviors were assessed among 336 HIV-seropositive and 298 HIV-seronegative at-risk pregnant women. Results. Overall, 8.9% of women experienced recent violence; 21.5% currently had abusive partners. Violence was experienced by women in all partnership categories (range = 3.8% with nonabusive partners to 53.6% with physically abusive partners). Neither experiencing violence nor having an abusive partner differed by serostatus. Receiving an HIV diagnosis prenatally did not increase risk. Disclosure-related violence occurred, but was rare. Conclusions. Many HIV-infected pregnant women experience violence, but it is not typically attributable to their serostatus. Prenatal services should incorporate screening and counseling for all women at risk for violence. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:367–370) PMID:11867312
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam
Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, "regretful past", "disappointing future", "loneliness", and "no other option", which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women.
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among par...
Ascione, Frank R.
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
Meade, Christina S; Kershaw, Trace S; Hansen, Nathan B; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substance abuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substance abuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Decker, Michele R; Pearson, Erin; Illangasekare, Samantha L; Clark, Erin; Sherman, Susan G
Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Adult women involved in sex work (n = 35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, compromised women's condom and sexual negotiation, and included forced and coerced anal intercourse. Sex work was a factor in intimate partner violence. Police abuse was largely an exploitation of power imbalances for coerced sex. Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence, particularly that perpetrated by clients, as a social determinant of health for women in sex work, as well as a threat to safety and wellbeing, and a contextual barrier to HIV risk reduction.
Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.
de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Seibel, Sergio Dario
OBJECTIVES To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2). Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1) of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement). Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems. PMID:19759879
Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals,
Abuse against animals is an indicator of children's maladjustment associated with domestic violence. This study empirically assesses the effects of exposure to interparental violence on animal abuse in 1,392 Italian youth aged 9 to 17. Results indicate that half of all youth ever abused animals, with boys more often involved than girls. Almost half of the whole sample has been exposed to violence by fathers against mothers or by mothers against fathers, with no gender differences. Results are...
This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P; De Santis, Joseph
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241 and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235 in California (70% response rate to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing, and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status. We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex
Timko, Christine; Valenstein, Helen; Lin, Patricia Y; Moos, Rudolf H; Stuart, Gregory L; Cronkite, Ruth C
Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program's mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical needs. However, policy change can modify
Guterman, Neil B.
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…
Mahnaz Shoghi, MSN
Conclusion: The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Solomon, Suniti; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Solomon, Sunil S; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C; Vasudevan, C K; Anand, Santhanam; Ganesh, Aylur K; Celentano, David D
This article examined the prevalence of physical and sexual violence among 1,974 married women from 40 low-income communities in Chennai, India. The authors found a 99% and 75% lifetime prevalence of physical abuse and forced sex, respectively, whereas 65% of women experienced more than five episodes of physical abuse in the 3 months preceding the survey. Factors associated with violence after multivariate adjustment included elementary/middle school education and variables suggesting economic insecurity. These domestic violence rates exceed those in prior Indian reports, suggesting women in slums may be at increased risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
Shoghi, Mahnaz; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shirazi, Fateme; Heidari, Shiva; Salemi, Sedighe; Mirzabeigi, Ghazanfar
The rising rate of violence and abuse in health care centers has become a major problem for nurses. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore the prevalence of assaults during nurses' careers in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Self-report questionnaires were filled out by 1,317 nurses. Verbal abuse was experienced by 87.4% of the population during a 6-month period, and physical violence by 27.6% during the same period of time. No physical harm was reported in 66.4% of cases. Only 35.9% cases of verbal abuse and 49.9% cases of physical violence were actually reported. The majority of cases reported that abuse was followed by either inaction or by actions which failed to satisfy the victim. According to the findings, men were exposed to more abuse than women, and the risk of experiencing abuse was higher in nurses with more job experience or who worked more hours. Also, nurses who are responsible for first aid were subjected to more abuse than those in other positions. The findings showed a noticeable trend of a rising number of assaults against nurses. The findings of this study may help hospital staff and nurses to avoid, reduce and control violence and abuse.
Domestic violence and child abuses especially as perpetrated by men and linked to alcohol abuse is an issue well covered in what I term conventional liberal scholarship. In this I deploy Maria Lugones' decolonising feminism theory in which the position of the black women is at the bottom of the human hierarchy and the ...
Lewis, Ione R.
Child sexual abuse in Papua New Guinea is a human rights issue as well as an indicator of HIV risk in women. This study aimed to develop knowledge about the link between violence experienced by women and their HIV status. The study used a mixed method approach to collect quantitative and qualitative data through structured interviews with a sample…
Bhandari, Mohit; Dosanjh, Sonia; Tornetta, Paul; Matthews, David
Domestic violence is the most common cause of nonfatal injury to women in the United States, with an estimated cost of $50 billion annually. Little is known about the spectrum of musculoskeletal injuries in victims of domestic violence. We examined the characteristics of abused women, the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, and the variables associated with increasing frequency of physical violence against women. We identified all female survivors of intimate partner violence who were referred to the Minnesota Domestic Abuse Program from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2003. Characteristics of each woman's background, abuse history, and injuries were obtained by a trained program therapist in an in-depth, 2-hour intake interview. Specific data forms were completed for each interview. Five forms of experienced abuse were explored (physical, emotional, psychological, sexual, and financial). Injuries were subcategorized as (1) head and neck, (2) musculoskeletal, (3) chest, (4) abdomen, and (5) skin (integumentary system). We conducted regression analyses to determine factors associated with the frequency of physical abuse. Of 270 potentially eligible women, 263 (97%) with complete records were included. Women were commonly Caucasian (62%) in their third decade of life with one or more children (87%). A history of abuse was recalled by over half of the women (54%). The most prevalent forms of abuse were emotional (84%), psychological (68%), physical (43%), sexual (41%), and financial (38%). Child protective services were concomitantly involved in half of the women living in abusive relationships. Among those women who reported physical abuse, 36% sought medical attention. We identified 144 injuries in 218 physically abused women. Head and neck injuries were the most prevalent after intimate partner violence (40%). Musculoskeletal injuries were the second most common manifestation of intimate partner violence (28%). The spectrum of injuries included sprains (n
Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee
Children's exposure to violence increases their risk for later victimisation and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the relative influence of child abuse, adolescent violence, peer approval of violence and pro-violence attitudes on later IPV is not well established. Analyses focus on the prediction of adult IPV from variables measured in childhood and adolescence to establish the unique influence of earlier victimisation and perpetration of violence, as well as other variables grounded in theory and empirical findings. Data are from a longitudinal study that began in the 1970s with a sample of 457 preschool-aged children who were reassessed as adults. Outcomes of adult IPV victimisation and perpetration types were regressed on predictors of parent-reported child abuse, officially recorded child maltreatment, adolescent victimisation, violence perpetration, pro-violence attitudes and peer approval of violence during adolescence, controlling for childhood Socio Economic Status (SES), age in adolescence and gender. Dating violence victimisation and peer approval of dating violence in adolescence emerged as the unique predictors of IPV victimisation and perpetration in adulthood. Official child maltreatment predicted IPV perpetration. Results underscore the importance of prevention programmes and strategies to disrupt the cycle of violence at its early stages, as well as interventions during adolescence targeting peer influences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L
Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. © The Author(s) 2014.
We focus on an emerging trend in the context of domestic violence-the use of technology to facilitate stalking and other forms of abuse. Surveys with 152 domestic violence advocates and 46 victims show that technology-including phones, tablets, computers, and social networking websites-is commonly used in intimate partner stalking. Technology was used to create a sense of the perpetrator's omnipresence, and to isolate, punish, and humiliate domestic violence victims. Perpetrators also threatened to share sexualized content online to humiliate victims. Technology-facilitated stalking needs to be treated as a serious offense, and effective practice, policy, and legal responses must be developed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Berberich, H J; Neubauer, H
Criminal statistics say that 300,000 children are sexually abused in the Federal Republic of Germany every year: 70-75% are abused by their own fathers or another psychological parent. Most victims are girls aged 7-12 years. Sexual abuse during childhood can lead to severe psychosomatic dysfunctions both in children and adults. Possible long-term results are depression, anxiety, emotional and cognitive problems, personal dysfunction, eating and sleeping disorders, alcohol or drug abuse, relationship problems, social maladaptation, and somatizations. Many urological dysfunctions without organic findings can be caused by sexual abuse. Among others, chronic pelvic pain (CPPS), enuresis, incontinence, and sexual dysfunction can occur. When children or adults see the urologist because of their symptoms there is always the danger of reproducing the abusive event by invasive diagnostic methods.Sometimes harming themselves the patients bring this situation about unconsciously. With the following article we want to heighten the awareness among urologists.
Conclusion: HIV-positive status predisposes pregnant women to increased intimate partner violence more of emotional nature further underlying the enormity of social rejection suffered as a result of HIV infection. Intimate partner violence screening should form part of their routine antenatal care. Key words. HIV-Related ...
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are intersecting epidemics in South Africa (SA). Despite recognition that IPV and HIV are bidirectionally linked, less attention has been given to mental health – a key health condition that is at the nexus of both violence and HIV/AIDS. While SA healthcare professionals have made ...
Pinn, Vivian W.; Chunko, Mary T.
Difficulty in identifying and eliciting information on domestic abuse is exacerbated by social, economic, and cultural factors. Study of the relationships between race/ethnicity/culture and domestic violence must be incorporated into both research and medical school curricula to sensitize students and enable them to develop skills for detecting,…
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
... to services in their state. The Legal Services Corporation also provides a search tool to find legal ... in the May 2013 Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act , which amended the Indian Civil Rights Act to ...
Gracia, Enrique; Rodriguez, Christina M; Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Lila, Marisol
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.
Guterman, Neil B
Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.
Gomez, Anu Manchikanti
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G
Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ganju, Deepika; Saggurti, Niranjan
Among marginalised groups in India, HIV prevalence is highest among transgender persons; however, little is known about their HIV vulnerability. This study describes transgender sex workers' experiences of stigma and violence, a key driver of the HIV epidemic, and explores their coping responses. In-depth interviews were conducted with 68 respondents in Maharashtra state, India. Findings show that respondents face pervasive stigma and violence due to multiple marginalised social identities (transgender status, sex work, gender non-conformity), which reinforce and intersect with social inequities (economic and housing insecurity, employment discrimination, poverty), fuelling HIV vulnerability at the micro, meso and macro levels. Several factors, such as felt and internalised stigma associated with psycho-social distress and low self-efficacy to challenge abuse and negotiate condom use; clients' power in sexual transactions; establishing trust in regular partnerships through condomless sex; norms condoning violence against gender non-conforming persons; lack of community support; police harassment; health provider discrimination and the sex work environment create a context for HIV vulnerability. In the face of such adversity, respondents adopt coping strategies to shift power relations and mobilise against abuse. Community mobilisation interventions, as discussed in the paper, offer a promising vulnerability reduction strategy to safeguard transgender sex workers' rights and reduce HIV vulnerability.
Pantelic, Marija; Boyes, Mark; Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska
Internalized HIV stigma is a key risk factor for negative outcomes amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), including non-adherence to anti-retroviral treatment, loss-to-follow-up and morbidity. This study tested a theoretical model of multi-level risk pathways to internalized HIV stigma among South African ALHIV. From 2013 to 2015, a survey using t otal population sampling of ALHIV who had ever initiated anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in 53 public health facilities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa was conducted. Community-tracing ensured inclusion of ALHIV who were defaulting from ART or lost to follow-up. 90.1% of eligible ALHIV were interviewed ( n = 1060, 55% female, mean age = 13.8, 21% living in rural locations). HIV stigma mechanisms (internalized, enacted, and anticipated), HIV-related disability, violence victimization (physical, emotional, sexual abuse, bullying victimization) were assessed using well-validated self-report measures. Structural equation modelling was used to test a theoretically informed model of risk pathways from HIV-related disability to internalized HIV stigma. The model controlled for age, gender and urban/rural address. Prevalence of internalized HIV stigma was 26.5%. As hypothesized, significant associations between internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, as well as depression were obtained. Unexpectedly, HIV-related disability, victimization, and enacted stigma were not directly associated with internalized stigma. Instead significant pathways were identified via anticipated HIV stigma and depression. The model fitted the data well (RMSEA = .023; CFI = .94; TLI = .95; WRMR = 1.070). These findings highlight the complicated nature of internalized HIV stigma. Whilst it is seemingly a psychological process, indirect pathways suggest multi-level mechanisms leading to internalized HIV stigma. Findings suggest that protection from violence within homes, communities and schools may interrupt risk pathways from HIV
Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Slep, Amy M Smith; Heyman, Richard E; Garrido, Edward
This article addresses the following questions: (a) How common is child abuse among domestically violent families? (b) Are there specific patterns of child abuse among domestically violent families? (c) What may explain occurrences of child abuse in domestically violent families? (d) How might domestic violence affect treatment for child abuse? We review research on child abuse in the context of domestic violence. We discuss implications of this research for service-delivery programs for domestically violent families.
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh
Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.
Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato
To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This
Full Text Available Research and specialised practice indicate that women who are abused by their intimate partners are at an increasing risk the longer the abuse continues. Many men show escalating violent behaviour toward their female partners and many women are killed by their partners (Roche, 1999:24. Several researchers (Artz, 1999:2; Damon, 2003:94; Flinck, Paavilainen & Asredt-Kurki, 2005:383; Gelles, 1999:168; Vincent & Jouriles, 2002:7 view domestic violence as a leading cause of female injury in almost every country. Dwyer, Smokowski, Bricout and Wodarski (1995:185 claim that injuries as a result of domestic violence are more common than from muggings, car accidents and death resulting from cancer combined
The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.
Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R
Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.
Pando, María A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, María M.
Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex. PMID:23342092
María A Pando
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence against female sex workers (FSWs has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. METHODS: A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. RESULTS: Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907 of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234 reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215 reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236 stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. CONCLUSION: The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.
Pando, María A; Coloccini, Romina S; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Montano, Silvia M; Avila, María M
Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.
Milaniak, Izabela; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Objective: To examine the extent to which abused and neglected children perpetrate three different types of violence within and outside the home: criminal, child abuse, and intimate partner violence and determine whether childhood maltreatment leads to an increased risk for poly-violence perpetration. Method: Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n = 676) were matched with children without such histories (n = 520) and assessed in young adulthood (average age 29). Official criminal records in conjunction with self-report data were used to assess violent outcomes. Results: Compared to the control group, individuals with histories of child abuse and/or neglect were significantly more likely to be poly-violence perpetrators, perpetrating violence in all three domains (relative risk = 1.26). All forms of childhood maltreatment (physical and sexual abuse and neglect) significantly predicted poly-violence perpetration. Conclusions: These findings expand the cycle of violence literature by combining the distinct literatures on criminal violence, child abuse, and partner violence to call attention to the phenomenon of poly-violence perpetration by maltreated children. Future research should examine the characteristics of maltreated children who become poly-violence perpetrators and mechanisms that lead to these outcomes. PMID:26191459
Ezeanochie, Michael C; Olagbuji, Biodun N; Ande, Adedapo B; Kubeyinje, Weyinmi E; Okonofua, Friday E
To evaluate the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive pregnant Nigerian women. Cross-sectional study using an anonymous semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The antenatal clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria, from June 2008 to December 2009. 305 HIV-positive women receiving antenatal care. An anonymous semi-structured World Health Organization modified questionnaire that elicited information on the experiences of intimate partner violence, was administered to the women by trained female interviewers. Prevalence, pattern and risk factors associated with experiencing intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence among the women was 32.5%, with psychological violence being the most common form of violence reported (27.5%) and physical violence the least reported (5.9%). Identified risk factors for experiencing violence were multiparity (Odds ratio 9.4; CI 1.23-71.33), respondents with an HIV-positive child (Odds ratio 9.2; CI 4.53-18.84), experience of violence before they were diagnosed HIV-positive (Odds ratio 44.4; 10.33-190.42) and women with partners without post-secondary education (Odds ratio 2.3; CI 1.40-3.91). Intimate partner violence is a prevalent public health problem among HIV-infected pregnant women in our community and it may hinder efforts to scale up prevention of mother-child transmission programs, especially in developing countries. Screening for intimate partner violence to identify abused women should be incorporated into these programs to offer these women optimal care. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Barros, Claudia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; França-Junior, Ivan
To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91). Violence independent from severity and recurrence of episodes showed greater association with suspected HIV infection (PR = 1.29). Intimate partner violence against women has a key role in situations of suspected and confirmed HIV infection. Thus, it is essential to include its detection, control and prevention as part of the comprehensive care provided for women's health.
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara
Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Selek, Salih; Vural, Mehmet; Cakmak, Ilknur
Our aim was to evaluate domestic violence among nurses in eastern Turkey. Ninety six (96) female nurses with an intimate partner were enrolled. Modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire was used. Twenty two (22.7%) of the participants reported domestic violence. None of them took legal steps. Most frequent domestic violence type was economic abuse (46%). Nurses, whose mothers were exposed to domestic violence, had significantly higher abuse rates. The abused group had also significantly higher smoking and miscarriage rates. Nurses need to be well informed for taking legal steps in case of domestic violence. Family history, smoking status and abortion rates may be further research focus for risk factors of domestic violence. Legal interventions should be optimized in order to encourage the victims to take legal steps.
Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.
... women and men. 22 HIV-positive women and gay/bisexual men reporting a history of violence perpetration are also more likely to report engaging 2 in unprotected sex, particularly when drugs were used in conjunction with ...
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Callaghan, Jane; Alexander, Jo; Fellin, Lisa; Sixsmith, Judith
Children’s experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project “Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies” (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These inter...
Overall, 12.9% of women reported to having ever experienced physical partner violence and 11.9% emotional partner violence in the past 12 months. In bivariate logistic regression, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (other than HIV) in the past 12 months and having had two or more sexual ...
Klostermann Keith C
Full Text Available Abstract Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1 most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2 among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3 available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages.
Kamimura, Akiko; Ganta, Vikas; Myers, Kyl; Thomas, Tomi
Previous studies in India suggest high prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV), childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws. Yet few studies examined IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws together. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between IPV, childhood abuse, and abuse from in-laws, and types of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) among women utilizing community health services for the economically disadvantaged in India. This study contributes to expanding the literature on abuse experience and providing knowledge for developing intervention programs and research projects to improve health and safety of economically disadvantaged women. The data were collected from women aged 18 years old or older at 18 community health centers that are primarily for the economically disadvantaged in Gujarat, India, in October and November 2013. Of the 219 women who completed a self-administered survey, 167 participants, who had ever been married and indicated whether they had been abused by their spouse or not, were included in analysis. More than 60% of the participants experienced IPV, childhood abuse, and/or abuse from in-laws, often with multiple types of abuse. Physical abuse is a major issue for IPV, childhood abuse, and in-law abuse. Emotional abuse potentially happens along with physical and/or sexual abuse. Abuse from in-laws requires greater attention because all types of abuse from in-laws were associated with IPV. Community health centers should provide abuse prevention and intervention programs that have involvement of family members as well as women who are at risk of being abused. © The Author(s) 2015.
Allers, Christopher T.; And Others
This paper discusses the connection between the characteristics of childhood abuse survivors (chronic depression, revictimization, sexual compulsivity, substance abuse, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) high-risk behaviors); examines the clinical implications of these connections; and outlines recommendations based on a case study, such as…
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank
Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…
Lake, Stephanie; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Dobrer, Sabina; Montaner, Julio; Kerr, Thomas
Childhood emotional abuse is a known risk factor for various poor social and health outcomes. While people who inject drugs (IDU) report high levels of violence, in addition to high rates of childhood maltreatment, the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and later life violence within this population has not been examined. Cross-sectional data were derived from an open prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada. Childhood emotional abuse was measured using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine potential associations between childhood emotional abuse and being a recent victim or perpetrator of violence. Between December 2005 and May 2013, 1437 IDU were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, including 465 (32.4%) women. In total, 689 (48.0%) reported moderate to severe history of childhood emotional abuse, whereas 333 (23.2%) reported being a recent victim of violence and 173 (12.0%) reported being a recent perpetrator of violence. In multivariate analysis, being a victim of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.15-1.94) and being a perpetrator of violence (adjusted odds ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.12-2.24) remained independently associated with childhood emotional abuse. We found high rates of childhood emotional abuse and subsequent adult violence among this sample of IDU. Emotional abuse was associated with both victimisation and perpetration of violence. These findings highlight the need for policies and programmes that address both child abuse and historical emotional abuse among adult IDU. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Bonomi Amy E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents’ dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological, frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. Methods A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Results Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent; put downs/name calling (37.0; pressured sex (42.9; insults (44.3; slapped/hit (50.0; and threats (62.5. Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...
The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using Rotter's social learning theory in understanding violence, interpersonal trust and gullibility in HIV prevention. The study examines social learning concepts and how they can be applied to HIV prevention programmes in violent circumstances. The study surveyed ...
Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J
Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.
Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro
Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.
Scott, Melanie C; Easton, Caroline J
It is unclear whether racial differences in treatment effect exist for individuals in substance abuse and domestic violence programs. This study examined racial differences in treatment effect among substance dependent Caucasian and African-American male intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders court mandated to an integrated substance abuse and domestic violence treatment. From baseline to completion of treatment (week 12), 75 participants (39 Caucasian; 36 African-American) were assessed on demographics, substance use, legal characteristics, and use of violence (physical, verbal, and psychological). African-American men served more months incarcerated in their life than Caucasian men. Both groups showed decreases in their use of physical violence and alcohol abuse over treatment. Caucasian men also showed a decrease in their use of verbal abuse. At treatment completion, both groups showed a reduction in physical abuse and alcohol abuse. Caucasian men showed a reduction in their use of verbal abuse, but African-American men did not. Substance dependent African-American male IPV offenders may benefit from interventions that thoroughly target communication skills in addition to issues of substance abuse and IPV to reduce use of verbal abuse and improve treatment outcomes among African American men.
Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry L
It is important to estimate the burden of and trends for violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of children. To provide health care professionals, policy makers, and parents with current estimates of exposure to violence, crime, and abuse across childhood and at different developmental stages. The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV) includes a representative sample of US telephone numbers from August 28, 2013, to April 30, 2014. Via telephone interviews, information was obtained on 4000 children 0 to 17 years old, with information about exposure to violence, crime, and abuse provided by youth 10 to 17 years old and by caregivers for children 0 to 9 years old. Exposure to violence, crime, and abuse using the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. In total, 37.3% of youth experienced a physical assault in the study year, and 9.3% of youth experienced an assault-related injury. Two percent of girls experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in the study year, while the rate was 4.6% for girls 14 to 17 years old. Overall, 15.2% of children and youth experienced maltreatment by a caregiver, including 5.0% who experienced physical abuse. In total, 5.8% witnessed an assault between parents. Only 2 significant rate changes could be detected compared with the last survey in 2011, namely, declines in past-year exposure to dating violence and lifetime exposure to household theft. Children and youth are exposed to violence, abuse, and crime in varied and extensive ways, which justifies continued monitoring and prevention efforts.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Background Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. Study objectives: 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, corti...
Zunner, Brian; Dworkin, Shari L; Neylan, Thomas C; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R; Abwok, Matilda; Meffert, Susan M
HIV-infected (HIV+) women have high rates of Gender Based Violence (GBV). Studies of GBV find that approximately 50-90% of survivors develop mood and anxiety disorders. Given that women in sub-Saharan African constitute the largest population of HIV+ individuals in the world and the region׳s high GBV prevalence, mental health research with HIV+ women affected by GBV (HIV+GBV+) in this region is urgently needed. Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the mental health care needs of HIV+GBV+ female patients at an HIV clinic in the Kisumu County, Kenya. Thirty in-depth interviews and four focus groups were conducted with patients, healthcare providers and community leaders. Interviews were transcribed, translated and analyzed using qualitative data software. Respondents stated that physical, sexual and emotional violence against HIV+ women was widely prevalent and perpetrated primarily by untested husbands accusing a wife of marital infidelity following her positive HIV test result. Mental health problems among HIV+GBV+ women included depressive, anxiety, traumatic stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Participants opined that emotional distress from GBV not only caused HIV treatment default, but also led to poor HIV health even if adherent. Respondents agreed that mental health treatment was needed for HIV+GBV+ women; most agreed that the best treatment modality was individual counseling delivered weekly at the HIV clinic. Emotional distress may be higher and/or more varied among HIV+GBV+ women who are not engaged in HIV care. Mental health care is needed and desired by HIV+GBV+ women in Kisumu County, Kenya. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Relf, Michael V; Huang, Bu; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Catania, Joe
The highest absolute number of new HIV infections and AIDS cases still occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Numerous theoretical approaches have been used to understand HIV risk behaviors among MSM; however, no theoretical model examines sexual risk behaviors in the context of gay identity and interpersonal violence. Using a model testing predictive correlational design, the theoretical relationships between childhood sexual abuse, adverse early life experiences, gay identity, substance use, battering, aversive emotions, HIV alienation, cue-to-action triggers, and HIV risk behaviors were empirically tested using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The relationships between these constructs are complex, yet childhood sexual abuse and gay identity were found to be theoretically associated with HIV risk behaviors. Also of importance, battering victimization was identified as a key mediating variable between childhood sexual abuse, gay identity, and adverse early life experiences and HIV risk behaviors among urban MSM.
Kevany, Sebastian; Woelk, Godfrey; Shade, Starley B; Kulich, Michal; Turan, Janet M; Chingono, Alfred; Morin, Stephen F
Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR) were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i) a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, Peconomic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04) than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011). Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L
HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care.
Horrocks, Julie; Kamano, Saori
Objectives. As part of the World Health Organization's cross-national research effort, we investigated the relationship between various health indicators and the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), which included emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, among women in Yokohama, Japan. Methods. We used multivariate logistic and negative binomial regression to examine the relationship between health status and IPV in a stratified cluster sample of 1371 women aged 18 to 49 years. Results. In 9 of 11 health indicators examined, the odds of experiencing health-related problems were significantly higher (P < .05) among those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence than among those that reported no IPV, after we controlled for sociodemographic factors, childhood sexual abuse, and adulthood sexual violence perpetrated by someone other than an intimate partner. For most health indicators, there were no significant differences between those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence. Conclusions. The similarity of outcomes among those that reported emotional abuse only and those that reported emotional abuse plus physical or sexual violence suggests the need for increased training of health care providers about the effects of emotional abuse. PMID:18703455
Emery, Clifton R; Yoo, Jieun; Lieblich, Amia; Hansen, Randall
What is the relationship between victimization by political violence against women in North Korea and later physical abuse of offspring? This article examines the relationships between victimization by political violence, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse/dependence, and abuse of offspring after arrival in South Korea. A random sample of 204 female North Korean defectors was used to test hypotheses. An oral history conducted with a survivor of North Korean political violence is provided in an appendix to contextualize the results. Analyses established a significant link between previous victimization by political violence and abuse of offspring but not mediation by either PTSD or alcohol abuse/dependence.
Williams, V M; Dale, A R; Clarke, N; Garrett, N K G
To establish the incidence, frequency and type of deliberate animal abuse seen in veterinary practice in New Zealand, and ascertain veterinarians' knowledge of human abuse within the families where animal abuse was occurring. To explore attitudes of veterinarians to and knowledge about the correlation between animal abuse and human violence, and their perceived role in dealing with such issues. A postal questionnaire was sent to practising veterinarians in New Zealand. It covered demographics, frequency and type of animal abuse cases seen, awareness of violence towards humans, within families where animal abuse was seen, the methods used for managing animal and human abuse, the incidence of psychological abuse of animals, and the attitudes of veterinarians towards and their beliefs about the link between animal abuse and human violence. A total of 383/1,412 (27% response rate) questionnaires with useable data were returned. Within the group of respondents, the sexes were evenly represented; 40% of respondents worked in small-animal practice, 50% in mixed practice and 10% in large-animal practice. Deliberate animal abuse had been seen by 63% of respondents in the last 5 years; 37% of these had seen such cases once a year or less, while 9% had seen abuse cases at least four times a year. Dogs were the species most commonly reported as abused, followed, in numerical order, by cats, cattle and horses. Among respondents who had seen deliberate animal abuse, 16% either knew of (4%) or suspected (12%) human abuse within the families of the abused animals. A clear majority of responding veterinarians agreed with the statement that people who abuse their animals are more likely to abuse their children (77%) or spouse (70%). The survey indicated that the majority of respondents had seen cases of animal abuse within the previous 5 years, and dogs were the species most often reported abused. Responding veterinarians felt a strong ethical duty to deal with cases of animal abuse
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with a weapon. Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual ...
Monsalve, Stefany; Ferreira, Fernando; Garcia, Rita
Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the "Link". However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kraanen, F.L.; Scholing, A.; Hamdoune, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Substance use disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration frequently co-occur, and it has been hypothesized that alcohol use and IPV perpetration are causally related. This led to the development of an Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP). This case
The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…
Anselm Crombach; Manassé Bambonyé
Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...
Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc
Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…
Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Golan, Miriam
Peer violence, peer sexual harassment and abuse, and staff abuse experienced by boys and girls in juvenile correctional facilities are compared with those experienced by peers in schools in the community. Responses of 360 youths in 20 gender-separated correctional facilities in Israel to a questionnaire tapping these forms of mistreatment were…
Clum, Gretchen A; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L; Ellen, Jonathan M
Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualitative interviews with 40 HIV-positive young women with childhood physical and/or sexual abuse were conducted; some women had also experienced adult victimization. Results suggest that HIV-positive women with abuse histories use a host of strategies to deal with disclosure of HIV status, including delaying disclosure, assessing hypothetical responses of partners, and determining appropriate stages in a relationship to disclose. Stigma was an important theme related to disclosure. We discuss how these disclosure processes impact sexual behavior and relationships and discuss intervention opportunities based on our findings.
Lucas, Steven; Jernbro, Carolina; Tindberg, Ylva; Janson, Staffan
The aim was to examine experiences of bullying among Swedish adolescents and whether victims and perpetrators were also exposed to violence in the home, with particular focus on how abuse severity affected the risk of exposure to bullying. A nationally representative sample of pupils aged 14-15 responded to a questionnaire exploring exposure to corporal punishment and other types of violence. Results were analysed using Pearson's chi-square and multiple logistic regression, adjusting for factors regarding the child, the parents and the families' socioeconomic status. Among the 3197 respondents, a significant proportion reported at least one incident of either bullying victimisation (girls 36%, boys 26%) or bullying perpetration (girls 24%, boys 36%). Physical and emotional violence in the home, including witnessed intimate partner violence, were significantly associated with both bullying victimisation and bullying perpetration. Odds ratios for exposure to bullying rose with increasing frequency and severity of abuse. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 for any event of abuse vs. single episodes of bullying to 20.3 for multiple types of abuse vs. many episodes of bullying. The child's gender and the presence of a chronic health condition were consistently associated with nearly all levels of abuse and bullying. Bullying experiences are common among youth and are clearly associated with abuse. Frequent bullying, whether as victim or perpetrator, warrants particular vigilance, as it appears to be an indicator of severe violence in the home. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit
To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). © The Author(s) 2014.
Roberto, Karen A; McCann, Brandy Renee
Intimate partner violence in later life includes physical, psychological, sexual, and financial abuse. Although some researchers have investigated how women in long-term violent partnerships cope with abuse, little is known about the history, experiences, and needs of older women who leave abusive relationships. From a feminist, life course perspective, we interviewed 10 women who had left their abusive partners later in life. We used qualitative methods to analyze the data and found four major themes: (a) the women used the past to account for abuse in their relationships later in life, (b) recognizing abuse signaled to the women to fight back and exit the relationship, (c) financial abuse and exploitation affected women's mental and physical health, and (d) rebuilding was especially challenging as the women faced their future alone with financial, physical, or mental health problems. We conclude that abuse presents lasting and unique challenges for older women.
Alcohol abuse among patients with and without HIV infection attending public clinics in Western Kenya. DN Shaffer, R Njeri, AC Justice, WW Odero, WM Tierney. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.
Winchester, Margaret S
The policy environment for vulnerable women in Uganda is rapidly changing, with the aim of introducing more punitive measures for violent offenders and more options for women seeking help. This paper examines HIV-positive women who experienced intimate partner violence in two regions of Uganda prior to the enactment of the Domestic Violence Act of 2010. Based on in-depth interviews and observations, it reports on women's views of marriage and relationships, and their strategies for help seeking to show the interaction between the two phenomena within the local cultural and political context. HIV-positive women in Uganda reshape their notions of marriage and love based on experiences of violence, illness management and broader social factors. Their narratives of relationships and conflict reveal an ambivalence toward formal marriage because of both its security and rights and its potential to inhibit leaving, as well as a reluctance to seek help through formal means. This construction of marriage is intertwined with the shifting social backdrop in Uganda, in particular the increasing rollout of antiretroviral treatment for HIV and the development of new policies surrounding violence, marriage and divorce. Women's experiences show potential points of intervention and the need for multi-sectoral responses to violence.
Hu, Guoku; Yelamanchili, Sowmya; Kashanchi, Fatah; Haughey, Norman; Bond, Vincent C; Witwer, Kenneth W; Pulliam, Lynn; Buch, Shilpa
Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there is increased prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in HIV-1-infected individuals on cART, which poses a major health care challenge. Adding further complexity to this long-term antiretroviral use is the comorbidity with drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, which can in turn, exacerbate neurologic and cognitive deficits associated with HAND. Furthermore, HIV proteins, such as the transactivator of transcription (Tat) and the envelope protein (gp120), as well as antiretrovirals themselves can also contribute to the progression of neurodegeneration underlying HAND. In the field of NeuroHIV and drug addiction, EVs hold the potential to serve as biomarkers of cognitive dysfunction, targets of therapy, and as vehicles for therapeutic delivery of agents that can ameliorate disease pathogenesis. Based on the success of a previous Satellite Symposium in 2015 at the ISEV meeting in Washington, experts again expanded on their latest research findings in the field, shedding light on the emerging trends in the field of Extracellular Vesicle (EV) biology in NeuroHIV and drug abuse. The satellite symposium sought to align experts in the fields of NeuroHIV and drug abuse to share their latest insights on the role of EVs in regulating neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, peripheral immune response, and HIV latency in HIV-infected individuals with or without the comorbidity of drug abuse.
Campbell, Doris W; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Yarandi, Hossein N; O'Connor, Annie Lewis; Dollar, Emily; Killion, Cheryl; Sloand, Elizabeth; Callwood, Gloria B; Cesar, Nicole M; Hassan, Mona; Gary, Faye
Limited research following disasters suggests that internally displaced women are disproportionately vulnerable to violence and abuse. An interdisciplinary collaborative of researchers and practitioners in Haiti, the US Virgin Islands, and the US Mainland investigated gender-based violence (GBV) pre- and post-earthquake and health outcomes among Haitian women living in tent cities/camps following the 2010 earthquake. A comparative descriptive correlational design using culturally sensitive and language appropriate computer-assisted interviews of 208 internally displaced women 2011-2013. Found high rates of violence and abuse both before (71.2 %) and after (75 %) p = 0.266, the earthquake primarily perpetrated by boy friends or husbands. Significantly more mental and physical health problems were reported by abused than non-abused women. The majority (60-78 %) of abused women did not report personal or community tolerance for violence and abuse, but acknowledged a community context of limited involvement. Coordinated planning and implementation of needed interventions are essential to provide a balanced approach to the care of displaced women after natural disasters with sensitivity to the abusive experiences of many women both before and after the disasters.
Hser, Yih-Ing; Liang, Di; Lan, Yu-Ching; Vicknasingam, Balasingam Kasinather; Chakrabarti, Amit
Drug abuse and co-occurring infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Asian countries are particularly vulnerable to the deleterious consequences of these risks/problems, as they have some of the highest rates of these diseases. This review describes drug abuse, HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Asian countries. The most commonly used illicit drugs include opioids, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cannabis, and ketamine. Among people who inject drugs, HIV rates range from 6.3 % in China to 19 % in Malaysia, and HCV ranges from 41 % in India and Taiwan to 74 % in Vietnam. In the face of the HIV epidemics, drug policies in these countries are slowly changing from the traditional punitive approach (e.g., incarcerating drug users or requiring registration as a drug user) to embrace public health approaches, including, for example, community-based treatment options as well as harm reduction approaches to reduce needle sharing and thus HIV transmission. HIV and HCV molecular epidemiology indicates limited geographic diffusion. While the HIV prevalence is declining in all five countries, use of new drugs (e.g., ATS, ketamine) continues to increase, as well as high-risk sexual behaviors associated with drug use-increasing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV, particularly among men who have sex with men. Screening, early intervention, and continued scaling up of therapeutic options (drug treatment and recovery support, ART, long-term HIV and HCV care for drug users) are critical for effective control or continued reduction of drug abuse and co-infections.
Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.
Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Postmus, Judy L; Hoge, Gretchen L; Breckenridge, Jan; Sharp-Jeffs, Nicola; Chung, Donna
The predominant perception of intimate partner violence (IPV) as constituting physical violence can still dominate, particularly in research and media reports, despite research documenting multiple forms of IPV including sexual violence occurring between intimate partners and various forms of psychological and emotional abuse. One frequently hidden or "invisible" form of abuse perpetrated within intimate partner relationships is economic abuse, also referred to as financial abuse in much of the literature. While the links between gendered economic insecurity and economic abuse are emerging, there remains a lack of consistency about definitions within the United States and globally, as there is no agreed upon index with which to measure economic abuse. As such, the purpose of this article is to review and analyze the global literature focused on either economic or financial abuse to determine how it is defined and what measures are used to capture its prevalence and impact. The 46 peer-reviewed articles that met all inclusion criteria for analysis came from a range of countries across six continents. Our review found that there is growing clarity and consistency of terminologies being used in these articles and found some consistency in the use of validated measures. Since this research is in its "infancy," we need to have stronger collaborative efforts to use similar measures and terminology. Part of that collaborative effort is to consider how language and cultural differences may play a part in our understanding of economic abuse.
Uddin, Md. Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida
Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug
Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida
Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug
Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2, 1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA, *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual
Green, P C; Gullone, E
A survey of Australian veterinarians was undertaken to assess their amount of knowledge about, and their attitudes towards animal abuse, human violence and the link between the two. Results from the 185 respondents to a questionnaire that was either mailed out or hand delivered revealed a wide variety of definitions and attitudes towards abuse, with the majority of veterinarians recognising the link between human and animal abuse. The overwhelming majority of veterinarians believed that they should intervene in some way when confronted with either animal or human abuse, although most felt ill-equipped to deal with suspected human abuse. Almost 20% of cases of animal abuse had associated suspected or known human abuse. It is suggested that veterinarians need more resources made available to them to be able to deal more effectively with these situations.
Ullah Akm Ahsan
Full Text Available This paper explores various abuses Foreign Domestic Helpers (FDHs or migrant domestic workers (MDW in Hong Kong suffer and the strategies they take up to cope with this abuse. Data were collected from 215 domestic helpers (135 from the Philippines, 30 from Thailand, 41 from Indonesia, and 9 from Sri Lanka all of whom had been in residence for at least six months. Selected by snow-balling technique, respondents were interviewed with structured and non-structured questionnaires. Research shows that sexual abuse is the most common form of abuse against MDWs followed by psychological and physical abuses. Female employers are the main perpetuators of psychological abuse while the male employers are culpable for sexual abuses. Coping strategies varied widely among the MDWs. Many of them endure the violence to keep the job; some quit the job and others struggle with the decision to stay or quit.
Nada, Khaled H; Suliman, El Daw A
To measure the prevalence of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and related factors in a large, probability-based sample of boys and girls aged 12-17 years living on the streets of Egypt's largest urban centers of Greater Cairo and Alexandria. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of street children. Procedures entailed using key informants and field observation to create a sampling frame of locations at predetermined time intervals of the day, where street children congregate in the two cities, selecting a random sample of time-locations from the complete list, and intercepting children in the selected time-locations to assess eligibility and conduct interviews. Interviews gathered basic demographic information, life events on the street (including violence, abuse, forced sex), sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. A total of 857 street children were enrolled in the two cities, with an age, sex, and time-location composition matching the sampling frame. The majority of these children had faced harassment or abuse (93%) typically by police and other street children, had used drugs (62%), and, among the older adolescents, were sexually active (67%). Among the sexually active 15-17-year-olds, most reported multiple partners (54%) and never using condoms (52%). Most girls (53% in Greater Cairo and 90% in Alexandria) had experienced sexual abuse. The majority of street children experienced more than one of these risks. Overlaps with populations at highest risk for HIV were substantial, namely men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, and injection drug users. Our study using a randomized TLS approach produced a rigorous, diverse, probability-based sample of street children and documented very high levels of multiple concurrent risks. Our findings strongly advocate for multiple services including those addressing HIV and STI prevention and care, substance use, shelters, and sensitization of authorities to the plight of
Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.
The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…
Zahari, Muhammad Muhsin; Hwan Bae, Woong; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Habil, Hussain; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L
To examine the association between HIV infection and psychiatric disorders among prisoners, where mental illness, substance abuse, and HIV are disproportionately represented. Cross-sectional study. Using a sequential randomization scheme, 200 HIV-seropositive and 200 HIV-seronegative prisoners were selected for evaluation of psychiatric illnesses with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (SCID-I). The prevalence of mental illness and substance use disorders, particularly opioid dependence, was extremely high. HIV infection was significantly correlated with age, ethnicity, marital status, history of injection drug use, lifetime duration of incarceration, substance abuse, and polysubstance drug use. After controlling for potential confounders, HIV infection was significantly associated with non-substance-induced psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.03-3.59). While prisoners with a triple diagnosis (psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and HIV) spent 46.7 more cumulative lifetime months in prison than those with only a psychiatric diagnosis (p health approach that simultaneously addresses psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, and HIV infection is needed in both the correctional and the community settings in order to provide adequate care for triply-diagnosed patients and prevent them from returning to prison.
Krienert, Jessie L; Walsh, Jeffrey A; Matthews, Kevin; McConkey, Kelly
Companion animals play a complex role in families impacted by violence. An outlet of emotional support for victims, the family pet often becomes a target for physical abuse. Results from a comprehensive e-survey of domestic violence shelters nationwide (N = 767) highlight both improvements and existing gaps in service provision for domestic violence victims and their pets. Quantitative and qualitative data noted frequently encountered obstacles to successful shelter seeking by abuse victims with companion animals including a lack of availability, funding, space, and reliable programming. Although results indicate an overall improvement in organizational awareness, fewer than half of surveyed shelters include intake questions about animals. Continued awareness and an expansion of services is needed to create viable safety planning strategies and reliable alternatives for women with companion animals in order to improve the likelihood that abuse victims will seek escape and refuge for themselves, their children, and their pets.
Cao, Lu; Glazyrin, Alexey; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil
Autophagy is a highly regulated process in which excessive cytoplasmic materials are captured and degraded during deprivation conditions. The unique nature of autophagy that clears invasive microorganisms has made it an important cellular defense mechanism in a variety of clinical situations. In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that autophagy is extensively involved in the pathology of HIV-1. To ensure survival of the virus, HIV-1 viral proteins modulate and utilize the autophagy pathway so that biosynthesis of the virus is maximized. At the same time, the abuse of illicit drugs such as methamphetamine, cocaine, morphine, and alcohol is thought to be a significant risk factor for the acquirement and progression of HIV-1. During drug-induced toxicity, autophagic activity has been proved to be altered in various cell types. Here, we review the current literature on the interaction between autophagy, HIV-1, and drug abuse and discuss the complex role of autophagy during HIV-1 pathogenesis in co-exposure to illicit drugs.
Full Text Available Carolyne Ajema,1 Charity Mbugua,2 Peter Memiah,3 Camille Wood,3 Courtney Cook,4 Ronald Kotut,2 Lina Digolo1 1Research and Strategic Information Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 2Post Rape Care Department, LVCT Health, Nairobi, Kenya; 3Department of Public Health, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA; 4Biology Department, University of West Florida, University Parkway, Pensacola, FL, USA Purpose: Child sexual abuse and HIV are key health challenges in Kenya. In 2015, LVCT Health conducted a study aimed at assessing the quality of HIV-related services offered to child survivors of sexual violence in public health facilities.Materials and methods: A qualitative data collection approach was utilized. Qualitative data were collected through in-depth interviews with 31 providers. Quantitative methods included a retrospective review of 164 records of child survivors of rape who had accessed services 6 months prior to the commencement of the study. SPSS Version 22 was used in the descriptive analysis of the medical records. Client exit interviews and observation data were analyzed using MS Excel. In-depth interviews were analyzed using a thematic analytical approach.Results: Twenty-seven percent (n=164 survivors were documented to have received the first dose of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP. Providers did not conduct HIV pre- and posttest counseling for the survivors. There were no longitudinal follow-up mechanisms to ensure child survivors initiated on PEP adhered to the treatment plan. Less than 30% of survivors returned to the facility for PEP adherence counseling and follow-up HIV testing. Twenty providers cited capacity gaps in undertaking HIV risk assessment for child survivors. Limited availability of PEP is a barrier to HIV prevention, as most departments only offer services between 8 am and 5 pm. HIV tests were only available on weekdays before 5 pm. PEP being out of stock remains a barrier to HIV
Dekel, Bianca; Andipatin, Michelle
In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed...
Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni
The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.
Lucas, Marilyn; Stevenson, Dean
Institutionalisation of psychiatric patients was a prevalent treatment approach in the apartheid era of South Africa. Allegations of violence and abuse towards patients frequently arose during this time. The post-apartheid Department of Health prioritised improvements in mental health care by recommending, inter alia, deinstitutionalisation and reintegration of patients into the community. Ten years later, these interventions have proved difficult to institute and many patients are still hospitalised. The present study investigated whether currently hospitalised patients continued to experienced violence and abuse. This was an exploratory naturalistic study in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Of the 127 who completed the study, more than 50% reported experiences of abuse. The main perpetrators were other patients, although violence by staff was reported. Reasons for the tardiness of implementation of deinstitutionalisation and the prevalence of ongoing violence and abuse in psychiatric hospitals are complex. Factors inherited from the pre-democratic system coupled with increased urban violence and financial constraints appear to be some of the major causes of ongoing dependency upon hospitalisation of mental health care users. The present study highlighted the urgency of implementing mental health care improvements.
De Santis, Joseph P; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Deleon, Diego A
Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) experience a number of health disparities including high rates of HIV infection from high-risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Although some research is available to document the relationships of these health disparities in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these disparities and the factors that influence them. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences that Hispanic MSM residing in South Florida have with high-risk sex, substance abuse, and intimate partner violence. Focus groups were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology until data saturation was reached (n = 20). Two core categories with subcategories emerged from the data: The Roots of Risk (Los raices del riesgo) and The Tangled Branches (Las Ramas Enredadas). The results of the study provided some important clinical implications as well as directions for future research with Hispanic MSM.
Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather A; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry L
Because exposure to violence, crime, and abuse has been shown to have serious consequences on child development, physicians and policymakers need to know the kinds of exposure that occur at various developmental stages. To provide updated estimates of and trends for childhood exposure to a broad range of violence, crime, and abuse victimizations. The National Survey of Children's Exposure to Violence was based on a cross-sectional, US national telephone survey conducted in 2011. Interviews by telephone. The experiences of 4503 children and youth aged 1 month to 17 years were assessed by interviews with caregivers and with youth in the case of those aged 10 to 17 years. Two-fifths (41.2%) of children and youth experienced a physical assault in the last year, and 1 in 10 (10.1%) experienced an assault-related injury. Two percent experienced sexual assault or sexual abuse in the last year, but the rate was 10.7% for girls aged 14 to 17 years. More than 1 in 10 (13.7%) experienced maltreatment by a caregiver, including 3.7% who experienced physical abuse. Few significant changes could be detected in rates since an equivalent survey in 2008, but declines were documented in peer flashing, school bomb threats, juvenile sibling assault, and robbery and total property victimization. The variety and scope of children's exposure to violence, crime, and abuse suggest the need for better and more comprehensive tools in clinical and research settings for identifying these experiences and their effects.
Osinde Michael O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0
Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD and depression symptoms reduces risk for future intimate partner violence among interpersonal trauma survivors. J Consult Clin Psychol 2011;79(2):193-202. DOI:10.1037/a0022512. 17. Joyner K, Theunissen L, de Villiers L, et al. Emergency care provision for, and psychological ...
Illangasekare, Samantha; Tello, Monique; Hutton, Heidi; Moore, Richard; Anderson, Jean; Baron, Jillian; Chander, Geetanjali
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious health concern for women in the United States, and HIV-positive women experience more frequent and severe abuse compared with HIV-negative women. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence of IPV among HIV-infected women receiving care in an urban clinic and to determine the HIV clinical and mental health correlates of IPV among HIV-positive women. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 196 women visiting an inner-city HIV clinic. Women were eligible if they were 18 years of age or older, English speaking, and received both HIV primary and gynecologic care at the clinic. The survey queried demographics, drug and alcohol history, depressive symptoms, and IPV, using the Partner Violence Scale. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD4 cell count, HIV-1 RNA level, and appointment adherence were abstracted from clinical records. Overall, 26.5% of women reported experiencing IPV in the past year. There were no differences in sociodemographics, substance use, ART prescription, CD4 count, or HIV-1 RNA level between women who experienced IPV and those who had not. Women with mild and severe depressive symptoms were significantly more likely to report IPV compared with those without, with adjusted odds ratios of 3.4 and 5.5, respectively. Women who missed gynecologic appointments were 1.9 times more likely to report experiencing IPV. IPV is prevalent among women presenting for HIV care, and depressive symptoms or missed gynecologic appointments should prompt further screening for IPV. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Interpretation & conclusions: Significantly higher reporting of HIV/STIs by women experiencing IPV hints at new pathways that link violence and HIV. Further, our analysis showed a high prevalence of IPV in India.
Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.
Full Text Available Background & Aims: Violence against wives has been one of the things that are of interest to researchers, sociologists and psychologists. In all countries, despite the social and economic and cultural differences between them, Domestic violence occurs by husbands. It encompasses any behavior between them in close relationship. It causes physical, psychological and sexual abuse. Therefore this study is aimed to impact of social factors effective in the incidence of domestic violence in the Tehranian families who are referred to the parks. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive - analytical. The data collection tools are questionnaires. The questionnaires consist of 4 parts: Demographic data, physical, Sexual and psychological violence. Then 224 persons of married women referring to Tehran parks were completed these questionnaires, so data were analyzed by SPPS software (version 16 using descriptive, inferential statistics. Results: 33.6% of women participating in the study have experienced physical violence at least one during the last year, also between variables female age, remarried women, Gender of children, who Have adopted children, income, property, A separate bank account, type of married are significant relationship with violence. Conclusion: Economic problem, low education and type of job connected to Domestic violence. To combat of domestic violence as a global challenge, should be promoted the men's knowledge about women's rights and educated couple before marriage about their right and created an environment and support and counseling services and psychotherapy for individuals who are victims of violence.
Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot J; Axelsen, Lauren; Bickerdike, Andrew
Family mediation is mandated in Australia for couples in dispute over separation and parenting as a first step in dispute resolution, except where there is a history of intimate partner violence. However, validation of effective well-differentiated partner violence screening instruments suitable for mediation settings is at an early phase of development. This study contributes to calls for better violence screening instruments in the mediation context to detect a differentiated range of abusive behaviors by examining the reliability and validity of both established scales, and newly developed scales that measured intimate partner violence by partner and by self. The study also aimed to examine relationships between types of abuse, and between gender and types of abuse. A third aim was to examine associations between types of abuse and other relationship indicators such as acrimony and parenting alliance. The data reported here are part of a larger mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal study of clients attending nine family mediation centers in Victoria, Australia. The current analyses on baseline cross-sectional screening data confirmed the reliability of three subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the reliability and validity of three new scales measuring intimidation, controlling and jealous behavior, and financial control. Most clients disclosed a history of at least one type of violence by partner: 95% reported psychological aggression, 72% controlling and jealous behavior, 50% financial control, and 35% physical assault. Higher rates of abuse perpetration were reported by partner versus by self, and gender differences were identified. There were strong associations between certain patterns of psychologically abusive behavior and both acrimony and parenting alliance. The implications for family mediation services and future research are discussed.
Chérrez-Bermejo, C; Alás-Brun, R
To obtain data on substance abuse and mental disorders amongst a population of inmates imprisoned for gender violence. 106 intimate partner violence offenders were recruited in our study, all of whom were prison inmates. The study is descriptive and statistical comparison of percentages was used. the percentage of substance abuse was 61.3%; most of which consisted of alcohol and cocaine. According to DSM-IV R, 25.5% of the inmates had at least one psychiatric diagnosis at the time when entering prison: 11.3% adjustment disorder with depressed mood, 6.6% personality disorders, 2.8% psychosis, 1.9% major depressive disorder, 1.9% bipolar disorder and 1.9% psycho-organic disorder were encountered. The average age of the men of the sample was forty years old. The most common nationality was Spanish. The percentage of immigrants was significant greater than the global percentage of the general population. The percentage of global substance consumption and psychopathologic problems is greater than data obtained in IPV from other populations, like samples of men charged by their partners with gender violence. depressive symptoms, personality disorders, alcohol and cocaine consumption need to be investigated as gender violence risk markers in Spain. Attention should be paid to the role of consumption prevention when entering prison.
Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.
Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…
Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela
To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Workowski, Eric J.
This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Cook, Paddy; Gartner, Constance Grant; Markl, Lise; Henderson, Randi; Brooks, Margaret K.; Wesson, Donald; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayes, Elizabeth
The major goal of this TIP, on the best practice guidelines to improve the treatment of substance abuse, is to provide clinicians, educators, and paraprofessionals with the latest findings concerning domestic violence. The information is intended to educate providers about the needs and behaviors of batterers and survivors, and how to tailor…
Brown, Joanne; Wampold, Bruce E.
Spouse abuse has emerged as an extensive social issue. Although many studies have examined characteristics of abused wives, there has been a dearth of literature examining the relationship between victim and perpetrator levels of aggression. The purpose of this study was to explore those variables that are related to female victims' own level of…
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald
Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arn J Schilder
Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.
Full Text Available Using data from Argentina’s National Study on Violence Against Women [Estudio nacional sobre violencias contra las mujeres] carried out in 2015, the article identifies the risk factors that increase women’s vulnerability to psychological abuse. Findings show that women who are more prone to be victims of this kind of partner violence are those who are less educated, older, do not earn a wage for their work, live with children at home, are involved in less “formal” long-term relationships, as well as those whose male partners have a lower educational level than their own and/or have alcohol problems and/or were victims or witnesses of violence during their childhood. The article suggests possible intervention strategies to eradicate abuse, which should be primarily targeted at empowering women and strengthening their independence from their partners.
Cohn, Amy; Najavits, Lisa M
Victimization by and perpetration of domestic violence are associated with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders. This study used data from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services to examine differences in organizational factors, treatment approaches offered, and client-level factors among 13,342 substance abuse treatment facilities by whether or not they offered domestic violence services. Only 36% of the facilities offered domestic violence services. Those that offered such services were more likely than those that did not to treat clients with co-occurring disorders. Principal-components analysis reduced eight treatment approaches to two factors: psychosocial services and traditional substance abuse services. Regression models indicated that the frequency with which psychosocial services were offered depended on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders who were being treated in the facility and whether or not that facility offered domestic violence services. Specifically, facilities that did not offer domestic violence services and that had a high percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders were more likely to offer psychosocial services than facilities that offered domestic violence services. A larger proportion of facilities offering domestic violence services offered traditional substance abuse treatment services, compared with facilities not offering domestic violence services, but this relationship was not contingent on the percentage of clients with co-occurring disorders at each facility. Improved efforts should be made to tailor treatments to accommodate the links between domestic violence, mental disorders, and substance abuse.
Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M
Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Borrajo, Erika; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; Calvete, Esther
Distorted beliefs about violence and love are often associated with the presence of violence in dating relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between beliefs that justify violence and myths about love in two types of cyber dating abuse (control and direct aggression). The sample consisted of 656 young people between the ages of 18 and 30 years (79.5% women). Regression analysis showed that justification of cyber dating abuse was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of direct aggression in online dating relationships. Myths about love were associated with a greater likelihood of control in online dating relationships. Furthermore, the relationship between justification of cyber dating abuse and perpetration of direct aggression was stronger in women. The relationship between myths about love and perpetration of online control was stronger among the youngest individuals. The justification of abuse and myths about love are important aspects in the development of different kinds of online abuse among young couples. This finding has important implications for the prevention of and intervention in these behaviors.
Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Golan, Miriam
Peer violence, peer sexual harassment and abuse, and staff abuse experienced by boys and girls in juvenile correctional facilities are compared with those experienced by peers in schools in the community. Responses of 360 youths in 20 gender-separated correctional facilities in Israel to a questionnaire tapping these forms of mistreatment were compared with those of 7,012 students in a representative sample of Israeli junior high and high schools. Victimization was reported more frequently by those in correctional facilities than by those in schools. However, some of the more prevalent forms of violence and abuse were reported with equal frequency in both settings, and some more frequently in schools. Despite being victimized more frequently, those in the correctional facilities tended to view their victimization as a significantly less serious problem than those in the schools and to rate the staff as doing a better job of dealing with the problem.
MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen
Little is known about how patterns of workplace bullying contribute to the negative effects of lifetime violence. Analysis of longitudinal data from a study of women's health after separating from an abusive partner revealed that 76% of 229 women had experienced workplace bullying. Workplace bullying was associated with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and ongoing partner abuse. Timing was critical, with those experiencing past workplace bullying having poorer health and fewer personal and social resources than those experiencing none, ongoing, or past and ongoing bullying. Lifetime sexual harassment (54%) was associated with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptomology and greater likelihood of leaving workplaces and physical bullying (16%) with poorer health and personal, social, and economic resources. These findings highlight the importance of including bullying in studying lifetime violence.
Colombini, Manuela; James, Courtney; Ndwiga, Charity; Mayhew, Susannah H
For many women living with HIV (WLWH), the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV disclosure. Thirty qualitative interviews were conducted with purposively selected WLWH attending clinics in Kenya. Data were coded using NVivo 9 and analyzed thematically. Nearly one third of the respondents reported experiencing physical and/or emotional violence inflicted by their partners following the sero-disclosure, suggesting that HIV status disclosure can be a period of heightened risk for partner stigma and abuse, and financial withdrawal, and thus should be handled with caution. Sero-concordance was protective for emotional and verbal abuse once the partner knew his positive status, or knew the woman knew his status. Our results show acceptance of the role of the health services in helping prevent and reduce anticipated fear of partner stigma and violence as barriers to HIV disclosure. Some of the approaches suggested by our respondents included couple counselling, separate counselling sessions for men, and facilitated disclosure. The women's narratives illustrate the importance of integrating discussions on risks for partner violence and fear of disclosure into HIV counselling and testing, helping women develop communication skills in how to disclose their status, and reducing fear about marital separation and break-up. Women in our study also confirmed the key role of preventive health services in reducing blame for HIV transmission and raising awareness on HIV as a chronic disease. However, several women reported receiving no counselling on safe disclosure of HIV status
Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya
HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women.
Sando, David; Kendall, Tamil; Lyatuu, Goodluck; Ratcliffe, Hannah; McDonald, Kathleen; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Emil, Faida; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana
HIV-related stigma and discrimination and disrespect and abuse during childbirth are barriers to use of essential maternal and HIV health services. Greater understanding of the relationship between HIV status and disrespect and abuse during childbirth is required to design interventions to promote women's rights and to increase uptake of and retention in health services; however, few comparative studies of women living with HIV (WLWH) and HIV-negative women exist. Mixed methods included interviews with postpartum women (n = 2000), direct observation during childbirth (n = 208), structured questionnaires (n = 50), and in-depth interviews (n = 18) with health care providers. Bivariate and multivariate regressions analyzed associations between HIV status and disrespect and abuse, whereas questionnaires and in-depth interviews provided insight into how provider attitudes and workplace culture influence practice. Of the WLWH and HIV-negative women, 12.2% and 15.0% reported experiencing disrespect and abuse during childbirth (P = 0.37), respectively. In adjusted analyses, no significant differences between WLWH and HIV-negative women's experiences of different types of disrespect and abuse were identified, with the exception of WLWH having greater odds of reporting non-consented care (P = 0.03). None of the WLWH reported violations of HIV confidentiality or attributed disrespect and abuse to their HIV status. Provider interviews indicated that training and supervision focused on prevention of vertical HIV transmission had contributed to changing the institutional culture and reducing HIV-related violations. In general, WLWH were not more likely to report disrespect and abuse during childbirth than HIV-negative women. However, the high overall prevalence of disrespect and abuse measured indicates a serious problem. Similar institutional priority as has been given to training and supervision to reduce HIV-related discrimination during childbirth should be focused on
Melander, Lisa A; Tyler, Kimberly A
The purpose of our study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment, physical and sexual victimization, and partner violence victimization with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors among a sample of homeless young adults from the midwestern United States. Data are from the Homeless Young Adult Project. A total of 199 young adults aged 19-26 years were interviewed over 14 months using a systematic sampling strategy. The final sample included 172 young adults who were homeless or had a history of running away and being homeless. Results from the path analysis revealed that sexual abuse is directly linked with street sexual victimization which was positively associated with a greater number of HIV risk behaviors. Experiencing more types of physical abuse and neglect were positively correlated with partner violence victimization, which was, in turn, associated with more HIV risk behaviors. Those who suffered from more types of neglect also experienced more forms of sexual and physical victimization. These findings have implications for service providers. Clinicians who serve homeless youth should recognize the potential effect that experiencing a variety of forms of victimization may have on health risk behaviors. Copyright © 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Conners-Burrow, Nicola; McKelvey, Lorraine; Kyzer, Angela; Swindle, Taren; Cheerla, Rajalakshmi; Kraleti, Shashank
We explore the associations between exposure to conflict and crime in the home and community, and child anxiety and self-control problems among 60 children whose mothers were in treatment for substance abuse problems. Experiences with violence and crime were widespread, with many children exposed to multiple incidents. Approximately one-third (35.5%) of children exhibited clinically elevated anxiety. Controlling for other potential predictors, both children's exposure to violence and the number of years the mother had been using substances predicted higher anxiety in children, while only exposure to violence predicted problems in self-control. Results highlight the importance of screening for violence exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henderson, Angela D
This paper describes nurses' experiences of violence and abuse in the workplace and the ways in which those experiences influence their abilities to care for patients. The original purpose of the research from which these findings derive was to explore nurses' work with abused women. The qualitative study utilizing a Social Constructivism approach was conducted in two countries: Canada and the United Kingdom. Forty-nine nurses from four clinical areas were interviewed, both in focus groups and individually, about factors influencing their care of abused women. In the course of the original study, the degree of verbal abuse and physical violence that nurses routinely encounter in their work became apparent. It also became clear that abuse against nurses is an important issue that has a significant impact on nurses' abilities to offer effective care. Findings indicated that nurses experience significant threat, frequently in the context of their work, at the hands of patients and their relatives; that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence; and that support from other healthcare professionals or from administration in addressing the issue, while improving somewhat, is inadequate. This work has implications not only for nurses' health and safety but also, in the broader sense, for the profession's ability to attract and retain nurses within the healthcare system.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This background paper examines evidence for the effectiveness of treatment for drug abuse and evaluates the role of drug abuse treatment as a strategy to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) spread. Because most intravenous (IV) drug users are not in treatment, the study also examines other approaches to HIV prevention. The remainder of the…
Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Ferreira, Fernando; Robis, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Onell, Jason Ardila
Animal abuse adversely affects animal health and welfare and has been associated with interpersonal violence in studies of individuals. However, if that association also depends on sociocultural contexts and can be detected on a geographic scale, a wider source of data can be used to identify risk areas to support the surveillance of both types of violence. In this study, we evaluated the association between interpersonal violence notifications, animal abuse notifications and an index of social vulnerability in São Paulo City, on a geographic scale, using Bayesian spatial models. The social vulnerability index was a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications and presented a dose-response pattern. The number of animal abuse notifications was also a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications, even after controlling for the social vulnerability index. The incorporation of spatial effects produced marked improvements in model performance metrics and allowed the identification of excess risk clusters. Geographical data on notifications on either animal abuse or interpersonal violence should be considered incitement for investigations and interventions of both types of violence. We suggest that notifications of animal abuse be based on an explicit definition and classification, as well as on objective measurements that allow a better understanding of the species and type of abuse involved, the animal health consequences, and the context in which they occurred. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; McGarry, Julie
To identify, review and critically evaluate published empirical studies concerned with the prevalence, management and support for survivors of domestic violence and abuse who present at emergency department. Domestic violence and abuse is a global phenomenon with a wealth of studies that explore the different aspects of the issue including the economic, social and health effects on survivors and on society as a whole. Emergency department is widely recognised as one healthcare facility where domestic violence and abuse survivors will often disclose domestic violence and abuse. In the UK, National Institute of Clinical Excellence produced guidelines in 2014 requiring all sectors of health care and those they work alongside to recognise support and manage survivors of domestic violence and abuse. Whilst there is an increasing body of research on domestic violence and abuse, limited synthesised work has been conducted in the context of domestic violence and abuse within emergency department. This review encompasses empirical studies conducted in emergency department for screening interventions, management and support for domestic violence and abuse patients including prevalence. This review included studies that included emergency department staff, emergency department service users and domestic violence and abuse survivors. A systematic approach across five electronic bibliographic databases found 35 studies meeting the inclusion criteria published between 2000-2015. From the 35 studies, four descriptive overarching themes were identified (i) prevalence of domestic violence and abuse in emergency department, (ii) use of domestic violence and abuse screening tools and emergency department interventions, (iii) current obstacles for staff working in emergency department and (iv) emergency department users and survivor perspectives. Having knowledgeable and supportive emergency department staff can have a positive benefit for the longer-term health of the domestic
Leddy, Anna M; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Underwood, Carol R
Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania. Data were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Findings reveal how routine interactions between female sex workers and their clients occur at three moments of time and space during the sex exchange process to facilitate alcohol consumption and increase women's risk of gender-based violence and HIV. Findings also highlight how sex workers utilise collective agency to address aspects of the sex work environment that place them at risk of alcohol abuse, gender-based violence and HIV. Implications for future interventions to prevent gender-based violence and HIV among female sex workers in Tanzania and similar contexts are discussed.
In this study we examine the prevalence of HIV among drug abusers in Malawi. A purposive sample of 200 drug abusers was invited to provide urine and blood samples. The subjects were selected from self-presenting drug abusers who visited a district hospital in Malawi. The urine samples from both men and women were ...
In this study we examine the prevalence of HIV among drug abusers in Malawi. A purposive sample of 200 drug abusers was invited to provide urine and blood samples. The subjects were selected from self-presenting drug abusers who visited a district hospital in Malawi. The urine samples from both men and women were ...
Argento, Elena; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Goldenberg, Shira; Braschel, Melissa; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate
Despite rapid increases in crystal methamphetamine (CM) use worldwide and established gendered patterns of use, empirical research on CM injection initiation among sex workers is limited. Given the wide range of harms associated with CM, alongside stimulant effects including sexual dis-inhibition and prolonged awake-ness, this study aimed to longitudinally investigate socio-structural predictors of initiating CM injection among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada. Data (2010-2014) were drawn from a community-based cohort of women sex workers: AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access). Participants completed bi-annual interviewer-administered questionnaires and HIV/STI testing. Kaplan Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to model predictors of CM injection initiation among CM injection-naïve participants. Of 455 participants eligible at baseline, 14.3% (n=65) injected CM for the first time over follow-up, with an incidence density of 6.79 per 100 person-years (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 5.30-8.69). In multivariable analysis, injection heroin use (Adjusted Hazard Ratio [AHR] 6.11; 95%CI 3.24-11.52), having an intimate partner who injects drugs (AHR 2.93; 95%CI 1.57-5.46), workplace violence (AHR 2.85; 95%CI 1.74-4.67), HIV seropositivity (AHR 2.69; 95%CI 1.45-5.00), and childhood abuse (AHR 1.86; 95%CI 0.99-3.49) were independently associated with initiating CM injection. Findings underscore the gendered and social risk environment of CM injection initiation among sex workers. The strong influences of historical/workplace violence, coupled with heroin injection (known to be self-medicating for post-traumatic stress) as a primary risk pathway, emphasize the urgency of increasing access to integrated, trauma-informed addiction treatment and HIV care for marginalized women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society - physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Mankowski, Eric S; Galvez, Gino; Perrin, Nancy A; Hanson, Ginger C; Glass, Nancy
This study assesses different types of work-related intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and their relationship to perpetrators' work performance and employment. We determine if groups of abusive men with similar patterns of work-related IPV exist and then examine whether the patterns are related to their characteristics, job performance, and employment outcomes. Participants were 198 adult men (60% Latino, 40% non-Latino) from batterer intervention programs (BIPs) who self-reported their lifetime work-related IPV and job outcomes. Five distinct clusters were identified and named based on the pattern (predominance or absence) of different work-related abusive behaviors reported: (a) low-level tactics, (b) job interference, (c) job interference with threatened or actual violence, (d) extreme abuse without jealousy and (e) extreme abuse. Analyses revealed significant differences between the clusters on ethnicity, parental status, partner's employment status, income, education, and (among Latinos only) acculturation. The probability of men's work-related IPV substantially impacting their own job performance was nearly 4 times greater among those in the extreme abuse cluster than those in the low-level tactics cluster. These data inform the development of employee training programs and workplace policies for reducing IPV that affects the workplace.
Cooper, Bergen; Crockett, Cailin
It is widely known that older women are at lesser risk for sexual violence than younger women, but current inattention to older women in the gender-based violence (GBV) field has minimized the experiences of older women survivors at great detriment to their health and rights. For example, health providers seldom ask older women about their sexual activity and relationships, a neglect that leads to older women being excluded from necessary HIV testing and care as well as support services for abuse. This oversight is increasingly worrisome given the rise in new HIV infections among adults age 50 and older in recent years, with the majority of transmissions stemming from individuals unaware of their HIV-positive status. Building on sexual rights scholarship, this paper argues for an approach to public health interventions for GBV and HIV that acknowledges older women--their sexuality, sexual agency, and activity-- so that health providers and advocates acknowledge and serve older survivors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle
In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…
Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.
This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…
Teitelman, Anne M; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Jemmott, John B; Icard, Larry; O'Leary, Ann; Ali, Samira; Ngwane, Zolani; Makiwane, Monde
Intimate partner violence directed at women by men continues to be a global concern. However, little is known about the factors associated with perpetrating intimate partner violence among heterosexual men. History of childhood sexual abuse and other sociodemographic variables were examined as potential factors associated with severe intimate partner violence perpetration toward women in a sample of heterosexual men in South Africa. Longitudinal logistic generalized estimating equations examined associations of childhood sexual abuse and sociodemographic variables at baseline with intimate partner violence perpetration at subsequent time points. Among participants with a steady female partner, 21.81 % (190/ 871) reported perpetrating intimate partner violence in the past year at baseline. Having a history of childhood sexual abuse (p sexual impulses in order to use a condom (p = .006) at baseline were associated with self-reported intimate partner violence perpetration in the past year at subsequent time points. With high levels of recent severe physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence perpetration in South Africa, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed. To more fully address gender-based violence, it is important to address associated factors, including exposure to childhood sexual abuse that could impact behavior later in life and that have long-lasting and deleterious effects on men and their female partners.
Leclerc, Benoit; Chiu, Yi-Ning; Cale, Jesse
Most criminal justice responses to address sexual violence and abuse against children are aimed at identifying and incarcerating offenders or at best, trying to prevent them from reoffending. This policy situation, primarily characterized by tertiary intervention strategies, is exacerbated by a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs. This specific information can inform certain types of primary and secondary prevention strategies. In this study, we are taking the first steps to address this situation by (a) organising and reviewing for the first time the empirical knowledge on this phenomenon according to questions asked by environmental criminologists and crime analysts, that is, the who, what, where, when, and how this phenomenon occurs, and (b) discussing directions for future research. By engaging in this exercise, we argue that environmental criminology can substantially contribute to understanding and informing prevention practices in the field of sexual violence and abuse against children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati V K; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan P N
HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, and HIV-positive alone and HIV-positive METH, cocaine, and alcohol users, and age-matched control subjects. The plasma CRP and SAA levels were measured by ELISA and western blot respectively and the CD4 counts were also measured. Observed results indicated that the CRP and SAA levels in HIV-positive subjects who are METH, cocaine and alcohol users were significantly higher when compared with either drugs of abuse or HIV-positive alone. The CD4 counts were also dramatically reduced in HIV-positive with drugs of abuse subjects compared with only HIV-positive subjects. These results suggest that, in HIV-positive subjects, drugs of abuse increase the levels of CRP and SAA, which may impact on the HIV infection and disease progression.
Holden, Kisha B.; McKenzie, Robetta; Pruitt, Vikki; Aaron, Katrina; Hall, Stephanie
This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substance abuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. D...
Full Text Available In this article, we explore how women survivors of intimate partner violence understand the abuse they endured and the possible link to intimate femicide. This is a qualitative study based on a feminist poststructuralist perspective. Seven South African women, aged 23 to 50 years, with a history of different manifestations of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV participated in open-ended interviews. The data was analyzed by means of discourse analysis. In their explanations, the women constructed gendered identities, which reflected contradictory and ambiguous subjective experiences. The women's understandings were filtered through the particular social context in which their abusive experiences occurred. The findings highlighted that contemplating femicide was too threatening, and consequently participants drew on discourses of femininity, romantic love, and others to justify their remaining in their violence-ridden relationships. It emphasizes the need for additional engagement in women's understandings of intimate femicide, as women who live in abusive relationships have largely been consigned to the periphery. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160196
Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif
Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie
International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence.
Davies, Lorraine; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Willson, Andrea; Varcoe, Colleen; Wuest, Judith; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Scott-Storey, Kelly
Drawing on the Women's Health Effects Study, a community sample of women (N = 309) who recently left an abusive partner, this study examines patterns of cumulative abuse experiences over the life course, their socioeconomic correlates, and associations with a range of health outcomes. Latent class analysis identified four groups of women with differing cumulative abuse profiles: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Dominant, Child Abuse and IPV, All Forms, and All Forms Extreme. We find a relationship pattern between cumulative abuse and socioeconomic circumstances, and significantly worse health outcomes among women with the All Forms Extreme profile. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Woulfe, Julie M; Goodman, Lisa A
Intimate partner violence (IPV; i.e., physical, sexual, or psychological abuse by a current or former partner) remains a public health concern with devastating personal and societal costs. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are also vulnerable to a dimension of IPV called identity abuse (IA); that is, abuse tactics that leverage systemic oppression to harm an individual. Yet, we know little about its relative prevalence in subgroups of the LGBTQ community. This study developed and evaluated a measure of IA, and explored its prevalence in a sample of 734 sexual minority adults. The sample included women (53.1%), men (27.4%), and transgender or gender nonconforming "TGNC" (19.3%) participants. The majority of participants identified as queer or pansexual (38.7%), then gay (23.6%), lesbian (22.8%), and bisexual (13.6%). Participants completed an online survey that included measures of IA and physical, sexual, and psychological abuse. The IA items formed a unidimensional factor structure with strong internal consistency and construct validity. Nearly one fifth of the sample (16.8%) experienced past year IA and 40.1% reported adult IA. Women experienced greater exposure to IA in adulthood than men, and TGNC participants reported higher rates of IA in adulthood and in the last year compared to their cisgender counterparts. The odds of queer or bisexual participants reporting IA in adulthood were almost three times higher than gay participants, and two times higher than lesbian participants. Findings have implications for advancing assessment of partner abuse in the LGBTQ community, LGBTQ-competent clinical care, and training of practitioners.
Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E
Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.
John, Michelle E; Thomas-Rozea, Crystal; Hahn, David
Bath salts have recently emerged as a popular designer drug of abuse causing significant hazardous effects on mental health and physical health, resulting in public health legislation making its usage illegal in the United States. To educate mental health providers on the effects of the new designer drug bath salts, including its potential to cause psychosis and violence in patients. This is a case report on a 40-year-old male with no past psychiatric history who presented with new-onset psychosis and increased risk for violence after ingesting bath salts. In addition, a literature review was performed to summarize the documented effects of bath salts abuse and the current U.S. public health legislation on bath salts. The presented case illustrates a new-onset, substance-induced psychotic disorder related to bath salts usage. The literature review explains the sympathomimetic reaction and the potential for psychotic symptoms. To discuss the physical and psychological effects of bath salts, treatment options for bath salts abuse and U.S. legislation by Ohio state law to current U.S. federal law that bans production, sale, and possession of main substances found in bath salts. It is important for mental health providers to be aware of bath salts, understand the physical and psychiatric effects of bath salts and be familiar with current legislative policy banning its usage. Lastly, bath salts abuse should be in the differential diagnosis where psychosis is new onset or clinically incongruent with known primary presentation of a psychotic disorder.
McMahon, James M; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie
Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. © The Author(s) 2015.
Lokhmatkina, Natalia V; Feder, Gene; Blake, Sarah; Morris, Richard; Powers, Victoria; Lightman, Stafford
Domestic violence and abuse is threatening behavior, violence/abuse used by one person to control the other within an intimate or family-type relationship. Women experience more severe physical and sexual domestic violence and abuse and more mental health consequences than men. The current study aims at exploring of the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity in abuse impact on women's mental health. 1) To evaluate diurnal cortisol slope, cortisol awakening response, and the mean cortisol concentration in women with a current or recent experience of abuse; 2) To estimate whether cortisol secretion is associated with type, severity, duration and cessation of abuse; 3) To investigate whether cortisol acts as mediator between abuse and mental health condition; 4) To examine whether there is any distinction in cortisol levels between those women exposed to both childhood abuse and domestic violence and abuse and those experienced only the latter. 4) To explore whether cortisol secretion differs between women living in refuge and those still living in the community. To meet study objectives 128 women will be recruited in a domestic violence agency and local communities. Baseline and 3-month follow-up measures will be taken over 6 months after recruitment. Each assessment will include: (1) standardized self-administered questionnaires to evaluate socio-demographics, experience of violence and abuse, mental and physical health; (2) weight and height measurement; (3) self-completion of wakening, post-wakening and evening saliva samples. Saliva will be analysed for cortisol and cortisone using Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We will compare diurnal cortisol parameters between non-abused controls and abuse survivors with and without mental health conditions. First following descriptive statistics for all the cortisol and mental health outcomes, relationships between them will be investigated using appropriate regression
Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Rob; O'Brien, Nadia; Lazarus, Lisa; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima Mary, P; Venukumar, K T; Raviprakash, K N; Baer, James; Steen, Richard
Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability. Marginalized groups face disproportionate barriers to health, and sex workers are among those at highest risk of HIV in India. Evidence in India and globally has shown that sex workers face violence in many forms ranging from verbal, psychological and emotional abuse to economic extortion, physical and sexual violence and this is directly linked to lower levels of condom use and higher levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the most critical determinants of HIV risk. We present here a case study of an intervention that mobilized sex workers to lead an HIV prevention response that addresses violence in their daily lives. This study draws on ethnographic research and project monitoring data from a community-led structural intervention in Mysore, India, implemented by Ashodaya Samithi. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to characterize baseline conditions, community responses and subsequent outcomes related to violence. In 2004, the incidence of reported violence by sex workers was extremely high (> 8 incidents per sex worker, per year) but decreased by 84 per cent over 5 years. Violence by police and anti-social elements, initially most common, decreased substantially after a safe space was established for sex workers to meet and crisis management and advocacy were initiated with different stakeholders. Violence by clients, decreased after working with lodge owners to improve safety. However, initial increases in intimate partner violence were reported, and may be explained by two factors: (i) increased willingness to report such incidents; and (ii) increased violence as a reaction to sex workers' growing empowerment. Trafficking was addressed through the establishment of a self-regulatory board (SRB). The community's progressive response to violence
Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J
Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.
Maria del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Violence against women in close relationships is one of the most worrying and controversial situations in modern society. The main goal of this study was to identify the social perception that people generally have of gender violence in order to obtain profiles of both men who resort to violence against their partners and women who are victims of abuse, identifying both individual (e.g. self-esteem and social (power in relationship characteristics related to gender violence. Using a questionnaire (designed between groups, 268 participants were asked to estimate the probability of men (Batterers vs. Non-batterers and women (Victims vs. Non-victims displaying certain behaviours, beliefs or attitudes. The results revealed the existence of clear social profiles of both aggressors and victims, comprising both individual and psychosocial characteristics. These profiles contained aspects that coincide with the roles traditionally associated with men and women, thus highlighting inequality between both sexes, and which seems to be one of the main causes of gender violence.
Gender inequality is driving two distinct yet interlinked epidemics among women in India: HIV and AIDS and domestic violence. As domestic violence is increasingly recognized and HIV infection expands, policy and programs do not reflect the interlinked risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article seeks to establish the nexus between HIV and AIDS and domestic violence and identify potential areas for a state-led response. In a health and human rights approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each epidemic at the individual, societal, and program levels to analyze direct and underlying factors that determine women's risk. Three areas are identified as opportunities for an integrated response: strengthen HIV and domestic violence strategies and address their overlap; mainstream gender; and improve data and research.
AIDS, its burden has not been adequately explored in many developing countries including Nigeria. Using interviewer administered questionnaires we assessed the prevalence and risk factors for domestic violence among 300 HIV seropositive ...
Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton
Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males ( n = 21) and females ( n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.
Klot, Jennifer F.; Auerbach, Judith D.; Berry, Miranda R.
This summarizes proceedings of a Scientific Research Planning Meeting on Sexual Violence and HIV transmission, convened by the Social Science Research Council on 19–20 March 2012 at the Greentree Foundation in New York. The Meeting brought together an interdisciplinary group of basic, clinical, epidemiological and social science researchers and policy makers with the aim of: (1) examining what is known about the physiology of sexual violence and its role in HIV transmission, acquisition and p...
Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Raker, Christina; Tzilos, Golfo; Phipps, Maureen G.
This study examined the relationship between interpersonal violence, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among pregnant teenagers. A sample of 116 pregnant teenagers was recruited in Rhode Island. Multivariate logistic regressions tested whether the relationship between history of interpersonal violence and HIV risk remained after controlling for age and education. Participants reported a young age of sexual debut and low rates of condom use. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate...
Okumu, Moses; Mengo, Cecilia; Ombayo, Bernadette; Small, Eusebius
Background: Teen dating violence (TDV), bullying, and HIV risk behaviors are public health concerns that impact adolescents in the United States. National estimates reveal high rates of these risk behaviors among high school students. Based on theoretical and empirical evidence, we hypothesized that experiencing teen dating violence (sexual and…
Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. © The Author(s) 2015.
Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi
This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fujiwara, T; Okuyama, M; Izumi, M
To assess the impact of childhood abuse history, domestic violence experiences and mental health symptoms on the parenting behaviour of mothers in Japan who have separated from violent husbands or partners. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of mothers (n = 304) and their children (n = 498) residing in 83 mother-child homes in Japan. The survey assessed the mothers' childhood abuse history (physical, psychological and sexual abuse and neglect history), domestic violence experiences, current mental health symptoms (dissociative, depressive and traumatic symptoms) and parenting behaviours after moving into the homes to separate from a violent husband or partner. The mothers' childhood abuse history and experience of domestic violence were not associated with their not playing with their children. In contrast, the mothers' dissociative and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with not playing with their children. Although there was no association between the mothers' total childhood abuse history and not praising their children, their childhood physical abuse history was significantly associated with their not praising their children. The dissociative and depressive symptoms were also associated with no praise. Interestingly, the experience of domestic violence showed an inverse association with no praise. Mental health symptoms, more specifically dissociative and depressive symptoms, are associated with a decrease in parenting quality. Mothers who were physically abused as children are less likely to praise their own children, independent of maternal mental health symptoms. In contrast, mothers who experienced domestic violence but subsequently separated from their violent husbands or partners are more likely to praise their children. The treatment of mental health symptoms, particularly dissociative and depressive symptoms, therapy for childhood abuse history and separation from violent husbands or partners might be
In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948
Surianti Sukeri, PhD
Full Text Available Objectives: This qualitative study aims to discover the factors that influenced the decisions of women who successfully escaped domestic violence by attaining a divorce. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 women, ages 21-56 who were either divorced or currently in the process of getting divorced in Kelantan, Malaysia. Results: Several themes emerged, indicating the following five reasons for divorce: 1 reaching the point of ultimatum, 2 having adequate support pre- and post-divorce, 3 concern for children's welfare, 4 seeking financial independence, and 5 fear of harm. Conclusion: The identification of the driving factors for divorce may spark a change in our society's mindset to empower female divorcees and allow them to lead happy, abuse-free lives. Keywords: Divorce, Domestic violence, In-depth interview, Malaysia
Humberto González Galbán
Full Text Available Domestic violence or spousal abuse, largely determined by the existing traditional gender roles, is the issue discussed in this article, which is focusing on the special case of young people of the state of Baja California. During the search of the conditional agents of this social process, there were valued psychological and socio–demographic variables, such as family violence during childhood, immigration status, educational level and age, all these variables were separated by the gender and age (rank 18–29 of the sudied sample.Considering the information provided of the database used; The Survey of Adolescent Reproductive Health of Baja California 2006, it is described and analyzed in this research, several indicators, all of them related with important issues which affect a part of the young population of Baja California, regardless the lack of information and almost non previous research about this theme.
Gallagher, B; Allen, M; Jones, B
Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.
Reece, Rebecca; Dugdale, Caitlin; Touzard-Romo, Francine; Noska, Amanda; Flanigan, Timothy; Rich, Josiah D.
For patients with both HIV/HCV coinfection and substance addiction, multidisciplinary teams can facilitate coordination of care and improve clinical outcomes. Such teams should include HIV/HCV treatment providers, mental health specialists, case managers, social workers, and substance abuse counselors. PMID:25520548
Neufeld, Sharon A. S.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Lee, Rachel S.; Kochman, Arlene
Shame has been shown to predict sexual HIV transmission risk behavior, medication non-adherence, symptomatic HIV or AIDS, and symptoms of depression and PTSD. However, there remains a dearth of tools to measure the specific constructs of HIV-related and sexual abuse-related shame. To ameliorate this gap, we present a 31-item measure that assesses HIV and sexual abuse-related shame, and the impact of shame on HIV-related health behaviors. A diverse sample of 271 HIV-positive men and women who were sexually abused as children completed the HIV and Abuse Related Shame Inventory (HARSI) among other measures. An exploratory factor analysis supported the retention of three-factors, explaining 56.7% of the sample variance. These internally consistent factors showed good test–retest reliability, and sound convergent and divergent validity using eight well-established HIV specific and general psychosocial criterion measures. Unlike stigma or discrimination, shame is potentially alterable through individually-focused interventions, making the measurement of shame clinically meaningful. PMID:22065235
Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric
Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…
Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard
Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in many settings, but little is known about its impact on cellular immunity especially in HIV infected women, and if any impact differs according to the form of IPV. We tested hypotheses that exposure to IPV, non-partner rape, hunger, pregnancy, depression and substance abuse predicted change in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell count in a dataset of 103 HIV infected young women aged 15-26 enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Multiple regression models were fitted to measure rate of change in CD4 and CD8 and including terms for age, person years of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell observation, HIV positivity at baseline, and stratum. Exposure variables included drug use, emotional, physical or sexual IPV exposure, non-partner rape, pregnancy and food insecurity. Mean CD4+ T cell count at baseline (or first HIV+ test was 567.6 (range 1121-114. Participants were followed for an average of 1.3 years. The magnitude of change in CD4 T-cells was significantly associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse from a current partner at baseline or first HIV+ test (Coeff -132.9 95% CI -196.4, -69.4 p<0.0001 and drug use (Coeff -129.9 95% CI -238.7, -21.2 p=0.02. It was not associated with other measures. The change in CD8 T-cells was associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse at baseline or prior to the first HIV+ test (Coeff -178.4 95%CI -330.2, -26.5 p=0.02. In young ART-naive HIV positive women gender-based violence exposure in the form of emotional abuse is associated with a faster rate of decline in markers of cellular immunity. This highlights the importance of attending to emotional abuse when studying the physiological impact of IPV experience and the mechanisms of its impact on women's health.
Lila, Marisol; Gracia, Enrique; Catalá-Miñana, Alba
There is general consensus that alcohol abuse is a risk factor to be considered in batterer intervention programs. Intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems are more likely to dropout of batterer intervention programs. However, there is little research on intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing batterer intervention programs. In this study, we analyze drop-out rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems and explore whether perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing a batterer intervention program differ from those who do not have alcohol abuse problems in a number of outcomes. The sample was 286 males convicted for intimate partner violence against women, attending a community-based batterer intervention program. Final (i.e., recidivism) and proximal (i.e., risk of recidivism, responsibility attributions, attitudes toward violence, sexism, psychological adjustment, and social integration) intervention outcomes were analyzed. Chi-square test, binary logistic regression, and one-way ANOVA were conducted. Results confirmed higher dropout rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems. Results also showed a reduction in alcohol abuse among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing the batterer intervention program. Finally, results showed that, regardless of alcohol abuse problems, perpetrators who completed the batterer intervention program showed improvements in all intervention outcomes analyzed. Perpetrators both with and without alcohol abuse problems can show positive changes after completing an intervention program and, in this regard, the present study highlights the need to design more effective adherence strategies for intimate partner violence perpetrators, especially for those with alcohol abuse problems.
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ083 WOMEN’S HEALTH Domestic Violence • What is domestic violence? • What are the types of abuse? • How can I tell if my partner is abusive? • What is the ...
Engstrom, Malitta; Winham, Katherine; Gilbert, Louisa
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is often considered an important distal factor in HIV sexual risk behaviors; however, there are limited and mixed findings regarding this relationship among women experiencing substance use problems. In addition, research with this population of women has yet to examine differences in observed CSA-HIV sexual risk behaviors relationships by CSA type and characteristics. This study examines relationships between CSA coding, type, and characteristics and HIV sexual risk behaviors with main intimate partners among a random sample of 390 women in methadone treatment in New York City who completed individual interviews with trained female interviewers. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicate that CSA predicts substance use with sexual activity, with variations by CSA coding, type, and characteristics; however, the role of CSA is more limited than expected. Having a main partner with HIV risk mediates some relationships between CSA and drinking four or more drinks prior to sex. Intimate partner violence is the most consistent predictor of sexual risk behaviors. Other salient factors include polysubstance use, depression, social support, recent incarceration, relationship characteristics, and HIV status. This study contributes to understanding of relationships between CSA and HIV sexual risk behaviors and key correlates associated with HIV sexual risk behaviors among women in methadone treatment. It also highlights the complexity of measuring CSA and its association with sexual risk behaviors and the importance of comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention that address psychological, relational, situational, and substance use experiences associated with sexual risk behaviors among this population.
Full Text Available Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia can both inflict and suffer violence. For centuries there has been a firmly held belief that they are dangerous and, due to this belief, they are still frequently isolated from the community and exposed to involuntary treatment and restraint. Research data illustrates that persons with this diagnosis are at greater risk of performing violent acts more frequently than the general population. In recent years, the general framework has been set in a more complex manner due to the inclusion in analysis of several mediating variables such as gender, social status, childhood trauma, personality traits, stress and many others. Numerous studies have shown that violent tendencies are evident in persons with co-morbidity of schizophrenia and anti- social personality disorder and/or substance abuse disorders. This paper is focused on reviewing data scrutinizing the role of drug abuse and alcoholism in the violent behavior of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia. Data obtained through meta- analyses of tens of thousands of cases demonstrates unequivocally that the percentage of persons with schizophrenia who commit violent acts without abusing drugs is relatively higher than in the general population (8.5% : 5.3%, while persons who abuse drugs and/or alcohol have been more frequently violent regardless of being psychotic or not (27.6%. Having taken these findings into account, the understanding that persons diagnosed with schizophrenia are prone to violence must be made more specific and their treatment, follow- up and public image changed accordingly. Some of these implications are discussed in this paper and changes suggested.
Papas, Rebecca K; Gakinya, Benson N; Mwaniki, Michael M; Lee, Hana; Kiarie, Stella W; Martino, Steve; Loxley, Michelle P; Keter, Alfred K; Klein, Debra A; Sidle, John E; Baliddawa, Joyce B; Maisto, Stephen A
Victimization from physical and sexual violence presents global health challenges. Partner violence is higher in Kenya than Africa. Violence against drinkers and HIV-infected individuals is typically elevated, so dual vulnerabilities may further augment risk. Understanding violence risks can improve interventions. Participants were 614 HIV-infected outpatient drinkers in western Kenya enrolled in a randomized trial to reduce alcohol use. At baseline, past 90-day partner physical and sexual violence were examined descriptively and in gender-stratified regression models. We hypothesized higher reported violence against women than men, and positive violence association with HIV stigma and alcohol use across gender. Women reported significantly more current sexual (26.3 vs. 5.7%) and physical (38.9 vs. 24.8%) victimization than men. Rates were generally higher than Kenyan lifetime national averages. In both regression models, HIV stigma and alcohol-related sexual expectations were significantly associated with violence while alcohol use was not. For women, higher violence risk was also conferred by childhood violence, past-year transactional sex, and younger age. HIV-infected Kenyan drinkers, particularly women, endorse high current violence due to multiple risk factors. Findings have implications for HIV interventions. Longitudinal research is needed to understand development of risk.
Stevens, Natalie R; Gerhart, James; Goldsmith, Rachel E; Heath, Nicole M; Chesney, Samantha A; Hobfoll, Stevan E
We examined how difficulties with emotion regulation, social support, and interpersonal violence in adult relationships mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and post traumatic symptoms (PTS) in adults. We fit a multiple mediation model to data from 139 socio-economically disadvantaged women (85% African American) of whom 44% endorsed moderate to severe levels of childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse and 12% screened positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The model accounted for 63% of the variance in adult PTS symptoms. Child abuse exerted a direct effect on PTS symptoms and indirect effects through difficulties with emotion regulation, lower social support, and greater exposure to adult interpersonal violence. Implications of findings for the treatment of individuals at high risk of having experienced childhood abuse and PTS are discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Dévieux, Jessy; Malow, Robert; Tammara, Hayley; Carney, Kimberly
US immigrants of Caribbean origin are overrepresented in the HIV/AIDS prevalence statistics. Bidirectional travel between the United States and the Caribbean region by providing opportunities for sexual mixing may contribute to these high HIV rates. Caribbean immigrants face further risk because of limited health care access, social isolation, and stigma. Additionally, although substance abuse may not represent a major health issue in their countries of origin, Caribbean immigrants are composed disproportionately of adolescents who are at greatest risk of substance abuse. There is little information on the health care characteristics of these migrants, especially regarding HIV care. This article describes how the social and economic circumstances that surround the lives of people from the Caribbean and the challenges of the acculturation process have placed these individuals at risk of substance abuse and HIV infection. The article draws on findings from the literature and analysis of data from several sources.
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also ... a child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...
Lipsky, Sherry; Krupski, Antoinette; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Lucenko, Barbara; Mancuso, David; Huber, Alice
This retrospective cohort study examined risk factors for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD) and the effect of COD and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among women and IPV-related arrest among men on 1-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. The study sample included clients admitted to Washington State publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities in 2004-2007. COD was associated with a high substance use and IPV risk profile at admission. Having a COD decreased the odds of completing treatment by 30% among men and women and increased the risk of treatment reentry by 9% and 12% among men and women, respectively. IPV also decreased the odds of completing treatment among women and increased the risk of treatment reentry among men. Men with COD were less likely than those without COD to be arrested for substance-related crimes but more likely to be arrested for violence-related crimes in the follow-up period. Implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo; Vivo, Juana-María; Galiana, Laura; Gracia, Enrique
The association between alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence (IPV) has been reiterated in numerous studies. Some authors have found higher levels of risk factors in intimate partner violence offenders (IPVOs) with alcohol problems than in IPVOs without such problems. The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship of contextual variables with harmful alcohol use in a sample of IPVOs. This cross-sectional research analyzes data from 231 IPVOs. In addition to demographic data, information was collected on alcohol use, ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events and perceived social support and rejection. The sample was divided into hazardous and nonhazardous alcohol users, according to the AUDIT test scale. No differences were found between groups on demographic variables. The results of a hierarchical logistic regression analysis supplemented with ROC curves revealed that Latin American immigrants as opposed to Spanish nationality, accumulating stressful life events, and perceiving low social support significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol abuse, with adequate predictive power. Contextual variables such as ethnicity, accumulation of stressful life events, and lack of social support may explain harmful alcohol consumption. These variables should be taken into account in batterer intervention programs in order to reduce one of the most relevant risk factors of IPV: alcohol abuse.
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who w...
Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall
For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional abuse for understanding adolescent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology and dating violence. Further, PTSD symptomatology is assessed as an explanatory bridge in the emotional abuse-teen dating violence link. A random sample of 402 youth from the active caseload of a large urban CPS catchment area participated as part of a larger longitudinal study on adolescent health behaviors. Mid-adolescent youth across types of CPS status were targeted. CPS youth reported on lifetime maltreatment experiences, PTSD symptomatology, and past year dating experiences, using published scales. Over 85% of CPS youth had begun dating. For dating youth, some level of dating violence was common: over half of females (63-67%) and nearly half of males (44-49%). Taking into account other forms of maltreatment, emotional abuse emerged as a significant predictor of both PTSD symptomatology and dating violence among males and females. PTSD symptomatology was a significant mediator of the male emotional abuse-perpetration and the female emotional/physical abuse-victimization links, indicating a gendered patterning to findings. These results indicate that: (1) CPS youth are a high priority group for dating violence and PTSD-linked intervention; and (2) CPS youth continue to experience the unique negative impact of childhood emotional abuse in their adolescent adjustment. All CPS children should be evaluated for emotional abuse incurred, and appropriate intervention attention be given as to how it specifically impacts on the child's approach to relating to themselves and to others. The present study directs practice implications in regards to: (1) the
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction: Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Peters...
Gouse, Hetta; Joska, John A; Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Burnhams, Warren; Carrico, Adam W; Meade, Christina S
Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent in parts of South Africa, and there is concern this will contribute to the country's substantial HIV epidemic. We examined the feasibility of implementing routine HIV testing at a community-based substance abuse treatment centre in Cape Town and determined the HIV sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking treatment at this site. In this cross-sectional study, 293 participants completed measures of demographics, substance use and HIV treatment. HIV sero-prevalence was determined by a rapid finger-prick HIV test, and prior HIV diagnosis was confirmed via clinic records. The majority of participants were male and self-identified as 'Coloured', with a mean age of 28 years. The HIV sero-prevalence was 3.8%. Of the 11 participants who tested HIV positive, four were newly diagnosed. HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were comparable on demographic and substance use factors. Uptake of HIV testing among all clients at the drug treatment centre increased from treatment is feasible in a community-based health centre. The low HIV prevalence among this sample of treatment-seeking methamphetamine users highlights the potential benefits of supporting expanded efforts to optimise HIV prevention with this young adult population. [Gouse H, Joska JA, Lion RR, Watt MH, Burnhams W, Carrico AW, Meade CS. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:580-583]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Maubert, Monique E; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rivera, Nina T; Wigdahl, Brian; Nonnemacher, Michael R
In many individuals, drug abuse is intimately linked with HIV-1 infection. In addition to being associated with one-third of all HIV-1 infections in the United States, drug abuse also plays a role in disease progression and severity in HIV-1-infected patients, including adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Specific systems within the brain are known to be damaged in HIV-1-infected individuals and this damage is similar to that observed in drug abuse. Even in the era of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), CNS pathogenesis occurs with HIV-1 infection, with a broad range of cognitive impairment observed, collectively referred to as HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). A number of HIV-1 proteins (Tat, gp120, Nef, Vpr) have been implicated in the etiology of pathogenesis and disease as a result of the biologic activity of the extracellular form of each of the proteins in a number of tissues, including the CNS, even in ART-suppressed patients. In this review, we have made Tat the center of attention for a number of reasons. First, it has been shown to be synthesized and secreted by HIV-1-infected cells in the CNS, despite the most effective suppression therapies available to date. Second, Tat has been shown to alter the functions of several host factors, disrupting the molecular and biochemical balance of numerous pathways contributing to cellular toxicity, dysfunction, and death. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of ART suppression with regard to controlling the genesis and progression of neurocognitive impairment are currently under debate in the field and are yet to be fully determined. In this review, we discuss the individual and concerted contributions of HIV-1 Tat, drug abuse, and ART with respect to damage in the CNS, and how these factors contribute to the development of HAND in HIV-1-infected patients.
Dåderman, A M; Lidberg, L
This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).
Ford, Julian D.; Gagnon, Kerry; Connor, Daniel F.; Pearson, Geraldine
In a clinical sample of child psychiatry outpatients, chart review data were collected for 114 consecutive admissions over a 1-year period at a Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic. Data included history of documented maltreatment, potentially traumatic domestic or community violence, neglect or emotional abuse, and noninterpersonal…
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…
Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole
More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Diderich, Hester M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Edelenbos, Esther; Flapper, Boudien C.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Mahdi, Ulrike; Poldervaart, Jacoba D.; Sanders, Marian K.; Schoonenberg, N. Jolande; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; van Sommeren, Pauwlina G. W.; Vogt, Anne; Wilms, Janneke F.; Baeten, Paul; Fekkes, Minne; Pannebakker, Fieke D.; Sorensen, Peggy J. G.; Verkerk, Paul H.
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.; Diderich, H.M.; Teeuw, A.H.; Klein Velderman, M.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.; Lee, J.H. van der
To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy (‘Hague protocol’) was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care
... Am I being abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
... abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Signs of domestic violence or abuse Getting a restraining order Leaving an abusive relationship Effects of domestic violence on children Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault ...
Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi
Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…
George, Paul E; Bayer, Angela M; Garcia, Patricia J; Perez-Lu, Jose E; Burke, Jessica G; Coates, Thomas J; Gorbach, Pamina M
Violence experience can increase HIV risk behaviors; however, literature is scarce on violence among male sex workers (MSWs) globally. In 2014, 210 Peruvian MSWs (median age 24.9) were interviewed about their experience of physical, emotional, and sexual violence and condom use with non-paying intimate partners and clients and were tested for HIV. Multivariable models examined relationships between violence in the past 6 months, condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) in the past 3 months and HIV infection. HIV infection (24 %), CLAI (43 %), being a violence victim (42 %) and perpetrator (39 %) were common. In separate multivariable models, being a violence victim [adjusted prevalence ratio aPR = 1.49 (95 % CI 1.09-2.03)] and perpetrator [aPR = 1.39 (1.03-1.87)] were associated with CLAI. Further, being a victim [aPR = 1.65 (1.04-2.62)] was associated with HIV infection. Violence, which was significantly associated with CLAI and HIV infection, is common among Peruvian MSWs, reinforcing the importance of violence awareness and prevention as HIV risk-reduction strategies.
E. Y. Ponomareva
Full Text Available The aim – definition of distinguished characteristics of the right-sided infective endocarditis (IE inintravenous drugs abused with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS.Materials and methods. The study included 10 patients with right-sided IE in conjunction with HIV/AIDS. All patients were male, age – from 28to 36 years.Results. Course of the IE in HIV/AIDS among intravenous drugs abused in general corresponds to features specific to IE in intravenous drug users without HIV infection. Distinctive features of IE in these patients are a large burden of lung disease, its disseminated character, more tissue oxygenation disorders and marked pulmonary hypertension and haematological disorders (lymphopenia, anemia, and late diagnosis of IE.Conclusion. Features of the current right-sided IE in intravenous drugs abused with HIV/AIDS are distinguished . Difficulties in diagnosis of IE inHIV infection are due to variety of causes of prolonged fever, which should guide doctors to more frequent use of transthoracic echocardiography during prolonged fever in HIV-infected patients.
Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren
South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.
Kumar, Santosh; Rao, P S S; Earla, Ravindra; Kumar, Anil
Substance abuse is a common problem among HIV-infected individuals. Importantly, addictions as well as moderate use of alcohol, smoking, or other illicit drugs have been identified as major reasons for non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV patients. The literature also suggests a decrease in the response to ART among HIV patients who use these substances, leading to failure to achieve optimal virological response and increased disease progression. This review discusses the challenges with adherence to ART as well as observed drug interactions and known toxicities with major drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, smoking, methamphetamine, cocaine, marijuana, and opioids. The lack of adherence and drug interactions potentially lead to decreased efficacy of ART drugs and increased ART, and drugs of abuse-mediated toxicity. As CYP is the common pathway in metabolizing both ART and drugs of abuse, we discuss the possible involvement of CYP pathways in such drug interactions. We acknowledge that further studies focusing on common metabolic pathways involving CYP and advance research in this area would help to potentially develop novel/alternate interventions and drug dose/regimen adjustments to improve medication outcomes in HIV patients who consume drugs of abuse.
Salama, I I; Kotb, N K; Hemeda, S A; Zaki, F
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.
This article examines the issues and concerns faced by Indian women in transnational marriages or what are popularly known as NRI marriages in India. It discusses how the Indian laws, the courts, and women try to deal with the difficulties and problems relating to issues of abuse, abandonment, and violence. It also highlights the inadequacies in laws and policies relating to such marriages in India. This article is complimentary to the article by Ann Stewart that concentrates on the "receiving" end of transnational marriages in the United Kingdom, and focuses on the ways in which the socio-legal context of the receiving State (in this case, the United Kingdom) presents difficulties for South Asian women. This article, conversely, takes a "sending" perspective, that is, the response of the home state, India, to the difficulties faced by Indian women involved in transnational marriages.
Full Text Available In this article we pay attention to the vio- lence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances.
Lockwood, R; Arkow, P
The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans. © The Author(s) 2016.
C. H. Thesnaar
Full Text Available Substance abuse among young people is an ever increasing reality and one of the most significant contributing factors to domestic violence within families. The essential question is how practical theology and, to be more exact, pastoral interpretive guides (within the local church can contribute to assist individuals, families and communities in dealing with this traumatic reality in a responsible way. This article argues for a theologically responsible pastoral hermeneutic as it engages with the challenges of the presented case study, within a transdisciplinary approach.
Substance abuse among young people is an ever increasing reality and one of the most significant contributing factors to domestic violence within families. The essential question is how practical theology and, to be more exact, pastoral interpretive guides (within the local church can contribute to assist individuals, families and communities in dealing with this traumatic reality in a responsible way. This article argues for a theologically responsible pastoral hermeneutic as it engages with the challenges of the presented case study, within a transdisciplinary approach.
Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah
Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.
Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T
Recent literature on exposure to domestic violence (DV) highlights the need for increased understanding of the dynamics of domestic violence and abuse (DVA). The current aims were to explore whether two separate dimensions, physical and psychological DVA, were evident in adult children's reports of their exposure to DVA in their family of origin, and whether these dimensions affected psychological well-being and perceived satisfaction with emotional support (hereafter referred to as social support satisfaction). Young adults ( N = 465, aged 17-25, 70% female) reported their experiences of DVA as perpetrated by their parents/caregivers, as well as psychological well-being and social support satisfaction, in an online survey. Using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), we verified the presence of a two-factor model (physical and psychological DVA). Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated the differing impact of these two factors: Specifically, although exposure to psychological DVA (domestic abuse [DA]) was related to reduced psychological well-being, there was no significant effect of exposure to physical DVA (DV). However, mediation analysis suggested the presence of a suppression effect; there was a magnification of the negative relationship between exposure to psychological DA and social support satisfaction when exposure to physical DV was accounted for. Although findings are preliminary, they provide strong evidence to support theoretical arguments regarding the need for future research to conceptualize exposure to DVA in terms of both physical and psychological dimensions. Our findings also highlight that to improve service response and provide effective interventions, it is essential to include exposure to psychological DA in risk assessments of such young adults.
Kraanen, Fleur L; Vedel, Ellen; Scholing, Agnes; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring substance use disorders and it has been demonstrated that successful treatment of alcohol dependence among alcohol dependent IPV perpetrators also led to less IPV. The current study investigated the relative effectiveness of Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP) to cognitive behavioral treatment addressing substance use disorders including only one session addressing partner violence (CBT-SUD+) among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV. Substance use and IPV perpetration were primary outcome measures. Patients who entered substance abuse treatment were screened for IPV. Patients who disclosed at least 7 acts of physical IPV in the past year (N = 52) were randomly assigned to either I-StoP or CBT-SUD+. Patients in both conditions received 16 treatment sessions. Substance use and IPV perpetration were assessed at pretreatment, halfway treatment and posttreatment in blocks of 8 weeks. Both completers and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses were performed. Patients (completers and ITT) in both conditions significantly improved regarding substance use and IPV perpetration at posttreatment compared with pretreatment. There were no differences in outcome between conditions. Completers in both conditions almost fully abstained from IPV in 8 weeks before the end of treatment. Both I-StoP and CBT-SUD+ were effective in reducing substance use and IPV perpetration among patients in substance abuse treatment who repeatedly committed IPV and self-disclosed IPV perpetration. Since it is more cost and time-effective to implement CBT-SUD+ than I-StoP, it is suggested to treat IPV perpetrators in substance abuse treatment with CBT-SUD+.
Raj, A; Silverman, J G; Amaro, H
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual risk in terms of safer sex behaviour and intent, individual and gender-based HIV risk factors, and male partner HIV risk, among a lower-income community-based sample of Hispanic women reporting a current male sexual partner. Baseline survey data on HIV-related behaviours and risk factors gathered from participants (N=170) of an HIV intervention evaluation study for Hispanic women were used for current analyses. Participants were age 18-36 years, predominantly born outside of the continental US (88.8%) and not English fluent (68.2%). Adjusted logistic regression analyses and 95% confidence intervals were conducted to assess the relationships between male-perpetrated IPV in the past three months and sexual risk variables. One-fifth (21.2%) of the sample reported male-perpetrated IPV in the past three months. Abused women were significantly more likely than those not abused in the past three months to report high STD/HIV risk perceptions (OR=3.02, 95% CI=1.33-6.88), gender-based risk including sexual control by male partners (OR=3.09, 95% CI=1.41-6.76) and male partner risk including male infidelity (OR=4.58, 95% CI=1.57-13.32). Results support the need for emphasis on IPV prevention within HIV prevention programmes and demonstrate the need for HIV prevention efforts directed at men with a history of IPV perpetration.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs, the post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, play key roles in modulating many cellular processes. The changes in the expression profiles of several specific miRNAs affect the interactions between miRNA and their targets in various illnesses, including addiction, HIV, cancer etc. The presence of anti-HIV-1 microRNAs (which regulate the level of infectivity of HIV-1 have been validated in the cells which are the primary targets of HIV infection. Drugs of abuse impair the intracellular innate anti-HIV mechanism(s in monocytes, contributing to cell susceptibility to HIV infection. Emerging evidence has implicated miRNAs are differentially expressed in response to chronic morphine treatment. Activation of mu opioid receptors (MOR by morphine is shown to down regulate the expression of anti-HIV miRNAs. In this review, we summarize the results which demonstrate that several drugs of abuse related miRNAs have roles in the mechanisms that define addiction, and how they interact with HIV.
Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C
This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Neuropsychological impairments of the executive functions, memory, attention, intelligence quotient, and empathy have been found in perpetrators of domestic violence (intimate partner violence). These impairments could be partially explained by alcohol abuse, dependence, or traumatic brain injuries. This study reviews the neuropsychological deficits of perpetrators of intimate partner violence. At the same it seeks to integrate and relate these main points with their neuroanatomical correlates. We have also established the relationship between alcohol abuse, dependence, brain damage (including traumatic brain injuries) and those deficits. Scientific literature has been reviewed by means of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge. Perpetrators of domestic violence present high mental rigidity, as well as low levels of inhibition, processing speed, verbal and attention skills, and abstract reasoning. Additionally, perpetrators show working and long play memory impairments. Moreover, those deficits could be impaired by traumatic brain injuries and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Nonetheless, these both variables are not enough to explain the deficits. Functional abnormalities on the prefrontal and occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala could be associated with these impairments. An analysis of these mechanisms may assist in the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes that could help improve current therapies.
Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bailey, Sue; Downe, Soo
While media campaigns are increasingly advocated as a strategy for preventing interpersonal violence and abuse, there is little evidence available regarding their effectiveness. Consultation with experts and young people was used as part of a UK scoping review to capture current thinking and practice on the use of media campaigns to address interpersonal violence and abuse among young people. Three focus groups and 16 interviews were undertaken with UK and international experts, and three focus groups were held with young people. Participants argued that, although campaigns initially needed to target whole populations of young people, subsequently, messages should be "granulated" for subgroups including young people already exposed to interpersonal violence and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people. It was suggested that boys, as the most likely perpetrators of interpersonal violence and abuse, should be the primary target for campaigns. Young people and experts emphasized that drama and narrative could be used to evoke an emotional response that assisted learning. Authenticity emerged as important for young people and could be achieved by delivering messages through familiar characters and relevant stories. Involving young people themselves in creating and delivering campaigns strengthened authenticity. Practice is developing rapidly, and robust research is required to identify the key conditions for effective campaigns in this field. The emotional impact of campaigns in this field appears to be as important as the transmission of learning. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.
Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…
Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol
The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montecchi, P P; Di Trani, M; Sarzi Amadè, D; Bufacchi, C; Montecchi, F; Polimeni, A
Up to today, little attention and training has been paid, in the Italian dental field, to a dramatically widespread problem, childhood abuse and neglect (CAN). Our research fits into a current of thought on alerting physicians, not only paediatricians, to the problem of abused children. Violence is often part of neglect and carelessness toward children, and it often also concerns their personal hygiene and health care. Aim of our study was to verify the hypothesis that dental neglect, intended as a specific form of neglect, is often associated to other types of neglect, and therefore it could represent an important sign in identifying childhood abuse and neglect situations. These were investigated through the comparison between a group of children with psychological disorder and a control group, as far as their dental health is concerned. Our results indicate that the abused children show: a significantly higher dental plaque index (p=.02); a higher gingival inflammation (p =.2); a higher number of untreated decays (p=.004); more evidences of neglect (p = .0002). Additionally, the abused subjects were less cooperative during dental visits (p=.0005). Our data support the hypothesis that the abused children in our group are, both under the hygiene point of view and access to treatment, more neglected by their caregivers.
Kirkengen, Anna Luise
A sickness history from General Practice will be unfolded with regard to its implicit lived meanings. This experiential matrix will be analyzed with regard to its medico-theoretical aspects. The analysis is grounded in a phenomenology of the body. The patient Katherine Kaplan lends a particular portrait to the dynamics that are enacted in the interface between socially silenced domestic violence and the theoretical assumptions of human health as these inform the clinical practice of health care. By applying an understanding of sickness that transcends the mind-body split, a concealed and complex logic emerges. This logic is embedded in a nexus of the impact of childhood abuse experience and the medical disinterest in subjective experiences and their impact on selfhood and health. Its core is twofold: the violation of embodiment resulting from intra-familial abuse and existential threat, and the embodiment of violation resulting from social rules and the theoretically blinded medical gaze. A considerable medical investment, apparently conducted in a correct and consistent manner as to diagnostic and therapeutic measures, results in the complete incapacitation of a young physician.
Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, and reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries and illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows of opportunity for trafficked persons to receive assistance from trusted health care professionals. With education and training, health care providers can recognize signs and symptoms of trafficking, provide trauma-informed care to this vulnerable population, and respond to exploited persons who are interested and ready to receive assistance. Multidisciplinary response protocols, research, and policy advocacy can enhance the impact of antitrafficking health care efforts to interrupt the cycle of abuse and violence for these victims.
Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Kamitani, Emiko; Morris, Anne; Sakata, Maria
Access to culturally competent HIV/AIDS and substance abuse treatment and prevention services is limited for Asian and Pacific Islanders (APIs). Based on the intake data for a community outreach project in the San Francisco Bay Area (N = 1,349), HIV risk behaviors were described among the targeted API risk groups. The self-reported HIV prevalence…
Smith, Laramie R; Yore, Jennifer; Triplett, Daniel P; Urada, Lianne; Nemoto, Tooru; Raj, Anita
To examine sexual violence across the lifespan among transgender and cisgender people living with HIV and its associations with recent risk behaviors. Seven community-based sites serving priority populations disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States, including major metropolitan areas in the West and East Coast, as well as the suburban Mid-Atlantic and rural Southeastern regions. From 2013 to 2016, baseline survey data were collected from participants (N = 583) of a multisite community-based HIV linkage to/retention in care study conducted at 7 sites across the United States. Adjusted mixed-effects logistic regression models with random effect for site-assessed associations of sexual violence and gender identity with risk outcomes including condomless sex, sex trade involvement, and substance use-related harms. One-third of participants reported a history of sexual violence; transgender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 5.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.6 to 10.1] and cisgender women (AOR = 3.8, 95% CI: 2.3 to 6.4) were more likely than cisgender men to experience sexual violence. Sexual violence was associated with experiencing drug-related harms (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.2 to 5.5). Transgender women were more likely than cisgender men to have sold sex (AOR = 9.3, 95% CI: 1.7 to 50.0). A history of sexual violence is common among transgender and cisgender women PLWH, and it increases risk for drug-related harms. Transgender women are also more likely to report selling sex.
TEITELMAN, ANNE M.; SELOILWE, ESTHER S.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.
The papers in this special issue focus on the topic of violence against women. This group of scholarly works explores theoretical issues, context and health care interventions pertaining to violence in women’s lives. In conjunction with this special issue, this editorial provides a synopsis of presentations and discussions about the topic of the intersections of gender-based violence, HIV and the girl child that took place in July 2008 as part of the 17th conference of International Council of Women’s Health Issues (ICOWHI) held in Gaborone, Botswana, focusing on the Girl Child. ICOWHI, in conjunction with the University of Botswana, Centre for the Study of HIV and AIDS (CSHA) sponsored a one day preconference on “Gender-based violence and HIV Risk among Adolescent Girls.” A diverse interdisciplinary group of scholars from around the world closely examined these interconnected epidemics in a rich day long discussion. The aim of the preconference as well as the articles in this special issue is to build scholarship and inform practice of cultural and contextual factors as they pertain to violence in the lives of women and girls in order to promote their health, safety and well-being globally. PMID:19191112
Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R
Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bhandari, Mohit; Sprague, Sheila; Dosanjh, Sonia; Wu, Victor; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Jeray, Kyle; Matthews, David; Petrisor, Bradley; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Freeman, Clare; Tikasz, Diana; Badwall, Harjeet; Resendes, Sarah; Cameron, Alicia; Ramnath, Ivanna; Madden, Kim; Rajaratnam, Krishan; Williams, Dale; Drew, Brian; Wong, Ivan; Kwok, Desmond; Denkers, Matthew; Avram, Victoria; Ayeni, Femi; Hall, Jeremy; McKee, Michael; Waddell, James; Whelan, Daniel; Daniels, Timothy; Vicente, Milena; Wild, Lisa; Puskas, David; LeFrancois, Tina; Coles, Chad; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Duffy, Paul; Buckley, Richard; Korley, Robert; Puloski, Shannon; Johnston, Kelly; Carcary, Kimberly; Anderson, Linda; Briggs, Leah; Sullivan, Kelly; Broderick, J. Scott; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Rebecca G.; Brink, Ole; Scholtes, Vanessa; Goslings, J. Carel; Beerekamp, Suzan; Liew, Susan; Dowrick, Adam; Murdoch, Zoe
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term
the 2010-2011 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey, which used a national probability sample of households in the country of ... Patriarchal, hypermasculist culture, shown through violence against women, contributes to the likelihood of HIV in wives and ..... zero coefficient means that the risk factor has little influence ...
3Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Children's Health, Uppsala. University, Sweden. Abstract. Background: Worldwide Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem, affecting all women and ..... women's health and domestic violence: an observational study. Lancet ...
Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing
Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…
Ruelas-González, Maria Guadalupe; Duarte-Gómez, María Beatriz; Flores-Hernández, Sergio; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris Veronica; Cortés-Gil, Jesus David; Taboada, Arianna; Ruano, Ana Lorena
Factors associated with violence and the abuse of older adults are understudied and its prevalence in Mexico has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with violence and abuse of older adults in Mexico. We used Mexico's 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which included a sample of 8,894 individuals who are 60 years or older and who self-reported a negative health event related to robbery, aggression or violence in the previous 12 months. We used chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test to analyze the variables related to violence. Adjusted estimates were completed with multiple logistic regression models for complex surveys. The prevalence of violence was 1.7 % for both men and women. In 95 % of the cases, the aggression was from an unknown party. Verbal aggressions were the most prevalent (60 %). Among men, physical aggression was more common. Violence frequently occurred in the home (37.6 %); however, men were primarily assaulted in public places (42.4 %), in comparison to women (30.7 %). There were also differences in the risk factors for violence. Among men, risk was associated with younger age (60-64 years), higher education (secondary school or above) and higher socioeconomic status. Among women, risk was associated with depression, not being the head of the family, and region of the country. Violence against older adults presents differently for men and women, which means it is necessary to increase knowledge about the dynamics of the social determinants of violence, particularly in regards to the role of education among men. The relatively low prevalence found in this study may reflect the difficulty and fear of discussing the topic of violence. This may occur because of cultural factors, as well as by the perception of helplessness perpetuated by the scarce access to social programs that ensure protection and problem solving with regards to the complex social determinants of individual and
to child transmission of HIV, and voluntary HIV testing, family planning and contraception counselling, health education on puerperal care. The prevalence of HIV in pregnancy at MNH was estimated to be 7-8% (Muhimbili National Hospital, unpublished report), similar to national prevalence of 6-7 % (TDHS 2010). At MNH ...
Onyango, Monica Adhiambo; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Asafo, Mabel Kissiwah; Sylvester, Joy; Wondergem, Peter; Green, Kimberly; Wambugu, Samuel; Brennan, Alana T; Beard, Jennifer
This study aimed to identify social, economic, structural, and individual-level vulnerabilities of female adolescents who sell sex in Kumasi, Ghana. Twenty-four in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions were conducted with female sex workers of age 18-20 years who had been involved in sex work for at least 2 years. Total sample size was 48. One-third of participants started sex work before age 15. Knowledge of HIV was accurate and most reported having intentions to use condoms consistently with clients; however, factors such as higher payments, drug and/or alcohol use, fear of violence, and police harassment affected condom use. They perceived violence and rape at the hands of clients as their greatest risk. They also reported abuse and exploitation by police. Respondents voiced strong concerns that girls and teens involved in sex work are at higher risk of unsafe sex, exploitation, and abuse than their older and more experienced counterparts. Unprotected sex with boyfriends was also common. The pathway to sex work followed a similar pattern for many study participants who left their rural homes for Kumasi in search of economic opportunity. While adolescents who sell sex appear to be abundant in Kumasi, they have been missed by HIV prevention and harm reduction programming. The findings from this study informed the design and implementation of a young female sex worker peer educator pilot program. Key elements of that program are presented, and recommendations for future program evaluation are made.
This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities.
Mercilene T Machisa
Full Text Available Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV. The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health.We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration.Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and
Machisa, Mercilene T; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel
Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective against single and repeat
Full Text Available Objective. HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. Method. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. Results. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Conclusions. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.
Fernandez, Dorian; Salami, Imoleayo; Davis, Janelle; Mbah, Florence; Kazeem, Aisha; Ash, Abreah; Babino, Justin; Carter, Laquiesha; Salemi, Jason L; Spooner, Kiara K; Olaleye, Omonike A; Salihu, Hamisu M
HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of sexual abuse, family conflict/violence, self-injurious behavior, substance use, depressed mood, and anger. Sexual abuse and family conflict/violence had direct effects on self-injurious behavior and substance use among both genders, when controlling for age, family structure, parental education, anger, and depressed mood. More importantly, the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior among both males and females were twice as strong through depressed mood as through anger, while the indirect effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on substance use were only significant through anger. These results indicate that in cases of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence, substance use is similar to externalizing behavior, where anger seems to be a key mediating variable, opposed to internalizing behavior such as self-injurious behavior, where depressed mood is a more critical mediator. Practical implications highlight the importance of focusing on a range of emotions, including depressed mood and anger, when working with stressed adolescents in prevention and treatment programs for self-injurious behavior and substance use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela
Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.
Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet
This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men.
Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh
Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran. © The Author(s) 2014.
Yamawaki, Niwako; Ochoa-Shipp, Monica; Pulsipher, Craig; Harlos, Andrew; Swindler, Scott
Researchers in this study examined the attitudes toward domestic violence, the victim, and her perpetrator. A total of 194 participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how observers' perceptions were influenced by their own sex and myths about domestic violence, by the victim's decision to return to the…
Ruelas-Gonz?lez, Maria Guadalupe; Duarte-G?mez, Mar?a Beatriz; Flores-Hern?ndez, Sergio; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris Veronica; Cort?s-Gil, Jesus David; Taboada, Arianna; Ruano, Ana Lorena
Background Factors associated with violence and the abuse of older adults are understudied and its prevalence in Mexico has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and factors associated with violence and abuse of older adults in Mexico. Methods We used Mexico?s 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey, which included a sample of 8,894 individuals who are 60?years or older and who self-reported a negative health event related to robbery, aggression or violence...
Patrikar, Seema; Basannar, Dashrath; Bhatti, Vijay; Chatterjee, Kunal; Mahen, Ajoy
Violence against women cutting across diverse socio-economic classes is an under-recognized human rights violation in the world. This analysis was undertaken to examine the prevalence along with predictors of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Indian ever-married women. The data obtained from 2005 to 2006 third round of National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) were used in this study. Analyses were conducted on ever-married women by linking individual women data including violence information and HIV test results. The analyses indicated all forms of violence to be prevalent in India. The prevalence of lifetime IPV reported was 35.3 per cent. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression identified younger age of women, higher number of children, low level of education of women as well as her partner, working status of women, higher spousal age, rural residence, alcohol consumption by husband, childhood witness of violence among parents, nuclear household and lower standard of living to be positively associated with the experience of IPV by the women (Panalysis showed a high prevalence of IPV in India.
Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller
Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors.
Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.
Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923
Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…
Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.
Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…
Join Together, Boston, MA.
Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…
Spector, Anya Y; Pinto, Rogerio M
Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors' work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse.
Spector, Anya Y.; Pinto, Rogério M.
Integrating HIV prevention into substance abuse counselling is recommended to ameliorate the health outcomes of men who have sex with men. However, culture-based countertransferences (CBCs) may hamper this effort. Using a case illustration, this paper will explain the manifestation of CBCs held among substance abuse counsellors and how they hinder counsellors’ work with men who have sex with men. The following CBCs will be explored: distancing, topic avoidance, heteronormativity, assumptions and denying client strengths. These CBCs allow counsellors to avoid discussions about sexual practices and curtail HIV prevention counselling, while undermining the counsellor-client relationship. Based on the empirical literature on HIV and substance abuse prevention with men who have sex with men, we provide recommendations to help counsellors overcome CBCs and integrate HIV prevention consistently with men who are in treatment for substance abuse. PMID:21308577
Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P
The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G.; Findlay, Nicole; Schwandt, Michael; Calzavara, Liviana M.
Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions. Methods Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion. Results 101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection. Conclusions Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies. PMID:24282566
Fiona G Kouyoumdjian
Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a significant health problem that has been associated with HIV infection in numerous studies. We aimed to systematically review the literature on relationships between IPV and HIV in order to describe the prevalence of IPV in people with HIV, the prevalence of HIV in people experiencing IPV, the association between IPV and HIV, and evidence regarding mechanisms of risk and interventions.Data sources were 10 electronic databases and reference lists. Studies were included if they reported data on the relationship between IPV and HIV. All records were independently reviewed by two authors at the stages of title and abstract review and full text review. Any abstract considered eligible by either reviewer was reviewed in full, and any disagreement regarding eligibility of full texts or data extracted was resolved by discussion.101 articles were included. Experiencing IPV and HIV infection were associated in unadjusted analyses in most studies, as well as in adjusted analyses in many studies. The findings of qualitative and quantitative studies assessing potential mechanisms linking IPV and HIV were variable. Few interventions have been assessed, but two identified in this review were promising in terms of preventing IPV, though not HIV infection.Experiencing IPV and HIV infection tend to be associated in unadjusted analyses, suggesting that IPV screening and linkage with relevant programs and services may be valuable. It is unclear whether there is a causal association between experiencing IPV and HIV infection. Research should focus on defining parameters of IPV which are relevant to HIV infection, including type of IPV and period of exposure and risk, on assessing potential mechanisms, and on developing and assessing interventions which build on the strengths of existing studies.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. METHODS: We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18-49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. RESULTS: 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211 of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208 rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180 of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07-4.06, p = 0.03. We failed to detect any association in older men. CONCLUSIONS: Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted.
Full Text Available In this unprecedented humanitarian crisis, women refugees are experiencing extreme vulnerability and violence, both during their journey and in the camps. Our objectives through this article are to analyze how women are being treated in the Social Media (images, discourses, social representations, or narratives. Data for this article were extracted from Twitter (with the help of Nodel XL Pro, from which we collected 1,807,901 tweets about “refugees”, using this word as search strings in six different languages. One complete year was covered (starting at mid-2015. Our final dataset was composed of 862,999 tweets. Results suggest that women refugees are targeted just because of their gender. Women are constantly victimized and mistreated due to the perpetuation of a patriarchal outlook that justifies abusing women. We also found many discourses disseminated through Twitter that reject refugees based on disproportionate generalizations and stereotypes, and unfounded and radicalised arguments., using gender difference to feed racism and xenophobia.
Stover, Carla Smith; Easton, Caroline J; McMahon, Thomas J
No studies to date have compared parenting behaviors of men with co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse (SA) with community controls. This study was designed to document mediators of differences in parenting behavior of fathers and the emotional-behavioral problems of their children for men with co-occurring SA and IPV. The self-reported parenting (negative, positive and coparenting behaviors) and the child emotional-behavioral problems of 43 fathers with children aged 2 to 6 years with a recent history of SA + IPV were compared to a sample of 43 community control fathers with the same socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Fathers completed measures on their parenting behavior with a target child, coparenting behavior with the child's mother, emotion regulation, romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and the behavior of the target child. Men with co-occurring SA + IPV had significantly less positive coparenting and more negative parenting behaviors than community control fathers. Negative parenting and coparenting were mediated by the fathers' avoidant attachment problems. SA + IPV fathers also reported more emotional and behavioral problems in their children. These poor child outcome differences between groups were mediated by the negative parenting behaviors of the fathers. These results suggest areas of potential focus in interventions with fathers who have co-occurring SA + IPV issues. Focus on attachment difficulties with his coparent, which may include affect regulation, coping with emotions, and communication skills training related to coparenting, may yield significant changes in parenting behaviors and ultimately child functioning.
Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice
Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.
Lucas, Gregory M; Gebo, Kelly A; Chaisson, Richard E; Moore, Richard D
To assess the temporal association of changes in substance abuse with antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, HIV-1 RNA suppression, and CD4 cell count changes in patients attending an urban clinic. Prospective cohort study. Six-hundred and ninety-five HIV-1-infected individuals, who completed two or more semi-annual standardized surveys and in whom antiretroviral therapy was indicated, were included in the analysis. Surveys addressed antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and use of illicit drugs and alcohol. Substance abuse was defined as active heroin, cocaine, or heavy alcohol use in the 6 months preceding survey. The units of analysis were consecutive pairs of surveys (couplets) in individual participants. Couplets in which participants denied substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets in which participants switched from non-use to substance abuse, and couplets in which participants reported substance abuse in both surveys were compared to couplets where participants switched from substance abuse to non-use. Switching from non-use to substance abuse was strongly associated with worsening antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, less frequent HIV-1 RNA suppression, and blunted CD4 cell increases, compared to remaining free of substance abuse. Alternatively, switching from substance abuse to non-use was strongly associated with improvements in antiretroviral therapy use and adherence, and HIV-1 treatment outcomes, compared to persisting with substance abuse. This longitudinal study highlights the dynamic nature of substance abuse and its temporal association with the effectiveness of HIV-1 treatment in patients attending an inner-city clinic.
Opium has been produced and consumed since the nineteenth century in the areas of Asia currently referred to as the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. In the 1970s and 1980s, most countries from Afghanistan to Japan experienced a heroin epidemic of varying degrees of severity. Opium and heroin abuse appeared to be more severe in countries and areas where those drugs were produced, an exception being Hong Kong, which has had a large population of heroin abusers for more than two decades. Drug injecting was far more common in countries of the Golden Triangle than in those of the Golden Crescent. In Myanmar and Thailand, for example, up to 90 per cent of chronic heroin abusers practised intravenous injection, which appeared to spread to heroin abusers in nearby territories such as the State of Manipur in India. Yunnan province in China, as well as Malaysia and Viet Nam. Amphetamine abuse was more frequent in Japan and the Republic of Korea for a number of years, while illicit production and consumption in the Philippines have recently shown significant increases. The injection of amphetamines was common only in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence of injecting among institutionalized methamphetamine abusers was reported at about 90 per cent. Most countries in Asia first reported cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the mid-1980s. An extremely rapid spead of the epidemic and high prevalence, at rates of from 30 to 90 per cent, of HIV infection among the sample of intravenous heroin abusers were observed in a few countries with a high prevalence of intravenous injecting, such as India (in the State of Manipur), Myanmar and Thailand. The rest had either few reported cases or none at all, even though needle-sharing was found to be common. Great caution should be exercised in interpreting prevalence because of vast differences in methods of assessment. Given the vulnerability of intravenous drug abusers to rapid transmission of HIV
Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R
Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.
Campbell, Andrew M; Thompson, Shannon L; Harris, Tara L; Wiehe, Sarah E
The risk of harm/injury in homes where intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs is not limited to humans; animals reside in as many as 80% of these homes and may be at substantial risk of suffering severe or fatal injury. Gaining a better understanding of IPV-pet abuse overlap is imperative in more accurately identifying the risks of harm for all individuals and animals residing in these homes. The objectives of this study were to utilize law enforcement officers' observations and IPV victim reports from the scene of the incident to (a) determine the prevalence of pet abuse perpetration among suspects involved in IPV incidents, (b) compare characteristics of IPV incidents and the home environments in which they occur when the suspect has a history of pet abuse with incidents involving suspects with no reported history of pet abuse, and (c) compare IPV incident outcomes involving suspects with a history of pet abuse with those involving suspects with no reported history of pet abuse. IPV victims residing in homes with a suspect who has a history of pet abuse often describe "extremely high-risk" environments. With nearly 80% reporting concern that they will eventually be killed by the suspect, victims in these environments should be considered at significant risk of suffering serious injury or death. In addition, IPV victims involved in incidents with a suspect that has a history of pet abuse were significantly more likely to have had at least one prior unreported IPV incident with the suspect (80%) and to have ever been strangled (76%) or forced to have sex with the suspect (26%). Effective prevention/detection/intervention strategies are likely to require multidisciplinary collaboration and safety plans that address the susbstantial risk of harm/injury for all adults, children, and animals residing in the home.
Bartholomew, Kim; Regan, Katherine V; Oram, Doug; White, Monica A
We investigated correlates of partner abuse in male same-sex relationships in a randomly selected community sample (N = 186). We included factors associated with abuse in heterosexual relationships, as well as factors of relevance to gay relationships. We assessed perpetration and receipt of partner abuse to examine whether variables were associated independently with abuse perpetration and/or receipt. Correlates of same-sex partner abuse were largely parallel to established correlates of heterosexual abuse. Income, education, and attachment orientation were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and family violence and substance use were uniquely associated with victimization. Further, there were factors unique to same-sex partner abuse; HIV status and public outness were associated with bidirectional partner abuse, and internalized homophobia was uniquely associated with abuse perpetration.
Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R
We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners ( n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.
Angulo-Arreola, Iliana Alexandra; Bastos, Francisco I; Strathdee, Steffanie A
The Caribbean and Central America represent a formidable challenge for researchers and policy makers in the HIV field, due to their pronounced heterogeneity in terms of social, economic, and cultural contexts and the different courses the HIV epidemic has followed in the region. Such contrasting contexts and epidemics can be exemplified by 2 countries that share the island of Hispaniola, the French Creole-speaking Haiti, and the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic. Haiti has experienced the worst epidemics outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Following a protracted economic and social crisis, recently aggravated by a devastating earthquake, the local HIV epidemic could experience resurgence. The region, strategically located on the way between coca-producing countries and the profitable North American markets, has been a transshipment area for years. Notwithstanding, the impact of such routes on local drug scenes has been very heterogeneous and dynamic, depending on a combination of local mores, drug enforcement activities, and the broad social and political context. Injecting drug use remains rare in the region, but local drug scenes are dynamic under the influence of increasing mobility of people and goods to and from North and South America, growing tourism and commerce, and prostitution. The multiple impacts of the recent economic and social crisis, as well as the influence of drug-trafficking routes across the Caribbean and other Latin American countries require a sustained effort to track changes in the HIV risk environment to inform sound drug policies and initiatives to minimize drug-related harms in the region.
Saul, Janet; Moore, Janet; Murphy, Sheila T; Miller, Lynn C
This study examined the association of relationship violence and preference for three HIV prevention methods among 104 African American and Hispanic women who were at some risk for heterosexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Women completed a brief questionnaire on sexual behaviors and history of relationship violence. All women then watched a video describing three HIV/STD prevention methods (male condoms, female condoms, and vaginal spermicide) that included a discussion of method effectiveness, how to use each method, and their benefits and limitations. Participants then completed a questionnaire assessing their reactions to each of the three HIV prevention methods discussed in the video. Women in violent relationships indicated less likelihood of using male condoms and greater likelihood of using female-controlled methods, particularly vaginal spermicide, than women in nonviolent relationships. In addition, a higher percentage of women in violent compared to nonviolent relationships expected their partners to prefer the vaginal spermicide and a lower percentage expected partners to prefer male condoms. These data suggest that the current focus on finding alternative HIV prevention methods for women in violent relationships is warranted and that a vaginal microbicidal product may be the preferred alternative for this group of women and their male partners.
Lary, Heidi; Maman, Suzanne; Katebalila, Maligo; McCauley, Ann; Mbwambo, Jessie
Prior research has shown a strong correlation between HIV infection and a history of intimate partner violence, particularly among young women. However, the role violence plays in the sexual relationships of young people in Sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Locally trained interviewers conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 young men and 20 young women aged 16-24 who were recruited from public venues in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants described complex interactions among violence, forced sex and infidelity in their sexual relationships. Men who were violent toward female partners also frequently described forced sex and sexual infidelity in these partnerships. Men with multiple concurrent sexual partners reported becoming violent when their female partners questioned their fidelity, and reported forcing regular partners to have sex when these partners resisted their sexual advances. Youth who felt that violence and forced sex could not be justified under any circumstances were often those who had not yet initiated sexual relationships or who were in monogamous partnerships. The association between HIV and violence identified among young people in prior research may be partially explained by their experiences with infidelity and forced sex in their intimate partnerships. HIV prevention interventions that fail to take into account the infidelity, violence and forced sex frequently involved in youth's sexual relationships will have a limited impact.
Wilson, Helen W; Widom, Cathy Spatz
This study examines the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and sexual risk behavior in middle adulthood and whether psychosocial factors (risky romantic relationships, affective symptoms, drug and alcohol use, and delinquent and criminal behavior) mediate this relationship. Children with documented cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect (ages 0-11) processed during 1967-1971 were matched with nonmaltreated children and followed into middle adulthood (approximate age 41). Mediators were assessed in young adulthood (approximate age 29) through in-person interviews between 1989 and 1995 and official arrest records through 1994 (N = 1,196). Past year HIV-risk sexual behavior was assessed via self-reports during 2003-2004 (N = 800). Logistic regression was used to examine differences in sexual risk behavior between the abuse and neglect and control groups, and latent variable structural equation modeling was used to test mediator models. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in middle adulthood, odds ratio = 2.84, 95% CI [1.74, 4.64], p ≤ .001, and this relationship was mediated by risky romantic relationships in young adulthood. Results of this study draw attention to the potential long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect for physical health, in particular sexual risk, and point to romantic relationships as an important focus of intervention and prevention efforts. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Illicit drug abuse is highly prevalent and serves as a powerful co-factor for HIV exacerbation. Epigenetic alterations in drug abuse and HIV infection determine expression of several critical genes such as vitamin D receptor (VDR, which participates in proliferation, differentiation, cell death under both physiological and pathological conditions. On that account, active vitamin D, the ligand of VDR, is used as an adjuvant therapy to control infection, slow down progression of chronic kidney diseases, and cancer chemotherapy. Interestingly, vitamin D may not be able to augment VDR expression optimally in several instances where epigenetic contributes to down regulation of VDR; however, reversal of epigenetic corruption either by demethylating agents (DACs or histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors would be able to maximize expression of VDR in these instances.
Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra
Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, FL, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around 8 major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277
Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet
In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! - a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.
Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence....
Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko
To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV experiences, along with their current mental health problems, including dissociated, depressed, and traumatic symptoms. Independent from DV, CAH, especially psychological abuse, had a significant impact on all of the women's mental health symptoms. DV was found to have an independent effect on traumatic symptoms. Weak interactive effects of CAH and DV were found on dissociated and traumatic symptoms. Among those women without CAH, DV was significantly associated with dissociated and traumatic symptoms; however, DV had no impact on dissociated and traumatic symptoms if CAH was present. The findings suggest the significant impact of CAH on women's mental health problems, independent from DV. CAH and DV weakly interact on women's mental health. In psychological therapy for battered women with mental health problems, if the cases were abused during childhood, it is recommended that therapy be focused on childhood abuse, especially if the client was psychologically abused. In addition, mental health care and welfare providers should be aware that the mental health problems of mothers without CAH might be exacerbated by DV; thus, appropriate resource allocation should be considered. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...
Schluter, Philip J; Tautolo, El-Shadan; Paterson, Janis
Family violence is a serious and increasingly significant public health issue, both in New Zealand and internationally. While Pacific families in New Zealand experience disproportionately higher rates of violence compared to their Palagi counterparts, little epidemiological information exists about the effect of childhood abuse on Pacific fathers and whether it increases their proclivity on perpetrating violence. To determine the prevalence of physical discipline administered to young Pacific children by their fathers and physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated against their partners; and to relate this to fathers' recalled levels of paternal and maternal childhood physical abuse. A cohort of Pacific infants born during 2000 in Auckland, New Zealand, was followed. At 6-weeks and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for mothers and experience of IPV within the last 12 months was measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale. At 1-year and 2-years postpartum, home interviews conducted for fathers and acts of physical discipline were elicited. At the 1-year phase, childhood history of physical abuse was also elicited using the Exposure to Abusive and Supportive Environments Parenting Inventory. Crude and adjusted generalised estimating equation models were employed for statistical analyses. The sample included 786 partnered fathers who were living with their child at the 1-year measurement wave and 579 fathers at the 2-years measurement wave. Smacking children was common (25.0% at 1-year, 81.7% at 2-years) and hitting children with an object was not infrequent (1.4% at 1-year, 14.2% at 2-years). Physical IPV perpetrated by the father ranged from 23.1% to 27.5% while severe IPV was reported by 10.1% to 14.3% of partners. Fathers subjected to higher levels of paternal physical abuse in childhood were significantly more likely to physically discipline their child with smacking than those with lower levels of paternal physical abuse, after adjusting for
Conroy, Amy A; Tsai, Alexander C; Clark, Gina M; Boum, Yap; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D
Gender-based power imbalances place women at significant risk for sexual violence, however, little research has examined this association among women living with HIV/AIDS. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of relationship power and sexual violence among HIV-positive women on anti-retroviral therapy in rural Uganda. Relationship power was measured using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), a validated measure consisting of two subscales: relationship control (RC) and decision-making dominance. We used multivariable logistic regression to test for associations between the SRPS and two dependent variables: recent forced sex and transactional sex. Higher relationship power (full SRPS) was associated with reduced odds of forced sex (AOR = 0.24; 95 % CI 0.07-0.80; p = 0.020). The association between higher relationship power and transactional sex was strong and in the expected direction, but not statistically significant (AOR = 0.47; 95 % CI 0.18-1.22; p = 0.119). Higher RC was associated with reduced odds of both forced sex (AOR = 0.18; 95 % CI 0.06-0.59; p Violence prevention interventions with HIV-positive women should consider approaches that increase women's power in their relationships.
Marcotte, David; Avants, S Kelly; Margolin, Arthur
This case report describes the use of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy in the treatment of an HIV-positive inner-city drug user maintained on methadone and referred for additional treatment due to unremitting cocaine use. 3-S therapy is a manual-guided intervention based on cognitive self-schema theory. Its goal is to help the patient create, elaborate, and make accessible a cognitive schema--the "spiritual" self-schema-that is incompatible with drug use and other HIV risk behaviors. 3-S therapy facilitates a cognitive shift from the habitual activation of the "addict" self-schema, with its drug-related cognitions, scripts and action plans, to the "spiritual" self-schema, with its associated repertoire of harm reduction beliefs and behaviors.
Partridge, Bradley; Affleck, Julia
Emergency Department (ED) workers are prone to occupational violence, however the extent and impact of this may not be evenly felt across all roles in the ED. Explore: 1) the rate of verbal abuse and physical assaults experienced by ED staff, 2) perceptions of safety, 3) attitudes towards security officers, and 4) formal reporting of incidents. 330 ED workers were surveyed at four public hospitals in one metropolitan health service district in Queensland, Australia, including 179 nurses, 83 medical staff, 44 administration staff, 14 allied health, and 9 operational. Nurses were more likely to have been physically assaulted in the last six months and were less likely to feel safe. Most ED staff across all roles experienced verbal abuse. Nurses were better than medical staff at reporting instances of occupational violence although overall reporting across all roles was low. Staff who thought that security officers respond to incidents quickly and are a visible presence in the ED were more likely to feel safe in the ED. Workers in the ED, particularly nurses, experience high rates of verbal abuse and physical aggression and there may be a case for having designated security guards in the ED. Copyright © 2017 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Onu, Chinwe C; Dworkin, Shari L; Ongeri, Linnet G; Oyaro, Patrick; Neylan, Thomas C; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Rota, Grace; Meffert, Susan M
For people living with HIV, exposure to sexual violence (SV) is associated with decreased adherence to antiretroviral medication, a primary predictor of their survival. Identification of risk factors for SV is a pressing issue in sub-Saharan Africa, where the global majority of HIV-positive women live and the prevalence of SV against women is high. We used qualitative data to examine SV against HIV-positive women enrolled in HIV care in Kenya. Respondents identified husbands as perpetrators of SV in the context of women's efforts to use condoms as directed by HIV care providers.
Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu
Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383
Hartman, Christie; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Mary, Jason St; Ascione, Frank R
We explored the relation between empathy, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and animal abuse in a sample of 290 seven- to twelve-year-old children whose mothers were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample comprises mostly Latino and White participants, and 55% of the children's mothers were born outside the United States (primarily Mexico). To our knowledge, among studies examining child-perpetrated animal abuse, this study is the first to examine empathy levels and one of only a few to examine CU traits. When comparing Griffith Empathy Measure (empathy) and Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (callous-unemotional [CU] traits) scores with those from studies of White schoolchildren, our sample scored lower on affective empathy, higher on cognitive empathy, and lower for overall CU scores as well as Callous and Unemotional subscales. Of 290 children, 47 (16.2%) harmed an animal at least once according to either mother or child report. There were no significant sex or age differences between Abuse and No Abuse groups. The Abuse group scored significantly higher on affective empathy, CU, and Callousness/Unemotional subscales, and significantly lower on cognitive empathy. However, in regression analyses that controlled for income, only lower cognitive empathy and higher CU significantly predicted having abused an animal. In summary, low cognitive empathy (but not affective empathy) and CU traits may serve as reliable predictors of child animal abuse. However, replication of these results is necessary. A larger sample with a high percentage of Latino children whose mothers were exposed to IPV, along with a non-exposed comparison group, would be ideal.
Langford, Dianne; Baron, David; Joy, Javed; Valle, Luis Del; Shack, Jonathon
Over the last two decades, consequences of HIV infection of the CNS on disease severity and clinical neuropsychiatric manifestations have changed. These changes are due, in part, to improved control of peripheral infection by new anti-retroviral medications and more efficient CNS penetration of combination anti-retroviral therapies (cART). While the life spans of HIV-infected patients have been prolonged with successful cART, the spectrum of cognitive alterations observed in these patients has broadened. Recent studies report that there does not appear to be a single prototypical pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV, but rather it includes diverse manifestations. Some co-morbidities such as substance abuse or depression, likely play significant roles in the neuropsychiatric profiles of some HIV-infected patients. Newly recognized factors contributing to neurocognitive impairments include ageing and unanticipated side effects from cART. Likewise, disturbances in neuroendocrine functioning are emerging as potentially important contributors to HIV-associated neurocognitive alterations. A retrospective review of clinical data from a small cohort of HIV-infected patients admitted to the psychiatric unit of an inner city hospital indicates that thyroid stimulating hormone levels were abnormal in 27% of the patients. Our data from analyses of post-mortem tissues from HIV patients show for the first time HIV infection of the hypothalamus and altered levels of thyroid hormone processing enzymes. Decreased vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity in hypothalamic neurons was also observed. Thus, HIV infection of the CNS may contribute to changes in hypothalamic hormone signaling, thereby resulting in abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis feedback and neuropsychiatric dysfunction. PMID:21115295
Hampanda, Karen M; Nimz, Abigail M; Abuogi, Lisa L
Early detection of pediatric HIV through uptake of infant HIV testing is critical for access to treatment and child survival. While structural barriers have been well described, a greater understanding of social and behavioral factors that may relate to maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing services is urgently needed. The aim of this study was to explore how gender power dynamics within couples affect HIV-positive women's uptake of early infant HIV testing at a large health center in Lusaka, Zambia. In 2014, 320 HIV-positive married postpartum women were recruited at a large public health facility in Lusaka to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Data on uptake of early infant HIV testing by 4-6 weeks of age was collected through medical records. Simple and multiple logistic regression models determined significant predictors of maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing. In the adjusted model, uptake of early infant HIV testing was associated with female-directed emotional intimate partner violence (aOR 0.41; 95% CI 0.21-0.79; p partner (aOR 13.73, 95% CI 3.59-52.49, p violence and HIV status disclosure to the male partner, may play an important role in maternal uptake of early infant HIV testing. These findings provide additional evidence for the link between intimate partner violence against women and poor HIV-related health outcomes. Programs that adequately screen for and address various forms of intimate partner violence within the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission are recommended.
Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity. Across two sections, the findings trace the pathways through which precarity entered women's lives, drawing on verbal, visual and written accounts collected through participant observation, participatory photography and film, and journey mapping. In doing so, the ethnography articulates the intersection of structural and interpersonal violence in women's lives. It also reveals the extent to which women exert a 'constrained agency', on the one hand, to resist structural violence and reconfigure their political relationship with the state through health activism; and, on the other hand, to shift the gender dynamics that fuel interpersonal violence through a careful navigation of intimacy and independence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Silverstein, Peter S; Shah, Ankit; Weemhoff, James; Kumar, Santosh; Singh, D P; Kumar, Anil
HIV-1 infection is a global public health problem with more than 34 million people living with HIV infection. Although great strides have been made in treating this epidemic with therapeutic agents, the increase in patient life span has been coincident with an increase in the prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). HAND is thought to result from the neurotoxic effects of viral proteins that are shed from HIV-infected microglial cells. One of the primary neurotoxins responsible for this effect is the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. Exposure of neurons to gp120 has been demonstrated to cause apoptosis in neurons, as well as numerous indirect effects such as an increase in inflammatory cytokines, an increase in oxidative stress, and an increase in permeability of the blood-brain barrier. In many patients, the use of drugs of abuse (DOA) exacerbates the neurotoxic effects of gp120. Cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine are three DOAs that are commonly used by those infected with HIV-1. All three of these DOAs have been demonstrated to increase oxidative stress in the CNS as well as to increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Numerous model systems have demonstrated that these DOAs have the capability of exacerbating the neurotoxic effects of gp120. This review will summarize the neurotoxic effects of gp120, the deleterious effects of cocaine, methamphetamine and morphine on the CNS, and the combined effects of gp120 in the context of these drugs.
Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B
There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.
Toumbourou, J W; Hemphill, S A; Tresidder, J; Humphreys, C; Edwards, J; Murray, D
Mental health promotion aimed at populations with low socio-economic status (SES) may benefit by investigating prevention strategies that effectively address related child and adolescent problems. Evidence from a number of literature reviews and program evaluations was synthesised. First, the impact of SES on development from childhood to adulthood is considered in light of research on substance abuse, violence, crime, and child development problems. Second, evaluations of interventions are reviewed to identify those that have shown outcomes in research studies (efficacy) or in real-world settings (effectiveness) in reducing developmental problems associated with low SES. Low SES is measured in different ways including low levels of education and/or income or definitions that combine several variables into a new indicator of low SES. Factors associated with low SES are also associated to varying extent with the development of violence and crime, substance abuse and child health problems. Interventions that address underlying determinants of low SES show strong efficacy in decreasing adolescent crime and violence and effectiveness in improving child health outcomes. Although there is limited efficacy evidence that substance abuse prevention can be effectively addressed by targeting low SES, programs designed to improve educational pathways show some efficacy in reducing aspects of adolescent substance use. Mental health promotion strategies can draw on the approaches outlined here that are associated with the prevention of child and adolescent problems within low SES communities. Alternatively, such interventions could be supported in mental health promotion policy as they may assist in preventing related problems that undermine mental health.
Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah
Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence
... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, while youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, those who were abused only, and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children’s exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children. PMID:20457846
Coutts, Lindsay Mae
Master's thesis in Social work Men’s violence against women in intimate relationships is a pervasive and serious social problem that negatively impacts a women’s life in a multitude of ways. Economic abuse is one tactic commonly used by an abuser to control their partner’s financial resources and independence. Unfortunately, there is limited research on this form of intimate partner violence, especially in the context of Sweden. The aim of this study was to illuminate the issue of economic...
Veccia, Teresa; Levin, Eduardo; Waisbrot, Cecilia
Aggression, abuse and violence tend to occur with an increasing intensity in society. It comes about in a similar way within the school. In order to achieve a proper approach to this subject, these terms should be differentiated, not only in relation to their meanings, but also in the subjective evaluation that different actors make of it. We consider abuse and bullying in particular, as modes of violence that are usually muted and often go unnoticed by the eyes of adults. This paper unfolds ...
Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals continue to experience neurocognitive deterioration despite virologically successful treatments. While the cause remains unclear, evidence suggests that HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND may be associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction. Genetic variants have been explored to identify risk markers to determine neuropathogenesis of neurocognitive deterioration. Memory deficits and executive dysfunction are highly prevalent among HIV-infected adults. These conditions can affect their quality of life and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes may affect the activity of serotonin and increase the risk of HAND. The present study explored the relationship between SLC6A4, TPH2, and GALM genes and neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected alcohol abusers. A total of 267 individuals were genotyped for polymorphisms in SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, TPH2 rs4570625, and GALM rs6741892. To assess neurocognitive functions, the Short Category and the Auditory Verbal Learning Tests were used. TPH2 SNP rs4570625 showed a significant association with executive function in African American males (odds ratio 4.8, 95% CI, 1.5–14.8; P=0.005. Similarly, GALM SNP rs6741892 showed an increased risk with African American males (odds ratio 2.4, 95% CI, 1.2–4.9; P=0.02. This study suggests that TPH2 rs4570625 and GALM rs6741892 polymorphisms may be risk factors for HAND.
Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E
Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individuals to HIV and to drug abuse can vary tremendously. Host-genetic variability is important in determining viral tropism, neuropathogenesis, drug responses, and addictive behavior. However, genetic differences alone cannot account for individual variability in the brain "connectome." Environment and experience are critical determinants in the evolution of synaptic circuitry throughout life. Neurons and glia both exercise control over determinants of synaptic plasticity that are disrupted by HIV and drug abuse. Perivascular macrophages, microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia can harbor the infection. Uninfected bystanders, especially astroglia, propagate and amplify inflammatory signals. Drug abuse by itself derails neuronal and glial function, and the outcome of chronic exposure is maladaptive plasticity. The negative consequences of coexposure to HIV and drug abuse are determined by numerous factors including genetics, sex, age, and multidrug exposure. Glia and some neurons are generated throughout life, and their progenitors appear to be targets of HIV and opiates/psychostimulants. The chronic nature of HIV and drug abuse appears to result in sustained alterations in the maturation and fate of neural progenitors, which may affect the balance of glial populations within multiple brain regions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rickert, Vaughn I; Vaughan, Roger D; Wiemann, Constance M
In this review we intend to examine recent literature on dating violence among female adolescents, including prevalence, risk factors, sequelae, screening practices, and potential interventions. Dating violence is perpetrated by both males and females and occurs frequently within heterosexual dating relationships. Attitudes toward physical aggression, including those of peers, and abuse by siblings predict later violence as victim and perpetrator. Victims of childhood or dating violence may be at greater risk of developing eating disorders. New strategies and measures to promote screening are available. Dating violence occurs among all groups of adolescents with common and unique risk factors for dating violence found across adolescents grouped by race/ethnicity, sex, and prior victimization. Efforts to decrease dating violence should (1) increase the use of screening tools that measure victimization as well as attitudes and contextual parameters that promote dating violence; (2) increase self-efficacy to negotiate safer sex; (3) reduce the use/abuse of alcohol and other drugs that facilitate dating violence; and (4) eliminate the influence of negative peer behavior. Interventions to prevent dating violence will likely also reduce rates of unintended pregnancies, HIV, and sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents.
... it (like when you are very drunk). Dating violence often starts with emotional abuse. You may think that behaviors like calling ... or preventing you from using birth control. Dating violence can cause serious harm to your body and your emotions. If you are in an abusive relationship, get ...
Yu, Chunjiang; Narasipura, Srinivas D; Richards, Maureen H; Hu, Xiu-Ti; Yamamoto, Bryan; Al-Harthi, Lena
Emerging evidence suggests that cell senescence plays an important role in aging-associated diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. HIV leads to a spectrum of neurologic diseases collectively termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse, particularly methamphetamine (meth), is a frequently abused psychostimulant among HIV+ individuals and its abuse exacerbates HAND. The mechanism by which HIV and meth lead to brain cell dysregulation is not entirely clear. In this study, we evaluated the impact of HIV and meth on astrocyte senescence using in vitro and several animal models. Astrocytes constitute up to 50% of brain cells and play a pivotal role in marinating brain homeostasis. We show here that HIV and meth induce significant senescence of primary human fetal astrocytes, as evaluated by induction of senescence markers (β-galactosidase and p16 INK 4A ), senescence-associated morphologic changes, and cell cycle arrest. HIV- and meth-mediated astrocyte senescence was also demonstrated in three small animal models (humanized mouse model of HIV/NSG-huPBMCs, HIV-transgenic rats, and in a meth administration rat model). Senescent astrocytes in turn mediated neuronal toxicity. Further, we show that β-catenin, a pro-survival/proliferation transcriptional co-activator, is downregulated by HIV and meth in human astrocytes and this downregulation promotes astrocyte senescence while induction of β-catenin blocks HIV- and meth-mediated astrocyte senescence. These studies, for the first time, demonstrate that HIV and meth induce astrocyte senescence and implicate the β-catenin pathway as potential therapeutic target to overcome astrocyte senescence. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Neglecting women's health and the domestic violence prevailing against them can cause a variety of mental and even physical diseases that threaten the health of the family. Disruptions in the life pattern of women and mothers have adverse health effects for both the family and the entire society. The present study was conducted to investigate the relationship between wife abuse and mental health in female victims of domestic violence referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted over three months in 2013 on 197 women with abusive husbands referred to the Forensic Medical Center of Shiraz. The study data collection tools included a demographic information questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and a standard violence against women questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha was measured to assess the data collection tools' reliability. Data were analyzed in SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the study subjects was reported as 30.42±6.72. More than 50 percent of the women had been victim to domestic violence and suffered from disorders in all the aspects of general health (P<0.05. There was a positive relationship between domestic violence and all the aspects of general health. In other words, violence of any kind was a predictor of general health disorders (P<0.05. Domestic violence was found to have the greatest effect on the incidence of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: The present study revealed the psychological consequences of wife abuse and violence against women and confirmed the damaging effect of violence on women's mental health. In addition to imposing heavy costs on the society for providing healthcare and medications, mental health disorders in women are also a burden for the family life and the children's upbringing.
Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa
Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Teresa Fernández de Juan
Full Text Available Violence in the relationships of courtship among young people presents growing demonstrations at international and national levels, as it occurs with the increase in the diseases of HIV/AIDS, adolescent pregnancy and sexual transmission. This work emphasizes the main strategy for the prevention of both risk behaviour is directly related to the implementation of an efficient, unprejudiced and timely sex education, especially in schools, with a gender perspective, which is lacking in general sense, at home and in Baja California in particular.
Kathryn M. Bell
Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA and intimate partner violence (IPV. Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.
Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.
Champion, J D; Shain, R N; Piper, J; Perdue, S T
The relationship between sexual abuse and sexually transmitted disease (STD) represents an important and underinvestigated context of domestic violence. This study examined the association between sexual abuse, sexual risk behaviors, and risk for reinfection and HIV among minority women with STD. Mexican American and African American women (n = 617) with active STD entered a randomized study of behavioral intervention to reduce STD recurrence. Each underwent questioning at entry regarding sexual abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Comparisons of these behaviors using chi-square, t tests, and logistic regression were made by history of sexual abuse. Sexually abused women were more likely to have lower incomes, earlier coitus, STD history, currently abusive partners, new sex partners, anal sex, and bleeding with sex, placing them at increased risk for STD reinfection and HIV. Due to this association with sexual risk behavior, assessment for sexual abuse is essential in programs focusing on STD/HIV prevention.
Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete; Røysamb, Espen; Olff, Miranda
There is increasing interest in trauma-related shame and guilt. However, much remains unknown in terms of how these emotions relate to the type of event, gender and mental health. We investigated shame and guilt in men and women following various types of severe violence and their relation to mental health. Telephone interviews were conducted with a Norwegian general population sample (n=4529; age=18-75; response rate=42.9%). Measures included child sexual abuse, child and adult rape, severe physical violence from/between parents, severe violence from a partner and non-partners, less severe violence and non-violent trauma, the new Shame and Guilt After Trauma Scale, and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Analyses included t-tests and linear regressions. All types of severe violence were significantly associated with trauma-related shame and guilt (coefficients from 0.11 to 0.38, p-values violence types showed a graded relationship with both emotions. Women had significantly more shame and guilt than men did (p-values emotions), which was partially explained by violence exposure. Both emotions were independently associated with mental health problems (p-values violence that were reported, the higher levels of shame and guilt were. Clinicians should be aware of shame and guilt after a variety of violent events, including non-sexual violence, in both men and women and should particularly be aware of whether individuals have multiple violent experiences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Choudhury, Shonali M; Anglade, Debbie; Park, Kyuwon
Violence experienced by female sex workers has been found to affect the HIV risk and quality of life of these women. Research on this topic has dealt with female sex workers and current experiences of violence with partners, clients, and in the workplace. In this study, we used feminist constructivist grounded theory to explore perceptions of violence among establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico. A key concept that emerged from 20 semi-structured in-depth interviews was "escaping violence with a romantic partner by becoming independent through sex work." The women also emphasized the negative impact of violence in the workplace but felt that achieving separation from a violent partner gave them strength to protect their lives and health. Interventions to help these women protect themselves from HIV infection and improve their quality of life should aim to build upon their strengths and the agency they have already achieved. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Li, Ming D.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Chen, Zhiwei; Chang, Linda
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, with the goal of exchanging knowledge and ideas related to, and promoting international collaborative work on, the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders and HIV-infection, in order to promote health in Asian and Pacific Islanders and other populations. PMID:27484319
Li, Ming D; Hser, Yih-Ing; Chen, Zhiwei; Chang, Linda
This special issue contains 20 papers including 3 Perspectives, 1 Brief Report, 6 Invited Reviews, and 10 Original Articles, which highlight the work by presenters at the second meeting of the biennial Conference Series to Promote Global Health held on April 22-24, 2015 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. These papers focused on the prevalent substance misuse of amphetamine-type-stimulants and opioids, and the increasing prevalence of HIV-infection in Asian countries. The Conference Series is sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, with the goal of exchanging knowledge and ideas related to, and promoting international collaborative work on, the prevention and treatment of substance use disorders and HIV-infection, in order to promote health in Asian and Pacific Islanders and other populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is recognised as an important public health and social problem, with far reaching consequences for women’s physical and emotional health and social well-being. Furthermore, controlling behaviour by a partner has a similar impact on women’s well-being, yet little is known about the prevalence of this type of behaviour and other related abuses in Tanzania and in other sub-Saharan African countries. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the lifetime and past 12-month prevalence of physical and sexual IPV, economic abuse, emotional abuse and controlling behaviour among ever-partnered women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Women (N = 1049 were enrolled in an ongoing trial (Maisha study to assess the impact of microfinance combined with gender training on participants’ experience IPV, and other related outcomes. Interviews were conducted by same sex interviewers to collect information about socio-demographic characteristics, experiences of specific acts of IPV and abuse, and symptoms of poor mental health status. Results Overall, about 61% of women reported ever experiencing physical and/or sexual IPV (95% CI: 58–64% and 27% (95% CI: 24–29% experienced it in the past 12 months. Partner controlling behaviour was the most prevalent type of abuse with 82% experiencing it in their lifetime and 63% during the past 12 months. Other types of abuses were also common, with 34% of women reporting economic abuse and 39% reporting emotional abuse during the past 12 months. The prevalence of IPV and abuses varied by socio-demographic characteristics, showing much higher prevalence rates among younger women, women with young partners and less educated women. After we adjusted for age and socio-economic status, physical violence (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3–2.7 and sexual violence (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.9–4.1 were associated with increased reporting of symptoms of poor mental health
Hauser, Kurt F.; Knapp, Pamela E.
Considerable insight has been gained into the comorbid, interactive effects of HIV and drug abuse in the brain using experimental models. This review, which considers opiates, methamphetamine, and cocaine, emphasizes the importance of host genetics and glial plasticity in driving the pathogenic neuron remodeling underlying neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (neuroAIDS) and drug abuse comorbidity. Clinical findings are less concordant than experimental work, and the response of individua...
Porrúa-García, Clara; Rodríguez-Carballeira, Álvaro; Escartín, Jordi; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Almendros, Carmen; Martín-Peña, Javier
In the context of intimate partner violence, psychological abuse (PA) has progressively gained scientific relevance. Even so, a greater effort is needed to define and evaluate psychological intimate partner abuse. A new exhaustive and operative taxonomy of PA strategies leads to the contribution of a new evaluation instrument. Participants were 101 women between 24 and 82 years old, who were abused by their partners and attended to in different municipal Catalan services, specialized in the topic. The analyses have shown the suitability of a 19-item instrument divided into two factors: (1) direct PA strategies and (2) indirect PA strategies. The former includes strategies that affect the emotional, cognitive and behavioral dimension of the victim. The latter includes items that measure the amount of control and domination over the victim’s context. This scale has adequate psychometric properties in terms of score reliability and the validity of the relationship with other women’s health variables. The EAPA-P, created based on a new definition and taxonomy of the forms of PA, is presented as a valid instrument to detect and measure intimate partner PA.
Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…
Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean
This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…
van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M. Hoytema; Gigengack, Maj; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Flapper, Boudien C.; Lindauer, Ramon J. L.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van der Lee, Johanna H.
Aim: This was a one-year follow-up of families referred to support services after the parents visited the emergency department due to intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt. Its aim was to evaluate the well-being of any children. Methods: Data on families identified a year
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M. M.; Gigengack, Maj; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N.; Flapper, Boudien C.; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Biezeveld, Maarten H.; Edelenbos, Esther; van Sommeren, Pauwlina G. W.; Mahdi, Ulrike; Poldervaart, Jacoba D.; Sanders, Marian K.; Schoonenberg, N.; Vogt, Anne; Wilms, Janneke F.
AimThis was a one-year follow-up of families referred to support services after the parents visited the emergency department due to intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt. Its aim was to evaluate the well-being of any children. MethodsData on families identified a year
Pisu, Maria; Cloud, Gretchen; Austin, Shamly; Raper, James L; Stewart, Katharine E; Schumacher, Joseph E
Substance abuse treatment (SAT) is important for HIV medical care. Characteristics of those who choose SAT and effects of SAT on HIV clinical outcomes are not understood. We compared patients who enrolled and did not enroll in a SAT program offered within an HIV clinic, and evaluated the effect of SAT on CD4 T-cell counts and HIV plasma viral load (VL). Subjects were assessed and invited to enroll in SAT. Enrollees chose to receive psychological and psychiatric treatment, or motivational enhancement and relapse prevention, or residential SAT. We used logistic regressions to determine factors associated with enrollment (age, race, sex, HIV transmission risk factors, CD4 T-cell counts, and VL at assessment). A two-period (assessment and six months after SAT) data analysis was used to analyze the effect of SAT on CD4 T-cell count and log VL controlling for changes in HIV therapy. We find that, compared to Decliners (N=76), Enrollees (N=78) were more likely to be females (29.5% vs. 6.6%, OR=5.32, 95% CI 1.61-17.6), and to report injection drug use (IDU) as the HIV transmission risk factor (23.1% vs. 9.2%, OR=3.92, CI 1.38-11.1). Age (37.2 vs. 38.4), CD4 T-cell count (377.3 vs. 409.2), and log VL (3.21 vs. 2.99) at assessment were similar across the two groups (p>0.05). After six months, Enrollees and Decliners' CD4 T-cell counts increased and log VL decreased. SAT did not affect the change in CD4 T-cell count (p=0.51) or log VL (p=0.73). Similar results were found for patients with CD4 T-cell count assessment. In this small sample of HIV-infected patients with a limited follow-up period, women were more likely to enroll in SAT than men, and SAT reached those who needed it, e.g., IDUs. We did not find an effect of SAT on HIV clinical outcomes.
Sunday, Suzanne; Kline, Myriam; Labruna, Victor; Pelcovitz, David; Salzinger, Suzanne; Kaplan, Sandra
This study's primary aims were to examine whether a sample of young adults, aged 23 to 31, who had been documented as physically abused by their parent(s) during adolescence would be more likely to aggress, both physically and verbally, against their intimate partners compared with nonabused young adults and whether abuse history was (along with…
Day, David M; Hart, Trevor A; Wanklyn, Sonya G; McCay, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Alison; Burnier, Nathalie
Juvenile offenders are at risk for involvement in both fighting behavior and peer victimization. Understanding the potential causal mechanisms leading to these outcomes is important to address the needs of this population. The present study tested four mediator models of violent perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 112 incarcerated youth (68 males and 44 females). In the models, the relationship between child physical and emotional abuse and fighting and victimization was expected to be mediated by impulsiveness, depression, and drug use. Multiple mediator models were tested according to Preacher and Hayes (2008). Depression fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and victimization and partially mediated the relation between child physical abuse and victimization. Drug use fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and fighting. These results suggest that treatment of depressive symptoms and drug use among juvenile offenders with a history of child physical or emotional abuse may limit violent perpetration and peer victimization in this population.
Teti, Michelle; Chilton, Mariana; Lloyd, Linda; Rubinstein, Susan
While US government-sponsored HIV prevention initiatives have achieved notable successes, challenges remain to serving women effectively. Intimate partner violence hinders women's efforts to decrease their HIV risk behaviors. The global HIV/AIDS epidemic is often viewed as a human rights crisis. An analysis of US HIV prevention strategies based on ecosocial and health and human rights frameworks clarifies women's HIV risk practices and suggests opportunities for progress. These two frameworks help to (1) demonstrate how HIV/AIDS is a clinical manifestation of violence against women, (2) identify safety from violence as a human right necessary for well-being, and (3) suggest ways in which HIV prevention initiatives can more effectively improve women's health and fulfill their basic human rights.
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Durkin, Andrew; Baird, Kelly; DeCelles, Jeff; Swendeman, Dallas
Many young, South African men use alcohol and drugs and have multiple partners, but avoid health care settings-the primary site for delivery of HIV intervention activities. To identify the feasibility of engaging men in HIV testing and reducing substance use with soccer and vocational training programs. In two Cape Town neighborhoods, all unemployed men aged 18-25 years were recruited and randomized by neighborhood to: (1) an immediate intervention condition with access to a soccer program, random rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for alcohol and drug use, and an opportunity to enter a vocational training program (n = 72); or (2) a delayed control condition (n = 70). Young men were assessed at baseline and 6 months later by an independent team. Almost all young men in the two neighborhoods participated (98 %); 85 % attended at least one practice (M = 42.3, SD = 34.4); 71 % typically attended practice. Access to job training was provided to the 35 young men with the most on-time arrivals at practice, drug-free RDT, and no red cards for violence. The percentage of young men agreeing to complete RDT at soccer increased significantly over time; RDTs with evidence of alcohol and drug use decreased over time. At the pre-post assessments, the frequency of substance use decreased; and employment and income increased in the immediate condition compared to the delayed condition. HIV testing rates, health care contacts, sexual behaviors, HIV knowledge, condom use and attitudes towards women were similar over time. Alternative engagement strategies are critical pathways to prevent HIV among young men. This feasibility study shows that soccer and job training offer such an alternative, and suggest that a more robust evaluation of this intervention strategy be pursued.
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
DiStefano, Anthony S
A syndemics orientation has become a valuable lens through which to understand the complex system dynamics of HIV, HIV's links to other social and health problems, and the design of effective, comprehensive interventions. Using data from a broader ethnographic study of HIV epidemics in the Kansai Region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area of Japan, I found that HIV was synergistically linked with poor mental health, substance use, and violence, suggesting the existence of at least three syndemics. These occurred in an environment of stigma and social and health disparities, particularly for men who have sex with men, transgender persons, immigrants, and people living with HIV. Integrated interventions, led by Japan's HIV nongovernmental organizations and supported by the government, should more aggressively target stigma, which underlies most of the syndemic connections. Quantitative research should build upon the ethnographically derived associations shown here and test whether there are additive syndemic effects. © The Author(s) 2016.
McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B
The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.
Turner, William; Hester, Marianne; Broad, Jonathan; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene; Drinkwater, Jessica; Firth, Adam; Stanley, Nicky
Exposure of children to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a form of child maltreatment with short- and long-term behavioural and mental health impact. Health care professionals are generally uncertain about how to respond to domestic violence and are particularly unclear about best practice with regards to children's exposure and their role in a multiagency response. In this systematic review, we report educational and structural or whole-system interventions that aim to improve professionals' understanding of, and response to, DVA survivors and their children. We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts for studies reporting quantitative outcomes for any type of intervention aiming to improve professional responses to disclosure of DVA with child involvement. We included interventions for physicians, nurses, social workers and teachers. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 18 pre-post intervention surveys. There were 18 training and three system-level interventions. Training interventions generally had positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes towards DVA and clinical competence. The results from the RCTs were consistent with the before-after surveys. Results from system-level interventions aimed to change organisational practice and inter-organisational collaboration demonstrates the benefit of coordinating system change in child welfare agencies with primary health care and other organisations. Implications for policy and research are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Child Abuse Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 'We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts'. We reviewed published evidence on interventions aimed at improving professionals' practice with domestic violence survivors and their children.Training programmes were found to improve participants' knowledge, attitudes and clinical competence up to a year after delivery.Key elements of
Larkins, Cath; Drinkwater, Jessica; Hester, Marianne; Stanley, Nicky; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene
Government and professional guidance encourages general practice clinicians to identify and refer children who experience domestic violence and abuse (DVA) but there is scant understanding of how general practice clinicians currently work with DVA in families. The study explored general practice clinicians' practice with children and their parents experiencing DVA and reflected on the findings in the light of current research and policy guidelines. Semi-structured interviews with 54 clinicians (42 GPs and 12 practice nurses/nurse practitioners) were conducted across six sites in England. Data were analysed using current literature and emerging themes. Data presented here concern clinicians' perspectives on engaging with family members when a parent discloses that she is experiencing DVA. When a parent disclosed DVA, clinicians were more likely to consider talking to abusive fathers than talking to children about the abuse. Perspectives varied according to whether consultation opportunities arose, risks, consent and confidentiality. Perceptions of 'patienthood', relationships and competence shaped clinicians' engagement. Perpetrators were seen as competent informers and active service users, with potential for accepting advice and support. Clinicians were more hesitant in talking with children. Where this was considered, children tended to be seen as passive informants, only two GPs described direct and ongoing consultations with children and providing them with access to support. Clinicians appear more inclined to engage directly with abusive fathers than children experiencing DVA. Clinician skills and confidence to talk directly with children experiencing DVA, in child sensitive ways, should be developed through appropriate training. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
de Lind van Wijngaarden, Jan W; Schunter, Bettina T; Iqbal, Qasim
This study describes the experiences of 10 young feminised men in Pakistan. They face high levels of stigma, violence and sexual abuse. The average age of first sex was 11 years old and all reported having been been raped during childhood and early adolescence, often several times. While some mothers and siblings were quietly supportive, young feminised men often end up running away from home, finding support as a member of a hijra dera, a 'pseudo-household' led by an older feminised man or guru, in which they find employment as dancers or sex workers. After their entry into sex work there is little or no opportunity to use condoms. The hijra dera offer an important entry point for improved social support and sexual health programmes, including efforts to ensure young feminised men postpone their sexual debut and/or improve their sexual health, retain access to education, explore alternative forms of employment and improve access to health care.
Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley
To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination.
Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A
Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention.
Sossou, Marie-Antoinette; Yogtiba, Joseph A
This article discusses abuse and neglect of elderly women in Ghana and the traditional practices that adversely affect their human rights. Their situation is characterized by pervasive poverty, illiteracy, widowhood, predominantly rural dwelling, and subjection to insidious cultural practices and superstitious beliefs. Increase in life expectancy and population trends point to significant increases in the numbers of the elderly women. Breakdown of the extended family support system and the waning of filial obligations are factors affecting their welfare. Accurate data on these abuses is lacking due to cultural inhibitions and non-reporting. Legislations and NGO programs are addressed to combat abuses.
Kimber, Melissa; McTavish, Jill R; Couturier, Jennifer; Boven, Alison; Gill, Sana; Dimitropoulos, Gina; MacMillan, Harriet L
Child maltreatment and eating disorders are significant public health problems. Yet, to date, research has focused on the role of child physical and sexual abuse in eating-related pathology. This is despite the fact that globally, exposure to emotional abuse, emotional neglect and intimate partner violence are the three of the most common forms of child maltreatment. The objective of the present study is to systematically identify and critically review the literature examining the association between child emotional abuse (EA), emotional neglect (EN), and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) and adult eating-disordered behavior and eating disorders. A systematic search was conducted of five electronic databases: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ERIC up to October 2015 to identify original research studies that investigated the association between EA, EN and children's exposure to IPV, with adult eating disorders or eating-disordered behavior using a quantitative research design. Database searches were complemented with forward and backward citation chaining. Studies were critically appraised using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool. A total of 5556 publications were screened for this review resulting in twenty-three articles included in the present synthesis. These studies focused predominantly on EA and EN, with a minority examining the role of child exposure to IPV in adult eating-related pathology. Prevalence of EA and EN ranged from 21.0% to 66.0%, respectively. No prevalence information was provided in relation to child exposure to IPV. Samples included predominantly White women. The methodological quality of the available literature is generally low. Currently, the available literature precludes the possibility of determining the extent to which EA, EN or child exposure to IPV have independent explanatory influence in adult eating-related pathology above what has been identified for physical and sexual abuse. While a large proportion
Calderon, Tina M; Williams, Dionna W; Lopez, Lillie; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Cheney, Laura; Gaskill, Peter J; Veenstra, Mike; Anastos, Kathryn; Morgello, Susan; Berman, Joan W
In human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) infected individuals, substance abuse may accelerate the development and/or increase the severity of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). It is proposed that CD14 + CD16 + monocytes mediate HIV entry into the central nervous system (CNS) and that uninfected and infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier (BBB) contributes to the establishment and propagation of CNS HIV viral reservoirs and chronic neuroinflammation, important factors in the development of HAND. The effects of substance abuse on the frequency of CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in the peripheral circulation and on the entry of these cells into the CNS during HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. PBMC from HIV infected individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry and we demonstrate that the frequency of peripheral blood CD14 + CD16 + monocytes in HIV infected substance abusers is increased when compared to those without active substance use. Since drug use elevates extracellular dopamine concentrations in the CNS, we examined the effects of dopamine on CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across our in vitro model of the human BBB. The transmigration of this monocyte subpopulation is increased by dopamine and the dopamine receptor agonist, SKF 38393, implicating D1-like dopamine receptors in the increase in transmigration elicited by this neurotransmitter. Thus, elevated extracellular CNS dopamine may be a novel common mechanism by which active substance use increases uninfected and HIV infected CD14 + CD16 + monocyte transmigration across the BBB. The influx of these cells into the CNS may increase viral seeding and neuroinflammation, contributing to the development of HIV associated neurocognitive impairments.
Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie
There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…
Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H
This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dentato, Michael P.; Samet, Jeffrey H.
A prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol (HIV-LIVE) study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19, 0.67), as did identifying as a sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46; CI = 0.29, 0.72), and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62; CI = 0.45, 0.83). Positive associations with SAT include: presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37; CI = 2.24, 5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12; CI = 1.22, 3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92; CI = 1.28, 2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40; CI = 1.60, 3.62) drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64; CI = 1.88, 3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08, 2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g. drug dependence) are associated with receipt, non-need factors (e.g. sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. PMID:21700412
Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.
Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…
Gromet, Dena M.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Griffin, Beth Ann; Morral, Andrew R.
This study investigates whether high-risk young adults' perceptions of their likelihood of living to age 35 and of acquiring HIV are related to their substance abuse problems and risky sexual behaviors. The sample consists of data from the 72- and 87-month follow-up assessments of 449 juvenile offenders referred to probation in 1999 and 2000.…
... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Nuttbrock, Larry; Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey
We examined gender abuse and depressive symptoms as risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI) among male-to-female transgender persons (MTFs). We conducted a 3-year prospective study of factors associated with incident HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among 230 MTFs from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included Cox proportional hazards analysis with time varying covariates. Among younger MTFs (aged 19-30 years), gender abuse predicted depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score ≥ 20), and gender abuse combined with depressive symptoms predicted both high-risk sexual behavior (unprotected receptive anal intercourse) and incident HIV/STI. These associations were independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, sexual orientation, hormone therapy, and sexual reassignment surgery. Gender abuse is a fundamental distal risk factor for HIV/STI among younger MTFs. Interventions for younger MTFs are needed to reduce the psychological impact of gender abuse and limit the effects of this abuse on high-risk sexual behavior. Age differences in the impact of gender abuse on HIV/STI suggest the efficacy of peer-based interventions in which older MTFs teach their younger counterparts how to cope with this abuse.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED. Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-based survey that focused on demographic information and general health questions as well as standardized instruments including the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA, the Tolerance, Worried, Eye openers, Amnesia, K(Cut down (TWEAK screen for alcohol abuse, Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST20, and Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC. This analysis uses results from a larger study evaluating the effects of providing patients with targeted educational literature based on the results of their screening. Results: 610 women were surveyed. Among these, 85 women (13.9% screened positive for IPV. Women who screened positive for IPV were significantly more likely to also screen positive for tobacco abuse (56% vs. 37.5%, p< 0.001, alcohol abuse (47.1% vs. 23.2%, p < 0.001, and drug abuse (44.7% vs. 9.5%, p<0.001. Women who screened positive for IPV were also more likely to screen positive for depression and to report social isolation. Conclusion: African-American women seen in the ED, who screen positive for IPV, are at significantly higher risk of drug, alcohol, tobacco abuse, depression and social isolation than women who do not screen positive for IPV. These findings have important implications for ED-based and community-based social services for women who are victims of intimate partner violence. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 253-257.
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
and urban Ghana. Participants’ discursive accounts revealed that social anxieties of husbands, their fear of being perceived by others as weak or emasculated, and their disappointment with unfulfilled notions of masculine sovereignty influence conjugal violence. Perpetrators constructed a wife’s expression...... of dissent to her husband’s wishes and commands as an encroachment on masculine spaces, a gender-norm violation, or as providing a public challenge to male identity and thus violence could be used as an obligatory passage to manhood. Perpetrators also mobilized shifting and ambivalent discourses that draw...
Abuya, Benta A; Onsomu, Elijah O; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N
The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the association between education and domestic violence with further analysis stratified by urban and rural residence. The main outcome of interest was a three-factor (physical, sexual, and emotional) measure for violence with the main predictor being education. Nearly half of all domestic violence, physical (46%), sexual (45%), and emotional (45%) occurred among women aged 15 to 29. After adjusting for confounding variables, women who resided in urban areas and had a postprimary/vocational/secondary and college/university education were 26% (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: [0.64, 0.86]), p education respectively. This was 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.94]), p women who resided in rural areas. A surprising finding was that women residing in rural areas with less than a primary education were 35% less likely to have experienced sexual violence (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: [0.43, 0.99]), p education. These findings suggest that physical, sexual, and emotional violence were prevalent in Kenya among married and formerly married women. This study indicates that more research is needed to understand factors for HIV/AIDS among Kenyan women who have specifically tested positive for HIV or identified as AIDS-positive and the implications for women's health.
Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1 patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2 cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.
Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin
The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The imbalance between testosterone (T and cortisol (C levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV. Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV.
Moreno, Claudia L; Morrill, Allison C; El-Bassel, Nabila
The authors examined sexual factors for HIV risk in 1,003 women of Puerto Rican heritage who attended a community-based NewYork City hospital clinic. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 73 years. Half were born in the continental United States, and half were born in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. All were sexually active within the past 90 days with a male partner.The authors compared sociodemographic characteristics, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), and HIV sexual risk factors (number of partners, history of sexually transmitted infections [STIs],condom use, and so on).Multiple regression analyses considering sociodemographic characteristics were a predictor for IPV and sexual risk behaviors. The authors found differences in sexual risk behaviors by place of birth (continental United States versus Commonwealth of Puerto Rico) and language chosen for the interview (Spanish or English).Puerto Rican women reported fewer sexual partners and STIs. Mainland-born and English-preference women reported more IPV, risky partners, and condom use. Birth in the continental United States and preference for English appear to be indicators of greater risk for IPV, risky sexual practices, and risky partners. HIV prevention intervention strategies for Puerto Rican women must address differences in heterosexual risk according to language and place of birth.
Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…
... YOUR RIGHTS Domestic Violence CONOZCA SUS DERECHOS La violencia doméstica For immediate help call National Domestic Violence ... different. Abuse can include: • physical attacks, including forced sexual relations • verbal abuse or harassment, including disre- spectful ...
Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra
Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto
There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
Many violent people were themselves exposed to scenes of domestic abuse when they were children. This reproduction is linked to the construction of a traumatic memory, to the attack on the mother as a reassuring attachment figure for the child, diminished maternal competence and cerebral impairment due to the stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Coley, Jacqueline S.; Calderon, Tina M.; Gaskill, Peter J.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.
Drug abuse is a major comorbidity of HIV infection and cognitive disorders are often more severe in the drug abusing HIV infected population. CD14+CD16+ monocytes, a mature subpopulation of peripheral blood monocytes, are key mediators of HIV neuropathogenesis. Infected CD14+CD16+ monocyte transmigration across the blood brain barrier mediates HIV entry into the brain and establishes a viral reservoir within the CNS. Despite successful antiretroviral therapy, continued influx of CD14+CD16+ monocytes, both infected and uninfected, contributes to chronic neuroinflammation and the development of HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Drug abuse increases extracellular dopamine in the CNS. Once in the brain, CD14+CD16+ monocytes can be exposed to extracellular dopamine due to drug abuse. The direct effects of dopamine on CD14+CD16+ monocytes and their contribution to HIV neuropathogenesis are not known. In this study, we showed that CD14+CD16+ monocytes express mRNA for all five dopamine receptors by qRT-PCR and D1R, D5R and D4R surface protein by flow cytometry. Dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor agonist, SKF38393, increased CD14+CD16+ monocyte migration that was characterized as chemokinesis. To determine whether dopamine affected cell motility and adhesion, live cell imaging was used to monitor the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes on the surface of a tissue culture dish. Dopamine increased the number and the rate at which CD14+CD16+ monocytes in suspension settled to the dish surface. In a spreading assay, dopamine increased the area of CD14+CD16+ monocytes during the early stages of cell adhesion. In addition, adhesion assays showed that the overall total number of adherent CD14+CD16+ monocytes increased in the presence of dopamine. These data suggest that elevated extracellular dopamine in the CNS of HIV infected drug abusers contributes to HIV neuropathogenesis by increasing the accumulation of CD14+CD16+ monocytes in dopamine rich brain
Traditionally, domestic violence in Japan referred to children's physical and emotional violence against their parents. However, in recent years, the general public's awareness of and actions toward other types of domestic violence, especially violence against women and children, has increased. Following a brief description of filial violence and elderly abuse, both spousal abuse and child abuse are discussed in terms of their prevalence and cultural and historical backgrounds. The article concludes with current and future challenges in the intervention of violence, particularly against women and children, in the Japanese family.
Anisa Azaovagh de la Rosa
Full Text Available This article aims to provide a critic vision of the "ethic of violence" through authors like E. Bocardo, M. Castells, P. Singer, R. Bernstein and J. Butler. The ethic of violence was intended to justify the American wars against terror, instead of trying to solve the problem through dialogue or diplomacy. In their way, each of these authors criticize the ethics that were used to justify the American war, referring to their economical motivations and their media performance. An indication of the ethic is the one that President Bush showed at that time in his declarations of moral content —as his notorious phrase "the axis of evil"— in order to place himself in the side of good and them -his enemies- in the side of evil.
Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization during pregnancy is associated with abusive behavior by the mother towards infants at 4 months of age. A population-based sample of 6590 mothers with 4-month-old infants participated in this study in Japan. Abusive behavior was assessed via questionnaire and defined as frequency of shaking and smothering during the preceding month. Both verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy were assessed retrospectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for types of IPV and potential covariates, specifically postpartum depression. Maternal exposure to verbal and physical IPV during pregnancy was reported by 10.9% and 1.2% of women, respectively. In the adjusted model, women exposed to verbal IPV alone were significantly more likely to abuse offspring (odds ratio: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.16) while exposure to physical IPV did not have an additive effect for abusive behavior. Maternal victimization by verbal, but not physical IPV was associated with maternal abusive behavior towards their 4-month-old infant. Screening for verbal abuse during pregnancy might be an efficient approach to identify high-risk mothers of infant abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.
Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD
Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)
Gartland, D; Woolhouse, H; Giallo, R; McDonald, E; Hegarty, K; Mensah, F; Herrman, H; Brown, S J
The purpose of this study was to investigate intergenerational patterns of abuse and trauma and the health consequences for women in the early childbearing years. A prospective pregnancy cohort of 1507 nulliparous women (≦24 weeks gestation) were recruited in Melbourne, Australia, 2003-2005. Follow-up was scheduled in late pregnancy, 3-, 6- and 12-month and 4-year postpartum. Childhood abuse was retrospectively reported at 4-year postpartum using the Child Maltreatment History Self Report. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was assessed at 1- and 4-year postpartum with the Composite Abuse Scale. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed in all follow-ups using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between childhood abuse, maternal mental health and IPV. Childhood abuse was reported by 41.1 % of women. In the 4 years after having their first child, 28.2 % of women reported IPV, 25.2 % depression and 31.6 % anxiety. Childhood abuse was associated with odds of depression or anxiety 1.5-2.6 times greater and 1.8-3.2 times greater for IPV. Childhood physical abuse remained significantly associated with depression and anxiety in pregnancy and postpartum after adjusting for IPV and stressful life events, while sexual abuse remained significantly associated only with anxiety. Women who begin childbearing with a history of childhood abuse are more vulnerable to IPV and poor mental health. All health care services and agencies in contact with children, young people and families should have adequate training to identify trauma associated with abuse and IPV and provide first line supportive care and referral.
Full Text Available Intimate Partner Violence (IPV has been reported to be a determinant of women's risk for HIV. We examined the relationship between women's self-reported experiences of IPV in their most recent relationship and their laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus in ten low- to middle-income countries.Data for the study came from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Dominican Republic, Haiti, India, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Rwanda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Each survey population was a cross-sectional sample of women aged 15-49 years. Information on IPV was obtained by a face-to-face interview with the mother with an 81.1% response rate; information on HIV serostatus was obtained from blood samples with an 85.3% response rate. Demographic and socioeconomic variables were considered as potentially confounding covariates. Logistic regression models accounting for multi-stage survey design were estimated individually for each country and as a pooled total with country fixed effects (n = 60,114. Country-specific adjusted odds ratios (OR for physical or sexual IPV compared to neither ranged from 0.45 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.23-0.90] in Haiti to 1.35 [95% CI: 0.95-1.90] in India; the pooled association was 1.03 [95% CI: 0.94-1.13]. Country-specific adjusted ORs for physical and sexual IPV compared to no sexual IPV ranged from 0.41 [95% CI: 0.12-1.36] in Haiti to 1.41 [95% CI: 0.26-7.77] in Mali; the pooled association was 1.05 [95% CI: 0.90-1.22].IPV and HIV were not found to be consistently associated amongst ever-married women in national population samples in these lower income countries, suggesting that IPV is not consistently associated with HIV prevalence worldwide. More research is needed to understand the circumstances in which IPV and HIV are and are not associated with one another.
Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela
This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to identify 4 patterns of women's lifetime experiences of violence co-occurrence. The 1st cluster experienced relatively low levels of all 4 forms of violence; the 2nd group, high levels of all 4 forms; the 3rd, sexual revictimization across the lifespan with adult sexual harassment; and the 4th, high intimate partner violence with sexual harassment. This cluster solution was validated in a theoretically driven model that examined the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a mediator of physical health symptomatology. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that PTSD fully mediated the relationship between violence and physical health symptomatology. Consistent with a bio-psycho-immunologic theoretical model, PTSD levels more strongly predicted pain-related physical health symptoms compared to nonpain health problems. Implications for clinical interventions to prevent PTSD and to screen women for histories of violence in health care settings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
Josicleide Maciel da Silva
of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.
Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Anderson, Heather; Levenson, Rebecca R; Silverman, Jay G
Adolescent and young adult women are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). We evaluate the prevalence of IPV in the past 3 months and its associations with STI/HIV risk, STI and related care-seeking over the same time period. Female family planning clinic patients ages 16-29 years (n=3504) participated in a cross-sectional survey in 2011-2012 as a baseline assessment for an intervention study. We examined associations of recent IPV with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk behaviour, self-reported STI and STI-related clinical care seeking via logistic regression. Recent physical or sexual IPV (prevalence 11%) was associated with recent sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, specifically unprotected vaginal sex (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.93, 95% CI 1.52 to 2.44), unprotected anal sex (AOR 2.22, 95% CI 1.51 to 3.27) and injection drug use, their own (AOR 3.39, 95% CI 1.47 to 7.79) and their partner's (AOR 3.85, 1.91 to 7.75). IPV was also linked with coercive sexual risk: involuntary condom non-use (AOR 1.87 to 95% CI 1.51 to 2.33), and fears of requesting condoms (AOR 4.15, 95% CI 2.73 to 6.30) and refusing sex (AOR 11.84, 95% CI 7.59 to 18.45). STI-related care-seeking was also more common among those abused (AOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.87 to 3.31). Recent IPV is concurrent with sexual and drug-related STI/HIV risk, including coercive sexual risk, thus compromising women's agency in STI/HIV risk reduction. Clinical risk assessments should broaden to include unprotected heterosexual anal sex, coercive sexual risk and IPV, and should promote safety and harm reduction.
Robertson, I A
The majority of veterinarians recognise their important role and responsibility to society and animal welfare in the detection and reporting of suspected abuse of animals and humans. In spite of the existing moral, ethical, and legal duties applied to veterinarians, they face substantial barriers that prohibit them from fulfilling their professional role in handling cases of suspected abuse. With increasing public and legal attention on issues of animal welfare, the non-fulfillment of these duties places the profession and its members at considerable risk of public criticism and adverse legal accountability. The issue is raised here that the veterinary profession in New Zealand needs to provide a clear policy statement and take pro-active measures that provide practical enforceable solutions to these existing barriers and legal risks. Such an initiative will assist in ensuring that all registered members consistently fulfil their obligations, and are legally protected while doing so. Veterinary counterparts overseas already provide a legislative immunity for their veterinarians who report suspected abuse as part of a mandated duty to report. Implementation of such a duty has significant benefits for all veterinarians, including the requirement for education and effective support systems. In the absence of such a mandatory duty, intermediary measures can be introduced, demonstrating social responsibility and commitment by the profession to their existing duty of care.
Maria de Fátima Araújo
Full Text Available Trata-se de relato de experiência de supervisão e atendimento de famílias que sofreram violência intrafamiliar, encaminhadas para atendimento psicológico após denúncia ou suspeita de abuso sexual infantil cometido por parentes próximos. O texto examina essa experiência à luz de reflexões surgidas nessa prática, diante dos conflitos, impasses e dificuldades vividos por profissionais e famílias envolvidos no problema. A abordagem de intervenção aqui proposta tem três características principais: 1 baseia-se no enfoque psicossocial 2 propõe o atendimento familiar conjunto, envolvendo toda a família, inclusive o agressor; e, 3introduz a perspectiva de gênero, fator historicamente preponderante na construção de relações de violência e dominação-exploração dentro da família.This article reports on the experience of supervising and providing care to families who have experienced intra-family violence and who were referred to psychological care following suspicion or denouncement of child sexual abuse committed by close relatives. It reviews this experience in the light of reflections arising from the practice in view of the conflicts, impasses and difficulties faced by professionals and families concerned. The type of intervention proposed here has three major characteristics: 1 it is based on a psychosocial approach 2 it proposes a family group treatment including the assailant and 3 it introduces the gender perspective, a historically prevailing factor in the construction of violence and domination/exploitation relationships within the family.
Chadwick, Jeanne J; Andrade, Leonardo F; Altice, Frederick L; Petry, Nancy M
Routine testing is the cornerstone to identifying HIV, but not all substance abuse treatment patients have been tested. This study is a real-world evaluation of predictors of having never been HIV tested among patients initiating substance abuse treatment. Participants (N = 614) from six New England clinics were asked whether they had ever been HIV tested. Eighty-five patients (13.8%) reported having never been tested and were compared to those who had undergone testing. Clinic, male gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-3.41), and having fewer employment (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11-0.88) and medical problems (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.17-0.99) were independently correlated with having never been HIV tested. Thus, there is still considerable room for improved testing strategies as a clinically significant minority of substance abuse patients have never undergone HIV testing when they initiate treatment.
Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.
Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.
Daniels, Joseph; Komárek, Arnošt; Makusha, Tawanda; Van Heerden, Alastair; Gray, Glenda; Chingono, Alfred; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; Coates, Thomas; Richter, Linda
There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA) or physical abuse (CPA). To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043) on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences. Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT) intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe). Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292). We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models. Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20%) with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82); P: 0.034). The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced. The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.
Full Text Available There is increased focus on HIV prevention with African men who report experiencing childhood sexual (CSA or physical abuse (CPA.To better understand the effects of a community-based intervention (Project Accept HPTN 043 on HIV prevention behaviors among men who report CSA or CPA experiences.Project Accept compared a community-based voluntary mobile counseling and testing (CBVCT intervention with standard VCT. The intervention employed individual HIV risk reduction planning with motivational interviewing in 34 African communities (16 communities at 2 sites in South Africa, 10 in Tanzania, and 8 in Zimbabwe. Communities were randomized unblinded in matched pairs to CBVCT or SVCT, delivered over 36 months. The post-intervention assessment was conducted using a single, cross-sectional random survey of 18-32 year-old community members (total N = 43,292. We analyzed the effect of the intervention on men with reported CSA or CPA across the African sites. Men were identified with a survey question asking about having experienced CSA or CPA across the lifespan. The effect of intervention on considered outcomes of the preventive behavior was statistically evaluated using the logistic regression models.Across the sites, the rates of CSA or CPA among men indicated that African men reflected the global prevalence (20% with a range of 13-24%. The statistically significant effect of the intervention among these men was seen in their increased effort to receive their HIV test results (OR 2.71; CI: (1.08, 6.82; P: 0.034. The intervention effect on the other designated HIV prevention behaviors was less pronounced.The effect of the intervention on these men showed increased motivation to receive their HIV test results. However, more research is needed to understand the effects of community-based interventions on this group, and such interventions need to integrate other keys predictors of HIV including trauma, coping strategies, and intimate partner violence.
Tomori, Cecilia; McFall, Allison M; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Mehta, Shruti H; Nimmagadda, Nymisha; Anand, Santhanam; Vasudevan, Canjeevaram K; Solomon, Suniti; Solomon, Sunil S; Celentano, David D
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a significant global public health problem, which is associated with negative psychosocial outcomes and high-risk sexual behaviors in adults. Men who have sex with men (MSM) often report higher prevalence of CSA history than the general population, and CSA may play a key role in MSM's greater vulnerability to HIV. This study examined the prevalence of CSA history and its impact on the number of recent HIV-related risk behaviors (unprotected anal intercourse, high number of male and female sexual partners, alcohol use, drug use, and sex work in prior 6 months) and lifetime risk behaviors and experiences (high number of lifetime male and female sexual partners, early sexual debut, injection drug use, sex work, and intimate partner violence) among 11,788 adult MSM recruited via respondent driven sampling across 12 sites in India, with additional insights from thematic analysis of qualitative research with 363 MSM from 15 sites. Nearly a quarter (22.4 %) of participants experienced CSA, with substantially higher prevalence of CSA in the South and among kothis (feminine sexual identity). Qualitative findings revealed that older, trusted men may target young and, especially, gender nonconforming boys, and perpetrators' social position facilitates nondisclosure. CSA may also initiate further same-sex encounters, including sex work. In multivariable analysis, MSM who experienced CSA had 21 % higher rate of recent (adjusted rate ratio [aRR = 1.21], 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.28), and 2.0 times higher lifetime (aRR = 2.04, 95 % CI: 1.75-2.38) HIV-related behaviors/experiences compared with those who did not. This large, mixed-methods study found high overall prevalence of CSA among MSM (22.4 %), with substantially higher prevalence among MSM residing in the South and among more feminine sexual identities. Qualitative findings highlighted boys' vulnerabilities to CSA, especially gender nonconformity, and CSA's role in
Fajman, Nancy; Wright, Richelle
Background: In 2002, Georgia had the United States' eighth highest number of persons living with AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission as a result of sexual abuse is uncommon but definitely occurs. In certain circumstances of sexual abuse, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (ARV-PEP) has been suggested as a means to decrease…
This paper highlights the importance of recognising forced marriage as a form of violence and draws attention to the interventions that are developing in Europe as a response to forced marriage. The paper highlights the difficulties of conflating all child marriages as forced marriage and discusses the different contexts of childhood in different parts of the globe. The UK is reputed to have the widest range of policy interventions and practice guidance to tackle forced marriage and is therefore used as a case study in this paper, but reference is also made to other countries thus ensuring a wider relevance. The paper's analysis of UK based research studies on forced marriage identifies three key themes: i) lack of adequate reporting of incidents of forced marriage; ii) lack of professional knowledge of forced marriage and their fear of intervention; iii) the tension between conceptualizing forced marriage as purely cultural or as a form of gender based violence. It also highlights the largely legislative responses to forced marriage in Europe; Civil Protection for victims of forced marriage in the UK is discussed and a critical analysis is offered of the increase in marriage and sponsorship age in the UK and in many European countries. Health and clinical issues related to forced marriage are highlighted and the paper calls for further research globally to i) better understand the extent and nature of forced marriage; ii) to evaluate current interventions; iii) to investigate the clinical and potential mental health implications of forced marriage.
Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O'Campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L
History of abuse has been associated with greater HIV risk among women. This study examined client-perpetrated abuse among female sex workers (FSWs) in two Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Among 924 FSWs, prevalence of client-perpetrated abuse was 31%. In multivariate logistic regression models, intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological distress, and having drug-using clients were associated with experiencing client-perpetrated abuse. FSWs along the Mexico-U.S. border report frequently experiencing abuse from both clients and intimate partners, which may have serious mental health consequences. Our findings suggest the need for screening and gender-based violence prevention services for Mexican FSWs.
Mulatu, Mesfin S; Leonard, Kimberly Jeffries; Godette, Dionne C; Fulmore, Darren
Black youth are disproportionately affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This study examined disparities in patterns and determinants of sexual risk behaviors among black and white adolescents in substance abuse treatment programs. We used pooled clinical data collected from 4,565 sexually active 12-17-year-old black (29.7%) and white (70.3%) adolescents entering outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment programs nationally. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine racial differences in patterns of sexual risk behaviors and the associations of these behaviors with demographic, socioenvironmental and psychosocial risk factors, including substance use and abuse, symptoms of mental disorders and criminal behaviors. Blacks were significantly more likely than whites to have had sex with multiple partners, purchased or traded sex and used substances to enhance their sexual experiences, even after adjusting for demographic, socioenvironmental and psychosocial risk factors. Substance use and abuse, internalizing symptoms and drug-related crimes were significantly associated with engaging in > or =2 sexual risk behaviors in both groups. Disparities in determinants of HIV risk were also found. For instance, male gender, single-parent custody and history of criminal justice involvement were associated with having had sex with multiple partners among blacks but not among whites. Demographic, socioenvironmental and psychosocial risk factors accounted for up to 30% of the variance in sexual risk in both groups. Black adolescents with substance use problems are at greater risk for HIV infection than their white peers because of their higher rates of sexual risk behaviors. Differences in co-occurring psychosocial problems did not fully explain racial disparities in sexual risk behaviors. HIV prevention programs for black adolescents in treatment should consider both individual and broader contextual factors that co-occur with sexual risk behaviors.
Mahadevan, Meena; Fisher, Celia B.
The toll of HIV/AIDS and drug abuse on economically disadvantaged women of color in the United States is a public health problem of epidemic proportions. Malnutrition, believed to be pervasive in this population, exacerbates the devastating health effects of addiction and HIV. This study documented dietary deficiencies in this population and…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner abuse (IPA is a major public health problem with serious implications for the physical and psychosocial wellbeing of women, particularly women of child-bearing age. It is a common, hidden problem in general practice and has been under-researched in this setting. Opportunities for early intervention and support in primary care need to be investigated given the frequency of contact women have with general practice. Despite the high prevalence and health consequences of abuse, there is insufficient evidence for screening in primary care settings. Furthermore, there is little rigorous evidence to guide general practitioners (GPs in responding to women identified as experiencing partner abuse. This paper describes the design of a trial of a general practice-based intervention consisting of screening for fear of partner with feedback to GPs, training for GPs, brief counselling for women and minimal practice organisational change. It examines the effect on women's quality of life, mental health and safety behaviours. Methods/Design weave is a cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Approximately 500 women (16-50 years seen by the GP in the previous year are mailed a short lifestyle survey containing an item to screen for IPA. Women who indicate that they were afraid of a partner/ex-partner in the last year and provide contact details are invited to participate. Once baseline data are collected, GPs are randomly assigned to either a group involving healthy relationship and responding to IPA training plus inviting women for up to 6 sessions of counselling or to a group involving basic education and usual care for women. Outcomes will be evaluated by postal survey at 6 and 12 months following delivery of the intervention. There will be an economic evaluation, and process evaluation involving interviews with women and GPs, to inform understanding about implementation
Hundeide, Karsten; Armstrong, Nicoletta
In April 2011, the Committee on the Rights of the Child issued the General Comment No. 13 on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence. Its Article 19 declares that "protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programs to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child." One available social program that focuses on providing support for parents, caregivers and children is the International Child Development Program (ICDP), which is presented in this article. The ICDP is designed to influence and improve the quality of contact and relation between the caregivers, usually parents, and children, through the practical application of the eight themes or guidelines for positive interaction. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is a value-based legal document ratified by most countries in the world. This is a significant achievement and it gives a new basis and legitimization for a more humane treatment of children all over the world. Nevertheless, it is important to understand that there is a big gap between a legal document describing ideal conditions for children at a macro-governmental level and its implementation at the microlevel of families and communities. The ICDP is another expression of the same humanitarian spirit as it is encoded in the convention of children' rights. ICDP can be put in practice in any community to create positive conditions for the fulfillment of fundamental children's rights: the right to be protected from violence and to receive the loving care and guidance from the immediate environment which is required to ensure healthy human development. Introducing children's rights is likely to have a major impact on families (and all levels of authorities) if efforts are also made to activate awareness and deeper bonding to children as persons. Without a deep activation of a more humanized and caring relationship to children
Thornton, Clifton P; Veenema, Tener Goodwin
Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Oraka, Emeka; Breiding, Mathew J; Chavez, Pollyanna R
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been shown to be associated with higher rates of HIV infection among women, underscoring the importance of encouraging IPV victims to receive HIV testing. However, we do not know how much HIV testing behavior is influenced by IPV victimization. The current study characterized the association between individual types of IPV and HIV testing in a large sample of non-pregnant women in 15 US states/territories. The 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed after restricting the sample to non-pregnant women. The dependent variable, whether a woman ever had an HIV test, was examined in relation to individual types of IPV victimization (threatened physical violence; attempted physical violence; completed physical violence; and unwanted sex). Associations between HIV testing and types of IPV were assessed using adjusted risk ratios (aRR) that controlled for demographics and HIV-related risk factors (intravenous drug use, sexually transmitted diseases, exchange sex, unprotected anal sex). Approximately 28.6 % of women reported ever having experienced IPV, and 52.8 % of these women reported being tested for HIV. Among women who had not experienced IPV, 32.9 % reported ever having been tested for HIV. HIV testing was associated with lifetime experience of threatened violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.65), attempted violence (aRR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.20-1.69), completed physical violence (aRR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.13-1.48), and unwanted sex (aRR = 1.66; 95 % CI = 1.48-1.86). Women who experienced each type of IPV were more likely to have been ever tested for HIV compared to women with no IPV history. However, nearly half of those reporting IPV, even though at greater risk for HIV infection, had never been tested. Additional efforts are needed to address barriers to testing in this group.
A New York City couple, [name removed] and [name removed], must pay [name removed] $125,000 for trying to force him from their apartment because he is gay and HIV-positive. The Rosacos used an 18-month campaign of abuse and harassment, including disabling [name removed]'s door locks, turning off his electricity, and threatening to force him out into the street. They denounced [name removed] in public and expressed their wish that he develop AIDS and die a painful death. [Name removed] filed a complaint with the Human Rights Commission, who ruled that the [name removed] violated a section of the city's administrative code prohibiting landlords from discriminating against tenants based on sexual orientation and disability. The [name removed] were ordered to pay [name removed] $100,000 in emotional distress damages and a $75,000 civil penalty. The State Supreme Court's Appellate Division found no reason to grant the [name removed] an appeal. They decreased the civil penalty to $25,000 because the [name removed] 50 unit apartment building does not make them large landlords by Manhattan standards.
Full Text Available The neuropathological abnormalities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 patients abusing illicit drugs suggest extensive interactions between the two agents, thereby leading to increased rate of progression to neurodegeneration. The role of HIV-1 transactivating protein, Tat has been elucidated in mediating neuronal damage via apoptosis, a hallmark of HIV-associated dementia (HAD, however the underlying mechanisms involved in enhanced neurodegeneration by illicit drugs remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that morphine enhances HIV-Tat induced toxicity in human neurons and neuroblastoma cells. Enhanced toxicity by Tat and morphine was accompanied by increased numbers of TUNEL positive apoptotic neurons, elevated caspase-3 levels and decreased ratio of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, Bcl2/Bax. Tat and morphine together elicited high levels of reactive oxygen species that were NADPH dependent. Significant alterations in mitochondrial membrane homeostasis were also observed with co-exposure of these agents. Extensive studies of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways revealed the involvement of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2 pathways in enhanced toxicity of Tat and morphine. In addition to this, we found that pre-treatment of cells with platelet derived growth factor (PDGF-BB protected neurons from HIV-Tat and morphine induced damage. PDGF-BB alleviated ROS production, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased caspase-3 activation and hence protected the cells from undergoing apoptosis. PDGF-BB mediated protection against Tat and morphine involved the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K pathway, as specific inhibitor of PI3K abrogated the protection conferred by PDGF-BB. This study demonstrates the mechanism of enhanced toxicity in human neurons subjected to co-exposure of HIV protein Tat and morphine, thus implying its importance in HIV positive drug
Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao S; Schnur, Paul; Shurtleff, David
This report is a summary of a symposium entitled "Mother-to-Child Transmission (MTCT) of HIV and Drugs of Abuse in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Era," organized by The National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, October 13, 2009. In the pre-HAART era, the prevalence of MTCT of HIV was about 25% and exposure of pregnant mothers to drugs of abuse (illicit drugs and tobacco smoking) was a significant factor in MTCT. However, with the introduction of HAART, the rate of MTCT of HIV has decreased to less that 2%. In the Unites States, it is estimated that currently about 5.1% of pregnant women use illicit drugs and 16.4% smoke tobacco. The residual prevalence of MTCT in the HAART era is still of concern and may be related to this continued prevalence of substance use among pregnant mothers. In this report, we review and present evidence that supports the hypothesis that drugs of abuse do have the potential to increase MTCT of HIV in the presence of HAART. Exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy may increase MTCT of HIV through a variety of mechanisms including possible damage to the placenta, induction of preterm birth, and increasing maternal plasma viral load through a variety of putative mechanisms such as: a) promoting HIV mutation and replication through non-adherence to HAART; b) impairing the efficacy of HAART through drug-drug interaction; and c) promoting HIV replication in monocyte/macrophages. Drugs of abuse may promote HIV replication by increasing the expression of CCR5 receptors, decreasing the expression of CCR5 receptor ligands, increasing the expression of CXCR4 receptors, increasing the expression of DC-SIGN, and possibly inducing epigenetic changes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A
To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.
Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara
Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.
Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene
This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
The article posits that imbalances in gender relations are influencing two distinctive yet connected crises for women in Lesotho: the HIV epidemic and spousal abuse. The overarching premise is that as spousal abuse is increasingly recognised and as HIV infections spread, responses to the phenomenon do not reflect the related risks and consequences in married women's lives. This article underscores the nexus of connections between HIV and spousal abuse in Lesotho, identifying potential areas for pragmatic state-led responses. Applying a rights-based approach, it assesses women's vulnerability to each problem at the individual, societal and programmatic levels, noting that there are both direct and underlying factors heightening risks for women. The article asks, what is the value added by a rights-based approach to the subject under discourse? And, how can a rights-based approach be translated into practical tools for planning, monitoring and evaluating projects and programmes aimed at tackling the multifaceted risks and challenges of HIV and spousal abuse confronting women in Lesotho? In response to these questions, the author identifies three trajectories of opportunities for an integrated, comprehensive response. The unmistakable anchor of the article's propositions is the rights-based approach. Although the discussion focuses on Lesotho, the implications for the broader African region cannot be overemphasised in light of commonly shared experiences pertaining to the severe difficulties posed by spousal abuse and HIV.
Women are disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic and also carry a higher burden of early childhood trauma, other life traumas (e.g. rape and partner violence) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).1,2 Yet PTSD and other common psychiatric disorders (e.g. depression, alcohol abuse) are commonly ...
Krishnan, Archana; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Chitsaz, Ehsan; Springer, Sandra A; Jordan, Alison O; Zaller, Nick; Altice, Frederick L
HIV-infected individuals with substance use disorders have a high prevalence of medical and psychiatric morbidities that complicate treatment. Incarceration further disrupts healthcare access and utilization. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, drug relapse upon release exceeds 85 %, which contributes to poor health outcomes. A prospective cohort of 1,032 HIV-infected jail detainees were surveyed in a ten-site demonstration project during incarceration and six-months post-release, in order to examine the effect of predisposing factors, enabling resources and need factors on their subsequent drug use. Homelessness, pre-incarceration cocaine and opioid use, and high drug and alcohol severity were significantly associated with cocaine and opioid relapse. Substance abuse treatment, though poorly defined, did not influence post-release cocaine and opioid use. An approach that integrates multiple services, simultaneously using evidence-based substance abuse, psychiatric care, and social services is needed to improve healthcare outcomes for HIV-infected persons transitioning from jails to the community.
Lewis, Oliver; Campbell, Ann
This paper explores how, and how effectively, two systems of international law have addressed exploitation, violence and abuse of people with mental disabilities. The two international systems reviewed were the Council of Europe's European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The two issues dealt with are (a) forced institutionalisation and denial of community-based services and (b) medically-sanctioned treatment as abuse or violence. The paper offers a comparative analysis of the way in which the two bodies have dealt with exploitation, violence and abuse of people with disabilities, and offers recommendations as to how the two bodies could adjust their approaches to come into closer alignment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Wathen, C Nadine; Varcoe, Colleen; MacMillan, Harriet L; Scott-Storey, Kelly; Mantler, Tara; Hegarty, Kelsey; Perrin, Nancy
Objectives Approaches to measuring intimate partner violence (IPV) in populations often privilege physical violence, with poor assessment of other experiences. This has led to underestimating the scope and impact of IPV. The aim of this study was to develop a brief, reliable and valid self-report measure of IPV that adequately captures its complexity. Design Mixed-methods instrument development and psychometric testing to evolve a brief version of the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) using secondary data analysis and expert feedback. Setting Data from 5 Canadian IPV studies; feedback from international IPV experts. Participants 31 international IPV experts including academic researchers, service providers and policy actors rated CAS items via an online survey. Pooled data from 6278 adult Canadian women were used for scale development. Primary/secondary outcome measures Scale reliability and validity; robustness of subscales assessing different IPV experiences. Results A 15-item version of the CAS has been developed (Composite Abuse Scale (Revised)—Short Form, CASR-SF), including 12 items developed from the original CAS and 3 items suggested through expert consultation and the evolving literature. Items cover 3 abuse domains: physical, sexual and psychological, with questions asked to assess lifetime, recent and current exposure, and abuse frequency. Factor loadings for the final 3-factor solution ranged from 0.81 to 0.91 for the 6 psychological abuse items, 0.63 to 0.92 for the 4 physical abuse items, and 0.85 and 0.93 for the 2 sexual abuse items. Moderate correlations were observed between the CASR-SF and measures of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and coercive control. Internal consistency of the CASR-SF was 0.942. These reliability and validity estimates were comparable to those obtained for the original 30-item CAS. Conclusions The CASR-SF is brief self-report measure of IPV experiences among women that has demonstrated initial reliability and validity
Tutty, Leslie M; Radtke, H L; Ateah, Christine A; Ursel, E Jane; Thurston, Wilfreda E Billie; Hampton, Mary; Nixon, Kendra
This research examines how mental health issues associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) relate to women's intersecting identities of race/ethnicity, disability status, and child abuse history. Data ( N = 595) from a Canadian triprovincial study included women who were White ( n = 263, 44.8%), Indigenous ( n = 292, 49.7%), or visible minority ( n = 32, 5.5%). Few demographic differences were found. None of the mental health measures (Symptom Checklist-Short Form [SCL-10], Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression [CES-D-10], Posttraumatic Stress Disorder [PTSD] Checklist) were in the clinical ranges. In a MANCOVA on the mental health scales, with IPV severity, racial group, disability status, and child abuse history as variables, only disability was significantly associated with more mental health symptoms.
McGaha, Johnny E.; Leoni, Edward L.
Individuals from substance-abusing family environments have been found to suffer from low self-esteem, depression, anger, and a variety of acting-out behaviors. An investigation of the differences between incarcerated juveniles from substance-abusing families and those from non-substance-abusing families indicates significant differences in family…
Stonard, Karlie E; Bowen, Erica; Walker, Kate; Price, Shelley A
Electronic communication technology (ECT), such as mobile phones and online communication tools, is widely used by adolescents; however, the availability of such tools may have both positive and negative impacts within the context of romantic relationships. While an established literature has documented the nature, prevalence, and impact of traditional forms of adolescent dating violence and abuse (ADVA), limited empirical investigation has focused on the role of ECT in ADVA or what shall be termed technology-assisted adolescent dating violence and abuse (TAADVA) and how adolescents perceive the impact of TAADVA relative to ADVA. In this article, the authors explore the role ECT plays in adolescent romantic relationships and psychologically abusive and controlling ADVA behaviors and its perceived impact. An opportunity sample of 52 adolescents (22 males and 30 females) between the ages of 12 and 18 years participated in the study. One all-female and seven mixed-gendered semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to identify three superordinate themes, including (a) perceived healthy versus unhealthy communication, (b) perceived monitoring and controlling communication, and (c) perceived impact of technology-assisted abuse compared with that in person. While ECTs had a positive impact on the development and maintenance of adolescent romantic relationships, such tools also provided a new avenue for unhealthy, harassment, monitoring, and controlling behaviors within these relationships. ECT was also perceived to provide unique impacts in terms of making TAADVA seem both less harmful and more harmful than ADVA experienced in person. Adolescents' perceptions and experiences of ECT in romantic relationships and TAADVA may also vary be gender. Implications of the findings are discussed, and recommendations are made for future research. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia.In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis.Of 299 women, 104 (34.8% and 113 (37.8% reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1% of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance.IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking. Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Reid, Tony; van Engelgem, Ian; Telfer, Barbara; Manzi, Marcel
Kenya's post-election violence in early 2008 created considerable problems for health services, and in particular, those providing HIV care. It was feared that the disruptions in services would lead to widespread treatment interruption. MSF had been working in the Kibera slum for 10 years and was providing antiretroviral therapy to 1800 patients when the violence broke out. MSF responded to the crisis in a number of ways and managed to keep HIV services going. Treatment interruption was less than expected, and MSF profited from a number of "lessons learned" that could be applied to similar contexts where a stable situation suddenly deteriorates. PMID:19055803
Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. METHODS: This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. RESULTS: While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.
Gibbs, Andrew; Mushinga, Mildred; Crone, E Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve
Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant human rights violation and a key driver of the HIV epidemic in southern and eastern Africa. We frame GBV from a broad human rights approach that includes intimate partner violence and structural violence. We use this broader definition to review how National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) in southern and eastern Africa address GBV. NSPs for HIV and AIDS provide the national-level framework that shapes government, business, donor, and non-governmental responses to HIV within a country. Our review of these plans for HIV and AIDS suggests that attention to GBV is poorly integrated; few recognize GBV and program around GBV. The programming, policies, and interventions that do exist privilege responses that support survivors of violence, rather than seeking to prevent it. Furthermore, the subject who is targeted is narrowly constructed as a heterosexual woman in a monogamous relationship. There is little consideration of GBV targeting women who have non-conforming sexual or gender identities, or of the need to tackle structural violence in the response to HIV and AIDS. We suggest that NSPs are not sufficiently addressing the human rights challenge of tackling GBV in the response to HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa. It is critical that they do so. Copyright © 2012 Gibbs, Mushinga, Crone, Willan, and Mannell. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Breuer, Erica; Stoloff, Kevin; Myer, Landon; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J; Joska, John A
Given the high prevalence of HIV in South Africa and co-morbid mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDs (PLWHA) we sought to validate a brief screening tool in primary HIV care. 366 PLWHA were recruited prior to combination anti-retroviral treatment (CART) initiation from two primary health HIV clinics. A mental health nurse administered a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and a lay counsellor administered the Substance and Mental Illness Symptom Screener (SAMISS). Using the MINI, 17 % of participants were identified with either depression, anxiety disorders or adjustment disorder and 18 % with substance or alcohol abuse/dependence. The sensitivity and specificity of the SAMISS was 94 % (95 % CI: 88-98 %) and 58 % (95 % CI: 52-65 %) respectively, with the alcohol component (sensitivity: 94 %; specificity: 85 %) performing better than the mental illness component of the SAMISS (sensitivity: 97 %; specificity: 60 %). The specificity of the tool improved when the cut-off for the mental illness component was increased. The SAMISS may provide a useful first tier screening tool for common mental disorders in primary care for PLWHA.
Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath
In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.
Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Toska, Elona; Orkin, F Mark; Hodes, Rebecca; Sherr, Lorraine
HIV-positive adolescents have low-ART adherence, with consequent increased risks of mortality, morbidity, and viral resistance. Despite high rates of violence against children in the Africa region, no known studies have tested impacts on HIV-positive adolescents. We examine associations of ART adherence with adolescent violence victimization by caregivers, teachers, peers, community members, and healthcare providers. HIV-positive adolescents were interviewed (n = 1060), and clinic biomarker data collected. We sampled all 10-19-year olds ever ART-initiated within 53 clinics in 180 South African communities (90.1% reached). Analyses examined associations between nonadherence and nine violence types using sequential multivariate logistic regressions. Interactive and additive effects were tested with regression and marginal effects. Past-week self-reported ART nonadherence was 36%. Nonadherence correlated strongly with virologic failure (OR 2.3, CI 1.4-3.8) and symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis (OR 1.49, CI 1.18-2.05). Four violence types were independently associated with nonadherence: physical abuse by caregivers (OR 1.5, CI 1.1-2.1); witnessing domestic violence (OR 1.8, CI 1.22-2.66); teacher violence (OR 1.51, CI 1.16-1.96,) and verbal victimization by healthcare staff (OR 2.15, CI 1.59-2.93). Past-week nonadherence rose from 25% with no violence to 73.5% with four types of violence exposure. Violence exposures at home, school, and clinic are major and cumulating risks for adolescent antiretroviral nonadherence. Prevention, mitigation, and protection services may be essential for the health and survival of HIV-positive adolescents.
Jaspal, Rusi; Lopes, Barbara; Jamal, Zahra; Paccoud, Ivana; Sekhon, Parminder
The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link (open access) Black and minority ethnic (BME) men who have sex with men (MSM) face a major burden in relation to HIV infection. It was hypothesised that sexual abuse would be a significant predictor of sexual risk-taking, and that the relationship between sexual abuse and sexual risk-taking behavior would be mediated by victimisation variables, ...
Collins, Shane P.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Burke, Nancy J.; Bojorquez, Ietza; Silverman, Jay G.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Due to stigma and the psychosocial repercussions of past trauma and abuse, survivors of sex trafficking may experience increased susceptibility to violence, revictimization, and various harmful health outcomes, including HIV infection. Given the paucity of research characterizing the experiences of formerly trafficked female sex workers (FSWs), we set out to describe and contextualize perceptions of HIV risk among women who have experienced past episodes of sex trafficking and who are currently engaged in sex work in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on semi-structured interviews and ethnographic fieldwork, we describe the following interrelated themes as influencing formerly trafficked FSWs' perceptions and experiences of HIV risk: economic vulnerability; susceptibility to violence; and psychological trauma. Our findings highlight the need for HIV prevention efforts to incorporate broader structural and social interventions aimed at reducing vulnerability to violence and human rights abuses among this population and improving their general economic, psychological, and social well-being. PMID:22963518
Huba, GJ; Melchoir, LA; Greenberg, B; Trevithick, L; Feudo, R; Tierney, S; Sturdevant, M; Hodgins, A; Remafedi, G; Woods, ER; Wallace, M; Schneir, A; Kawata, AK; Brady, RE; Singer, B; Marconi, K; Wright, E; Panter, AT
This article describes data from 4,111 males and 4,085 females participating in 10 HIV/AIDS service demonstration projects. The sample was diverse in age, gender, ethnicity, HIV status, and risk for HIV transmission. Logistic regression was used to determine the attributes that best predict
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H
Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.
Mueller, Catherine; Tranchant, Jean-Pierre; Oosterhoff, Pauline
This paper investigates how domestic violence relates to violence against children, including severe corporal punishment. The literature suggests a link between intimate partner violence in the household and child abuse and maltreatment. Studies are, however, limited by the use of narrowly defined measures of violence against children, data availability, and a lack of characterization of domestic violence. In this paper we use original data on domestic violence and child disciplining methods ...
Tolman, Richard M.; Weisz, Arlene
Reports results of a study on the effectiveness of a coordinated community intervention to reduce domestic violence in DuPage County, IL. Logistic regression analysis indicated that arrest significantly deterred subsequent domestic violence incidents over an 18-month follow-up period, especially with those with a previous history of police…
This report on a study of family violence in the homes of serious juvenile offenders in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts contains a brief introduction and seven substantive sections. Sections 2, 3 and 4 review the literature with regard to the extent of family violence, the consequences of childhood victimization, and societal reaction to the…
Tolou-Shams, Marina; Conrad, Selby; Louis, Alaina; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Brown, Larry K
Juvenile offenders are a subgroup of adolescents at particular risk for HIV/STI infection. Although HIV prevalence among these youth is low (justice system, which is known to have an extremely high rate of HIV infection. US constitutional mandates provide HIV/STI testing for incarcerated juveniles, but close to 80% of juvenile arrestees are never detained. Moreover, although they engage in similar HIV risk behaviors as those detained, they have limited access to available HIV/STI testing services. Thus, our study examined rates of lifetime HIV testing among a pilot sample of 60 court-involved, substance-using juveniles monitored in the community to explore rates of testing and the reasons related to lifetime testing among a high-risk, yet understudied US juvenile population.
Raj, Anita; Kidd, Jeremy D; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena A; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Studies document a significant association between victimization from intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV among substance using women in Russia and elsewhere, but no study has examined IPV perpetration and STI among Russian men or HIV-infected men in Eastern Europe. This study was designed to assess the association between lifetime history of IPV perpetration and STI (lifetime and current) among substance using HIV-infected men in Russia. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with baseline data from 415 male participants enrolled in a randomized HIV intervention clinical trial [the HERMITAGE Study]. Participants were HIV-infected men reporting recent heavy alcohol use and unprotected sex in St. Petersburg, Russia. Baseline surveys assessed demographics, IPV perpetration, risk behaviors, and STI history. Current STI was assessed via blood testing for syphilis and urine testing for gonorrhea, Chlamydia and Trichomonas. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between history of IPV with lifetime and current STI. Participants were aged 20-57 years. Almost half of participants (46%) reported a history of IPV perpetration; 81% reported past 30-day binge alcohol use, and 43% reported past 30-day injection drug use. Past and current STI was 41% and 12%, respectively. Men reporting a history of IPV perpetration had significantly higher odds of reporting ever having an STI (AOR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1, 2.4) but lower odds of testing positive for a current STI (AOR=0.50, 95% CI=0.26, 0.96). These findings demonstrate that a history of male IPV perpetration is common in HIV-infected Russian men and associated with a history of STI. Programmatic work toward IPV prevention is needed in Russia and may be beneficial in mitigating STIs, but more research is needed to understand how and why the association between IPV and STI changes over time in this population.
Gorman, Dennis M
This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is described by the American Medical Association as "a pattern of coercive behaviors that may include repeated battering and injury, psychological abuse, sexual assault, progressive social isolation, deprivation, and intimidation." The long-term consequences of IPV include health risks, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and staggering economic costs for health care of victims. Intimate partner violence is often underreported among women who seek medical attention. The current study seeks to address the issue of possible underreporting of IPV in orthopaedic fracture clinics by establishing prevalence rates of IPV among women seeking treatment for musculoskeletal injuries. Methods/Design We propose a cross-sectional multicenter study wherein 3,600 women will complete a self-reported written questionnaire across clinical sites in North America, Europe, and Australia. Recruitment of participants will take place at orthopaedic fracture clinics at each clinical site. The questionnaire will contain a validated set of questions used to screen for IPV, as well as questions that pertain to the participant's demographic, injury characteristics, and experiences with health care utilization. Female patients presenting to the orthopaedic fracture clinics will complete two validated self-reported written questionnaires (Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS to determine the prevalence of IPV in the past 12 months and in their lifetime. The two questionnaires were designed for rapid assessment of IPV status in emergency departments, family practice, and women's health clinics that we believe are similar to our intended setting of an orthopaedic clinic. Discussion If the prevalence of IPV among women attending orthopaedic clinics is greater than the current perceptions of orthopaedic surgeons, this study will serve to advocate for the continued education of medical
Ferris, Mark J; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M
There are roughly 30-40 million HIV-infected individuals in the world as of December 2007, and drug abuse directly contributes to one-third of all HIV infections in the United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the lifespan of HIV-seropositives, but CNS function often remains diminished, effectively decreasing quality of life. A modest proportion may develop HIV-associated dementia, the severity and progression of which is increased with drug abuse. HIV and drugs of abuse in the CNS target subcortical brain structures and DA systems in particular. This toxicity is mediated by a number of neurotoxic mechanisms, including but not limited to, aberrant immune response and oxidative stress. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies must be developed that can address a wide variety of disparate neurotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic cascades. This paper reviews the research pertaining to the where, what, and how of HIV and cocaine/methamphetamine toxicity in the CNS. Specifically, where these toxins most affect the brain, what aspects of the virus are neurotoxic, and how these toxins mediate neurotoxicity.
Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao S; Shurtleff, David
In the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, prenatal "vertical" mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV was about 25% and exposure of pregnant mothers to drugs of abuse (illicit drugs and tobacco smoking) was a significant contributory factor of MTCT. However, with the introduction of HAART, the rate of MTCT of HIV has decreased to less that 2%. But, it is estimated that currently about 5.1% of pregnant women use illicit drugs and 16.4% smoke tobacco. The residual prevalence of MTCT is of concern and may be related to this continued prevalence of substance use among pregnant mothers. In this report, we review and present evidence that supports the hypothesis that drugs of abuse do have the potential to increase MTCT of HIV in the presence of HAART. Exposure to drugs of abuse during pregnancy may increase MTCT of HIV through a variety of mechanisms that are addressed in detail including possible damage to the placenta, induction of preterm birth, and increasing maternal plasma viral load though a variety of putative mechanisms such as: (a) promoting HIV replication in monocyte/macrophages; (b) increasing the expression of CCR5 receptors; (c) decreasing the expression of CCR5 receptor ligands; (d) increasing the expression of CXCR4 receptors; (e) increasing the expression of DC-SIGN; (f) impairing the efficacy of HAART through drug-drug interaction; and (g) promoting HIV mutation and replication through non-adherence to HAART.
Kraanen, F.L.; Vedel, E.; Scholing, A.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Background Research has shown that treatments that solely addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration were not very effective in reducing IPV, possibly due to neglecting individual differences between IPV perpetrators. A large proportion of IPV perpetrators is diagnosed with co-occurring
Foley, Kevin; Duran, Bonnie; Morris, Priscilla; Lucero, Julie; Jiang, Yizhou; Baxter, Bonita; Harrison, Melvin; Shurley, Maynard; Shorty, Ed; Joe, Darrell; Iralu, Jonathan; Davidson-Stroh, Lynn; Foster, Larry; Begay, Mae-Gilene; Sonleiter, Nancy
Alcohol and drug use are associated with increased risk of HIV/AIDS. American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) have high rates of alcohol and other drug use, as well as a high incidence of unsafe sex behaviors and injection drug use practices. Indicators of AI/AN HIV risks involving sexual activity include high rates of STDs, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Despite these facts, the prevalence of HIV infection among AI/AN is not well known. The present study is part of a HRSA-funded SPNS HIV/AIDS health initiative, one goal of which is to increase the number of HIV-positive individuals who know their HIV status. To meet the goal of the SPNS project, patients in an inpatient alcohol and drug treatment center were provided with an HIV prevention educational presentation followed by one-on-one HIV counseling. Motivational interviewing was used in the counseling sessions to aid participants in recognizing their risk status and making a decision to be HIV tested. Results show that of the 134 who agreed to one-on-one HIV counseling and 105 (78%) returned for their results.
Brooks, Audrey J; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Meade, Christina S; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Calsyn, Donald A; Greenfield, Shelly F
HIV infection disproportionately impacts minorities; yet research on racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors is limited. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the rates of HIV risk behaviors and whether the relationship between HIV risk factors and HIV risk behaviors varies by race/ethnicity in clients participating in NIDA Clinical Trials Network trials. The sample was 41% non-Hispanic White, 32% non-Hispanic Black, and 27% Hispanic (N = 2,063). HIV risk behaviors and measures of substance and psychosocial HIV risk factors in the past month were obtained. Non-Hispanic Blacks engaged in less HIV sexual risk behaviors overall than non-Hispanic Whites. While non-Hispanic Whites were the most likely to report any injection drug use, Hispanics engaged in the most HIV drug risk behaviors. Specific risk factors were differentially predictive of HIV risk behavior by race/ethnicity. Alcohol use severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Blacks and Whites. Greater psychiatric severity was related to engaging in higher sex risk behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites. Drug use severity was associated with engaging in higher risk drug behaviors for non-Hispanic Whites and Hispanics with the magnitude of the relationship stronger for Hispanics. These findings highlight the need for further research testing HIV risk prevention interventions within racial/ethnic groups to identify target behaviors or risk factors that are salient to inform HIV interventions. The present study provides a systematic examination of race/ethnicity differences in the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and HIV risk behaviors. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
Decker, Michele R.; Crago, Anna-Louise; Ka Hon Chu, Sandra; Sherman, Susan G.; Saraswathi Seshu, Meena; Buthelezi, Kholi; Dhaliwal, Mandeep; Beyrer, Chris
We reviewed evidence from over 800 studies and reports on the burden and HIV impact of human rights abuses against sex workers across policy climates. Published research documents widespread abuses of human rights perpetrated by both state and non-state actors. Such violations facilitate HIV vulnerability, both directly and indirectly, and undermine effective HIV prevention and intervention efforts. Violations include homicide, physical and sexual violence from law enforcement, clients and intimate partners, unlawful arrest and detention, discrimination in accessing health services, and forced HIV testing. Abuses occur across all policy regimes, though most profoundly so where sex work is criminalized through punitive law. Protection of sex workers’ human rights is critical to respect, protect and fulfill human rights, and to improve their health and wellbeing. Findings affirm the value of rights-based HIV responses for sex workers, and underscore the obligation of states to uphold the rights of this marginalized population. PMID:25059943
Hershow, Rebecca B; Bhadra, Madhura; Mai, Nguyen Vu Tuyet; Sripaipan, Teerada; Ha, Tran Viet; Go, Vivian F
Although the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Southeast Asia is one of the highest in the world, IPV remains understudied in the region, especially among women living with HIV (WLWH). This study aims to understand how gender and violence norms influence how WLWH interpret and prioritize violence as a health issue. We also explore whether HIV disclosure was seen as a trigger for IPV. We conducted in-depth interviews with 20 WLWH (median age = 35.5 years; range = 28-54 years) in northern Vietnam. Participants were recruited from an outpatient antiretroviral treatment (ART) clinic. Semi-structured interviews were transcribed, translated, and analyzed to identify themes using a gender-focused theoretical framework. Twelve participants reported experiencing IPV by their current or former husbands, most of which occurred before their HIV diagnoses. Only one participant felt her HIV status was a factor for the IPV she experienced; the remaining participants did not explicitly link IPV and HIV. None expressed fear or experience of IPV after disclosing to their husbands. When asked about a woman's role in society, the majority spoke about the responsibility to build family harmony by doing housework, raising children, making a steady income, and being faithful to her husband. Participants viewed marital conflict as the woman's problem to avoid by acting docile or to resolve peacefully by bearing violence quietly. Almost all reported contracting HIV from their husbands. Regardless of whether their children were infected ( n = 8) or not ( n = 10), participants spoke about being compelled to initiate and adhere to ART to care for their children emotionally and financially. In the context of Vietnamese gender norms, participants expressed low urgency for help-seeking after experiencing IPV and high urgency for help-seeking after being diagnosed with HIV. Multilevel interventions are needed to shift social norms around acceptability of IPV.
Holly B. LaPota
Full Text Available Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems. This research was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA020548-01A1 awarded to Brad Donohue. The authors wish to thank Sally K. Miller, PhD, APN, FAANP and Associate Professor, UNLV School of Nursing for her work in completing the initial in-home health evaluation/physical for the current project.
This study used logistic regression to analyze the 2,830 ever-married or cohabitating women who also answered the violence and spousal traits questionnaire as well as provided blood samples. The logistic regression revealed that women who had experienced any type of intimate partner violence (odds ratio=1.29, ...
S.S. Wali centre for. HIV/AIDS patients five days a week. Investigations and antiretroviral drugs are provided free of charge to all patients. Study participants. The study population consisted of female. HIV/AIDS patients attending Aminu Kano. Teaching Hospital HIV/AIDS specialist clinic from the 1st to the 31st of May 2010.
Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene
Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…
Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S
This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.
Windsor, Liliane C; Benoit, Ellen; Ream, Geoffrey L; Forenza, Brad
Nongay identified men who have sex with men and women (NGI MSMW) and who use alcohol and other drugs are a vulnerable, understudied, and undertreated population. Little is known about the stigma faced by this population or about the way that health service providers view and serve these stigmatized clients. The provider perception inventory (PPI) is a 39-item scale that measures health services providers' stigma about HIV/AIDS, substance use, and MSM behavior. The PPI is unique in that it was developed to include service provider stigma targeted at NGI MSMW individuals. PPI was developed through a mixed methods approach. Items were developed based on existing measures and findings from focus groups with 18 HIV and substance abuse treatment providers. Exploratory factor analysis using data from 212 health service providers yielded a two dimensional scale: (1) individual attitudes (19 items) and (2) agency environment (11 items). Structural equation modeling analysis supported the scale's predictive validity (N=190 sufficiently complete cases). Overall findings indicate initial support for the psychometrics of the PPI as a measure of service provider stigma pertaining to the intersection of HIV/AIDS, substance use, and MSM behavior. Limitations and implications to future research are discussed.
Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom
Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.
Hatcher, Abigail M; Smout, Elizabeth M; Turan, Janet M; Christofides, Nicola; Stöckl, Heidi
We aimed to estimate the odds of engagement in HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive women reporting intimate partner violence (IPV). We systematically reviewed the literature on the association between IPV and engagement in care. Data sources included searches of electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and PsychoInfo), hand searches and citation tracking. Two reviewers screened 757 full-text articles, extracted data and independently appraised study quality. Included studies were peer-reviewed and assessed IPV alongside engagement in care outcomes: antiretroviral treatment (ART) use; self-reported ART adherence; viral suppression; retention in HIV care. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Thirteen cross-sectional studies among HIV-positive women were included. Measurement of IPV varied, with most studies defining a 'case' as any history of physical and/or sexual IPV. Meta-analysis of five studies showed IPV to be significantly associated with lower ART use [OR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.64-0.97]. IPV was associated with poorer self-reported ART adherence in six studies (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.30-0.75) and lower odds of viral load suppression in seven studies (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Lack of longitudinal data and measurement considerations should temper interpretation of these results. IPV is associated with lower ART use, half the odds of self-reported ART adherence and significantly worsened viral suppression among women. To ensure the health of HIV-positive women, it is essential for clinical programmes to address conditions that impact engagement in care and treatment. IPV is one such condition, and its association with declines in ART use and adherence requires urgent attention.
Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan
Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.
Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E M M; van der Lee, J H; Teeuw, A H; Lindeboom, R; Brilleslijper-Kater, S N; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T; van Goudoever, J B; Lindauer, R J L
High levels of maltreatment are found in children who are identified because their parents visit the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt. However, it is unknown if these children experience psychosocial problems. This study aims to assess their levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six hospitals. All consecutive families of which a parent visited the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt between 1 July 2012 and 1 March 2014 with children aged 1.5-17 years were approached for participation. Parents and children aged 8 years and older filled out questionnaires measuring post-traumatic stress [13-item version of Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13)], anxiety, depression (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale), behavioural problems [Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR)] and health-related quality of life (PedsQL). Scores of participants were compared with reference data obtained in children in similar age ranges from representative Dutch community samples (CRIES-13, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, PedsQL and CBCL) and to a normed cutoff score (CRIES-13). Of 195 eligible families, 89 (46%) participated in the study. Participating children did not score different from community children, both on child-reported and parent-reported instruments. Standardized mean differences of total sum scores were 0 (CRIES-13 and CBCL 1.5-5), 0.1 (YSR), 0.2 (CBCL 6-18) and -0.3 (PedsQL) and not statistically different from community children. Thirty-five percent of the participating children scored above the cutoff score on the CRIES-13, indicating post-traumatic stress disorder, but this difference was not statistically significant from community children (mean difference 8%; 95% CI -4-22%). We found no differences in psychosocial
Davis, Katy B
Low-income women of color who are HIV positive and living in violent relationships are at significant risk for stigma and problems with attachment security. This article explores the ways in which these women may experience internalized stigma from incorporating society's negative views of HIV and domestic violence. It also addresses the ways in which insecure attachment may develop or intensify in this population through violence in their adult intimate relationships and/or living with a life threatening illness. A model of medical and psychosocial care utilized at the Women's HIV Program at the University of California San Francisco is offered as an intervention to reduce stigma and enhance healthy attachment. Clinical examples demonstrate how this system of medical and psychosocial care can help women in this situation establish stability and improve their lives despite the intense challenges they face.
Bouis, Stephanie; Reif, Susan; Whetten, Kathryn; Scovil, Janet; Murray, Andrea; Swartz, Marvin
The challenge of providing effective treatment services for the growing population of HIV-positive individuals who are also dually diagnosed with substance use and mental disorders has only recently been recognized as an important public health concern affecting both HIV treatment and prevention. This article describes a treatment model that was…
Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Beadnell, Blair; Campbell, Aimee N C; Meade, Christina S; Tross, Susan; Calsyn, Donald A
Receptive anal sex has high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk, and heterosexual substance-abusing individuals report higher anal sex rates compared to their counterparts in the general population. This secondary analysis evaluated the effectiveness of two gender-specific, evidence-based HIV-prevention interventions (Real Men Are Safe, or REMAS, for men; Safer Sex Skill Building, or SSSB, for women) against an HIV education (HIV-Ed) control condition on decreasing unprotected heterosexual anal sex (HAS) among substance abuse treatment-seeking men (n = 171) and women (n = 105). Two variables, engagement in any HAS and engagement in unprotected HAS, were assessed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared to the control group, women in the gender-specific intervention did not differ on rates of any HAS at follow-up but significantly decreased their rates of unprotected HAS. Men in both the gender-specific and the control interventions reported less HAS and unprotected HAS at three-month follow-up compared to baseline, with no treatment condition effect. The mechanism of action for SSSB compared to REMAS in decreasing unprotected HAS is unclear. More attention to HAS in HIV-prevention interventions for heterosexual men and women in substance abuse treatment is warranted.
Full Text Available ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... to HIV and progression of AIDS. Drugs of abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has ...
Wagman, Jennifer A; Gray, Ronald H; Nakyanjo, Neema; McClendon, Katherine A; Bonnevie, Erika; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kigozi, Grace; Kagaayi, Joseph; Wawer, Maria J; Nalugoda, Fred
The Safe Homes And Respect for Everyone (SHARE) intervention introduced an intimate partner violence (IPV) prevention approach into Rakai Health Sciences Program, an established HIV research and service organization in Uganda. A trial found exposure to SHARE was associated with reductions in IPV and HIV incidence. This mixed methods process evaluation was conducted between August 2007 and December 2009, with people living in SHARE intervention clusters, to assess awareness about/participation in SHARE, motivators and barriers to involvement, and perceptions of how SHARE contributed to behavior change. Surveys were conducted with 1407 Rakai Community Cohort Study participants. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 key informants. Most (77%) were aware of SHARE, among whom 73% participated in intervention activities. Two-thirds of those who participated in SHARE felt it influenced behavior change related to IPV. While some felt confident to take part in new IPV-focused activities of a well-established program, others were suspicious of SHARE's motivations, implying awareness raising is critical. Many activities appealed to the majority (e.g., community drama) while interest in some activities was limited to men (e.g., film shows), suggesting multiple intervention components is ideal for wide-reaching programming. The SHARE model offers a promising, acceptable approach for integrating IPV prevention into HIV and other established health programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.
All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…
Meade, Christina S; Drabkin, Anya S; Hansen, Nathan B; Wilson, Patrick A; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J
Few interventions exist to reduce alcohol and non-injection drug use among people living with HIV/AIDS. This study tested the effects of a coping group intervention for HIV-positive adults with childhood sexual abuse histories on alcohol, cocaine and marijuana use. Participants were assigned randomly to the experimental coping group or a time-matched comparison support group. Both interventions were delivered in a group format over 15 weekly 90-minute sessions. A diverse sample of 247 HIV-positive men and women with childhood sexual abuse were recruited from AIDS service organizations and community health centers in New York City. Substance use was assessed pre- and post-intervention and every 4 months during a 12-month follow-up period. Using an intent-to-treat analysis, longitudinal changes in substance use by condition were assessed using generalized estimating equations. At baseline, 42% of participants drank alcohol, 26% used cocaine and 26% used marijuana. Relative to participants in the support group, those in the coping group had greater reductions in quantity of alcohol use (Wald χ²(₄)=10.77, P = 0.029) and any cocaine use (Wald χ²(₄) = 9.81, P = 0.044) overtime. Many HIV patients, particularly those with childhood sexual abuse histories, continue to abuse substances. This group intervention that addressed coping with HIV and sexual trauma was effective in reducing alcohol and cocaine use, with effects sustained at 12-month follow-up. Integrating mental health treatment into HIV prevention may improve outcomes. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Munoz, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in antisocial youth have been associated with deficits in the processing of emotionally distressing stimuli in a number of past studies. In the current study, we investigated moderators of this association in a sample of 88 ethnically diverse detained boys (mean age = 15.57, SD = 1.28). Overall, emotional processing of distressing stimuli using a dot-probe task was not related to CU traits and there was no moderating effect of ethnicity. However, CU traits were related to deficits in emotional processing in youth high on aggression and youth high on exposure to community violence. Further, youth high on CU traits but with enhanced orienting to distressing stimuli had stronger histories of abuse, supporting the possibility that there may be environmentally influenced pathways in the development of these traits.
Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Krupp, Karl; George, Ruja; Madhivanan, Purnima
Violence against women is a global phenomenon that cuts across all social and economic classes. This study was designed to measure the prevalence and correlates of domestic violence (DV) among women seeking services at a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center in Bangalore, India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among women visiting an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) VCT center in Bangalore, between September and November 2005. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about violence and other variables. Univariable associations with DV were made using Pearson Chi-squared test for categorical variables and Student t-test or the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables. Forty-two percent of respondents reported DV, including physical abuse (29%), psychological abuse (69%) and sexual abuse (1%). Among the women who reported violence of any kind, 67% also reported that they were HIV seropositive. The most common reasons reported for DV included financial problems (38%), husband's alcohol use (29%) and woman's HIV status (18%). Older women (P women suffering from domestic partner violence.
Vicente Garrido Genovés (España
Full Text Available En la actualidad está bien establecido que ciertos trastornos mentales incrementan el riesgo de realizar comportamientos violentos. En particular esto es cierto para el abuso de sustancias y el grupo B de los trastornos de personalidad del DSM-IV (Garrido, 2003. También tendríamos que incluir en esta relación —aunque en menor medida— los trastornos incluidos en el espectro de la esquizofrenia, en particular los síntomas paranoides de amenaza y de control, y en general el estilo cognitivo de personalidad paranoide (Nestor, 2002. No obstante, yo me referiré tan sólo a la relación existente entre el mencionado grupo B y el abuso de sustancias y su vinculación con el delito y la violencia. Más en concreto, atenderé especialmente, dentro de ese grupo B, al trastorno antisocial de la personalidad y a la psicopatía (aunque no son términos todo intercambiables, como luego veremos y su capacidad para predecir tales comportamientos desviados de violencia y conducta antisocial. Currently it is well established that certain mental disorders increase the risk for violent behaviour. This is in particular true for the Group B of the DSM-IV (2003 Garrido personality disorders and substance abuse. Would also have to include disorders included in the spectrum of schizophrenia, paranoid and control symptoms in particular, and in general the cognitive style of personality in this relationship -although in smaller measure- paranoid (Nestor, 2002. I refer only to the relationship between the Group (b and substance abuse and its link with crime and violence. More specifically, within that group B, the antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy (although they are not all interchangeable terms, as we shall see and its ability to predict such behavior diverted from violence and antisocial behaviour.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert
Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man
Kristin L Dunkle
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non
Goodman, Michael L; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Chen, Catherine X; Grouls, Astrid; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H
Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners. No significant correlation was observed between thirteen cumulative childhood adversities and reporting prior HIV testing for respondent or partner. Separately, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect predicted lower odds of reporting having previously been tested for HIV. Witnessing household violence during one's childhood predicted significantly higher odds of reporting HIV+. Sexual abuse predicted higher odds of reporting a partner tested HIV+. Preventing sexual abuse and household violence may improve HIV testing and test outcomes among Kenyan women. More research is required to understand pathways between adverse childhood experiences and partner selection within Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa, and data presented here suggest understanding pathways may help improve HIV outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Ana Calzada Reyes
Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica de aspectos de interés relacionados con la temática de la violencia, que se consideran de gran valor en la preparación integral del médico de atención primaria. Se hacen consideraciones en relación con el maltrato infantil; una de las tantas formas de expresión de la violencia, lo cual es de importancia en la actualidad para el conocimiento y la práctica médica diaria.A bibliographic review of aspects of interest related to the topic of violence, which are of great value in the comprehensive training of the physcian at the primary health care level, is carried out. Considerations are made concerning child abuse, one of the diverse forms of expression of violence that is important at present for the medical knowledge and daily practice.
Conover, Christopher J; Arno, Peter; Weaver, Marcia; Ang, Alfonso; Ettner, Susan L
This paper examines the labor market outcomes of HIV triply-diagnosed adults having a combination of HIV, mental illness and substance abuse problems. We sought to determine the sources of money income for HIV triply diagnosed adults (public or private), receipt of transfer income (e.g., welfare) and financial support from others. We further sought to ascertain their employment status and analyze the characteristics associated with full- and part-time employment. We use self-reported money income during the past 30 days and self-reported employment status. We calculate earnings losses due to illness by subtracting self-reported earnings from average earnings for all U.S. workers based on 5-year age and gender categories. We provide descriptive statistics to show how income and employment vary by patient characteristics and logistic regression analysis to examine correlates of income and employment. Average income is below the poverty level for single individuals, with more than two-thirds coming from public income sources. The likelihood of receiving disability/retirement income was lower among those with the worst mental health (RR=0.80; 95% CI=0.64, 0.97). Blacks were more likely than others to rely on public assistance (RR=1.24; 95% CI=1.02, 1.55) and married individuals were less likely (RR=0.60; 95% CI=0.41, 0.79). While most private income comes from employment, less than 15 percent of this population is employed full- or part-time. On a monthly basis, the average individual in our sample lost $2,726 in income when compared to the earnings of individuals of the same age and sex in the general population. The relative probability of current full-time/part-time employment was lower among females (RR=0.56; 95% CI=0.34, 0.83); such employment also was lower among those in the worst physical health (RR=0.39; 95% CI=0.26, 0.65) and those in moderate physical health (RR=0.55; 95% CI=0.34, 0.81) relative to those in the best physical health. This population
Lang, Delia L; Salazar, Laura F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Markosyan, Karine
This cross-sectional study identified the prevalence of gender based violence (GBV) and examined its association with sexual risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs). Among 120 participants between ages 20 and 52, a total of 56.7 % reported lifetime GBV. Multivariate analyses revealed that GBV was significantly associated with inconsistent condom use, unprotected sex, condom misuse, fear of client reaction to requests of condom use, self-reported history of STIs, and earlier age of initiation of sex work. GBV must be considered an urgent public health priority among FSWs in Armenia. Interventions addressing FSWs, in addition to targeting skill-based, sexual risk reduction must also introduce a discourse among FSWs, sexual partners, clients and community members about the role of GBV in HIV-associated risk behaviors and infection. Structural level initiatives must address economic opportunities for women, health-sector policies and responses to FSWs' health needs, law enforcement training and societal norms toward women.
Wilson, Kate S; Deya, Ruth; Yuhas, Krista; Simoni, Jane; Vander Stoep, Ann; Shafi, Juma; Jaoko, Walter; Hughes, James P; Richardson, Barbra A; McClelland, R Scott
We conducted a prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with unprotected sex in HIV-positive female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Women completed monthly visits and quarterly examinations. Any IPV in the past year was defined as ≥1 act of physical, sexual, or emotional violence by the current or most recent emotional partner ('index partner'). Unprotected sex with any partner was measured by self-report and prostate specific antigen (PSA) test. Recent IPV was associated with significantly higher risk of unprotected sex (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.91, 95 % CI 1.32, 2.78, p = 0.001) and PSA (aRR 1.54, 95 % CI 1.17, 2.04, p = 0.002) after adjusting for age, alcohol use, and sexual violence by someone besides the index partner. Addressing IPV in comprehensive HIV programs for HIV-positive women in this key population is important to improve wellbeing and reduce risk of sexual transmission of HIV.
Crits-Christoph, Paul; Gallop, Robert; Sadicario, Jaclyn S; Markell, Hannah M; Calsyn, Donald A; Tang, Wan; He, Hua; Tu, Xin; Woody, George
The objective of the current study was to examine predictors and moderators of response to two HIV sexual risk interventions of different content and duration for individuals in substance abuse treatment programs. Participants were recruited from community drug treatment programs participating in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Data were pooled from two parallel randomized controlled CTN studies (one with men and one with women) each examining the impact of a multi-session motivational and skills training program, in comparison to a single-session HIV education intervention, on the degree of reduction in unprotected sex from baseline to 3- and 6- month follow-ups. The findings were analyzed using a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model. Severity of drug use (p abuse have more USOs). Monogamous relationship status (p sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol (p abuse of primary drug (p < .05 in non-zero portion of model), and Hispanic ethnicity (p < .01 in the zero portion, p < .05 in the non-zero portion of model). These predictor and moderator findings point to ways in which patients may be selected for the different HIV sexual risk reduction interventions and suggest potential avenues for further development of the interventions for increasing their effectiveness within certain subgroups.
Preventing violence, exploitation and abuse of persons with mental disabilities: Exploring the monitoring implications of Article 16 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
Article 16 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities includes the right to be free from all forms of violence, exploitation and abuse. In pursuance of this aim, Article 16 (3) imposes an obligation on States Parties to 'ensure that all facilities and programmes designed to serve persons with disabilities are effectively monitored by independent authorities'. Effective independent monitoring is viewed as a key mechanism to help safeguard people from violence, exploitation and abuse. This is highly pertinent in the wake of the highly publicized abuse of patients in care homes and hospitals in England in the last few years. This article examines the monitoring requirements of Article 16 and, by drawing on the author's research into the Care Quality Commission (the national health and social care regulator and mental health monitor) in England, assesses the extent to which independent inspection of hospitals and care homes can play a part in realizing Article 16(3) to prevent violence, abuse and exploitation of persons with mental disabilities. The potential scope and reach of Article 16 is extremely wide: this brings with it great potential but, at the same time, significant challenges for achieving effecting monitoring. Some of these challenges are explored and the paper concludes with some consideration of how monitors/inspectors, such as the Care Quality Commission in England, can strengthen their protection for people with mental disabilities, in line with the ethos and aspirations of the CRPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.
According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…
Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy
Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before