Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K
Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272
Bertazzo-Silveira, Eduardo; Kruger, Cristian Maikel; Porto De Toledo, Isabela; Porporatti, André Luís; Dick, Bruce; Flores-Mir, Carlos; De Luca Canto, Graziela
The aim of this systematic review was to answer the focused question, "In adults, is there any association between sleep bruxism (SB) and alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse?" This systematic review included studies in which the investigators assessed SB diagnosis by using questionnaires, clinical assessment, or polysomnography and evaluated its association with alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, or drug abuse. The authors graded SB as possible, probable, or definitive. The authors developed specific search strategies for Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, PsycINFO, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science. The authors searched the gray literature by using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The authors evaluated the methodological quality of the included studies by using the Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. From among 818 studies, the authors selected 7 for inclusion in which samples ranged from 51 through 10,229 participants. SB was associated highly with alcohol and tobacco use. In 1 study, the investigators noted a positive and weak association for heavy coffee drinkers. The odds for SB seem to increase almost 2 times for those who drank alcohol, almost 1.5 times for those who drank more than 8 cups of coffee per day, and more than 2 times for those who were current smokers. The abuse of methylenedioxymethamphetamine associated with SB remained without sufficient evidence. On the basis of limited evidence, SB was associated positively with alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco. The association between the studied drugs could not be discredited; however, there is still a need for stronger evidence based on studies with greater methodological rigor. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...
Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret
Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…
Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Smith, Eric G; Stano, Claire M; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia
Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes) entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation"). Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Specificity was high (≥ 90%) for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%). Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.
Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada
The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.
Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation". Methods Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Results Specificity was high (≥ 90% for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%. Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Conclusions Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.
Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya
In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.
Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…
Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...
Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R
Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... colonic (RR = 1.0; 95% CI 0.8-1.3) or rectal cancer (RR = 1.0; CI 0.7-1.3) than expected. The risk of breast cancer in women was slightly increased (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.7), but not statistically significant. Thus, the associations between alcohol and cancer of the upper digestive and respiratory tract...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers....
Tønnesen, H; Møller, Henrik; Andersen, J R
Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared with th...... and the liver are confirmed. In addition, this study indicates an increased occurrence of cancer of the prostate gland, pleura and uterine cervix in alcohol abusers.......Data on the association between alcohol abuse and cancer morbidity are scarce in large cohorts of non-hospitalised alcoholic men and women. Of 18,368 alcohol abusers who entered an outpatient clinic in Copenhagen during 1954-87, 18,307 were followed and their cancer incidence was compared...... with that of the total Danish population. On average the 15,214 men were observed for 12.9 years and the 3,093 women for 9.4 years. The overall morbidity of cancer was increased significantly. Of the men, 1,441 developed cancer [relative risk (RR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.7], while 182 women did (RR...
Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others
Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…
..., HHS). (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.279, Drug Abuse and Addiction Research... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...
State Employees Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and ; Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Page Content Alison Kulas Executive Director If you, a family Kulas Begins Tenure as Executive Director The Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, The Alaska
Marcos Henrique Fernandes
Full Text Available Introduction: Epidemiologic researches about psychoactive substance use have shown an up-and-coming situation to abusive consumption of alcohol in adolescent and young-adult groups. This consumption over come the knowledge about damage caused by abusive of these substances, especially for the population part who is in the “top of life experiences”; the university students. Aim: To estimate the prevalence of the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse in university students at Jequié-BA, and to verify the association between the alcoholic ingestion and alcohol abuse with the gender, race, smoking and graduation area. Methods: Prevalence study with probabilistic randomized sample (n = 129 of a population of 3,644 university students, registered in three universities. It was used a Questionnaire contends socio-demographic data, asking for the alcoholic ingestion and test CAGE to abuse. Results: It has been found prevalence of 63.6% to alcohol ingestion, 21.7% of high risk in abuse, and 8.5% of alcohol abuse. Although they have not been gotten association statistics between these variable and gender, race, graduation area and smoking; the data had demonstrated highest rates of alcohol abuse, and high risk in developing in students of masculine gender, medium brown race, who attend a graduation course in the health area. Those who have used of the tobacco had presented percentile greater of high risk in becoming alcohol consumer abusive. Conclusions: Intent for data found, as much alcohol ingestion as abuse, since they reflect the necessity of prevention politics to the alcoholic abusive ingestion in this population
Full Text Available Background: It is clear that tobacco smoking and substance abuse have negative consequences on adolescent and youth′s health. Tobacco smoking especially hookah smoking has increased worldwide especially among university students. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors such as cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, alcohol use, and drug abuse and its predictors in students of Karaj universities. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place in Karaj in January and February 2014. The randomly selected sample consisted of 1959 college students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure risk-taking behaviors as well as demographic and related risk factors. Logistic regression model was performed in data analysis. Results: The prevalence of cigarette smoking was 9.3%. The prevalence of hookah smoking was 9.3%. 7% of students used illegal drugs and 9.5% of students used alcohol at least once in last 30 days. After adjustment for other factors, being male, living without parents, having smoker friends, and presence any smoker in the family were factors associated with students′ risk-taking behaviors. The results showed the co-occurrence of risk-taking behaviors. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco smoking and substance abuse, particular in males, are high. It seems that planning preventive interventions for this part of the population are necessary. This study emphasized the co-occurrence of risky behaviors, so, it is better high-risk behaviors simultaneously targeted at reducing or preventing interventions.
Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej
To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and...
... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...
... on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... to curb college alcohol abuse. NIAAA Tools You Can Use The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and ...
Burke, T R
The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol
Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Leyva-López, Ahideé; Sánchez-Estrada, Marcela; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
To quantify the association between gender role orientation and tobacco and alcohol use among young people of the State of Morelos. Study conducted in 2004-2005, students aged 14 to 24 years (n = 1 730). Sociodemographic variables (area of residence, socioeconomic status), family (parental education and violence), psycho-sociological (gender role, self-esteem, depression, alcohol consumption, tobacco, locus of control, sexual abuse). Logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with use of tobacco: In women, being androgynous undesirable, masculine role, attempted sexual abuse and urban areas. For men, depression and submission. Factors associated with alcohol use: In women, masculine gender role; and in men to be older than 20 years, living in semi-urban and urban area, and internal locus. The machismo is one of the gender role orientations with greater association with the use of tobacco primarily in girls in Mexico, and the masculine or instrumental role with alcohol.
Williams, Gerard; Daly, Michelle; Proude, Elizabeth M; Kermode, Steven; Davis, Michelle; Barling, Jan; Haber, Paul S
Tobacco use and heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. There is limited research on the correlation between tobacco and risky levels of alcohol use and the possible complications associated with a hospital admission. The underestimation of problem drinking, in particular, has obvious repercussions for the management of patients in hospital. If alcohol-related problems go undetected or unrecorded, treatment may be inadequate or inappropriate. The aims of the project were to assess the prevalence of high-risk alcohol and tobacco use in orthopaedic in-patients and to examine any relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and the number and type of complications, management and length of stay. One hundred and fifty-three consecutive orthopaedic admissions to the Orthopaedic Ward at Lismore Base Hospital were screened using the Drinkcheck questionnaire, which is based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), but which also screens for tobacco use. Nursing staff on the ward completed a Complications Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ). The risk status of the subjects was compared to the number and type of complications, to assess any effects of alcohol and tobacco on post-surgical complications. Significant correlations were found between tobacco use, hazardous and harmful alcohol use and numerous medical complications and behavioural problems. Behavioural problems associated with risky alcohol use included verbal abuse, agitation and sleep disturbances, particularly in men; problems associated with tobacco use included agitation and non-compliance. Orthopaedic patients who smoke and/or drink heavily prior to surgery may have more non-medical complications than non-smokers and light or non-drinkers. All surgery patients should thus be screened for alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol withdrawal, which may cause other symptoms such as behavioural problems, non-compliance and verbal abuse post-surgery.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public, with attendance limited to space available...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
This infrastructure, usually in national statistical offices, has been ... Tobacco Control Policy Survey -International Alcohol Control Survey Collecting and sharing ... both tobacco and alcohol data, and apply the same data collection processes.
Meyer, Michael G; Toborg, Mary A; Denham, Sharon A; Mande, Mary J
Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence.
Richter Kimber P
Full Text Available Abstract Most persons in drug treatment smoke cigarettes. Until drug treatment facilities systematically treat their patients' tobacco use, millions will flow through the drug treatment system, overcome their primary drug of abuse, but die prematurely from tobacco-related illnesses. This paper reviews the literature on the health benefits of quitting smoking for drug treatment patients, whether smoking causes relapse to other drug or alcohol abuse, the treatment of tobacco dependence, and good and bad times for quitting smoking among drug treatment patients. It also presents a conceptual model and recommendations for treating tobacco in substance abuse treatment, and provides references to internet and paper-copy tools and information for treating tobacco dependence. At present, research on tobacco treatment in drug treatment is in its infancy. Although few drug treatment programs currently offer formal services, many more will likely begin to treat nicotine dependence as external forces and patient demand for these services increases. In the absence of clear guidelines and attention to quality of care, drug treatment programs may adopt smoking cessation services based on cost, convenience, or selection criteria other than efficacy. Because research in this field is relatively new, substance abuse treatment professionals should adhere to the standards of care for the general population, but be prepared to update their practices with emerging interventions that have proven to be effective for patients in drug treatment.
Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V
An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...
Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.
This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…
Paulo Cesar Ribeiro Barbosa
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess the impact of ceremonial use of ayahuasca—a psychedelic brew containing N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT and β-carboline —and attendance at União do Vegetal (UDV meetings on substance abuse; here we report the findings related to alcohol and tobacco use disorder. A total of 1,947 members of UDV 18+ years old were evaluated in terms of years of membership and ceremonial attendance during the previous 12 months. Participants were recruited from 10 states from all major regions of Brazil. Alcohol and tobacco use was evaluated through questionnaires first developed by the World Health Organization and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Analyses compared levels of alcohol and tobacco use disorder between the UDV and a national normative sample (n = 7,939. Binomial tests for proportions indicated that lifetime use of alcohol and tobacco was higher in UDV sample compared to the Brazilian norms for age ranges of 25–34 and over 34 years old, but not for the age range of 18–24 years old. However, current use disorders for alcohol and tobacco were significantly lower in the UDV sample than the Brazilian norms. Regression analyses revealed a significant impact of attendance at ayahuasca ceremonies during the previous 12 months and years of UDV membership on the reduction of alcohol and tobacco use disorder.
... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Abuse and Alcoholism, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 3061, Rockville, MD...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM, including consideration of personnel qualifications and performance, and the... evaluate Laboratory of Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...
Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana
To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol Resource Grant Applications. Date: April 6...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA AA13-001, Specialized Alcohol Research Centers. Date... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center Grants--Parent Committee. Date: August 10, 2012...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program Projects on Alcohol-Related Research. August...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...
Ananda P. Dasanayake
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (<.05. As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR=1.98; 95% CI=1.43–2.75 and drank wine (OR=1.85; 95% CI=1.16–2.96 had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers.
Full Text Available Background: The comorbidity of substance abuse and mental disorder is known to exist and may cause many diagnostic, prognostic, and management difficulties. Indian data are sparse in this area. Objectives: The aim of the study was to identify the prevalence and pattern of substance abuse in psychiatric outpatients and to examine the relation between demographic variables and drug abuse pattern. Materials and Methods: Medical records of the patients attending psychiatry outpatient clinic at a tertiary care general hospital over a 3-month period were reviewed. Information was obtained from medical chart and Drug Abuse Monitoring Scale pro forma about substance abuse. Psychiatric diagnosis made by a qualified psychiatrist according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition diagnostic criteria, as recorded in the case record form, was used. Observation: The results revealed that 50.8% (half of all psychiatry outpatients were using one or more substances including tobacco in the last month prior to registration (1 month prevalence and 28.35% were using substances at any time in their life prior to the last month (lifetime prevalence. Male patients had 6 to 8 times higher substance abuse than female patients. Tobacco and alcohol were found to be the most common substances of abuse, followed by cannabis. Part-time and full-time employed male patients consumed more alcohol and tobacco than unemployed patients. Conclusions: Substance abuse was common among mentally ill outpatients and could be the cause of various health hazards and hence requires due attention.
Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A
Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.
Aims The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation, and if so, how those alliances worked. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Findings In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies, and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policymaking. Conclusions The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol, and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. PMID:23587076
Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine
We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…
Yu. P. Sivolap
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other
Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse, are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is because of disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for AUD. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. Systematic literature review and expert interviews. There is heterogeneity in experts' descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with AUD. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to AUD and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Kate Miriam Loewenthal
Full Text Available This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 22, 2013... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...
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... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Resource Grant Applications (R24). Date: November 3, 2010. Time..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...
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... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 2-3, 2010. Time..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...
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... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...
The aim of my thesis is to find out what is the position of the Czech society to advertising, tobacco and alcoholic products and advertising of these products, if this position differs for men and for women and for university students. In order to achieve my goals, I used the analysis of secondary data from Market & Media & Lifestyle -- TGI, the analysis of primary data obtained from the internet questionnaire and comparison of results of both analyses. On this basis, I came to conclusion tha...
Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth
Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.
Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena
Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: June 12, 2012. Time... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, [email protected
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2...
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Background Evidence suggests exposure to film smoking increases youth smoking, and this is also likely to be the case for television. Some evidence suggests alcohol in films and television has similar effects on drinking behaviours. It is therefore important to document the extent to which tobacco and alcohol occur in films and television in the UK. Methods Films (1989-2008) and television broadcasting were content coded for tobacco and alcohol including branding, use, parapherna...
Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.
Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications. Date: October 9, 2012..., National Institute [[Page 59406
Zeigler, Donald W
This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.
de Silva, Varuni; Samarasinghe, Diyanath; Hanwella, Raveen
The harm from alcohol and tobacco use in low- and middle-income countries includes substantial economic cost to the individual. Our aim was to describe the expenditure on concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in relation to family income in two districts in Sri Lanka. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in two districts in Sri Lanka. We sampled 2684 men over 18 years of age using multistage cluster sampling. Cost of alcohol and cigarettes was calculated using the retail price for each brand and multiplying by the amount consumed. Among current alcohol users 63.1% were also smokers. Among current smokers 61.9% were also using alcohol. Prevalence of concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in urban areas was 20.1% and in rural areas 14%. The two lowest income categories (meaning in such settings. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.
Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354
Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Lagergren, Jesper
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) develops when reflux of gastric content causes troublesome symptoms or complications. The main symptoms are heartburn and acid regurgitation and complications include oesophagitis, strictures, Barrett's oesophagus and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition to hereditary influence, GORD is associated with lifestyle factors, mainly obesity. Tobacco smoking is regarded as an aetiological factor of GORD, while alcohol consumption is considered a triggering factor of reflux episodes and not a causal factor. Yet, both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption can reduce the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, facilitating reflux. In addition, tobacco smoking reduces the production of saliva rich in bicarbonate, which is important for buffering and clearance of acid in the oesophagus. Alcohol also has a direct noxious effect on the oesophageal mucosa, which predisposes to acidic injury. Tobacco smoking cessation reduces the risk of GORD symptoms and avoidance of alcohol is encouraged in individuals where alcohol consumption triggers reflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents.METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used.RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year.CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users.
Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi
OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103
QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE
Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.
Scott, Molly M; Cohen, Deborah A; Schonlau, Matthias; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N
Historically, the alcohol and tobacco industries have been the biggest users of outdoor advertising. However, the 1999 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) outlawed tobacco billboards and transit furniture (e.g., bus, bench) ads, and the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) has pledged to voluntarily eliminate ads for alcohol and tobacco within 500 feet of schools, playgrounds, and churches. Outdoor advertisements were observed (2004-2005) in a sample of urban census tracts (106 in pre-Katrina southern Louisiana and 114 in Los Angeles County) to evaluate tobacco and alcohol advertisers' compliance with the MSA and the OAAA Code of Industry Principles. Data were analyzed in 2007-2008. More than one in four tobacco ads in Louisiana failed to comply with the MSA. In Los Angeles, 37% of alcohol ads and 25% of tobacco ads were located within 500 feet of a school, playground, or church; in Louisiana, roughly one in five ads promoting alcohol or tobacco fell within this distance. In Los Angeles, low-income status and the presence of a freeway in the tract were associated with 40% more alcohol and tobacco billboards near children. In Louisiana, each additional major roadway-mile was associated with 4% more tobacco ads-in violation of MSA-and 7% more small ads near schools, playgrounds, and churches; city jurisdiction accounted for 55% of MSA violations and more than 70% of the violations of OAAA guidelines. Cities must be empowered to deal locally with violations of the MSA. Legislation may be needed to force advertisers to honor their pledge to protect children from alcohol and tobacco ads.
Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.
Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…
P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)
textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the
Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.
Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant... given of a joint meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...
Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan J; Bastian, Nicholas; Suzuki, Sumihiro
To examine the event-specific relationship between alcohol intoxication and nighttime tobacco smoking among college bar patrons. In this secondary analysis of existing data, we examined event-specific associations between self-report measures of tobacco smoking and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) readings obtained from 424 patrons exiting on-premise drinking establishments. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, acute alcohol intoxication was positively associated with same-night incidents of smoking tobacco, adjusting for the effects of established smoking practices and other potential confounders. This investigation is the first known study using data collected in an on-premise drinking setting to link alcohol intoxication to specific incidents of tobacco smoking.
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Tauchmann, Harald; Göhlmann, Silja; Requate, Till; Schmidt, Christoph M.
The question of whether two drugs – namely alcohol and tobacco – are used as complements or substitutes is of crucial interest if side-effects of anti-smoking policies are considered. Numerous papers have empirically addressed this issue by estimating demand systems for alcohol and tobacco and subsequently calculating cross-price effects. However, this traditional approach often is seriously hampered by insufficient price-variation observed in survey data. We therefore suggest an alternative ...
Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J
Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.
Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc
Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Palenzuela-Paniagua, Sara; Magallón-Botaya, Rosa; Jiménez-García, Celia; Fernández García, Jose Angel; Pérula de Torres, Luis Angel
Preventive strategies are the most effective approach for dealing with issues of substance abuse, particularly in teenagers. Such strategies adapt well to this target population. Our objective was to reveal the opinions and beliefs held by teenagers about tobacco and alcohol as types of drugs, and their effects on health. In this cross-sectional study, participants completed a self-administered questionnaire based on the World Health Organization "Health Behaviour of School-aged Children" study. Our sample included 1,005 schoolchildren aged between 11 and 13 years, resident in the province of Córdoba in Spain. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed using a chi-squared test. Of respondents, 25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.2-27.6%) and 61% (95% CI: 58.0-64.1%), respectively, did not consider tobacco or alcohol to be drugs. No relationship was found between tobacco and alcohol use, and the belief that these are drugs (p = 0.477 and p = 0.217, respectively). A total 98.2% of adolescents surveyed (95% CI: 97.3-99.1%) believed that tobacco causes physical damage, mainly to the lungs, heart, and to the developing fetus. Additionally, 92.4% (95% CI: 90.6-94.0%) believed that alcohol is detrimental to health and identified the liver as the organ most frequently damaged by alcohol consumption. The media was identified as the main source of information about these substances by 78.0% of respondents (95% CI: 75.4-80.6%). Teenagers possess an acceptable level of knowledge and information about the negative effects of tobacco and alcohol on health; however, many of them do not consider these substances to be drugs.
Conclusions: Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in social settings, and tailor anti-tobacco messaging by gender.
Vida Ana Politakis
Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Diﬀerences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.
Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz
The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review Subcommittee... & Alcoholism National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-3037...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group. Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcoholism, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-451-2067...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 443-4032...
... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...
Nayra Soares do Amaral
Full Text Available Tobacco and alcohol are the leading environmental risk factors in the development of human diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver injury. Despite the copious amount of research on this topic, by 2030, 8.3 million deaths are projected to occur worldwide due to tobacco use. The expression of noncoding RNAs, primarily microRNAs (miRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, is modulated by tobacco and alcohol consumption. Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes can modulate the expression of miRNAs and lncRNAs through various signaling pathways, such as apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammatory pathways—primarily interleukin 6 (IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, which seems to play a major role in the development of diseases associated with these risk factors. Since they may be predictive and prognostic biomarkers, they can be used both as predictors of the response to therapy and as a targeted therapy. Further, circulating miRNAs might be valuable noninvasive tools that can be used to examine diseases that are related to the use of tobacco and alcohol. This review discusses the function of noncoding RNAs in cancer and other human tobacco- and alcohol-associated diseases.
This showed that Mn, Fe and Cu were significantly increased while Zn was reduced significantly in alcohol abusers when compared with the control group of total abstainers. Excessive consumption of burukutu seems to significantly alter the trace elements status in abusers. Duration of intake and excessive use of burukutu ...
Carolina D. Wiener
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Results: Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60% individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men. Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. Conclusion: These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P
To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K
The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.
Schlesinger, Stephen E.
Alcohol abuse imposes financial, social, and emotional burdens on drinkers and their families. Couples suffering from alcohol-related problems who seek therapy often have expectations of retribution, restitution, and refuge. Although thoughts of retribution are difficult to elicit in therapy, non-drinking spouses often expect to inflict pain on…
, drug addiction) among adolescents from 14 to 27 years old with alcoholic parents. Hospitalisation of adolescents because of psychological disturbances is also seen relatively more often among cases where the parents are alcohol abusers. Similarly, an increased risk of teenage motherhood and youth...
Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile
Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…
Olson, Steve; Gerstein, Dean R
... on Alternative Policies Affecting the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D. C. 1985 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific ...
Silva, Ivelissa da; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Oliveira, Sandro Schreiber de; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
To assess the association between alcohol abuse during gestation and low birth weight. Cross-sectional, population-based nested study from a cohort of 957 pregnant women who received prenatal assistance through Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and delivered their babies between September 2007 and September 2008. The mothers were interviewed at two distinct moments: prenatal and postpartum periods. In order to verify alcohol abuse, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener) scale was used. Bivariate analyses were carried out, as well as multiple logistic regression adjusted by the variables prematurity and alcohol abuse. The level of significance that was adopted was 95%. Of the women who participated in the study, 2.1% abused alcohol during pregnancy and, among these, 26.3% had low birth weight children. There was an association between alcohol abuse and low birth weight (palcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This lifestyle is mainly determined during childhood and connected with poor public prophylactic health policy. The aim of this study was to estimate physical activity and level of tobacco abuse, as well as knowledge about health behaviours, among medical students. Methods Questionnaires were completed by Polish (243 and foreign medical students (80. Results It was stated that about 20% of the students smoked cigarettes. Female students from Norway took up smoking significantly more often than other participants, whereas there were more smokers among those from Poland. There was a significantly larger percentage of smoking males from Norway than among male Polish students. The same students presented a low level of physical activity. The smallest level of physical activity was characteristic of the Polish women. Conclusion This situation requires an intensification of activities aimed at supporting pro-health lifestyles and the elimination of unfavourable effects, especially among medical students.
The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.
Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-008. Date: May 23-24, 2012. Time: 9:00 a.m...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA-12-009. Date: July 17-19, 2012. Time: 10:00 a...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: May 25-26, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Neuroscience. Date: March...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-011. Date: June 8, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict SEP. Date: March 18, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews Treatment...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology of HIV/AIDS and Substance Use--RFA DA12-009...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Epidemiology, Prevention (1...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews--Biosciences. Date...
... DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Neurosciences. Date: July...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Fellowship & Training Member Conflict Applications. Date...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Behavioral Sciences. Date...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and Behavioral...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Metabolism and Health...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict Applications. Date: March 26, 2013. Time...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: June 6-7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: April 4, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...
Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta
Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention.
Dull, R. Thomas; Williams, Franklin P., III
Concludes little relationship exists between the three substances marihuana, alcohol and tobacco. Youthful subjects tend to overestimate the relationships between the three substances and cannot be generalized to other populations. Suggests an explanation of this youthful association focuses on simultaneous experimentation rather than causal…
Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M
BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium prov...
Objective. To determine the prevalence of, and factors associated with conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa (SA). Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 4 900 (54.5% men, 45.5% women) consecutively selected TB patients (including new TB and new TB retreatment patients) ...
Fernanda Jorge Guimarães
Full Text Available Alcohol is the most consumed drug in the world, which could generate social and health problems, affecting users, people living with them and the society in general. The aim was to identify the best evidence of interventions to reduce alcohol abuse. An integrative review of the literature, conducted on LILACS, CINAHL, PUBMED and SCOPUS, through the descriptors “intervention studies” and “alcoholism”. Nineteen articles were selected, most of them classified as two regarding level of evidence. They involved interventions with alcohol users, the most efficient were short interventions, internet-based interventions and counselling. Although cessation of alcohol use was not proved through the interventions, results point to a significant reduction in consumption, increase of the availability to change drinking habit and effective impact of short interventions when compared to usual treatments. Short interventions constitute the best interventions to reduce alcohol abuse.
Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637
Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela M
We investigated tobacco companies' knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Tobacco companies' numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use.
Yahya Ayhan Acar
Full Text Available Benzydamine hydrochloride is a locally acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Benzydamine hydrochloride overdose can cause stimulation of central nervous system, hallucinations, and psychosis. We presented a young man with psychotic symptoms due to benzydamine hydrochloride abuse. He received a total dose of 1000 mg benzydamine hydrochloride with alcohol for its hallucinative effects. Misuse of benzydamine hydrochloride must be considered in differential diagnosis of first-episode psychosis and physicians should consider possibility of abuse in prescribing.
Bach Xuan Tran
Full Text Available Introduction: The expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program requires more data about the factors affecting the effectiveness of treatment, especially behavioral data such as smoking and alcohol use among patients. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol consumption and identify related factors among MMT patients in the Vietnamese rural mountainside. Methods: We interviewed 241 MMT patients in two clinics in Tuyen Quang, a mountainous province in Vietnam. Patients were asked to report the smoking status (current smoker or not, nicotine dependence (by Fagerström test for nicotine dependence - FTND and alcohol use (by using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – AUDIT-C. EuroQol-5 dimensions-5 levels (EQ-5D-5L and EQ-Visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS were employed to measure health-related quality of life. Multivariate logistic and Tobit regressions were used to identify the associated factors. Results: The majority of respondents were current smokers (75.7% and a low proportion were hazardous drinkers (18.3%. People receiving treatment in a rural clinic (OR=0.45; 95%CI=0.22–0.92 and had problems in usual activities (OR=0.20; 95%CI=0.06–0.70 were less likely to be smokers. Q-VAS score (Coef.=0.03; 95%CI=0.02–0.05 and having problems in mobility (Coef.=0.72; 95%CI=0.03–1.42 was found to be associated with the increase of nicotine dependence. In terms of alcohol drinking, people with other jobs were more likely to drink hazardously compared to unemployed patients (OR=2.86; 95%CI=1.20–6.82. Similarly, patients having higher duration of MMT had higher likelihood of being hazardous drinkers (OR=1.07; 95%CI=1.01–1.13. Conclusions: This study highlights the low rate of alcohol abusers but a considerably high proportion of current smokers among MMT patients in the rural mountainside area. Alcohol and tobacco counseling programs combined with social and family support also play an essential role
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Jiang, Nan; Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
Advertising influences people's health behaviors. Tobacco companies have linked tobacco and alcohol in their marketing activities. We examined how depictions of alcohol were placed in lifestyle magazines produced by tobacco companies, and if these references differed depending on if the magazine was oriented towards men, women, or if it was unisex. Content analysis of 6 different tobacco industry lifestyle magazines (73 issues), including 73 magazine covers, 1558 articles, 444 tobacco ads, and 695 non-tobacco ads. 14 of 73 (19%) magazine covers featured alcohol; 581 of 1558 (37%) magazine articles mentioned alcohol; 119 of 444 (27%) tobacco ads showed alcohol images; and 57 of 695 (8%) non-tobacco ads portrayed alcohol. Male-oriented magazines ( Unlimited , CML , and Real Edge ) contained the most alcohol references, and the references were mainly beer, mixed drinks, and liquor or spirits. Female-oriented magazines ( All Woman and Flair ) contained the fewest alcohol references, and wine and mixed drinks were the major types of alcoholic beverage portrayed. For unisex magazine ( P.S. ), the frequency of alcohol references fell between the male- and female-oriented magazines, and most frequently mentioned mixed drinks. Frequent depictions of smoking and drinking in tobacco industry lifestyle magazines might have reinforced norms about paired use of tobacco and alcohol among young adults. The pairing of tobacco and alcohol may particularly target young men. Anti-tobacco interventions need to address the co-use of tobacco and alcohol, change the social acceptability of smoking in any social settings, and tailor alcohol related anti-tobacco messaging by gender.
Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo
Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030
Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina
Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the
Fenoglio, Philippe; Parel, Véronique; Kopp, Pierre
AIM, DESIGN AND SETTING: The economic costs of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs to French society are estimated using a cost of illness framework. For the cause of disease or death (using ICD-9 categories), pooled relative risk estimates from meta-analyses were combined with prevalence data by age and gender to derive the proportion attributable to alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs. The resulting estimates of attributable deaths and hospitalizations were used to calculate the associated health care, law enforcement, productivity and other costs. The results were compared with those of other studies, and sensitivity analyses were conducted by alternative ways of measuring risk attribution and costs. The use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs cost more than 200 billion francs (FF) in France in 1997, representing 3714 FF per capita or 2.7% of the gross domestic product (GDP). Alcohol is the drug that gives rise to the greatest cost in France, i.e. 115420.91 million FF (1.42% of GDP) or an expenditure per capita of 1966 FF in 1997. Alcohol takes more than half of the social cost of drugs to society. The greatest share of the social cost of alcohol comes from the loss of productivity (57555.66 million FF), due to premature death (53168.60 million FF), morbidity (3884.0 million FF) and imprisonment (503.06 million FF). Tobacco leads to a social cost of 89256.90 million FF, that is an expenditure per capita of 1520.56 FF or 1.1% of GDP. Productivity losses amount to 50446.70 million FF, with losses of 42765.80 million FF as a result of premature death and 7680.90 million FF linked to morbidity. Health care costs for tobacco occupy second place at 26973.70 million FF. Illicit drugs generate a social cost of 13350.28 million FF, that is an expenditure per capita of 227.43 FF or 0.16% of GDP. Productivity losses reach 6099.19 million FF, with 5246.92 million FF linked to imprisonment and 852.27 million FF to premature death. The cost of enforcing the law for illicit
Challenges of the Minnesota model not withstanding treatment providers are faced with inadequate skills and facilities rendering them unable to meet the ever increasing demand. Research into culturally adopted treatment intervention strategies is necessary to enhance the effectiveness and treatment of alcohol abuse in ...
Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P
In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...
Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane
Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…
... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee, October 15, 2013, 08:00...
Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B
Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.
Armstrong, R W
Data from 100 Chinese, 50 Malay, and 50 Indian adults resident in 1980 in the greater urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, indicate a heavy use of cigarettes among males of all ethnic groups, light use among female Chinese, and none among female Malay and Indian. Consumption of other tobacco products was important only among Indian males; chewing betal quid among Indian males and also among Malay and Indian females. Alcohol use is increasing among both sexes and all ethnic groups, but Chinese and Indian groups use alcoholic drinks more frequently and in larger quantity than Malay. Beer and liquor are the most common drinks.
Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.
Junge, Jette; Bentsen, K D; Christoffersen, P
In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10-13 ye...... increased amounts later developed the disease (p less than 0.005). Semiquantitative assessment of the amount of parenchymal fibronectin at an early stage of alcoholic liver disease is of definite predictive value for the development of cirrhosis.......In a study of 142 male alcohol abusers without evidence of cirrhosis the presence of intralobular fibronectin in the liver was investigated in relation to the subsequent development of the disease. All 142 initial biopsy samples showed preserved architecture. During a follow up period of 10...
Tobacco smoking is still one of the most important risk factor for Respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and an estimated 90% of causes of lung cancer are attributable to Tobacco smocking and equally 90% of peripheral vascular disease in non-diabetic population is attributable to Tobacco smoking, despite the health ...
Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L
Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs among Karaj high-school students in 2011. Methods: The research method was a descriptive-sectional study. Participants of this study were 447 girl and boy high-school students of Karaj that were selected by clustering random sampling. For data gathering, drug abuse questionnaire, and risk and protective factors inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: According to the results, 57% of students in this study said that they have had experiences with a kind of drug including tobacco, hubble-bubble, alcoholic drinks, and other drugs at least once in their lives. The study showed the prevalence for soft drugs: hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, and for hard drugs ecstasy, opium, hashish, meth, crack, and heroin respectively. Conclusion: Soft drugs including hubble-bubble, tobacco, and alcoholic drinks, are the most common among Karaj high-school students. The prevalence of hard drugs among them is rather low.
Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie
PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...
Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K
Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in
Gupta, Prakash C; Maulik, Pallab K; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Saxena, Shekhar
The concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco and its deleterious effects have been reported in the western literature. However, studies on the relationship between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use in India are limited. This study outlines the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among a middle-aged and elderly population in a western Indian cohort after controlling for various sociodemographic factors. A total of 35 102 men, 45 years of age and above were interviewed for concurrent alcohol and tobacco use. The sample was part of an earlier cohort drawn from the general population. The data were analysed after controlling for age, education, religion and mother-tongue. Among alcohol users, 51.1% smoked tobacco and 35.6% used smokeless tobacco. The relative risk of alcohol use was highest among those smoking cigarettes or beedis and among those using mishri with betel quid and tobacco. The risk of alcohol use increased with the frequency of tobacco use. The risk also increased with higher amounts of alcohol consumption, but peaked at around 100-150 ml of absolute alcohol use. The study highlights the association between concurrent alcohol and tobacco use among the Indian population. This has important public health implications since concurrent use of these is synergistic for increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers.
Jiang, Nan; K. Cortese, Daniel; Jane Lewis, M.; M. Ling, Pamela
Background: Advertising influences people's health behaviors. Tobacco companies have linked tobacco and alcohol in their marketing activities. We examined how depictions of alcohol were placed in lifestyle magazines produced by tobacco companies, and if these references differed depending on the magazine’s orientation, if it was towards men, women, or if it was unisex. Methods: Content analysis of 6 different tobacco industry lifestyle magazines (73 issues), including 73 magazine covers, 1...
Curran, T A
We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95\\/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...
Baumann, Michèle; Spitz, Elisabeth; Guillemin, Francis; Ravaud, Jean-François; Choquet, Marie; Falissard, Bruno; Chau, Nearkasen
The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. The sample comprised 6,216 people aged > or 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia). A deprivation score (D) was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa) computed with logistic models. Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D > or 3a re men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9%) and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%), whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%). Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D > or = 3), alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D > or = 3) and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D > or = 3). These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women). Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial measures.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to assess the relationships between social and material deprivation and the use of tobacco, excessive alcohol and psychotropic drugs by both sexes and in various age groups. Greater knowledge concerning these issues may help public health policy-makers design more effective means of preventing substance abuse. Methods The sample comprised 6,216 people aged ≥ 15 years randomly selected from the population in north-eastern France. Subjects completed a post-mailed questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, employment, income, smoking habit, alcohol abuse and "psychotropic" drug intake (for headache, tiredness, nervousness, anxiety, insomnia. A deprivation score (D was defined by the cumulative number of: low educational level, manual worker, unemployed, living alone, nationality other than western European, low income, and non-home-ownership. Data were analysed using adjusted odds ratios (ORa computed with logistic models. Results Deprivation was common: 37.4% of respondents fell into category D = 1, 21.2% into D = 2, and 10.0% into D ≥ 3. More men than women reported tobacco use (30.2% vs. 21.9% and alcohol abuse (12.5% vs. 3.3%, whereas psychotropic drug use was more common among women (23.8% vs. 41.0%. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with a greater likelihood of tobacco use (ORa vs. D = 0: 1.16 in D = 1, 1.49 in D = 2, and 1.93 in D ≥ 3, alcohol abuse (1.19 in D = 1, 1.32 in D = 2, and 1.80 in D ≥ 3 and frequent psychotropic drug intake (1.26 in D = 1, 1.51 in D = 2, and 1.91 in D ≥ 3. These patterns were observed in working/other non-retired men and women (except for alcohol abuse in women. Among retired people, deprivation was associated with tobacco and psychotropic drug use only in men. Conclusion Preventive measures should be designed to improve work conditions, reduce deprivation, and help deprived populations to be more aware of risk and to find remedial
Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki
Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in the US state of Georgia in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513 909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a four-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using χ2 analysis. In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. The present study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban students' perceived ease of access
Goldstein, A O; Sobel, R A; Newman, G R
Tobacco and alcohol use among youth are major public health problems, but the extent to which children are routinely exposed to tobacco and alcohol products in children's films is unknown. To identify the prevalence and characteristics associated with tobacco and alcohol use portrayed in G-rated, animated feature films. Design All G-rated, animated feature films released between 1937 and 1997 by 5 major production companies (Walt Disney Co, MGM/United Artists, Warner Brothers Studios, Universal Studios, and 20th Century Fox) that were available on videotape were reviewed for episodes of tobacco and alcohol use. Presence of tobacco and alcohol use in each film, type of tobacco or alcohol used, duration of use, type of character using substance (bad, neutral, or good), and any associated effects. Of 50 films reviewed, 34 (68%) displayed at least 1 episode of tobacco or alcohol use. Twenty-eight (56%) portrayed 1 or more incidences of tobacco use, including all 7 films released in 1996 and 1997. Twenty-five films (50%) included alcohol use. Smoking was portrayed on screen by 76 characters for more than 45 minutes in duration; alcohol use was portrayed by 63 characters for 27 minutes. Good characters use tobacco and alcohol as frequently as bad characters. Cigars and wine are shown in these films more often than other tobacco or alcohol substances. More than two thirds of animated children's films feature tobacco or alcohol use in story plots without clear verbal messages of any negative long-term health effects associated with use of either substance.
Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay
Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups.
Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493
formerly ORG 34517) in Veterans with Co-morbid PTSD/AUD” (Principal Investigator: Dewleen G. Baker, MD) The primary objective of this study is to...test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a novel GR antagonist PT150 (formerly ORG 34517) for AUD/PTSD dual diagnosis treatment in veterans. The...Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol and Substance Abuse (PASA) Consortium PI: Rick Williams, PhD & Thomas Kosten, MD Org : RTI International Study Research Planning
Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.
Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…
Background Alcohol is the most important substance of abuse in South Africa. There are, however, reports of an increase in the use of other drugs among adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse and their association with physical or sexual abuse in three urban high ...
Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…
Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M
Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.
Henningfield, Jack E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen
The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness ("abuse liability") or by enticing product designs ("product appeal") alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence "product appeal". A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer product marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Zeller, Mitch; Peters, Ellen
The rate of initiation and progression to dependence and premature mortality are higher for tobacco products than for any other dependence producing substance. This is not explained simply by the addictiveness (“abuse liability”) or by enticing product designs (“product appeal”) alone, but rather by both of these factors in combination with marketing and social influences that also influence “product appeal”. A working meeting of leading experts in abuse liability (AL) and product appeal was convened to examine how these disciplines could be more effectively applied to the evaluation of tobacco products for the purposes of regulation that would include setting standards for designs and contents intended to reduce the risk of initiation and dependence. It was concluded that abuse liability assessment (ALA) is a validated approach to testing pharmaceutical products but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products: such application has demonstrated feasibility, but special challenges include the diverse range of products, product complexity, and the absence of satisfactory placebo products. Consumer testing for product appeal is widely used by consumer products marketers as well as by researchers in their efforts to understand consumer product preferences and use but has not been extensively applied to tobacco products except by the tobacco industry. Recommendations for testing, methods development, and research were developed. A major recommendation was that tobacco products should be tested for AL and product appeal, and the results integrated and evaluated so as to more accurately predict risk of initiation, dependence, and persistence of use. PMID:21376479
Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L
We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Ísis Eloah Machado
Full Text Available The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze factors associated with alcohol consumption among adult women living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2011. Data for Belo Horizonte were obtained from the VIGITEL system (Telephone-Based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases. Alcohol use was defined as self-reported intake of at least one dose in the previous 30 days; alcohol abuse was defined as four or more doses on at least one occasion during the same period. Polytomous logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol use was more prevalent among women 25 to 34 years of age. Alcohol abuse was associated with age, schooling, health status, and smoking. The results suggest the need for policies to prevent alcohol abuse among women, especially targeting those who are younger, single, smokers, and with more education.
Bell, Kirsten; McNaughton, Darlene; Salmon, Amy
...) have become accept able responses to the 'risks' that alcohol, tobacco and obesity are perceived to pose. Hailing from Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom and the USA, and drawing on examples from all four countries, contributors interrogate the ways in which alcohol, tobacco and 'fat' have come to be constructed as 'problems'...
West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.
Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…
Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe
This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…
Objective: To better understand conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among male hospital out-patients, the purposes of this study were: (1) to assess the prevalence of conjoint use and (2) to determine the factors associated with the conjoint alcohol use and tobacco use. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, consecutive male ...
Rouner, Donna; Slater, Michael; Long, Marilee; Stapel, Linda
Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial content. This study found less tobacco and alcohol advertising in newspapers than did previous research and no relationship between coverage and number of advertisements.
Rouner, Donna; Slater, Michael; Long, Marilee; Stapel, Linda
Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial content. This study found less tobacco and alcohol advertising in newspapers than did previous research and no relationship between coverage and number of advertisements.
Jiang, Nan; Lee, Youn O; Ling, Pamela M
Young adults frequently report social smoking. This study examined the relationship between different social smoking definitions and the co-use of cigarettes and alcohol, tobacco-related attitudes, and quitting efforts. Cross-sectional data were collected at bars using randomized time location sampling among young adults aged 21-26 in San Diego, California from 2010 to 2011 (73% response rate). Multivariable logistic regression examined if current smoking and quit attempts were associated with tobacco-related attitudes, and whether social smoking self-identification or behavior was associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, tobacco-related attitudes, quit attempts, or quitline use. Among 537 current smokers, 80% self-identified and 49% behaved as social smokers. Social smoking self-identification was positively associated with cigarette-and-alcohol co-use, and quit attempts. Social smoking behavior was negatively associated with tobacco marketing receptivity, quit attempts, and quitline use. Tobacco-related attitudes were associated with smoking but did not generally differ by social smoking status. Identification and behavior as a social smoker have opposing associations with co-use of cigarettes and alcohol and quit attempts. Tobacco cessation programs for self-identified social smokers should address co-use. Interventions denormalizing the tobacco industry or emphasizing the health effects of temporary smoking and secondhand smoke may address smoking among young adult bar patrons regardless of social smoking status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Friedman, Katherine L; Roberts, Megan E; Keller-Hamilton, Brittney; Yates, Katherine A; Paskett, Electra D; Berman, Micah L; Slater, Michael D; Lu, Bo; Ferketich, Amy K
Previous studies have examined what adolescents find appealing in tobacco and alcohol advertisements and how different themes in advertisements are used to manipulate consumer behaviors. Yet, we know little about the relationship between the themes portrayed in advertisements and youth attitudes towards those themes. This study compared attitudes towards advertisements for different consumer products in a sample of urban and rural adolescent boys in order to examine how key marketing themes impact adolescent attitudes towards those advertisements. Participants were 11- to 16-year-old boys (N = 1220) residing in either urban or rural Ohio Appalachian counties. Each participant viewed five print advertisements (one each for cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), smokeless tobacco (SLT), non-alcoholic beverages, and alcohol), presented in a random order, for eight seconds each. All advertisements had appeared in magazines that adolescent males commonly read. Attitudes towards each of the five advertisements were assessed. The advertisements were then coded for the presence of various themes, including social acceptance and masculinity. Analyses were conducted to determine associations between advertisement type and the attitude measure, and between the presence of a theme and the attitude measure. Overall, participants preferred non-tobacco advertisements to tobacco advertisements, rural participants had less positive attitudes and participants who had peers who used tobacco had more positive attitudes. Social acceptance and entertainment themes increased the appeal of SLT advertisements, and sex appeal increased the appeal of e-cigarette advertisements. Conclusions/Importance: Findings suggest that advertisements that promote the social nature of use in SLT advertisements may be of particular concern for their influence on adolescent boys.
... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. Terminating Tenancy ...
... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse... of alcohol threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other...
Full Text Available Objective: To better understand conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among male hospital out-patients, the purposes of this study were: (1 to assess the prevalence of conjoint use and (2 to determine the factors associated with the conjoint alcohol use and tobacco use. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, consecutive male out-patients from four district hospitals in Nakhon Pathom province in Thailand were assessed with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, selfreported chronic conditions and health-seeking behaviour. The sample included 2208 study participants, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD = 11.7 and an age range of 18–60 years. Results: Overall, 34.5% of the male hospital out-patients were conjoint moderate or high-risk alcohol and tobacco users, and 31.1% were moderate or high-risk alcohol or tobacco users. In multivariate analysis, younger age, having primary or less education, being separated, divorced or widowed, not having diabetes and not being obese were associated with conjoint moderate or high-risk alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusion: High prevalence and several risk factors of conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found among hospital male out-patients. The findings of this study call for dual-intervention approaches for both alcohol and tobacco.
García-Díaz, Vanesa; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Arias, Lucía; Lana, Alberto
To examine the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the type of working day in the Spanish population Cross-sectional study among employees residing in Spain aged >18 years (N=8,736). We took data from the National Health Survey (2011-2012). Information was collected on the type of working day (morning, afternoon, evening, part-time, reduced hours, and shift-work) and smoking and drinking habits. Demographic characteristics and health- and work-related factors were also taken into account. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated through log-binomial regressions. Among respondents, 32.1% smoked regularly, especially those working the night shift (43.5%). Moderate alcohol consumption was found in 54.8% of workers and excessive consumption in 1.5%. Most of the moderate and heavy drinkers worked part-time, with 57.6% and 1.8% respectively. The aOR of being a smoker was higher among night workers (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.01-2.46). None of the work shifts were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Night shift work was associated with regular smoking. This collective of workers should be monitored closely by occupational health services and regularly undergo programs to control tobacco consumption and smoking-related diseases. Additional research to elucidate the reasons for this association could help to achieve preventive and therapeutic success. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....
Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra
This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159
Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; Eckhardt, Jappe; Lee, Kelley
Tobacco is widely considered to be a uniquely harmful product for human health. Since the mid-1990s, the strategies of transnational tobacco corporations to undermine effective tobacco control policy has been extensively documented through internal industry documents. Consequently, the sale, use and marketing of tobacco products are subject to extensive regulation and formal measures to exclude the industry from policy-making have been adopted in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In contrast to tobacco, alcohol is subject to less stringent forms of regulation, and the alcohol industry continues to play a central role in policy-making in many countries and at the global level. This article examines whether there is a sufficient rationale for such different regulatory approaches, through a comparative analysis of the political economy of the tobacco and alcohol industries including the structure of the industries, and the market and political strategies they pursue. Despite some important differences, the extensive similarities which exist between the tobacco and alcohol industries in terms of market structure and strategy, and political strategy, call into question the rationale for both the relatively weak regulatory approach taken towards alcohol, and the continued participation of alcohol corporations in policy-making processes.
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka
The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Bussey Rask, Marie; Jørgensen, Tina; Pinnerup Jensen, Jeanette
An important issue regarding treatment for alcohol abuse is the high rate of relapse following treatment. In the research on treatment of alcohol abuse, the concept of coping has been proposed as a relevant factor in the relationship between relapse crises and treatment outcome. The present study...
Garofalo, C.; Wright, Aidan G.C.
Alcohol abuse and personality disorders are often comorbid, and their co-occurrence is associated with worse rognostic expectations, poor therapeutic outcomes, as well as deleterious behavioral and interpersonal consequences. The current review aims at untangling the association among alcohol abuse,
There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol abusers were significantly more likely to be males (P < 0.001), in polygamous marriages (P < 0.00001), had lower educational status (P < 0.0001), likely to be practitioners of the traditional religion (P ...
VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.
This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…
Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne
The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…
Boitt, Richard Kimuge
The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…
Renson, Gisele J.; And Others
Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…
Othman Mohamad Hashim
Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and
Neufeld, K J; Peters, D H; Rani, M; Bonu, S; Brooner, R K
This study provides national estimates of regular tobacco and alcohol use in India and their associations with gender, age, and economic group obtained from a representative survey of 471,143 people over the age of 10 years in 1995-96, the National Sample Survey. The national prevalence of regular use of smoking tobacco is estimated to be 16.2%, chewing tobacco 14.0%, and alcohol 4.5%. Men were 25.5 times more likely than women to report regular smoking, 3.7 times more likely to regularly chew tobacco, and 9.7 times more likely to regularly use alcohol. Respondents belonging to scheduled castes and tribes (recognized disadvantaged groups) were significantly more likely to report regular use of alcohol as well as smoking and chewing tobacco. People from rural areas had higher rates compared to urban dwellers, as did those with no formal education. Individuals with incomes below the poverty line had higher relative odds of use of chewing tobacco and alcohol compared to those above the poverty line. The regular use of both tobacco and alcohol also increased significantly with each diminishing income quintile. Comparisons are made between these results and those found in the United States and elsewhere, highlighting the need to address control of these substances on the public health agenda.
Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold
The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.
Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly
This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.
Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.
This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433
Shortt, Niamh K; Tisch, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Mitchell, Richard; Richardson, Elizabeth A; Hill, Sarah; Collin, Jeff
There is a strong socio-economic gradient in both tobacco-and alcohol-related harm. One possible factor contributing to this social gradient may be greater availability of tobacco and alcohol in more socially-deprived areas. A higher density of tobacco and alcohol outlets is not only likely to increase supply but also to raise awareness of tobacco/alcohol brands, create a competitive local market that reduces product costs, and influence local social norms relating to tobacco and alcohol consumption. This paper examines the association between the density of alcohol and tobacco outlets and neighbourhood-level income deprivation. Using a national tobacco retailer register and alcohol licensing data this paper calculates the density of alcohol and tobacco retail outlets per 10,000 population for small neighbourhoods across the whole of Scotland. Average outlet density was calculated for neighbourhoods grouped by their level of income deprivation. Associations between outlet density and deprivation were analysed using one way analysis of variance. There was a positive linear relationship between neighbourhood deprivation and outlets for both tobacco (p sales alcohol (p sales and on-sales alcohol outlets. The social gradient evident in alcohol and tobacco supply may be a contributing factor to the social gradient in alcohol- and tobacco-related disease. Policymakers should consider such gradients when creating tobacco and alcohol control policies. The potential contribution to public health, and health inequalities, of reducing the physical availability of both alcohol and tobacco products should be examined in developing broader supply-side interventions.
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Gruber, Enid L; Thau, Helaine M; Hill, Douglas L; Fisher, Deborah A; Grube, Joel W
Content analyses examined mention of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substances in music videos (n = 359) broadcast in 2001, as well as genre and presence of humor. Findings indicated that references to illicit substances were more prevalent than tobacco in music videos. Humor was 2.5 times as likely to appear in videos containing references to substances than those without substances.
Clement Chinedu Azodo
Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and intervention studies are needed to evaluate the best way to control tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials in Nigeria.
Damiani, P; Masse, H; Aubenque, M
An analysis of the distribution of tobacco consumption and alcohol-related mortality in France by sex and department is presented for the population aged 45 to 64. It is shown that the "population can be decomposed into two sets such that, for each of them, tobacco and alcohol consumption distributions are log-normal. [It is suggested] that consumption is normal for one set and an endogenous predisposition for the other." (summary in ENG) excerpt
Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.
Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity.To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surv...
Christine Godfrey; Melanie Powell
Pre-budget months of recent years have seen the opposing factions of industrial and public health lobbies jostling for influence over the Chancellor's alcohol and tobacco tax policy. Industry petitions for lower tax rates, citing factory closures and redundancy figures as evidence of the consequences of past budget decisions. The public health lobby demand increased taxation, citing rising trends in indicators of alcohol and tobacco related harm as evidence for a public health approach. In th...
Tauchmann, Harald; Göhlmann, Silja; Requate, Till; Schmidt, Christoph M.
The question of whether two drugs – namely alcohol and tobacco – are used as complements or substitutes is of crucial interest if side-effects of anti-drug policies are considered. Numerous papers have empirically addressed this issue by estimating demand systems for alcohol and tobacco and subsequently calculating cross-price effects. However, this traditional approach often is seriously hampered by insufficient price-variation observed in survey data. We, therefore, suggest an alternative i...
Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S
Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David
Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1)...
Jun 15, 2011 ... There is no significant age difference between the alcohol abusers and abstainers/social drinkers (P > 0.05), but alcohol ..... International Council for Alcoholism and Addiction had found that ... The male gender was also positively associated .... Using any mobile or other hand-held device with camera and.
Lettéron, P; Duchatelle, V; Berson, A; Fromenty, B; Fisch, C; Degott, C; Benhamou, J P; Pessayre, D
Ethane exhalation was measured in 42 control subjects, 52 patients with various non-alcoholic liver diseases, and 89 alcohol abusers who had been admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal and assessment of liver disease (six with normal liver tests, 10 with steatosis with or without fibrosis, six with alcoholic hepatitis, 29 with cirrhosis, 34 with both cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, and four with both cirrhosis and a hepatocellular carcinoma). Ethane exhalation was similar in control subjects and in patients with non-alcoholic liver diseases, but was five times higher in alcohol abusers. Ethane exhalation in alcohol abusers was significantly, but very weakly, correlated with the daily ethanol intake before hospital admission, and the histological score for steatosis, but not with the inflammation or alcoholic hepatitis scores. Ethane exhalation was inversely correlated with the duration of abstinence before the test. In nine alcoholic patients, the exhalation of ethane was measured repeatedly, and showed slow improvement during abstinence. Ethane exhalation was significantly but weakly correlated with the Pugh's score in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. It is concluded that the mean ethane exhalation is increased in alcohol abusers. One of the possible mechanisms may be the presence of oxidizable fat in the liver. The weak correlation with the Pugh's score is consistent with the contribution of many other factors in the progression to severe liver disease. PMID:8472992
Thomas, Samantha L; David, Jennifer; Randle, Melanie; Daube, Mike; Senior, Kate
To explore the attitudes and opinions of public health experts in gambling and related unhealthy commodity industries towards the tactics used by the gambling industry to prevent reform and the advocacy responses to these tactics. In-depth interviews (30-60 minutes) with a convenience sample of 15 public health experts and stakeholders with a public health approach to gambling (n=10), or other unhealthy commodity industries (food, alcohol, tobacco, n=5). Participants described the influences of political lobbying and donations on public policy, and industry framing of problem gambling as an issue of personal responsibility. Industry funding of, and influence over, academic research was considered to be one of the most effective industry tactics to resist reform. Participants felt there was a need to build stronger coalitions and collaborations between independent academics, and to improve the utilisation of media to more effectively shift perceptions of gambling harm away from the individual and towards the product. Gambling industry tactics are similar to the tactics of other unhealthy commodity industries. However, advocacy initiatives to counter these tactics in gambling are less developed than in other areas. The formation of national public health coalitions, as well as a strong evidence base regarding industry tactics, will help to strengthen advocacy initiatives. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Brinkman, William B; Epstein, Jeffery N; Auinger, Peggy; Tamm, Leanne; Froehlich, Tanya E
The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) with tobacco and alcohol use has not been assessed in a young adolescent sample representative of the U.S. population. Data are from the 2000-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional sample representative of the U.S. population. Participants were age 12-15 years (N=2517). Exposure variables included diagnosis of ADHD and CD, and counts of ADHD and CD symptoms based on caregiver responses to the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Primary outcomes were adolescent-report of any use of tobacco or alcohol and age of initiating use. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models were conducted. Adolescents with ADHD+CD diagnoses had a 3- to 5-fold increased likelihood of using tobacco and alcohol and initiated use at a younger age compared to those with neither disorder. Having ADHD alone was associated with an increased likelihood of tobacco use but not alcohol use. Hyperactive-impulsive symptom counts were not independently associated with any outcome, while every one symptom increase in inattention increased the likelihood of tobacco and alcohol use by 8-10%. Although participants with a diagnosis of CD alone (compared to those without ADHD or CD) did not have a higher likelihood of tobacco or alcohol use, for every one symptom increase in CD symptoms the odds of tobacco use increased by 31%. ADHD and CD diagnoses and symptomatology are linked to higher risk for a range of tobacco and alcohol use outcomes among young adolescents in the U.S. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hayley, Amie C; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A
The DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder diagnosis incorporates tobacco misuse, addictive behaviors and withdrawal symptomology. Tobacco use is bidirectionally associated with sleep pathology; however, no epidemiological studies have yet evaluated the associations between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and self-reported sleep disturbance. The current study aimed to evaluate health, medical and sleep-related factors among individuals within this diagnostic stratum. A total of N = 36,177 adults who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III) were included for analyses. The adjusted odd ratios (AOR) for individual classifications of DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder among those with subjective sleep disturbances were used as the primary outcome measure and relevant demographic, clinical and medical factors were considered in all univariate and multivariable analyses. Current and lifetime DSM-5 tobacco use disorder diagnoses were associated with poorer health and medical outcomes and higher rates of subjective sleep disturbances (all p DSM-5 tobacco use disorder and subjective sleep disturbances were maintained in multivariable analyses following adjustment for a range of health, lifestyle, and psychiatric factors (adjusted OR 1.11, 95%CI 1.00-1.23 and adjusted OR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.15-1.34, respectively); however, these relationships were fully explained by diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Data from this large, representative survey indicate that the association between DSM-5 Tobacco use disorder and sleep disturbance is explained by underlying diagnoses of DSM-5 alcohol use disorder. Multifaceted substance abuse treatment protocols may improve treatment outcomes for affected patient groups.
Corelli, Robin L; Chai, Tiffany; Karic, Alda; Fairman, Melinda; Baez, Karina; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek
To characterize the extent to which state and national professional pharmacy associations have implemented formal policies addressing the sale of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies. To determine existence of tobacco and alcohol policies, national professional pharmacy associations (n = 10) and state-level pharmacy associations (n = 86) affiliated with the American Pharmacists Association (APhA) and/or the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) were contacted via telephone and/or e-mail, and a search of the association websites was conducted. Of 95 responding associations (99%), 14% have a formal policy opposing the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and 5% have a formal policy opposing the sale of alcohol in pharmacies. Of the associations representing major tobacco-producing states, 40% have a formal policy against tobacco sales in pharmacies, significantly more than the 8% of non-tobacco state associations with such policies. Among national professional pharmacy associations, only APhA and ASHP have formal policy statements opposing the sale of both tobacco and alcohol in pharmacies. Most state-level professional pharmacy associations affiliated with these two national organizations have no formal policy statement or position.
Full Text Available Formation of Australia’s National Drug Strategy (NDS included an extensive consultation process that was open not only to community and public health stakeholders, but also to representatives of the tobacco and alcohol industries. Australia is bound by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires governments to protect tobacco control measures from interference by the tobacco industry. NDS consultation submissions made by these conflicted industries are not publicly available for scrutiny. The NDS goals are at odds with the commercial agenda of industries that support regulatory stagnation, oppose and undermine effective action, ignore and distort evidence, and prioritise profits over health.
Freeman, Becky; MacKenzie, Ross; Daube, Mike
Formation of Australia's National Drug Strategy (NDS) included an extensive consultation process that was open not only to community and public health stakeholders, but also to representatives of the tobacco and alcohol industries. Australia is bound by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires governments to protect tobacco control measures from interference by the tobacco industry. NDS consultation submissions made by these conflicted industries are not publicly available for scrutiny. The NDS goals are at odds with the commercial agenda of industries that support regulatory stagnation, oppose and undermine effective action, ignore and distort evidence, and prioritise profits over health.
... uses a drug to get high. People might abuse drugs by: Taking too much of a prescription or ... to your kids about the dangers of prescription drug abuse. Share this website about prescription and OTC drug ...
Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil
There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...
Mar 22, 2016 ... southern Thailand 90.5% were moderate or high-risk tobacco users and 44.6% were moderate or high-risk alcohol users.3 Among general hospital patients in Brazil the rate of comorbidity between alcohol use disorder and nicotine dependence was 3.6%;4 in primary health care TB patients in. South Africa ...
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej
The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Jiang, Nan; Ling, Pamela
The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation and, if so, how those alliances worked. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policy-making. The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
To assess the likelihood that young adolescents perceive that parents have legitimate authority regarding cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption; to test whether perceived parental authority predicts adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol, and to test the association between parenting style and the legitimacy of parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol. Survey data were obtained in 1997 from 1220 sixth and eighth grade adolescents enrolled in a central North Carolina school district. The sample comprised 72.3% of 1687 eligible students and 92.3% of 1321 students with parental consent; 83.8% of the sample was European-American and 16.2% African-American. Students completed self-report questionnaires administered in classrooms. Logistic regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. Adolescents were significantly more likely to legitimize parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol than parental authority regarding conventional or contemporary issues. Failure to legitimize parental authority was associated with significantly greater odds of current smoking (OR = 4.06; p parental authority regarding tobacco and alcohol varied significantly by parenting style. The results discredit the myth that adolescents uniformly disregard parental values and rules regarding tobacco and alcohol. The results also showed that general parenting style covaried strongly with adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use. Additional research is warranted to test for causal relations between general parenting style, adolescents' perceptions of parental authority regarding substance use, and adolescents' risk of substance use.
Rafael C. Freire
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies have documented high use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs in patients with panic disorder (PD. The comorbid substance use disorders worsen the prognosis of mood and anxiety disorders. The respiratory subtype (RS of PD seems to represent a more severe and distinct form of this disorder associated with higher familial history of PD and more comorbidity with other anxiety disorders. OBJECTIVES: Describe the patterns of tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug use in PD patients, and also to ascertain if patients with the RS use these substances more than those of the non-respiratory subtype. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 71 PD patients. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Fagerstrom Tobacco Questionnaire were used in the evaluation. Patients with four or five respiratory symptoms were classified in the RS, the remaining patients were classified as non-respiratory subtype. RESULTS: In our sample 31.0% were smokers, 11.3% were hazardous alcohol users and none of them was using illicit drugs. There were no differences between the respiratory and non-respiratory subtypes regarding the use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, stimulants and hallucinogens. DISCUSSION: The RS was not correlated to the use of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs. Additional epidemiological and clinical studies focusing the relationship between PD and substance use are warranted.
Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N
To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.
Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Ribeiro, Lucas Sisinno; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann
Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was 6.1% for the population aged 18 years and over, 8.9% among men and 3.6% among women. The prevalence of involvement in traffic accidents was 3.1% in the general population and 6.1% among those who reported alcohol abuse. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was significantly associated with traffic accidents. Considering a higher risk of involvement in traffic accidents among individuals who reported alcohol abuse and frequent consumption, monitoring blood alcohol concentration of drivers becomes a strategic possibility of intervention.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study focuses on a variety of social determinants of alcohol and tobacco consumption, which have been reported as an alarming epidemic in the post-Soviet Ukraine. Authors look at the intersections of social determinants of tobacco and alcohol use in Ukraine as perceived by the study participants, and their perception of structural effects of economic and cultural transition on the prevalence of these harmful lifestyles. METHODS: This study is part of a mixed-methods research, informed by an intersectional framework, focusing on complex health and health care experiences of Ukrainians. This study uses findings from 21 community consultations in 11 regions, corresponding to Ukraine’s diverse demographics, culture, and geography. At these consultations, participants discussed their health, experiences in seeking healthcare and provided recommendations for healthcare reforms. RESULTS: The study identifies the important demographic factors like age, gender, SES, and place of residence, and how their intersections influence tobacco and alcohol consumption in Ukraine. People of lower SES have reportedly higher rates of consuming alcohol and tobacco, but younger individuals of low SES are most affected by these unhealthy lifestyles. The study also points to broader structural factors, such as stress, unemployment, poor law enforcement, poor social support, lack of health promotion, features of the built environment, and tobacco and alcohol availability, which affect the uptake of unhealthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The community consultations revealed people’s perceptions about the complex nature of tobacco and alcohol consumption in the post-Soviet setting. People shared their concern about the vulnerability of certain social groups to using alcohol and tobacco, and their understanding of the detrimental effects these substances have on the health of these groups. This intersectionality-based study concludes that there is a need to
Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John
To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Harling, Melanie; Strehmel, Petra; Schablon, Anja; Nienhaus, Albert
Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects (52.7% response). Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption (≹ 10 items/day), high-risk alcohol consumption (men > 20 g pure alcohol/day, women > 10 g pure alcohol/day)...
Ali, Anzil Ks; Mohammed, Arshad; Thomas, Archana A; Paul, Shann; Shahul, M; Kasim, K
The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. The oral health status was recorded on the World Health Organization oral health assessment form 1997, and the examination was carried out under natural light using mouth mirrors and probe. Data thus collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) statistical software package. Chi-square test was applied. Among the 2,163 workers, 1,952 were tobacco users and 211 were nonusers. Among the users, 1,021 use smokeless form, 372 use smoked form, and 559 use both. Premalignant lesions/conditions were more commonly seen with tobacco habit, with leukoplakia (14.75%) being the most common followed by oral submucous fibrosis in 201 (9.3%), candidiasis in 123 (5.7%), ulceration in 131 (6.05%), abscess in 59 (2.73%), smokers palate in 58 (2.68%), lichen planus in 21 (0.97%), and malignant tumor in 2 (0.1%). Commonness of abusive habits and oral premalig-nant lesions or conditions was considerable among the workers. Control and early diagnosis through workplace screening are the major backbones for the control of oral cancer. Building workers are unprotected from various health hazards at workplace. Lack of access to health services makes the situation unsatisfactory. Poor literacy and low socioeconomic status have resulted in practice of tobacco, smoking, and chewing in the majority of them. Hence, it is our responsibility to find and guide them with a proper oral health education.
... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...
Liu, Liang Y.
This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…
Thebault, Jean-Laurent; Falcoff, Hector; Favre, Madeleine; Noël, Frédérique; Rigal, Laurent
Data about tobacco and alcohol consumption are essential in many types of studies. These data can be obtained by directly questioning patients or by using the information collected from physicians. Agreement between these two sources varies according to the characteristics of patients but probably also those of physicians. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of general practitioners (GPs) associated with agreement between them and their patients about the patients' consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Data came from an observational survey among GPs who were internship supervisors in the Paris metropolitan area. Fifty-two volunteer GPs completed a self-administered questionnaire about the organization of their practice and their training. For each GP, a random sample of 70 patients, aged 40 to 74 years, answered questions about their personal tobacco and alcohol consumption. GPs simultaneously answered similar questions about each patient. We used a mixed logistic model to assess the association between physicians' characteristics and agreement for patients' smoking status and alcohol consumption. Data were collected from both patient and physician for 2599 patients. The agreement between patients and their physicians was 60.4% for smoking status and 48.7% for alcohol consumption. Physicians with continuing medical education in management of smokers and those reporting specific skill in managing hypertension had the best agreement for smoking. Physicians who taught courses at the university medical school and those reporting specific skill in managing alcoholism had the best agreement for alcohol consumption. Agreement increases with physicians' training and skills in management of patients with tobacco and alcohol problems. It supports the importance of professional training for improving the quality of epidemiologic data in general practice. Researchers who use GPs as a source of information about patients' tobacco and alcohol consumption
Tickle, Jennifer J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A
To evaluate the usefulness of Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N = 900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. MPAA ratings, however, did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable with 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable with 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children's exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies.
Berg, Carla J; Henriksen, Lisa; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Haardoerfer, Regine; Freisthler, Bridget
The emerging retail market for recreational marijuana use warrants research and surveillance as such markets are established in more US states. This research can be informed by the existing literature regarding tobacco and alcohol, which highlights the impact of spatial access to tobacco and alcohol retailers and exposure to tobacco and alcohol marketing on smoking and drinking among youth and young adults. Prior research indicates that tobacco and alcohol retailers, as well as medical marijuana dispensaries, are disproportionately located in neighborhoods characterized by socioeconomic disadvantage and by higher proportions of racial/ethnic minorities and young adults. Moreover, retail marketing or point-of-sale practices may differentially target subpopulations and differ by neighborhood demography and local policy. This literature and the methods employed for studying the tobacco and alcohol market could inform research on the retail environment for marijuana, as current gaps exist. In particular, much of the existing literature involves cross-sectional research designs; longitudinal studies are needed. Moreover, standardized measures are needed for systematic monitoring of industry marketing practices and to conduct research examining neighborhood differences in exposure to retail marketing for marijuana and its contribution to use modality and frequency, alone and in combination with nicotine and alcohol. The use of standardized measures for tobacco and alcohol marketing have been critical to develop an evidence base from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that document the impact of retail marketing on substance use by adolescents and adults. Similar research is needed to establish an evidence base to inform federal, state, and local regulations of marijuana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M
Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.
Full Text Available Background: Evidence shows that in Iran alcohol abuse rate may be of concern, especially among the youth. The mental and social health and addiction Department of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has designed a plan to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate the patients abusing alcohol in a time period of 2011-2015. Methods: In a 6-month period, three guiding committees of experts in the field of alcohol abuse reviewed the literature. The meetings of the steering committee were held in order to collect the comments of the policy-makers in recognition of the problem, orientation, and administration procedures for the suggested strategies. The first input was discussed in the committee meeting. In the orientation phase, intervention strategies were suggested whose base was the evaluation of the previous international guidelines. In the final phase, the suggested strategies and challenges and their possible solutions were criticized. Finally, using these strategies, appropriate interventions were defined. Results: Preventing alcohol supply, school- and community-based prevention efforts, monitoring and vigilance were defined as primary prevention. While secondary and tertiary prevention are defined to be the treating and rehabilitating services for the alcohol abusers. Conclusions: We hope by using this strategy we will be able to control alcohol abuse in our country. The first step to reach this aim is done by breaking the taboo of giving alcohol-related information and news using media and educational programs especially to the young population.
Díaz Geada, Ainara; Busto Miramontes, Alicia; Caamaño Isorna, Francisco
Social inequalities have been associated with morbidity and mortality. Gender, ethnic group and inequalities were studied in an adolescent population to analyze alcohol, tobacco and cannabis consumption. We carried out a cross-sectional study of pupils from high schools in Burela (northern Spain) (n=238). We used the "Factors de Risc en Estudiants de Secundária" questionnaire designed by Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona. nationality and weekly pocket money. Dependent variables: expectations and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and marihuana. Logistic regression was used. Participation in the study reached 91%. The proportion of pupils that have tried alcohol on occasion increases with age (27.3%, 47.7%, 75.9%), as with tobacco (1.8%, 7.6%, 17.0%), and cannabis (0%, 3.1%, 7.0%). Higher levels of spending money constitute a risk factor for tasting alcohol (OR=3.01), for high-risk consumption (OR=3.35), for getting drunk (OR=6.45) and for trying marijuana (OR=15.30). Sex and nationality were not shown to be associated with the use of any of these three drugs. The results of our study show that consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis increases with age and with increased spending money. The data do not support the argument that foreign pupils are a risk group for alcohol consumption, so they should not be stigmatized.
DuRant, R H; Rome, E S; Rich, M; Allred, E; Emans, S J; Woods, E R
Music videos from five genres of music were analyzed for portrayals of tobacco and alcohol use and for portrayals of such behaviors in conjunction with sexuality. Music videos (n = 518) were recorded during randomly selected days and times from four television networks. Four female and four male observers aged 17 to 24 years were trained to use a standardized content analysis instrument. All videos were observed by rotating two-person, male-female teams who were required to reach agreement on each behavior that was scored. Music genre and network differences in behaviors were analyzed with chi-squared tests. A higher percentage (25.7%) of MTV videos than other network videos portrayed tobacco use. The percentage of videos showing alcohol use was similar on all four networks. In videos that portrayed tobacco and alcohol use, the lead performer was most often the one smoking or drinking and the use of alcohol was associated with a high degree of sexuality on all the videos. These data indicate that even modest levels of viewing may result in substantial exposure to glamorized depictions of alcohol and tobacco use and alcohol use coupled with sexuality.
Milman, Doris H.; And Others
This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…
... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... sponsored residents to adjust to and maintain freedom from dependence on or involvement with alcohol or drug...
Al-Haqwi Ali I
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to examine the perception and views of medical students regarding the extent of alcohol and substance abuse in the community and the possible predisposing factors for this problem. Methods It is a cross-sectional study involving samples from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The students who decided to participate in the study without the offer of any incentives filled an anonymous, self administered questionnaire which had been designed to meet the purpose of the study. Results Two hundred and fifteen out of three hundred and thirty students (65% response rate participated in this study. About 75% of them believe that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Students' views also correspond with the reported view that the problem is mainly present in young adult males. Married males and senior students perceived the problem as more serious than their other colleagues. Students perceived that alcohol was the most commonly abused drug in the community, followed by amphetamines, heroin, cannabis and cocaine. They believe that influence of friends, life stressors, tobacco smoking and curiosity are the most important predisposing factors for abuse of alcohol and other substances. According to the students' perception, the main beneficial effect of alcohol and substance abuse was stress alleviation. About 3% of the students have also indicated that they may use alcohol or some other substance in the future. Conclusion Despite scarce information on the subject and a strong religious belief in Saudi Arabia against the use of alcohol and other addictive substances, a significant majority of the medical students in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia, perceived that alcohol and substance abuse is a common problem in the community. Some students appear to perceive the seriousness of the problem less than others. Efforts are needed to educate young men and women at an early
Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan
Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0
Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul
Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…
Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L
This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.
Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C
The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.
Oleg R. Karatayev
Full Text Available Objective to identify and assess the share of counterfeit products in the total volume of alcohol and tobacco products in the consumer market of Tatarstan Republic which will allow the inspection bodies to deal more effectively to prevent the spreading of counterfeit products. Methods the research proposed in this paper used methods of probability theory and mathematical statistics and the method of sampling analysis of certificates for products in accordance with applicable laws and regulations of Rosstandart. Results basing on a sampling of certificates for products directly from retail outlets analysis of the state alcohol and tobacco consumer market of Tatarstan was carried out. Improper filling of the form of the certificate for products was identified violating all existing norms and laws which are strictly prescribed in technical regulations. On the basis of these violations the validity of certificates for products was assessed and the conclusion was made about the products quality. The share of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products in the total sales in the consumer market was assessed. The shortcomings of the inspection authorities to detect counterfeit products were identified. Scientific novelty the consumer market was researched basing on the method of sampling using probability theory and mathematical statistics to estimate the share of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products in the consumer market of Tatarstan. The error sampling for counterfeit products in the consumer market was defined. Practical significance the obtained results will allow the inspection authorities to better and more accurately identify counterfeit goods and to restrict the access of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products to the consumer market of Tatarstan. It is necessary to strengthen the role of state regulation of commercial activities in the consumer market of Russia to stop the flow of counterfeit alcohol and tobacco products to the consumer
aetiologies, but in police reports a person known to have seizures is most likely to be reported as suffering from epilepsy. It is a well-known fact that alcoholics have seizures either due to "alcohol-induced epilepsy" or due to withdrawal from drinking. It also seems to be generally accepted that alcoholics...... may die from these seizures. A literature study was performed of deaths due to alcohol-induced seizures, either during withdrawal or as late-onset seizures where the aetiology was established as long time alcohol abuse and a necropsy had shown no other possible cause of death than a seizure. RESULTS......: It was not possible to find any well-documented cases. It is, however, difficult to compare cases in the literature, as there is no generally accepted classification or nomenclature of seizures related to alcohol abuse....
Fullerton, Carol S; McKibben, Jodi B A; Reissman, Dori B; Scharf, Ted; Kowalski-Trakofler, Kathleen M; Shultz, James M; Ursano, Robert J
We examined the relationship of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), probable depression, and increased alcohol and/or tobacco use to disaster exposure and work demand in Florida Department of Health workers after the 2004 hurricanes. Participants (N = 2249) completed electronic questionnaires assessing PTSD, depression, alcohol and tobacco use, hurricane exposure, and work demand. Total mental and behavioral health burden (probable PTSD, probable depression, increased alcohol and/or tobacco use) was 11%. More than 4% had probable PTSD, and 3.8% had probable depression. Among those with probable PTSD, 29.2% had increased alcohol use, and 50% had increased tobacco use. Among those with probable depression, 34% indicated increased alcohol use and 55.6% increased tobacco use. Workers with greater exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.3 and 3.06, respectively). After adjusting for demographics and work demand, those with high exposure were more likely to have probable PTSD and probable depression (ORs = 3.21 and 3.13). Those with high exposure had increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 3.01 and 3.40), and those with high work demand indicated increased alcohol and tobacco use (ORs = 1.98 and 2.10). High exposure and work demand predicted increased alcohol and tobacco use, after adjusting for demographics, work demand, and exposure. Work-related disaster mental and behavioral health burden indicate the need for additional mental health interventions in the public health disaster workforce.
Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…
Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.
Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…
In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107
White, James; Halliwell, Emma
Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.
Barrio, Pablo; Reynolds, Jillian; García-Altés, Anna; Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter
Drug use accounts for one of the main disease groups in Europe, with relevant consequences to society. There is an increasing need to evaluate the economic consequences of drug use in order to develop appropriate policies. Here, we review the social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union. A systematic search of relevant databases was conducted. Grey literature and previous systematic reviews were also searched. Studies reporting on social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco were included. Methodology, cost components as well as costs were assessed from individual studies. To compare across studies, final costs were transformed to 2014 Euros. Forty-five studies reported in 43 papers met the inclusion criteria (11 for illegal drugs, 26 for alcohol and 8 for tobacco). While there was a constant inclusion of direct costs related to treatment of substance use and comorbidities, there was a high variability for the rest of cost components. Total costs showed also a great variability. Price per capita for the year 2014 ranged from €0.38 to €78 for illegal drugs, from €26 to €1500 for alcohol and from €10.55 to €391 for tobacco. Drug use imposes a heavy economic burden to Europe. However, given the high existing heterogeneity in methodologies, and in order to better assess the burden and thus to develop adequate policies, standardised methodological guidance is needed. [Barrio P, Reynolds J, García-Altés A, Gual A, Anderson P. Social costs of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco in the European Union: A systematic review. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
alleviating problems related to alcohol and substance abuse, intimate partner violence, problem gambling , body image and eating disorders, and aggressive... alcohol over the past month. Typi- cal drinking was assessed by asking participants the average number of drinks consumed during a typical occasion in...Lewis,M.A., Lee, C.M., Desai, S., . . . Larimer, M. E. (2010). Group identification as a moderator of the relationship between social norms and alcohol
Inicio en el consumo de alcohol y tabaco y transición a otras drogas en estudiantes de Morelos, México Onset of alcohol and tobacco use and transition to other drug use among students from Morelos, Mexico
transition to illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, and heroine, among others, in adolescents and young adults, in Morelos State, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during schoolyear 1998-1999, among 13 293 students aged 11-24 years, selected from public schools by probabilistic multistage sampling. Data were collected on sociodemographic, health status, and substance abuse variables, using a validated self-applied questionnaire. Data were restructured to assemble a synthetic cohort for discrete time survival analysis. Associations were assessed with hazard rates and 95% confidence intervals obtained by means of multivariate Cox regression models. RESULTS: Sixty percent of males started drinking alcohol at 17 years of age, and smoking tobacco at 18 years of age, on average. Women started using alcohol and tobacco one year after men. Utilization of illicit drugs occurred at 19 years of age on average in 5% of women and 13% of men. Nine out of every 100 illicit drug users started directly using illicit drugs without previous use of alcohol and/or tobacco. In general, alcohol or tobacco users were at greater risk of starting drug use than nonusers (RR=6.72; 95 % confidence interval [CI]=4.13-10.93. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings suggest that interventions to decrease drug abuse should go together with efforts to delay initiation of alcohol and tobacco use. The innovative method used in this study yields epidemiologic evidence relating early use of alcohol and tobacco with initiation of illegal drugs in Mexican students.
Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah
The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were ...
Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R
Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.
Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David
The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Cuantificar la asociación entre orientación al rol de género y uso de tabaco y alcohol en jóvenes del estado de Morelos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en 2004-2005, en jóvenes de 14 a 24 años (n=1 730. Variables sociodemográficas (zona de residencia, nivel socioeconómico; familiares (educación y violencia paternal; psicosociológicas (rol de género, autoestima, depresión, consumo de alcohol, tabaco, locus de control, abuso sexual. Análisis por regresión logística. RESULTADOS: Factores asociados con uso de tabaco: en mujeres, andrógina, no deseable, machista, intento de abuso sexual y zona urbana. Para hombres, depresión y sumisión. Factores asociados con uso de alcohol: en mujeres, rol masculino, y hombres, edad más de 20 años, vivir en zona semiurbana y urbana y locus interno. CONCLUSIONES: El machismo es una de las orientaciones al rol de género con mayor asociación con el uso de tabaco principalmente en las jóvenes, y la orientación masculina o instrumental se asocia con el alcohol.OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between gender role orientation and tobacco and alcohol use among young people of the State of Morelos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study conducted in 2004-2005, students aged 14 to 24 years (n = 1 730. Sociodemographic variables (area of residence, socioeconomic status, family (parental education and violence, psycho-sociological (gender role, self-esteem, depression, alcohol consumption, tobacco, locus of control, sexual abuse. Logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Factors associated with use of tobacco: In women, being androgynous undesirable, masculine role, attempted sexual abuse and urban areas. For men, depression and submission. Factors associated with alcohol use: In women, masculine gender role; and in men to be older than 20 years, living in semi-urban and urban area, and internal locus. CONCLUSIONS: The machismo is one of the gender role orientations with greater
Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika
The relationship between alcohol consumption and crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood. To attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 581 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Results. Relevant statistical dependencies were observed. (1) Alcohol consumption has a criminogenic effect and is characteristic for offences against life and health and family. (2) Alcohol abuse is a trigger mechanism for psychiatric disturbances, particularly those with underlying organic damage to CNS.
Smoking, alcohol consumption and diet were among the criteria selected to screen health status among the residents of the urban migrant council-built hostels of Langa, Nyanga and. Guguletu outside Cape Town. Smoking patterns fell within the range found elsewhere. Problems associated with alcohol consumption were ...
Results: In adolescents with unplanned pregnancies, the prevalence of active smoking was 21.2% and of alcohol consumption, 41.5%. The percentage of smoking at home was 57.4% and alcohol consumption, 77.5%. Approximately, 80.3% of adolescents with unplanned pregnancies had friends who smoked and 90.6% ...
de Bruijn, Carla; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
Aims: To investigate whether DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria and the ICD-10 criterion for craving differentially predict a chronic course of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the general population. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a large
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal... Administrative Matters § 0.138 Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of...
Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.
Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…
Hodge, David R.; Andereck, Kathleen; Montoya, Harry
The costs associated with the use of addictive substances and practices underscore the need for research on protective factors that inhibit use. In this study, the protective influences of various spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and gambling frequency and expenditures are examined. Among the predominantly…
Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian
Palmedo, P Christopher; Dorfman, Lori; Garza, Sarah; Murphy, Eleni; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Countermarketing campaigns use health communications to reduce the demand for unhealthy products by exposing motives and undermining marketing practices of producers. These campaigns can contribute to the prevention of noncommunicable diseases by denormalizing the marketing of tobacco, alcohol, and unhealthy food. By portraying these activities as outside the boundaries of civilized corporate behavior, countermarketing can reduce the demand for unhealthy products and lead to changes in industry marketing practices. Countermarketing blends consumer protection, media advocacy, and health education with the demand for corporate accountability. Countermarketing campaigns have been demonstrated to be an effective component of comprehensive tobacco control. This review describes common elements of tobacco countermarketing such as describing adverse health consequences, appealing to negative emotions, highlighting industry manipulation of consumers, and engaging users in the design or implementation of campaigns. It then assesses the potential for using these elements to reduce consumption of alcohol and unhealthy foods.
de Freitas Ferreira, M; de Moraes, C L; Braga, J U; Reichenheim, M E; da Veiga, G V
To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors. The logit model was used to estimate the prevalence projections. Model fitting was examined in relation to the observed data set, and in a subset, that was generated from 200 subsamples of individuals via a bootstrap process using general fit estimators, discrimination, and calibration measures. About 25.5% of the adolescents were classified as positive for alcohol abuse. Being male, being 17-19 years old, not living with mothers, presenting symptoms suggestive of binge eating, having used a strategy of weight reduction in the last 3 months, and, especially, being a victim of family violence were important predictors of abusive consumption of alcohol. While the model's prevalence projection in the absence of these features was 8%, it reaches 68% in the presence of all predictors. Knowledge of predictive characteristics of alcohol abuse is essential for screening, early detection of positive cases, and establishing interventions to reduce consumption among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dahl, Rikke M; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jorgensen, Lars N
, and this was not statistically significant when adjusting for stratification variables originally used in the PROXI trial [OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.65-1.24)]. In smokers, the primary outcome occurred in 32%, compared with 23% of non-smokers (P = 0.0001). Smokers also had a higher frequency of SSI (25% vs 17%, P ... abdomen (3.8% vs 2.4%, P = 0.04). In alcohol abusers, the primary outcome occurred in 48%, compared with 25% in patients who did not abuse alcohol (P = 0.0006). Burst abdomen occurred more commonly in alcohol abusers (15% vs 2.3%, P
Ogbu, Uzor C
Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.
Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H
Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).
... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...
Substance use is rising among young people in developing countries, especially in schools and universities. Empirical studies on factors associated with substance abuse are required to identify protective and risk factors and to inform interventions. We report on the extent to which temperament and other demographic and ...
Objective: To determine the association between living in a non-intact family household and the presence of smokers and ... Smoking and alcohol consumption at home are not ..... tended pregnancy rates in the United States, Perspectives.
Wilson, Nance; Battistich, Victor; Syme, S Leonard; Boyce, W Thomas
To assess whether alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use in elementary school may have serious implications for continued ATOD use in middle school and beyond. Longitudinal analyses were conducted on questionnaire data from 331 middle school students who had previously provided ATOD-use data during elementary school. Non-school personnel administered questionnaires in three participating school districts in three different states. The sample of students was ethnically and geographically diverse, including students from a range of low socioeconomic status backgrounds living in rural, urban or inner-city environments. Middle school alcohol use was almost three times as likely to occur if alcohol use had occurred in elementary school (OR = 2.94, p Elementary school use of tobacco and marijuana also greatly increased the likelihood of middle school use (OR = 5.35, p elementary school, during the middle childhood years.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...
Richmond, R; Heather, N; Holt, P
This article presents findings from a survey of programmes available for tobacco and alcohol users working in 455 of Australia's top 600 companies. Companies were twice as likely to have programmes for smokers (43%) as for problem drinkers (24%) and these programmes were more apparent in large companies. The majority of programmes for smoking were delivered within a health promotion context which included other life-style issues, such as nutrition, exercise, weight management and stress management. Although Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs) were the most commonly available type of work-place programme for excessive drinkers and other drug users, followed by Alcoholics Anonymous and local hospital clinics, only 6% had an EAP for alcohol. Only 21% of programmes for smokers and 12% for excessive alcohol users were evaluated. Around one-quarter of companies knew the costs of smoking programmes, and 9% reported costs of conducting programmes for excessive alcohol consumers.
Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.; McGuire, M.V.; Hope, A.M.
This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclear utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.
Full Text Available South Korea’s state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS, is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO report’s argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word “deadly” from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse PRINCIPAL...10/27/2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2016 — 29 Sep 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for...insights into mechanism; (2) suppression of noradrenergic signaling decreases alcohol drinking in rats with a history of traumatic stress , but not in
Castillo,Bertha Alicia Alonso; Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci; Castillo,Maria Magdalena Alonso; Facundo,Francisco Rafael Guzmán; Meza,Marco Vinicio Gómez
This is a descriptive, qualitative, and correlation study with 112 elderly aged 60 years or older. This study aimed to identify differences in alcohol consumption according to gender and marital status, and differences in the consumption of medical drugs by gender. It also aims to determine differences in stressful life events by gender, and differences in stressful life events associated to alcohol and medical drugs use and abuse, as well as to know their perceptions on the most stressful li...
Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache
Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.
Full Text Available Pilar Horner1, Andy Grogan-Kaylor2, Jorge Delva2, Cristina B Bares3, Fernando Andrade4, Marcela Castillo51School of Social Work, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA; 2School of Social Work, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3School of Social Work, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 5Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos (INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, ChileAbstract: Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.Keywords: substance use, adolescence, international, peers
those structures. Relatively little alcohol enters fat tissue due to its poor solubility in fat. Compared with males, females have relatively higher fat content and hence blood and tissue concentrations of alcohol are higher in females5. ... Damage to peripheral nerves manifesting as foot drop, burning sensation in the feet and.
sample consisted of 400 respondents aged 10-50 years resident in Calabar South. Life time ... easily brand it as a norm to drink alcohol across the whole social spectrum with the student population constituting a .... TABLE 5: Ranking of the various brands of Alcoholic beverages according to order of preference by gender.
Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.
In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…
The excessive use of alcohol is a significant problem in South Africa. The consequences are far-reaching, both for the health of the individual, and for society as a whole. This article examines the role of the family physician in the identification and management of patients with alcohol-use disorders.
Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L
Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
McCreadie, Robin G
Specialised services should be developed to help people with schizophrenia and associated substance misuse. The extent of the problem therefore needs to be known. To determine the use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by people with schizophrenia drawn from rural, suburban and urban settings, and to compare use by general population control subjects. People with schizophrenia (n=316) and general population controls of similar gender distribution, age and postcode area of residence (n=250) were identified in rural, urban and suburban areas of Scotland. Use of drugs and alcohol was assessed by the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, and use of tobacco by a questionnaire. More patients than controls reported problem use of drugs in the past year (22 (7%) v. 5 (2%)) and at some time before then (50 (20%) v. 15 (6%)) and problem use of alcohol in the past year (42 (17%) v. 25 (10%)) but not at some time previously (99 (40%) v. 84 (34%)). More patients were current smokers (162 (65%) v. 99 (40%)). Problem use of drugs and alcohol by people with schizophrenia is greater than in the general population, but absolute numbers are small. Tobacco use is the greatest problem.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives:Students of colleges may be vulnerable to consume tobacco, alcohol and psychoactive drugs due to various factors. This study was conducted with objectives of determining the prevalence of smoking, alcohol and psychoactive drug use among the bachelor level college students of Chitwan.Materials & Methods:This is a descriptive cross sectional study among the 132 bachelor level students at various colleges of Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. The students were chosen by purposive sampling. A standard pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the data.Results:A total of 90 (68.2% were males and 42 (31.8% were females. The mean age was 22.2 ± 1.7 years. Seventy four (56.06% responded that they had never consumed tobacco in any form.The number of cigarette smoked ranged from one to 20, with a mean of 7.85± 4.94 years. Forty eight (36.36% never consumed alcohol and (87.87% had never used psychoactive drugs.The most common motivator of the use of smoking, tobacco and psychoactive drugs was curiosity.Conclusion:The prevalence of smoking among the bachelor level students participating in our study was 43.94%, alcohol consumption was 63.63% and psychoactive drugs use was 12.12%.
Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman
Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…
Boschloo, Lynn; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Smit, Johannes H.; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent but often remain unrecognized among depressed and/or anxious persons. This study examines the performance of the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) in detecting alcohol abuse and dependence in this high-risk group and compares it
... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction.... (B) To qualified personnel for the purpose of conducting scientific research, management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation, but such personnel may not identify, directly or indirectly, any...
Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.
Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)
Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott
Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu
No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...
... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...
Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W
This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.
The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...
Chavez, Laura J; Ornelas, India J; Lyles, Courtney R; Williams, Emily C
Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004-2010). Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention, given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter
Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2016; all rights reserved.
Erritzoe, D.; Frokjaer, V. G.; Haugbol, S.
receptor (5-HT(2A)) in humans, we tested in 136 healthy human subjects if body mass index (BMI), degree of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking was associated to the cerebral in vivo 5-HT(2A) receptor binding as measured with (18)F-altanserin PET. The subjects' BMI's ranged from 18.4 to 42.8 (25.......2+/-4.3) kg/m(2). Cerebral cortex 5-HT(2A) binding was significantly positively correlated to BMI, whereas no association between cortical 5-HT(2A) receptor binding and alcohol or tobacco use was detected. We suggest that our observation is driven by a lower central 5-HT level in overweight people, leading...
Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernández Hermida, Jose Ramon; García-Fernández, Gloria; García-Rodríguez, Olaya
The sample is made up of 1,190 adolescents (52.8% boys; mean age = 16.81) from 37 random schools in the urban and rural areas of Asturias (northern Spain). The survey was conducted in 2008, assessing the use and patterns of use of alcohol and other drugs, age at onset of use, and psychosocial consequences. Items from the ESPAD and FRIDA questionnaires were employed. Univariate analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine the different predictive value for boys and girls of early-onset alcohol and tobacco use. The study's limitations and implications are noted.
Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W
To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.
Sabra, Sally; Malmqvist, Ebba; Almeida, Laura; Gratacos, Eduard; Gomez Roig, Maria Dolores
Maternal exposure to tobacco and alcohol is a known cause, among others, for fetal growth restriction (FGR). Clinically, FGR can be subclassified into two forms: intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA), based on the severity of the growth retardation, and abnormal uterine artery Doppler or cerebro-placental ratio. This study aimed at investigating any differential correlation between maternal exposures to these toxins with the two clinical forms of FGR. Therefore, a case-control study was conducted in Barcelona, Spain. Sixty-four FGR subjects, who were further subclassified into IUGR (n = 36) and SGA (n = 28), and 89 subjects matched appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA), were included. The levels of nicotine (NIC) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG), biomarkers of tobacco and alcohol exposure, respectively, were assessed in the maternal hair in the third trimester. Our analysis showed 65% of the pregnant women consumed alcohol, 25% smoked, and 19% did both. The odds ratios (ORs) of IUGR were 21 times versus 14 times for being SGA with maternal heavy smoking, while with alcohol consumption the ORs for IUGR were 22 times versus 37 times for the SGA group. The differential correlations between these toxins with the two subtypes of FGR suggest different mechanisms influencing fetal weight. Our alarming data of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be considered for further confirmation among Spanish women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes
Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.
Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum
The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.
McPherson, Mary Elizabeth
This study examines the relationship of role parenting behaviors and adolescent depression in adolescent outcomes. Parenting behaviors considered were authoritative parenting, parental monitoring, and parental care. Adolescent outcomes considered were depression, alcohol use, tobacco use, and grades. A path model was employed to examine these variables together. A sample of (n=3,174) of 9th -12th grade high school students from seven contiguous counties in rural Virginia were examined on ...
Oleg R. Karatayev
Objective to identify and assess the share of counterfeit products in the total volume of alcohol and tobacco products in the consumer market of Tatarstan Republic which will allow the inspection bodies to deal more effectively to prevent the spreading of counterfeit products. Methods the research proposed in this paper used methods of probability theory and mathematical statistics and the method of sampling analysis of certificates for products in accordance with applicable laws and...
Carlo Eduardo Medina-Solís
Full Text Available Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740 was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years. The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively or alcohol (moderate or high (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health.
Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L
Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or
Andrade Palos, Patricia; Pérez de la Barrera, Citlalli; Alfaro Martínez, Lilia Bertha; Sánchez Oviedo, Martha Elba; López Montes de Oca, Alicia
Drug consumption constitutes a public health problem in Mexico. In the international literature and from the health promotion perspective, the Life Skills Approach proposed by the World Health Organization identifies the ability to resist pressure as a key component in the prevention of legal and illegal drug use among adolescents. An instrument for measuring this ability was developed and validated in order to confirm whether, as the empirical evidence suggests, it differs between users and non-users of alcohol and tobacco. The sample was made up of 5651 adolescents, 2637 (47.9%) of whom were male and 2864 (52.1%) female. These participants were selected at random from among public high school pupils in Mexico City, and average age was 16.7 years. The instrument used was that validated in the first phase of the study. To measure patterns of use, we used a scale based on indicators derived from the National Addiction Survey (2002). Factor analysis yielded three factors: peer pressure acceptance, partner pressure acceptance and peer/partner pressure resistance. Non-users of alcohol and tobacco scored higher in the ability to resist pressure than those who had used alcohol and tobacco in the last month. Based on these results, the aim is to develop an addiction prevention program for public high school pupils in Mexico City.
Zachary M. Weil
Full Text Available Traumatic brain injuries are strongly related to alcohol intoxication as by some estimates half or more of all brain injuries involve at least one intoxicated individual. Additionally, there is mounting evidence that traumatic brain injuries can themselves serve as independent risk factors for the development of alcohol use disorders, particularly when injury occurs during juvenile or adolescent development. Here, we will review the epidemiological and experimental evidence for this phenomenon and discuss potential psychosocial mediators including attenuation of negative affect and impaired decision making as well as neurochemical mediators including disruption in the glutamatergic, GABAergic, and dopaminergic signaling pathways and increases in inflammation.
... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...
Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim
Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Objective: This research was an attempt to predict the tendency of people having borderline personality traits to smoking, drinking alcohol, and taking psychoactive drugs based on emotional dysregulation and child abuse. Method: This study employed a correlation method which is categorized in descriptive category. A sample including 600 male and female bachelor students of Tabriz University was selected by cluster sampling. Then, high risk behaviors scale, Emotional dysregulation Scale, Child abuse scale, and borderline personality scale (STB were distributed among this group. Findings: Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that emotional dysregulation and child abuse significantly predicted varying degrees of smoking, drug, and alcohol usage. Conclusion: The research findings suggest the basic role of initial biological vulnerability in terms of emotional regulation (dysregulation and invalidating family environment (child abuse in the prediction of catching the disorder of borderline personality traits and producing high riskbehaviorssuch as alcohol drink and drug usage.
M G Inderjit
Full Text Available Background: The cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess and compare tobacco and alcohol usage among male medical and dental students among students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Materials and Methods: A self-designed questionnaire containing 20 close-ended questions was prepared to collect the required and relevant information pertaining to tobacco and alcohol consumption. The questionnaire was distributed among 400 students belonging to dental and medical colleges in Davangere city. Results: Among the 400 respondents, 48.5% were smokers and 45.75% of students were alcoholics. Among smokers, 55.70% were house surgeon students and 23.07% were 1 st year. Significant difference was found in the percentage of tobacco consumption among medical and dental house surgeon students. The main reason for smoking was examination preparation and workload. Among alcoholics, 51.67% were house surgeon students and 21.9% were 1 st year. The main reason for alcohol consumption was to get relief from tensions. Conclusions: Final year students and house surgeons had more influence of tobacco and alcohol consumption habits when compared to 1 st year students in both dental as well in medical college. Academic demand, work pressure, examination stress, and anxiety were found to be significantly influencing tobacco and alcohol habits among both medical and dental students.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The resu...
Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.
Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…
In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…
Decreased work performance 77.25%, increase in violence and crime 77%, poverty 50.75%, wife and childbearing 73.75%, increase in accident rate 80.5%, children inability to continue schooling 83.5% Nigerian culture, it appears that there is a culture of alcohol implicitly institutionalized that one could easily brand it as a ...
Michael A Collins
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are major and yet surprisingly unacknowledged worldwide causes of brain damage, cognitive impairment, and dementia. Chronic abuse of alcohol is likely to elicit significant changes in essential polyenoic fatty acids and the membrane phospholipids (PLs that covalently contain them in brain membranes. Among the fatty acids of the omega-3 polyenoic class, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which is relatively concentrated in mammalian brain, has proven particularly important for proper brain development as well as neurosurvival and protection. DHA losses in brains of chronic alcohol-treated animals may contribute to alcohol′s neuroinflammatory and neuropathological sequelae; indeed, DHA supplementation has beneficial effects, including the possibility that its documented augmenting effects on cerebral circulation could be important. The neurochemical mechanisms by which DHA exerts its effects encompass several signaling routes involving both the membrane PLs in which DHA is esterified as well as unique neuroactive metabolites of the free fatty acid itself. In view of indications that brain DHA deficits are a deleterious outcome of human alcoholism, increasing brain DHA via supplementation during detoxification of alcoholics could potentially fortify against dependence-related neuroinjury.
Sean P Farris
Full Text Available Cocaine and alcohol are two substances of abuse that prominently affect the central nervous system (CNS. Repeated exposure to cocaine and alcohol leads to longstanding changes in gene expression, and subsequent functional CNS plasticity, throughout multiple brain regions. Epigenetic modifications of histones are one proposed mechanism guiding these enduring changes to the transcriptome. Characterizing the large number of available biological relationships as network models can reveal unexpected biochemical relationships. Clustering analysis of variation from whole-genome sequencing of gene expression (RNA-Seq and histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3 events (ChIP-Seq revealed the underlying structure of the transcriptional and epigenomic landscape within hippocampal postmortem brain tissue of drug abusers and control cases. Distinct sets of interrelated networks for cocaine and alcohol abuse were determined for each abusive substance. The network approach identified subsets of functionally related genes that are regulated in agreement with H3K4me3 changes, suggesting cause and effect relationships between this epigenetic mark and gene expression. Gene expression networks consisted of recognized substrates for addiction, such as the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein PPP1R1B / DARPP-32 and the vesicular glutamate transporter SLC17A7 / VGLUT1 as well as potentially novel molecular targets for substance abuse. Through a systems biology based approach our results illustrate the utility of integrating epigenetic and transcript expression to establish relevant biological networks in the human brain for addiction. Future work with laboratory models may clarify the functional relevance of these gene networks for cocaine and alcohol, and provide a framework for the development of medications for the treatment of addiction.
Terry, Mary Beth; Neugut, Alfred I; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Waye, Jerome; Harpaz, Noam; Hibshoosh, Hanina
The p53 tumor suppressor gene is commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. While the effect of p53 mutations on colorectal cancer prognosis has been heavily studied, less is known about how epidemiologic risk factors relate to p53 status, particularly in early colorectal neoplasia prior to clinically invasive colorectal cancer (including adenomas, carcinoma in situ (CIS), and intramucosal carcinoma). We examined p53 status, as measured by protein overexpression, in 157 cases with early colorectal neoplasia selected from three New York City colonoscopy clinics. After collecting paraffin-embedded tissue blocks, immunohistochemistry was performed using an anti-p53 monoclonal mouse IgG 2 a [BP53-12-1] antibody. We analyzed whether p53 status was different for risk factors for colorectal neoplasia relative to a polyp-free control group (n = 508). p53 overexpression was found in 10.3%, 21.7%, and 34.9%, of adenomatous polyps, CIS, and intramucosal cases, respectively. Over 90% of the tumors with p53 overexpression were located in the distal colon and rectum. Heavy cigarette smoking (30+ years) was associated with cases not overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1–2.9) but not with those cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.4–2.6). Heavy beer consumption (8+ bottles per week) was associated with cases overexpressing p53 (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.3–12.0) but not with cases without p53 overexpression (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.7–3.7). Our findings that p53 overexpression in early colorectal neoplasia may be positively associated with alcohol intake and inversely associated with cigarette smoking are consistent with those of several studies of p53 expression and invasive cancer, and suggest that there may be relationships of smoking and alcohol with p53 early in the adenoma to carcinoma sequence
Manrique-Abril, Fred G; Ospina, Juan M; Garcia-Ubaque, Juan C
Characterising tobacco and alcohol consumption, the linked psychosocial risk factors and protection factors in a sample of secondary / technical students in Tunja during 2009. A prevalence study was carried out, assessing consumption prevalence and determinants in a sample of 1,515 schoolchildren aged 13 to 18 who were studying in grades 8 to 11. Mean age was 15.2 years (SD=1.42), 50.2% were female; life prevalence: 73.5 % alcohol and 50.6 % cigarette consumption, 51.7 % drunkenness. Main consumption determinants were having a dysfunctional family, peer pressure and influence from partners, academic difficulties and conflicts with parents or guardians. Mean age at onset: transitional period between 12 and 13 years. Complete freedom of access to alcoholic beverages and cigarettes was reported. It was found that alcohol and tobacco consumption frequency was quite high in this age group. Related factors were also determinant as they are subject to educational intervention and should be considered as a priority, particularly those related to the family environment and peer group, given the enormous influence exerted by friends and members of recreational or sports team groups on adolescents at this age.
Rainer, J P
This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further
Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin
The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.
Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana
To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.
Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah
This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.
Full Text Available Background FCTC Article 5.3 requires protection against tobacco industry interference in policy-making. By contrast, manufacturers of alcohol and ultra-processed food and drink products are often identified as potential partners in multi-sectoral health initiatives, including via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. This divergence has been questioned given evidence of strategic similarities across sectors, to which this presentation adds an examination of structural links and their implications for health policy. This focuses on an analysis of 'interlocking directorates', via which directors of one organisation also occupy positions on different boards, widely as the principal indicator of network ties across corporations. Methods Using data from corporate websites, annual reports and business databases, we employ UCINET social network analysis software to examine interlocks in the top six transnational companies of each sector within and across tobacco, alcohol and food companies, with political elites, and with health and development agencies. Results We present findings via (i profiles of individual tobacco industry directors, highlighting strategically valuable links to other actors; (ii a quantitative comparison of interlocks across the three sectors, with no direct links between tobacco and food companies but with alcohol companies providing several bridges between them, and with food companies more extensively linked to political elites and health agencies; (iii a case study of the board of brewing giant SAB Miller at the time of its mega-merger with AB InBev to highlight the significance to tobacco control of wider interactions enabled by interlocks. Conclusions This account of linkages across tobacco, alcohol and ultra-processed food companies calls into question regulatory approaches that treat the tobacco industry as an exceptional case. Neglecting conflicts of interest with other unhealthy commodity producers is potentially
Health behaviour patterns in older groups, including tobacco and alcohol use, are key factors in chronic disease prevention. We explore ageing self-perceptions as motivating factors behind smoking and drinking alcohol in older adults, and the complex reasons why individuals engage harmfully in these behaviours.
Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid
Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…
Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie
To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.
The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…
has ever been on an alcoholism treatment unit can attest to the high rate of nicotine and caffeine consumption in this population. More empirically...administrations of cannabis . Moreover, despite the crucial role of learning in substance use, people still choose and perceive their learning...Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1977, 45’, 609-611. Bachman, J., & Jones, R. Personality correlates of cannabis dependence. Addictive Behaviors
You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...
In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...
Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer
This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.
Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F
We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400
Müller-Schulte, Eloise; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Harder, Anja
To determine whether prenatal and perinatal maternal consumption of alcohol, tobacco and/or illicit drugs is associated with risk of neuroblastoma. Medline and Embase (both from inception to February 2017), and reference lists of included studies. To be eligible, a study had to be an original report including data on intake of alcohol, tobacco smoking and/or consumption of illicit drugs during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma in the child. From eligible studies, data study characteristics as well as effect measures and confounders were extracted. We assessed unadjusted and confounder-adjusted estimates, performed risk of bias analysis, constructed random-effects models and assessed heterogeneity. We identified 14 case-control studies (1987-2016) involving a total of 3114 children with neuroblastoma. Meta-analysis of unadjusted estimates showed an association between alcohol (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.49), tobacco (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.44) and illicit drug consumption during pregnancy and risk of neuroblastoma during childhood, with illicit drug consumption showing the strongest association (OR 3.26; 95% CI 1.36 to 7.86). However, adjusted estimates were highly heterogeneous. All studies were at high risk of bias. Smoking, alcohol or illicit drugs during pregnancy might play a role in the development of neuroblastoma. However, well-designed studies are needed to assess whether these exposures are causal and whether time period during pregnancy, dose or co-consumption of substances is critical. Registration number CRD42016036165. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Poliana Patrício Aliane
Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar e comparar diferenças nas habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool. Foram pesquisados 80 sujeitos, entre dependentes e não-dependentes, usuários do SUS, e usados dois instrumentos para coleta dos dados: Inventário de Habilidades Sociais (IHS e AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Foi realizado um estudo comparativo das HS entre os grupos de dependentes e não-dependentes de álcool e álcool e outras drogas (AOD. Os resultados obtidos mostraram não existir diferença no escore do IHS entre dependentes e não-dependentes. Os homens obtiveram maior média nas habilidades de conversação e desenvoltura social e autocontrole da agressividade que as mulheres e, na amostra masculina, dependentes de álcool apresentaram maior média na habilidade de autocontrole da agressividade que dependentes de AOD. Apesar de a literatura sobre o tema discutir os déficits de HS entre dependentes, este estudo não confirmou esta hipótese.This research aims to evaluate and compare differences in Social Skills of alcohol abusers and non-abusers. Eighty people were interviewed, among alcohol abusers and non-abusers, patients of a Health Care Center (SUS. Two instruments were used to collect the data: Social Skills Inventory (ISS and AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. A Comparative study between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers including other drugs was carried out. The results showed that there is no difference between the alcohol abusers and non-abusers ISS scores. Men showed a better score in conversation and social abilities also in self-control of the aggressiveness than women did. In addiction, men addicted to alcohol showed a better score in self-control of the aggressiveness than men addicted to alcohol and other drugs. Although literature about this topic shows that the alcohol abuse have an decrease of these social skills, this research does not
Full Text Available One of the purposes of the Alcohol Sub-Study of the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiological (PURE study was to identify the socio-economic effects of binge drinking from the perspective of community support networks and assess their intervention efforts to address the alcohol abuse problem in the selected areas of study. Emphasis was placed on implementation of plans and legislation; however, eradication of the problem seems to be insignificant for various reasons. This article reports on these identified challenges and proposes appropriate intervention strategies that take cognisance of the nature of the communities for which intervention efforts are intended
Morton, Cory M.
This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...
Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M
.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also...
Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar
Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use among dental undergraduates at one UK university in 2015. A cross-sectional survey of all 344 dental undergraduates using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was carried out. The response rate was 77%, of which 29% were male and 71% female. Tobacco smoking was reported by 23.6% of males and 12.2% of females, with only 1.6% of females reporting to smoke ≥10 cigarettes per day. Alcohol consumption was reported by 85.5% of males and 84% of females, and reported levels of alcohol consumption increased since becoming undergraduates. Binge drinking was reported by 35.3% of males and 41% of female students. Only 2.6% of males and 0.5% of females reported to be current regular users of cannabis. The vast majority of respondents claimed to have never used any illicit substance. The only other reported regularly used substances by males was Ecstasy (1.3% and by females were LSD (0.5%, Ecstasy (1.5%, Cocaine (0.5%, Inhalants (0.5% and Ketamine (0.5%. These results are encouraging. Fewer students reported smoking than in the general population, levels of binge drinking were considerably lower than previously reported figures, as were the numbers of regular users of cannabis and other illicit substances.
Cunningham, J A; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B; Gaskin, J
Clients at two different treatment facilities were asked at assessment how influential each of 10 possible reasons were in their decision to change their alcohol or drug use. Clients at both facilities most often endorsed "weighing the pros and cons of drinking or drug use" and a "warning from spouse." Client's reasons for seeking treatment were also examined in relation to treatment compliance. Three reasons--"weighing the pros and cons," "hitting rock bottom," and experiencing a "major lifestyle change"--were predictive of treatment compliance. Clients who rated any of these reasons as influential were more likely to enter and complete treatment. Although more research is needed, knowledge of clients' reasons for seeking treatment might be useful in treatment matching.
Glozah, Franklin N
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Franklin N. Glozah
Full Text Available The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.
Glozah, Franklin N.
The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951
Wolfinger, N H
I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.
Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K
Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.
Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKibbon, D.; Glass, H. [Kelly Luttmer and Associates Ltd., (Canada)
The impact of drugs and alcohol in the workplace was reviewed. The policies and procedures which are required to ensure that employers meet due diligence requirements were discussed. Under the Canadian human rights legislation an employer cannot terminate an employee for having a medical illness including alcoholism or drug addiction. The implementation of a comprehensive drug and alcohol policy was said to be important to demonstrate to employees that the organization is ready to take a proactive and supportive role in addressing this health concern. The issue of drug testing and when to drug screen was also discussed. It was suggested that addressing substance abuse in the workplace through policies, procedures and practices can reduce costs related to lost productivity, absenteeism, workers` compensation claims, staff turnover, health benefit premiums and legal liabilities.
Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S
Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Strasburger, Victor C
The causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs. In addition, exposure to PG-13- and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13- and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse-prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.
Combined effect of incorporated 90 Sr, ethanol, tobacco smokes on reproduction of warm-blooded animals is studied. It is shown that chronic intake of strontium 90, ethanol and tobacco smokes suppresses the reproduction of animals. But difficulty of obtained data extrapolation to a human being is not a sufficient ground for revising existing hygienic standards for persons being in contact with ionizing radiation and habitual to alcohol and smoking. Nevertheless, they permit to set a problem on negative effect of such habits
Wang, Katie; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Biello, Katie B; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Despite the high prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and its well-documented association with substance use in adulthood, little research has examined the psychological mechanisms underlying this association. The current study utilized a large, multinational sample of MSM in Latin America to examine the role of distress intolerance (i.e., decreased capacity to withstand negative psychological states) in the relationship between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. As part of an online survey conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America, participants (n=19,451) completed measures of childhood sexual abuse history, distress intolerance, and problematic alcohol use (CAGE score>=2). Participants who reported a history of childhood sexual abuse indicated higher levels of distress intolerance, which was in turn associated with greater odds of engaging in problematic alcohol use. A mediation analysis further showed that distress intolerance partially accounted for the significant association between childhood sexual abuse history and problematic alcohol use. These findings provide initial evidence for the role of distress intolerance as a process through which early trauma shapes MSM health later in life. These findings also underscore the potential utility of addressing distress intolerance in alcohol use prevention and intervention efforts that target MSM with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jacquet, Jean-Marc; Peyriere, Hélène; Makinson, Alain; Peries, Marianne; Nagot, Nicolas; Donnadieu-Rigole, Hélène; Reynes, Jacques
To assess the alcohol consumption, tobacco addiction and psychoactive substance use (PSU) of people living with HIV (PLHIV). Cross-sectional study in an HIV outpatient unit. Autoquestionnaire systematically proposed to all patients during their usual clinical care visit during a 6-months period, for alcohol (AUDIT test), tobacco (Short Fagerstrom Test) and PSU (ASSIST V3.0 test). Of 1334 distributed questionnaires, 1018 PLHIV responded: 76.8% were men [528 patients were MSM), and the median age was 49 years (interquartile range: 42-46). A prevalence of excessive alcohol drinking was found in 22% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.5-24.7%] and 44.6% (CI 41.5-47.7%) were current smokers, with high dependence in 29.1% (CI 24.9-33.7%). The prevalence of PSU was 37.8% (CI 34.8-41%) in the past 3 months: cannabis 27.7%, poppers 16.4%, cocaine 8.9%, psychotropic medications 7.1%, gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (GHB/GBL) 4.7%, stimulants 3.1%, synthetic cathinones 2.7%, hallucinogens 1.5%. In the past 3 months, PSU was more prevalent in MSM than in non-MSM patients (46 versus 30%, P poppers) 31.0 versus 1.1%, GHB/GBL 7.8 versus 0.8%, stimulants 5.0 versus 1.1%, synthetic cathinones 4.9 versus 0.3%, and hallucinogens 2.3 versus 0.5%. Given the high prevalence of PSU and other addictions (alcohol and smoking) among PLHIV, and particularly among MSM, a systematic screening of PSU and other addictions should be part of routine clinical care.
Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W
Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.
Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model
... 1 in 3 countries, representing 39% of the world's population, monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth ... 1.4 billion people, or 20% of the world's population, are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. ...
Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja
BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...
Beatty, Shelley E; Cross, Donna S; Shaw, Thérèse M
Given the likelihood of engaging in the hazardous use of tobacco and alcohol increases during teenage years, pre-adolescence is a critical time to implement prevention programmes. While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child's risk for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, parents can have a significant influence on their children's decisions about these issues. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an in-home parent-directed drug education intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. A group randomised intervention trial was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Schools were selected using stratified random sampling and randomised to three study conditions. A total of 1201 parents of 10- 11-year-old children were recruited from 20 schools. The impact of a self-help intervention, comprised of five communication sheets containing information and activities designed to encourage parents to talk with their 10- 11-year-old child about issues related to smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, was assessed. Intervention-group parents were more likely to have spoken with their children, to have spoken more recently, to have engaged the child during the discussion and to have addressed the topics identified as being protective of children's involvement in tobacco and alcohol. In addition, the duration of talks about alcohol was longer than for parents in the comparison group. Parents of 10- 11-year-old children appear to be receptive to participating in a home-based drug-related educational intervention and the parent-directed intervention seems to have enhanced parent-child tobacco- and alcohol-related communication.
Vaht, Mariliis; Kurrikoff, Triin; Laas, Kariina; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus
Oxytocin is an important regulator of social relationships and has been implicated in development of substance use and addiction. We examined the association of a variance in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR rs53576 polymorphism) with alcohol use in a population-representative sample, and potential moderation by social functioning. The analysis was carried out on the older birth cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study (ECPBHS), a cohort of initially 15 years old children (original n=593) recalled at ages 18 and 25. In all data collection waves the participants reported the frequency of consuming alcoholic beverages. Psychiatric interview was carried out at age 25 to assess the lifetime prevalence of substance use disorders. Adverse social interactions with teachers, classmates and family members were self-reported at ages 15 and 18. The minor (A) allele frequency was 0.37. Males homozygous for the A allele (suggested to be associated with less efficient oxytocinergic functioning) were more frequent alcohol consumers at ages 15 and 18 and also more likely to have had alcohol abuse or addiction by age 25 compared to male G allele carriers. Alcohol use was not associated with the OXTR genotype in females. Both male and female AA homozygotes who had reported less favourable relations with their teachers at age 15 more likely had alcohol use disorder. OXTR rs53576 polymorphism is associated with alcohol use and prevalence of alcohol use disorders in males, and this may be moderated by inferior interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J
The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.
Gonçalves, Helen; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Paula Gomes Dos; Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Bierhals, Isabel Oliveira; Vieira, Luna Strieder; Hellwig, Natália Limões; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B
The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents from a Brazilian cohort. The occurrence of five ACEs, the use of alcohol and tobacco and trying illicit drugs were investigated in the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at the age of 15 (n = 4,230). A score was created for the ACEs and their association with the use of substances was evaluated. Around 25% of adolescents consumed alcohol, 6% smoked and 2.1% reported having used drugs at least once in their lives. The ACEs were associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A dose-response relation between the number of ACEs and the substance use was found, particularly with regard to illicit drugs. The occurrence of ACEs was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents and the risk may be different for men and women. These results point to the fact that strategies for preventing the use of substances should include interventions both among adolescents and within the family environment.
McNeely, Jennifer; Wu, Li-Tzy; Subramaniam, Geetha; Sharma, Gaurav; Cathers, Lauretta A; Svikis, Dace; Sleiter, Luke; Russell, Linnea; Nordeck, Courtney; Sharma, Anjalee; O'Grady, Kevin E; Bouk, Leah B; Cushing, Carol; King, Jacqueline; Wahle, Aimee; Schwartz, Robert P
Substance use, a leading cause of illness and death, is underidentified in medical practice. The Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription medication, and other Substance use (TAPS) tool was developed to address the need for a brief screening and assessment instrument that includes all commonly used substances and fits into clinical workflows. The goal of this study was to assess the performance of the TAPS tool in primary care patients. Multisite study, conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, comparing the TAPS tool with a reference standard measure. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02110693). 5 adult primary care clinics. 2000 adult patients consecutively recruited from clinic waiting areas. Interviewer- and self-administered versions of the TAPS tool were compared with a reference standard, the modified World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), which measures problem use and substance use disorder (SUD). Interviewer- and self-administered versions of the TAPS tool had similar diagnostic characteristics. For identifying problem use (at a cutoff of 1+), the TAPS tool had a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95) and specificity of 0.87 (CI, 0.85 to 0.89) for tobacco and a sensitivity of 0.74 (CI, 0.70 to 0.78) and specificity of 0.79 (CI, 0.76 to 0.81) for alcohol. For problem use of illicit and prescription drugs, sensitivity ranged from 0.82 (CI, 0.76 to 0.87) for marijuana to 0.63 (CI, 0.47 to 0.78) for sedatives; specificity was 0.93 or higher. For identifying any SUD (at a cutoff of 2+), sensitivity was lower. The low prevalence of some drug classes led to poor precision in some estimates. Research assistants were not blinded to participants' TAPS tool responses when they administered the CIDI. In a diverse population of adult primary care patients, the TAPS tool detected clinically relevant problem substance use. Although it also may detect tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use disorders, further refinement is
Salama, I I; Kotb, N K; Hemeda, S A; Zaki, F
The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice towards HIV/AIDS among alcohol and drug abusers and the effect of health education (HE) on their knowledge and attitudes. Participants were 265 substance abusers, recruited from 8 addiction rehabilitation centers. A base line study preceding HE was done using a questionnaire composed of five sections. Three scores were developed to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge. The base line study indicates that addicts with good knowledge scores > or =75%) regarding modes of transmission were significantly higher among males than females. About 70% of the addicts had negative attitudes towards dealing with HIV/AIDS patients, while 55.5% felt sympathy for them. Eleven percent of the injection drug abusers were sharing needle with others, while 38% of the participating females were previously convicted of prostitution. Logistic analysis showed that high level of education was the best predictive variable for good knowledge scores (> or =75%). Evaluation of the health education program revealed a highly significant increase in the knowledge scores among both males and females compared to the pretest scores. An increase in the percentages of male and female addicts with improved attitudes towards HIV/AIDS patients was also noted after HE. So, HE was found to be a successful tool in improving the knowledge and attitudes of substance abusers towards HIV/AIDS.
Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Hernández-Martínez, Ma Carmen; Torrijo-Rodrigo, Ma José
This study aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to delaying the access of alcohol abuse patients to specific treatment centres in the Autonomous Region of Valencia (Spain). 563 patients from Addictive Behaviours Units (UCA) and Alcohology Units (UA) were interviewed. A survey was conducted which included items on previous requested treatment in other centres and on barriers of accessibility to treatment in specific ambulatory centres. A descriptive analysis and t-student and ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc tests were carried out. 59.7% of respondents said they had requested previous treatment in non-specific resources due to physical or psychical trouble that they now relate to their alcohol use although they did not do so at the time, in addition to being motivated by their own alcohol abuse (42.8%). The most attended resources were Primary Care and Specialist Unit Care. Women showed a higher demand for treatment in Mental Health Services (p gender differences in barriers that delay access to treatment do exist. It is necessary to build gender-adapted intervention guidelines to be used in Primary Care and Mental Health services to reduce the accessibility barriers to treatment.
Walker, Leigh C; Lawrence, Andrew J
Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and drug taking despite negative consequences. Alcohol abuse and addiction have major social and economic consequences and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Currently available therapeutics are inadequate, outlining the need for alternative treatments. Detailed knowledge of the neurocircuitry and brain chemistry responsible for aberrant behavior patterns should enable the development of novel pharmacotherapies to treat addiction. Therefore it is important to expand our knowledge and understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms involved in alcohol seeking and abuse. The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptide system is an attractive target, given the recent FDA and PMDA approval of suvorexant for the treatment of insomnia. Orexin is synthesized exclusively in neurons located in the lateral (LH), perifornical (PEF), and dorsal medial (DMH) hypothalamus. These neurons project widely throughout the neuraxis with regulatory roles in a wide range of behavioral and physiological responses, including sleep-wake cycle neuroendocrine regulation, anxiety, feeding behavior, and reward seeking. Here we summarize the literature to date, which have evaluated the interplay between alcohol and the orexin system.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
This report seeks to define basic terms for use in mental health, alcoholism, drug abuse and mental retardation programs in order to achieve some progress toward a long-range goal of improved communication and exchange of information among concerned disciplines in these fields. While the report does represent the most complete and developed work…
Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R
HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, psexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pereira, Celina Andrade; Wen, Chao Lung; Tavares, Hermano
The mental health knowledge gap challenges public health. The Alcohol Abuse Management in Primary Care (AAMPC) is an e-learning course designed to cover alcohol-related problems from the primary care perspective. The goal of this study was to verify if the AAMPC was able to enhance healthcare professionals' alcohol-related problems knowledge. One hundred subscriptions for the AAMPC were offered through the federal telehealth program. The course was instructor-led and had nine weekly classes, delivered synchronously or asynchronously, at the students' convenience, using a varied array of learning tools. At the beginning, students took a test that provided a positive score, related to critical knowledge for clinical management, and a negative score, related to misconceptions about alcohol-related problems. The test was repeated 2 months after course completion. Thirty-three students completed the course. The positive score improved significantly (pE-learning was highly appreciated as a learning tool, especially by students with the least frequency of Internet use. Nonetheless, it worked better for those previously familiar with e-courses. The AAMPC e-course provided effective knowledge transmission and retention. Complementary strategies to reduce misconceptions about alcohol-related problems must be developed for the training of primary care staff.
Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A
To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.
So Young Yi
Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.
Bleakley, Amy; Romer, Daniel; Jamieson, Patrick E
To determine the extent to which movies popular with adolescents feature characters who jointly engage in violence and other risk behaviors. We hypothesized that violent characters engage in other risk behaviors equally often in films rated appropriate for children over 12 (PG-13) and Restricted (R)-rated films. Content analysis of a sample of top-grossing movies from 1985 to 2010 (n = 390). We coded movies for the presence of at least 1 main character who was involved in violence and either sex, tobacco, or alcohol use within a 5-minute movie segment and throughout a film. Approximately 90% of the movies contained a segment with a main character involved in violence, and ~77% of the films had the same character engaging in at least 1 other risk behavior. A violent character was portrayed most often partaking in alcohol-related and sexual behaviors. G and PG movies had less co-occurrence than PG-13 or R-rated movies, but there was no statistical difference between PG-13 and R-rated movies with regards to violence co-occurring with other risk behaviors. These trends did not vary over time. Popular films that contain violent characters also show those characters engaging in other risk behaviors. Similar rates of co-occurrence between PG-13 and R-rated films suggest that the Motion Picture Association of America ratings system is not sensitive to the joint portrayal of violence and alcohol, sex, and tobacco-related risk behaviors. The on-screen clustering of violence with other risk behaviors is cause for concern and worthy of additional research.
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA Related Biomedical Research and...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes...
... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: April 2...
Bradley, Catherine S; Erickson, Bradley A; Messersmith, Emily E; Pelletier-Cameron, Anne; Lai, H Henry; Kreder, Karl J; Yang, Claire C; Merion, Robert M; Bavendam, Tamara G; Kirkali, Ziya
Diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use may have effects on lower urinary tract symptoms. Constructive changes in these modifiable nonurological factors are suggested to improve lower urinary tract symptoms. To better understand the relationship between nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms, we performed a systematic literature review to examine, grade and summarize reported associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, tobacco and alcohol use. We performed PubMed® searches for eligible articles providing evidence on associations between 1 or more nonurological factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. A modified Oxford scale was used to grade the evidence. We reviewed 111 articles addressing diet (28 studies), fluid intake (21) and caffeine (21), alcohol (26) and tobacco use (44). The evidence grade was generally low (6% level 1, 24% level 2, 11% level 3 and 59% level 4). Fluid intake and caffeine use were associated with urinary frequency and urgency in men and women. Modest alcohol use was associated with decreased likelihood of benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and reduced lower urinary tract symptoms in men. Associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and ingestion of certain foods and tobacco were inconsistent. Evidence of associations between lower urinary tract symptoms and diet, fluid intake and caffeine, alcohol and tobacco use is sparse and mostly observational. However, there is evidence of associations between increased fluid and caffeine intake and urinary frequency/urgency, and between modest alcohol intake and decreased benign prostatic hyperplasia diagnosis and lower urinary tract symptoms. Given the importance of these nonurological factors in daily life, and their perceived impact on lower urinary tract symptoms, higher quality evidence is needed. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.
Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.
Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire
The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference-inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem.
Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire
The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465
Hinds, M.W.; Thomas, D.B.; O'Reilly, H.P.
A case-control study of 47 laryngeal cancers in males of three counties of Washington State was conducted. Personal interview was used to obtain information on smoking, alcohol use, exposure to asbestos, and other substances, and x-rays of the head and neck area. Smoking and alcohol consumption were found to increase risk of laryngeal cancer independently, with a clear dose-response relationship. Neither asbestos exposure nor exposure to other substances was found to significantly increase the risk of laryngeal cancer, although the relative risk with asbestos exposure was 1.75. Lifetime history of exposure to dental x-rays on five or more occasions was associated with significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer among heavy smokers but not among light smokers. The importance of tobacco and alcohol in the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer was re-affirmed, the importance of asbestos exposure was brought into question, and a possible relationship of laryngeal cancer with exposure to dental x-rays among heavy smokers was demonstrated
Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.
Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…
Pacoricona Alfaro, Dibia Liz; Ehlinger, Virginie; Spilka, Stanislas; Ross, Jim; Sentenac, Mariane; Godeau, Emmanuelle
Education policies encourage inclusion of students with mild-intellectual disability (mild-ID) in community/school life. However, such policies potentially increase exposure to substance use. This article examines tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use among French students enrolled in special units for students with disabilities (ULIS) at mainstream junior high schools compared to those of general population of the equivalent age; and explores factors associated with substance use among ULIS students, known to present mostly mild-ID. In 2014, a questionnaire adapted from the international HBSC/WHO study was administered to 700 ULIS students (mean-age 14.2). Comparative data were gathered from 7023 junior high-school students (mean-age 13.6) in the general population. Among students <14 years-old, tobacco and alcohol use rates were similar between ULIS and general population. For students ≥14, alcohol use remained comparable, while tobacco and cannabis use were higher in general population. Among ULIS students, low perceived health/life satisfaction, divorced/separated parents and high perceived academic demands were associated with tobacco use. Bullying, not liking school very much and attending schools outside a deprived area were associated with alcohol use. Having had sexual intercourse and not perceiving one's health as excellent were associated with cannabis use. Having dated was associated with using all three substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.
Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…
Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.
Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…
Constantine, Norm; And Others
This report presents findings from the Santa Clara County (California) survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 administered during the spring of 1991 to 5,180 students in 51 randomly selected county schools. An executive summary discusses sampling error, sample demographics, and findings on drug use…
Bashir, K. R.; Raman, S.; Knott, V. J.; Bulmer, D. R.; Hurtig, J. B.
Hospital charts of 700 patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal surgery were reviewed to examine the relationship between alcohol abuse and dose of intravenous sodium thiopental (Pentothal) required to induce general anesthesia. Patients who required a high sodium thiopental dose (greater than 6.08 mg/kg) exhibited a higher incidence of alcoholism, heavy drinking, and heavy smoking, compared to patients who required low sodium thiopental dose (greater than 3.42 mg/kg and less than 4....
Ulhøi, Maiken Parm; Meldgaard, Karoline; Steiniche, Torben
Chronic alcohol abuse (CAA) has deleterious effects on skeletal health. This study examined the impact of CAA on bone with regard to bone density, structure, and strength. Bone specimens from 42 individuals with CAA and 42 individuals without alcohol abuse were obtained at autopsy. Dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), compression testing, ashing, and bone histomorphometry were performed. Individuals with CAA had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck and significantly lower bone volume demonstrated by thinner trabeculae, decreased extent of osteoid surfaces, and lower mean...... wall thickness of trabecular osteons compared to individuals without alcohol abuse. No significant difference was found for bone strength and structure. Conclusion: CAA leads to low bone mass due to a decrease in bone formation but with no destruction of bone architecture nor a decrease in bone...
Seyed Taghi Heydari; Mehrdad Vossoughi; Armin Akbarzadeh; Kamran B.Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani; Kazem Javanmardi; Ali Akbary
Purpose:The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers.Methods:This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran.Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the dayThe data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving.Results:A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of(27.0 + 9.3) years participated in the study.Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving,poor maneuvering,and driving over the speed limit (both p ＜ 0.001).It was also associated with carelessness about safety such as driving with technical defects (p ＜ 0.001) and not wearing a crash helmet (p =0.008).Conclusion:Screening for alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identifiy drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.
Torricelli, Paola; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Rimondini, Lia; Tschon, Matilde; Rimondini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio; Giardino, Roberto
Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with pathological effects on bone, and it is correlated with the increasing risk of osteoporosis and fractures. The negative effects of alcohol intake also influence bone repair processes and the osseointegration of implants. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation and synthetic activity of osteoblasts isolated from the trabecular bone of rats previously exposed to 7-week intermittent exposure to ethanol vapour (EE-OB), and sham-aged rats (SA-OB), when cultured on standard commercially pure Ti (cpTi). Osteoblast proliferation (WST-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type I (CICP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were measured at 1, 7, and 14 days of culture. Our results showed a decrease in the cell viability and synthetic activity of osteoblasts exposed to ethanol when cultured on cpTi. Moreover, the release of local regulatory factors from osteoblasts was imbalanced: TGF-β1 production was reduced and TNF-α and IL-6 were up-regulated. These in vitro data suggest that alcohol abuse affects bone repair and decreases the ability to form bone around standard cpTi. Innovative surfaces and adjuvant therapies could be useful when implants are required in alcoholics
This paper describes some experiments that apply the operant conditioning techniques to forensic toxicological research. These techniques may be useful in investigating the mechanisms of action, toxic symptoms, legal competence and drug metabolism associated with substance abuse such as abuse of alcohol, psychotropic drugs, narcotics, stimulants, and organic solvents. 1) Genetic research on alcohol preference in rats. We applied operant conditioning to investigate alcohol preference in rats and constructed an apparatus for the measurement of discriminated operate responses for water or alcohol reinforcement in rat. This apparatus is a modified Skinner box with a one-lever two-liquid system. Fixed ratio-10 (FR-10) schedules of reinforcement are used to increase the work of the rat before it obtains the reinforcement. The voluntary choice of water or 10% ethanol by the rat can be assessed quantitatively by measuring the lever-pushing responses. It is an extremely useful method for measuring the real alcohol preference of rats. A rat was kept in a Skinner box overnight. The numbers of responses and reinforcement for water and ethanol and the volumes of the two liquids consumed were recorded. The ratio of ethanol reinforcement was defined as the number of ethanol reinforcement to the total number of ethanol and water reinforcement. The ratio of ethanol intake was defined as the volume of ethanol consumed to the volume of water and ethanol consumed. Ethanol consumption per g body weight was calculated from the volume of ethanol consumed by the rat. We used this apparatus to investigate alcohol preference of more than 300 Wistar Albino Rats, and divided them into a high alcohol preference (HAP) group and a low alcohol preference (LAP) group. Inbreeding between littermates was conducted in each of the HAP and LAP groups. The liver tissue of each offspring was obtained and the cytosol fraction was collected and subjected to isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide gel
Hackbarth, D P; Schnopp-Wyatt, D; Katz, D; Williams, J; Silvestri, B; Pfleger, M
Community activists in Chicago believed their neighborhoods were being targeted by alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertisers, despite the Outdoor Advertising Association of America's voluntary code of principles, which claims to restrict the placement of ads for age-restricted products and prevent billboard saturation of urban neighborhoods. A research and action plan resulted from a 10-year collaborative partnership among Loyola University Chicago, the American Lung Association of Metropolitan Chicago (ALAMC), and community activists from a predominately African American church, St. Sabina Parish. In 1997 Loyola University and ALAMC researchers conducted a cross-sectional prevalence survey of alcohol and tobacco outdoor advertising. Computer mapping was used to locate all 4,247 licensed billboards in Chicago that were within 500- and 1,000-foot radiuses of schools, parks, and playlots. A 50% sample of billboards was visually surveyed and coded for advertising content. The percentage of alcohol and tobacco billboards within the 500- and 1,000-foot zones ranged from 0% to 54%. African American and Hispanic neighborhoods were disproportionately targeted for outdoor advertising of alcohol and tobacco. Data were used to convince the Chicago City Council to pass one of the nation's toughest anti-alcohol and tobacco billboard ordinances, based on zoning rather than advertising content. The ordinance was challenged in court by advertisers. Recent Supreme Court rulings made enactment of local billboard ordinances problematic. Nevertheless, the research, which resulted in specific legislative action, demonstrated the importance of linkages among academic, practice, and grassroots community groups in working together to diminish one of the social causes of health disparities.
Väisänen, Enni E; Smeds, Annika I; Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Teeri, Teemu H; Willför, Stefan M; Kärkönen, Anna
Externally added coniferyl alcohol at high concentrations reduces the growth of Nicotiana cells and seedlings. Coniferyl alcohol is metabolized by BY-2 cells to several compounds. Coniferyl alcohol (CA) is a common monolignol and a building block of lignin. The toxicity of monolignol alcohols has been stated in the literature, but there are only few studies suggesting that this is true. We investigated the physiological effects of CA on living plant cells in more detail. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright yellow-2 cells (BY-2) and Nicotiana benthamiana seedlings both showed concentration-dependent growth retardation in response to 0.5-5 mM CA treatment. In some cases, CA addition caused cell death in BY-2 cultures, but this response was dependent on the growth stage of the cells. Based on LC-MS/MS analysis, BY-2 cells did not accumulate the externally supplemented CA, but metabolized it to ferulic acid, ferulic acid glycoside, coniferin, and to some other phenolic compounds. In addition to growth inhibition, CA caused the formation of a lignin-like compound detected by phloroglucinol staining in N. benthamiana roots and occasionally in BY-2 cells. To prevent this, we added potassium iodide (KI, at 5 mM) to overcome the peroxidase-mediated CA polymerization to lignin. KI had, however, toxic effects on its own: in N. benthamiana seedlings, it caused reduction in growth; in BY-2 cells, reduction in growth and cell viability. Surprisingly, CA restored the growth of KI-treated BY-2 cells and N. benthamiana seedlings. Our results suggest that CA at high concentrations is toxic to plant cells.
Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi
Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.
This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…
Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian P T; Ogilvie, David
Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children.2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and
Wills, Thomas A; Gibbons, Frederick X; Sargent, James D; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya
To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10-14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).
Rocco, M; Prinzi, G; Campagna, E; Battaglia, T; Barucco, T; Polchi, S; Kisialiou, A; Colasanti, M; Felli, E; Lepiane, P; Santoro, R; Vennarecci, G; Ettorre, G M
Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81.8% males and 18.2% females) awaiting liver transplantation. The AH group composed 44.49% of patients and in the abuse free (AF) group, 55.51%. Scales were compared using Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U test. Interrelationships were examined using Spearman's correlation. This analysis found 27 scales of the MMPI-2 that were statistically different between 2 groups (AF and AH). In the AH group, we found a significant correlation between the following pairs of scales: Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) with the Addictions Potential Scale, Social Introversion scale (Si) with the Psychopathic Deviate scale (Pd), and Social Discomfort scale with Pd; the ES scale was negatively correlated with the Sc and Si scales. This interim study showed that the understanding of these indicators is crucial both for the assessment accuracy and for a prediction of the degree of therapy compliance after the transplantation. The scales of the MMPI-2 indicated a marked tendency to emotional rigidity, a lack of self-esteem and susceptibility judgment. Social introversion and social discomfort trends lead to impulsive behavior and deviant actions that combine poorly with good compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James
The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.
Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David
Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the
Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz; Rychlik, Ewa
The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men.
George, A; Varghese, C; Sankaranarayanan, R; Nair, M K
To plan and implement cancer control measures, information about the baseline habit patterns of the community is needed. A coastal village near Trivandrum, Kerala, Southern India, supported mainly by the fishing industry, was identified for this study with regard to establishing measures to control oral cancer there. Oral cancer is prevalent in Kerala. Smoking and chewing tobacco and drinking alcoholic beverages are the major risk factors for this cancer. The socioeconomic status of the fishermen of Kerala is low and their literacy rate is low. The adults in coastal Kerala have been found to have a habit pattern of very high levels of tobacco and alcohol use. A survey was conducted to study the tobacco and alcohol use habits of 146 children and teenagers in this village. The percentages of study subjects with pan-tobacco-chewing, smoking, and drinking habits were 29%, 2%, and 3%, respectively. The habit pattern correlated negatively with education and positively with number of children per family. This survey provides information that can be used to plan cancer education efforts, including redesigning the school curriculum and focusing on high-risk groups.
Muckle, Wendy; Muckle, Jamie; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter
at high risk for alcohol abuse attending MAP, defined as a structured programme that provided clients with controlled amounts of alcohol on a daily schedule, comparing no treatment, moderate drinking, brief intervention or 12-step variants. All study citations were collated into a single database. Two review author independently screened titles and abstracts and selected references potentially relevant to the review. Differences between selection lists were resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently evaluated whether studies should be included or excluded according to the eligibility criteria. In the event of a disagreement, a third author was consulted. No studies were included in the review. This systematic review was intended to assess the effectiveness of a brief MAP on the reduction of incidence of harmful behaviour; however, no evidence was available to make this comparison; 22 articles were considered possibly relevant and all were excluded. Most articles were excluded because they failed to compare or consider managed alcohol as the experimental or control intervention, as well as one study (Baker 2010), which was also excluded because study participants were under 18 years of age. No study reviewed offered an intervention that was compared with managed alcohol or considered it as the intervention of interest, providing insufficient evidence to address the objectives of the review. Four studies (Aalto 2001; Baker 2010; Bertholet 2005; Tracy 2007) considered alcohol reduction as an outcome of interest, while four engaged interventions in a shelter setting or targeted vulnerable people (Baker 2010; Bradford 2005; Lapham 1993; McGlynn 1993); only one study (Kidd 2011) offered a qualitative assessment of a participant being admitted to MAP, but offered no analysis of the programme itself. These results accurately reflect the use of MAPs in current practice as existing programmes are ongoing only in a small number of sample pilot projects that target
Noufal, Ahammed; George, Antony; Jose, Maji; Khader, Mohasin Abdul; Jayapalan, Cheriyanthal Sisupalan
Tobacco in any form (smoking or chewing), arecanut chewing, and alcohol are considered to be the major extrinsic etiological factors for potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and for squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral malignancy in India. An increase in nuclear diameter (ND) and nucleus-cell ratio (NCR) with a reduction in cell diameter (CD) are early cytological indicators of dysplastic change. The authors sought to identify cytomorphometric changes in ND, CD, and NCR of oral buccal cells in tobacco and arecanut chewers who chewed with or without betel leaf. Participants represented 3 groups. Group I consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut with betel leaf (BQT chewers). Group II consisted of 30 individuals who chewed tobacco and arecanut without betel leaf (Gutka chewers). Group III comprised 30 apparently healthy nonabusers. Cytological smears were prepared and stained with modified-Papanicolaou stain. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that ND was increased, with P values of .054 and .008, respectively, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and Groups II and III showed that CD was statistically reduced, with P values of .037 and <.000, respectively, whereas comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. Comparisons between Groups I and II and groups II and III showed that NCR was statistically increased, with P values of <.000, whereas a comparison of Groups I and III showed no statistical significance. CD, ND, and NCR showed statistically significant changes in Group II in comparison with Group I, which could indicate larger and earlier risk of carcinoma for Gutka chewers than in BQT chewers.
Gay, Christopher; Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Packham, John; Ackerman, Gerald; Lensch, Taylor; Yang, Wei
Rural youth have higher rates of alcohol and tobacco use compared to their urban counterparts. However, the economic dependence of rural communities may differentially influence risk behaviors. While research has shown that adults working in mining have elevated rates of alcohol and tobacco use, the influence of living in a mining community on early adolescent substance use is unknown. Using data from a representative sample of 4,535 middle school students in a state with heavy reliance on mining, we conducted weighted logistic regression to investigate whether community-level mining economic dependence influences rural-urban differences in adolescent alcohol and tobacco use. All models adjusted for sociodemographics, military family involvement, parental monitoring, and length of residence. Over one quarter of the sampled students lived in rural counties and approximately half of these counties met the USDA mining economic typology. After stratifying rural counties by mining and nonmining economic dependence, students in rural mining counties had significantly higher odds of all measures of alcohol use (AORs ranged from 1.83 to 3.99) and tobacco use (AORs ranged from 1.61 to 5.05) compared to students in urban counties. Only use of smokeless tobacco was higher among students in rural nonmining counties. Our findings demonstrate rural-urban disparities in adolescent substance use that are particularly pronounced among youth living in counties with economic dependence on mining. Future research on this subject should include a wider range of community-level factors that may have specific relevance in rural settings to inform the development of population-level interventions. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.
An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.
Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy
This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substance abuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…
Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark
Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.
... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...
Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja
To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.
Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita
Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.
Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C
Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.
Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.
Miller, Susan B.
This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…
Fernandez, Dorian; Salami, Imoleayo; Davis, Janelle; Mbah, Florence; Kazeem, Aisha; Ash, Abreah; Babino, Justin; Carter, Laquiesha; Salemi, Jason L; Spooner, Kiara K; Olaleye, Omonike A; Salihu, Hamisu M
HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.
Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.
The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…
National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.
Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…
Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.
The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...
Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M
To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.
Sweeting, Helen N; Bhaskar, Abita; Hunt, Kate
There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Cross-sectional study. 2937 (92% of those eligible) secondary school pupils (ages 12-14) completed questionnaires in examination conditions. Analyses were restricted to those with complete data on all relevant variables (N=2736 smoking; N=2737 drinking). Dependent variables comprised ever smoking and current drinking. Measures of consumerism comprised number of 'premium' (range 0-7) and 'standard' (range 0-5) material possessions and three Consumer Involvement subscales, 'dissatisfaction', 'consumer orientation' and 'brand awareness' (each range 3-12). Analyses also included school-year group and family affluence. Ever smoking and current drinking were both more prevalent among adolescents with more 'premium' and 'standard' material possessions, greater consumer 'dissatisfaction' and 'brand awareness' (mutually adjusted analyses including school-year group and family affluence). The strongest relationships occurred for 'brand awareness': for each unit increase in 'brand awareness' the ORs (95% CI) of ever smoking were 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) in males and females, respectively; and those for drinking were 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23) and 1.21 (1.13 to 1.30). 'Brand awareness' had an equal or stronger relationship with both smoking and drinking than did family affluence. These results suggest aassociations between consumerism and both smoking and drinking might arise because adolescent identities incorporate both consumerism and substance use, or be the result of promotion (indirectly in the case of tobacco
idade de início de consumo de tabaco e/ou álcool e a intensidade de uso de tabaco. Uso de maconha e idade de início do consumo foram as variáveis de desfecho. Para a análise dos dados se utilizou regressão de Poisson e regressão de Weibull. RESULTADOS: Os escolares apresentaram alta prevalência de consumo de tabaco, álcool maconha (77%, 79% e 23%, respectivamente. O consumo de tabaco na presença de consumo de álcool foi um fator de risco de uso de maconha (RP=10,4; IC 95%: 8,9;12,2. O início tardio de consumo de tabaco (HR=0,85; IC 95%: 0,84;0,86 e álcool (HR=0,90; IC 95%: 0,89;0,91 resultou ser um fator protetor do uso de maconha. A probabilidade de consumo de maconha foi maior naqueles que fumavam diariamente ou quase, em relação àqueles que fumavam somente aos fins de semana (RP=3,11; IC 95%: 2,96;3,26 vs. RP=1,70; IC 95%: 1,58;1,83. CONCLUSÕES: O risco de consumo de maconha se associou significativamente à idade de início de consumo de tabaco, à freqüência de consumo de tabaco e ao consumo simultâneo de álcool. As estratégias de prevenção deveriam proteger os escolares do consumo precoce de tabaco.OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between early tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of marijuana consumption among schoolchildren. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising data from the Fourth National Study on Drug Use in the Chilean School Population (2001. There were studied 54,001 schoolchildren aged between eight and 20 years. Predictors were self-reported tobacco and alcohol use (ever users, age at initiation of tobacco and/or alcohol use, and intensity of tobacco use. The study outcome was self-reported marijuana use (ever users versus never users and age at initiation of marijuana use. Poisson regression and Weibull regression were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence of tobacco use was high: 77%, alcohol 79%, and marijuana 23%. Tobacco consumption increased the likelihood of marijuana use (PR=10.4; 95% CI: 8
Guimarães, Patrícia M; Passos, Sonia R; Calvet, Guilherme A; Hökerberg, Yara H; Lessa, José L; Andrade, Carlos A de
To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by multiple logistic regression. Seventy-six (60.8%) patients with HIV, 40 (32%) patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2%) patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%), with up to 8 years of formal education (56%), and unemployed (81.6%). The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71) (56%), agoraphobia (n=65) (52%), major depressive episode (n=56) (44.8%), and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43) (34.4%) predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75) and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61). Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75), unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34), and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44). Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.
Patrícia M. Guimarães
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI by multiple logistic regression. Results: Seventy-six (60.8% patients with HIV, 40 (32% patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2% patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%, with up to 8 years of formal education (56%, and unemployed (81.6%. The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71 (56%, agoraphobia (n=65 (52%, major depressive episode (n=56 (44.8%, and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43 (34.4% predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75 and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61. Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75, unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34, and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44. Conclusion: Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.
van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.
The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and
van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.; Crijnen, A.A.
The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.
Vaysse, Benoît; Gignon, Maxime; Zerkly, Salah; Ganry, Olivier
Excessive alcohol consumption and illicit drug use among students have negative repercussions on their health, education and society in general. Medical students are no exception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis as well as levels of anxiety and depression of students admitted to the second year of medical studies based on anonymous self-administered questionnaires containing the following tests: AUDIT, Fagerstrom, CAST and HAD. 198 of the 207 students involved agreed to participate. Excessive alcohol consumption was higher among women than among men (35% versus 22%), but fewer women were alcohol-dependent (2% versus 8%) (p students were tobacco smokers, with no signs of dependence in 80% of cases. 15% of students smoked cannabis and 52% of them presented problem use. 21% of women had a suspected anxiety disorder and 23% had a proven anxiety disorder, versus 17% and 6% of men, respectively (p = 0.002). 3% had a suspected depressive disorder and 0.5% had a proven depressive disorder. High-risk alcohol consumption was significantly correlated with high-risk cannabis use. No correlation was demonstrated between anxiety or depression and these consumptions. Doctors appear to be particularly affected by psychological disorders or addictions and medical students are paradoxically less likely than the general population to receive appropriate care. Universities must provide monitoring and support for students in order to improve their health, but also to enable them to provide care and appropriate educational messages to their patients.
Full Text Available Evidence gained from animals and humans suggests that the encephalic opioid system might be involved in the development of drug addiction through its role in reward. Our aim is to assess the influence of genetic variations in the opioid receptor mu 1 on alcohol and tobacco consumption in a Spanish population. 763 unrelated individuals (465 women, 298 men aged 18-85 years were recruited between October 2011 and April 2012. Participants were requested to answer a 35-item questionnaire on tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as to complete the AUDIT and Fagerström tests. Individuals were genotyped for three polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1 gene, using a TaqMan® protocol. In males, the rs10485057 polymorphism was associated with total pure ethanol intake and with the risk of being an alcohol consumer. Also, this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher Fagerström scores. Rs1799971 had a different influence on adaptive and maladaptive patterns of alcohol use. Despite the limited sample size, our study might enrich current knowledge on patterns of alcohol use, because it encompasses both extreme and adaptive phenotypes, providing thus a wider perspective on this subject.
Damian, April Joy; Mendelson, Tamar
Alcohol use is a pervasive and costly public health problem in the United States. Relapse rates from alcohol use disorders are high. Although exercise has been proposed as a strategy to prevent relapse, lifestyle modification is the least studied aspect of relapse prevention programs, especially among racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study assessed whether being physically active was associated with remission from alcohol abuse or dependence among Black (African American and Afro Caribbean) adults in the U.S. We utilized data on Black adult participants (n = 4,828) from the nationally representative National Survey of American Life (NSAL) conducted in 2001-2003. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the odds of being in 12-month remission or currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence based on level of physical activity, adjusting for socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics. People who endorsed being physically active had higher odds of being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.17) than people who were physically inactive, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics. People who were physically active did not differ significantly from those who were inactive with respect to odds of currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Conclusions/Importance: Physical activity was positively associated with being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal ordering and to explore exercise as a potential relapse prevention strategy for alcohol use problems.
Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane
The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Wang, Kesheng; Liu, Ying; Ouedraogo, Youssoufou; Wang, Nianyang; Xie, Xin; Xu, Chun; Luo, Xingguang
Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old are comorbid and correlated. This study included 6239 adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) in the past year and 72,010 controls from the combined data of 2013 and 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). To deal with multicollinearity existing among 17 variables related to early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to infer PC scores and then use weighted multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations of potential factors and PC scores with MDD. The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The overall prevalence of MDD was 6.7%. The first four PCs could explain 57% of the total variance. Weighted multiple logistic regression showed that PC 1 (a measure of psychotherapeutic drugs and illicit drugs other than marijuana use), PC 2 (a measure of cocaine and hallucinogens), PC 3 (a measure of early alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana use), and PC 4 (a measure of cigar, smokeless tobacco use and illicit drugs use) revealed significant associations with MDD (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.08-1.16, OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.04-1.12, OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.18, and OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.21, respectively). In conclusion, PCA can be used to reduce the indicators in complex survey data. Early alcohol, tobacco and drug use prior to 18 years old were found to be associated with increased odds of adult MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...
Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D
Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Bray, I; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P
Central European mortality rates for cancer sites related to tobacco and alcohol have increased rapidly in recent decades. From a public health point of view, it is of considerable interest to know whether these past increases in cancer mortality will continue into the future. Cancer mortality rates for the period 1965-1994 in Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Slovakia (analysed together), Hungary, Poland, and Romania were analysed for cancers of the larynx, oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, bladder, kidney, and pancreas. Using a Bayesian age-period-cohort approach, we have calculated smoothed observed rates. The effects of period and cohort were extrapolated to estimate mortality projections for 1995-99, 2004-09, and 2005-09. Mortality rates for all sites are projected to increase in most countries. Hungary has the highest projected rates for most sites, and particularly rapid increases are expected for cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and of the larynx in Hungarian men. The smoothed 1990-94 male mortality rates for these two sites of 16. 32/100,000 and 8.70/100,000, respectively, are projected to reach 35. 17/100,000 for cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx and 14.12/100, 000 for cancer of the larynx by the period 2000-04. For kidney cancer, former Czechoslovakia has the highest observed and projected mortality rates. The smoothed 1990-94 rate of 8.37/100,000 is expected to increase 24% to 10.38/100,000 by 2000-04. Our results indicate that further increases may be expected on top of the already high cancer mortality levels in Central Europe. Policies to reduce alcohol consumption and prevent smoking in younger generations are necessary to reduce mortality as these cohorts age. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.