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Sample records for abuse treatment programs

  1. Transportation and retention in outpatient drug abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, P D; Lemon, S C; Stein, M D

    2001-09-01

    To determine whether certain types of transportation assistance improve outpatient treatment retention beyond thresholds shown to have therapeutic benefits, we analyzed data from 1,144 clients in 22 outpatient methadone maintenance (OMM) programs and 2,031 clients in 22 outpatient drug-free (ODF) programs in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS), a national, 12-month, longitudinal study of drug abuse treatment programs. Directors' surveys provided information about provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services or individual vouchers/payment for public transportation. Chart-abstracted treatment retention was dichotomized at 365 days for OMM and 90 days for ODF. Separate multivariate hierarchical linear models revealed that provision of car, van, or contracted transportation services improved treatment retention beyond these thresholds for both OMM and ODF, but individual vouchers or payment for public transportation did not. Future research should validate whether car, van, or contracted transportation services improve retention and other treatment outcomes in outpatient drug abuse treatment.

  2. A Model Adolescent Substance-Abuse Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copans, Stuart

    1993-01-01

    Describes two adolescent substance abuse treatment programs in New England psychiatric center: Osgood Three, which is no longer in existence, and Tyler Three, which replaced it and is struggling to grow. Considers transition from Osgood Three to Tyler Three, process of change, and learning what can be preserved from past and what must be…

  3. Nurse turnover in substance abuse treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.; Studts, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005–2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two-thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment, but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. The majority of administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than two months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. PMID:21177062

  4. Treatment Programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Wendt, William W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Miller, Michael; Forman, Robert; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Arfken, Cynthia; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Sindelar, Jody; Edmundson, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs and university-based research centers collaborate to test emerging therapies for alcohol and drug disorders in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Programs participating in the CTN completed organizational (n = 106 of 112; 95% response rate) and treatment unit surveys (n = 348 of 384; 91% response rate) to describe the levels of care, ancillary services, patient demographics, patient drug use and co-occurring conditions. Analyses describe the corporations participating in the CTN and provide an exploratory assessment of variation in treatment philosophies. A diversity of treatment centers participate in the CTN; not for profit organizations with a primary mission of treating alcohol and drug disorders dominate. Compared to N-SSATS (National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services), programs located in medical settings are over-represented and centers that are mental health clinics are under-represented. Outpatient, methadone, long-term residential and inpatient treatment units differed on patients served and services proved. Larger programs with higher counselor caseloads in residential settings reported more social model characteristics. Programs with higher social model scores were more likely to offer self-help meetings, vocational services and specialized services for women. Conversely, programs with accreditation had less social model influence. The CTN is an ambitious effort to engage community-based treatment organizations into research and more fully integrate research and practice. PMID:17875368

  5. Treatment programs in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Wendt, William W; Nunes, Edward V; Miller, Michael; Forman, Robert; Magruder, Kathryn M; Arfken, Cynthia; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Sindelar, Jody; Edmundson, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Drug abuse treatment programs and university-based research centers collaborate to test emerging therapies for alcohol and drug disorders in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Programs participating in the CTN completed Organizational Surveys (n=106 of 112; 95% response rate) and Treatment Unit Surveys (n=348 of 384; 91% response rate) to describe the levels of care, ancillary services, patient demographics, patient drug use and co-occurring conditions. Analyses describe the corporations participating in the CTN and provide an exploratory assessment of variation in treatment philosophies. A diversity of treatment centers participate in the CTN; not for profit organizations with a primary mission of treating alcohol and drug disorders dominate. Compared to National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS), programs located in medical settings are over-represented and centers that are mental health clinics are under-represented. Outpatient, methadone, long-term residential and inpatient treatment units differed on patients served and services provided. Larger programs with higher counselor caseloads in residential settings reported more social model characteristics. Programs with higher social model scores were more likely to offer self-help meetings, vocational services and specialized services for women. Conversely, programs with accreditation had less social model influence. The CTN is an ambitious effort to engage community-based treatment organizations into research and more fully integrate research and practice.

  6. 28 CFR 550.56 - Community Transitional Drug Abuse Treatment Program (TDAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Community Transitional Drug Abuse... JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.56 Community... RDAP, they must participate in TDAT in the community. If inmates refuse or fail to complete TDAT,...

  7. The Development of a Substance Abuse Treatment Program for Forensic Patients with Cognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.

    2007-01-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substance abuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.

  8. Smoking cessation treatment in community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Flammino, Frank; Nunes, Edward V; Jiang, Huiping; Kourniotis, Eva; Lima, Jennifer; Brady, Ron; Burgess, Cynthia; Arfken, Cynthia; Pihlgren, Eric; Giordano, Louis; Starosta, Aron; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2008-07-01

    Nicotine dependence is highly prevalent among drug- and alcohol-dependent patients. A multisite clinical trial of smoking cessation (SC) treatment was performed at outpatient community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment, Clinical Trials Network. Cigarette smokers (N=225) from five methadone maintenance programs and two drug and alcohol dependence treatment programs were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either (1) SC treatment as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual (TAU) or (2) substance abuse TAU. Smoking cessation treatment consisted of 1 week of group counseling before the target quit date and 8 weeks of group counseling plus transdermal nicotine patch treatment (21 mg/day for Weeks 1-6 and 14 mg/day for Weeks 7 and 8) after the target quit date. Smoking abstinence rates in SC, 10%-11% during treatment and 5%-6% at the 13- and 26-week follow-up visits, were significantly better than those in TAU during treatment (p< .01). In addition, SC was associated with significantly greater reductions as compared with TAU in cigarettes smoked per day (75% reduction, p< .001), exhaled carbon monoxide levels (p< .001), cigarette craving (p< .05), and nicotine withdrawal (p< .05). Smoking cessation did not differ from TAU on rates of retention in substance abuse treatment, abstinence from primary substance of abuse, and craving for primary substance of abuse. Compliance with SC treatment, moderate at best, was positively associated with smoking abstinence rates. Smoking cessation treatment resulted in significant reductions in daily smoking and modest smoking abstinence rates without having an adverse impact on substance abuse rehabilitation when given concurrently with outpatient substance abuse treatment. Substance abuse treatment programs should not hesitate to implement SC for established patients.

  9. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A James

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  10. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  11. Substance abuse-specific knowledge transfer or loss? Treatment program turnover versus professional turnover among substance abuse clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Laschober, Tanja C; Curtis, Sara L

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which substance abuse (SA) clinician turnover is associated with SA-specific knowledge loss due to change in professions (professional turnover) versus SA-specific knowledge transfer due to movement from one SA clinical setting to another (treatment program turnover). For this study, clinicians had to have voluntarily left their current treatment program. Eligible clinicians completed a quantitative survey while employed and a qualitative post-employment exit interview 1 year later. Compared to those that exited the SA profession (n = 99), clinicians who changed treatment programs (n = 120) had greater SA-specific formal knowledge and were more likely to be personally in recovery. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of SA-specific practical knowledge.

  12. Treatment for Child Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, James J.; Clark, Elizabeth H.

    1974-01-01

    Staff of a child abuse program in a Philadelphia hospital worked with parents in their own homes to help them develop greater competence as adults and as parents. This article describes the use of social learning theory, with some techniques of behavior therapy, as the basis for treatment. (Author)

  13. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  14. Characteristics of drug-abusing women with children in residential treatment: a preliminary evaluation of program retention and treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Lori

    2008-01-01

    An ex post facto study was conducted to investigate treatment outcomes for 80 women and 168 children admitted into a residential substance-abuse treatment program. The results indicated childhood emotional neglect is a barrier for remaining in and completing treatment for African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders but not for those with crack cocaine dependent disorders. African-American women with comorbid psychological disorders were also three times more likely to dropout of treatment. In addition, there were relatively few differences for between drug-exposed and nonexposed children. However, the results indicated that children of substance-abusing women who completed treatment were more likely to have behavioral problems, to receive early intervention services, and to have mothers as legal guardians by the end of treatment. Implications for gender-specific interventions for African-American women and their children in residential treatment are discussed.

  15. The use of art and music therapy in substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aletraris, Lydia; Paino, Maria; Edmond, Mary Bond; Roman, Paul M; Bride, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Although the implementation of evidence-based practices in the treatment of substance use disorders has attracted substantial research attention, little consideration has been given to parallel implementation of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) practices. Using data from a nationally representative sample (N = 299) of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of patient characteristics, treatment ideologies, and structural characteristics, associated with the use of art therapy and music therapy. We found that 36.8% of treatment programs offered art therapy and 14.7% of programs offered music therapy. Programs with a greater proportion of women were more likely to use both therapies, and programs with larger proportions of adolescents were more likely to offer music therapy. In terms of other treatment ideologies, programs' use of Motivational Enhancement Therapy was positively related to offering art therapy, whereas use of contingency management was positively associated with offering music therapy. Finally, our findings showed a significant relationship between requiring 12-step meetings and the use of both art therapy and music therapy. With increasing use of CAM in a diverse range of medical settings and recent federal legislation likely to reduce barriers in accessing CAM, the inclusion of CAM in addiction treatment is growing in importance. Our findings suggest treatment programs may be utilizing art and music therapies to address unique patient needs of women and adolescents.

  16. Use of evidence-based treatments in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Croy, Calvin D; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci

    2016-04-01

    Research and health surveillance activities continue to document the substantial disparities in the impacts of substance abuse on the health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. While Evidence-Based Treatments (EBTs) hold substantial promise for improving treatment for AI/ANs with substance use problems (as they do for non-AI/ANs), anecdotal reports suggest that their use is limited. In this study, we examine the awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of EBTs in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Data are drawn from the first national survey of tribal substance abuse treatment programs. Clinicians or clinical administrators from 192 programs completed the survey. Participants were queried about their awareness of, attitudes toward, and use of 9 psychosocial and 3 medication EBTs. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (82.2%), Motivational Interviewing (68.6%), and Relapse Prevention Therapy (66.8%) were the most commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs; medications for psychiatric comorbidity was the most commonly implemented medication treatment (43.2%). Greater EBT knowledge and use were associated with both program (e.g., funding) and staff (e.g., educational attainment) characteristics. Only two of the commonly implemented psychosocial EBTs (Motivational Interviewing and Relapse Prevention Therapy) were endorsed as culturally appropriate by a majority of programs that had implemented them (55.9% and 58.1%, respectively). EBT knowledge and use is higher in substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities than has been previously estimated. However, many users of these EBTs continue to have concerns about their cultural appropriateness, which likely limits their further dissemination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl; Azanza, Paula

    2015-06-30

    This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. A framework for conducting a national study of substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Moore, Laurie A; Beals, Janette; Aarons, Gregory A; Rieckmann, Traci; Kaufman, Carol E

    2012-09-01

    Because of their broad geographic distribution, diverse ownership and operation, and funding instability, it is a challenge to develop a framework for studying substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indian and Alaska Native communities at a national level. This is further complicated by the historic reluctance of American Indian and Alaska Native communities to participate in research. We developed a framework for studying these substance abuse treatment programs (n ≈ 293) at a national level as part of a study of attitudes toward, and use of, evidence-based treatments among substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities with the goal of assuring participation of a broad array of programs and the communities that they serve. Because of the complexities of identifying specific substance abuse treatment programs, the sampling framework divides these programs into strata based on the American Indian and Alaska Native communities that they serve: (1) the 20 largest tribes (by population); (2) urban AI/AN clinics; (3) Alaska Native Health Corporations; (4) other Tribes; and (5) other regional programs unaffiliated with a specific AI/AN community. In addition, the recruitment framework was designed to be sensitive to likely concerns about participating in research. This systematic approach for studying substance abuse and other clinical programs serving AI/AN communities assures the participation of diverse AI/AN programs and communities and may be useful in designing similar national studies.

  19. Implementation of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Study at Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Programs: Smoking Behavior and Treatment Feasibility Across Varied Community-based Outpatient Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Nunes, Edward V; Lima, Jennifer; Jiang, Huiping; Tyson, Clare; Hiott, Robert; Arfken, Cynthia; Bohs, Rhonda; Orr, Deborah; Muir, Joan; Pihlgren, Eric; Loree, Amy; Fuller, Brett E; Giordano, Louis; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John

    2007-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is widely prevalent among individuals in treatment for drug or alcohol dependence; however, the treatment of nicotine addiction in this population has numerous obstacles at both programmatic and patient levels. Despite these difficulties, recent studies have demonstrated moderate success in implementing smoking cessation treatment in drug rehabilitation programs. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network sponsored a smoking cessation study in 13 community-based outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation programs across the country. The study evaluated the effectiveness of smoking cessation treatment provided as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment-as-usual. This report summarizes the practical and clinical experiences encountered at each of the study sites with regard to implementing the smoking cessation treatment intervention. Smoking behavior of the treatment clientele was assessed by anonymous survey at each site. In addition, sites were systematically characterized by using program review and assessment tools completed by the respective staff and program directors at the site. Survey and recruitment data indicated that cigarette smoking is more prevalent and that smoking cessation treatment is more feasible, in methadone maintenance treatment programs. Other factors associated with smoking behavior and with the recruitment of drug- and alcohol-dependent individuals into the smoking cessation treatment study are described.

  20. Smoking cessation treatment among patients in community-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs: exploring predictors of outcome as clues toward treatment improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Malcolm S; Jiang, Huiping; Fallon, Bryan; Sonne, Susan; Rinaldi, Paul; Turrigiano, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia; Robinson, James; Rotrosen, John; Nunes, Edward V

    2011-09-01

    Predictors of smoking cessation (SC) treatment outcome were explored in a multisite clinical trial of SC treatment at community-based, outpatient, substance abuse rehabilitation programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. To explore baseline demographic and clinical predictors of abstinence during treatment. Cigarette smokers from five methadone maintenance programs and two drug and alcohol dependence treatment programs were randomly assigned to SC treatment as an adjunct to substance abuse treatment as usual or to substance abuse treatment as usual. SC treatment consisted of group counseling (weeks 1-8) plus transdermal nicotine patch treatment (21 mg/day, weeks 1-6; 14 mg/day, weeks 7-8). Demographic and clinical predictors of smoking abstinence were evaluated among those patients assigned to the active SC condition (N = 153) using logistic regression. Abstinence during treatment was positively associated with younger age, Hispanic or Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity/race, employment or student status, fewer cigarettes per day at baseline, lower severity of the primary substance problem at baseline, and higher methadone doses (among the subsample in methadone treatment). During future efforts to improve SC treatments among drug- and alcohol-dependent patients, consideration should be given to adequate treatment to reduce the severity of the primary drug or alcohol problem, tailoring treatments for patients with greater severity of smoking and of the primary substance problem, and culturally sensitive interventions. Analysis of predictors of outcome may be a useful tool for treatment development.

  1. Treatment refusal/attrition among adults randomly assigned to programs at a drug treatment campus: The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus, Seacaucus, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condelli, W S; Koch, M A; Fletcher, B

    2000-06-01

    The New Jersey Substance Abuse Treatment Campus was funded to assess the feasibility of establishing a new model for delivering substance abuse treatment services and to serve as a research laboratory for conducting comparative evaluations of those services. The 350-bed campus was designed to improve treatment effectiveness by providing special services needed by underserved populations, and reduce treatment costs by serving large numbers of clients, centralizing services, and sharing facilities. First-time clients who met preliminary eligibility requirements during phone screening were randomly assigned to therapeutic community and chemical dependency programs. We used data collected on 1,573 adults who were ultimately accepted for admission to analyze treatment refusals and attrition during the 25 days after admission. Only 6.4% of the clients refused admission when informed of their treatment assignment. Planned duration of the residential phase of treatment, gender, and language spoken (English/Spanish) interacted with one another and differentially predicted treatment refusal/attrition. These findings may be useful for understanding treatment refusal and attrition in substance abuse treatment programs.

  2. Organizational consequences of staff turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Becan, Jennifer E; Flynn, Patrick M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of staff turnover on perceptions of organizational demands and support among staff who remained employed in substance abuse treatment programs. The sample consisted of 353 clinical staff from 63 outpatient agencies. Two scales from the Survey of Organizational Functioning measured work environment demands (stress and inadequate staffing), and 3 measured supportive work relationships (communication, cohesion, and peer collaboration). Results from a series of multilevel models documented that counselors working in programs that had previously experienced high staff turnover perceived higher demands and lower support within their organization, even after controlling for other potentially burdensome factors such as budget, census, and individual measures of workload. Two individual-level variables, caseload and tenure, were important determinants of work environment demands but were not related to supportive work relationships. Findings suggest that staff turnover increases workplace demands, decreases perceptions of support, and underscores the need to reduce stress and minimize subsequent turnover among clinical staff. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Challenge Project: A Treatment Program Evaluation for Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craissati, Jackie; McClurg, Grace

    1997-01-01

    A British follow-up study of 25 convicted perpetrators of child abuse compared group and individual treatment outcomes. Results found some evidence for positive change in the group condition in terms of greater honesty in reporting normal and deviant sexual outlets, in addition to the improvement in attitudes toward women. (CR)

  4. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Lu, Shing-Fang; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Wang, Yao-Hsing; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Ching

    2015-01-01

    The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers. To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years) who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years), who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents' Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths' caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index. Of the 42 youth-caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88%) completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths' substance cravings declined (t=3.88, Pfamily function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033). The improvement in caregivers' perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers' health status (r=-0.36, P=0.022). According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective treatment option for youths who abuse ketamine. Additional studies with larger sample sizes, as well as longer follow-up periods, are necessary to verify whether this type of treatment also prevents youths using ketamine from relapsing.

  5. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18-69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30-72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive-behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support.

  6. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive–behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  7. Causation of drug abuse and treatment strategy: a comparison of counselors' perceptions of faith-based and secular drug treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Doris C; Sung, Hung-En

    2014-04-01

    Many offenders participate in drug abuse treatment programs while in prison or on probation or parole. Among other benefits, this treatment may lessen the risk of recidivism. Thus, understanding counselor treatment philosophy is important as their attitudes toward treatment can be influential in the strategies they use and ultimately affect treatment outcomes. Analyzing data from 110 drug abuse treatment counselors, this study compared counselors' perceptions of causation of drug abuse and treatment strategy between faith-based and secular treatment programs. It was found that counselors from faith-based programs were more likely to endorse religious models and less prone to support disease models as an explanation of drug use. With regard to treatment strategy, counselor's group affiliation was not predictive of a focus on either a client religious need or a medical treatment model. Nevertheless, the extent of counselor's religiosity was correlated with tackling clients' religious needs as a treatment strategy. On the other hand, certified (licensed) counselors were found to be more supportive of the medical model as a treatment approach. Limitations of the current study and policy implications are discussed.

  8. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LJ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Liang-Jen Wang,1 Shing-Fang Lu,1 Wen-Jiun Chou,1 Mian-Yoon Chong,2 Yao-Hsing Wang,1 Yu-Lian Hsieh,1 Yi-Hsuan Lee,1 Ching Chen2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. This pilot study investigated the effects of a family-oriented treatment program for ketamine-using youths and their caregivers.Methods: To carry out this study, 42 youths with ketamine use (mean age 16.6±1.1 years who were referred to take part in a 10-week treatment program based on motivational enhancement principles were selected, as were their principal caregivers (mean age 46.4±7.1 years, who were similarly referred to take part in a 10-week training program for parenting skills. The study had the youths complete the Chinese Craving Beliefs Questionnaire, the Adolescents’ Behavior problem Scale, and the Family APGAR both immediately before and after the program. Likewise, the youths’ caregivers completed the Family APGAR, the 12-item version of the Chinese Health Questionnaire, and the Parenting Stress Index.Results: Of the 42 youth–caregiver pairs that took part in this study, 37 (88% completed the 10-week program and both sets of assessments. After the treatment, the participating youths’ substance cravings declined (t=3.88, P<0.001, while family function, as perceived by the participating caregivers, significantly increased (t=2.22, P=0.033. The improvement in caregivers’ perceptions of family function were positively related to the improvement of the caregivers’ health status (r=-0.36, P=0.022.Conclusion: According to its results, this pilot study submits that family-oriented treatment programs may be considered a potentially effective

  9. Overdose prevention in injecting opioid users: The role of substance abuse treatment and training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sarasa-Renedo

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that preventive programs would benefit from accounting for linguistic and educational limitations and from participation in every treatment episode. Comprehensiveness and broad coverage of such programs could help to maximize their impact.

  10. Maternal substance use and integrated treatment programs for women with substance abuse issues and their children: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milligan Karen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of women with substance abuse issues is increasing. Women present with a unique constellation of risk factors and presenting needs, which may include specific needs in their role as mothers. Numerous integrated programs (those with substance use treatment and pregnancy, parenting, or child services have been developed to specifically meet the needs of pregnant and parenting women with substance abuse issues. This synthesis and meta-analysis reviews research in this important and growing area of treatment. Methods We searched PsycINFO, MedLine, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Proquest Dissertations, Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL and compiled a database of 21 studies (2 randomized trials, 9 quasi-experimental studies, 10 cohort studies of integrated programs published between 1990 and 2007 with outcome data on maternal substance use. Data were summarized and where possible, meta-analyses were performed, using standardized mean differences (d effect size estimates. Results In the two studies comparing integrated programs to no treatment, effect sizes for urine toxicology and percent using substances significantly favored integrated programs and ranged from 0.18 to 1.41. Studies examining changes in maternal substance use from beginning to end of treatment were statistically significant and medium sized. More specifically, in the five studies measuring severity of drug and alcohol use, the average effect sizes were 0.64 and 0.40, respectively. In the four cohort studies of days of use, the average effect size was 0.52. Of studies comparing integrated to non-integrated programs, four studies assessed urine toxicology and two assessed self-reported abstinence. Overall effect sizes for each measure were not statistically significant (d = -0.09 and 0.22, respectively. Conclusions Findings suggest that integrated programs are effective in reducing maternal substance use. However, integrated programs were not

  11. Benefits and costs of substance abuse treatment programs for state prison inmates: results from a lifetime simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkin, Gary A; Cowell, Alexander J; Hicks, Katherine A; Mills, Michael J; Belenko, Steven; Dunlap, Laura J; Houser, Kimberly A; Keyes, Vince

    2012-06-01

    Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society's drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefits. In this paper, we simulate the lifetime costs and benefits of improving prison-based substance abuse treatment and post-release aftercare for a cohort of state prisoners. Our model captures the dynamics of substance abuse as a chronic disease; estimates the benefits of substance abuse treatment over individuals' lifetimes; and tracks the costs of crime and criminal justice costs related to policing, adjudication, and incarceration. We estimate net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system of the current treatment system and five policy scenarios. We find that four of the five policy scenarios provide positive net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system relative to the current treatment system. Our study demonstrates the societal gains to improving the drug treatment system for state prisoners.

  12. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  14. Perceived Positive Aspects of Intimate Relationships among Abused Women in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Programs (MMTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Miriam; Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the positive aspects of intimate relationships perceived by drug-involved women victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). The article examines the association of psychological distress, childhood abuse, and severity of IPV with the different positive aspects the women indicated. Most analyses were conducted on a subsample of…

  15. Evidence-based practices, attitudes, and beliefs in substance abuse treatment programs serving American Indians and Alaska Natives: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Sandra E; Wright, Serena; Jernstrom, Amanda; Lebron, Dorothy; Sorensen, James L

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse disproportionately impacts American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities in the United States. For the increasing numbers of AI/AN individuals who enter and receive treatment for their alcohol or other drug problem it is imperative that the service they receive be effective. This study used qualitative methodology to examine attitudes toward evidence-based practices, also known as evidence-based treatments (EBTs) in minority-serving substance abuse treatment programs in the San Francisco Bay area. Twenty-two interviews were conducted in the study, of which seven were with program directors and substance abuse counselors at two urban AI/AN focused sites. These clinics were more likely than other minority-focused programs to have experience with research and knowledge about adapting EBTs. Only in the AI/AN specific sites did an issue arise concerning visibility, that is, undercounting AI/AN people in national and state databases. Similar to other minority-focused programs, these clinics described mistrust, fear of exploitation from the research community, and negative attitudes towards EBTs. The underutilization of EBTs in substance abuse programs is prevalent and detrimental to the health of patients who would benefit from their use. Future research should explore how to use this research involvement and experience with adaptation to increase the adoption of EBTs in AI/AN serving clinics.

  16. Effect of Educational Program to Encourage Safe Sexual Behaviors Among Addicted Men Refered to Substance Abuse Treatment Centers in Hamadan, Western Iran: Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unsafe sexual behaviors as important risky behaviors can expose individuals and society to dangerous infectious disease such as AIDS and viral hepatitis. Considering the high prevalence of unsafe sexual behaviors, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational programs to encourage safe sexual behaviors among substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan, Western Iran by applying the theory of planned behavior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed on 104 men substance abusers (52 participants in each of the control and intervention groups referred to substance abuse treatment centers in Hamadan. Data collection tool was a questionnaire containing demographic information and the theory of planned behavior constructs. Before the educational program, questionnaires were completed by both groups. After the pretest in both groups, participants in the intervention group participated in four educational sessions designed based on the theory of planned behavior. Two months after the end of program, posttest was performed. Data was analyzed using independent T-test, chi-square, fisher exact test, McNemar’s test and multiple linear regressions using SPSS-16. Results: After educational intervention, the mean scores of the theory constructs (attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, behavioral control, behavioral intention and behaviors, in the intervention group increased significantly (P<0.05, despite the fact, changes were not significant in the control group. Conclusion: Implementation of educational courses to encourage safe sexual behaviors based on the theory of planned behavior can be beneficial for substance abusers referred to substance abuse treatment centers.

  17. Supervisory turnover in outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Danica K; Broome, Kirk M; Edwards, Jennifer R; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Staff turnover is a significant issue within substance abuse treatment, with implications for service delivery and organizational health. This study examined factors associated with turnover among supervisors in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Turnover was conceptualized as being an individual response to organizational-level influences, and predictors represent aggregate program measures. Participants included 532 staff (including 467 counselors and 65 clinical/program directors) from 90 programs in four regions of the USA. Using logistic regression, analyses of structural factors indicated that programs affiliated with a parent organization and those providing more counseling hours to clients had higher turnover rates. When measures of job attitudes were included, only parent affiliation and collective appraisal of satisfaction were related to turnover. Subsequent analyses identified a trend toward increased supervisory turnover when satisfaction was low following the departure of a previous supervisor. These findings suggest that organizational-level factors can be influential in supervisory turnover.

  18. A family-oriented treatment program for youths with ketamine abuse and their caregivers: a pilot study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang LJ; Lu SF; Chou WJ; Chong MY; Wang YH; Hsieh YL; Lee YH; Chen C

    2015-01-01

    Liang-Jen Wang,1 Shing-Fang Lu,1 Wen-Jiun Chou,1 Mian-Yoon Chong,2 Yao-Hsing Wang,1 Yu-Lian Hsieh,1 Yi-Hsuan Lee,1 Ching Chen2 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: The abuse of ketamine by youths has grown into a serious public health issue. However, a reliable and efficient treatment has still not been found for youths who abuse ketamine. ...

  19. A Randomized Trial of a Multimodal Community-Based Prisoner Reentry Program Emphasizing Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommon, Eric; Davidson, William S., II; Bynum, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Prisoner reentry programs continue to be developed and implemented to ease the process of transition into the community and to curtail fiscal pressures. This study describes and provides relapse and recidivism outcome findings related to a randomized trial evaluating a multimodal, community-based reentry program that prioritized substance abuse…

  20. Failure to get into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dennis G; Reynolds, Grace L; D'Anna, Laura H; Hosmer, David W; Hardan-Khalil, Kholoud

    2017-02-01

    Among substance abusers in the US, the discrepancy in the number who access substance abuse treatment and the number who need treatment is sizable. This results in a major public health problem of access to treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine characteristics of Persons Who Use Drugs (PWUDs) that either hinder or facilitate access to treatment. 2646 participants were administered the Risk Behavior Assessment (RBA) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The RBA included the dependent variable which was responses to the question "During the last year, have you ever tried, but been unable, to get into a drug treatment or detox program?" In multivariate analysis, factors associated with being unable to access treatment included: Previously been in drug treatment (OR=4.51), number of days taken amphetamines in the last 30days (OR=1.18), traded sex for drugs (OR=1.53), homeless (OR=1.73), Nonplanning subscale of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (OR=1.19), age at interview (OR=0.91), and sexual orientation, with bisexual men and women significantly more likely than heterosexuals to have tried but been unable to get into treatment. The answers to the question on "why were you unable to get into treatment" included: No room, waiting list; not enough money, did not qualify, got appointment but no follow through, still using drugs, and went to jail before program start. As expected, findings suggest that limiting organizational and financial obstacles to treatment may go a long way in increasing drug abuse treatment accessibility to individuals in need. Additionally, our study points to the importance of developing approaches for increasing personal planning skills/reducing Nonplanning impulsivity among PWUDs when they are in treatment as a key strategy to ensure access to additional substance abuse treatment in the future.

  1. Availability and Use of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs Among Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Juan M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Makofane, Keletso; Arreola, Sonya; Ayala, George

    2017-04-16

    Substance use is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that alcohol/substance-using MSM are at greater risk for HIV. However, there are scarce data on substance abuse treatment programs (SATPs) for substance-using MSM. We examined proportions of substance use as well as SATP availability and use. We used multivariable regression models, controlling for potential confounders, to examine behavioral and demographic correlates of SATP availability and use. This is a cross-sectional study of a multi-region, online sample of substance-using MSM. In this sample, 75% were substance-using MSM of whom 36% reported at-least-weekly use. Substance use was most prevalent among respondents from Eastern Europe/Central Asia (86%) and Latin America (79%). Among substance-using MSM, 96% and 33% reported alcohol intoxication and other substance use, respectively; 11% reported having high SATP availability; and 5% reported using SATPs. Controlling for global region of origin and age, high SATP availability was associated with high access to HIV risk-reduction education (aOR = 3.19; CI = 1.48-6.89), mental health services (aOR = 2.53; CI = 1.32-4.83), and medical care (aOR = 2.32; CI = 1.12-4.80); less than college-level education (aOR = 0.32; CI = 0.18-0.54); and higher comfort levels with providers (aOR = 1.75; CI = 1.30-2.37). Controlling for substance use frequency and personal income additionally, using SATPs was associated with higher levels of connection to the gay community (aOR = 2.76; CI = 1.22-6.22). In this global sample of MSM, we found high alcohol intoxication and other substance use proportions. Few substance-using MSM report SATP availability, highlighting the need to develop novel substance use programs outside traditional treatment settings.

  2. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory A; Conti, Sarah G; Dahlke, Dennis; Daw, Raymond; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Fleming, Candace; Love, Craig; Masis, Kathleen; Spicer, Paul

    2011-06-16

    A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Broadening this conversation beyond its primary focus on the use of evidence-based treatments to other

  3. Use of the evidence base in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indians and Alaska natives: pursuing quality in the crucible of practice and policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleming Candace

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of forces are now shaping a passionate debate regarding the optimal approaches to improving the quality of substance abuse services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. While there have been some highly successful efforts to meld the traditions of American Indian and Alaska Native tribes with that of 12-step approaches, some American Indian and Alaska Natives remain profoundly uncomfortable with the dominance of this Euro-American approach to substance abuse treatment in their communities. This longstanding tension has now been complicated by the emergence of a number of evidence-based treatments that, while holding promise for improving treatment for American Indian and Alaska Natives with substance use problems, may conflict with both American Indian and Alaska Native and 12-step healing traditions. Discussion We convened a panel of experts from American Indian and Alaska Native communities, substance abuse treatment programs serving these communities, and researchers to discuss and analyze these controversies in preparation for a national study of American Indian and Alaska Native substance abuse services. While the panel identified programs that are using evidence-based treatments, members still voiced concerns about the cultural appropriateness of many evidence-based treatments as well as the lack of guidance on how to adapt them for use with American Indians and Alaska Natives. The panel concluded that the efforts of federal and state policymakers to promote the use of evidence-based treatments are further complicating an already-contentious debate within American Indian and Alaska Native communities on how to provide effective substance abuse services. This external pressure to utilize evidence-based treatments is particularly problematic given American Indian and Alaska Native communities' concerns about protecting their sovereign status. Summary Broadening this conversation beyond its primary

  4. A Comparison of the Structural Factors of the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale for Women and Men in a Domestic Violence Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Maas, Carl D; Barber, Sara

    2015-08-01

    Court-mandated domestic violence (DV) treatment programs across the country have seen a marked increase in female clients. These programs use a variety of measurement tools to assess the needs of their clients. Increased numbers of women in treatment for DV reflect a need to address the measurement of intimate partner violence (IPV) for both males and females. Unfortunately, the reliability and validity of many of measures used to assess IPV and related constructs for women remains unknown. The current study focuses on a particular measure, the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS). The PAS is not a measure of abusive behavior per se; rather, it assesses risk factors for abuse, including affective lability, anger expression, trauma symptoms, and harsh parenting experienced by the respondent. Specifically, the current study compares the factor structure and the measurement properties of the PAS for males and females in a sample of 885 (647 female, 238 male) participants in a DV treatment program. Findings indicate that the PAS demonstrated configural, metric, and scalar invariance between the female and male samples. These results suggest that it is appropriate for researchers and clinicians to make comparisons between women and men based on PAS factor scores. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  6. Substance Abuse Treatment: Critical Issues and Challenges in the Treatment of Latina Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Nieves, Rita; Johannes, Sergut Wolde; Cabeza, Nirzka M. Labault

    1999-01-01

    Among 66 Latina mothers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, 80% reported childhood experiences of abuse. Compared to other female participants, women abused as children were more likely to be predominantly Spanish speakers, to have health problems, to have had children removed from their custody, and to drop out quickly from…

  7. Outpatient drug abuse treatment for Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, José; Lopez, Barbara; Prado, Guillermo; Schwartz, Seth J; Pantin, Hilda

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this article is to review the state of the science in evidence-based drug abuse treatments for Hispanic adolescents, highlight scientific opportunities, and offer recommendations to further the field of drug abuse treatment for this population. The article is divided into seven sections: boundaries for this review, drug abuse and associated problems, behavioral treatment, cultural issues in hispanic adolescent behavioral drug abuse treatment, pharmacological treatment, gender differences in treatment, and scientific opportunities/recommendations. Although only one treatment approach, Brief Strategic Family Therapy, has been empirically shown to be efficacious in treating Hispanic adolescent drug abusers, with some modifications other treatments may also have the potential to be efficacious with Hispanic adolescents. Family-based approaches, which typically appear to be most efficacious with adolescents in general, may also have the greatest potential to treat drug abuse in Hispanic adolescents.

  8. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  9. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  10. Sex and Aggression: The Relationship between Gender and Abuse Experience in Youngsters Referred to Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Toscano, Peter F., Jr.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship of gender and different forms of abuse experience on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and IQ in a sample of 397 youngsters who were admitted to a residential treatment program. Three types of abuse experience were examined in this study: sexual abuse only, physical abuse only, and "both" sexual and…

  11. Sex and Aggression: The Relationship between Gender and Abuse Experience in Youngsters Referred to Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Toscano, Peter F., Jr.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship of gender and different forms of abuse experience on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and IQ in a sample of 397 youngsters who were admitted to a residential treatment program. Three types of abuse experience were examined in this study: sexual abuse only, physical abuse only, and "both" sexual and…

  12. An holistic approach to substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Kathy T; Reed, Maria R; Malone, Sandra B

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a model outpatient substance abuse treatment program. This program is designed to provide patients with not only traditional modalities of treatment such as individual, group, and family therapy, but also to provide an opportunity for patients to express thoughts and feelings through holistic modalities. These modalities include dance/movement therapy, Tai Chi, art therapy, leisure and recreational skills, spiritual growth and development, cultural awareness and appreciation, vocational services, psychiatric care and physical health. The authors describe features of this program that they believe to be unique and that focus on ways to help patients develop a stronger sense of self-identity, self-esteem and self-confidence.

  13. Treatment of Drug Abuse: An Overview. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information Report Series 34, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD. National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information.

    This report presents a brief review of the development of methods and programs for treatment of drug abusers in the United States. In order to limit the scope of the report, discussion of the treatment of alcohol abuse and alcoholism is excluded. The report focuses primarily on the treatment of opiate dependence, since most of the experience on…

  14. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  15. Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment: Organizational Change and Quality of Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Fussell, Holly; Doyle, Kevin; Ford, Jay; Riley, Katherine J.; Henderson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse treatment agencies serving youth face unique barriers to providing quality care. Interviews with 17 adolescent programs found that family engagement, community involvement, and gender and diversity issues affected treatment delivery. Programs report organizational change efforts with implications for future process improvement…

  16. Child sexual abuse, links to later sexual exploitation/high-risk sexual behavior, and prevention/treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen

    2010-10-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.

  17. A National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas W.; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This paper presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections facilities. Educational/GED programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other...

  18. Cultural Issues in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Dharma E.; Ja, Davis; Noboa, Abdin; Perry, Vincent; Robinson, Robert; Rodriguez, Domingo; Stubben, Jerry

    This monograph provides a tool to help providers and other substance abuse treatment professionals gain a greater understanding of the cultural, social, political, and economic forces affecting substance abuse treatment among Hispanic Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. An…

  19. Treatment of drug abusers in Malaysia: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S H

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two forms of treatment for heroin abusers in Malaysia--traditional medicine and institutional--and to evaluate which form of treatment the drug abusers consider more effective. The study involved interviewing 100 male drug abusers in Malaysia who had had treatment from an institution and from a traditional healer. The data revealed that traditional medicine was better for some abusers, but institutional treatment was better for others, depending upon an individual's own needs and personality. Advantages and disadvantages of both forms of treatment were given by those interviewed. The data can be used as guidelines for the development of a more flexible, individualized program within an institutional setting in Malaysia.

  20. Predictors and moderators of outcomes of HIV/STD sex risk reduction interventions in substance abuse treatment programs: a pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to examine predictors and moderators of response to two HIV sexual risk interventions of different content and duration for individuals in substance abuse treatment programs. Methods Participants were recruited from community drug treatment programs participating in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Data were pooled from two parallel randomized controlled CTN studies (one with men and one with women) each examining the impact of a multi-session motivational and skills training program, in comparison to a single-session HIV education intervention, on the degree of reduction in unprotected sex from baseline to 3- and 6- month follow-ups. The findings were analyzed using a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model. Results Severity of drug use (p < .01), gender (p < .001), and age (p < .001) were significant main effect predictors of number of unprotected sexual occasions (USOs) at follow-up in the non-zero portion of the ZINB model (men, younger participants, and those with greater severity of drug/alcohol abuse have more USOs). Monogamous relationship status (p < .001) and race/ethnicity (p < .001) were significant predictors of having at least one USO vs. none (monogamous individuals and African Americans were more likely to have at least one USO). Significant moderators of intervention effectiveness included recent sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol (p < .01 in non-zero portion of model), duration of abuse of primary drug (p < .05 in non-zero portion of model), and Hispanic ethnicity (p < .01 in the zero portion, p < .05 in the non-zero portion of model). Conclusion These predictor and moderator findings point to ways in which patients may be selected for the different HIV sexual risk reduction interventions and suggest potential avenues for further development of the interventions for increasing their effectiveness within certain

  1. HIV Rapid Testing in Substance Abuse Treatment: Implementation Following a Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…

  2. Adolescent Drug Abuse: Etiological and Treatment Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Fariboz; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Issues involved in treating adolescent drug abusers and literature describing abuser personality traits are examined. The Youth Service at Langley Porter Institute and the problems encountered and solutions attempted there are discussed. The importance of residential as opposed to outpatient treatment and honesty in staff-patient relationships is…

  3. Alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, and entry into substance abuse treatment among Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running Bear, Ursula; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K; Manson, Spero M

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A national survey of substance abuse treatment for juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas W; Dembo, Richard; Henderson, Craig E

    2007-04-01

    Despite consensus about the value of substance abuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This article presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections (CC) facilities. Educational/General Educational Development programming and drug and alcohol education were the most prevalent types of correctional and substance abuse services. Other common services included physical health services and mental health assessment, provided to about 60% of youth across facilities, and mental health counseling, life and communication skills, and anger management, provided to about half of the youth. Substance abuse treatment, as with most other services, were more prevalent in large, state-funded residential facilities (where 66% provided treatment) than in local detention centers (20%) and CC facilities (56%). More detailed data showed that the number of youth attending treatment in all types of facilities on any given day was very low.

  5. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  6. Culturally competent substance abuse treatment with transgender persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttbrock, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    Transgender individuals are misunderstood and inadequately treated in many conventional substance abuse treatment programs. This article reviews current concepts regarding the definition and diversity of transgenderism and summarizes the existing literature on the prevalence and correlates of substance use in transgendered populations. Examples of culturally competent and gender-sensitive treatment in specialized settings are cited, with a call to extend these initiatives throughout the gamut of service venues that engage transgender individuals. Cultural competence combined with gender sensitivity should improve the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment for transgender individuals and will contribute to the goal of providing effective services in an increasingly diverse society.

  7. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act, the...

  8. Impulsivity and voucher versus money preference in polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a contingency-management-based substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, M P; Roll, J M; Downey, K K

    2000-10-01

    Thirty-four polydrug-dependent participants enrolled in a voucher-based substance abuse treatment program were given choices between hypothetical amounts of money and hypothetical amounts of vouchers, which are traded for goods and services, to determine their preferences for the two payment modalities. It was hypothesized that the majority of participants would prefer money to voucher because under the circumstances of the treatment program, the delay associated with money exchange is shorter than the delay associated with voucher exchange. It was further hypothesized that those participants who selected money over voucher also would have greater levels of impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Rating Scale (BIS) (Barratt, 1965). The results show large individual differences in money/voucher preference with approximately half of the participants preferring money to voucher when the two amounts are equivalent. In addition, as the magnitude of the money/voucher comparisons increased from 0.50 dollars to 32.00 dollars, the percentage of participants that preferred money increased. No correlations were found between money/voucher preference and impulsivity scores.

  9. Growth and Empowerment for Indigenous Australians in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Stacey L.; Crowe, T. P.; Deane, F. P.; Billingham, M.; Bhagerutty, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes psychosocial outcomes of an Indigenous residential substance abuse rehabilitation centre in Australia, examines the sensitivity to change of the new Growth and Empowerment Measure (GEM), and explores the degree to which service users value cultural components of the treatment program. Participants were 57 Indigenous and 46…

  10. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug...

  11. 45 CFR 96.126 - Capacity of treatment for intravenous substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.126 Capacity of treatment... programs that receive funding under the grant and that treat individuals for intravenous substance abuse to... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of treatment for intravenous...

  12. Treatment of alcoholism and concomitant drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiner, A R; Stanitis, T; Spurgeon, M; Nichols, N

    1985-01-01

    It has been proposed that concomitant substances of abuse may have additive or synergistic properties such that alcoholics using other substances of abuse concurrently may have a harder time giving up alcohol than alcoholics abusing only alcohol. The present study surveyed 291 alcoholics in an alcohol treatment program and 86 social drinker controls matched on age, education, SES and gender. Alcohol consumption, smoking, coffee intake, other substances of abuse. Beck depression and Spielberger Anxiety (State) were measured. Alcoholics drank significantly more alcohol than did social drinkers per day (350.19 cc versus 28.08 cc, p less than 0.001), consumed more caffeine/day (486.3 mg versus 339.9 mg, p less than 0.002), smoked more cigarettes/day (27.8 versus 12.8, p less than 0.001), were more depressed (16.8 versus 4.4 (Beck), p less than 0.0001), had lower internal locus of control scores (37.6 versus 39.7, p less than 0.005), had higher scores on control by chance (22.7 versus 20.2, p less than 0.03) and were significantly more anxious (52.5 versus 33.9 on Spielberger's State Inventory p less than 0.0001). Some patients used stimulants, tranquilizers, depressants, narcotics or toluene. Only 3/258 abused alcohol without using other drugs. Results support earlier studies showing strong associations between alcohol and smoking and between alcohol and caffeine consumption. The alcoholic abusing only alcohol is very rare. Treatment programs need to pay attention to concomitant drugs of abuse.

  13. Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Stamman, Julia; Callahan, Molly M.; Loseu, Sahar; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Cross, Kaitlin; Woehler, Elliott S.; Calzada, Richard-Michael R.; Chadwell, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Trauma is prevalent among clients with substance abuse issues, yet addictions counselors' training in trauma approaches is limited. The purpose of the current article is to provide pertinent information regarding trauma treatment including the use of assessments, empirically supported clinical approaches, self-help groups and the risk of vicarious…

  14. Employing continuous quality improvement in community-based substance abuse programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinman, Matthew; Hunter, Sarah B; Ebener, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe continuous quality improvement (CQI) for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community-based organization setting. CQI (e.g., plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA)) applied in healthcare and industry was adapted for substance abuse prevention and treatment programs in a community setting. The authors assessed the resources needed, acceptability and CQI feasibility for ten programs by evaluating CQI training workshops with program staff and a series of three qualitative interviews over a nine-month implementation period with program participants. The CQI activities, PDSA cycle progress, effort, enthusiasm, benefits and challenges were examined. Results indicated that CQI was feasible and acceptable for community-based substance abuse prevention and treatment programs; however, some notable resource challenges remain. Future studies should examine CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. The study was conducted on a small number of programs. It did not assess CQI impact on service quality and intended program outcomes. Practical implications- This project shows that it is feasible to adapt CQI techniques and processes for community-based programs substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. These techniques may help community-based program managers to improve service quality and achieve program outcomes. This is one of the first studies to adapt traditional CQI techniques for community-based settings delivering substance abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  15. Molecular approaches to treatments for cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen-Anderson, Judith L.; George, Clifford; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.

    2003-02-01

    Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system with severe addiction potential. Its abuse is a major problem worldwide. The exact mechanism of action of cocaine is still uncertain but it is known that its reinforcing and stimulant effects are related to its ability to inhibit the membrane bound dopamine transporter (DAT). This paper discusses efforts that are underway to identify ligands for possible use in the treatment of cocaine abuse. Much of this effort has been focussed on understanding cocaine interactions at DAT receptor sites.

  16. Systematic evaluation of "compliance" to prescribed treatment medications and "abstinence" from psychoactive drug abuse in chemical dependence programs: data from the comprehensive analysis of reported drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    Full Text Available This is the first quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drug abuse across "levels of care" in six eastern states of America. Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD data was used in this post-hoc retrospective observational study from 10,570 patients, filtered to include a total of 2,919 patients prescribed at least one treatment medication during 2010 and 2011. The first and last urine samples (5,838 specimens were analyzed; compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drugs of abuse supported treatment effectiveness for many. Compared to non-compliant patients, compliant patients were marginally less likely to abuse opioids, cannabinoids, and ethanol during treatment although more likely to abuse benzodiazepines. Almost 17% of the non-abstinent patients used benzodiazepines, 15% used opiates, and 10% used cocaine during treatment. Compliance was significantly higher in residential than in the non-residential treatment facilities. Independent of level of care, 67.2% of the patients (n = 1963; P<.001 had every treatment medication found in both first and last urine specimens (compliance. In addition, 39.2% of the patients (n = 1143; P<.001 had no substance of abuse detected in either the first or last urine samples (abstinence. Moreover, in 2010, 16.9% of the patients (n = 57 were abstinent at first but not at last urine (deteriorating abstinence, the percentage dropped to 13.3% (n = 174 in 2011; this improvement over years was statistically significant. A longitudinal analysis for abstinence and compliance was studied in a randomized subset from 2011, (n = 511 representing 17.5% of the total cohort. A statistically significant upward trend (p = 2.353×10-8 of abstinence rates as well as a similar but stronger trend for compliance ((p = 2.200×10-16 was found. Being cognizant of the trend toward drug urine testing being linked

  17. Systematic evaluation of "compliance" to prescribed treatment medications and "abstinence" from psychoactive drug abuse in chemical dependence programs: data from the comprehensive analysis of reported drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Han, David; Femino, John; Smith, David E; Saunders, Scott; Simpatico, Thomas; Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Gold, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    This is the first quantitative analysis of data from urine drug tests for compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drug abuse across "levels of care" in six eastern states of America. Comprehensive Analysis of Reported Drugs (CARD) data was used in this post-hoc retrospective observational study from 10,570 patients, filtered to include a total of 2,919 patients prescribed at least one treatment medication during 2010 and 2011. The first and last urine samples (5,838 specimens) were analyzed; compliance to treatment medications and abstinence from drugs of abuse supported treatment effectiveness for many. Compared to non-compliant patients, compliant patients were marginally less likely to abuse opioids, cannabinoids, and ethanol during treatment although more likely to abuse benzodiazepines. Almost 17% of the non-abstinent patients used benzodiazepines, 15% used opiates, and 10% used cocaine during treatment. Compliance was significantly higher in residential than in the non-residential treatment facilities. Independent of level of care, 67.2% of the patients (n = 1963; P<.001) had every treatment medication found in both first and last urine specimens (compliance). In addition, 39.2% of the patients (n = 1143; P<.001) had no substance of abuse detected in either the first or last urine samples (abstinence). Moreover, in 2010, 16.9% of the patients (n = 57) were abstinent at first but not at last urine (deteriorating abstinence), the percentage dropped to 13.3% (n = 174) in 2011; this improvement over years was statistically significant. A longitudinal analysis for abstinence and compliance was studied in a randomized subset from 2011, (n = 511) representing 17.5% of the total cohort. A statistically significant upward trend (p = 2.353×10-8) of abstinence rates as well as a similar but stronger trend for compliance ((p = 2.200×10-16) was found. Being cognizant of the trend toward drug urine testing being linked to

  18. Heart rate variability biofeedback in adolescent substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Chris; Lajoie, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Strategies are needed to improve adolescent substance abuse treatment outcomes. For example, during outpatient substance abuse treatment, up to 80% of adolescents continue to use.(1),(2) Following residential substance abuse treatment, 88% of adolescents relapse within 6 months.(3.)

  19. Incest and substance abuse: implications for treatment professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janikowski, T P; Glover, N M

    1994-01-01

    Seventy-seven volunteer participants enrolled in eight substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed using the Substance Abuse and Incest Survey. Of the sample, 36 (48%) reported histories of incest. For participants reporting incest, data on substance abuse history, perceptions of the relationship between incest and substance abuse, and opinions regarding incest-related counseling in the context of substance abuse treatment are presented. Recommendations for substance abuse professionals and facilities are made, including intake screening, barriers to treatment, counselor education, and future research.

  20. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  1. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives, Part II: Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Walker, Dale; Silk-Walker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined costs of two residential substance abuse treatment programs designed for urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Costs for one agency were well within national norms, while costs at the other program were less than expected from nationwide data. Economies of scale accounted for much of the difference between observed and expected costs. Culturally specific residential substance abuse treatment services can be provided to urban AI/ANs within budgets typically found at mainstream programs.

  2. Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating a Treatment Protocol for Rural Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Leukefeld, Carl; Godlaski, Theodore; Brown, Cyndy; Garrity, John; Hays, Lon

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of an innovative substance abuse treatment program designed for rural areas involved 45 clients, 10 clinicians, and 2 program directors from three sites. Most clients felt the program was beneficial, but stressful. Clinicians found the program demanding to learn and adopt. Program directors liked the rural-specific design and the…

  3. The Evolution of an Online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Mary K.

    2012-01-01

    In the field of rehabilitation services, substance abuse counseling requires unique skills. Post-baccalaureate academic certificate programs offer professionals an opportunity to retool or expand their skills and meet licensure needs in this evolving field. East Carolina University's online Substance Abuse Counseling Certificate Program was…

  4. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  5. 45 CFR 96.46 - Substance abuse prevention and treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... responsible for providing services to Native Americans under the State's Block Grant program. ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse prevention and treatment services... BLOCK GRANTS Direct Funding of Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations § 96.46 Substance abuse prevention...

  6. Integrating translational neuroscience to improve drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Cheryl Anne; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is an exciting and challenging period of maturation, rapid brain development, and developmental changes in neurobiological, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral processes. Although behavioral therapies available for adolescent substance abuse have increased, effectiveness research in this area lags considerably behind that of clinical research on treatment for drug-abusing adults. Behavioral treatment approaches show significant promise for treating drug-abusing adolescents, but many have not incorporated innovations in neuroscience on brain development, cognitive processes, and neuroimaging. Linking developmental neuroscience with behavioral treatments can create novel drug abuse interventions and increase the effectiveness of existing interventions for substance-abusing adolescents. Contemporary research on brain development, cognition, and neuroscience is ripe for translation to inform developmentally sensitive drug abuse treatments for adolescents. Neuroscientists and interventionists are challenged to build mutual collaborations for integration of neuroscience and drug abuse treatment for adolescents.

  7. The Economic Cost of Substance Abuse Treatment in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Pierre K.; Beulaygue, Isabelle C.; French, Michael T.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Popovici, Ioana; Sayed, Bisma A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Public and private stakeholders of substance abuse treatment services require economic cost data to guide program evaluations and funding decisions. Background: Rigorous cost assessments have been conducted for several treatment programs across the United States, but a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of programs in a particular…

  8. Comorbidity of Schizophrenia and Substance Abuse: Implications for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients, including prevalence of comorbid disorders, assessment, hypothesized mechanisms underlying abuse, and clinical effects of abuse on course of illness and cognitive functioning. Outlines principles of treatment for dual-diagnosis schizophrenia patients, noting limitations of existing…

  9. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully.

  10. Organization and financing of alcohol and substance abuse programs for American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Gabriel, Roy M; Bigelow, Douglas A; Walker, R Dale

    2006-08-01

    Although American Indians and Alaska Natives have high rates of substance abuse, few data about treatment services for this population are available. We used national data from 1997-2002 to describe recent trends in organizational and financial arrangements. Using data from the Indian Health Service (IHS), the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and the Census Bureau, we estimated the number of American Indians served by substance abuse treatment programs that apparently are unaffiliated with either the IHS or tribal governments. We compared expected and observed IHS expenditures. Half of the American Indians and Alaska Natives treated for substance abuse were served by programs (chiefly in urban areas) apparently unaffiliated with the IHS or tribal governments. IHS substance abuse expenditures were roughly what we expected. Medicaid participation by tribal programs was not universal. Many Native people with substance abuse problems are served by programs unaffiliated with the IHS. Medicaid may be key to expanding needed resources.

  11. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  12. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  13. Accessing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Jennifer L.; Johnson, Gail E.

    2009-01-01

    Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substance abuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…

  14. Oversight on Community Services Administration, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment, and Adoption Opportunities, and Native American Programs Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Oversight hearings were conducted on April 23, 1981 in reference to social service block grants for the Community Services Administration, child abuse prevention and treatment and adoption programs, and Native American Programs Act. Testimonies for support of block grants advocated ability of States to decide how program resources can best be…

  15. Women's steps of change and entry into drug abuse treatment. A multidimensional stages of change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, V B; Melchior, L A; Panter, A T; Slaughter, R; Huba, G J

    2000-04-01

    The Transtheoretical, or Stages of Change Model, has been applied to the investigation of help-seeking related to a number of addictive behaviors. Overall, the model has shown to be very important in understanding the process of help-seeking. However, substance abuse rarely exists in isolation from other health, mental health, and social problems. The present work extends the original Stages of Change Model by proposing "Steps of Change" as they relate to entry into substance abuse treatment programs for women. Readiness to make life changes in four domains-domestic violence, HIV sexual risk behavior, substance abuse, and mental health-is examined in relation to entry into four substance abuse treatment modalities (12-step, detoxification, outpatient, and residential). The Steps of Change Model hypothesizes that help-seeking behavior of substance-abusing women may reflect a hierarchy of readiness based on the immediacy, or time urgency, of their treatment issues. For example, women in battering relationships may be ready to make changes to reduce their exposure to violence before admitting readiness to seek substance abuse treatment. The Steps of Change Model was examined in a sample of 451 women contacted through a substance abuse treatment-readiness program in Los Angeles, California. A series of logistic regression analyses predict entry into four separate treatment modalities that vary. Results suggest a multidimensional Stages of Change Model that may extend to other populations and to other types of help-seeking behaviors.

  16. Pathways to Care: Narratives of American Indian Adolescents Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Novins, Douglas K.; Spicer, Paul; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Pescosolido, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    Using data from 89 American Indian adolescents and guided by the Network Episode Model, this paper analyses pathways to residential substance abuse treatment and their correlates. These adolescents were recruited at admission to a tribally-operated substance abuse treatment program in the southern United States from October 1998 to May 2001. Results from the qualitative analyses of these adolescent’s pathways to care narratives indicated that 35% ultimately agreed with the decision for their ...

  17. Residential Substance Abuse Treatment for Urban American Indians and Alaska Natives, Part I: Services and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Walker, Dale; Silk-Walker, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Although residential substance abuse treatment is utilized extensively by urban American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), there are few detailed descriptions of this care. This study delineated services provided by and interviewed staff working at residential programs designed for chemically dependent urban AI/ANs. Study agencies were compared to national data from residential programs serving general population clients. Study agencies delivered arrays of services substantially broader than those provided by general population programs. As well as culturally specific programs tailored for AI/ANs plus so-called "mainstream" substance abuse treatments, study facilities provided numerous ancillary services, such as care for clients' children.

  18. Comprehensive treatment for co-occurring child maltreatment and parental substance abuse: outcomes from a 24-month pilot study of the MST-Building Stronger Families program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Cindy M; Swenson, Cynthia Cupit; Tuerk, Elena Hontoria; Henggeler, Scott W

    2013-08-01

    This manuscript presents outcomes from a pilot study of Multisystemic Therapy-Building Stronger Families (MST-BSF), an integrated treatment model for the co-occurring problem of parental substance abuse and child maltreatment among families involved in the child welfare system. Participants were 25 mother-youth dyads who participated in MST-BSF and an additional 18 families with similar demographic and case characteristics who received Comprehensive Community Treatment (CCT). At post-treatment, mothers who received MST-BSF showed significant reductions in alcohol use, drug use, and depressive symptoms; they also significantly reduced their use of psychological aggression with the youth. Youth reported significantly fewer anxiety symptoms following MST-BSF treatment. Relative to families who received CCT, mothers who received MST-BSF were three times less likely to have another substantiated incident of maltreatment over a follow-up period of 24 months post-referral. The overall number of substantiated reabuse incidents in this time frame also was significantly lower among MST-BSF families, and youth who received MST-BSF spent significantly fewer days in out-of-home placements than did their CCT counterparts. These promising preliminary outcomes support the viability of a more rigorous (i.e., randomized) evaluation of the MST-BSF model.

  19. Meeting the substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender women: implications from research to practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sally StevensSouthwest Institute for Research on Women (SIROW and Department of Gender and Women’s Studies (GWS, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USAAbstract: Research on the incidence, etiology and substance abuse treatment needs of lesbian, bisexual and transgender (LBT women is limited. Most research indicates higher levels of alcohol and drug abuse among these populations compared to their heterosexual counterparts, with recent research indicating that substance abuse is a particular concern for transgender individuals and an increasing problem among younger LBT individuals. Risk factors and reasons for substance abuse among sexual minority women are similar to those of heterosexual women, yet are substantially complicated by issues of family rejection and lack of social support, stigma and minority stress, as well as abuse and harassment. Historically, substance abuse prevention, early intervention, and clinical treatment programs were designed to meet the needs of the sexual majority population with relatively few programs designed to incorporate the specific needs of sexual minorities. This article reviews findings from previous studies and utilizes new data collected from community-based and residential substance abuse treatment programs to (1 examine issues relevant to LBT women and substance use, and (2 make recommendations for tailoring substance abuse treatment programs to meet the needs of these populations.Keywords: lesbian, bisexual, transgender, substance abuse, family rejection, social support, stigma, minority stress, abuse, harassment

  20. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  1. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Greener, Jack M.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation's prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices.…

  2. Organizational Readiness for Change in Correctional and Community Substance Abuse Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Wayne E. K.; Greener, Jack M.; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Significant needs exist for increased and better substance abuse treatment services in our nation's prisons. The TCU Organizational Readiness for Change (ORC) survey has been widely used in community-based treatment programs and evidence is accumulating for relationships between readiness for change and implementation of new clinical practices.…

  3. 10 CFR 707.5 - Submission, approval, and implementation of a baseline workplace substance abuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... workplace substance abuse program. 707.5 Section 707.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKPLACE SUBSTANCE ABUSE... substance abuse program. (a) Each contractor subject to this part shall develop a written program consistent... employees concerning problems of substance abuse, including illegal drug use, and the availability...

  4. A plan analysis of pedophile sexual abusers' motivations for treatment: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Martin; Körner, Annett; Granger, Luc; Brunet, Louis; Caspar, Franz

    2005-06-01

    Many authors have suggested adapting treatment programs to the specific needs of sexual abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understand what these patients seek in therapy or what elements play a key role in keeping them in treatment. In this pilot study, fifteen (N=15) pedophile sexual abusers from La Macaza clinic for sexual abusers were interviewed. Plan analysis was used to investigate the most prevalent components involved in staying in or leaving therapy. Results suggest that many components involved in the plans leading to doing and to avoiding treatment were similar. Differences were found in regards to the outcome of confrontations with the therapists, a tendency to isolate and overcomply, guilt related to the abuse, a need for a stable environment, and a need to be accepted. These results are discussed along with possible ways to improve the patients' involvement in treatment.

  5. Can a cognitive-behavioral group-therapy training program for the treatment of child sexual abuse reduce levels of burnout and job-strain in trainees? initial evidence of a brazilian model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Figueiredo Damásio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the extent to which a professional training program of an evidence-based intervention for the treatment of child and adolescent victims of sexual abuse could reduce strain and burnout levels in trainees. Participants were 30 psychologists, 19 of whom composed the experimental group (G1 and 11 the comparison group (G2. Data collection occurred before and after the training. The results showed that the ‘work demand’ increased for G1 and remained stable for G2, whereas the ‘control at work’ remained stable for G1 while decreasing for G2. Regarding burnout levels, there was a decrease in depersonalization and stabilization in the levels of emotional exhaustion and reduced professional efficacy for G1, whereas for G2, all the burnout indicators significantly increased. These results partially support the perspective that the training program would have an indirect protective effect on the occupational psychopathology levels of the trainees.

  6. Adolescent Drug Use: Trends in Abuse, Treatment and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan M.

    This report highlights the important trends in adolescent drug use. Although the focus is on the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, and inhalants, it is important to remember that adolescents abuse a wide range and combination of drugs. This report also addresses state-of-the-art treatment methods, and summarizes research on…

  7. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  8. Preventing Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Program for Catholic Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorry, Frank

    This book provides information for teachers about drugs and their effects on body and mind, and explains the role of teachers in effective drug education, prevention, and assistance programs. Suggestions on preventing drug abuse are also directed to the Catholic community and parents, along with a challenge to introduce programs on the local,…

  9. Substance Abuse and Spirituality: A Program for Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Jay; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This report describes an innovative program to prevent substance abuse among Native American students that was implemented at the Institute for American Indian Arts in Santa Fe (New Mexico). The program emphasized traditional values, history, and spirituality to enhance self-esteem. It involved readings, classroom discussions, Native American…

  10. Program directors' views of the effect of managed care on substance abuse programs in Los Angeles county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeese-Smith, D K

    1998-10-01

    This study sought information about the effect of managed care on substance abuse treatment programs through a survey of program directors. Fifty program directors who supervised a total of 134 substance abuse treatment programs in Los Angeles County completed a survey during the period from January to May 1997 on program changes made in response to managed care, major concerns, the advantages and disadvantages of managed care, and plans for further program changes to succeed in the managed care environment. Program directors reported that the most frequent change made in response to managed care was increased outreach and marketing. Their greatest concern in the managed care environment was being forced to provide the least costly service, rather than the best care for patients. Respondents identified an increased focus on outcomes as an advantage of managed care and restrictions on services due to contractual agreements as a disadvantage. Planned program changes addressed the areas of program structure, types of programs offered, staff composition, revenue generation, referral sources, prevention, outcome measures, relationships with other organizations, and accreditation and certification. Although some substance abuse treatment programs seem to be reducing their scope or preparing to close in response to managed care, others are developing strategies to survive and even thrive in this new economic environment.

  11. A rationale and model for addressing tobacco dependence in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Kimber P

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.

  12. Metaphyseal fractures mimicking abuse during treatment for clubfoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grayev, A.M.; Boal, D.K.B. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States); Wallach, D.M.; Segal, L.S. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Background. Metaphyseal injuries resembling the classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) of abuse may occur as the result of serial casting during treatment of clubfoot deformity. Mentioned in the orthopedic literature in 1972, this iatrogenic fracture has not been described in the radiologic literature nor has the similarity to injuries occurring with abuse been previously recognized. Objective. To describe the mechanism and radiographic appearance of metaphyseal injury observed during serial casting of clubfoot. Note similarities to the CML of abuse. Materials and methods. Eight children ranging in age from 1 to 4 months underwent casting for clubfoot. Five orthopedic surgeons from three different institutions performed the casting. Two patients had spina bifida and one, arthrogryposis. A complete skeletal survey was performed on one child who was abused; there was no suspicion of abuse in the remaining seven. Results. All children manifest injury with periosteal new bone. One child had clear evidence of abuse with 24 rib fractures. X-rays of lower extremities in short leg casts revealed bilateral tibial metaphyseal fractures. Four other children had metaphyseal fractures resembling the CML of abuse, and three developed an area of sclerosis within the metaphysis. Conclusion. In the setting of serial casting for equinovarus deformity, metaphyseal injury even the CML of abuse may be noted. Since inflicted injuries are almost always unobserved and explanations rarely offered, the fact that the CML occurs as a result of orthopedic manipulation may offer some further insight concerning the pathogenesis of this well-described abuse injury. (orig.)

  13. Diversion and abuse of buprenorphine: findings from national surveys of treatment patients and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Arfken, Cynthia L; di Menza, Salvatore; Schuster, Charles Roberts

    2012-01-01

    Since 2003, buprenorphine has been approved for the treatment of opioid dependence in office-based practice. Diversion and abuse can be a threat to its continued approval under these conditions. As part of a national postmarketing surveillance program, applicants to substance abuse treatment and physicians certified to prescribe buprenorphine were surveyed about their perceptions of buprenorphine/naloxone diversion and abuse. These surveys were supplemented by information from national databases. Availability of buprenorphine/naloxone was measured by number of tablets dispensed. Measures of diversion and abuse of buprenorphine/naloxone increased from 2005 to 2009. The results from the applicant survey showed that the perceptions of the extent of diversion and abuse were lower than positive controls, methadone, oxycodone and heroin, but higher than the negative control, amitriptyline. By 2009, 46% of the physicians believed that buprenorphine/naloxone was diverted but 44% believed illegal use was for self-management of withdrawal and 53% believed the source of the medication was substance abuse patients. Other measures from national databases showed similar results. When adjusted for millions of tablets sold per year, slopes for measures of diversion and abuse were reduced. The increases in diversion and abuse measures indicate the need to take active attempts to curb diversion and abuse as well as continuous monitoring and surveillance of all buprenorphine products. However, these increases parallel the increased number of tablets sold. Finding a balance of risk/benefit (i.e. diversion and abuse versus expanded treatment) remains a challenge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and i...

  15. Client-Provider relationship in comprehensive substance abuse treatment: differences in residential and nonresidential settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Choon; Marsh, Jeanne C; Cao, Dingcai; Andrews, Christina M

    2011-12-01

    As the substance abuse service system shifts from primarily residential to primarily nonresidential settings, it becomes important to understand how substance abuse treatment processes and outcomes may vary across service setting. Research increasingly indicates that, along with specific treatment and service strategies, client-provider relationship is an important ingredient in effective substance abuse treatment. This study uses a moderator-mediator analysis of a comprehensive service model to examine how the relation between client-provider relationship and substance abuse treatment outcomes may differ in residential and nonresidential settings. The study used data collected for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study, a prospective, cohort-based study of U.S. substance abuse treatment programs and their clients, with an analytic sample of 59 publicly funded service delivery units and 3,027 clients. Structural equation modeling is used to assess the structural relations and causal connections between treatment process and treatment outcome variables. Results indicate that for nonresidential settings, a better client-provider relationship is directly related to improved outcomes of treatment duration and reduced posttreatment substance use and is indirectly related to both outcomes through provision of services matched to client needs. In residential settings, the quality of the client-provider relationship is unrelated to process or outcome variables. The findings point to the importance of the client-provider relationship in all settings but particularly in outpatient settings where there are limited physical constraints on the treatment process.

  16. sexual abuse in adolescents - data from a psychiatric treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatric treatment centre for adolescents with emotional and behavioural problems. ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is ... severe conduct disorder and/or psychotic illness are referred elsewhere.

  17. Substance Abuse Treatment for Children and Adolescents: Questions to Ask

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families Guide Substance Abuse Treatment For Children And Adolescents: Questions To Ask No. 41; Reviewed July 2013 Many children and adolescents use alcohol and other drugs. Some develop serious ...

  18. Evaluating the Acceptability of Four Versions of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine college students used a modified version of the Treatment Evaluation Inventory-Short Form to evaluate the acceptability of four versions of a sexual abuse prevention program for 10-year-old children. The four versions include an information-based training approach or a behavioral skills training (BST) approach with a focus on strangers…

  19. Late Onset of Prescription Drug Abuse or Dependence Among Older Adults: Implications for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Lay

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prescription drug abuse and dependence is an increasing concern for older adults. This article describes issues specific to older adults with late onset abuse or dependence on prescription sedatives and/or opiates.The older adult with late onset should not be viewed as having the same issues as individuals who have a life pat- tern of drug and alcohol abuse/dependence.A chart review of older adults in a treatment program contrasts late onset prescription dependence clients (n=12 and early onset addiction clients (n=104 and outlines differences and similarities between the two samples. Social workers need to understand the specific and changing needs of older adults as they relate to assessment and treatment of drug abuse and dependence.

  20. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  1. Early Childhood Interventionists' Perceptions of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act: Provider Characteristics and Organizational Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman-Smith, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: A 2003 amendment to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to develop plans to ensure that children younger than the age of 3 years who are victims of substantiated abuse or neglect have access to developmental screenings. Programs authorized under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities…

  2. 28 CFR 550.51 - Drug abuse education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.51 Drug abuse education course. (a) Purpose of the... inmates of the consequences of drug/alcohol abuse and addiction; and (2) Motivate inmates needing drug abuse treatment to apply for further drug abuse treatment, both while incarcerated and after release....

  3. School programs to prevent intrafamilial child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, M R; Tyler, A H; Kehle, T J

    1983-01-01

    The incidence of child sexual abuse would argue for the schools assuming a larger role in the development of preventive and educational programs. Because of the public school system's consistent and longitudinal contact with children and families it is perhaps the most promising institution for the delivery of preventive efforts. This article presents specific suggestions for school-based programs directed toward the prevention of intrafamilial child sexual abuse. Further, it is argued that for maximum effectiveness, the support of local parent-teacher organizations be elicited; that educational programs be presented separately for parents and children; and that a variety of programs in concert with the developmental level of participants be presented on topics related to child sexual abuse. Topics regarded as important for prevention efforts are factual information on sexual abuse, appropriate and inappropriate touch, the respective role responsibilities and rights of parents and children, and a sex education approach that stresses the values of nonexploitation and discrimination in the choice of whether to engage in sexual behavior and the choice of partners.

  4. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1996-10-01

    The role of demographic, developmental, and familial mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated. Sixty-seven sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions. At the completion of treatment, the parents and their children were reevaluated. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Preschool Symptom Self-Report to assess self-reported affective symptoms and the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test to assess developmental level. Correlational analyses were conducted to analyze the relationships between the hypothesized mediating variables and the outcome measures at posttreatment across the two treatment groups. Multiple regression analyses were also performed. Both parental depression and parental emotional distress correlated significantly with several of the child outcome measures. Battelle scores were significantly negatively correlated with several outcome measures. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire remained a highly significant predictor of treatment outcome. The findings indicate a strong correlation between parental emotional distress related to the abuse and treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children, independent of the type of treatment provided. The findings indicate the importance of addressing parental distress related to the abuse in providing effective treatment to sexually abused

  5. Randomized Trial of Drug Abuse Treatment-Linkage Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, James L.; Masson, Carmen L.; Delucchi, Kevin; Sporer, Karl; Barnett, Paul G.; Mitsuishi, Fumi; Lin, Christine; Song, Yong; Chen, TeChieh; Hall, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    A clinical trial contrasted 2 interventions designed to link opioid-dependent hospital patients to drug abuse treatment. The 126 out-of-treatment participants were randomly assigned to (a) case management, (b) voucher for free methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), (c) case management plus voucher, or (d) usual care. Services were provided for 6…

  6. 48 CFR 970.5223-3 - Agreement regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to the policies, criteria, and procedures of 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at... Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites. 970.5223-3 Section 970.5223-3 Federal Acquisition... Agreement regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE sites. As prescribed in 970.2305-4(a),...

  7. 48 CFR 970.5223-4 - Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites, incorporated herein by reference... 10 CFR part 707 to agree to develop and implement a workplace substance abuse program that complies with the requirements of 10 CFR part 707, Workplace Substance Abuse Programs at DOE Sites, as...

  8. Moving Child Abuse and Neglect Prevention Programs Forward: Improving Program Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Arlene; McCloskey, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen evaluations of programs to prevent child abuse and neglect are reviewed. The evaluations were characterized by careful attention to methodologic detail but lacked definitions of abuse or neglect. Important topics are omitted, such as the consequences and costs of medical neglect. (Author/JDD)

  9. Challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska Native communities: perspectives of staff from 18 treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder; Raleigh-Cohn, Ashley; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Novins, Douglas

    2014-06-17

    Substance abuse continues to exact a significant toll, despite promising advancements in treatment, and American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities remain disproportionately impacted. Understanding the challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities could ultimately result in more effective treatment interventions, but no multi-site studies have examined this important issue. This qualitative study examined the challenges of providing substance abuse treatment services for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted key informant interviews and focus groups at 18 substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Seventy-six service participants (21 individuals in clinical administrative positions and 55 front-line clinicians) participated in the project. Interview transcripts were coded to identify key themes. We found that the challenges of bringing effective substance abuse treatment to AI/AN communities fell into three broad categories: challenges associated with providing clinical services, those associated with the infrastructure of treatment settings, and those associated with the greater service/treatment system. These sets of challenges interact to form a highly complex set of conditions for the delivery of these services. Our findings suggest that substance abuse treatment services for AI/AN communities require more integrated, individualized, comprehensive, and longer-term approaches to care. Our three categories of challenges provide a useful framework for eliciting challenges to providing quality substance abuse treatment in other substance abuse treatment settings.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Connecticut's In-Prison Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Marilyn; Love, Craig T.; Shepard, Donald S.; Petersen, Cheryl B.; White, Karen L.; Hall, Frank B.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the criminal justice population in the US has grown by over 200%, most of this due to an increase in drug-involved offenders. Although there is good evidence that prison-based substance abuse treatment programs can be effective in reducing rearrest, few cost-effectiveness studies have been conducted. Using data from the…

  11. Traumatic experiences and re-victimization of female inmates undergoing treatment for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Bertha; Zea, Paloma; Romero, Martha; Saldívar, Gabriela

    2015-02-09

    In the past decade, several studies have focused on the treatment needs of female inmates with substance abuse problems. An important finding has been that these women are more likely to report histories of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse-at rates varying from 77% to 90%. The trauma resulting from this kind of abuse is a key contributing factor in behavioral problems in adolescence and subsequent delinquency, substance abuse, and criminality in adulthood. This was a retrospective clinical study. A convenience sample of 112 women who entered the program's treatment groups consecutively for one year form part of the study. Information on traumatic events was obtained using some questions from the Initial Trauma Review. It explores whether the participant experienced physical abuse, sexual abuse, disasters, automobile accidents, or witnessed violence under the age of 18. It also examines experiences as an adult, including sexual and physical abuse, attacks by others who are not intimate partners, and abuse by authorities. Revictimization in sexual abuse was found in 78.1% of participants. Significant differences were identified between women who had experienced a traumatic sexual event from a person five years their senior before the age of 18 and then suffered from sexual violence as an adult, and women who had never undergone either of these events (x(2) = 11.3, df 112/1, p = abuse, the figure was 82.17%. Differences were observed between women who were revictimized through physical abuse before and after the age of 18 (x(2) = 5.91, df 112/1, p = sexual event as a child and subsequently physical violence from their parents, and women who had not undergone either of these events (x(2) = 3.48, df 112/1, p = treatment in these areas during the prison sentence and after release may contribute to preventing these women from become repeat offenders. Creating sources of work and halfway houses that continue the program to prevent relapses into

  12. Introduction to the special issue on organizational dynamics within substance abuse treatment: a complex human activity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patrick M; Knight, Danica K; Godley, Mark D; Knudsen, Hannah K

    2012-03-01

    Substance abuse treatment programs represent complex human activity systems in which multiple actors, including clients, counselors, and managers, are nested. Furthermore, treatment programs are nested within the broader environmental context of resource allocation and regulatory enforcement. This special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment presents 12 empirical papers that address organizational dynamics within specialty treatment programs. In this introduction to the special issue, the guest editors describe a conceptual framework of organizational dynamics, offer an overview of the articles within this issue, and discuss future prospects for research.

  13. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female, length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more, and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication. Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9

  14. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  15. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  16. The Substance Abuse Treatment Workforce of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodano, Ruthlyn; Watson, Donnie W.; Rataemane, Solomon; Rataemane, Lusanda; Ntlhe, Nomvuyo; Rawson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe characteristics of substance abuse treatment counselors in the Republic of South Africa, including demographics, education, training, and job duties. Counselors recruited from 24 treatment centers completed a survey after signing informed consent. Counselors were primarily female (75%), racially diverse…

  17. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, B. E.; Berliner, L.; Hanson, R. F.

    Helping child abuse victims receive the mental health treatment they need is an important component of victim advocacy with children, and benefits both the children and the criminal justice system. As part of this work, the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina and the Center for Sexual…

  18. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... substance abuse by a health care provider or by a provider of health care services on referral by a...

  19. Outcome Evaluation of a Group Treatment of Sexually Abused and Reactive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffany, Adrienne; Panos, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of group therapy in treating sexually abused children to prevent recidivism (subsequently re-abused or becoming abusers themselves). Methods: Recidivism rates of 617 children were compared between sexually abused children who received group treatment with those whose parents refused treatment.…

  20. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking.Objective: To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions.Design and Setting: A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003.Results: From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785.Conclusions: PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  1. 48 CFR 923.570 - Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Regulations concerning DOE's contractor workplace substance abuse programs are promulgated at 10 CFR part 707... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse... Workplace 923.570 Workplace substance abuse programs at DOE sites. (a) The Department of Energy (DOE),...

  2. Typologies of prescription opioid use in a large sample of adults assessed for substance abuse treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci C Green

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a population, non-medical prescription opioid users are not well-defined. We aimed to derive and describe typologies of prescription opioid use and nonmedical use using latent class analysis in an adult population being assessed for substance abuse treatment. METHODS: Latent class analysis was applied to data from 26,314 unique respondents, aged 18-70, self-reporting past month use of a prescription opioid out of a total of 138,928 cases (18.9% collected by the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV®, a national database for near real-time prescription opioid abuse surveillance. Data were obtained from November 2005 through December 2009. Substance abuse treatment, criminal justice, and public assistance programs in the United States submitted data to the ASI-MV database (n = 538. Six indicators of the latent classes derived from responses to the ASI-MV, a version of the ASI modified to collect prescription opioid abuse and chronic pain experience. The latent class analysis included respondent home ZIP code random effects to account for nesting of respondents within ZIP code. RESULTS: A four-class adjusted latent class model fit best and defined clinically interpretable and relevant subgroups: Use as prescribed, Prescribed misusers, Medically healthy abusers, and Illicit users. Classes varied on key variables, including race/ethnicity, gender, concurrent substance abuse, duration of prescription opioid abuse, mental health problems, and ASI composite scores. Three of the four classes (81% of respondents exhibited high potential risk for fatal opioid overdose; 18.4% exhibited risk factors for blood-borne infections. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple and distinct profiles of prescription opioid use were detected, suggesting a range of use typologies at differing risk for adverse events. Results may help clinicians and policy makers better focus overdose and blood-borne infection prevention efforts and intervention strategies

  3. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoff Miriam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374. Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment

  4. Family Therapy and Young Abusers : Experiences from the multi-agency treatment service TVERS in Vest-Agder County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Søftestad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on young abusers participating in a treatment program for families where one or more children have experienced child sexual abuse and/or have abused other children. TVERS is a multiprofessional team where the treatment is performed within a frame of control ,“care and control hand in hand”. Three trained family therapists from three different agencies come together and form the therapy. The caseworker from the child care protection service (Children`s Service becomes a part of the TVERS-team during their therapeutic work with the young abuser and his family. The therapists are given access to all reports and documents from the police, the court and medical services. The caseworker can follow up the family between appointments as well as initiate child protection procedures if necessary. The article describes our experience of working with families where the son in the family has abused other children outside or inside their own family.

  5. Fraud and abuse. Building an effective corporate compliance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusicky, C F

    1998-04-01

    In 1997, General Health System (GHS), a not-for-profit integrated delivery system headquartered in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, developed a formal corporate compliance program. A newly appointed corporate compliance officer worked with key GHS managers and employees to assess the organization's current fraud and abuse prevention practices and recommend changes to meet new regulatory and organizational requirements. Then a structure for implementing these changes was developed, with staff training at its core. The program required a significant initial outlay of financial and human resources. The benefits to the organization, however, including a greater ability to respond quickly and effectively to possible compliance problems and better organizational communications, were worth the investment.

  6. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  7. Characteristics of Transgender Individuals Entering Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Sorensen, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substance abuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substance abuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007–2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substance abuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substance abuse treatment. PMID:24561017

  8. Epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, alcohol and drug abuse was highlighted by former President Nelson ... university's teaching hospital's cross-sectional study between 1980 and 1984.10 Those ... of curiosity, 11% wanted to enhance their work or academic performance, 11% .... treatment by young persons, especially related to cannabis and.

  9. Therapeutic Factors in Spouse-Abuse Group Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Waldo, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines men's experiences in educational groups for batterers. Two factors, imparting of information and development of socializing techniques, were found to be predominant. Other factors thought to be important for abuse treatment (i.e. hope, family reenactment, and modeling) were found to be minimally present. Analysis demonstrates relationship…

  10. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  11. The Abusive Male Seeking Treatment: Jekyll and Hyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J. L.; Bernard, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a clinical and empirical investigation of psychological characteristics associated with abusive males (N=46) seeking treatment which suggests that initial impressions of these men may be seriously misleading. A framework for therapeutic progress is outlined, along with a discussion of effective counseling techniques. (JAC)

  12. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  13. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse: Intervention and Treatment Issues. The User Manual Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    This manual describes professional practices in intervention and treatment of sexual abuse and discusses how to address the problems of sexually abused children and their families. It makes an assumption that the reader has basic information about sexual abuse. The discussion focuses primarily on the child's guardian as the abuser. The manual…

  15. Medical marijuana use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana, and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared with those who did not use medical marijuana. Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of Cognitive-Behavioral Substance Abuse Treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Treatment Engagement and Abstinence at Treatment Exit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetta Gouse

    Full Text Available This study documented the treatment cascade for engagement in care and abstinence at treatment exit as well as examined correlates of these outcomes for the first certified Matrix Model® substance abuse treatment site in Sub-Saharan Africa.This retrospective chart review conducted at a resource-limited community clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, assessed treatment readiness and substance use severity at treatment entry as correlates of the number of sessions attended and biologically confirmed abstinence at treatment exit among 986 clients who initiated treatment from 2009-2014. Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of treatment outcomes were examined using logistic regression, modeling treatment completion and abstinence at treatment exit separately.Of the 2,233 clients who completed screening, approximately 44% (n = 986 initiated treatment. Among those who initiated treatment, 45% completed at least four group sessions, 30% completed early recovery skills training (i.e., at least eight group sessions, and 13% completed the full 16-week program. Approximately half (54% of clients who provided a urine sample had negative urine toxicology results for any substance at treatment exit. Higher motivation at treatment entry was independently associated with greater odds of treatment completion and negative urine toxicology results at treatment exit.Findings provide initial support for the successful implementation the Matrix Model in a resource-limited setting. Motivational enhancement interventions could support treatment initiation, promote sustained engagement in treatment, and achieve better treatment outcomes.

  17. Selection and utilization of assessment instruments in substance abuse treatment trials: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Rosa, Udi Ghitza, Betty TaiCenter for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Based on recommendations from a US Institute of Medicine report, the National Institute on Drug Abuse established the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN in 1999, to accelerate the translation of science-based addiction treatment research into community-based practice, and to improve the quality of addiction treatment, using science as the vehicle. One of the CTN's primary tasks is to serve as a platform to forge bi-directional communications and collaborations between providers and scientists, to enhance the relevance of research, which generates empirical results that impact practice. Among many obstacles in moving research into real-world settings, this commentary mainly describes challenges and iterative experiences in regard to how the CTN develops its research protocols, with focus on how the CTN study teams select and utilize assessment instruments, which can reasonably balance the interests of both research scientists and practicing providers when applied in CTN trials. This commentary also discusses the process by which the CTN further selects a core set of common assessment instruments that may be applied across all trials, to allow easier cross-study analyses of comparable data.Keywords: addiction, assessment, drug abuse treatment, drug dependence, NIDA Clinical Trials Network, substance use disorder

  18. Trends in comprehensive service availability in outpatient drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Durkin, Elizabeth M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and psychosocial services are essential to quality addiction treatment, but their availability declined in the 1980s. To determine whether this downward trend in the availability of comprehensive services continued in the 1990s, we analyzed data from a national panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Response rates were greater than 85%. Regarding the availability of comprehensive services, including physical examinations, routi...

  19. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basic needs like food, shelter, and love. Family violence can affect anyone. It can happen in any kind of family. Sometimes parents abuse each other, which can be hard for a child to witness. Some parents abuse their kids by using physical or verbal cruelty as a way of discipline. ...

  20. Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions Aged 12 to 14. The TEDS Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report uses data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) for 2008 to provide information on the characteristics of youths aged 12 to 14 admitted to substance abuse treatment. In 2008, approximately 23,770 substance abuse treatment admissions were adolescents aged 12 to 14. The two most frequently reported primary substances of abuse among…

  1. 78 FR 37560 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Treatment; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given that the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT... information below). Committee Name: SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council...

  2. 78 FR 45544 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is... Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) National Advisory Council will meet August 14, 2013, 9:00 a.m.--4:30 p.m...: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National...

  3. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…

  4. Laboratory support of drug abuse control programs: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, W J

    1977-01-01

    Labeling an individual a drug abuser has serious sociologic and legal implications that only laboratory testing can effectively allay. A proper specimen (both qualitatively and quantitatively) must be obtained for analysis. Positive identification of specimen with subject is of paramount importance. The problems of specimen substitution--other people's urine, tap water, apple juice--directly impinge here, as does the possibility of drug degradation by heat, light, and microbial attack and of drug adsorption by the container and urinary sediment. Confirmation of postives indicated by screening tests (thin layer chromatography and immunoassays) by gas chromatography and/or ultraviolet spectrophotometry is, in most situations, mandatory. An effective quality control program is an absolute requirement. Even under ideal circumstances, laboratory results can sometimes wrongly indicate the abuse of drugs; and conversely, drug abuse can take place without detection by the laboratory. As in any clinical situation, laboratory tests are only a part (albeit an important one) of the entire evaluation of the individual involved.

  5. The Feasibility and Acceptability of “Arise”: An Online Substance Abuse Relapse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Chelsea M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel online adolescent substance abuse relapse prevention tool, “Arise” (3C Institute, Cary, NC). The program uses an innovative platform including interactive instructional segments and skill-building games to help adolescents learn and practice coping skills training strategies. Materials and Methods: We conducted a pilot test with nine adolescents in substance abuse treatment (44 percent female) and a feasibility test with treatment providers (n=8; 50 percent female). Adolescents interacted with the program via a secure Web site for approximately 30 minutes for each of two instructional units. Treatment providers reviewed the same material at their own pace. All participants completed a questionnaire with items assessing usability, acceptability, understanding, and subjective experience of the program. Results: Regarding feasibility, recruitment of this population within the study constraints proved challenging, but participant retention in the trial was high (no attrition). Adolescents and treatment providers completed the program with no reported problems, and overall we were able to collect data as planned. Regarding acceptability, the program received strong ratings from both adolescents and providers, who found the prototype informative, engaging, and appealing. Both groups strongly recommended continuing development. Conclusions: We were able to deliver the intervention as intended, and acceptability ratings were high, demonstrating the feasibility and acceptability of online delivery of engaging interactive interventions. This study contributes to our understanding of how interactive technologies, including games, can be used to modify behavior in substance abuse treatment and other health areas. PMID:26181807

  6. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  7. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  8. Acculturation and polysubstance abuse in Arab-American treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl P; Farrag, Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Acculturation to U.S. culture by Latinos and Asian Americans has been associated with increased prevalence of substance abuse. However, little is known about the association between acculturation and substance use among Arab Americans, or more specifically, among Arab-American treatment clients. In 156 Arab-American male treatment clients, we found that higher levels of U.S. acculturation were positively associated with increased prevalence of polysubstance abuse. This first report on a large series of Arab-American clients also found considerable within-group variability. These results can be used to develop treatment plans and work-force training on the importance of U.S. acculturation and variability within Arab Americans.

  9. The influence of distance on utilization of outpatient mental health aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Susan K; Phibbs, Ciaran S; Piette, John D

    2003-08-01

    This study examined whether substance abuse patients who live farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following an inpatient treatment episode. For those patients who did receive aftercare, distance was evaluated as a predictor of the volume of care received. A national sample of 33,952 veterans discharged from Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) inpatient substance abuse treatment programs was analyzed using a two-part choice model utilizing logistic and linear regression. Patients living farther from their source of outpatient mental health care were less likely to obtain aftercare following inpatient substance abuse treatment. Patients who traveled 10 miles or less were 2.6 times more likely to obtain aftercare than those who traveled more than 50 miles. Only 40% of patients who lived more than 25 miles from the nearest aftercare facility obtained any aftercare services. Patients who received aftercare services had fewer visits if they lived farther from their source of aftercare. Lack of geographic access (distance) is a barrier to outpatient mental health care following inpatient substance abuse treatment, and influences the volume of care received once the decision to obtain aftercare is made. Aftercare services must be geographically accessible to ensure satisfactory utilization.

  10. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  11. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  12. Social capital and job satisfaction among substance abuse treatment employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsounis, Andreas; Niakas, Dimitris; Sarafis, Pavlos

    2017-02-15

    Job satisfaction is an important predictor for management and clinical ratios. Although it is accepted that is affected by many aspects, the influence of social capital remains to be determined. The main purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction and individual social capital for employees offering services in the treatment of addiction. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 239 employees from 14 therapeutic programs at KETEA (Therapy Center for Dependent Individuals in Greece) (KETHEA). A revised Greek Version of the Social Capital Questionnaire (SCQ-G) for the individual social capital measurement, and of the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) for the job satisfaction measurement, were used. Individual Social Capital ranged in medium levels. We observed a significant positive association between social capital and its' different aspects and gender, age, place of residence and working experience. Men, older employees, those who lived in smaller places, and those working more years, reached higher levels of individual social capital. Concerning overall job satisfaction most of the participants were ambivalent (61.5%), while 21.8% were satisfied and 16.7% were dissatisfied. Concerning its separate aspects, 77% were least satisfied with pay, 69.9% were least satisfied with advancement opportunities, 60.3% were least satisfied with fringe benefits, 85.8% were most satisfied with the nature of their work, 80.8% with their relationship with colleagues, and 77.8% were satisfied with supervision. Total Job Satisfaction was positively associated with place of residence and monthly salary. A significant positive correlation between social capital and job satisfaction was also observed. Early evidence suggests that social capital is associated with job satisfaction of employees providing services in the treatment of substance abuse. Further research, regarding social capital on job satisfaction, is suggested. We need to design and implement

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indicate neglect. Belittling, threats or other uses of power by spouses, family members or others may indicate verbal or emotional abuse. Strained or tense relationships and frequent arguments between ...

  14. Recovery among Adolescents: Models for Post-Treatment Gains in Drug Abuse Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W.; Knight, Danica Kalling; Becan, Jennifer E.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Recovery among adolescents undergoing substance abuse treatment was modeled in terms of pre-treatment motivation, therapeutic relationships, psychological functioning, treatment retention, legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and client demographics. To address between program differences, a within-covariance matrix, based on 547 youth, was used. Applicability of the results across treatment modalities was also examined. The data were from the NIDA-sponsored DATOS Adolescent study. Results from structural equation models (estimated using Mplus) indicated that higher pre-treatment motivation predicted stronger counselor and in-treatment peer relationships, better counselor relationships and retention predicted less illegal drug use at follow-up, and DSM diagnosis was important in the treatment process. Overall, illegal drug use at follow-up was associated with post-treatment alcohol consumption, cigarette use, condom nonuse, psychological distress, criminality, and school non-attendance. The results document the importance of motivation and therapeutic relationships on recovery, even when taking into account the relative effects of legal pressures, DSM diagnoses, and demographics. PMID:24238715

  15. The costs of crime and the benefits of substance abuse treatment for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M; Argeriou, M; McCarty, D; Callahan, J J; Shepard, D S; Williams, C N

    2000-12-01

    Although many pregnant, drug-dependent women report extensive criminal justice involvement, few studies have examined reductions in crime as an outcome of substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women. This is unfortunate, because maternal criminal involvement can have serious health and cost implications for the unborn child, the mother and society. Using the Addiction Severity Index, differences in pre- and posttreatment criminal involvement were measured for a sample of 439 pregnant women who entered publicly funded treatment programs in Massachusetts between 1992 and 1997. Accepted cost of illness methods were supplemented with information from the Bureau of Justice Statistics to estimate the costs and benefits of five treatment modalities: detoxification only (used as a minimal treatment comparison group), methadone only, residential only, outpatient only, and residential/outpatient combined. Projected to a year, the net benefits (avoided costs of crime net of treatment costs) ranged from US$32,772 for residential only to US$3,072 for detoxification. Although all five modalities paid for themselves by reducing criminal activities, multivariate regressions controlling for baseline differences between the groups showed that reductions in crime and related costs were significantly greater for women in the two residential programs. The study provides economic justification for the continuation and possible expansion of residential substance abuse treatment programs for criminally involved pregnant women.

  16. Predicting Substance Abuse Treatment Completion using a New Scale Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Ajzen, Icek

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and intention was positively associated with treatment completion even including clinical and demographic covariates (model R-squared=.24). TPB components were generally associated with the alternative readiness scales as expected, and the TPB remained predictive at higher levels of coercion. Meanwhile, none of the standard measures of readiness (e.g., the URICA and TREAT) or treatment coercion were positively associated with treatment participation. Results suggest promise for application of the TPB to treatment completion and support use of the intention component as a screener, though some refinements are suggested. PMID:23953167

  17. Predicting substance abuse treatment completion using a new scale based on the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Ajzen, Icek

    2014-02-01

    We examined whether a 9-item scale based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) predicted substance abuse treatment completion. Data were collected at a public, outpatient program among clients initiating treatment (N=200). Baseline surveys included measures of treatment-related attitudes, norms, perceived control, and intention; discharge status was collected from program records. As expected, TPB attitude and control components independently predicted intention (model R-squared=.56), and intention was positively associated with treatment completion even including clinical and demographic covariates (model R-squared=.24). TPB components were generally associated with the alternative readiness scales as expected, and the TPB remained predictive at higher levels of coercion. Meanwhile, none of the standard measures of readiness (e.g., the URICA and TREAT) or treatment coercion were positively associated with treatment participation. Results suggest promise for application of the TPB to treatment completion and support use of the intention component as a screener, though some refinements are suggested. © 2013.

  18. A methodological pilot: parenting among women in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda; Farkas, Kathleen; Niazi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Mothers who abuse substances are likely to have insecure emotional attachment with their children, placing their children at risk for social-emotional and psychiatric conditions. Sobriety does not inevitably improve parenting. We tested recruitment methods, audiovisual (AV) recording procedures, the protocol for identifying child abuse risk, the coding of mother-child interactions, and retention of the sample for repeated measures as the first phase in examining mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. This innovative study involved AV recordings to capture the in-vivo mother-child interactional behaviors that were later coded and analyzed for mean scores on the 64-item Parent-Child Relational Quality Assessment. Repeated measurement was planned during treatment and two months after discharge from treatment. The pilot involved a small sample (n = 11) of mother-child (<6 years) dyads. Highest and lowest ratings of interaction behaviors were identified. Mothers showed less enthusiasm and creativity but matched their child's emotional state. The children showed appropriate motor skill items and attachment behaviors. The dyad coding showed less mutual enjoyment between the mother and child. Eight of the participants could not be located for the second measurement despite multiple contact methods. AV recordings capture rich, descriptive information that can be coded for interactional quality analysis. Repeated measurement with this cohort was not feasible, thus needing to assess for additional/more frequent contacts to maintain the sample.

  19. Reinforcement-based outpatient treatment for opiate and cocaine abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, E C; Gruber, K; Chutuape, M A; Stitzer, M L

    2001-01-01

    A reinforcement-based intensive outpatient treatment was delivered to 37 recently detoxified, inner city, heroin and/or cocaine abusers who did not want methadone treatment. Attendance was scheduled and urine collected daily for the first 2 weeks, four times weekly for the next 2 weeks, and then thrice weekly for the final 8 weeks. As attendance incentives, patients received transportation assistance (bus tokens), and $28-$30 per week in vouchers to be spent on activities/items chosen and agreed upon with their counselor. As abstinence incentives, patients received weekend supported recreational activities, lunches, $42-$45 per week in vouchers, and rent or utilities payment ($150 over 4 weeks). Total potential earnings was $1,435 per patient; actual mean earnings was $583. Forty-three percent (n=16) completed 10 or more weeks of treatment. These 16 long-stay patients submitted 92% (SD=19) opiate- and cocaine-negative urines during their enrollment compared with 56% (SD=42) drug-negative urines submitted by 21 drop-outs, F(1,35)=9.99, p=0.003. Overall, 32% of clients became employed during their treatment episode; 94% of long-stay patients were employed at the end of their treatment episode. Patients who were drug-positive at intake were highly likely to drop out. Treatment outcomes compare favorably with those reported in the literature for outpatient nonmethadone treatment of opiate and cocaine abusers. Continued evaluation of this new treatment appears warranted.

  20. Treatment of cocaine abuse during pregnancy: translating research to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Lynn; May, James; Farrell-Moore, Dawn; Svikis, Dace S

    2010-10-01

    In the late-1980s and early-1990s, much attention in America was focused on cocaine abuse. In particular, the effects of prenatal cocaine use on mothers and infants were in the news spotlight. Risks of adverse effects prompted funding for novel treatment programs. More recently, media attention has shifted elsewhere, and specialized treatment resources have grown scarce. This redirection of funding is unfortunate, as social stigma and fear of legal consequences continue to encourage cocaine-abusing pregnant women to hide drug use and avoid prenatal care. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most prominent adverse maternal and fetal/infant effects associated with prenatal cocaine use; review treatment options, focusing on comprehensive care programs of the 1990s as well as recent research on evidence-based practices and their applicability to pregnant women; and highlight the population of prenatal cocaine-abusing women uninterested in treatment, with a focus on promising strategies to promote drug abstinence and other positive health behaviors.

  1. [Olanzapine efficacy in the treatment of cocaine abuse in methadone maintenance patients. Interaction with plasma levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baño, M D; Micó, J A; Agujetas, M; López, M L; Guillén, J L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with antipsychotic olanzapine in cocaine abuse methadone patients. The decrease or interruption of cocaine consume as well as the possible pharmacokinetic interaction between olanzapine and methadone were studied. Patients (n= 21) include in a methadone maintenance program (14 months), with DSM-IV criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence and without schizophrenic diagnostic, were treated with olanzapine 5 to 10 mg/day. The therapeutic outcomes were assessed by personal interviews, cocaine consumption, changes of consumption patrons (via of administration) and secondary effects to olanzapine. Withdrawal symptoms were measured by means of the abbreviate version of the scale of Gossop. Cocaine used was measured by urine analysis (enzymoimmnuoassay). The possible pharmacokinetic interaction between olanzapine and methadone was measured in plasma before and during the treatment in 15 patients. Olanzapine combined with methadone in cocaine abusers was well tolerated in an important proportion of patients. Moreover the consumption of cocaine was decreased or stopped in 53,2% of the patients. In addition, no withdrawal syndrome was observed in any patients. Furthermore the ratios of methadone plasma levels did not change in relation to the dose before and during the treatment, suggesting a lack of pharmacokinetic interaction between methadone and olanzapine. In conclusion the results of this preliminary study, led us to advance that olanzapine could be a useful treatment for cocaine abuse at least in patients in a Methadone Maintenance Program, with the advantage of not to induce any pharmacokinetic interaction with methadone.

  2. A qualitative study of exodus graduates: family-focused residential substance abuse treatment as an option for mothers to retain or regain custody and sobriety in Los Angeles, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan D

    2010-01-01

    In this article, 21 long-term, poly-substance abusing mothers describe how they successfully completed an 18-month family-focused residential substance abuse treatment program in southern California that helped them retain or regain custody of their children. Their stories and experiences with specific program characteristics and approaches of this rare treatment option are described, in their own voices. Policy implications for child welfare and parental substance abuse treatment are examined in light of these success stories.

  3. Why Do Teachers Choose to Implement or Reject Drug Abuse Prevention Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James Reed; Swanchak, John

    State and local school systems have developed comprehensive drug abuse prevention programs that appear to have little influence on the rising tide of teenage drug abuse. Classroom teachers, as implementors of such programs, frequently veto them or change them considerably. Forty secondary teachers were selected as research subjects to examine this…

  4. Pilot Evaluation of a Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Taiwanese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chuen; Fortson, Beverly L.; Tseng, Kai-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the efficacy of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program for Taiwanese children. Forty-six Taiwanese children age 6 to 13 were divided into one of two groups based on their school grade and then randomly assigned to a skills-based child sexual abuse prevention program who…

  5. Health issues in the Arab American community. Arab Americans in publicly financed substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Koch, Alison L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of Arab Americans receiving treatment and to compare them with individuals of other ethnic groups. We used admission data (FY2005) for Michigan publicly funded substance abuse treatment (N=69,989). Arab American ethnicity (n=224 or 0.3% of admissions) was defined by codes for race, ethnicities or primary language of Arabic (n=21). Other ethnicities examined were American Indian, Hispanic, African American, and White. The number of Arab American admissions was lower than expected for the population (RR=0.25). Admissions were concentrated (81%) in metropolitan Detroit as is the community (82%, RR=.99), unlike other ethnicities. Primary drugs of abuse were alcohol (34.8%), marijuana (17.9%), heroin (17.4%) and crack cocaine (15.6%). Mean duration of use (11.2 yrs) was significantly lower than for other ethnicities. Arab American admissions were predominately male (76.3%), unemployed (62.1%) and with criminal justice involvement (58%), similar to other ethnicities. Using administrative database has its limits and may misclassify ethnicities. Based upon the available data, it appears that Arab Americans accounted for a small percentage of admissions to publicly funded substance abuse treatment in Michigan. Most of the admissions listed English as the primary language, raising concern that language may be a barrier to entry. Admission profiles were generally similar across ethnicities, except that Arab Americans were entering treatment after shorter duration of use. These data can inform development of treatment programs and outreach efforts.

  6. Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non-opioid Drug Abuse:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether ...

  7. Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for Young People in Treatment for Non-opioid Drug Abuse:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Rasmussen, Pernille; Andersen, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of this review are to evaluate the current evidence on the effects of MDFT on drug abuse reduction for young people (aged 11-21 years) in treatment for non-opioid drug abuse, and if possible to examine moderators of drug abuse reduction effects, specifically analysing whether...

  8. 78 FR 15961 - Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment National Advisory Council; Meeting Pursuant to Public Law 92-463, notice is hereby given of the meeting of the Substance Abuse and...

  9. Pena Private Freedom with psychiatric treatment and psychological for Abused

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Maria Pedrosa Porto de Mendonça

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the opinion of professionals in law and health areas on the profile of the sexual abuser of children within the family and the effectiveness of the type of penalty he suffers. The offender is someone who probably does not enjoy enough sanity to control its inclination to unlawful and may or may not be classified as mentally ill. The research covers the incidence and effects of this event on intra-family life. Deals with this issue in order to establish a new legal paradigm in the context of the penalties in the most private sphere of criminal law. The work aims to demonstrate the social relevance of the topic and the need for an effective regulatory sweater for sexual abusers, especially the intra-family and makes a clear proposal for legislative changes with regard to this type of crime, arguing the need to adapt the law the objective reality. It argues that psychoanalytic treatment of offenders as a means of punishment is more important than the simple deprivation of liberty. It argues that the current legislation is incipient and inadequate for such cases and this opinion supported by a significant number of experts. This is not to defend this criminal who practice sexual abuse, but to seek solutions to impunity and respect for the principle of individualization of punishment.

  10. HIV risk behaviors: risky sexual activities and needle use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ya-Fen; Passetti, Lora L; Garner, Bryan R; Lloyd, Jacqueline J; Dennis, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    This study estimated prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and its association with substance use and mental health problems among adolescents in treatment. A pooled dataset of 9,519 adolescents admitted to substance abuse treatment programs between 2002 and 2006 was analyzed. HIV risk behaviors, substance use, and mental health problems were assessed at treatment intake. Sixty percent of adolescents were engaged in at least one sexual or needle use risk behavior in the year prior to entering treatment. Sex with multiple partners, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sex were the most prevalent HIV risk behaviors. Several gender differences were found for specific types of sexual and needle use behaviors. Adolescents with substance dependence or other comorbid mental health problems were at increased odds for HIV risk. Findings suggest treatment programs may benefit adolescents better by screening them consistently for HIV risk behaviors and incorporating tailored interventions.

  11. Barriers to Implementing Individualized Substance Abuse Treatment: Qualitative Findings from the CASPAR Replication Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Casaletto, Kathryn; Knoblach, Dan; Brooks, Adam C; Carise, Deni

    2010-10-01

    Problem-to-services matching is critical to patient-centered care. Further, the extent to which substance abuse treatment is individualized to meet specific client needs is a key predictor of success and represents "best practice" in substance abuse treatment. The CASPAR Resource Guide, an electronic database of local free and low-cost services, is an evidence-based tool designed to help counselors easily and quickly provide offsite referrals to services not available in most community treatment programs to increase problem-to-service matching. This paper examines system-level barriers to using the CASPAR Resource Guide among 30 counselors and 21 site directors across 16 sites in two different studies. Results from qualitative implementation analyses found that key program components needed to support the implementation of this evidence-based practice (e.g., individualized treatment planning, individual treatment sessions, and individual counselor supervision) were lacking, which jeopardized successful adoption of the CASPAR research interventions and prompted a redesign of the studies in order to enhance each program's ability to support individualized care.

  12. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II: stability over time? A seven-year follow-up study of substance abusers in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravndal, Edle; Vaglum, Per

    2010-01-01

    Measuring personality disorders among substance abusers may entail special problems related to the reliability and validity of the instruments. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory II (MCMI-II), a well-known self-reporting instrument, was used in a prospective study of drug abusers from 21 treatment programs in Norway (n = 481) to investigate the influence of substance abuse on the reliability and stability of the MCMI personality traits at intake to treatment and after 7 years (n = 342). As regards the drug-abusing and drug-free subgroups, the MCMI-II dimensional scores were equally reliable and stable in both groups, and were not influenced by the abusing state. Using the MCMI-II in a categorical diagnostic way did not show sufficient predictive validity. The MCMI-II dimensional scores should therefore be used to measure personality disorder traits among help-seeking and former drug abusers.

  13. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemak Christy

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1 environmental, (2 unit-level, and (3 unit leadership. Results A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Conclusion Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care

  14. Insights from a national survey into why substance abuse treatment units add prevention and outreach services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Lemak, Christy Harris; D'Aunno, Thomas A

    2006-08-03

    Previous studies have found that even limited prevention-related interventions can affect health behaviors such as substance use and risky sex. Substance abuse treatment providers are ideal candidates to provide these services, but typically have little or no financial incentive to do so. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore why some substance abuse treatment units have added new prevention and outreach services. Based on an ecological framework of organizational strategy, three categories of predictors were tested: (1) environmental, (2) unit-level, and (3) unit leadership. A lagged cross-sectional logistic model of 450 outpatient substance abuse treatment units revealed that local per capita income, mental health center affiliation, and clinical supervisors' graduate degrees were positively associated with likelihood of adding prevention-related education and outreach services. Managed care contracts and methadone treatment were negatively associated with addition of these services. No hospital-affiliated agencies added prevention and outreach services during the study period. Findings supported the study's ecological perspective on organizational strategy, with factors at environmental, unit, and unit leadership levels associated with additions of prevention and outreach services. Among the significant predictors, ties to managed care payers and unit leadership graduate education emerge as potential leverage points for public policy. In the current sample, units with managed care contracts were less likely to add prevention and outreach services. This is not surprising, given managed care's emphasis on cost control. However, the association with this payment source suggests that public managed care programs might affects prevention and outreach differently through revised incentives. Specifically, government payers could explicitly compensate substance abuse treatment units in managed care contracts for prevention and outreach. The effects of

  15. Influence of pretreatment coping strategies on the outcome of outpatient treatment of Danish alcohol abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette

    2006-01-01

    An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...

  16. Native American women in alcohol and substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sara; Berkowitz, Gale; Cart, Courtney Uhler; Brindis, Claire

    2002-08-01

    Alcohol and other drug use is a serious problem among American Indian and Alaska Native women. However, information about their needs for treatment is lacking. In response, a study was conducted to document the life experiences and perceived recovery needs of American Indian and Alaska Native women at nine treatment centers nationwide. The data show that most of these women have experienced various forms of abuse and neglect from childhood into adulthood and have been exposed to alcohol and other drugs from an early point in their lives. Most of these women have made multiple attempts to recover from their addictions, often for the sake of their children. The information derived from this study can be used as the foundation for further research about the treatment needs of American Indian and Alaska Native women.

  17. Characteristics of U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities adopting buprenorphine in its initial stage of availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R

    2006-07-27

    This study examined the adoption of buprenorphine for the treatment of opiate dependence among U.S. substance abuse treatment facilities and their characteristics at the time of the initial availability of the medication. Data come from a 2003 national survey of all substance abuse treatment facilities in the U.S. Out of our sample of 13,060 facilities, 5.5% of facilities reported they offered buprenorphine. Not unexpectedly, the prevalence was higher in certified opioid treatment programs (11.3%) compared to other facilities (4.6%). For opioid treatment programs, offering Naltrexone (OR=8.34, 95% CI=5.53, 12.58) and offering medically supervised withdrawal (OR=2.76, 95% CI=1.38, 5.52) were independent and robust predictors of offering buprenorphine. These same variables were independent predictors for the non-opioid treatment programs as well (Naltrexone, OR=14.32, 95% CI=7.85, 26.10; and medically supervised withdrawal services, OR=4.42, 95% CI=3.01, 6.49). Our results suggest that the adoption of buprenorphine soon after the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for treatment of opioid dependence and the shipping of the medication commenced was associated with facilities already offering pharmacotherapies such as Naltrexone and medically assisted withdrawal. These findings provide baseline data to track the adoption of buprenorphine by substance abuse treatment programs in future years.

  18. Disclosure of sexual abuse among youth in residential treatment care: a multiple informant comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Lise; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study describes the child sexual abuse experiences of 53 youth (ages 14-17) in child protective services residential treatment care using three informants: youth (via the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), residential treatment workers (via the Child Welfare Trauma Referral Tool), and the child protective services record. Child sexual abuse was self-reported by 38% of youth, with reporting by females almost four times higher. Child sexual abuse co-occurred with physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect in 75% of cases. Agreement between youth and residential treatment worker reports was high, while agreement between youth reports and their child protective services record was low. The study suggests systematic child sexual abuse screening among residential treatment care youth through self-reports and residential treatment worker reports. Case studies are provided, and implications for practice, policy, and future research are discussed.

  19. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  20. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  1. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related... Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference highlighting promising... prevention, treatment, and recovery for these disorders. The conference will be held on September 16, 2013...

  2. The Development of a Substance Abuse Curriculum in a Master's of Social Work Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Matthew J.; Bill, M. Louise; Slater, Judith R.

    2009-01-01

    Substance abuse has been identified as a significant social problem. Social work is uniquely positioned to affect this problem. Kennesaw State University has established a substance abuse concentration as part of its master's of social work program. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of this curriculum. The curriculum is…

  3. 48 CFR 970.2305 - Workplace substance abuse programs-management and operating contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Workplace substance abuse programs-management and operating contracts. 970.2305 Section 970.2305 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Work Place 970.2305 Workplace substance abuse programs—management and operating contracts....

  4. Developing a Peer Educator Program to Raise Awareness about Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Lori E.; Bryanton, Olive; McInnis-Perry, Gloria; Chaulk, Paul

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be lack of public awareness about elder abuse. To help address this issue, we developed and piloted an elder abuse peer educator training program from an educational gerontology and health empowerment perspective. We describe the process employed to train older adults as peer educators. We present evaluation results from data…

  5. CHILD WELFARE AGENCY TIES TO PROVIDERS AND SCHOOLS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT USE BY ADOLESCENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Rebecca; Chuang, Emmeline; Haynes, Lindsey E.; Lee, I-Heng; Bai, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and advocates are increasingly encouraging child-serving organizations to work together. The current study examined how child welfare agency ties with substance abuse treatment providers and schools correlated with substance abuse treatment for adolescents receiving child protective services. A sample of adolescents with substance use risk was extracted from a national survey of families engaged with child welfare. Logistic regressions with adjustments for complex survey design used child welfare agency ties to substance abuse treatment providers and schools to predict treatment. As expected, adolescents were more likely to report treatment when child protective services and substance abuse treatment were in the same agency and when child welfare agency directors reported joint planning with schools. However, child welfare agency agreements with substance abuse treatment providers were negatively associated with treatment. This unexpected finding implies that agencies may sometimes cooperate to address problems as well as to improve service utilization. PMID:20870374

  6. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  7. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  8. '12-Step' Strategy Boosts Success of Teen Drug Abuse Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Human Services. More Health News on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Drugs and Young People Underage Drinking Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Drugs and Young People Underage Drinking About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  9. Polydrug abuse among opioid maintenance treatment patients is related to inadequate dose of maintenance treatment medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanperä, Ilkka Antero

    2017-07-06

    Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.

  10. Multidisciplinary Teams in Child Abuse and Neglect Programs. A Special Report from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, August, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    The monograph examines the rationale and scope of multidisciplinary teams in child abuse and neglect cases; and reviews operation of hospital-based, interagency, and state-mandated multidisciplinary team programs. The bulk of the document is composed of two appendixes: a directory of child abuse and neglect programs which use a multidisciplinary…

  11. NADA Ear Acupuncture: An Adjunctive Therapy to Improve and Maintain Positive Outcomes in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kenneth; Olshan-Perlmutter, Michelle; Marx, Jonathan; Martini, Janet F; Cairns, Simon B

    2017-06-16

    The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol (NADA) is an adjunctive therapy using 1 to 5 invariant ear acupuncture/acupressure points. This is a randomized prospective study to determine if NADA plus traditional treatment enhance outcomes: quality of life, depression, anxiety and abstinence from substance abuse. There were 100 patients enrolled in the Keystone Substance Abuse Services-Winthrop University Department of Sociology and Anthropology NADA study. All patients completed Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES) prior to starting the program and at program completion. Patients self-reported alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prior to starting the program at program completion and at 3 and 6 month follow- up. Patient characteristics are predictive of completion versus non-completion when race, criminal history and initial drug test is considered. Those identified as nonwhite, (p NADA group. Also, among patients with criminal history a higher percentage failed to complete the program in the control group (p NADA positively associated with Q-LES score (p NADA group reported less tobacco use at 6 months (p < 0.05).

  12. Survival Analysis of Drug Abuse Relapse in Addiction Treatment Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a chronic and enduring phenomenon, which is among the important challenging public health problems. One of the main aspects in drug abuse is the relapse. Objectives The aims of this study were to estimate the time to relapse (survival rate and to evaluate some of its associated variables by survival analysis. Patients and Methods This research was conducted in four addiction treatment centers on 140 self-referred addicts in Ilam city, Iran, in 2012. Cluster sampling method was used for selecting the samples and data were collected by interview and referring to the subjects’ records. The gathered data were analyzed through the life table, Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, and Cox regression. Results The relapse rate was 30.42%, mean and median of the time to relapse (survival time were 27.40 ± 1.63 months (CI 95%: 24.19 - 30.60 and 25 ± 2.25 months (CI 95%: 22.5 - 27.5, respectively. In the first six months, the cumulative survival rate was 83%, while in the 24th month it was 46% and the following time was consistent. Job status (OR = 2.64, marital status (OR = 1.55, family size (OR = 1.20 and age (OR = 0.23 were statistically significant in Cox regression model. Conclusions In the initial treatment, it seems necessary to supervise and monitor the treatment process through staff in addiction treatment centers together with the company of the addicts’ families to reduce relapse rate.

  13. Impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among opiate users in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kevin M; Deck, Dennis; Krupski, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    Administrative data from Washington State's Division of Alcohol and Substance Abuse drive this three-year prospective study of the impact of substance abuse treatment on arrests among 12,962 opiate users receiving publicly funded substance abuse services. Using survival analysis, the risk of arrest among opiate users who receive substance abuse treatment is compared to those who do not receive treatment. Propensity scores control for client characteristics associated with admission to substance abuse treatment. Overall, a reduction in the risk of arrest was found among subjects in treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.59-0.78, p < .05) and subjects successfully completing treatment (Hazard Ratio = 0.75, p < .05). Risk of arrest was elevated among those with a negative outcome to treatment (Hazard Ratio = 1.23, p < .05).

  14. Medication-Assisted Treatment For Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Emily; Vallejos Bartlett, Catalina; Brooks, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnatnan Max; Henderson, Randi; Shuman, Deborah, J.

    2005-01-01

    TIP 43 provides best-practice guidelines for medication-assisted treatment of opioid addiction in opioid treatment programs (OTPs). The primary intended audience for this volume is substance abuse treatment providers and administrators who work in OTPs. Recommendations in the TIP are based on both an analysis of current research and determinations…

  15. Methadone versus buprenorphine for the treatment of opioid abuse in pregnancy: science and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Amber M

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in rates of opioid abuse during pregnancy. This clinical challenge has been met with debate regarding whether or not illicit and prescription opioid-dependent individuals require different treatment approaches; whether detoxification is preferable to maintenance; and the efficacy of methadone versus buprenorphine as treatment options during pregnancy. The clinical recommendations resulting from these discussions are frequently influenced by the comparative stigma attached to heroin abuse and methadone maintenance versus prescription opioid abuse and maintenance treatment with buprenorphine. While some studies have suggested that a subset of individuals who abuse prescription opioids may have different characteristics than heroin users, there is currently no evidence to suggest that buprenorphine is better suited to treatment of prescription opioid abuse than methadone. Similarly, despite its perennial popularity, there is no evidence to recommend detoxification as an efficacious approach to treatment of opioid dependence during pregnancy. While increased access to treatment is important, particularly in rural areas, there are multiple medical and psychosocial reasons to recommend comprehensive substance abuse treatment for pregnant women suffering from substance use disorders rather than office-based provision of maintenance medication. Both methadone and buprenorphine are important treatment options for opioid abuse during pregnancy. Methadone may still remain the preferred treatment choice for some women who require higher doses for stabilization, have a higher risk of treatment discontinuation, or who have had unsuccessful treatment attempts with buprenorphine. As treatment providers, we should advocate to expand available treatment options for pregnant women in all States.

  16. Stigma, treatment beliefs, and substance abuse treatment use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although research has reported on structural barriers to treatment access, nonstructural ... from the qualitative component of a multi-method study are reported. In-depth ..... National Research Foundation, the Open Society Foundation, the First ...

  17. Hispanic Subgroups, Acculturation, and Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Carmody, Tom; Akhtar, Maleeha; Stebbins, Mary B; Walters, Scott T; Warden, Diane

    2015-12-01

    This study explored Hispanic subgroup differences in substance use treatment outcomes, and the relationship of acculturation characteristics to these outcomes. Data were from a multisite randomized clinical trial of motivational enhancement therapy versus treatment as usual in a sample of Spanish-speaking substance abusers. Participants were Cuban American (n=34), Mexican American (n=209), Puerto Rican (n=78), and other Hispanic American (n=54). Results suggested that Cuban Americans and individuals with more connection to Hispanic culture had lower treatment retention. Hispanics born in the U.S and those who spoke English at home had a lower percentage of days abstinent during weeks 5-16, although Puerto Ricans born in the U.S. and Cuban Americans living more years in the U.S. had a higher percentage of days abstinent in weeks 1-4 and 5-16, respectively. Results may inform future hypothesis-driven studies in larger Hispanic treatment seeking samples of the relationship between acculturation and treatment outcome.

  18. American Indian culture as substance abuse treatment: pursuing evidence for a local intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Joseph P; Looking, Patrick E Calf

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary tribal commitments to traditional cultural reclamation and revitalization find continued expression by recent generational cohorts of American Indians who, when it comes to matters of recovery, healing, and wellness in the context of substance abuse, routinely assert that "our culture is our treatment." And yet, empirical investigations of this culture-as-treatment hypothesis--namely, that a (post)colonial return to indigenous cultural orientations and practices is sufficient for effecting abstinence and recovery from substance use disorders for many American Indians--have yet to appear in the scientific literature. Preliminary activities of a research partnership dedicated to the empirical exploration of this hypothesis for reducing Native American substance use disorders are summarized. Specifically, collaboration between a university-based research psychologist and a reservation-based substance abuse treatment program staff has thus far resulted in a detailed blueprint for a radically alternative, culturally-grounded intervention developed for reservation residents. This proposed alternative intervention--a seasonal cultural immersion camp designed to approximate the day-to-day experiences of prereservation ancestors--was designed for eventual implementation and evaluation with adult clients referred for residential treatment on the Blackfeet Indian reservation. It is anticipated that the proposed intervention will eventually afford empirical evaluation of the culture-as-treatment hypothesis.

  19. American Youths' Access to Substance Abuse Treatment: Does Type of Treatment Facility Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; Cheng, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, this study examines whether several social exclusion and psychological factors affect adolescents' receipt of substance abuse treatment. Multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to analyze data. The study asked how the specified factors provide pathways to receipt of…

  20. Workforce diversity in outpatient substance abuse treatment: the role of leaders' characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2013-02-01

    Although the outpatient substance abuse treatment field has seen an increase in referrals of African American and Latino clients, there have been limited changes in the diversity of the workforce. This discordance may exacerbate treatment disparities experienced by these clients. Program leaders have significant influence to leverage resources to develop staff diversity. Analysis of panel data from 1995 to 2005 showed that the most significant predictors of diversity were the characteristics of leaders. In particular, programs with managers with racially and ethnically concordant backgrounds and their education level were positively related to the percentage of Latino and African American staff. A high percentage of African American staff was positively associated with managers' tenure, but inversely related to licensed directors. Diversification of the field has increased, yet efforts have not matched increases in client diversity. Implications for health care reform legislation seeking to improve cultural competence through diversification of the workforce are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Workforce Diversity in Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment: The Role of Leaders’ Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the outpatient substance abuse treatment field has seen an increase in referrals of African American and Latino clients, there have been limited changes in the diversity of the workforce. This discordance may exacerbate treatment disparities experienced by these clients. Program leaders have significant influence to leverage resources to develop staff diversity. Analysis of panel data from 1995 to 2005 showed that the most significant predictors of diversity were the characteristics of leaders. In particular, programs with managers with racially and ethnically concordant backgrounds and their education level were positively related to the percentage of Latino and African American staff. A high percentage of African American staff was positively associated with managers’ tenure, but inversely related to licensed directors. Diversification of the field has increased, yet efforts have not matched increases in client diversity. Implications for health care reform legislation seeking to improve cultural competence through diversification of the workforce are discussed. PMID:22658932

  2. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  3. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  4. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  5. Sex-specific substance abuse treatment for female healthcare professionals: implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Brand, Michael; Rojas, Julio; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Gender plays a significant role in the development and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Sex-specific treatment for girls and women has recurrently proven more effective, with better outcomes than traditional treatment. Research on impaired healthcare professionals (HCPs) has largely focused on men, garnering little attention for women and sex differences. With the increasing numbers of female HCPs, it is imperative to identify potential sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our study compared a convenience sample of male and female HCPs with substance abuse disorders treated in an outpatient program to identify sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our sample consisted of 96 HCPs (54 men, 42 women) and 17 non-healthcare professional (N-HCP) women. All of the participants were evaluated using the program's clinical interview and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Chart review data contained categorical variables, qualitative variables, diagnoses, and psychological test scores. A second analysis was conducted through two separate comparisons: the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired male HCPs and the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired female N-HCPs. Statistically significant differences indicated more male participants received prior treatment and more intensive treatment than female participants. More female subjects reported being diagnosed as having a comorbid psychiatric condition and taking psychotropic medications. Several statistically significant differences in the PAI scores were found. Among female HCPs, elevations were found in anxiety, depression, paranoia, and borderline personality disorder. Substantive differences, although not statistically significant, were elevations in somatic complaints and anxiety disorders in female HCPs. In the comparison of female HCPs and N-HCPs, the only statistically significant difference was the significantly higher

  6. Programming for Preventing Sexual Abuse and Abduction: What Does It Mean When It Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraizer, Sherryll Kerns; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an effective program for teaching children about the dangers of sexual abuse and abduction. The program does not introduce negative stories, examples, and other warnings that tend to create anxieties in children. Reports a study evaluating the program's effectiveness. (SKC)

  7. Alcohol abuse and related disorders treatment of alcohol dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sivolap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other

  8. Technology transfer for the implementation of a clinical trials network on drug abuse and mental health treatment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horigian, Viviana E; Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo A; Verdeja, Rosa E; Alonso, Elizabeth; Perez, María A; Fernández-Mondragón, José; Berlanga, Carlos; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Szapocznik, José

    2015-09-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) lack the research infrastructure and capacity to conduct rigorous substance abuse and mental health effectiveness clinical trials to guide clinical practice. A partnership between the Florida Node Alliance of the United States National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network and the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico was established in 2011 to improve substance abuse practice in Mexico. The purpose of this partnership was to develop a Mexican national clinical trials network of substance abuse researchers and providers capable of implementing effectiveness randomized clinical trials in community-based settings. A technology transfer model was implemented and ran from 2011-2013. The Florida Node Alliance shared the "know how" for the development of the research infrastructure to implement randomized clinical trials in community programs through core and specific training modules, role-specific coaching, pairings, modeling, monitoring, and feedback. The technology transfer process was bi-directional in nature in that it was informed by feedback on feasibility and cultural appropriateness for the context in which practices were implemented. The Institute, in turn, led the effort to create the national network of researchers and practitioners in Mexico and the implementation of the first trial. A collaborative model of technology transfer was useful in creating a Mexican researcher-provider network that is capable of changing national practice in substance abuse research and treatment. Key considerations for transnational technology transfer are presented.

  9. Direct Care Workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: Characteristics, Opinions, and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E.; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V.; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M.; Oyama, Mark; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Methods Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category (counselors, medical staff, manager-supervisors, and support staff) on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Results Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master’s or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most consistently influenced responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. Conclusions The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts. PMID:17287373

  10. Hospitalization of adolescents for psychiatric and substance abuse treatment. Legal and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, I M

    1989-11-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 12%-15% of the nations 63 million children are in need of mental health treatment. We have a responsibility to do everything we can to see to it that these children receive the services they need. Unfortunately, there is mounting evidence that a significant proportion of our health care resources are being misspent on the unnecessary and inappropriate hospitalization of children and youths in psychiatric and substance abuse treatment programs. More alarming is the evidence of poor quality programs, abusive practices, and greed. The intense competition to capture a "share of the market" and turn a profit or keep a nonprofit hospital from closing its doors is contributing to unprofessional and unethical advertising and public relations practices. In the end these practices will reflect poorly on the broader mental health and health care community. Hopefully, the stakeholders in the system will recognize these problems and assume a leadership role in turning the situation around. If not, we can expect intervention from forces outside the system (e.g., courts, elected public officials, public interest groups, the business community, and child advocates).

  11. Direct care workers in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: characteristics, opinions, and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Dennis; Fuller, Bret E; Arfken, Cynthia; Miller, Michael; Nunes, Edward V; Edmundson, Eldon; Copersino, Marc; Floyd, Anthony; Forman, Robert; Laws, Reesa; Magruder, Kathy M; Oyama, Mark; Prather, Kristi; Sindelar, Jody; Wendt, William W

    2007-02-01

    Individuals with direct care responsibilities in 348 drug abuse treatment units were surveyed to obtain a description of the workforce and to assess support for evidence-based therapies. Surveys were distributed to 112 programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Descriptive analyses characterized the workforce. Analyses of covariance tested the effects of job category on opinions about evidence-based practices and controlled for the effects of education, modality (outpatient or residential), race, and gender. Women made up two-thirds of the CTN workforce. One-third of the workforce had a master's or doctoral degree. Responses from 1,757 counselors, 908 support staff, 522 managers-supervisors, and 511 medical staff (71% of eligible participants) suggested that the variables that most were most consistently associated with responses were job category (19 of 22 items) and education (20 of 22 items). Managers-supervisors were the most supportive of evidence-based therapies, and support staff were the least supportive. Generally, individuals with graduate degrees had more positive opinions about evidence-based therapies. Support for using medications and contingency management was modest across job categories. The relatively traditional beliefs of support staff could inhibit the introduction of evidence-based practices. Programs initiating changes in therapeutic approaches may benefit from including all employees in change efforts.

  12. Program and staff characteristics in successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E R

    1992-01-01

    Women come to drug treatment with lower self-esteem (Regan et al. 1984), more social isolation, and more difficult life situations than men. Women are more likely to present with mental health comorbidity such as depression (Regan et al. 1982). Treatment programs modeled on outcome research on male patients may not yield strategies that are successful with women. Only in the past decade has research been undertaken into the specific population characteristics of women in drug treatment. Programs must be designed with a clear understanding of women's psychological makeup and particular life stress, including the need to care for their children and the reality of physical and sexual abuse. Drug treatment often unmasks a variety of psychosocial problems that, if not adequately addressed by the drug treatment program, may result in relapse into drug use. Many women live in poverty and are inadequately educated, two factors that can interfere with reintegration of the recovered addict into the community. Thus, the drug treatment program, to provide successful long-term outcomes with respect to drug use, must provide long-term aftercare that includes attention to the variety of social, medical, and emotional problems faced by women who use drugs.

  13. Work as An Effective Intervention Strategy and Rehabilitation Treatment Program for People Who Abuse Drugs And Alcohol%工作作为药物及酒精滥用者有效的干预策略和治疗方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucy Wong-Hernandez; Daniel W. Wong; G. Ben Selby

    2006-01-01

    Despite years of interventions in the United States, substance abuse continues to be a major national problem in our society. For individuals affected, it can constitute a major disability and a decrease in quality of life. Current American societal expectations are that individuals who identify they are involved in substance abuse will go to treatment, eventually recover, get off public assistance straightaway, and return to work. Most rehabilitation professionals also maintain the same expectations. The reality is that efforts of prevention do not appear to diminish the number of people with substance abuse. Traditional treatment appears to have minimal, if any, influence upon the cessation of substance abuse, and traditional vocational rehabilitation practices appear unsuited for the unique problems and types of symptoms experienced by substance abusers. Creative, yet sound, alternatives that combine effective treatment strategies and non-traditional vocational rehabilitation methods need to be explored and tested for effectiveness, and applied.

  14. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Three-Month Follow-Up Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Craig; Misurell, Justin R.; Hiller, Atara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for addressing problems typically found among elementary school-aged victims of child sexual abuse immediately after treatment and at three months following treatment. It was hypothesized that positive gains would be observed among the following domains:…

  15. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Three-Month Follow-Up Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Craig; Misurell, Justin R.; Hiller, Atara

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy program for addressing problems typically found among elementary school-aged victims of child sexual abuse immediately after treatment and at three months following treatment. It was hypothesized that positive gains would be observed among the following domains:…

  16. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alison L; Arfken, Cynthia L; Marcus W. Dickson; Elizabeth Agius; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administ...

  17. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  18. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  19. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Alcohol and Drug Abusers Entering Treatment: How Different Are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraganian, Peter; And Others

    A major shift in drug abuse epidemiology has been witnessed in North America over the past decade. Although alcohol continues to be widely abused, usage of other substances has proliferated. While addicted individuals share some attributes, certain demographic, psychological, and cognitive characteristics may distinguish alcoholics from those who…

  1. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing cohesion in court-mandated group treatment of male spouse abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N

    2003-07-01

    Cohesion in group treatment of spouse abusers plays an important and often overlooked role. Involuntary abuser groups can benefit from cohesion, but due to their unique structure, cohesion may develop differently than in voluntary psychotherapy groups. Initially, abuser groups may develop premature levels of cohesion that can make group members unwilling to express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions. Understanding the abuser personality and the unique characteristics of involuntary abuser groups can shed light on why cohesion develops the way it does and the importance it plays in abuser groups. Developing effective interventions that target premature cohesion can help the group members express conflict, develop intimacy, and take responsibility for their actions, thus bringing about therapeutic levels of cohesion.

  3. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  4. Long-term residential substance abuse treatment for women: lessons learned from Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schori M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Maayan Schori1, Yaffa Sapir2, Eli Lawental31School of Social Policy and Practice, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Central School for the Training of Social Welfare Workers, Ministry of Social Affairs and Social Services, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Social Work, Tel-Hai College, Upper Galilee, IsraelBackground: Policymakers and treatment providers must consider the role of gender when designing effective treatment programs for female substance abusers. This study had two aims. First, to examine female substance abusers' perceptions regarding factors that contribute to their retention (and therefore positive treatment outcomes in a women-only therapeutic community in Northern Israel. Second, to explore pretreatment internal and external factors including demographic, personal and environmental factors, factors associated with substance use and with the treatment process, and networks of support that contribute to retention and abstinence.Methods: The study was a conducted using a mixed methods approach. Semi-structured qualitative interviews examining perceptions towards treatment were conducted in five focus groups (n = 5 per group; total n = 25. Intake assessments and a battery of questionnaires examining pretreatment internal and external factors related to treatment retention and abstinence were collected from 42 women who were treated in the program during the 2 year study period. Twenty-three women who completed the 12 month program were compared to the 19 women who did not, using chi-square for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables. Nineteen of the 23 women who completed the questionnaires also completed a post-treatment follow-up questionnaire.Results: A content analysis of the interviews revealed five central themes: factors associated with treatment entry; impact of treatment in a women-only setting; significant aspects of treatment; difficulties with the setting; prospects for the future

  5. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  6. Psychic Symptomatology as Predictor to Outcome of Treatment for Adolescent Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alfred S.; Terras, Arlene

    1996-01-01

    Study of 176 adolescent drug abusers found that greater psychopathology at pretreatment was not found to be related to less improvement in drug treatment. For the male subsample, greater paranoid trends predicted to less reduction in substance use/abuse. Borderline psychotic symptomatology predicted to more improvement. (RJM)

  7. Training Needs for Substance Abuse Treatment and Assessment among Rehabilitation Counselors: California State Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Lee, Dal-Yob; Cha, Grace; Arokiasamy, Charles

    2008-01-01

    One hundred rehabilitation counselors in California reported that about 90% of consumers with whom they worked with had substance abuse and cooccurring issues, yet about half rated their graduate training in substance abuse treatment and assessment as poor and their practices as marginally proficient. The correlation analysis revealed that…

  8. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  9. Reducing Homeland Insecurities: Ending Abuse of the Asylum and Credible Fear Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    INSECURITIES: ENDING ABUSE OF THE ASYLUM AND CREDIBLE FEAR PROGRAM by Anja Freudenthal March 2015 Thesis Co-Advisors: Fathali...March 2015 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REDUCING HOMELAND INSECURITIES: ENDING ABUSE OF TIIE ASYLUM AND CREDffiLE FEAR...public release; distribution is unlimited A 13. ABSTRACT (maximwn 200 words) This thesis investigates gaps in the credible fear process within the asylum

  10. Parental stress and child behavioral outcomes following substance abuse residential treatment. Follow-up at 6 and 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, T; Brady, K T

    2000-07-01

    Residential treatment programs specifically designed for alcohol/drug-addicted women and their children have become a popular treatment modality across the United States. Outcome evaluation of these programs are beginning to show promising results. In this article, outcome data from a study of a residential substance abuse treatment program for women and young children in rural South Carolina will be presented. Data from 35 women and 23 children in the area of addiction severity, parenting and child emotional and behavioral development at 6 and 12 months following discharge from a substance abuse residential treatment program is examined. Results showed that women who completed treatment had better scores on addiction severity and parental stress, and their children had improved behavioral and emotional functioning at 6 and 12 months after discharge from the program. These results suggest that residential treatment has benefits for mothers and their children. This data adds to the growing body of evidence supporting intensive and inclusive care for certain groups of individuals with substance use disorders during critical periods.

  11. Substance Abuse Minimization: Conceptualizing Prevention in Adolescent and Youth Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullotta, Thomas; Adams, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical and theoretical work on adolescent substance abuse with implications for preventive interventions. The focus is on illustration of the use of four basic prevention tools: education, competency promotion, community mobilization, and natural care giving. (Author)

  12. Training caregivers: the development of an elder abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, F; Stephens, G; Bynum, J

    1990-01-01

    As far as the authors know, their project is the only systematic effort to apply a psychosocial model to the prevention of elder abuse. They plan to disseminate the results of their project in the near future. Assuming positive results, they hope to encourage other practitioners and administrators to make such training available to caregivers.

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Client Participation in Drug Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Aliverdinia

    2014-01-01

    The results suggest an inverse relationship between participation in the treatment process and differential association. Previous studies have also shown that as long as the patient is present in the treatment system there is a lower risk of committing social crimes. In general, we can conclude that participation in the treatment process leads to reduction of drug abuse by increasing associations and beliefs that are against drug abuse and by negating positive attitudes towards drugs.

  14. Social reinforcement of substance abuse treatment aftercare participation: Impact on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Steven J; Burden, Jennifer L; Monteleone, Brian R; Lehmann, Lauren P

    2004-02-01

    Although adherence to aftercare therapy in substance abuse treatment is associated with improved outcome, little research has explored the effects of adherence interventions on outcome. We compared 20 graduates of our 28-day intensive treatment program who received a standard aftercare orientation with 20 graduates who received this intervention plus social reinforcement of aftercare group therapy attendance. The social reinforcement group showed less alcohol use than the standard care group at a 6-month follow-up assessment as measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), but not less drug use. Additionally, compared to standard care, the social reinforcement participants were more likely to be abstinent at the 6-month follow up (76% vs. 40%). The groups did not differ on hospital readmission rates over a 12-month follow-up period. Additionally, the social reinforcement group showed better long-term aftercare attendance compared to the standard care group.

  15. Drug Abuse Treatment Training in Peru: A Social Policy Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Knowlton W.; Young, Linda C.; Suresh, Geetha; Berbaum, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a social policy experiment in 76 drug treatment organizations in Peru from 1997 to 2000. Programs were assigned to one of three training conditions. Positive effects were found for increased staff empowerment to use training tools and principles, and larger effects were found on the implementation of therapeutic community methods with…

  16. The Effect of Substance Abuse Treatment on High Risk Behaviors in the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Lawrence; Finkbiner, Richard; Bishop, Sharon

    Substance abusers are at particular risk for becoming infected with, and for spreading, a number of serious communicable diseases. The value of substance abuse treatment in helping to reduce the associated risk behaviors for these diseases is the focus of this technical report. This analysis examines the risk behaviors of injection drug use and…

  17. Characteristics of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals entering substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2006-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals enter treatment for substance abuse with more severe problems than heterosexual individuals. However, methodological difficulties, particularly the difficulty of obtaining a representative sample, have limited the ability to draw conclusions about LGBT individuals who receive services for substance abuse. This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to examine a representative sample of openly LGBT clients receiving publicly funded substance abuse treatment by using data gathered by treatment providers in Washington State. Baseline differences between openly LGBT and heterosexual clients were compared in a variety of domains. Results demonstrated that openly LGBT clients enter treatment with more severe substance abuse problems, greater psychopathology, and greater medical service utilization when compared with heterosexual clients. When the analyses were stratified based on sex, different patterns of substance use and associated psychosocial characteristics emerged for the LGBT clients. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed in this article.

  18. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcers for substance abuse treatment involvement. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes in general, and in response to CM, compared to those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes but that CM is effective regardless of patients’ legal status. PMID:21908754

  19. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Rash, Carla J; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcement for substance abuse treatment. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance-abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes, in general and in response to CM, compared with those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes, but that CM is effective regardless of the patient's legal status.

  20. Methadone Maintenance: The Experience of Four Programs. The Drug Abuse Council Manuscript Series, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaceau, Paul

    Methadone maintenance is a relatively new method for treating heroin addiction. Controversy and questions remain about the drug itself and its use of methadone. The author was engaged by The Drug Abuse Council to prepare these descriptions of four methadone programs and the accompanying summary. The evolution of these programs is examined, and the…

  1. Exploratory Evaluation of a School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G.; Topping, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, efficacy studies of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programs display a series of methodological shortcomings. Few studies include adolescent participants, recording of disclosures has been inconsistent, and no studies to date have assessed presenter adherence to program protocols or summated the costs of program…

  2. Practice Makes Perfect? The Role of Participant Modeling in Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Sandy K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Assigned 26 kindergarten children to either a sexual abuse prevention program which taught self-protective skills through modeling and active rehearsal (PM) or a program which taught the same skills by having children watch skills modeled by experimenter (SM). Results provide support for greater efficacy of PM relative to SM for learning of…

  3. The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among methadone maintenance treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potik, David; Peles, Einat; Abramsohn, Yahli; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was examined by the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and drug abuse urine tests. After six years, retention in treatment and repeated urine test results were studied. Patients with vulnerable attachment style (a high VASQ score) had higher rates of drug abuse and higher psychopathology levels compared to patients with secure attachment style, especially on the interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation scales. Drug abstinence at baseline was related to retention in treatment and to higher rates of drug abstinence after six years in MMT, whereas a vulnerable attachment style could not predict drug abstinence and retention in treatment. Clinical Implications concerning treatment of drug abusing populations and methodological issues concerning the VASQ's subscales are also discussed.

  4. Male perpetrators, the gender symmetry debate, and the rejection-abuse cycle: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jac

    2012-07-01

    This review article examined the gender symmetry debate in light of recent research relating to the feminist and family research perspectives on intimate partner violence, providing a context for rethinking perpetrator programs. The concept of coercive control is considered as an explanatory factor in an attempt to integrate the feminist and family research perspectives. The limited effectiveness of perpetrator programs is examined. Research highlighting potential factors that could improve the effectiveness of perpetrator programs is introduced, followed by a discussion of the rejection-abuse cycle, one attempt to incorporate current research into a more inclusive program. The rejection-abuse cycle identifies a pattern of perpetrator behavior, which links rejection, threat to self, defense against threat, and abuse. Finally, suggestions for changing perpetrator programs are elaborated, incorporating past research, which would make them appropriate for both male and female perpetrators. These implications are contextualized within a meta-theory to provide greater clarity for the development of future perpetrator programs.

  5. Treatment and prevention of elder abuse and neglect: where knowledge and practice meet-a model for intervention to prevent and treat elder abuse in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Sara; Berg-Warman, Ayelet

    2014-01-01

    Successful handling of elder abuse and neglect requires various interventions. This article presents findings from an evaluation study of a model for intervention implemented in three municipalities in Israel. Data from 558 older adults, exposed to abuse and treated through the program, and interviews with victims, abusers, and professionals revealed that improvement was achieved in 66% of the cases. In 20% of the cases, the abuse was stopped. The most widespread type of intervention consisted of individual counseling. Legal intervention yielded the highest rate of improvement (82%). Provision of supportive services for victims of neglect was found to be most effective (82% of improvement in the situation).

  6. Feminist-cognitive-behavioral and process-psychodynamic treatments for men who batter: interaction of abuser traits and treatment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, D G

    1996-01-01

    At a community-based domestic violence program, 218 men with a history of partner abuse were randomly assigned to either feminist-cognitive-behavioral or process-psychodynamic group treatments. The treatments were not hypothesized to differ in outcome. However, men with particular characteristics were expected to have lower recidivism rates depending on the type of treatment received. Treatment integrity was verified through audio-taped codings of each session. The partners of 79% of the 136 treatment completers gave reports of the men's behavior an average of 2 years post-treatment. These reports were supplemented with arrest records and self-reports. Rates of violence did not differ significantly between the two types of treatment nor did reports from the women of their fear level, general changes perceived in the men, and conflict resolution methods. However, interaction effects were found between some offender traits and the two treatments. As predicted, men with dependent personalities had better outcomes in the process-psychodynamic groups and those with antisocial traits had better outcomes in the cognitive-behavioral groups. The results suggest that more effective treatment may occur if it is tailored to specific characteristics of offenders.

  7. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  8. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  9. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2003)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  10. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2004)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  11. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2007)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  12. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  13. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-1997-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  14. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2009)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  15. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  16. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  17. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  18. 1997 through 2010 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) (formerly titled Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS)) is designed to collect information from all...

  19. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  20. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  1. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  2. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS-2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) is designed to collect information from all facilities in the United States, both public and...

  3. Self-examination therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, V; Ward, L C; Bowman, D; Scogin, F

    1996-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of Self-Examination Therapy as an adjunct treatment for depressive symptoms in substance abusing patients, 28 adult male volunteers from a substance abuse unit at a VA Medical Center were randomly assigned to either Self-Examination Therapy or a Current Events comparison group. Analyses indicated that participants in Self-Examination Therapy showed significantly greater improvement in depressive symptoms and overall psychopathology than participants in the Current Events comparison group. These results suggest that Self-Examination Therapy is a viable adjunct treatment for substance abusers, particularly those with depressive symptoms.

  4. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  5. An exploration of child sexual abusers' sexual fantasies before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffer, T; Hollin, C; Beech, A; Beckett, R; Fisher, D

    2000-01-01

    Although there is a substantial literature looking at the relationship between deviant sexual fantasies and child sexual abuse, there is scant previous work that focuses upon the actual content of such fantasies. The present study looks at child sexual abusers' deviant fantasies both pre- and postintervention. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, a description of the frequency and content of, and triggers for, child sexual abusers' deviant fantasies is reported both pre- and postintervention. The implications of this information for subsequent intervention programs is explored.

  6. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  7. Game-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (GB-CBT) Group Program for Children Who Have Experienced Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misurell, Justin R.; Springer, Craig; Tryon, Warren W.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary investigation examined the efficacy of a game-based cognitive-behavioral therapy group program for elementary school-aged children who have experienced sexual abuse. Treatment aimed to improve: (a) internalizing symptoms, (b) externalizing behaviors, (c) sexually inappropriate behaviors, (d) social skills deficits, (e) self-esteem…

  8. Emotional concerns and treatment of male partners of female sexual abuse survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauncey, S

    1994-11-01

    Many men are discovering that they are involved with women who were sexually abused as children. However, male partners of female sexual abuse survivors have thus far received little attention in the literature. As these men increasingly seek treatment with concerns of their own, social workers must become familiar with their emotional experiences and treatment needs. This article outlines the major concerns expressed by 20 male partners of sexual abuse survivors. These concerns included conflicts about expressing needs, frustration with various aspects of their relationships, guilt and shame at having feelings, questions about how to deal with relatives, and sexual issues. The author recommends a treatment approach that combines attention to both the individual's and the couple's concerns and uses insight and the safety of the therapeutic relationship to promote growth. The importance of further outreach to partners of women who were sexually abused as children and the need for increased attention to other partner populations are highlighted.

  9. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  10. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study.

  11. American indians/alaska natives and substance abuse treatment outcomes: positive signs and continuing challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Spear, Suzanne; Marinelli-Casey, Patricia; Rawson, Richard; Li, Libo; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2011-01-01

    Limited information is known with regard to substance abuse treatment outcomes among AI/ANs. Data retrieved from the Treatment System Impact (TSI) project and Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP) were used to compare treatment measures between a sample of AI/ANs and a matched comparison group. Our results revealed no significant differences between AI/ANs and the matched comparison group in treatment outcomes at 12-months post-treatment based on legal, employment, medical, and psychiatric measures. AI/ANs also received more family-related services (29.9% vs. 17.1%) and abuse-related services (21.3% vs. 7.6%). Addressing barriers to receiving substance abuse treatment and enhancing screening methods for AI/ANs are suggested.

  12. The Feeling of Being Contaminated in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Its Treatment via a Two-Session Program of Cognitive Restructuring and Imagery Modification: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kerstin; Steil, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experiences show that many survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suffer from a distressing feeling of being contaminated (FBC) even years or decades after the last experience of sexual violence. So far, this symptom has been neglected in research. The aim of this article is to illustrate this symptom and the necessity of a specialized…

  13. Electronic health records: essential tools in integrating substance abuse treatment with primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark HW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai1, Li-Tzy Wu2, H Westley Clark31Center for Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 3Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD, USAAbstract: While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted

  14. Prior Substance Abuse and Related Treatment History Reported by Recent Victims of Sexual Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substance abuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substance abuse and assault, assault preceded substance abuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substance abuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substance abuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174

  15. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winona Poulton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2,  1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA,  *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual

  16. Substance abuse, treatment needs and access among female sex workers and non-sex workers in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browne Felicia A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW and non-sex workers (non-SW in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506 comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.

  17. Drug Abuse: The Crack Cocaine Epidemic Health Consequences and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    glands. 2Kalku, David A. M.D., and Daniel H. Lowenstein, M.D., "Emergence of Recreational Drug Abuse as a Major Risk Factor for Stroke in Young Adults...Desipramine." Psychiatric Annals, Vol. 18, No. 9 (Sept. 1988), pp. 535-37. Fischman , Marian W., Ph.D., "Behavioral Pharmacology of Cocaine." Journal of...Consequences and Treal•met for Crack Abse " Bibliography Kaku, David A., M.D. and Daniel H. Lowenstein, M.D., "Emergence of Recreational Drug Abuse as a Major

  18. The Effectiveness of Psycho-Educational School-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Training Program on Turkish Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecen-Erogul, Ayse Rezan; Kaf Hasirci, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    In Turkey, there is neither systematic nor structured child sexual abuse prevention programs for school-aged children in school settings. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a school-based child sexual abuse prevention program on elementary school (4th grade) students. Quasi-experimental design with pretest,…

  19. Evaluation of an Intensive In-Home Services Program Aimed at Parents with Substance Abuse Issues Reported for Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Martha Morrison

    This paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the effectiveness of a demonstration program designed to provide in-home intervention with parents and children in families with substance abuse issues. The goals of the program were to prevent further child abuse or neglect, prevent family breakdown and child placement, and facilitate…

  20. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

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    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  1. Predictors of retention in a drug-free unit/substance abuse treatment in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-López, María José; González-Menéndez, Ana; Festinger, David S; Fernández-García, Paula; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades, Roberto; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of dropout from treatment programs is a recurring problem in the field of drug dependence. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of retention in a prison-based drug-free unit (DFU). The relationships among subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as well as motivation and personality profiles and length of stay in a DFU, of 57 prisoners admitted for the first time to the program were analyzed. The mean dropout rates were 52.9% at six months and 67.8% at one year. The mean length of stay was 195.05 days. Predictors of retention at six months included the ASI Family Composite Score, the motivation subscale Taking Steps, and Narcissistic personality trait score. Predictors of retention at one year included lower ASI Psychological Composite Score, higher scores on the motivation subscale Ambivalence, and higher number of charges pending at the time of admission to the program. Identification of these predictor variables may be useful for developing strategies to increase retention in the context of in-prison substance abuse treatment.

  2. Heterogeneity of Individuals with a History of Child Sexual Abuse: An Examination of Children Presenting to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, C. Thresa; Hansen, David J.; Naufel, Karen Z.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined children and families who presented for treatment through Project SAFE (Sexual Abuse Family Education) following childhood sexual abuse. Pretreatment assessment data were used to develop clusters of participants with significantly differing presentation of symptom outcome following abuse. Four clusters were discovered:…

  3. 3 R's in the Marital Treatment of Alcohol Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.

    Alcohol abuse imposes financial, social, and emotional burdens on drinkers and their families. Couples suffering from alcohol-related problems who seek therapy often have expectations of retribution, restitution, and refuge. Although thoughts of retribution are difficult to elicit in therapy, non-drinking spouses often expect to inflict pain on…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  5. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  6. Manualized treatment for substance abusers with personality disorders: dual focus schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of an untreated personality disorder may be associated with worse compliance and outcome in substance abuse treatment. Therapeutic attention to the symptoms of personality disorder may reduce the severity of substance abuse and other Axis I symptoms which potentially contribute to relapse. A 24-week manual-guided individual cognitive-behavioral therapy approach has been developed that integrates relapse prevention with targeted intervention for early maladaptive schemas (enduring negative beliefs about oneself, others, and events) and coping styles. This Dual Focus Schema Therapy is being compared to 12-Step Drug Counseling for opioid-dependent individuals with personality disorders in an ongoing study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This article reviews Young's (1994) schema-focused theory and approach and summarizes the treatment manual, which integrates relapse prevention for substance abuse.

  7. National Analysis of Differences among Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: College Student and Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discover differences between student and nonstudent substance abuse treatment demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. Participants: Conducted February 2014, clients without prior treatment admissions, aged 18-24, not in methadone maintenance therapy, and in nonintensive and ambulatory intensive outpatient treatment…

  8. Variables Associated with Environmental Scanning among Clinicians at Substance Abuse Treatment Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alison L.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W.; Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables…

  9. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  10. Perceptions of Organizational Functioning in Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Steven; Louw, Johann; Myers, Bronwyn

    2011-01-01

    Directors' and treatment staff's perceptions of organizational functioning within substance abuse treatment facilities in four provinces in South Africa were examined via the Texas Christian University's Organizational Readiness for Change instrument. Forty-four treatment facilities (out of 89) participated in the study. Results indicated that…

  11. 75 FR 44929 - Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ...-AA41 Request for Information Regarding Workplace Substance Abuse Programs for Department of Energy... information. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE or the Department) requests information and comments on... certification; and other pertinent subjects. The information received in response to this request will assist...

  12. A Qualitative Content Analysis of Sexual Abuse Prevention and Awareness Programming in Texas Private School Athletics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naterman, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent private school athletic administrators have implemented programming specifically aimed at combatting the problem of childhood sexual abuse in sport. The study examined published policies and procedures overseen by private school athletic administrators to determine to what extent their…

  13. Evaluation of a School-Based Sexual Abuse Prevention Program: Cognitive and Emotional Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Renee L.; McNiel, Dale E.

    1987-01-01

    A school-based child sexual abuse prevention program consisting of separate two-hour workshops for children (ages 5-12), parents, and teachers was evaluated. Results indicated parents were more informed and interactive with their children following the workshops. Children showed no increased emotional stress and reported feeling safer and better…

  14. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  15. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ehring, T.; Welboren, R; Morina, N; Wicherts, J.M.; J. Freitag; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could b...

  16. Medical treatment of the adolescent drug abuser. An opportunity for rehabilitative intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, S K

    1976-03-01

    Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.

  17. Family-Based Intervention Program for Parents of Substance-Abusing Youth and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisetto Pons, David; González Barrón, Remedios

    2016-01-01

    The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological) health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n = 50) were parents from Valencia (Spain) that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n = 25) was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), depression (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI), and anger (STAXI-II) were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group's self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time. PMID:27800208

  18. Family-Based Intervention Program for Parents of Substance-Abusing Youth and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bisetto Pons

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of drugs among adolescents/youth often results in a high degree of distress for the family members who live with them. This in turn can lead to a deterioration of mental (psychological health, hindering any attempt to successfully cope with the situation. The goal of our research was to study the effect of the Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT program on parents of adolescents/young adult drug users. Study volunteers (n=50 were parents from Valencia (Spain that were divided into two groups. The experimental group (n=25 was made up of parents whose sons and daughters exhibited problems with drug use and the constructed noncausal baseline group (n=25 was made up of parents whose sons and daughters did not show any substance abuse problems. For both groups, self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI, and anger (STAXI-II were evaluated before and after the application of the CRAFT program. Results show a significant improvement in the experimental group’s self-esteem, depression, and anger state and a decrease in negative moods. These changes in parents produce a positive effect on their substance-using sons and daughters: of the 25 participants, 15 contacted specialized addiction treatment resources for the first time.

  19. Addiction and Women Gender Differences Concerning Drug Abuse and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the quantitative grounds for the emergence and spread of addiction among women, its medical, social and psychological problems, impediments for the treatment of addiction among women as well as gender differences concerning drug abuse and its treatment. This article is a translation of a statistical research on addiction among women and a number of other researches. Based on conclusions drawn from the said researches, women become inclined to addiction mostly by their husbands due to their cordial relationships. Moreover, the negative attitudes of peer groups can overshadow girls and women more than boys and men. From the viewpoint of psychological disorders, the relationship between disorders resulting from psychological pressure after an incident and addiction is stronger among girls and women compared to boys and men. Addiction among women in addition to certain ailments such as malnutrition, hypertension and cancer, can expose them to dangerous diseases such as Hepatitis and AIDS. There is more possibility for addicted women to be infected with AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to men and they are more exposed to female ailments compared to other women. As far as treatment impediments are concerned, women face a greater social stigma due to their addiction compared to men. Social approach considering addicted women as an indecent person is a major impediment for their treatment. Taking care of the child is also another obstacle for their treatment. There is less possibility for women to receive support from their families for quitting their addiction compared to men. Treatment programs also unwantedly may create obstacles for the treatment of women such as financial constraints, administrative bureaucracy, concentration of treatment programs for men and lack of sensitivity towards women’s addiction. The psychological impediments to treatment include internalizing the notion that addiction is a

  20. The practice and process of healthy exercise: an investigation of the treatment of exercise abuse in women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Rachel M; Pedrotty, Kelly N

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of an exercise program designed to reduce exercise abuse in women who are in residential treatment for eating disorders. One hundred and twenty-seven women who participated in the exercise program were compared to 127 non-participants on weight gain and self-reported obligatory attitudes and beliefs about exercise. The exercise participants were women who were medically cleared and attended at least two exercise groups during treatment. The control group were women who were medically cleared, but did not attend any exercise groups during treatment. Significant group x diagnosis interactions revealed that women in the exercise group who were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa gained more than one-third as much weight as those in the control group. Also, women in the exercise group demonstrated significantly reduced obligatory attitudes toward exercise compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the use of an exercise program that targets exercise abuse in women with eating disorders is feasible during residential treatment and results in positive change without interfering with weight gain. Limitations that result from the lack of random assignment to the exercise and control group are discussed.

  1. How do providers serving American Indians and Alaska Natives with substance abuse problems define evidence-based treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Laurie A; Aarons, Gregory A; Davis, Jordan H; Novins, Douglas K

    2015-05-01

    Rates of substance abuse remain high in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. While there are many evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for substance use problems, no studies exist describing how directors of treatment programs serving AI/ANs perceive and use EBTs. Twenty-one key informant interviews with program administrators and 10 focus groups with clinicians were conducted at 18 treatment programs for AI/ANs with substance use problems. Demographic data were not collected to protect participant privacy. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. A majority of participants correctly defined an EBT using the key terms "effective" and "research" found in standard definitions of the phrase. More detailed descriptions were uncommon. Prevalent themes related to attitudes about EBTs included concerns about cultural relevance, external mandates to use EBTs, and their reliance on western conceptualization of substance abuse. While most administrators and clinicians who treat AI/AN clients for substance abuse had a basic understanding of what constitutes an EBT, there was little consensus regarding their relevance for use with AI/ANs. Recognizing that broad geographic and tribal diversity among AI/AN populations may impact conclusions drawn about EBTs, several factors may enhance the abilities of program staff to identify EBTs most appropriate for local implementation. These include gaining a more detailed understanding of how an EBT is developed and how to assess its scientific grounding, as well as utilizing definitions of EBTs that include not only research evidence, but also clinical expertise and judgment, and fit with consumer choice, preference, and culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. [Sexual abuse of boys. Examples of a group-oriented treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneland, M; Hanstad, A M

    1996-11-30

    Although the sexual abuse of boys is much less written and talked about than the sexual abuse of girls, it is thought that one of three victims of abuse is a boy. This article sums up the symptoms and reactions seen in male victims. Whereas women usually react with depression and guilt, men react more with anger. Psychosomatic symptoms are often seen, as well as sexual problems such as homophobia or exaggerated masculinisation. As many as 30-50% of male rapist and child molesters have been molested as children. This makes it important to establish a therapeutic dialogue with these men about what they have been through, so as to avoid the development of such behaviour if possible. Experience from the treatment of male adults who were sexually abused in childhood is described, and placed in relation to the existing literature on the subject.

  3. Excessive sexual activities among male clients in substance abuse treatment. An interview study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hansen Punzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The co-occurrence of substance abuse and excessive sexual activities is acknowledged in research and treatment practice. Men seem particularly at risk for developing excessive sexual activities. Excessive sexual activities complicate substance abuse treatment, and clients with such co-occurring difficulties have considerable treatment needs. It is therefore considered important to investigate how male clients who had enacted excessive sexual activities, perceive their excessive sexual activities, and themselves. Design: Interviews were performed with five male clients in substance abuse treatment, who had enacted excessive sexual activities. The interviews concerned the participants’ perception of themselves and how they came to enact excessive sexual activities. The interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: Two major themes were identified. One theme concerned overwhelming shame and difficulties to discuss sexuality in treatment. The second theme concerned how perceptions about masculinity had influenced sexual activities. Sexuality was described as an absent topic in their previous and ongoing treatment, and the participants described a need to discuss sexuality. Implications: It seems important that future studies investigate how excessive sexual activities might be identified and handled in treatment. It also seems important to investigate how gender-perceptions might influence excessive sexual activities. As a suggestion, practitioners should address sexuality, shame and perceptions about gender during treatment. Keywords: Excessive sexual activities; Interview study; Masculinity; Shame; Substance abuse; Treatment

  4. Child maltreatment and risk patterns among participants in a child abuse prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Jennifer Y; Hughes, Marcia; Asnes, Andrea G; Leventhal, John M

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between risk factors and Child Protective Services (CPS) outcomes in families who participate in home visiting programs to prevent abuse and neglect and who are reported to CPS is largely unknown. We examined the relationship between parental risk factors and the substantiation status and number of CPS reports in families in a statewide prevention program. We reviewed CPS reports from 2006 to 2008 for families in Connecticut's child abuse prevention program. Six risk factors (histories of CPS, domestic violence [DV], mental health, sexual abuse, substance abuse, and criminal involvement) and the number of caregivers were abstracted to create risk scores for each family member. Maltreatment type, substantiation, and number of reports were recorded. Odds ratios were calculated. Of 1,125 families, 171 (15.6%) had at least one CPS report, and reports of 131 families were available for review. Families with a substantiated (25.2%) versus unsubstantiated (74.8%) first report had a high number of paternal risk factors (OR=6.13, 95% CI [1.89, 20.00]) and were more likely to have a history of maternal DV (OR=8.47, 95% CI [2.96, 24.39]), paternal DV (OR=11.23, 95% CI [3.33, 38.46]), and maternal criminal history (OR=4.55; 95% CI [1.32, 15.60]). Families with >1 report (34.4%) versus 1 report (65.6%) were more likely to have >3 caregivers, but this was not statistically significant (OR=2.53, 95% CI [0.98, 6.54]). In a prevention program for first-time families, DV, paternal risk, maternal criminal history, and an increased number of caregivers were associated with maltreatment outcomes. Targeting parental violence may impact child abuse prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Men with Intellectual Disabilities and Sexually Abusive Behaviour: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glynis; Powell, Simon; Guzman, Ana-Maria; Hays, Sarah-Jane

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) seems to be becoming the treatment of choice for non-disabled sex offenders. Nevertheless, there have been relatively few evaluations of such treatment for men with intellectual disabilities (ID) and sexually abusive behaviour. Method: A pilot study providing CBT for two groups of men with ID is…

  6. Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the social network characteristics of 102 urban adolescents in brief substance abuse treatment are described and analyzed longitudinally to examine risk and protective mechanisms. The treatment intervention had one session devoted to social support and networks. Social networks were conceptualized and measured along two dimensions…

  7. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Parent-Involved Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan

    2008-01-01

    Sexual abuse in children not only occurs with alarming frequency, it also potentially leads to deleterious consequences for victims. Previous narrative reviews have touted the benefits of including the nonoffending caregiver in child sexual treatment. Objective: A meta-analysis is conducted to determine the effects of parent-involved treatment in…

  9. Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors concerning Alcohol and Other Drugs Abuse Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin

    2007-01-01

    Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…

  10. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  11. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Parent-Involved Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan

    2008-01-01

    Sexual abuse in children not only occurs with alarming frequency, it also potentially leads to deleterious consequences for victims. Previous narrative reviews have touted the benefits of including the nonoffending caregiver in child sexual treatment. Objective: A meta-analysis is conducted to determine the effects of parent-involved treatment in…

  13. Treatment Needs and Services for Mothers with a Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Sylvia K.; Schinke, Steven P.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews treatment needs of dual diagnosed, substance abusing and mentally ill mothers. Suggests treatment strategies and programmatic options for serving and meeting needs of these mothers and their children. Devotes particular attention to residential and continuing care services and skills-based interventions for target clients. Concludes with…

  14. Attachment as an organizer of behavior: implications for substance abuse problems and willingness to seek treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troutman Beth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attachment theory allows specific predictions about the role of attachment representations in organizing behavior. Insecure attachment is hypothesized to predict maladaptive emotional regulation whereas secure attachment is hypothesized to predict adaptive emotional regulation. In this paper, we test specific hypotheses about the role of attachment representations in substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Based on theory, we expect divergence between levels of maladaptive functioning and adaptive methods of regulating negative emotions. Methods Participants for this study consist of a sample of adoptees participating in an ongoing longitudinal adoption study (n = 208. The Semi-Structured Assessment of the Genetics of Alcohol-II 41 was used to determine lifetime substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Attachment representations were derived by the Adult Attachment Interview [AAI; 16]. We constructed a prior contrasts reflecting theoretical predictions for the association between attachment representations, substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Results Logistic regression was used to test our hypotheses. As predicted, individuals classified as dismissing, preoccupied or earned-secure reported the highest rates of substance abuse/dependence. Individuals classified as dismissing reported significantly lower rates of treatment participation despite their high rates of substance abuse/dependence. As expected, the continuous-secure group reported lowest rates of both substance abuse/dependence and treatment participation. Conclusion The findings from this study identify attachment representations as an influential factor in understanding the divergence between problematic substance use and treatment utilization. The findings further imply that treatment may need to take attachment representations into account to promote successful recovery.

  15. Group treatment for child sexual abuse: treatment referral and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lindsay; Springer, Craig; Misurell, Justin R; Block-Lerner, Jennifer; Brandwein, David

    2015-01-01

    A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effectiveness of group (game-based cognitive behavioral) therapy to group-plus-individual therapy for child sexual abuse. The sample consisted predominantly of children from economically disadvantaged, African-American or Latino backgrounds. Pretreatment scores were examined in order to determine which factors influence treatment referral decisions. Results suggest that children who were referred for individual therapy in addition to group therapy report higher pretreatment levels of sexualized behavior. Posttreatment differences were also compared across therapy conditions. Results suggest that individual therapy is needed to address the sexual concerns of survivors but that it may not be needed to augment the effects of group therapy for other symptoms. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  16. Clinicians' information sources for new substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Agius, Elizabeth; Dickson, Marcus W

    2005-09-01

    Little is known about clinicians' information sources for new treatments or ways to improve dissemination of that information. We analyzed 163 clinicians' responses to a checklist of where and how frequently they obtain information on new treatment approaches. They reported at least yearly use of a median of four cosmopolite categories (e.g., journals or books, Internet) and a median of three local categories (e.g., co-workers, personal experience) with interpersonal contact with co-workers (89%) and seminars/conferences (86%) being the most frequently endorsed responses for at least yearly use. In response to the hypothetical scenario of receiving monthly e-mail summaries of journal articles, 59% of the clinicians rated the strategy as "very helpful". If continuing education credits were offered, more clinicians (from 50-80%) would read the relevant articles. Information dissemination may improve with expanded Internet access at programs and short e-mailed summaries carrying links to full articles coupled with the incentive of earning continuing education credits.

  17. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA's SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Del Boca, Frances; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings. SBIRT programs in the two evaluated SAMHSA cohorts screened more than 1 million patients/clients. SBIRT implementation was facilitated by committed leadership and the use of substance use specialists, rather than medical generalists, to deliver services. Although the quasi-experimental nature of the outcome evaluation does not permit causal inferences, pre-post differences were clinically meaningful and statistically significant for almost every measure of substance use. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. Both brief intervention and brief treatment were associated with positive outcomes, but brief intervention was more cost-effective for most substances. Sixty-nine (67%) of the original performance sites adapted and redesigned SBIRT service delivery after initial grant funding ended. Four factors influenced SBIRT sustainability: presence of program champions, availability of funding, systemic change and effective management of SBIRT provider challenges. The US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program was adapted successfully to the needs of early identification efforts for hazardous use of alcohol and illicit drugs. SBIRT is an innovative way to integrate the

  18. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  19. MMPI Patterns in Drug Abusers Before and After Treatment in Therapeutic Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Marvin; And Others

    1975-01-01

    MMPI was given to 145 male and female drug abusers on admission to three therapeutic communities, and retests were done at the finish of the first phase of the program. Comparisons of stayers and quitters showed quitters higher on the F and psychotic scales. (Author)

  20. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  1. The Costs and Benefits of Substance Abuse Treatment: Findings from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Denmead, Gabrielle; Nguyen, Robert; Harrison, Margaret; Harwood, Henrick

    This study seeks to quantify the costs and benefits of alcohol and drug abuse treatment and the resulting economic benefits to society. Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), and client questionnaires, estimates were made of the average costs per client in terms of crime-related costs, health care costs, and…

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.

    1983-07-01

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.

  3. Implementing Effective Substance Abuse Treatments in General Medical Settings: Mapping the Research Terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Lori J; Chandler, Redonna K; Harris, Alex H S

    2016-01-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) share an interest in promoting high quality, rigorous health services research to improve the availability and utilization of evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (SUD). Recent and continuing changes in the healthcare policy and funding environments prioritize the integration of evidence-based substance abuse treatments into primary care and general medical settings. This area is a prime candidate for implementation research. Recent and ongoing implementation projects funded by these agencies are reviewed. Research in five areas is highlighted: screening and brief intervention for risky drinking; screening and brief intervention for tobacco use; uptake of FDA-approved addiction pharmacotherapies; safe opioid prescribing; and disease management. Gaps in the portfolios, and priorities for future research, are described.

  4. Substance abuse treatment in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: gaps, consequences and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Mary F; Horgan, Constance; Amaro, Hortensia; Doonan, Michael

    2005-11-17

    This issue brief outlines five strategies for improving the quality of treatment in Massachusetts: (1) Engaging detoxification clients in a broader continuum of treatment, (2) Improving retention in treatment, (3) Providing client/family-centered services, (4) Increasing the use of evidence-based treatment approaches, and (5) Supporting recovery to address the chronic nature of substance use disorders. These strategies are essential to maximizing the impact of our substance abuse dollars. We need to do it right and then expand access to treatment more broadly and fill the treatment gap. Although not the focus of this report we need to think harder about upfront prevention and efforts to encourage more people to seek care. Part of the public strategy also requires better coordination between BSAS, MassHealth, provider organizations, and other state agencies, including criminal justice and mental health agencies. Through these efforts we can reduce the costs and consequences of substance abuse and build a healthier, more productive community.

  5. Initial psychometric properties of a treatment planning and progress inventory for adolescents who sexually abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, Brent J; Burns, G Leonard; Kahn, Timothy J; Rich, Phil; Worling, James R

    2008-06-01

    This article presents the initial psychometric properties of a treatment planning and progress inventory for adolescents with sexual behavior problems, the Treatment Progress Inventory for Adolescents Who Sexually Abuse (TPI-ASA). The TPI-ASA was designed to monitor common elements of specialized treatment for youth with sexual behavior problems. The TPI-ASA measures nine dimensions relevant to the evaluation and treatment of adolescents with sexual behavior problems (inappropriate sexual behavior, healthy sexuality, social competency, cognitions supportive of sexual abuse, attitudes supportive of sexual abuse, victim awareness, affective/behavioral regulation, risk prevention awareness, and positive family caregiver dynamics). Members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers completed the TPI-ASA with 90 male adolescents with sexual behavior problems as part of a psychosexual evaluation. The preliminary findings provided support for the internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity of the dimensions. Suggestions are offered for additional research on the TPI-ASA and its potential as a clinical tool.

  6. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments.

  7. A Behavioral Perspective of Childhood Trauma and Attachment Issues: Toward Alternative Treatment Approaches for Children with a History of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Walter; Golden, Jeannie A.

    2009-01-01

    Attachment theory provides a useful conceptual framework for understanding trauma and the treatment of children who have been abused. This article examines childhood trauma and attachment issues from the perspective of behavior analysis, and provides a theoretical basis for two alternative treatment models for previously abused children and their…

  8. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  9. [Qualitative evaluation of TAMARPP, the relapse prevention program for substance abusers at the Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniai, Tomoko; Yottsuji, Naomi; Okuda, Hidemi; Karibe, Haruo; Miura, Kasumi; Hiraga, Masasi; Kondo, Ayumi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2014-12-01

    The development of an effective treatment system for patients with addiction-related problems like substance abuse or pathological gambling is urgently needed. The purpose of this study was to clarify the therapeutic factors of the Tama Mental Health and Welfare Center Relapse Prevention Program (TAMARPP). The program is provided at the Tama Comprehensive Center for Mental Health and Welfare, which is operated publicly by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Seven personnel (3 clinical psychologists, 2 public health nurses, and 2 recovering counselors) searched the consultation records of 31 participants who had continued treatment longer than 1 year, and made a list of qualitative factors that may positively impact participant outcome. The following six factors were extracted: 1) a "no-blame" atmosphere that makes participants feel safe and free; 2) a mutual helping process that enables participants to empathize with one another; 3) an individual-centered approach that focuses on a participant's motivation to recover; 4) a psycho-educational process that establishes treatment goals; 5) a treatment goal that involves some type of social role; and 6) the referral of graduates to another long-term treatment program such as Narcotics Anonymous. Our results suggest the need of personnel to provide treatment as follows: 1) keep the circumstances safe; 2) use a method that matches the participant's motivation; 3) refer graduates to another in-depth treatment program; 4) emphasize the relationship between thinking, emotion, and behavior; and 5) improve the quality of life of the participant. The missions of our center, an official institution that runs such a program, are as follows: 1) to be the first place at which addicts seek aid during the early stage; 2) to cooperate with other facilities in order to provide social resources that support recovery; and 3) to support patients suffering from both addiction and comorbid psychiatric diseases.

  10. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  11. Vitamin D as an Effective Treatment Approach for Drug abuse and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Kalleian Eserian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pharmacological treatments for drug abuse and addiction have not yet been identified. Evidences show that vitamin D may be involved in neurodevelopment and may have a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic pathways in the adult brain. The fact that vitamin Dincreases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase expression implies that vitamin D could modulate dopa- minergic processes. Drugs of abuse act through different mechanisms of action and on differentlocations in the brain reward system; however, all of them share a final action in which they increase dopamine levels in the reward pathway. Vitamin D-treated animals showed significant attenuatedmethamphetamine-induced reductions in dopamine and metabolites when compared to control, indicating that vitamin D provides protection for the dopaminergic system against the depleting effects of methamphetamine. In this article, it is speculated that vitamin D would be an effective treatment approach for drug abuse and addiction, if we consider that vitamin D would provide pro-tection for the dopaminergic system against dopamine-depleting effects of drugs, as it did for meth- amphetamine. This hypothesis can provide a new direction towards a new treatment approach fordrug abuse and addiction, as we have no pharmacological treatments at our disposal at the present moment, although several issues need further investigation

  12. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  13. The Incidence of Incest Histories among Clients Receiving Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Noreen M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Volunteer participants (n=77) enrolled in 8 substance abuse treatment facilities were surveyed in order to examine the prevalence and nature of incest contacts among the group. Results indicated that approximately 49 percent of the participants had reported histories of incest. Data are presented under various parameters. Also gives comparisons by…

  14. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  15. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  16. Integrated treatment for substance abuse and partner violence (I-StoP): a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraanen, F.L.; Scholing, A.; Hamdoune, M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration frequently co-occur, and it has been hypothesized that alcohol use and IPV perpetration are causally related. This led to the development of an Integrated treatment for Substance abuse and Partner violence (I-StoP). This case

  17. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  18. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raabe, S.; Ehring, T.; Marquenie, L.; Olff, M.; Kindt, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This case series tested the feasibility and explored the efficacy of Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) as a stand-alone treatment for PTSD related to childhood physical and/or sexual abuse (CA). Method Participants (6 women and 2 men) were patients with PTSD related to CA who entered an 8 week tr

  19. Evaluating Animal-Assisted Therapy in Group Treatment for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy J.; Davis, Diana; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effectiveness of three group interventions on trauma symptoms for children who have been sexually abused. All of the groups followed the same treatment protocol, with two of them incorporating variations of animal-assisted therapy. A total of 153 children ages 7 to 17 who were in group therapy at a Child…

  20. The Nature of Victimization among Youths with Hearing Loss in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Janet C.

    2010-01-01

    The author profiles the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of victimization among a group of youths with hearing loss presenting to substance abuse treatment. Intake data on 111 deaf and hard of hearing youths (42% female) were analyzed and compared with data from a weighted, gender-matched sample of hearing youths. After gender is…

  1. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  2. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehring, T.; Welboren, R; Morina, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Freitag, J.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusiv

  3. The Character-Disordered Family: A Community Treatment Model for Family Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorna M.; Shafer, Gretchen

    1979-01-01

    A collaborative approach to treating sexually abusive families is described, in which such families are viewed as analogous to "character-disordered" individuals. This model, unlike traditional voluntary treatment models, is explained to assume that effective intervention requires authoritative control and careful coordination of all…

  4. "Who can you tell?" Features of Arab culture that influence conceptualization and treatment of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L; Alyan, Hala

    2013-01-01

    The literature on child sexual abuse reflects growing recognition of the manner in which culture impacts the conceptualization, experience, and treatment of such cases. Despite heightened visibility of Arab Americans within the United States, population due to recent media attention, little empirical research exists on the occurrence of child sexual abuse within this population. Arab culture is often characterized by an emphasis on collectivism and familial obligations, and such features may prove to either facilitate or impede assessment and treatment of child sexual abuse, depending on how they are manifested. In terms of reporting child sexual abuse, cultural values pertaining to shame and honor as well as the stigma attached to mental health problems may influence the response to abuse. As such, enhancing the cultural competence of the therapist is key to facilitating effective cultural practice. Empirical research is required to investigate and substantiate these concepts as they relate to child sexual abuse in Arab-American populations.

  5. EFFECT OF JOB SKILLS TRAINING ON EMPLOYMENT AND JOB SEEKING BEHAVIORS IN AN AMERICAN INDIAN SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K; Pallas, D; Forcehimes, A A; Houck, J M; Bogenschutz, M P; Keyser-Marcus, L; Svikis, D

    2010-10-26

    Employment difficulties are common among American Indian individuals in substance abuse treatment. To address this problem, the Southwest Node of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network conducted a single-site adaptation of its national Job Seekers Workshop study in an American Indian treatment program, Na'Nizhoozhi Center (NCI). 102 (80% men, 100% American Indian) participants who were in residential treatment and currently unemployed were randomized to (1) a three session, manualized program (Job seekers workshop: JSW) or (2) a 40-minute Job Interviewing Video: JIV). Outcomes were assessed at 3-month follow up: 1) number of days to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program, and 2) total hours working or enrolled in a job-training program. No significant differences were found between the two groups for time to a new taxed job or enrollment in a job-training program. There were no significant differences between groups in substance use frequency at 3-month follow-up. These results do not support the use of the costly and time-consuming JSW intervention in this population and setting. Despite of the lack of a demonstrable treatment effect, this study established the feasibility of including a rural American Indian site in a rigorous CTN trial through a community-based participatory research approach.

  6. Variables associated with environmental scanning among clinicians at substance abuse treatment clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Koch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Environmental scanning, as a component of absorptive capacity, has been shown to be associated with increased use of innovative treatment techniques at substance abuse treatment programmes. As the transfer of innovative, evidence-based treatment techniques from research to practice is gaining attention, we aimed to identify variables associated with higher levels of environmental scanning among substance abuse treatment clinicians. Method. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 162 clinicians at 15 substance abuse treatment clinics in Michigan. Measures: Environmental scanning was measured by frequency of use of the Internet, journals, seminars or conferences, and people at other treatment clinics for new substance abuse treatment information. Clinicians were asked for their perceptions of their clinic’s openness to new treatment techniques and support for acquiring new information, access to and satisfaction with information sources at work, as well as if they feel it is their job to keep up to date with current treatment research. Additional measures included whether they intended to quit their jobs and whether they were emotionally drained from work. Findings: We found positive associations between environmental scanning and perceived clinic support for acquiring new information, perceived clinic openness to new treatment techniques, access to e-mail and Internet at work, and satisfaction with resources. Turnover intention and being emotionally drained were negatively associated with environmental scanning. Conclusion. : Individual and organizational level variables were found to be associated with higher levels of environmental scanning activity. Although the causal directions of these associations are not known, the findings suggest ways to increase environmental scanning among clinicians.

  7. A blended infant massage--parenting enhancement program for recovering substance-abusing mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Luz S; Porter, Brian O

    2004-01-01

    Interventions that build upon the natural components of early mother-infant interactions are critical to reversing the sequelae of maternal substance abuse and breaking the cycle of addiction. This paper proposes a theoretical model that blends infant massage (IM) into a planned parenting enhancement program (PEP) to promote improved health outcomes in recovering substance- abusing mothers (SAMs) and their babies. With 4.6 million women of child-bearing age regularly using cocaine in the United States and 750,000 drug-exposed births annually, maternal substance abuse highlights the multigenerational impact of drug use in high-risk populations and its risks to our children. The proposed IMPEP model provides a means to assist recovering SAMs in making cognitive-behavioral changes through new knowledge about parenting and parenting skills, with a special focus on infant stimulation via massage. The goal is to enable recovering SAMs to become confident and responsive mothers, empowering them to become effective parents. Pilot data suggest the Infant Massage Parenting Enhancement Program (IMPEP) is effective for both mother and infant, and merits a controlled systematic study.

  8. Treatment Service Patterns and Organizational Structures: An Analysis of Programs in DATOS-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Peter J.; Broome, Kirk M.; Flynn, Patrick M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.

    2001-01-01

    Examined availability of various treatment services within a national sample of programs treating adolescent drug abuse patients. Created treatment service delivery profiles and examined them in context of organizational variables. Found that distinct profiles of services existed within residential and outpatient modalities and that these service…

  9. Ethical and moral dilemmas in the treatment of an abusive parent--the occupational therapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luboshitsky, D; Weil, F

    1993-01-01

    Treating patients who physically abuse their children creates in the therapist moral and ethical dilemmas which challenge his or her ability to maintain a professional conduct and attitude. In such cases the therapist usually finds himself or herself confronted with the following dilemmas: (a) treatment of a patient who experiences therapy as a no-choice situation; (b) treatment of a patient whose conduct is in conflict with the moral values of the therapist; (c) the obligation of the therapist to report the abusive acts to the authorities versus his or her duty to protect the patient's right to confidentiality; and (d) the therapist's loyalty to the patient's welfare, when it is in conflict with the abused person's welfare. These issues are illustrated through the following case study examined in the context of occupational therapy (OT): A 26-year-old married woman, mother to a four-month-old infant was referred to therapy after causing severe burns to her daughter's hands. As a child the patient experienced physical abuse by her parents. The patient viewed treatment as her only possible means of keeping her child. On the other hand, she was suspicious of verbal therapy, as she assumed that the contents might incriminate her. Occupational therapy was therefore a major therapeutic modality used to assess and improve her disturbed psychosocial occupational performances. The article describes the way in which the OT approach helped overcome and resolve the moral and ethical dilemmas raised in the case.

  10. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Preventing child abuse: psychosocial description of clients of brief intervention programs in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study describe characteristics and risk factors for child abuse and neglect,in 591 children and adolescents, their parents and families served by eight brief intervention programs (PIB “Viviendo en Familia”, funded by the Chilean National Service of Children (SENAME and implemented by Protectora de la Infancia (a non-profit organization in Chile. The results revealed the existence of problems of moderate complexity, on the environment,parental competencies, family interactions, family safety and child well-being. About three of each four caregivers show signs of high risk for the abuse or neglect of children, especially in their mental health, a topic that must be considered by the staff to develop a plan of coordinated work with the local network of health services.

  12. Functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a child victim of physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, J K

    1996-03-01

    This case study describes the functional assessment and treatment of aggressive and destructive behaviors in a 14-year-old male child with a history of physical abuse. Evaluation was performed in a classroom within a residential school setting. Functional assessment in forms of indirect and descriptive methods was used to generate hypotheses regarding sources of behavioral control. A treatment plan that combined multi-level differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and positive reinforcement for task completion was implemented based on the outcome of functional assessment. Treatment was associated with a gradual and steady reduction in challenging behaviors with near-zero rates achieved at follow-up. This case provides an example of clinical intervention for behavior disorders commonly observed in children who have been abused physically and a hypothesis-driven model of treatment formulation.

  13. A Preliminary Evaluation of a Massage Program for Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused and Their Nonabusing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lesley; Cheshire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot evaluation of the Mosac Massage Program, a novel program that uses massage to address some of the difficulties faced by children who have been sexually abused and their nonabusing parents. Interviews were conducted with four participating mothers immediately before and after the program. Benefits…

  14. A Preliminary Evaluation of a Massage Program for Children Who Have Been Sexually Abused and Their Nonabusing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lesley; Cheshire, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a pilot evaluation of the Mosac Massage Program, a novel program that uses massage to address some of the difficulties faced by children who have been sexually abused and their nonabusing parents. Interviews were conducted with four participating mothers immediately before and after the program. Benefits…

  15. Relationship power and sexual risk among women in community-based substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Dworkin, Shari L; Hu, Mei-Chen; Manuel, Jennifer; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V

    2009-11-01

    Relationship power has been highlighted as a major factor influencing women's safer sex practices. Little research, however, has specifically examined relationship power in drug-involved women, a population with increased risk for HIV transmission. Using baseline data from a National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network multisite trial of a women's HIV prevention intervention in community-based drug treatment programs, this paper examined the association between sexual relationship power and unprotected vaginal or anal sex. The Sexual Relationship Power Scale, a measure of relationship control and decision-making dominance, was used to assess the association between power and unprotected sex in relationships with primary male partners. It was hypothesized that increased relationship power would be associated with decreased unprotected sexual occasions, after controlling for relevant empirical and theoretical covariates. Findings show a more complex picture of the association between power and sexual risk in this population, with a main effect in the hypothesized direction for decision-making dominance but not for relationship control. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed, and future research directions for examining power constructs and developing interventions targeting relationship power among drug-involved women are suggested.

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment in Persons with HIV/AIDS: Challenges in Managing Triple Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the current literature addressing substance abuse treatment in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Clinical management of HIV must account for the “triple diagnosis” of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the...

  17. Substance abuse treatment response in a Latino sample: the influence of family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jessica N; Maier, Candice A; Priest, Jacob B

    2015-02-01

    Latino Americans report underutilization of treatment and poor treatment response for substance use and abuse compared to other racial/ethnic groups; thus, it is important to assess factors that contribute to these disparities. The current study objective was to assess the influence of family conflict on substance abuse treatment response in a sample of Latino Americans using two different yet complementary analyses. First, ordinary least squares regression was used to assess the association between overall family conflict and pre- and post-treatment substance use. Second, repeated measures latent class analysis was used to identify groups based on family member conflict and timing of conflict during treatment. Findings indicated that family conflict contributed unique variance to concurrent substance use; however pre-treatment family conflict was not related to post-treatment outcomes. Results also identified three distinct family conflict groups: no/low conflict, pre-treatment conflict, and post-treatment conflict who differed in pre- and post-treatment substance use. Post hoc investigation revealed that those who experienced pre-treatment conflict but low post-treatment conflict showed the greatest decrease in substance use. Findings highlight the importance of considering family conflict during all stages of treatment for Latino American substance users. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Emerging Problem: Methamphetamine Abuse among Treatment Seeking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; McCann, Michael J.; Rawson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of methamphetamine (MA) and marijuana (MJ) use and treatment response among treatment-involved youth (N = 4,430) in Los Angeles County, California treated between 2000 and 2005. Of the sample, 912 (21%) were primary MA and 3,518 (79%) were primary MJ users. Correlates of increased MA use included being female, White,…

  19. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and...

  20. Science-based and practice-based innovativeness and performance of substance abuse treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Preethy; Yu, Fang; Apenteng, Bettye

    2014-01-01

    The fields of mental health and substance abuse treatment lag significantly behind other health care organizational fields in the adoption, implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based practices. Innovative organizational practices may be science based or practice based. The implementation of innovative practices requires considerable organizational resources. Whether this organizational investment actually pays off in terms of superior performance is unclear. This issue in the context of substance abuse treatment facilities (SATFs) in the United States is examined in this study. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the use of innovative organizational practices, both science based (psychosocial interventions) and practice based, on the organizational performance of SATFs. The study uses cross-sectional data on 13,513 SATFs in the United States, obtained from the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services 2009 database. Multinomial logistic regression models find a positive association between the use of science-based innovations and practice-based innovations and organizational performance, that is, the provision of comprehensive (core and wraparound) services. SATFs that were located in metropolitan areas, those accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities and Joint Commission, that had a mixed (Substance Abuse and Mental Health) focus or were recipients of earmark funds also had higher organizational performance. The results signify that substance abuse facilities that are high innovators in terms of implementing science based and practice-based innovative practices have higher organizational performance. Organizations that have institutionalized these practices have invested considerable resources in innovation. The shown higher organizational performance provides justification for the organizational investment in innovation.

  1. Can Schools Become a Viable Treatment Modality For Drug Abusers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Les

    1973-01-01

    This article is based on research findings at the Educage program in New York. The dramatic changes observed in student behavior are closely related to the supportive, friendly, happy, relaxed and accepting environment of Educage. It is felt that obligations to the student transcend the mere imparting of fundamental skills and information; the…

  2. Assessment of coercive and noncoercive pressures to enter drug abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D B; Kirby, K C; Bonieskie, L M; Glass, D J; Dodds, L D; Husband, S D; Platt, J J; Festinger, D S

    1996-10-01

    This paper reports preliminary data derived from a standardized interview scoring procedure for detecting and characterizing coercive and noncoercive pressures to enter substance abuse treatment. Coercive and noncoercive pressures stemming from multiple psychosocial domains are operationalized through recourse to established behavioral principles. Inter-rater reliability for the scoring procedure was exceptional over numerous rater trials. Substantive analyses indicate that, among clients in outpatient cocaine treatment, 'coercion' is operative in multiple psychosocial domains, and that subjects perceive legal pressures as exerting substantially less influence over their decisions to enter treatment than informal psychosocial pressures. Implications for drug treatment planning, legal and ethical issues, and directions for future research are proposed.

  3. American Indian Substance Abuse Prevention Efforts: A Review of Programs, 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Margaret L; Baldwin, Julie A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the review was to assess substance abuse prevention (SAP) efforts in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities from 2003-2013. In the past, many SAP programs were unable to meet the unique cultural needs of AI/AN communities adequately. It has been suggested that a disconnect may exist between the theories that are used to guide development of prevention programs in AI/AN communities and culturally appropriate theoretical constructs of AI/AN worldviews. To explore this possible disconnect further, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to assess a total of 18 articles (N = 31 programs) on program location and method, participant characteristics, described program cultural elements, use of theory, program outcomes, program measures, and future recommendations. Results indicated that SAP programs in AI/AN communities vary widely in their use of theory, implementation strategies, view and definition of cultural constructs, overall evaluational rigor, and reporting methods. Future research is needed to integrate appropriate theory and cultural elements into SAP programs to tie them to measurable outcomes for AI/AN communities.

  4. Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals.

  5. Longitudinal outcomes of an alcohol abuse prevention program for urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Fang, Lin

    2010-05-01

    This randomized clinical trial examined longitudinal outcomes from an alcohol abuse prevention program aimed at urban youths. Study participants were an ethnically and racially heterogeneous sample of early adolescents, recruited from community-based agencies in greater New York City and its environs. Once they assented to study participation and gained parental permission, youths were divided into three arms: youth intervention delivered by CD-ROM (CD), the same youth intervention plus parent intervention (CD(P)), and control. Once all youths completed baseline measures, those in CD and CD(P) arms received a computerized 10-session alcohol abuse prevention program. Parents of youths in the CD(P) arm received supplemental materials to support and strengthen their children's learning. All youths completed postintervention and annual follow-up measures, and CD- and CD(P)-arm participants received annual booster intervention sessions. Seven years following postintervention testing and relative to control-arm youths, youths in CD and CD(P) arms reported less alcohol use, cigarette use, binge drinking, and peer pressure to drink; fewer drinking friends; greater refusal of alcohol use opportunities; and lower intentions to drink. No differences were observed between CD and CD(P) arms. Study findings lend support to the potential of computerized, skills-based prevention programs to help urban youth reduce their risks for underage drinking. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  7. Understanding the etiology of prescription opioid abuse: implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Khary K; Murphy, John W

    2013-07-01

    Although studies on the initiation of substance abuse abound, the body of literature on prescription opioid abuse (POA) etiology is small. Little is known about why and how the onset of POA occurs, especially among high-risk populations. In this study we aimed to fill this important knowledge gap by exploring the POA initiation experiences of 90 prescription opioid abusers currently in treatment and their narrative accounts of the circumstances surrounding their POA onset. This research was conducted within a storyline framework, which operates on the premise that the path to drug abuse represents a biography or a process rather than a static condition. Audiotapes of in-depth interviews were transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Analyses revealed the presence of four trajectories leading to POA. This study adds to the limited research on POA etiology by not only illuminating the psychosocial factors that contribute to POA onset, but also by situating initiation experiences within broader life processes. The study findings provide crucial insights to policymakers and interventionists in identifying who is at risk for POA, and more important, when and how to intervene most efficaciously.

  8. Psychotherapy and Counseling in the Treatment of Drug Abuse [Technical Review] (Rockville, Maryland, May 18-19, 1989). National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Monograph Series 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Lisa Simon; Blaine, Jack D.

    This monograph is based on the papers from a technical review. These papers are included: (1) Psychotherapy and Counseling Research in Drug Abuse Treatment: Questions, Problems, and Solutions (Lisa Onken, Jack Blaine); (2) Psychotherapy and Counseling for Methadone-Maintained Opiate Addicts: Results of Research Studies (George Woody, A. T.…

  9. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  11. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  12. Predictors of Physical Altercation among Adolescents in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Crawley, Rachel D.; Becan, Jennifer Edwards; Knight, Danica Kalling; Joe, George W.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that basic social information-processing components represented by family conflict, peer aggression, and pro-aggression cognitive scripts are related to aggression and social problems among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The sample consisted of 547 adolescents in two community-based residential facilities. Correlation results indicated that more peer aggression is related to more pro-aggression scripts; scripts, peer aggression, and family conflict ...

  13. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi MH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment

  14. Substance abuse treatment need among older adults in 2020: the impact of the aging baby-boom cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfroerer, Joseph; Penne, Michael; Pemberton, Michael; Folsom, Ralph

    2003-03-01

    There is concern that as the baby boom population ages in the US, there will be a substantial increase in the number of older adults needing treatment for substance abuse problems. To address this concern, projections of future treatment need for older adults (defined as age 50 and older) were made. Using data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, regression models including predictors of treatment need in 2000 and 2001 were developed. Treatment need was defined as having a DSM-IV alcohol or illicit drug use disorder in the past year. Regression parameters from these models were applied to the projected 2020 population to obtain estimates of the number of older adults needing treatment in 2020. The number of older adults in need of substance abuse treatment is estimated to increase from 1.7 million in 2000 and 2001 to 4.4 million in 2020. This is due to a 50 percent increase in the number of older adults and a 70 percent increase in the rate of treatment need among older adults. The aging baby boom cohort will place increasing demands on the substance abuse treatment system in the next two decades, requiring a shift in focus to address the special needs of an older population of substance abusers. There is also a need to develop improved tools for measuring substance use and abuse among older adults. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  15. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  16. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  17. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Melissa Harris; Shamblen, Stephen R; Johnson, Knowlton; Thompson, Kirsten; Young, Linda; Courser, Matthew; Vanderhoff, Jude; Browne, Thom

    2012-01-01

    Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT) centers assesses (a) the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b) whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91%) reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50%) experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one's own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.

  18. Team awareness for workplace substance abuse prevention: the empirical and conceptual development of a training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J B; Lehman, W E; Reynolds, G S

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the empirical and theoretical development of a workplace training program to help reduce/prevent employee alcohol and drug abuse and enhance aspects of the work group environment that support ongoing prevention. The paper (1) examines the changing social context of the workplace (e.g., teamwork, privacy issues) as relevant for prevention, (2) reviews studies that assess risks and protective factors in employee substance abuse (work environment, group processes, and employee attitudes), (3) provides a conceptual model that focuses on work group processes (enabling, neutralization of deviance) as the locus of prevention efforts, (4) describes an enhanced team-oriented training that was derived from previous research and the conceptual model, and (5) describes potential applications of the program. It is suggested that the research and conceptual model may help prevention scientists to assess the organizational context of any workplace prevention strategy. The need for this team-oriented approach may be greater among employees who experience psychosocial risks such as workplace drinking climates, social alienation, and policies that emphasize deterrence (drug testing) over educative prevention. Limitations of the model are also discussed.

  19. Impact of approach used to determine removal levels of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodayan, Angela; Majewsky, Marius; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-07-15

    In this study the levels of 19 drugs of abuse were estimated throughout a wastewater treatment plant using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), 24h composite samples and grab samples. Overall removal efficiencies and removals in between each treatment unit were calculated using load data for each sampling technique as well as removals that take into account the hydraulic residence time distribution of the treatment plant (time-shifted mass balancing approach). Amphetamine-type stimulants, cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine and opioid levels determined with 24h composite samples were generally comparable to those obtained with POCIS and grab samples. Negative mass balances resulting from the estimation of overall removal efficiencies by POCIS, day-to-day mass balancing of 24h composite and grab sample data did not occur when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) distributions of the plant were taken into account for calculation. Among the compounds investigated, cocaine exhibited the highest overall removal (90%) while codeine had the lowest with 13%, respectively. Sampling between the treatment units revealed that highest removal occurs during biological treatment as compared to primary or secondary clarification. Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), fentanyl, dihydrocodeine and heroin were not detected in wastewater at any of the sampling locations at the treatment plant regardless of the sampling technique. The study demonstrates the benefits of applying the time-shifted mass balancing approach to the calculation of removals of drugs of abuse during wastewater treatment.

  20. The effects of the fraud and abuse enforcement program under the National Health Insurance program in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, HeeChung; Hong, JaeSeok; Lee, KwangSoo; Kim, Sera

    2010-04-01

    To examine the general deterrence effect of the Korean government's fraud and abuse enforcement program on medical clinics in the country. The effects were evaluated by analyzing the association between the fear of penalty from a potential onsite investigation and the costliness index (CI). Using a stratified proportional systematic sampling method, 800 out of the 15,443 clinics in Korea that had not had an onsite investigation before June 2007 were selected. Perceived deterrence was measured via face-to-face interviews with the chief doctor of each clinic; these were conducted in July and August 2007. CI was calculated by dividing observed costs by expected costs based on National Health Insurance Claims from January to October 2007. Clinics with a high fear of penalty had a significantly lower CI than did other clinics after adjusting for factors related to the provider's perception of onsite investigation, the provider's service experiences, and general characteristics such as provider's sex and age. Designing effective fraud and abuse control programs can improve the efficiency of providing services to patients. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. School-based child sexual abuse prevention programs: moving toward resiliency-informed evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Ian G; Miller, David J; Kelly, Timothy B

    2015-01-01

    Although recent years have seen an increase in the range of child sexual abuse prevention programs delivered in schools, there have been relatively few efficacy studies. Those conducted have focused primarily on intrinsic child factors and have often lacked an explicit theoretical framework. We offer resiliency theory as a useful and apposite theoretical framework for program evaluation. Resiliency theory suggests that a wider range of factors should be considered, including intrinsic (personal characteristics) and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Such factors may increase risk or, alternatively, protect children from the negative effects of adversity. We argue that a resiliency perspective to efficacy studies should recognize a long-term view on children's capacity to cope and can employ both standardized and contextual resiliency-informed measures.

  2. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy on Depression and Craving Beliefs of Abusers Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy on depression and craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment, who referred to addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city. Methods The statistical population of this research included all abusers, who referred to the addiction treatment centers (clinics of Bushehr city. In regards to the research objectives, sampling was purposive and random. By referring to the addiction treatment clinics of Bushehr city, drug abusers were invited to participate in the study. The participants firstly completed the Beck depression inventory and craving questionnaire. Then, drug abusers with scores one standard deviation higher than the mean score of the Beck depression index and one standard deviation higher than the mean score of craving beliefs index, were selected. From this group, 20 qualified individuals were selected and divided randomly to two groups (experiment and control groups and only the experimental group was intervened. After the intervention, both groups took part in the post-test. Data obtained from the research was analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results Results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in terms of depression and temping beliefs (P < 0.0001. In other words, the results showed that cognitive-behavior therapy reduces depression and improves craving beliefs of abusers under methadone maintenance treatment. Conclusions The results emphasize the importance of the use of these interventions in abusers under methadone maintenance treatment and provide new horizons in clinical interventions.

  3. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mother-Child Relational Quality of Women in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Linda; Farkas, Kathleen; Niazi, Maryam

    Mothers who abuse substances are more likely to have impaired parenting and lose custody of their young children. The pilot study described mother-child relational quality of women in substance abuse treatment. The identification of mothers' perceptions of being parented, current level of depression, discrete and potentially modifiable mothering behaviors, and self-appraisals of their role. The descriptive study implemented audio-video-recorded mother-child interactions for coding. Twenty-nine dyads participated with children age 4 weeks to 5 years. Mothers had lower levels of caring from their parents and moderate depression that was correlated with many of the relational quality behaviors. Eleven of 29 maternal behaviors were coded as concerning. Reflections by mothers revealed modest, yet confident self-appraisals of their maternal role. Women who experienced higher depression demonstrated lower maternal quality. Some maternal behaviors were identified as less optimal although many were strengths.

  5. Substance abuse treatment providers' explicit and implicit attitudes regarding sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Cauce, Ana Mari

    2007-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals have been found to have elevated rates of substance use disorders when compared with heterosexuals. However, little is known about the challenges a sexual minority might face in presenting for substance use treatment. In this study, treatment providers' attitudes toward LGBT individuals were assessed among a sample of 46 substance abuse treatment counselors who provide publicly funded treatment. Participants completed both explicit measures of heterosexist bias and an implicit measure designed to assess for biases that exist at an automatic, uncontrolled level. Results indicate that treatment counselors' negative biases regarding LGBT individuals were stronger for heterosexual counselors and for those with few LGBT friends. However, biases among this sample were significantly less than in comparison samples. Findings were also related to a newly developed measure of cultural competence in working with LGBT substance users. Implications for provision of appropriate services and recommendations to treatment agencies are discussed.

  6. Strength in the midst of pain: Abuse as a predictor of sexual relationship power among substance-abusing Black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuama-Jonas, Chizara; Burlew, Kathleen; Campbell, Aimee; Tross, Susan

    2017-04-03

    The aim of this research was to explore the association of abuse experiences (child sexual abuse and adult physical/sexual violence) to sexual relationship power among Black substance-abusing women. The study was a secondary analysis of baseline data collected from 124 Black women in 12 drug treatment programs across the United States who initially participated in an HIV risk reduction trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The findings revealed that adult sexual abuse, but not childhood sexual or adult physical abuse, was associated with lower relationship control and decision-making dominance as measured by the Sexual Relationship Power Scale. The findings suggest that designing and implementing sexual risk reduction interventions that address adult sexual violence may enhance the relationship power of Black substance-abusing women and in turn may promote safer sex practices.

  7. Substance abuse treatment services for pregnant women: psychosocial and behavioral approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Nancy A; Duffy, Megan; McCaul, Mary E

    2014-06-01

    Women who use tobacco, alcohol and drugs during pregnancy are at increased risk of maternal and fetal morbidity. Universal screening using empirically validated approaches can improve identification of substance-using pregnant women and facilitate comprehensive assessment of treatment needs. There is strong evidence for effectiveness of psychosocial and behavioral substance abuse treatments across a range of intensities and levels of care. In addition to addressing substance use, services for co-occurring psychiatric disorders, trauma exposure, and prenatal care are important components of coordinated systems of care. More research on and greater access to evidence-based interventions is needed for this underserved population.

  8. Personal resurrection: female childhood sexual abuse survivors' experience of the Wellness-Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun; Halldorsdottir, Sigridur; Bender, Soley S; Agnarsdottir, Guðrun

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors deal with complex mental, physical and relationship problems in adulthood which negatively affects their well-being and health. The aim of the present paper was to present a description of the Wellness-Program for female CSA survivors, the participating women's evaluation of the different therapies in the program as well as a qualitative study on their experience of the program's effects on their life, health and well-being. The Wellness-Program lasted for 10 weeks with organised schedule 20 hours per week. A team of health professionals used a holistic approach and provided traditional and complementary individual and group therapy focusing on both mind and body. In-depth phenomenological interviews with ten women, 22-53 years old, were conducted 1 week before and 1 week after the program as well as 15 months later. Data collection and data analysis were guided by the Vancouver School of doing phenomenology. Prior to participating in the program, the women were unable to work or attend school, were on disability allowance, were socially isolated and had complex health problems. After the Wellness-Program, all the women, except one, were back to work, school or in further rehabilitation. Furthermore, the in-depth interviews showed that their health and well-being, personal life and relationship with partners, family and friends improved. They felt empowered, more in control and had developed increased trust towards others. Six themes were constructed from the in-depth interviews. They were: feeling totally lost, releasing experiences, developing trusting relationships, gaining control, experiencing positive changes in physical and mental health and, finally, feeling of empowerment. The overriding theme of the study was personal resurrection. The Wellness-Program contributed considerably to improved health and well-being of the women. However, further assessment of the program is recommended before making it available within

  9. Tuberculosis screening in a novel substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: implications for a comprehensive approach for integrated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Darraji, Haider Abdulrazzaq Abed; Wong, Kee Cheong; Yeow, David Gan Eng; Fu, Jeannia Jiani; Loeliger, Kelsey; Paiji, Christopher; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2014-02-01

    People who use drugs (PWUD) represent a key high risk group for tuberculosis (TB). The prevalence of both latent TB infection (LTBI) and active disease in drug treatment centers in Malaysia is unknown. A cross-sectional convenience survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of LTBI among attendees at a recently created voluntary drug treatment center using a standardized questionnaire and tuberculin skin testing (TST). Participants (N=196) were mostly men (95%), under 40 (median age=36 years) and reported heroin use immediately before treatment entry (75%). Positive TST prevalence was 86.7%. Nine (4.6%) participants were HIV-infected. Previous arrest/incarcerations (AOR=1.1 for every entry, p<0.05) and not being HIV-infected (AOR=6.04, p=0.03) were significantly associated with TST positivity. There is an urgent need to establish TB screening and treatment programs in substance abuse treatment centers and to tailor service delivery to the complex treatment needs of patients with multiple medical and psychiatric co-morbidities.

  10. Using a latent variable approach to inform gender and racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence: a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G; Tai, Betty; Stitzer, Maxine L; Woody, George E

    2010-06-01

    This study applies a latent variable approach to examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence, to determine the presence of differential item functioning (DIF) or item-response bias to diagnostic questions of cocaine dependence, and to explore the effects of DIF on the predictor analysis of cocaine dependence. The analysis sample included 682 cocaine users enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Participants were recruited from 14 community-based substance abuse treatment programs associated with the CTN, including 6 methadone and 8 outpatient nonmethadone programs. Factor and multiple indicators-multiple causes (MIMIC) procedures evaluated the latent continuum of cocaine dependence and its correlates. MIMIC analysis showed that men exhibited lower odds of cocaine dependence than women (regression coefficient, beta = -0.34), controlling for the effects of DIF, years of cocaine use, addiction treatment history, comorbid drug dependence diagnoses, and treatment setting. There were no racial/ethnic differences in cocaine dependence; however, DIF by race/ethnicity was noted. Within the context of multiple community-based addiction treatment settings, women were more likely than men to exhibit cocaine dependence. Addiction treatment research needs to further evaluate gender-related differences in drug dependence in treatment entry and to investigate how these differences may affect study participation, retention, and treatment response to better serve this population.

  11. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  12. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  13. Substance abuse treatment in persons with HIV/AIDS: challenges in managing triple diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durvasula, Ramani; Miller, Theodore R

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of HIV must account for the "triple diagnosis" of HIV, psychiatric diagnosis, and substance use disorders and requires integrated treatment services that focus beyond just mitigation of substance use and psychiatric and medical symptoms but also address other health behaviors. Because clinical management of HIV/AIDS has shifted significantly with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) in the mid 1990s, a literature review focusing on literature published since 2000, and using relevant key words was conducted using a wide range of literature search databases. This literature review was complemented by studies to expand on specific treatment modalities for which there was a dearth of literature addressing HIV infected cohorts and to provide discussion of issues around substance abuse treatment as an HIV prevention tool. Existing models of substance abuse treatment including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing have proven to be useful for enhancing adherence and reducing substance use in outpatient populations, while methadone maintenance and directly observed treatment have been useful with specific subgroups of users. Contextualization of services heightens the likelihood of successful outcomes and relapse prevention.

  14. The effects of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraert, L; Van den Noortgate, W; Grietens, H; Onghena, P

    2004-01-01

    In this article, a meta-analysis is presented on 40 evaluation studies of early prevention programs for families with young children at risk for physical child abuse and neglect with mostly nonrandomized designs. The main aim of all programs was to prevent physical child abuse and neglect by providi

  15. Impact of dissociation and interpersonal functioning on inpatient treatment for early sexually abused adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen K. K. Jepsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about the possible predictors of treatment outcome in early chronically sexually abused adults. The current study aimed to investigate what impact initial levels of dissociation and pre-treatment negative change in interpersonal functioning have on treatment response after 3 months of first-phase trauma inpatient treatment as well as after a period of 1 year the patients returned to their usual lives. Methods: The sample comprised 48 inpatients with childhood sexual abuse histories and mixed trauma-related disorders who were examined at discharge and prospectively followed up for a period of 1 year under naturalistic conditions. Outcome variables were general psychiatric symptoms and interpersonal problems as measured with the Symptom Check List-Revised (SCL-R and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP Circumplex. Results: The central findings were that pathological dissociation and deterioration in interpersonal functioning prior to admittance predicted general psychiatric symptom levels and interpersonal problems at the end of treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Pathological dissociation, involving memory and identity problems, alone predicted negative outcome at the end of treatment. The findings at 1-year follow-up indicate that it is not pathological dissociation in isolation that affects outcomes, but rather the interaction between dissociation and change in interpersonal functioning prior to treatment. Conclusion: These findings indicate the need of addressing dissociation and interpersonal problems in treatment planning and favor an integrated treatment approach for complex trauma patients. Future research should investigate whether and how this leads to better outcome, including long-term maintenance of gains after the end of treatment.

  16. A statewide nurse training program for a hospital based infant abusive head trauma prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Maryalice; Shanahan, Meghan; Murphy, Robert A; Sullivan, Kelly M; Barr, Marilyn; Price, Julie; Zolotor, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Successful implementation of universal patient education programs requires training large numbers of nursing staff in new content and procedures and maintaining fidelity to program standards. In preparation for statewide adoption of a hospital based universal education program, nursing staff at 85 hospitals and 1 birthing center in North Carolina received standardized training. This article describes the training program and reports findings from the process, outcome and impact evaluations of this training. Evaluation strategies were designed to query nurse satisfaction with training and course content; determine if training conveyed new information, and assess if nurses applied lessons from the training sessions to deliver the program as designed. Trainings were conducted during April 2008-February 2010. Evaluations were received from 4358 attendees. Information was obtained about training type, participants' perceptions of newness and usefulness of information and how the program compared to other education materials. Program fidelity data were collected using telephone surveys about compliance to delivery of teaching points and teaching behaviors. Results demonstrate high levels of satisfaction and perceptions of program utility as well as adherence to program model. These findings support the feasibility of implementing a universal patient education programs with strong uptake utilizing large scale systematic training programs.

  17. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  18. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  19. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K.; Dickson, Marcus W.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Agius, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and rwg), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research. PMID:17570604

  20. Level of analysis issues in assessing treatment beliefs in substance abuse clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelson, Jacqueline K; Dickson, Marcus W; Arfken, Cynthia L; Agius, Elizabeth

    2007-12-01

    The current study applies the growing literature in the organizational sciences regarding levels of analysis issues to the analysis of substance abuse treatment beliefs. Research on clinicians' beliefs in substance abuse treatment is often based on the assumption that the beliefs are sufficiently shared by clinicians within a clinic and sufficiently vary across clinics that they can be treated as a group-level phenomenon. Further, efforts to introduce new innovations are often focused at the group or clinic level without testing this assumption, which can lead to failure to adopt or to successfully implement the innovation. We tested the assumption of sharedness by examining if there was sufficient agreement about treatment beliefs within clinics, within groups of clinics or within groups of clinicians to justify treating these aggregations as meaningful groups. Using three statistical approaches to examining level of analysis (Within and Between Analysis (WABA I), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC(1)), and r(wg)), we found that variability in treatment beliefs largely occurred at the individual rather than at the tested aggregate levels of analysis. These findings serve as an example of the importance of testing the assumption of shared perceptions in future research.

  1. Mono- versus polydrug abuse patterns among publicly funded clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Relyea George

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To examine patterns of mono- versus polydrug abuse, data were obtained from intake records of 69,891 admissions to publicly funded treatment programs in Tennessee between 1998 and 2004. While descriptive statistics were employed to report frequency and patterns of mono- and polydrug abuse by demographic variables and by study years, bivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the probability of being a mono- or polydrug abuser for a number of demographic variables. The researchers found that during the study period 51.3% of admissions reported monodrug abuse and 48.7% reported polydrug abuse. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana were the most commonly abused substances, both alone and in combination. Odds ratio favored polydrug abuse for all but one drug category–other drugs. Gender did not affect drug abuse patterns; however, admissions for African Americans and those living in urban areas exhibited higher probabilities of polydrug abuse. Age group also appeared to affect drug abuse patterns, with higher odds of monodrug abuse among minors and adults over 45 years old. The discernable prevalence of polydrug abuse suggests a need for developing effective prevention strategies and treatment plans specific to polydrug abuse.

  2. Influence of outpatient treatment and 12-step group involvement on one-year substance abuse treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimette, P C; Moos, R H; Finney, J W

    1998-09-01

    This study examined whether substance abuse patients self-selecting into one of three aftercare groups (outpatient treatment only, 12-step groups only, and outpatient treatment and 12-step groups) and patients who did not participate in aftercare differed on 1-year substance use and psychosocial outcomes. A total of 3,018 male patients filled out a questionnaire at intake and 1 year following discharge from treatment. Patients were classified into aftercare groups at follow-up using information from VA databases and self-reports. Patients who participated in both outpatient treatment and 12-step groups fared the best on 1-year outcomes. Patients who did not obtain aftercare had the poorest outcomes. In terms of the amount of intervention received, patients who had more outpatient mental health treatment, who more frequently attended 12-step groups or were more involved in 12-step activities had better 1-year outcomes. In addition, patients who kept regular outpatient appointments over a longer time period fared better than those who did not. Encouraging substance abuse patients to regularly attend both outpatient aftercare and self-help groups may improve long-term outcomes.

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation: A Report from a Symposium on Evaluation Questions and Research Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Susan L.

    Presented in the report on the Symposium on Child Abuse and Neglect Program Evaluation are the critical issues regarding evaluation and research needs which were addressed during the 2-day meeting and a brief description of the meeting's format. A child protective services model involving five stages (identification/reporting,…

  4. 78 FR 21314 - Medicare and State Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Electronic Health Records Safe Harbor Under the Anti-Kickback Statute AGENCY... update to the provision under which electronic health records software is deemed interoperable; removal... protect certain arrangements involving the provision of interoperable electronic health records software...

  5. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  6. Why Reports of Outcome Evaluations Are Often Biased or Uninterpretable: Examples from Evaluations of Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M.

    1993-01-01

    Why conclusions of many outcome evaluations do not stand up to scrutiny is discussed, drawing on examples from evaluations of drug abuse prevention programs. Factors that undermine these studies are largely the result of social-structural problems that influence the design and implementation of the research. (SLD)

  7. Drug Abuse in Persons with Mental Retardation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, LeeAnn; Poling, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Review of the literature on drug abuse by people with mental retardation addresses prevalence, drug-related problems, special vulnerabilities of this population, treatment programs, and status of drug abuse prevention and drug education for this population. A lack of and need for controlled research dealing with the genesis, treatment, and…

  8. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  9. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Paula Dias; Paes, Ângela Tavares; Sanchez, Zila M

    2016-08-04

    To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1-49.1) of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school. Analisar se características dos dirigentes, das escolas e do currículo escolar estão associadas à implantação de programas de prevenção ao uso de drogas nas escolas do ciclo fundamental II e médio. Estudo transversal, com amostra aleatória sistemática de 263 dirigentes escolares. Os dados foram coletados nos anos

  10. The Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Prevention Programs of Students’ Attitude Change toward Substance Abuse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Mehri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of current study was the study of the effectiveness of prevention programs of students’ attitude change toward substance abuse and its effective factors. Method: for this purpose, the studies which related to evaluation of prevention program were gathered. For gathering of these researches related keywords were used and search was done in sites and universities dissertations. Finally, the researches which were conformed to the entrance criterions, were selected and considered information for testing of hypothesizes was extracted by reverse questionnaire which provided by authors. Of 20 selected studies proper statistics for calculation of effect size and other required information were recorded and analyzed by CMA2. Results: the findings showed that altogether, prevention programs of substance abuse were successful on students’ attitude change. The pooled effect size was significant. Because of the amount of pooled effect size was placed in range of 0.6-0.7, and then according to Cohen’s opinion is classified as moderate effect size. The results also, showed the variables as having of theoretical base, transactional approach in program presentation, the severity of program, the using of diversity educational strategies in presentation, the using of peer instructors were affected significantly on the effectiveness of programs. Conclusion: For attaining of more effective programs on students’ attitude change toward substance abuse these results should be considered.

  11. The Influence of Treatment Attendance on Subsequent Aggression among Severely Mentally Ill Substance Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Yue; BRADIZZA, CLARA M.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationships between severe mental illness, substance use, and aggression are of longstanding importance with implications for community treatment programs, treatment research and public policy. Through the analysis of longitudinal data collected from 278 patients over a 6-month period following admission to an outpatient dual diagnosis treatment program, this study examined the association between dual diagnosis treatment attendance and subsequent aggression among individuals diagn...

  12. Emerging for Recovery: A Descriptive Analysis of Adventure Therapy for Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Michael A.; McPhee, Pamela J.

    1990-01-01

    Examines client characteristics, referral and screening procedures, program characteristics, treatment goals, financial arrangements, and staff characteristics in 50 programs using adventure experiences with substance abuse populations. Notes needs for specific program evaluation research and for the development of prescriptive treatment…

  13. Childhood sexual abuse characteristics, intimate partner violence exposure, and psychological distress among women in methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Malitta; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa

    2012-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk.

  14. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  15. 40 CFR 264.271 - Treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land... land treatment program that is designed to ensure that hazardous constituents placed in or on the... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment program. 264.271 Section 264...

  16. Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Theodore J; Ellis, Matthew S; Surratt, Hilary L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary drugs of abuse in opioid-dependent subjects (n = 3520) entering one of 160 drug treatment programs around the country. Anonymous, self-administered surveys and direct qualitative interviews were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and decision-related factors on primary opioid selection. Our results showed that oxycodone and hydrocodone were the drugs of choice in 75% of all patients. Oxycodone was the choice of significantly more users (44.7%) than hydrocodone (29.4%) because the quality of the high was viewed to be much better by 54% of the sample, compared to just 20% in hydrocodone users, who cited acetaminophen as a deterrent to dose escalation to get high and hence, its low euphoric rating. Hydrocodone users were generally risk-averse women, elderly people, noninjectors, and those who prefer safer modes of acquisition than dealers (ie, doctors, friends, or family members). In contrast, oxycodone was a much more attractive euphorigenic agent to risk-tolerant young, male users who prefer to inject or snort their drugs to get high and are willing to use more aggressive forms of diversion. Prevention and treatment approaches, and pain physicians, should benefit from these results because it is clear that not all drug abusers share the same characteristics, and the decision to use one drug over another is a complex one, which is largely attributable to individual differences (eg, personality, gender, age, and other factors).

  17. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified.

  18. Elimination of drugs of abuse and their toxicity from natural waters by photo-Fenton treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá, M; Domínguez-Morueco, N; Migens, A; Molina, R; Martínez, F; Valcárcel, Y; Mastroianni, N; López de Alda, M; Barceló, D; Segura, Y

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the elimination of drugs of abuse from six different chemical classes and their metabolites in natural fluvial waters (nearby the output of a sewage system). Mineralization of these substances and toxicological characterization before and after treatment by a heterogeneous photo-Fenton system has been evaluated. This advanced oxidation technology was able to significantly reduce the concentration of the drugs of abuse in all the tested conditions (different hydrogen peroxide and catalyst loadings). However, toxicological analyses measured as inhibition of fern spore mitochondrial activity, showed only a complete elimination of acute and chronic toxicity when a higher solid catalyst loading was used (0.6 g/L). A lower catalyst loading of 0.2 g/L was not enough for toxicity elimination. These results evidence the need for combining toxicological tests and chemical analyses in order to establish the effectiveness of the water treatment technologies based on advanced oxidation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  20. Combining Motivational Interviewing with Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments for Substance Abuse: Lessons from the COMBINE Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Theresa B.; Houck, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing began as a treatment for substance misuse and has strong empirical support as an intervention for these disorders. It is very common for MI to be combined with other types of treatment when it is used for substance abuse, and this article focuses on one example of this: the COMBINE Research Project. We examine the…

  1. Men Who Are Abusive to Their Female Intimate Partners: Incorporating Family of Origin Work into Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick-Neily, Erin Francess; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines and provides a rationale for incorporating past victimization into group treatment for men who have been abusive to their female intimate partners. It begins with providing a general overview of the issue of family violence in Canada and in the U.S including statistics and an overview of group treatment effectiveness overall.…

  2. Drug Assessment Program; A Community Guide. The Drug Abuse Council Handbook Series, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Louis H.; Sessler, John

    Addiction to illicit hard drugs, and particularly opiates, has increased in the past few years. Yet, there are few comprehensive evaluations of the treatment systems, and there is little systematic planning for programs to meet current and anticipated changes in the community's need for treatment. This report has been written to assist community…

  3. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2015-12-22

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  4. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  5. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  6. Improving quality of care in substance abuse treatment using five key process improvement principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kim A; Green, Carla A; Ford, James H; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Gustafson, David H; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-07-01

    Process and quality improvement techniques have been successfully applied in health care arenas, but efforts to institute these strategies in alcohol and drug treatment are underdeveloped. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches participating substance abuse treatment agencies to use process improvement strategies to increase client access to, and retention in, treatment. NIATx recommends five principles to promote organizational change: (1) understand and involve the customer, (2) fix key problems, (3) pick a powerful change leader, (4) get ideas from outside the organization, and (5) use rapid cycle testing. Using case studies, supplemented with cross-agency analyses of interview data, this paper profiles participating NIATx treatment agencies that illustrate successful applications of each principle. Results suggest that organizations can successfully integrate and apply the five principles as they develop and test change strategies, improving access and retention in treatment, and agencies' financial status. Upcoming changes requiring increased provision of behavioral health care will result in greater demand for services. Treatment organizations, already struggling to meet demand and client needs, will need strategies that improve the quality of care they provide without significantly increasing costs. The five NIATx principles have potential for helping agencies achieve these goals.

  7. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse--Principles for a treatment manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöller, Wolfgang; Leichsenring, Falk; Leweke, Frank; Kruse, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy approach for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse. This neurobiologically informed, phase-oriented treatment approach, which has been developed in Germany during the past 20 years, takes into account the broad comorbidity and the large degree of ego-function impairment typically found in these patients. Based on a psychodynamic relationship orientation, this treatment integrates a variety of trauma-specific imaginative and resource-oriented techniques. The approach places major emphasis on the prevention of vicarious traumatization. The authors are presently planning to test the approach in a randomized controlled trial aimed at strengthening the evidence base for psychodynamic psychotherapy in PTSD.

  8. The Attitudes of Members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers towards Treatment, Release, and Recidivism of Violent Sex Offenders: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Michael J.; McFalls, Joseph A., Jr.; Gallagher, Bernard J., III

    2007-01-01

    Attitudes of members of the Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers (ATSA) towards treatment, release, and recidivism of sexual predators are assessed through an anonymous questionnaire. Fifty-two percent (540 members) responded. A large majority report little hope for cure (63%) and fear of recidivism after treatment (88%). No differences…

  9. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children: six- and 12-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1998-01-01

    The role of familial, demographic, developmental, and treatment-mediating factors on treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children was evaluated 6 and 12 months after treatment. Forty-three sexually abused preschool children and their parents who were evaluated shortly after disclosure of sexual abuse and then were provided with one of two treatment interventions were reevaluated at the completion of treatment and 6 and 12 months after treatment. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory, and the Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of emotional and behavioral symptoms in children. Parents also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III, the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire, the Parental Support Questionnaire, and the Maternal Social Support Index. Children completed the Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at pretreatment to assess developmental levels. Correlational and stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to analyze the role of the hypothesized mediating variables in predicting scores on outcome measures across the two treatment groups. While the Parent Emotional Reaction Questionnaire was the strongest familial predictor of treatment outcome at posttreatment, parental support became a stronger predictor of outcome at the 6- and 12-month follow-up points. Treatment group was the strongest overall predictor of outcome at posttreatment and at 12-month follow-up. Demographic and developmental factors did not strongly predict outcome. Findings indicate the strong impact of parental support on treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children over the course of a 12-month follow-up and emphasize the importance of including parental interventions in treating sexually abused preschool children. They also support the superior effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy over supportive

  10. Letters to Tammy: A Technique Useful in the Treatment of a Sexually Abused Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mary W.

    1988-01-01

    Many child sexual abuse victims are unwilling or unable to disclose what happened. A case history is presented of a 6-year-old who denied any occurrence of sexual abuse. The girl's sexual acting out was treated by having the child write letters to a fictional child who had been similarly abused. (JDD)

  11. Behavioral Couples Treatment for Substance Use Disorder: Secondary Effects on the Reduction of Risk for Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R

    2016-03-01

    Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The comparition of Personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in males with with drug abuse disorder under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    samere asadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this research was to determine the difference between personality Patterns, irrational beliefs and impulsivity in men with drug abuse disorder under Treatment. Method: in this casual- comparative research, 80 men ( 40 males with drug abuse under Treatment and 40 of normal males that were selected with available sampling .Groups were matched in terms of demoghraphy characteristics ( age, sexuality, education level and marital status and were valued with means of Eysenk Perceived Stress Inventory, Jonze Irrational Beliefs Scale and Baret Impulsivity Inventory. Results: The result of variance analysis showed that addicts compared to normal people, get more scores on extraversion, neuroticism and psychosis. Addicts group had Higher men scores in irrational beliefs compare of other group. There was significant difference between groups in impulsivity and impulsivity in addicts persons is the most. Conclussion: The traits of Personality, irrational beliefs and Unrealistic and high level impulsivity are factors that propel individuals toward more drug abuse and finally addict and aiming this factors in individuals with abuse disorder under Treatment can lead to prevent of Substance Abuse Relapse.

  13. Effects of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on Decision-Making Processes in Heroin-Abusers: A Cognitive Modeling Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khodadadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A B S T R A C TIntroduction: Although decision-making processes have become a principal target of study among addiction researchers, few researches are published according to effects of different treatment methods on the cognitive processes underlying decision making up to now. Utilizing cognitive modeling method, in this paper we examine the effects of Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT on cognitive processes underlying decision-making disorders in heroin-abusers. Methods: For this purpose, for the first time, we use the balloon analog risk task (BART to assess the decision-making ability of heroin-abusers before and after treatment and compare it to the non heroin-dependent subjects. Results: Results demonstrate that heroin-abusers show more risky behavior than other groups. But, there is no difference between the performance of heroin-abusers after 6 months of MMT and control group. Modeling subjects’ behavior in BART reveals that poor performance in heroin-abusers is due to reward-dependency and insensitivity to evaluation. Discussion: Results show that 6 months of MMT decreases reward-dependency and increases sensitivity to evaluation.

  14. Sustained reduction of diversion and abuse after introduction of an abuse deterrent formulation of extended release oxycodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Ellis, Matthew S; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Cicero, Theodore J; Parrino, Mark W; Gilbert, Michael K; Buttram, Mance E; Dasgupta, Nabarun; BucherBartelson, Becki; Green, Jody L; Dart, Richard C

    2016-11-01

    The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse. Data from the Poison Center Program, Drug Diversion Program, Opioid Treatment Program, Survey of Key Informant Patients Program and StreetRx program of the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System were used. The average quarterly rates of abuse and diversion for OxyContin were compared from before reformulation to the rate in second quarter 2015. Rates were adjusted for population using US Census data and drug availability. OxyContin abuse and diversion declined significantly each quarter after reformulation and persisted for 5 years. The rate of abuse of other opioid analgesics increased initially and then decreased, but to lesser extent than OxyContin. Abuse through both oral and non-oral routes of self-administration declined following the reformulation. The geometric mean difference in the street price of reformulated OxyContin was 36% lower than the reformulated product in the year after reformulation. Despite methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism, abuse and diversion of OxyContin decreased promptly following the introduction of a crush- and solubility- resistant formulation and continued to decrease over the subsequent 5 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual Abuse Prevention: A Training Program for Developmental Disabilities Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Rachel A.; Scotti, Joseph R.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Persons with developmental disabilities are at an increased risk for becoming victims of sexual abuse. Research has revealed that the largest group of identified perpetrators of sexual abuse is developmental disability service providers. The purpose of the present study was to develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a sexual abuse…

  16. A randomized controlled trial of brief interventions for problem gambling in substance abuse treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Rash, Carla J; Alessi, Sheila M

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of brief gambling treatments in patients attending substance abuse treatment clinics. Substance abuse treatment patients with gambling problems (N = 217) were randomly assigned to a 10- to 15-min brief psychoeducation gambling intervention; a 10- to 15-min brief advice intervention addressing gambling norms, risk factors, and methods to prevent additional problems; or 4 50-min sessions of motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive behavior therapy for reducing gambling (MET + CBT). Gambling and related problems were assessed at baseline and throughout 24 months. In the sample as a whole, days and dollars wagered and gambling problems decreased markedly from baseline through Month 5; thereafter, reductions in dollars wagered and gambling problems continued to decrease modestly but significantly, and days gambled remained constant. Brief advice significantly reduced days gambled between baseline and Month 5 relative to brief psychoeducation. The MET + CBT condition engendered no benefit beyond brief advice in terms of days gambled but did lead to more precipitous reductions in dollars gambled and problems experienced in the initial 5 months, and greater clinically significant improvements in gambling in both the short and long term. MET + CBT also resulted in initial decreases in self-reported alcohol use and problems but did not differentially impact self-reported illicit drug use or submission of positive samples. Gambling problems tend to dissipate over time regardless of the intervention applied, but offering MET + CBT was more efficacious in decreasing gambling than providing a brief single session intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A genetic network model of cellular responses to lithium treatment and cocaine abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachin, Richard C; Chen, Haiming; Sartor, Maureen A; Saccone, Scott F; Keller, Benjamin J; Prossin, Alan R; Cavalcoli, James D; McInnis, Melvin G

    2010-11-19

    Lithium is an effective treatment for Bipolar Disorder (BD) and significantly reduces suicide risk, though the molecular basis of lithium's effectiveness is not well understood. We seek to improve our understanding of this effectiveness by posing hypotheses based on new experimental data as well as published data, testing these hypotheses in silico, and posing new hypotheses for validation in future studies. We initially hypothesized a gene-by-environment interaction where lithium, acting as an environmental influence, impacts signal transduction pathways leading to differential expression of genes important in the etiology of BD mania. Using microarray and rt-QPCR assays, we identified candidate genes that are differentially expressed with lithium treatment. We used a systems biology approach to identify interactions among these candidate genes and develop a network of genes that interact with the differentially expressed candidates. Notably, we also identified cocaine as having a potential influence on the network, consistent with the observed high rate of comorbidity for BD and cocaine abuse. The resulting network represents a novel hypothesis on how multiple genetic influences on bipolar disorder are impacted by both lithium treatment and cocaine use. Testing this network for association with BD and related phenotypes, we find that it is significantly over-represented for genes that participate in signal transduction, consistent with our hypothesized-gene-by environment interaction. In addition, it models related pharmacogenomic, psychiatric, and chemical dependence phenotypes. We offer a network model of gene-by-environment interaction associated with lithium's effectiveness in treating BD mania, as well as the observed high rate of comorbidity of BD and cocaine abuse. We identified drug targets within this network that represent immediate candidates for therapeutic drug testing. Posing novel hypotheses for validation in future work, we prioritized SNPs near

  18. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women.

  19. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network: forging a partnership between research knowledge and community practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai, Steven Sparenborg, David Liu, Michele StrausCenter for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN has faced many challenges over its first eleven years. This review explores some of these challenges and the paths the CTN took to meet these challenges, including: designing clinical trials that reflect the CTN’s mission and changing public health needs, finding the synergies in the varied expertise of clinical treatment providers and academic researchers, promoting evidence-based practices and expanding the Network into mainstream medical practices to reach a broader patient population. Included in this exploration are specific examples from CTN clinical trials.Keywords: Clinical Trials Network, drug abuse, addiction 

  20. Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse prevention programs for adolescents: possible relevance and limitations for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.

  1. Barriers to accessing substance abuse treatment in Mexico: national comparative analysis by migration status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined Mexican migrants’ perceived barriers to entering substance abuse treatment and potential differences by gender. Methods This study analyzed a subset of household data collected in Mexico in 2011 via the Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones (National Survey of Addictions). A sample of 1,143 individuals who reported using illicit drugs was analyzed using multivariate negative binomial models to determine direct and moderated relationships of gender, migrant status, and drug dependence with perceived barriers to accessing treatment. Results Significant findings included disparities in drug dependence by migrant status. Compared with non-migrant men, women who have traveled to the United States was associated with fewer (1.3) barriers to access treatment. Fewer barriers to access care were associated with individuals residing in other regions of the country, compared to those living in Mexico City. Conclusions Drug dependence, gender, migration status and regional location are factors associated with access to needed treatment. Implications for health care policy to develop treatment services infrastructure and for future research are discussed in the context of ongoing drug policy reform in Mexico. PMID:25074067

  2. How Serious of a Problem is Staff Turnover in Substance Abuse Treatment? A Longitudinal Study of Actual Turnover1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T.; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P.

    2010-01-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19 and 50 percent (Johnson & Roman, 2002; Gallon, Gabriel, & Knudsen, 2003; Knudsen et al., 2003; McLellan et al., 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a two year time span (2008–2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. PMID:20675097

  3. How serious of a problem is staff turnover in substance abuse treatment? A longitudinal study of actual turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian T; Burk, Hannah; Maher, Charleen P

    2010-10-01

    In the substance abuse treatment field, the annual turnover rate is cited as being anywhere between 19% and 50% (J.A. Johnson & P.M. Roman, 2002; S.L. Gallon, R.M. Gabriel, J.R.W. Knudsen, 2003; H.K. Knudsen, J.A. Johnson, & P.M. Roman, 2003; A.T. McLellan, D. Carise, & H.D. Kleber, 2003). However, no research to date has evaluated these claims by tracking turnover longitudinally using organizational turnover data from substance abuse treatment centers. This research presents the results of a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine actual turnover among counselors and clinical supervisors. Twenty-seven geographically dispersed treatment organizations, serving a wide range of clients in the public and private sector, provided data for the study over a 2-year time span (2008-2009). The annual turnover rate was 33.2% for counselors and 23.4% for clinical supervisors. For both groups, the majority of turnover was voluntary (employee-initiated). Specific reasons for turnover were largely consistent across the two groups, with the most common reason being a new job or new opportunity. The findings are discussed in terms of the unique employment context of substance abuse treatment. Practical recommendations are also discussed to help stem the tide of turnover in the field of substance abuse treatment. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Substance Abuse Treatment in Adult and Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Mary Ellen, Ed.; Straw, Richard S., Ed.

    This report presents methodology and findings from the Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS) 1997 Survey of Correctional Facilities, which surveyed about 7,600 adult and juvenile correctional facilities to identify those that provide on-site substance abuse treatment to their inmates or residents. The survey assesses substance abuse treatment provided…

  5. Differential effectiveness of residential versus outpatient aftercare for parolees from prison-based therapeutic community treatment programs

    OpenAIRE

    Messina Nena P; Prendergast Michael L; Dang Jeff; Burdon William M; Farabee David

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Research has indicated that more intense treatment is associated with better outcomes among clients who are appropriately matched to treatment intensity level based on the severity of their drug/alcohol problem. This study examined the differential effectiveness of community-based residential and outpatient treatment attended by male and female drug-involved parolees from prison-based therapeutic community substance abuse treatment programs based on the severity of their d...

  6. Managerial capacity and adoption of culturally competent practices in outpatient substance abuse treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G

    2010-12-01

    The field of cultural competence is shifting its primary emphasis from enhancement of counselors' skills to management, organizational policy, and processes of care. This study examined managers' characteristics associated with adoption of culturally competent practices in the nation's outpatient substance abuse treatment field. Findings indicate that in 1995, supervisors' cultural sensitivity played the most significant role in adopting practices, such as matching counselors and clients based on race and offering bilingual services. Staff's exposure to cross-cultural training increased from 1995 to 2005. In this period, positive associations were found between managers' cultural sensitivity and connection with the community and staff receiving cross-cultural training and the number of training hours completed. However, exposure to and investment in this training were negatively correlated with managers' formal education. Health administration policy should consider the extent to which the decision makers' education, community involvement, and cultural sensitivity contribute to building culturally responsive systems of care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A metaphor analysis of recovering substance abusers' sensemaking of medication-assisted treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvini Redden, Shawna; Tracy, Sarah J; Shafer, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we examined metaphors invoked by people recovering from opioid dependence as they described the challenges and successes of using medication-assisted treatment. Metaphors provide linguistic tools for expressing issues that are confusing, complex, hidden, and difficult to state analytically or literally. Using data from eight focus groups with 68 participants representing four ethnic minority groups, we conducted a grounded analysis to show how recovering substance users communicatively constructed addiction and recovery. The primary medication, methadone, was framed as "liquid handcuffs" that allowed those in recovery to quit "hustling," get "straight," and find "money in their pockets." Nonetheless, methadone also served as a "crutch," leaving them still feeling like "users" with "habits" who "came up dirty" to friends and family. In this analysis, we tease out implications of these metaphors, and how they shed light on sensemaking, agency, and related racial- and class-based structural challenges in substance abuse recovery.

  8. Therapist’s Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytti Artkoski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist’s gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects ( were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were male therapists. Although females were significantly more feminine than males, they saw themselves as masculine as the males did. The more feminine the therapist was, the more s/he preferred MI. In the future, an examination of this kind should be combined with measurement of treatment processes and outcomes.

  9. Comparing credentialing requirements of substance abuse treatment staff by funding source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2008-07-01

    Studies have found that clinicians with higher education and/or attainment of national certification have a more favorable outlook regarding the adoption of evidence-based practices. However, staff hiring decisions may be based on a multitude of factors, including available resources and demands stemming from different funders. Using a mixed-methods case study approach with 34 agencies within one state, we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, views on clinical hiring practices, and current staffing. We found that funding source predicted views and actual staff level of credentialing and education. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder had the lowest requirements for credentialing and education. As the substance abuse treatment delivery system evolves and expands, we must ensure that vulnerable groups have access to more highly--rather than less--skilled workers to assess and facilitate recovery.

  10. Quality of life in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Rios Campêlo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find Quality of Life (QoL instruments and their purpose in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction. This is an integrative review, whose articles were available on the Virtual Health Library (VHL and published between 2010 and 2015 with the associated descriptors "Substance-Related Disorders" and "Quality of Life". Twenty-nine texts were analyzed and the instruments were grouped into four possible uses of measurement of Quality of Life. The majority used generic instruments such as WHOQOL-Bref for general Quality of Life and the SF-36 of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. It is recommended that further studies be carried out on the use of Quality of Life instruments in relation to addiction, especially with specific instruments that are beginning to appear in some studies and which have not been consolidated in the field.

  11. Postmarketing surveillance of abuse liability of sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Schuster, Charles R; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2003-03-01

    The abuse liability of medications is a growing concern as the number of newly approved psychoactive medications increases. Postmarketing surveillance can assist in determining abuse liability, but strategies are not well-defined for medications believed to be at low abuse risk. Using a newly approved medication (sibutramine--an anorectic drug), a novel approach to postmarketing abuse surveillance was introduced. A one-page anonymous questionnaire covering sibutramine, a scheduled anorectic drug (phentermine), and a fabricated name was added to the intake process of 58 treatment programs. From the 8780 completed questionnaires, 8.8% had heard of sibutramine and phentermine. For continued use to get high (a proxy for abuse), the rate for sibutramine was lower than for phentermine (0.6 vs. 2.2%, McNemar's chi(2) = 110.45, P < 0.001) but was higher than for the fabricated name (0.6 vs. 0.3%, McNemar's chi(2) = 11.86, P < 0.001). These results suggest the risk of abuse associated with sibutramine was lower than that associated with a known abused drug, one that itself is considered low risk despite decades of population exposure. The relatively high rate of hearing of sibutramine may be due to the direct-to-consumer advertisement. This approach is only one indicator in a surveillance framework but appears promising and validates findings from laboratory-based abuse liability studies that also indicate low abuse liability for sibutramine. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  12. Do specialized services exist for LGBT individuals seeking treatment for substance misuse? A study of available treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Robohm, Jennifer S

    2007-01-01

    Substance abuse research has demonstrated that client sexual orientation influences treatment outcomes. Consequently, many substance user treatment programs offer services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In a recent search of SAMHSA treatment listings, 11.8% (N=911) of substance user treatment programs (including residential, outpatient, and partial hospitalization) in the United States and Puerto Rico indicated that they offer specialized services for LGBT clients. However, a telephone survey we conducted in 2003-2004 revealed that 70.8% of these "LGBT" programs were no different from services offered to the general population, and only 7.4% could identify a service specifically tailored to the needs of LGBT clients. Implications for LGBT individuals seeking services are discussed, the study's limitations are noted, and future research directions are identified.

  13. Women are less likely to be admitted to substance abuse treatment within 30 days of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Borisova, Natalie; Klein, Chris; di Menza, Salvatore; Schuster, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    The information gathered in a centralized intake unit (CIU) allows payers and administrators to examine if there are access issues for their population. For this study, the authors examined whether there were gender differences in the rate at which people are admitted to treatment within 30 days of assessment. Of the 5,004 individuals seeking publicly-funded substance abuse treatment in Detroit for the years 1996-97, 50.3% of those assessed at the CIU actually entered treatment. Women (31% of the people assessed) had a lower rate of admission (45% for women versus 53% for men) a difference that was maintained even after controlling for known risk factors. Women who were given priority for admission (i.e., those who were pregnant, had children, or injected drugs) had a higher rate of admission than other women (73% versus 39%), but only 17% of the women presenting were included in the priority groups. Men who were injecting drugs (a priority group) also had a higher rate of admission than other men (83% versus 49%). In multivariate analysis controlling for priority groups and known risk factors, women were still less likely to be admitted to treatment within 30 days of admission than men. Establishing priorities improves the rate of admission within 30 days of assessment for those groups, but more needs to be done to improve the admission rate for women. These results demonstrate that a CIU allows administrators to monitor for access issues.

  14. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  15. Predicting substance-abuse treatment providers' communication with clients about medication assisted treatment: a test of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Anthony J; Shafer, Michael S; Marmo, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and theory of planned behavior (TPB) can retrospectively predict whether substance-abuse treatment providers encourage their clients to use medicated-assisted treatment (MAT) as part of their treatment plan. Two-hundred and ten substance-abuse treatment providers completed a survey measuring attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behavior. Results indicate that substance-abuse treatment providers have very positive attitudes, neutral subjective norms, somewhat positive perceived behavioral control, somewhat positive intentions toward recommending MAT as part of their clients' treatment plan, and were somewhat likely to engage in the actual behavior. Further, the data fit both the TRA and TPB, but with the TPB model having better fit and predictive power for this target audience and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications for the developing messages for substance-abuse treatment providers and other health-care professionals who provide treatment to patients with substance use disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: outcome during a one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J A; Mannarino, A P

    1997-09-01

    Treatment outcome in sexually abused preschool children was evaluated 6 and 12 months after treatment. Forty-three sexually abused preschool children and their parents were evaluated 6 and 12 months after completion of either Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Sexually Abused Preschoolers (CBT-SAP) or nondirective supportive therapy (NST). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist, Child Sexual Behavior inventory, and Weekly Behavior Report to measure a variety of symptoms in their children. Repeated-measures analyses indicated that there were significant group by time interactions on several outcome measures from the beginning of the study to the end of the 12-month follow-up period, with the CBT-SAP group exhibiting significantly more improvement over time than the NST group. Clinical findings also indicated the superior effectiveness of CBT-SAP over NST in reducing sexually inappropriate behavior. Findings support the superior efficacy of CBT-SAP over NST in maintaining symptom reduction in the year after treatment completion. The importance of using cognitive-behavioral interventions for sexually inappropriate behaviors and including nonoffending parents in the treatment of sexually abused preschool children is discussed.

  17. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Moeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention and control. Intervention program design was implemented after diagnostic evaluation. The effect of educational intervention on behavior was assessed two months after the last training session. SPSS -16 was employed for data analysis. Results: After the educational intervention, the average rates of the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in the intervention group significantly increased but these changes were not significant in the control group: attitude (t=9.53, P=0.000, subjective Norms (t=9.59, P=0.000, perceived behavioral control (t=-4.14, P =0.000. Also, behavioral intention to substance abuse avoidance and current behavior for substance abuse significantly decreased in the intervention group as compared to the control group (P<0.05. Behavioral intention and current behavior in the intervention group subsided from 15 and 12 people before the educational intervention to 3 and 0 people at the end of the educational program, respec-tively. Conclusion: The results showed that using the theory of planned behavior along with the train-ing skills strategies to resist drug abuse has a significant impact to create a psychiatric immu-nization and substance refusal in drivers. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 21 (4:330-340

  18. Characteristics of Northern Plains American Indians seeking substance abuse treatment in an urban, non-tribal clinic: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Frankie; Somoza, Eugene; Lilleskov, Maurine; Moccasin, Mabel Granados-Bad; Moore, Michelle; Lewis, Daniel; Boetel, Brenda; Smith, Corey; Winhusen, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Because few data exist on substance abuse rates in American Indian (AI) communities, the Methamphetamine and Other Drug project was developed and implemented by five nodes within the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). This article presents findings from AI clients in a Northern Plains urban non-Native substance abuse treatment setting. Alcohol and marijuana were used earlier, longer, and by more clients, followed by stimulants and prescription opioids. Most regularly smoked tobacco. Differences in substance use patterns were associated with age of onset and victimization. Age of onset was correlated with victimization, gender, cognitive impairment, and suicidal behavior. Despite considerable health and economic disparities, most clients found support for recovery in relationships and elements of Native culture.

  19. Exposing the culture of silence: Inhibiting factors in the prevention, treatment, and mitigation of sexual abuse in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Rohan D; Quinn, Camille R; Alexis, Jicinta M

    2017-04-01

    This article features a study that explored the presence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including childhood sexual abuse and neglect, among women associated with Partnership for Peace (PfP), the first and only culturally adapted domestic violence diversion program for men in the Eastern Caribbean. Within a multiyear evaluative study that assessed the impact of the PfP intervention in reducing domestic violence in Grenada in the West Indies, life-history interviews were collected from a subsample of women (N=9) associated with men enrolled in the PfP program between 2009 and 2011. We found that the exposure to sexual abuse and neglect during childhood was evident in the histories of the women. Most perpetrators were trusted family or community members who suffered from a common set of behavioral patterns, most prominently alcohol use. Our findings reflect an evidence-based connection, as one causative factor, of a culture of silence that is related to child sexual abuse and its management. The apparent lasting effects of these traumatic childhood exposures reflect cycles of abuse in the life histories collected during the domestic violence evaluation study. Our study identified three key structural deficiencies (insufficient research, ineffective policy, and lack of public-health interventions) and one embedded cultural norm (the culture of silence) that together "inhibit current attempts to address ACEs as a means of curbing domestic violence in the Caribbean." Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characteristics and Outcomes of Young Adult Opiate Users Receiving Residential Substance Abuse Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Siobhan; MacMaster, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Opiate use patterns, user characteristics, and treatment response among young adults are of interest due to current high use prevalence and historical low levels of treatment engagement relative to older populations. Prior research in this population suggests that overall, young adults present at treatment with different issues. In this study the authors investigated potential differences between young adult (18-25 years of age) and older adult (26 and older) opiate users and the impact of differences relative to treatment motivation, length and outcomes. Data for this study was drawn from 760 individuals who entered voluntary, private, residential treatment. Study measures included the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), the Treatment Service Review (TSR), and University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). Interviews were conducted at program intake and 6-month post-discharge. Results indicate that older adults with a history of opiate use present at treatment with higher levels of severity for alcohol, medical, and psychological problems and young adults present at treatment with greater drug use and more legal issues. Significant improvement for both groups was noted at 6 months post treatment; there were also fewer differences between the two age groups of opiate users. Results suggest different strategies within treatment programs may provide benefit in targeting the disparate needs of younger opiate users. Overall, however, results suggest that individualized treatment within a standard, abstinence-based, residential treatment model can be effective across opiate users at different ages and with different issues, levels of severity, and impairment at intake.

  1. Personal networks of women in residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunSoo; Tracy, Elizabeth; Brown, Suzanne; Jun, MinKyoung; Park, Hyunyong; Min, Meeyoung; McCarty, Chris

    This study compared compositional, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks among women in residential (RT) and intensive outpatient (IOP) substance abuse treatment. The study sample included 377 women from inner-city substance use disorder treatment facilities. Respondents were asked about 25 personal network members known within the past 6 months, characteristics of each (relationship, substance use, types of support), and relationships between each network member. Differences between RT women and IOP women in personal network characteristics were identified using Chi-square and t-tests. Compared to IOP women, RT women had more substance users in their networks, more network members with whom they had used substances and fewer network members who provided social support. These findings suggest that women in residential treatment have specific network characteristics, not experienced by women in IOP, which may make them more vulnerable to relapse; they may therefore require interventions that target these specific network characteristics in order to reduce their vulnerability to relapse.

  2. Investigating Impacts of Incorporating an Adjuvant Mind–Body Intervention Method Into Treatment as Usual at a Community-Based Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Nakamura

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of substance use/misuse (SUM continues to pose a difficult challenge. This exploratory pilot study evaluated whether a novel mind–body intervention program called “Mind–Body Bridging” (MBB could be an effective short-term adjuvant intervention for managing SUM and coexisting symptoms in women undergoing residential and outpatient substance use treatment in a community setting. Thirty-eight women attending a local substance abuse (SA facility were recruited and randomly assigned to either (a treatment as usual (TAU or (b MBB and TAU. The MBB program consisted of 20 sessions and lasted for 10 weeks. Participants were asked to complete a set of self-report questionnaires designed to assess drug/alcohol cravings, impact of past trauma, depression, sleep disturbance, mindfulness, self-compassion, and well-being. They completed the questionnaires at three time points: preintervention, midintervention (after the fifth week, and postintervention. MBB + TAU significantly reduced drug/alcohol cravings, trauma-related thinking, and disturbed sleep in comparison with TAU. Furthermore, MBB + TAU significantly increased mindfulness, self-compassion, and well-being in comparison with TAU. MBB for SUM appears promising as a complementary adjuvant intervention, warranting future larger scale randomized controlled trials of MBB for SUM populations. SUM is a difficult condition to treat and manage clinically, especially given the multiple comorbid conditions that frequently affect those with SUM. In the search to develop effective adjuvant interventions for SUM, the present pilot study suggested that adding MBB to standard SUM treatment in community-based settings could enhance therapeutic efficacy and quality of care.

  3. Moving evidence-based drug abuse prevention programs from basic science to practice: "bridging the efficacy-effectiveness interface".

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Gerald J; Winters, Ken C; Realmuto, George M; Tarter, Ralph; Perry, Cheryl; Hektner, Joel M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges faced by developers of youth drug abuse prevention programs in transporting scientifically proven or evidence-based programs into natural community practice systems. Models for research on the transfer of prevention technology are described with specific emphasis given to the relationship between efficacy and effectiveness studies. Barriers that impede the successful integration of efficacy methods within effectiveness studies (e.g., client factors, practitioner factors, intervention structure characteristics, and environmental and organizational factors) are discussed. We present a modified model for program development and evaluation that includes a new type of research design, the hybrid efficacy-effectiveness study that addresses program transportability. The utility of the hybrid study is illustrated in the evaluation of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" prevention program.

  4. Factors Associated With Use of ASAM Criteria and Service Provision in a National Sample of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Friedmann, Peter D; Lee, I-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Standardized patient placement criteria such as those developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine are increasingly common in substance abuse treatment, but it is unclear what factors are associated with their use or with treatment units' provision of related services. This study examined these issues in the context of a national survey of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Regressions using 2005 data revealed that both public and private managed care were associated with a greater likelihood of using American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria to develop client treatment plans. However, only public managed care was associated with a greater likelihood of offering more resource-intensive services. Associations between client population severity and resource-intensive service provision were sparse but positive.

  5. A profile of the substance abuse treatment industry: organization, costs, and treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Albert M; Raskin, Ira E; Blacklow, Beatrice

    2008-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the Alcohol and Drug Services Study, conducted between 1996 and 1999, are used to explore the structure and operation of the substance user treatment industry in the United States. The empirical relationship among client (N=4945) retention and completion, types and use of counseling and medical personnel, diagnostic mix, client demographics, the level of services used, and the cost of treatment in different treatment settings is discussed using tabular presentation and tests of significance. Limitations of the analysis are outlined. This information and analysis are expected to help the research community understand the potential of the ADSS data in addressing many important questions about substance user treatment.

  6. Drug histories and criminality of inmates of local jails in the United States (1978): implications for treatment and rehabilitation of the drug abuser in a jail setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, W I

    1982-04-01

    A survey by the Department of Justice in 1978 of inmates of local jails in the United States found that 68% had ever used drugs like heroin, cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, or barbiturates outside a treatment program, and without a doctor's prescription. Offenses for which relatively larger proportions of inmates reported drug use included robbery, burglary, auto theft, larceny, and drug offenses. During the month prior to jail, 44% of inmates reported using drugs. Some 21% of convicted inmates reported being under the influence of drugs at the time of an offense for which convicted. One-fourth of inmates reporting drug use had ever been enrolled in drug treatment. Treatment and rehabilitation of the drug abuser in a jail setting is discussed.

  7. Evidence-based treatment for adult women with child abuse-related Complex PTSD: a quantitative review

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrepaal, Ethy; Thomaes, Kathleen; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Draijer, Nel; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Effective first-line treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well established, but their generalizability to child abuse (CA)-related Complex PTSD is largely unknown.Method: A quantitative review of the literature was performed, identifying seven studies, with treatments specifically targeting CA-related PTSD or Complex PTSD, which were meta-analyzed, including variables such as effect size, drop-out, recovery, and improvement rates.Results: Only six studies with...

  8. Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin; Herrenkohl, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Estimates suggest that between 10% and 25% of adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence within a dating relationship, and one in four college-age women experiences attempted or completed sexual violence on campus. Bystander programs focus on equipping young adults with the skills to safely intervene when they witness behaviors that can result in dating abuse. This approach is promoted for its capacity both to transform community norms that contribute to dating abuse and to foster more positive social interactions among youth, however, there has been limited review of the literature on the outcomes of bystander programs. Therefore, this article provides an in-depth systematic literature review, which describes the content and program components of bystander programs and summarizes what is currently known about the impact of bystander interventions on participants' behaviors and attitudes. Results indicate that bystander programs are promising from the standpoint of increasing young adults' willingness to intervene and confidence in their ability to intervene when they witness dating or sexual violence, however, the utilization of actual bystander behaviors was less straightforward. Implications for prevention practice and for future research are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Empowerment and Social Support: Implications for Practice and Programming Among Minority Women with Substance Abuse and Criminal Justice Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A; Salina, Doreen D; Jason, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women's empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women's personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community-based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support, and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice, and policy are discussed.

  10. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  11. Differential responsiveness to a parenting intervention for mothers in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress.

  12. Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Substances known as psychedelics, hallucinogens and entheogens have been employed in ethnomedical traditions for thousands of years, but after promising uses in the 1950's and 1960's they were largely prohibited in medical treatment and human research starting in the 1970's as part of the fallout from the war on drugs. Nonetheless, there are a number of studies which suggest that these substances have potential applications in the treatment of addictions. While these substances are generally classified as Schedule I, alleging no established medical uses and a high drug abuse potential, there is nonetheless evidence indicating they might be safe and effective tools for short term interventions in addictions treatment. Evidence suggests that the psychedelics have a much greater safety profile than the major addictive drugs, having extremely low levels of mortality, and producing little if any physical dependence. This paper reviews studies evaluating the use of LSD, peyote, ibogaine and ayahuasca in the treatment of dependencies and the possible mechanisms underlying the indications of effectiveness. Evidence suggests that these substances help assist recovery from drug dependency through a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including a notable "after-glow" effect that in part reflects their action on the serotonin neurotransmitter system. Serotonin has been long recognized as central to the psychedelics' well-known phenomenological, physical, emotional and cognitive dynamics. These serotonin-based dynamics are directly relevant to treatment of addiction because of depressed serotonin levels found in addict populations, as well as the role of serotonin as a neuromodulators affecting many other neurotransmitter systems.

  13. Attributions and Coping in Sexually Abused Adolescents Referred for Group Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; Tourigny, Marc

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to assess the predictive value of two sets of variables, self-attributions, and coping behaviors, on sexually abused (SA) teenagers' functioning, while controlling for abuse-related and family variables. A total of 103 female adolescents completed self-report measures to assess their psychological functioning in terms of anxiety,…

  14. Influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics: implications for the dissemination of innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly; Quanbeck, Andrew; Maus, Adam; Gustafson, David H; Dearing, James W

    2015-09-01

    Understanding influence networks among substance abuse treatment clinics may speed the diffusion of innovations. The purpose of this study was to describe influence networks in Massachusetts, Michigan, New York, Oregon, and Washington and test two expectations, using social network analysis: (1) Social network measures can identify influential clinics; and (2) Within a network, some weakly connected clinics access out-of-network sources of innovative evidence-based practices and can spread these innovations through the network. A survey of 201 clinics in a parent study on quality improvement provided the data. Network measures and sociograms were obtained from adjacency matrixes created by UCINet. We used regression analysis to determine whether network status relates to clinics' adopting innovations. Findings suggest that influential clinics can be identified and that loosely linked clinics were likely to join the study sooner than more influential clinics but were not more likely to have improved outcomes than other organizations. Findings identify the structure of influence networks for SUD treatment organizations and have mixed results on how those structures impacted diffusion of the intervention under study. Further study is necessary to test whether use of knowledge of the network structure will have an effect on the pace and breadth of dissemination of innovations.

  15. Advances in Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Interventions Among Racial, Ethnic, and Sexual Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse research among racial, ethnic, and sexual minority populations historically has lagged behind that conducted with majority samples. However, interesting and potentially important advances in prevention, brief interventions, and treatment have been made in the last few years, at least among some minority populations, such as American Indian youth. New prevention efforts have focused on point-of-sale interventions for alcohol, as well as on family-unit interventions designed with subpopulation cultural values in mind. In addition, previously established evidence-based and culturally relevant interventions are being combined with computer technology. Empirical data support using brief interventions with patients of color in medical settings, capitalizing on teachable and reachable moments during a physical trauma or other health crisis. Finally, use of empirically supported treatment may be helpful, with a caveat that these interventions must appropriately match cultural traditions and respect the values of the clients. More research clearly is needed, especially among certain minority populations in the United States. A greater emphasis should be placed on developing novel, culturally grounded interventions in partnership with communities, in addition to adapting existing mainstream interventions for use by other cultures.

  16. Social costs of robbery and the cost-effectiveness of substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Paltiel, A David; Pollack, Harold A

    2008-08-01

    Reduced crime provides a key benefit associated with substance abuse treatment (SAT). Armed robbery is an especially costly and frequent crime committed by some drug-involved offenders. Many studies employ valuation methods that understate the true costs of robbery, and thus the true social benefits of SAT-related robbery reduction. At the same time, regression to the mean and self-report bias may lead pre-post comparisons to overstate crime reductions associated with SAT. Using 1992-1997 data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), we examined pre-post differences in self-reported robbery among clients in five residential and outpatient SAT modalities. Fixed-effect negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate reductions (IRR) in armed robbery. Published data on willingness to pay to avoid robbery were used to determine the social valuation of these effects. Differences in IRR across SAT modalities were explored to bound potential biases.All SAT modalities were associated with large and statistically significant reductions in robbery. The average number of self-reported robberies declined from 0.83/client/year pre-entry to 0.12/client/year following SAT (pcosts of these interventions. Conventional wisdom posits the economic benefits of SAT. We find that SAT is even more beneficial than is commonly assumed.

  17. Behavior of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) using combined conventional and ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (UF/RO) treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boleda, Ma Rosa [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Galceran, Ma Teresa [University of Barcelona, Department Analytical Chemistry, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, Francesc, E-mail: fventura@agbar.es [AGBAR-Aiguees de Barcelona, Gral Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    The behavior along the potabilization process of 29 pharmaceuticals and 12 drugs of abuse identified from a total of 81 compounds at the intake of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) has been studied. The DWTP has a common treatment consisting of dioxychlorination, coagulation/flocculation and sand filtration and then water is splitted in two parallel treatment lines: conventional (ozonation and carbon filtration) and advanced (ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis) to be further blended, chlorinated and distributed. Full removals were reached for most of the compounds. Iopromide (up to 17.2 ng/L), nicotine (13.7 ng/L), benzoylecgonine (1.9 ng/L), cotinine (3.6 ng/L), acetaminophen (15.6 ng/L), erythromycin (2.0 ng/L) and caffeine (6.0 ng/L) with elimination efficiencies {>=}94%, were the sole compounds found in the treated water. The advanced treatment process showed a slightly better efficiency than the conventional treatment to eliminate pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. - Highlights: > The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface water was demonstrated. > Elimination in both potabilization processes reached levels >99% for most compounds. > Four pharmaceuticals and three drugs of abuse survived the potabilization process. - The efficiency of potabilization processes to eliminate or transform pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs is evaluated.

  18. Preventing and Treating Substance Abuse among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Substance misuse is one of the most prevalent causes of adolescent injury and death. Additionally, 5-8% of adolescents in the U.S. qualify for a diagnosis of substance abuse disorder. This article discusses formal prevention and treatment program models, focusing on a continuum of care which extends from prevention to treatment alternatives.…

  19. Demographic and clinical profile of substance abusing women seeking treatment at a de-addiction center in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades increasing number of women have been seeking deaddiction services. Despite that the report data is very limited from India. Objectives: The present research aimed to study the demographic and clinical profile of women seeking deaddiction treatment at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective structured chart review of 100 women substance abusers seeking treatment at a deaddiction center between September 1978 and December 2011. Results: A typical case was of 36.3 years age, married (65%, urban (61%, nuclear family (59% based housewife (56%, with good to fair social support (69%. The commonest substance of abuse was tobacco (60%, followed by opioids (27%, alcohol (15%, and benzodiazepines (13%. The common reasons for initiation of substance use were to alleviate frustration or stress (49% and curiosity (37%. Family history of drug dependence (43%, comorbidity (25%, and impairments in health (74%, family (57%, and social domains (56% were common. Only a third of the sample paid one or more follow visit, and of those 58% were abstinent at the last follow-up. Significant predictors identified were being non-Hindu and higher educational years for abstinent status at follow-up. Conclusion: The common substances of abuse were tobacco, opioids, and alcohol and benzodiazepines; and family history of drug abuse and comorbidity were common. The follow-up and outcome were generally poor. This profile gives us some clues to address a hidden health problem of the community.

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Opportunities: Parenting, Programs, and the Reduction of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Julia; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Shanley, Dianne C; Hawkins, Russell

    2017-01-01

    To date, child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention has relied largely on child-focused education, teaching children how to identify, avoid, and disclose sexual abuse. The purpose of this article is to explore how prevention opportunities can include parents in new and innovative ways. We propose that parents can play a significant role as protectors of their children via two pathways: (i) directly, through the strong external barriers afforded by parent supervision, monitoring, and involvement; and (ii) indirectly, by promoting their children's self-efficacy, competence, well-being, and self-esteem, which the balance of evidence suggests will help them become less likely targets for abuse and more able to respond appropriately and disclose abuse if it occurs. In this article, we first describe why teaching young children about CSA protective behaviors might not be sufficient for prevention. We then narratively review the existing research on parents and prevention and the parenting and family circumstances that may increase a child's risk of experiencing sexual abuse. Finally, we make a number of recommendations for future approaches to prevention that may better inform and involve parents and other adult protectors in preventing CSA.