WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse screening tools

  1. Screening tools for identification of elder abuse: a systematic review.

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    Gallione, Chiara; Dal Molin, Alberto; Cristina, Fabio V B; Ferns, Hilary; Mattioli, Mark; Suardi, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    To review the efficacy and accuracy of tools administered to older people, intended to detect and measure elder abuse. The mistreatment of older people represents a widespread problem, with exponential growth risk, especially considering the progressive ageing of the world population. It could have serious consequences for the victim's health if not recognised early, denounced and stopped. Abuse is often undetected by service providers because there is a lack of awareness surrounding the magnitude of the problem. Education and formal training in the signs of abuse are also generally poorly developed, as are reporting procedures which would lead to further investigation. Systematic review. Comprehensive database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE and Scopus were undertaken. Screening of 695 articles resulted in 11 included. Appraisal and analysis using PRISMA Statement and STROBE checklist were undertaken. Eleven screening tools have been presented: H-S/EAST, VASS, EASI, CASE, BASE, E-IOA, EAI, EPAS, CPEABS, OAPAM and OAFEM, all aimed at healthcare professional or, in some cases, expected to be specifically used by nurses. The fundamental function of any assessment instrument is to guide through a standardised screening process and to ensure that signs of abuse are not missed. Several tools have been tested; some have demonstrated a moderate to good internal consistency and some have been validated to allow an early identification. None have been evaluated against measurable violence or health outcomes. Nurses and all healthcare providers should screen patients routinely. However, we are not able to recommend a single tool as the selection and implementation has to be appropriate to the setting. Furthermore, the study population and the possibility of using multiple tools in combination should be taken into consideration, to assess all the aspects of violence. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A national survey on the use of screening tools to detect physical child abuse.

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    Crichton, Kristin Garton; Cooper, Jennifer N; Minneci, Peter C; Groner, Jonathan I; Thackeray, Jonathan D; Deans, Katherine J

    2016-08-01

    Recognition of physical child abuse is imperative for ensuring children's safety. Screening tools (ST) may increase identification of physical abuse; however, the extent of their use is unknown. This study assessed use of STs for physical abuse in children's hospitals and determined attitudes regarding STs. A web-based survey was sent to child abuse program contacts at 103 children's hospitals. The survey assessed institutional use of a ST for physical abuse and characteristics of the ST used. Respondents were asked to identify benefits and liabilities of STs used or barriers to ST use. Seventy-two respondents (70 %) completed the survey; most (64 %) were child abuse pediatricians. Nine (13 %) respondents reported using a ST for physical abuse; STs varied in length, population, administration, and outcomes of a positive screen. Most respondents (86 %) using a ST felt that it increased detection of abuse. Barriers noted included lack of time for development and provider completion of a ST. While few respondents endorsed use of a ST for physical abuse, most believed that it increased detection of abuse. Future research should focus on development of a brief, uniform ST for physical abuse which may increase detection in at-risk children.

  3. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

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    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  4. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

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    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Semantic validation of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST in Brazilian Portuguese

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    Ana Ligia da Silva Silveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect (ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools (ICAST is a battery of questionnaires created by the World Health Organization, the United Nations and ISPCAN for researching maltreatment in childhood. This study aims to translate, to adapt and to validate the semantic equivalence of all items on the three questionnaires: ICAST-C (ICAST version for Children, ICAST-R (Retrospective Interview and ICAST-P (ICAST version for Parents. Methods: The process of translation and semantic validation comprised five methodological steps: 1 translation; 2 back-translation; 3 correction and semantic adaptation; 4 validation of content by professional experts in the area of abuse in childhood; and 5 a study of their acceptability to a sample of the target population, using a verbal rating scale. Results: In the evaluation of the expert committee, there was need to adapt several words for the Brazilian population while maintaining semantic and conceptual equivalence. In the ICAST-C acceptability study, children exhibited some difficulty understanding 7 of the items (out of 69 questions. For ICAST-P, parents reported a lack of clarity in 5 items (out of 57 questions. These issues were resolved and the Brazilian version of ICAST 3.0 was concluded. Conclusion: The ICAST battery is an internationally recognized tool and the process of translation into Portuguese and semantic adaptation was performed successfully. The final version proved to be easily understandable and semantic validation results were adequate. This battery has proved useful in investigation of childhood maltreatment.

  6. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

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    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  7. Introduction to the Development of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tools

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    Runyan, Desmond K.; Dunne, Michael P.; Zolotor, Adam J.

    2009-01-01

    The "World Report on Children and Violence", (Pinheiro, 2006) was produced at the request of the UN Secretary General and the UN General Assembly. This report recommended improvement in research on child abuse. ISPCAN representatives took this charge and developed 3 new instruments. We describe this background and introduce three new measures…

  8. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

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    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia.

  9. A comparison of an opioid abuse screening tool and prescription drug monitoring data in the emergency department.

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    Weiner, Scott G; Horton, Laura C; Green, Traci C; Butler, Stephen F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to: (a) determine the percentage of ED patients receiving prescriptions for opioid pain medications that meet the criteria for "high-risk for abuse potential" on the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP(®)-R), (b) determine the percentage of patients with high-risk behavior on the state prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP) database, (c) compare the SOAPP-R with data from the PDMP, and (d) determine psychometric properties of SOAPP-R for ED patients Convenience sample of ED patients who were being considered for discharge with a prescription for an opioid pain medication. Subjects completed SOAPP-R on an electronic tablet and PDMP data was obtained. Scores on SOAPP-R ≥ 18 were defined as "at-risk", and PDMP data showing both ≥ 4 opioid prescriptions and ≥ 4 providers in 12 months was considered the criterion standard for high-risk behavior. 82 patients (88.2%) provided consent. 32.9% (n=27) were determined to be "at-risk" (score ≥ 18) by SOAPP-R. 15.9% (n=13) subjects met PDMP criteria and 53.9% (n=7) of those had SOAPP-R scores ≥ 18 (sensitivity 54%, specificity 71%, positive predictive value 26%, negative predictive value 89%). The association of an at-risk SOAPP-R score and PDMP high-risk criteria was an adjusted odds ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval 0.73-3.68). In our population, about one-third of patients being considered for discharge with an opioid prescription scored "at-risk" on SOAPP-R and 15.9% met the PDMP high-risk criteria. The high negative predictive value of SOAPP-R indicates it may be a useful screening tool for the ED patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance Abuse Screening

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    ... Alcohol Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test, © 1997 World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence All rights are reserved by the World Health Organization. The document may, however, be freely reviewed, abstracted, ...

  11. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

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    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  12. Validación de la versión corta del Woman Abuse Screening Tool para su uso en atención primaria en España Validation of the short version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool for use in primary care in Spain

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    Juncal Plazaola-Castaño

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Examinar la validez de criterio de la versión corta en español del Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST para identificar a las mujeres maltratadas entre las que acuden a los servicios de atención primaria en España. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal en dos centros de atención primaria de Granada. Se estudiaron 390 mujeres entre 18 y 70 años de edad asistentes a estos centros. Se utilizó el Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA como patrón de referencia. Resultados: Se utilizaron dos criterios de puntuación. Según el primero, cabe destacar que 132 mujeres (33,8% dieron positivo en el cribado. La sensibilidad fue del 91,4%, la especificidad del 76,2%, el valor predictivo positivo del 40,2% y el negativo del 98,1%. Cinco mujeres con una puntuación negativa en el cribado obtuvieron una puntuación positiva en el ISA (falsos negativos. Setenta y nueve mujeres obtuvieron una puntuación positiva en el WAST, con una puntuación negativa en el ISA (falsos positivos. Conclusiones: Estos resultados coinciden con los valores de sensibilidad y especificidad obtenidos en la validación del instrumento en mujeres hispanohablantes de Estados Unidos, que también recomiendan la utilización del primer criterio de puntuación. La versión corta en español del WAST es un instrumento adecuado para los profesionales en la detección temprana de la violencia de género en el ámbito sanitario español, aunque la baja especificidad hace que deba utilizarse con cautela.Objective: To examine the criterion validity of the Spanish short version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST to identify battered women among those attending primary health care services in Spain. Material and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in two primary care centers in Granada. A total of 390 women between 18 and 70 years old were studied. The Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA was used as the gold standard. Results: Two score criteria were used. Using the first criterion

  13. Substance Abuse Screening and Treatment.

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    Tenegra, Johnny C; Leebold, Bobby

    2016-06-01

    One of the more prevalent and often undiagnosed problems seen by primary care clinicians is substance misuse. Resulting in increased morbidity and mortality, loss of productivity, and increased health care costs, substance misuse in our society remains a significant public health issue. Primary care physicians are on the front lines of medical care, and as such, are in a distinctive position to recognize potential problems in this area and assist. This article outlines office-based screening approaches and strategies for managing and treating this complex issue confronting primary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Equivalência semântica da versão em português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen para rastrear a violência contra a mulher grávida Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen tool used for the screening of violence against pregnant women

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    Michael E Reichenheim

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Programas de investigação epidemiológica e de ação no âmbito da violência familiar estão em franca ascensão, requerendo instrumentos de aferição adaptados e vertidos para o português. O objetivo do estudo é avaliar a equivalência semântica entre o original em inglês e duas versões para o português do instrumento Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS usado no rastreamento de casos de violência contra a mulher grávida e recomendar uma versão-síntese para uso corrente. MÉTODOS: O processo de avaliação de equivalência semântica envolveu quatro etapas: tradução, retradução, apreciação formal de equivalência e crítica final através de consultas com especialista na área temática. RESULTADOS: Para cada item do instrumento apresentam-se os resultados relativos às quatro etapas. O texto cobre cada passo do processo que levou à versão final. As duas versões mostraram-se bastante semelhantes, com 14 das 15 assertivas similares, embora a segunda versão tenha se mostrado mais adequada, ainda que para alguns itens tenha sido decidido juntar as duas versões ou mesmo utilizar um item oriundo da versão um. CONCLUSÃO: É importante usar mais de uma versão no processo, em várias etapas de avaliação e de crítica, e discutir a pertinência de se acrescentar uma etapa adicional de interlocução do instrumento com membros da população-alvo.INTRODUCTION: Research programs and actions regarding family violence have been growing steadily. Therefore, there's a need to develop data collection tools. In Brazil, further problems come up since tools that have been developed elsewhere need to be adapted and translated. This study focuses on the Abuse Assessment Screening (AAS used to detect violence against pregnant women. The objective is to evaluate the semantic equivalence between the original tool in English and two Portuguese versions, and propose a synthetic version to be used in the field. METHODS: The evaluation

  15. Screening for abuse and neglect of people with dementia.

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    Wiglesworth, Aileen; Mosqueda, Laura; Mulnard, Ruth; Liao, Solomon; Gibbs, Lisa; Fitzgerald, William

    2010-03-01

    To investigate characteristics of people with dementia and their caregivers (CGs) that are associated with mistreatment in order to inform clinicians about screening for mistreatment. A convenience sample of CG-care recipient (CR) dyads were assessed for literature-supported factors associated with mistreatment, and evidence of mistreatment for the prior year was collected. An expert panel considered the evidence and decided on occurrences of psychological abuse, physical abuse, and neglect based on criteria adopted before data collection. Participants' homes. One hundred twenty-nine persons with dementia and their CGs. CG and CR characteristics (demographic, health, and psychosocial variables), relationship characteristics, and three elder abuse and neglect detection instruments. Mistreatment was detected in 47.3%. Variables associated with different kinds and combinations of mistreatment types included the CG's anxiety, depressive symptoms, social contacts, perceived burden, emotional status, and role limitations due to emotional problems and the CR's psychological aggression and physical assault behaviors. The combination of CR's physical assault and psychological aggression provided the best sensitivity (75.4%) and specificity (70.6%) for elder mistreatment as defined by the expert panel. This finding has potential to be useful as a clinical screen for detecting mistreatment. The findings suggest important characteristics of older adults with dementia and their CGs that have potential for use in a clinical screening tool for elder mistreatment. Potential screening questions to be asked of CGs of people with dementia are suggested.

  16. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

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    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  17. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults

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    Raquel Batista Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. METHODS The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20. RESULTS The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94–73.17, with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82–83.03. When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3 or absence (score < 3 of vulnerability to abuse, with clinical and health conditions, we found statistically significant differences for self-perception of health (p = 0.002, depressive symptoms (p = 0.000, and presence of rheumatism (p = 0.003. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes. The Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale acceptably evaluated validity in the transcultural adaptation process, demonstrating dimensionality coherent with the original proposal (four factors. In the internal consistency analysis, the instrument presented good results (KR-20 = 0.69 and the reliability via reproducibility was considered excellent for the global scale (Kp = 0

  18. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

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    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  19. The use of SBIRT in substance abuse screening.

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    Ladegast, Sherrie

    2016-10-20

    There are many barriers to screening for alcohol and drug abuse. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) principles can be used in identifying and helping patients with substance abuse problems. This article introduces SBIRT, discusses barriers to implementation, and reviews current practice recommendations.

  20. Accuracy of a screening instrument to identify potential child abuse in emergency departments.

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    Louwers, Eveline C F M; Korfage, Ida J; Affourtit, Marjo J; Ruige, Madelon; van den Elzen, Annette P M; de Koning, Harry J; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2014-07-01

    Although screening for child abuse at emergency departments (EDs) increases the detection rate of potential child abuse, an accurate instrument is lacking. This study was designed to measure the accuracy of a screening instrument for detection of potential child abuse used in EDs. In a prospective cohort study at three Dutch EDs, a 6-item screening instrument for child abuse, Escape, was completed for each child visiting the ED. The data from the completed Escape instrument was used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, and the positive/negative predictive value per item. The clinical notes and conclusions of the screen instruments of all potentially abused children reported to the hospitals' Child Abuse Teams were collected and reviewed by an expert panel. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the predictors of potential abuse. Completed Escape instruments were available for 18,275 ED visits. Forty-four of the 420 children with a positive screening result, and 11 of the 17,855 children with a negative result were identified as potentially abused. Sensitivity of the Escape instrument was 0.80 and specificity was 0.98. Univariate logistic regression showed that potentially abused children were significantly more likely to have had an aberrant answer to at least one of the items, OR=189.8, 95% CI [97.3, 370.4]. Most of the children at high risk for child abuse were detected through screening. The Escape instrument is a useful tool for ED staff to support the identification of those at high risk for child abuse. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening Tools for Kindergarten Children

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    Georgia Kokkalia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper review gives a brief and representative description of some of the most used screening tools for kindergarten education. The significant role that early education plays in every child’s academic life is underlined by the importance of tools that give his learning profiles.  Therefore many researchers note that screening tools paly a notable role for the kindergarten teachers, the family and of course for the child in order to offer the appropriate intervention program, the proper support and draw the most suitable teaching method for the child and the class. Thus, the research team of this paper gives the description of some screening tools that are used by kindergarten teachers and specialist’s worldwide-with focus in Greek kindergarten- scoping to underlie strengths and weaknesses of preschoolers. Finally, it is thought worthwhile to say that the screening tools that are presented are used with the traditional way while some of them with the support of new technology.

  2. Antibiotic-use screening evaluations (ABUSE) for physicians and patients: featuring prizes and penalties for physicians.

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    Lettau, L A

    2000-12-01

    The excessive use of antibiotics in the United States has been well documented and is a result of the knowledge base and behaviors of not only prescribing physicians but also patients and caregivers. An antibiotic-use screening evaluation (ABUSE) was developed for each group to promote better awareness among all parties as to ways that they may be overusing antibiotics. The ABUSE questionnaires also serve as tools for confidential self-scoring evaluation of the extent of personal antibiotic misuse

  3. Environmental impact assessment screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    An environmental assessment and impact planning software, SCREENER, was tested at a pilot project at the Cameco site (Port Hope). SCREENER was used to screen the impacts of a new construction project in accordance with the process and reporting requirements laid out in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The software test concentrated on the activities that are directly involved with the structure construction and site preparation activities. In addition, a two and one half day training course was given to three AECB staff using the test case as a hands on example. The conclusion of this project is that an automated tool such as SCREENER (or Calyx, the new generation of environmental assessment tools from ESSA Software Ltd.), will help the AECB to standardize the approach to environmental assessment, assist in project planning, and save resources in the screening process. The new approach could allow to allocate AECB limited resources to the detailed assessments required for maximum impact activities

  4. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

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    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  5. Psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale for screening abuse of older adults.

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    Dantas, Raquel Batista; Oliveira, Graziella Lage; Silveira, Andréa Maria

    2017-04-10

    Adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale to identify risk of domestic violence against older adults in Brazil. The instrument was adapted and validated in a sample of 151 older adults from a geriatric reference center in the municipality of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, in 2014. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, and abuse-related information, and verified reliability by reproducibility in a sample of 55 older people, who underwent re-testing of the instrument seven days after the first application. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed for all variables, with a significance level of 5%. The construct validity was analyzed by the principal components method with a tetrachoric correlation matrix, the reliability of the scale by the weighted Kappa (Kp) statistic, and the internal consistency by the Kuder-Richardson estimator formula 20 (KR-20). The average age of the participants was 72.1 years (DP = 6.96; 95%CI 70.94-73.17), with a maximum of 92 years, and they were predominantly female (76.2%; 95%CI 69.82-83.03). When analyzing the relationship between the scores of the Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale, categorized by presence (score > 3) or absence (score Escala Triagem de Vulnerabilidade ao Abuso (Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale - VASS) para identificar risco de violência doméstica contra idosos no Brasil. O instrumento foi adaptado e validado em uma amostra de 151 idosos de um centro de referência do idoso, do município de Belo Horizonte, MG, em 2014. Foram coletadas informações sociodemográficas, clínicas e relacionadas a abusos. A confiabilidade via reprodutibilidade foi verificada em uma amostra de 55 idosos, submetidos ao reteste do instrumento sete dias após a primeira aplicação. Foram realizadas análises descritivas e comparativas para todas as variáveis, com nível de significância de 5%. A validade de construto foi analisada pelo método de

  6. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  7. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpanah, Hossein; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracy is of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrument in triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED). Method: The present diagnostic accuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years, using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a social worker, and a forensic physician) was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculated using STATA 21. Results: 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 ± 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls). 137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5%) children were confirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 – 100), 98.3 (97.9 – 98.6), 25.5 (18.6 – 33.8), 100 (99.9 – 100), 0.34 (0.25 – 0.46), and 0 (0 – NAN), respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 – 99.4). Conclusion: It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which is in the excellent range. PMID:28286815

  8. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinpanah, Hossein; Akbarzadeh Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracy is of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrument in triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED). The present diagnostic accuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years, using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a social worker, and a forensic physician) was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculated using STATA 21. 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 ± 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls). 137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5%) children were confirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive and negative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 - 100), 98.3 (97.9 - 98.6), 25.5 (18.6 - 33.8), 100 (99.9 - 100), 0.34 (0.25 - 0.46), and 0 (0 - NAN), respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 - 99.4). It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which is in the excellent range.

  9. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  10. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernoff Miriam

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374. Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment

  11. Potential Child Abuse Screening in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dinpanah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing a tool that can differentiate those at risk of child abuse with great diagnostic accuracyis of great interest. The present study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of Escape instrumentin triage of at risk cases of child abuse presenting to emergency department (ED. Methods: The present diagnosticaccuracy study performed on 6120 of the children under 16 years old presented to ED during 3 years,using convenience sampling. Confirmation by the child abuse team (pediatrician, a socialworker, and a forensicphysician was considered as the gold standard. Screening performance characteristics of Escape were calculatedusing STATA 21. Results: 6120 children with the mean age of 2.19 § 1.12 years were screened (52.7% girls.137 children were suspected victims of child abuse. Based on child abuse team opinion, 35 (0.5% children wereconfirmed victims of child abuse. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio and positive andnegative predictive values of this test with 95% CI were 100 (87.6 – 100, 98.3 (97.9 – 98.6, 25.5 (18.6 – 33.8, 100(99.9 – 100, 0.34 (0.25 – 0.46, and 0 (0 – NAN, respectively. Area under the ROC curve was 99.2 (98.9 – 99.4.Conclusion: It seems that Escape is a suitable screening instrument for detection of at risk cases of child abusepresenting to ED. Based on the results of the present study, the accuracy of this screening tool is 99.2%, which isin the excellent range.

  12. Validation of the Italian Version of the Caregiver Abuse Screen among Family Caregivers of Older People with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Di Rosa, Mirko; Barbabella, Francesco; Barbini, Norma; Lattanzio, Fabrizia; Chiatti, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . Elder abuse is often a hidden phenomenon and, in many cases, screening practices are difficult to implement among older people with dementia. The Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) is a useful tool which is administered to family caregivers for detecting their potential abusive behavior. Objectives . To validate the Italian version of the CASE tool in the context of family caregiving of older people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify risk factors for elder abuse in Italy. Methods . The CASE test was administered to 438 caregivers, recruited in the Up-Tech study. Validity and reliability were evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficients, principal-component analysis, and Cronbach's alphas. The association between the CASE and other variables potentially associated with elder abuse was also analyzed. Results . The factor analysis suggested the presence of a single factor, with a strong internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86). CASE score was strongly correlated with well-known risk factors of abuse. At multivariate level, main factors associated with CASE total score were caregiver burden and AD-related behavioral disturbances. Conclusions . The Italian version of the CASE is a reliable and consistent screening tool for tackling the risk of being or becoming perpetrators of abuse by family caregivers of people with AD.

  13. Child Abuse: The Value of Systematic Screening at Emergency Rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sittig, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    There is no conclusive evidence that diagnostic tools detect physical child abuse among children coming to emergency rooms (ERs), but his evidence is urgently needed because both false-positive and false-negative diagnoses have serious adverse effects. This thesis describes several aspects of the

  14. Semiautomated radioimmunoassay for mass screening of drugs of abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowski, T.S.; Lathrop, G.D.; Merritt, J.H.; Landez, J.H.; Noe, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid, semiautomated radioimmunoassay system for detection of morphine, barbiturates, and amphetamines is described. The assays are applicable to large drug abuse screening programs. The heart of the system is the automatic pipetting station which can accomplish 600 pipetting operations per hour. The method uses 15 to 30 μl for the amphetamine and combined morphine/barbiturate assays. A number of other drugs were tested for interference with the assays and the results are discussed

  15. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    determine the operating characteristics of a two-question screening tool for intimate partner violence (Women Abuse Screening. Tool–short); and (2) to estimate .... episodes of emotional, physical and sexual violence. A Likert- type scale ..... there is discordancy in the couple's level of education.29 A curvilinear relationship ...

  16. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs. PMID:23092228

  17. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzeo, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one

  18. Drug abuse in the workplace: employee screening techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzzeo, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Recent studies show that as many as three to five percent of the employees of a medium- to large-sized plant may be dependent on drugs as a way of life. The detrimental effects of drug abuse in the workplace can be measured in lost productivity, poor quality control and other areas at an annual cost to the American economy of $30 billion. However, a price tag cannot be attached to the lives affected by this unrelenting problem. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the employee screening and hiring techniques available to industry to detect and eliminate potentially dangerous or fatal situations involving drug abuse in the workplace. The techniques are universal and can be effectively applied by the nuclear industry as well as other businesses to ensure that its work force is a reputable and reliable one.

  19. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 and Stages of Change: A Screening Validity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, John M.; Piazza, Nick J.; Salyers, Kathleen; Roseman, Christopher P.

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 (SASSI-3) was examined among substance-dependent adults enrolled in a family drug court. The SASSI-3 had a high sensitivity rate with this population, even across varying levels of motivation to change. (Contains 2 tables.)

  20. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pincock, Layne [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  1. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  2. Underestimation of substance abuse in psychiatric patients by conventional hospital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Lisa J; Junquera, Patricia; Van Dijck, Karolien; Steele, Bernard W; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis mainly relies on behavioral signs and symptoms. Substance abuse can mimic the clinical presentation of primary psychiatric disorders and can also complicate the management of psychiatric patients. The reliability and accuracy of urine toxicology is a vital tool in the optimal treatment of these patients. Current demographics of substance abuse suggest that in addition to the most conventional drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine, cannabis) that are of concern to treating physicians, prescription medications and new designer drugs also should be when evaluating patients who present with symptoms of psychosis/drug addiction or altered mental status. Urine samples from 220 psychiatric inpatients admitted to either an acute drug and alcohol unit or acute psychiatric unit were analyzed for drugs by the standard hospital assay (KIMS) and by a more sensitive ELISA and GC-MS basic drug screening protocol. The standard hospital toxicology (KIMS) was inferior to the ELISA and GC-MS methods in terms of both assay sensitivity and in detecting a broader number of drugs. The KIMS tests failed to identify opiates and amphetamine/methamphetamine in 50% of the patients. The KIMS screen did not identify zolpidem, buprenorphine and a number of synthetic drugs of abuse including cathinone and tryptamines. In order to reliably identify substance abuse in patients with altered mental status in inpatient settings, analytical methodologies with adequate assay sensitivity and range to detect the vast majority of commonly abused illicit drugs and prescription medications are required for optimal clinical assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic screening of child abuse in out-of-hours primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, MCM

    2017-01-01

    Child abuse is a serious global health problem. This thesis focused on – improving – the detection of child abuse in the out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC). The main aim was to assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 for child abuse. We found that the detection rate of

  4. Effects of Systematic Screening and Detection of Child Abuse in Emergency Departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Eveline C. F. M.; Korfage, Ida J.; Affourtit, Marjo J.; Scheewe, Dop J. H.; van de Merwe, Marjolijn H.; Vooijs-Moulaert, Anne-Françoise S. R.; van den Elzen, Annette P. M.; Jongejan, Mieke H. T. M.; Ruige, Madelon; Manaï, Badies H. A. N.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Bosschaart, Adriaan N.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although systematic screening for child abuse of children presenting at emergency departments might increase the detection rate, studies to support this are scarce. This study investigates whether introducing screening, and training of emergency department nurses, increases the detection

  5. Validation of a Prediction Tool for Abusive Head Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Laura Elizabeth; Morris, Charlotte Bethan; Maguire, Sabine Ann; Farewell, Daniel Mark; Kemp, Alison Mary

    2015-08-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) may be missed in the clinical setting. Clinical prediction tools are used to reduce variability in practice and inform decision-making. From a systematic review and individual patient data analysis we derived the Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool, using multilevel logistic regression to predict likelihood of AHT. This study aims to externally validate the PredAHT tool. Consecutive children aged head or neck bruising). We estimated the likelihood of an unrecorded feature being present with multiple imputation; analysis included sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data included 133 non-AHT cases and 65 AHT cases, 97% of children were 81.5% (95% CI, 63.3-91.8). The sensitivity of the tool was 72.3% (95% CI, 60.4-81.7), the specificity was 85.7% (95% CI, 78.8-90.7), area under the curve 0.88 (95% CI, 0.823-0.926). When tested on novel data, the PredAHT tool performed well. This tool has the potential to contribute to decision-making in these challenging cases. An implementation study is needed to explore its performance and utility within the child protection process. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louwers Eveline CFM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members. The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs.

  7. A screening tool for predicting gatekeeping behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny

    2017-10-01

    To develop a typology and screening tool for gatekeeping behaviours by nurses responsible for recruitment in palliative care research. Concurrent analysis. Two focus groups were conducted in 2015 with nine qualified hospice community nurses involved in recruitment to a trial in palliative care. The literature was searched for research into gatekeeping from 2000-2016. All narrative examples of gatekeeping activity were coded using gerunds. Common codes were then grouped and interpreted as a social process. Gatekeeping is normal and should be expected. A continuum typology emerged, ranging from unintentional to active disengagement. Justification ranged from forgetting to deliberately not mentioning the study for fear of burdening patients. Viewing gatekeeping as a continuum allowed for the creation of a screening tool designed to collaboratively discuss and hence mitigate specific types of gatekeeping behaviour before they occur. This is a unique international contribution to this persistent issue.

  8. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Louwers, Eveline (Eefje)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractChild abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in childhood is enormously reduced over the past decades, unfortunately this has not been the case for the staggering statistics surrounding child abuse.2 Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotion...

  9. Designing a Pediatric Severe Sepsis Screening Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eSepanski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We sought to create a screening tool with improved predictive value for pediatric severe sepsis and septic shock that can be incorporated into the electronic medical record and actively screen all patients arriving at a pediatric Emergency Department (ED. Gold standard severe sepsis cases were identified using a combination of coded discharge diagnosis and physician chart review from 7,402 children who visited a pediatric ED over two months. The tool’s identification of severe sepsis was initially based on International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis (ICCPS parameters that were refined by an iterative, virtual process that allowed us to propose successive changes in sepsis detection parameters in order to optimize the tool’s predictive value based on receiver operating curve (ROC characteristics. Age-specific normal and abnormal values for heart rate (HR and respiratory rate (RR were empirically derived from 143,603 children seen in a second pediatric ED over three years. Univariate analyses were performed for each measure in the tool to assess its association with severe sepsis and to characterize it as an early or late indicator of severe sepsis. A split-sample was used to validate the final, optimized tool. The final tool incorporated age-specific thresholds for abnormal HR and RR and employed a linear temperature correction for each category. The final tool’s positive predictive value was 48.7%, a significant, nearly three-fold improvement over the original ICCPS tool. False positive Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS identifications were nearly six-fold lower.

  10. Systematic screening for child abuse at emergency departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.F.M. Louwers (Eveline (Eefje))

    2013-01-01

    textabstractChild abuse is a serious problem and has serious consequences for the victim, his or her environment and for society itself. It has been estimated that one in every 30 Dutch children is exposed to child abuse.1 While preventable morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases in

  11. Empirical validation of the CRAFFT Abuse Screening Test in a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Antonio; Kim-Harris, Sion; Knight, John R; Araujo, Manuel; Gómez, Patricia; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Golpe, Sandra

    2018-01-15

    The CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Instrument, developed by the Center for Adolescents Substance Abuse Research (CeASAR) (Knight et al., 1999), is a screening tool for high-risk alcohol and drug risk consumption designed for use with adolescents. Since its publication it has been the subject of translations and validations in different countries, populations and contexts that have demonstrated its enormous potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain. The aim of this paper is to develop an adapted version of the CRAFFT in Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. For this purpose an individual interview was conducted on 312 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 15.01; SD = 1.83) from the Galician community. The interview included a part of the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (ADI) and the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT). The results obtained, similar to those found in other countries, allow us to report that the Spanish version of the CRAFFT has a good psychometric behaviorproperties. It was found to have a satisfactory internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha value of .74. In terms of sensitivity and specificity, values of 74.4% and 96.4% respectively, were obtained and the area under the ROC curve was .946. The Spanish version of the CRAFFT is made available to researchers and professionals in the field of addictive behaviors, so that it can be used with the necessary psychometric guarantees.

  12. The Value of a Checklist for Child Abuse in Out-of-Hours Primary Care: To Screen or Not to Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Maartje Cm; van Stel, Henk F; Verheij, Theo Jm; Houben, Michiel L; Russel, Ingrid Mb; Nieuwenhuis, Edward Es; van de Putte, Elise M

    2017-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 (checklist, 5 questions) for child abuse at Out-of-hours Primary Care locations (OPC), by comparing the test outcome with information from Child Protection Services (CPS). Secondary, to determine whether reducing the length of the checklist compromises diagnostic value. All children (abuse (32.8%). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the checklist for child abuse was 8.3 (95% CI 3.9-15.2). The negative predictive value (NPV) was 99.1 (98.8-99.3), with 52 false negatives. When the length of the checklist was reduced to two questions closely related to the medical process (SPUTOVAMO-R3), the PPV was 9.1 (3.7-17.8) and the NPV 99.1 (98.7-99.3). These two questions are on the injury in relation to the history, and the interaction between child and parents. The checklist SPUTOVAMO-R2 has a low detection rate of child abuse within the OPC setting, and a high false positive rate. Therefore, we recommend to use the shortened checklist only as a tool to increase the awareness of child abuse and not as a diagnostic instrument.

  13. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse among older adults using a modified version of the CAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, C H; Castellon, S A; Dickson-Fuhrman, E; Daum, G; Jaffe, J; Jarvik, L

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves of a modified version of the CAGE, a screening measure used in the detection of older alcohol- and drug-abusing individuals. In a retrospective review of clinical records of 976 patients screened by a geriatric substance abuse program, the authors examined patients' responses on a modified version of the CAGE that included queries regarding drug use. The CAGE was administered to individuals age 50 or over draw from three diagnostic groups: alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and normal controls. Analysis of variance and discriminant function analyses revealed that the modified CAGE was able to discriminate both alcohol and drug abusers from controls. Analyses examining test sensitivity, specificity, and ROC curves revealed the CAGE to demonstrate excellent sensitivity but poor specificity. Omitting the "cut down'' item from the CAGE significantly improved specificity with only a modest drop in sensitivity. Given the ease of administration and sensitivity to both alcohol and drug abuse, these data suggest that the modified CAGE is well suited as a screening instrument for geriatric drug and alcohol abuse.

  14. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  15. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction.

  16. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  17. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok; Fromkin, Janet; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth; Berger, Rachel P.

    2016-01-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  18. Development of a screening MRI for infants at risk for abusive head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flom, Lynda; Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fromkin, Janet [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Neurosurgery, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Berger, Rachel P. [University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); University of Pittsburgh, Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is an important cause of morbidity in infants. Identifying which well-appearing infants are at risk for AHT and need neuroimaging is challenging, and concern about radiation exposure limits the use of head CT. Availability of an MRI protocol that is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage would allow for AHT screening of well-appearing infants without exposing them to radiation. To develop a screening MRI protocol to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants at risk for AHT. Infants enrolled in a parent study of well-appearing infants at increased risk for AHT were eligible for the current study if they underwent both head CT and conventional brain MRI. A derivation cohort of nine infants with AHT was used to identify sequences that provided the highest sensitivity for intracranial hemorrhage. A validation cohort of 78 infants including both controls with normal neuroimaging and cases with AHT was used to evaluate the accuracy of the selected sequences. Three pulse sequences - axial T2, axial gradient recalled echo (GRE) and coronal T1-W inversion recovery - were 100% sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage in the derivation cohort. The same sequences were 100% sensitive (25/25) and 83% specific (44/53) for intracranial hemorrhage in the validation cohort. A screening MRI protocol including axial T2, axial GRE and coronal T1-W inversion recovery sequences is highly sensitive for intracranial hemorrhage and may be useful as a screening tool to differentiate well-appearing infants at risk for AHT who should undergo head CT from those who can safely be discharged without head CT. Additional research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of this approach in clinical practice. (orig.)

  19. Screening for drug and alcohol abuse in a general medical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, F S; Day, C M; Ungerleider, J T

    1979-08-10

    One hundred fifty consecutive, first-visit, general medical patients were simply and inexpensively screened by questionnaire, personal inquiry, and physical examination for drug and alcohol abuse. Seventeen (11.3%) currently used psychoactive drugs, excluding alcohol, and ten (6.7%) used drugs or alcohol on a daily basis to the point that the patient considered it an abuse problem. The majority of the drug and alcohol users recognized their problem on a short questionnaire that was part of a medical intake form. Almost all of the recognized abusers of drugs or alcohol subsequently entered treatment of their problem.

  20. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  1. Nutrition screening tools: Does one size fit all? A systematic review of screening tools for the hospital setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Guaitoli, P.R.; Jansma, E.P.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Numerous nutrition screening tools for the hospital setting have been developed. The aim of this systematic review is to study construct or criterion validity and predictive validity of nutrition screening tools for the general hospital setting. Methods: A systematic review of

  2. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij; Christophe Rochin; Nathalie Berne; Alessandro Sassi; Antoine Leplay

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure i...

  3. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.C.F.M. Louwers (Eveline (Eefje)); I.J. Korfage (Ida); M.J. Affourtit (Marjo); H.J. de Koning (Harry); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts.Methods: This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27

  4. The Value of a Checklist for Child Abuse in Out-of-Hours Primary Care: To Screen or Not to Screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Cm Schouten

    Full Text Available To assess the diagnostic value of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 (checklist, 5 questions for child abuse at Out-of-hours Primary Care locations (OPC, by comparing the test outcome with information from Child Protection Services (CPS. Secondary, to determine whether reducing the length of the checklist compromises diagnostic value.All children (<18 years attending one of the participating OPCs in the region of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in a year time, were included. The checklist is an obligatory field in the electronic patient file. CPS provided data on all checklist positives and a sample of 5500 checklist negatives (dataset. The checklist outcome was compared with a report to CPS in 10 months follow up after the OPC visit.The checklist was filled in for 50671 children; 108 (0.2% checklists were positive. Within the dataset, 61 children were reported to CPS, with emotional neglect as the most frequent type of abuse (32.8%. The positive predictive value (PPV of the checklist for child abuse was 8.3 (95% CI 3.9-15.2. The negative predictive value (NPV was 99.1 (98.8-99.3, with 52 false negatives. When the length of the checklist was reduced to two questions closely related to the medical process (SPUTOVAMO-R3, the PPV was 9.1 (3.7-17.8 and the NPV 99.1 (98.7-99.3. These two questions are on the injury in relation to the history, and the interaction between child and parents.The checklist SPUTOVAMO-R2 has a low detection rate of child abuse within the OPC setting, and a high false positive rate. Therefore, we recommend to use the shortened checklist only as a tool to increase the awareness of child abuse and not as a diagnostic instrument.

  5. Visual Impairment Screening Assessment (VISA) tool: pilot validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Hepworth, Lauren R; Hanna, Kerry L; Howard, Claire

    2018-03-06

    To report and evaluate a new Vision Impairment Screening Assessment (VISA) tool intended for use by the stroke team to improve identification of visual impairment in stroke survivors. Prospective case cohort comparative study. Stroke units at two secondary care hospitals and one tertiary centre. 116 stroke survivors were screened, 62 by naïve and 54 by non-naïve screeners. Both the VISA screening tool and the comprehensive specialist vision assessment measured case history, visual acuity, eye alignment, eye movements, visual field and visual inattention. Full completion of VISA tool and specialist vision assessment was achieved for 89 stroke survivors. Missing data for one or more sections typically related to patient's inability to complete the assessment. Sensitivity and specificity of the VISA screening tool were 90.24% and 85.29%, respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 93.67% and 78.36%, respectively. Overall agreement was significant; k=0.736. Lowest agreement was found for screening of eye movement and visual inattention deficits. This early validation of the VISA screening tool shows promise in improving detection accuracy for clinicians involved in stroke care who are not specialists in vision problems and lack formal eye training, with potential to lead to more prompt referral with fewer false positives and negatives. Pilot validation indicates acceptability of the VISA tool for screening of visual impairment in stroke survivors. Sensitivity and specificity were high indicating the potential accuracy of the VISA tool for screening purposes. Results of this study have guided the revision of the VISA screening tool ahead of full clinical validation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. A Screening Tool to Identify Spasticity in Need of Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorowitz, Richard D.; Wein, Theodore H.; Dunning, Kari; Deltombe, Thierry; Olver, John H.; Davé, Shashank J.; Dimyan, Michael A.; Kelemen, John; Pagan, Fernando L.; Evans, Christopher J.; Gillard, Patrick J.; Kissela, Brett M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To develop a clinically useful patient-reported screening tool for health care providers to identify patients with spasticity in need of treatment regardless of etiology. Design Eleven spasticity experts participated in a modified Delphi panel and reviewed and revised 2 iterations of a screening tool designed to identify spasticity symptoms and impact on daily function and sleep. Spasticity expert panelists evaluated items pooled from existing questionnaires to gain consensus on the screening tool content. The study also included cognitive interviews of 20 patients with varying spasticity etiologies to determine if the draft screening tool was understandable and relevant to patients with spasticity. Results The Delphi panel reached an initial consensus on 21 of 47 items for the screening tool and determined that the tool should have no more than 11 to 15 items and a 1-month recall period for symptom and impact items. After 2 rounds of review, 13 items were selected and modified by the expert panelists. Most patients (n = 16 [80%]) completed the cognitive interview and interpreted the items as intended. Conclusions Through the use of a Delphi panel and patient interviews, a 13-item spasticity screening tool was developed that will be practical and easy to use in routine clinical practice. PMID:27552355

  7. Screening for Partner Violence Among Family Mediation Clients: Differentiating Types of Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot J; Axelsen, Lauren; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    Family mediation is mandated in Australia for couples in dispute over separation and parenting as a first step in dispute resolution, except where there is a history of intimate partner violence. However, validation of effective well-differentiated partner violence screening instruments suitable for mediation settings is at an early phase of development. This study contributes to calls for better violence screening instruments in the mediation context to detect a differentiated range of abusive behaviors by examining the reliability and validity of both established scales, and newly developed scales that measured intimate partner violence by partner and by self. The study also aimed to examine relationships between types of abuse, and between gender and types of abuse. A third aim was to examine associations between types of abuse and other relationship indicators such as acrimony and parenting alliance. The data reported here are part of a larger mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal study of clients attending nine family mediation centers in Victoria, Australia. The current analyses on baseline cross-sectional screening data confirmed the reliability of three subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the reliability and validity of three new scales measuring intimidation, controlling and jealous behavior, and financial control. Most clients disclosed a history of at least one type of violence by partner: 95% reported psychological aggression, 72% controlling and jealous behavior, 50% financial control, and 35% physical assault. Higher rates of abuse perpetration were reported by partner versus by self, and gender differences were identified. There were strong associations between certain patterns of psychologically abusive behavior and both acrimony and parenting alliance. The implications for family mediation services and future research are discussed.

  8. Screening tools for postpartum depression: validity and cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to review the main postpartum screening tools currently used in terms of their ability to screen for postnatal depression. Furthermore, the cultural characteristics of depressive postpartum symptomatology are examined. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted for the period ...

  9. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  10. Climate project screening tool: an aid for climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni Lyn Morelli; Sharon Yeh; Nikola M. Smith; Mary Beth Hennessy; Constance I. Millar

    2012-01-01

    To address the impacts of climate change, land managers need techniques for incorporating adaptation into ongoing or impending projects. We present a new tool, the Climate Project Screening Tool (CPST), for integrating climate change considerations into project planning as well as for developing concrete adaptation options for land managers. We designed CPST as part of...

  11. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Current methods of detection of childhood hypertension are cumbersome and contribute to under‑diagnosis hence, the need to generate simpler diagnostic tools. The blood pressure to height ratio has recently been proposed as a novel screening tool for prehypertension and hypertension in some populations.

  12. Surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse in Hong Kong: validation of an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Tse, M L; Ng, Carol; Lee, Caroline; Chong, Y K; Wong, Watson; Mak, Tony W L

    2015-04-01

    To validate a locally developed chromatography-based method to monitor emerging drugs of abuse whilst performing regular drug testing in abusers. Cross-sectional study. Eleven regional hospitals, seven social service units, and a tertiary level clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. A total of 972 drug abusers and high-risk individuals were recruited from acute, rehabilitation, and high-risk settings between 1 November 2011 and 31 July 2013. A subset of the participants was of South Asian ethnicity. In total, 2000 urine or hair specimens were collected. Proof of concept that surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse can be performed whilst conducting routine drug of abuse testing in patients. The method was successfully applied to 2000 samples with three emerging drugs of abuse detected in five samples: PMMA (paramethoxymethamphetamine), TFMPP [1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine], and methcathinone. The method also detected conventional drugs of abuse, with codeine, methadone, heroin, methamphetamine, and ketamine being the most frequently detected drugs. Other findings included the observation that South Asians had significantly higher rates of using opiates such as heroin, methadone, and codeine; and that ketamine and cocaine had significantly higher detection rates in acute subjects compared with the rehabilitation population. This locally developed analytical method is a valid tool for simultaneous surveillance of emerging drugs of abuse and routine drug monitoring of patients at minimal additional cost and effort. Continued, proactive surveillance and early identification of emerging drugs will facilitate prompt clinical, social, and legislative management.

  13. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  14. Electronic health records: essential tools in integrating substance abuse treatment with primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Betty; Wu, Li-Tzy; Clark, H Westley

    2012-01-01

    While substance use problems are considered to be common in medical settings, they are not systematically assessed and diagnosed for treatment management. Research data suggest that the majority of individuals with a substance use disorder either do not use treatment or delay treatment-seeking for over a decade. The separation of substance abuse services from mainstream medical care and a lack of preventive services for substance abuse in primary care can contribute to under-detection of substance use problems. When fully enacted in 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act 2010 will address these barriers by supporting preventive services for substance abuse (screening, counseling) and integration of substance abuse care with primary care. One key factor that can help to achieve this goal is to incorporate the standardized screeners or common data elements for substance use and related disorders into the electronic health records (EHR) system in the health care setting. Incentives for care providers to adopt an EHR system for meaningful use are part of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act 2009. This commentary focuses on recent evidence about routine screening and intervention for alcohol/drug use and related disorders in primary care. Federal efforts in developing common data elements for use as screeners for substance use and related disorders are described. A pressing need for empirical data on screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for drug-related disorders to inform SBIRT and related EHR efforts is highlighted. PMID:24474861

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra J. Eszes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients’ satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants’ experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software. Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening.

  16. Thermography as a screening and diagnostic tool: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Anita; Berentson-Shaw, Jessica

    2012-03-09

    To determine the effectiveness of digital infrared thermography for the detection of breast cancer in a screening population, and as a diagnostic tool in women with suspected breast cancer. A comprehensive search of electronic databases together with a search of international websites was conducted. Diagnostic studies comparing thermography with mammography for screening in asymptomatic populations; or comparing thermography with histology in women with suspected breast cancer; were eligible for inclusion. Quality of included studies was appraised using the QUADAS criteria. One study reported results for thermography in screening population and five studies reported diagnostic accuracy of thermography in women with suspected breast cancer. Overall, studies were of average quality. Sensitivity for thermography as a screening tool was 25% (specificity 74%) compared to mammography. Sensitivity for thermography as a diagnostic tool ranged from 25% (specificity 85%) to 97% (specificity 12%) compared to histology. Currently there is not sufficient evidence to support the use of thermography in breast cancer screening, nor is there sufficient evidence to show that thermography provides benefit to patients as an adjunctive tool to mammography or to suspicious clinical findings in diagnosing breast cancer.

  17. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  18. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  19. Dietary screening tool identifies nutritional risk in older adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Mitchell, Diane C; Hartman, Terryl J; Lawrence, Frank R; Sempos, Christopher T; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes in older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk in community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional study in older adults (n = 204) who reside in rural areas examined nutrition status by using an in-person interview, biochemical measures, and four 24-h recalls that included the use of dietary supplements. Results: The dietary screening tool was able to characterize 3 levels of nutritional risk: at risk, possible risk, and not at risk. Individuals classified as at nutritional risk had significantly lower indicators of diet quality (Healthy Eating Index and Mean Adequacy Ratio) and intakes of protein, most micronutrients, dietary fiber, fruit, and vegetables. The at-risk group had higher intakes of fats and oils and refined grains. The at-risk group also had the lowest serum vitamin B-12, folate, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin concentrations. The not-at-nutritional-risk group had significantly higher lycopene and β-carotene and lower homocysteine and methylmalonic acid concentrations. Conclusion: The dietary screening tool is a simple and practical tool that can help to detect nutritional risk in older adults. PMID:19458013

  20. Blood pressure to height ratio as a screening tool for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-03

    Dec 3, 2015 ... diagnosis of pediatric high blood pressure have been proposed. The blood pressure height ratio (BPHR) was first proposed as a simple, accurate, and nonage dependent screening index for adolescent hypertension by Lu et al.[6] in. China. Subsequently, there have been efforts to validate this tool among ...

  1. Comorbidity of Drug Abuse in Adolescents: Screening for Depression, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Conduct Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Jazayeri

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen comorbidity with substance abuse in adolescents. Among different disorders, 3 disorders of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, conduct disorder, and depression were studied in a sample of Iranian adolescents.   Materials & Methods: A total of 33 substance abusers, 35 criminal substance abusers, 34 non-substance abusers were selected from Tehran correctional and rehabilitation center for adolescents and 33 normal subjects (girl and boy were studied from schools of Tehran south using Achenbach youth self-report questionnaire (YSR (Achenbach, 1991, demographic and history of drug abuse questionnaire (designed by researchers. Results: There was a significant different regarding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder between two groups of substance abuser and non-substance abuser, but the difference was not significant between boys and girls. Regarding conduct disorder, there was a significant difference between two sexes. In boys, there was a significant difference between substance abusers and normal groups. In depression disorder, the difference between two sexes was significant regarding boys differences were observed between three groups selected from correctional and rehabilitation center and normal group regarding girls, there was a significant difference between substance abusers with criminals and normal group. Conclusion: Apparently, these 3 disorders have shown significant difference between two sexes. ADHD pattern was the same in two sexes. There was a significant difference between two sexes with regard to depression and conduct disorder. In both sexes, ADHD was not correlated with substance abuse. The conduct disorder was not related to substance abuse in both sexes and depression disorder was only related to substance abuse in girls. Considering the youth self-report test (YSR, there is a special mental profile for substance abusers, which separates them from non-substance abusers.

  2. Clinical Screening Tools for Sarcopenia and Its Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon C. Y. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and function, is affecting the older population worldwide. Sarcopenia is associated with poor health outcomes, such as falls, disability, loss of independence, and mortality; however it is potentially treatable if recognized and intervened early. Over the last two decades, there has been significant expansion of research in this area. Currently there is international recognition of a need to identify the condition early for intervention and prevention of the disastrous consequences of sarcopenia if left untreated. There are currently various screening tools proposed. As yet, there is no consensus on the best tool. Effective interventions of sarcopenia include physical exercise and nutrition supplementation. This review paper examined the screening tools and interventions for sarcopenia.

  3. Drug Abuse Screening with Exhaled Breath and Oral Fluid in Adults with Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Michel; Ullah, Shahid; Franck, Johan; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Beck, Olof

    2018-03-25

    In the treatment of substance use disorder regular laboratory-based testing has the dual purpose of monitoring compliance to the prescribed medication and the abstention from medically non-motivated substances (i.e. drug abuse screening). The principal specimen for testing is urine, but collection of urine has some disadvantages, e.g. being more time-consuming and more intrusive compared to other matrices, and there is also the risk of adulteration. This project aims to compare exhaled breath and oral fluid as alternative matrices for drug abuse screening in patients with substance use disorder. All 51 subjects included in the study were enrolled at the Drug Addiction Emergency Unit in Stockholm. Exhaled breath, oral fluid and urine samples were collected together with a self-report. Out of all 117 self-reported drug intakes during the previous week 72% were confirmed in urine, 73 % in oral fluid and 39 % in exhaled breath. In 31% of the subjects, additional substances other than those self-reported were detected analytically. For the purpose of substance abuse screening urine had the highest detection rate for buprenorphine, cannabis and benzodiazepines, while oral fluid had the highest detection rate for amphetamines and methadone. Exhaled breath showed the highest detection rate of all matrices for cocaine. To identify significant differences in detection rates between the matrices future studies with larger sampling sizes are needed. Both OF and EB are viable alternative specimens to urine depending on the circumstances and purpose of the testing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Using the alcohol, smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) to determine substance abuse prevalence in the RI trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Ralph; Baird, Janette; He, Jun Kit; Adams, Charles; Mello, Michael

    2014-02-03

    Level I trauma centers are required to provide screening and brief interventions for alcohol abuse. The World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a validated screening measure for all substances of abuse. This study is the first to use the ASSIST to screen a trauma population. A cross-sectional screening study using the ASSIST was conducted which included all patients admitted to the trauma service at Rhode Island Hospital during July and August 2012 who met inclusion criteria. The ASSIST categorized 25% of participants as needing a brief intervention for alcohol and an additional 6.3% as needing more intensive treatment. At least a brief intervention was indicated for at least one other substance besides alcohol in 37% of participants. The ability of the ASSIST to identify misuse of multiple substances makes it a good candidate for the screening measure used by trauma centers.

  5. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  6. Adaptation, reliability, and validity study of the Hwalek-SengstockElder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST): a Turkish version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçakar, Nilgün; Toprak Ergönen, Akça; Kartal, Mehtap; Baydur, Hakan

    2017-12-19

    Background/aim: The most important issues in elder abuse and neglect are lack of awareness and difficulties in determining the situation. Our aim is to determine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST).Materials and methods: The H-S/EAST (15-itemed, three-dimensional: direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation) was translated according to the guidelines and experts evaluated it for content validity and cultural adaptation. Participants' (n = 252) mean age was 73.4 ± 6.4 years and 58.3% were female. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the Barthel Index were used for validity. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis for content validity, t-test for construct validity, and discriminant ability were used. SPSS 15.0 was used for analysis and statistical significance was P test-retest reliability, internal consistency coefficient values for direct abuse, characteristics of vulnerability, and potentially abusive situation were 0.88, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of the H-S/EAST was 0.741. Exploratory factor analysis obtained 5 factors, and explained variance was 61.8%. Cut-off value was 6, and sensitivity, specificity, and area under the ROC curve were 76.9%, 96.2%, and 0.938, respectively.Conclusion: The Turkish version of the H-S/EAST can be used as a reliable, valid clinical tool for the assessment of elder abuse.

  7. The validity and reliability of the Mandarin Chinese version of the drug abuse screening test among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jung-Yu; Chi, Hsueh-Yun; Guo, Jong-Long; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Shih, Shu-Fang

    2017-06-06

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Mandarin Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20) among adolescents, as well as examining the test's predictability with regard to the actual level of drug abuse. A total of 100 adolescent participants were recruited with their consent, in which 49 were current drug users and 51 were non-users. Based on the frequency of their drug use, participants who had used drugs at least once every week during the past year were classified as regular users (34 participants); participants who had not reached the regular use frequency of once every week during the past year were classified as occasional users (15 participants). All of the participants were required to answer a sociodemographic questionnaire, and undergo a DAST-20 (Mandarin Chinese version). The DAST-20, which has a high reliability with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88, and a construct validity accounting for 61.87% of the variance. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was 0.96 between the users and nonusers, and 0.93 between the occasional users and non-occasional users. A cut-off of three points could identify 93.5% of the drug users and 88.9% of nonusers, whereas a cut-off of six points could identify 85.3% of the regular users and 92.4% of non-regular users. The DAST-20 was the strongest predictor of adolescents who were regular users, occasional users, and non-users after controlling for other potential covariates. The Mandarin Chinese version of the DAST is simple to use and has a satisfactory validity and reliability. It is an effective screening tool for drug users among adolescents.

  8. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3-4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams.

  9. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  10. STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment). Consensus validation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Older people experience more concurrent illnesses, are prescribed more medications and suffer more adverse drug events than younger people. Many drugs predispose older people to adverse events such as falls and cognitive impairment, thus increasing morbidity and health resource utilization. At the same time, older people are often denied potentially beneficial, clinically indicated medications without a valid reason. We aimed to validate a new screening tool of older persons\\' prescriptions incorporating criteria for potentially inappropriate drugs called STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Persons\\' Prescriptions) and criteria for potentially appropriate, indicated drugs called START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right, i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment). METHODS: A Delphi consensus technique was used to establish the content validity of STOPP\\/START. An 18-member expert panel from academic centers in Ireland and the United Kingdom completed two rounds of the Delphi process by mail survey. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by determining the kappa-statistic for measure of agreement on 100 data-sets. RESULTS: STOPP is comprised of 65 clinically significant criteria for potentially inappropriate prescribing in older people. Each criterion is accompanied by a concise explanation as to why the prescribing practice is potentially inappropriate. START consists of 22 evidence-based prescribing indicators for commonly encountered diseases in older people. Inter-rater reliability is favorable with a kappa-coefficient of 0.75 for STOPP and 0.68 for START. CONCLUSION: STOPP\\/START is a valid, reliable and comprehensive screening tool that enables the prescribing physician to appraise an older patient\\'s prescription drugs in the context of his\\/her concurrent diagnoses.

  11. Developing an Assessment (Tool) for Touch Screen Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danial-Saad, Alexandra; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    Touch screen devices have become prevalent in our lives. Assistive technology experts working with people with disabilities face difficulty in understanding and assessing the problems experienced by individuals with disabilities in operating touch screen devices. This paper presents the processes of collecting and creating the required knowledge needed for assessing the user's skills for operating various touch screen devices, in order to develop an application for assessing the user's abilities and limitations. A six step procedure was used to collect and validate the required knowledge for the assessment from a multidisciplinary team. To determine the agreement levels between the experts, content validity was calculated. To test correlation between the experts from the different disciplines, a comparison was made between the discipline groups and their choice of specific skills/measurements. The final number of domains and skills/measurements was 15 domains and 50 skills/measurements. The result of Cronbach's α test for the final assessment questionnaire (50 skills/measurements) was 0.94, which indicates a high degree of reliability. The results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed the lack of any significant difference between agreements of the clinicians and the technicians groups, but significant differences were found between the educators and the clinicians groups. Each of the skills appearing in the final questionnaire was illustrated in a flowchart in preparation for developing the assessment (tool) for using touch screen devices.

  12. Radiographic Absorptiometry as a Screening Tool in Male Osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S J; Nielsen, Morten M.; Ryg, J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis screening with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) is not recommended due to low diagnostic utility and costs. Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) determines bone mineral density (BMD) of the phalangeal bones of the hand and is a potential osteoporosis pre-screening tool. Purpose......: To determine the ability of RA to identify patients with osteoporosis in a male population. Material and Methods: As part of the Odense Androgen Study, we measured BMD of the intermediate phalanges of the second to fourth finger, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total hip in 218 men aged 60-74 years (mean 68.8 years......), randomly invited from the population, using RA (MetriScan) and DXA (Hologic 4500-A). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined as a T-score of less than -1.0 and -2.5, respectively, in the hip and/or lumbar spine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were computed...

  13. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; van Leeuwen, Paul A. M.; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; de Vos, Rien; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a

  14. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children : use of 3 screening tools in a large European population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen F. M.; Karagiozoglou-Lainpoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A.; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M.

    Background: Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. Objective: We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics

  15. Salivary calcium concentration as a screening tool for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, Maryam; Masooleh, Irandokht Shenavar; Leyli, Ehsan Kazemnejad; Nikoukar, Laia Rahbar

    2013-04-01

    Measurements of salivary calcium level may be a useful screening tool for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether this measure is valid compared with dual-energy X-ray (Bone Mineral Density) screening tools in osteoporosis. A case-control study was carried out in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (T-score ≤ -2.5) and 40 women without osteoporosis (T-score > -1 bone mineral density). Salivary samples were collected and calcium concentrations were measured and expressed as mg/dL. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was used to determine the optimal cut-off thresholds for salivary calcium in healthy postmenopausal women. The cut-off point for salivary calcium was 6.1 mg/dL. The sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for identifying women with osteoporosis, were 67.5 (95%CI 52.33-82.67) and 60% (95%CI 44.62-75.38). The area under curve (AUC) was 0.678 (95%CI 0.56-0.79), the positive predictive value (PPV) was 62.79 (95%CI 47.74-77.84) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 64.86% (95%CI 49.27-80.46). The positive likelihood ratio was 1.688 and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.542. Salivary calcium concentration discriminates between women with and without osteoporosis and constitutes a useful tool for screening for osteoporosis. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p < 0.001), 100% sensitivity, 39% specificity, 56% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value. When subjects in Study 2 were classified into 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. The jabber chat tool EFDA Messenger and screen sharing tool EFDATV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomsen, K.; Beck, S.; Wilhelm, B.

    2008-01-01

    Two Remote Participation (RP) tools are described. The first tool, named EFDA Messenger, is a secure Instant Messaging (IM) tool based on a Jabber server that only accepts SSL encrypted communication and does not allow file transfers as well as audio and video transmissions. This tool is useful to have as another mean of communication during video or teleconferences. The second tool, named EFDATV, is a multipurposeVirtual Network Computing (VNC) based desktop screen sharing system used to share presentations via the Internet. A Java enabled web browser or a VNC client is sufficient for the presenter and the audience to use EFDATV. It is also possible from an EFDATV channel to connect to another VNC server and broadcast the view from that VNC server

  18. Knowledge translation regarding financial abuse and dementia for the banking sector: the development and testing of an education tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Bhatia, Sangita; Macnab, Jenna; Brodaty, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Financial abuse is the most common form of elder abuse. Capacity Australia, established to promote education regarding capacity and abuse prevention across health, legal and financial sectors, was awarded a grant by the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre to educate the banking sector on financial abuse and dementia. We aimed to develop a knowledge translation tool for bank staff on this issue. The banking sector across Australia was engaged and consulted to develop a tailored education tool based on Australian Banking Association's Guidelines on Financial Abuse Prevention, supplemented by information related to dementia, financial capacity and supported decision-making. The tool was tested on 69 banking staff across Australia from two major banks. An online education tool using adaptive learning was developed, comprising a pretest of 15 multiple choice questions, followed by a learning module tailored to the individual's performance on the pretest, and a post-test to assess knowledge translation. A significant increase in scores was demonstrated when baseline scores were compared with post-course scores (mean difference in scores = 3.5; SD = 1.94; t = 15.1; df = 68; p education tool on dementia, abuse and financial capacity. This online e-tool provides an effective medium for knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Screening Homeless Youth for Histories of Abuse: Prevalence, Enduring Effects, and Interest in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeshin, Brooks R.; Campbell, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the incidence of self-reported physical and sexual child abuse among homeless youth, the self-perceived effects of past abuse, and current interest in treatment for past abuse among homeless youth with histories of abuse. Methods: Homeless and street-involved persons aged 18-23 filled out a questionnaire and participated in…

  20. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 52 common pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in hair using UPLC-TOF-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe

    2010-01-01

    An UPLC-TOF-MS method for simultaneous screening and quantification of 52 drugs in hair was developed and validated. The selected drugs represent the most common classes of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse such as amphetamines, analgesics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, cocaine...

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of a two-item Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiet, Quyen Q; Leyva, Yani E; Moos, Rudolf H; Smith, Brandy

    2017-11-01

    Drug use is prevalent and costly to society, but individuals with drug use disorders (DUDs) are under-diagnosed and under-treated, particularly in primary care (PC) settings. Drug screening instruments have been developed to identify patients with DUDs and facilitate treatment. The Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) is one of the most well-known drug screening instruments. However, similar to many such instruments, it is too long for routine use in busy PC settings. This study developed and validated a briefer and more practical DAST for busy PC settings. We recruited 1300 PC patients in two Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinics. Participants responded to a structured diagnostic interview. We randomly selected half of the sample to develop and the other half to validate the new instrument. We employed signal detection techniques to select the best DAST items to identify DUDs (based on the MINI) and negative consequences of drug use (measured by the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences). Performance indicators were calculated. The two-item DAST (DAST-2) was 97% sensitive and 91% specific for DUDs in the development sample and 95% sensitive and 89% specific in the validation sample. It was highly sensitive and specific for DUD and negative consequences of drug use in subgroups of patients, including gender, age, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational level, and posttraumatic stress disorder status. The DAST-2 is an appropriate drug screening instrument for routine use in PC settings in the VA and may be applicable in broader range of PC clinics. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Age Invariance of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a Probabilistic Sample of Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane; Rouquette, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    The Cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) is a short test used for screening those with problematic cannabis use. Recently, its invariance toward age was tested in an Israeli sample of cannabis users, but this study had some sample and methodological limitations: it was conducted in a volunteer sample aged 18-40 and considered the CAST items as continuous variables, although they are based on 5-point Likert scales. We thus tested the CAST invariance toward age (15-24, 25-34, and 35-64 years old) using a French probabilistic sample of 1,351 past-year cannabis users aged 15-64 and using appropriate methods for categorical items and survey weights. Factors retained (non-recreational use and problems) were the same as those mentioned in previous studies. Scalar invariance held for the "problems" factor but only partial scalar invariance was supported for the "non-recreational use" factor. Caution is thus needed when the CAST score is compared across age groups. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccato, Ettore; Chiabrando, Chiara; Castiglioni, Sara; Calamari, Davide; Bagnati, Renzo; Schiarea, Silvia; Fanelli, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE) were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each) for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse. PMID:16083497

  4. Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagnati Renzo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine use seems to be increasing in some urban areas worldwide, but it is not straightforward to determine the real extent of this phenomenon. Trends in drug abuse are currently estimated indirectly, mainly by large-scale social, medical, and crime statistics that may be biased or too generic. We thus tested a more direct approach based on 'field' evidence of cocaine use by the general population. Methods Cocaine and its main urinary metabolite (benzoylecgonine, BE were measured by mass spectrometry in water samples collected from the River Po and urban waste water treatment plants of medium-size Italian cities. Drug concentration, water flow rate, and population at each site were used to estimate local cocaine consumption. Results We showed that cocaine and BE are present, and measurable, in surface waters of populated areas. The largest Italian river, the Po, with a five-million people catchment basin, steadily carried the equivalent of about 4 kg cocaine per day. This would imply an average daily use of at least 27 ± 5 doses (100 mg each for every 1000 young adults, an estimate that greatly exceeds official national figures. Data from waste water treatment plants serving medium-size Italian cities were consistent with this figure. Conclusion This paper shows for the first time that an illicit drug, cocaine, is present in the aquatic environment, namely untreated urban waste water and a major river. We used environmental cocaine levels for estimating collective consumption of the drug, an approach with the unique potential ability to monitor local drug abuse trends in real time, while preserving the anonymity of individuals. The method tested here – in principle extendable to other drugs of abuse – might be further refined to become a standardized, objective tool for monitoring drug abuse.

  5. The Self-screen-Prodrome as a short screening tool for pre-psychotic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mario; Vetter, Stefan; Buchli-Kammermann, Jacqueline; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Stettbacher, Andreas; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2010-11-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important issue in current research. Early intervention helps to improve the outcome of the disorder. Therefore, a comprehensive examination in large populations, necessary as it might be, is economically almost not feasible. A screening via self-report is more practicable as it helps focus on individuals with high symptom loads. To examine aspects of validity of the Self-screen-Prodrome (SPro) as a new screening tool for prodromal states of psychosis in a military sample. 938 Swiss conscripts were assessed with the SPro, the Eppendorf Schizophrenia-Inventory (ESI) and the Symptom-Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Conscripts with potential psychosis-like pathology (T-transformed Severity Index of the SCL-90-R-subscales Psychoticism [PSYC] and Paranoid Ideation [PARA]≥63) were compared with those not meeting the criteria of this condition (non-cases). Both groups (cases and non-cases) showed significant differences in their mean scores on SPro and ESI, although only the SPro had satisfactory effect sizes. In hierarchic logistic regression models the SPro turned out to be highly predictive for caseness while ESI-scales were not significant. A cut-off score of ≥2 on the SPro subscale for psychotic risk (SPro-Psy-Risk) was found to identify caseness best with a sensitivity of 74% and a specificity of 61%. The SPro has proven to be a valid and very economic screening tool for general and prodromal pathology in large populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Administration of Childhood Physical and Childhood Sexual Abuse Screens in Adolescents and Young Adults: a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Angela; Peake, Ken

    Childhood physical and sexual abuse can have a negative impact on adolescents and young adults. Although effective interventions that can ameliorate both the short- and long-term negative impacts are available, many adolescent and young adult victims remain without help: They rarely self-identify as victims, and health care providers generally fail to inquire about a history of childhood abuse, especially in the absence of physical signs. The health care field lacks an understanding of effective methods for the identification of childhood abuse. To address this knowledge gap, this paper focuses on a systematic review of the literature for studies comparing modes of administration of measures to identify a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescents and young adults. A systematic review of the literature published in English in peer-reviewed journals between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2014 was conducted to identify studies that compared 2 or more modes of administration using the same measure to identify a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse in adolescent and young adult populations. Studies that compared 2 or more different measures for identifying abuse were not included in this review because the focus of the review was to isolate the effects of the mode of administration. Only 1 study that met review criteria was found. It was conducted among female college students in a university setting. No studies were identified that compared modes of administration used to elicit disclosure of a history of childhood abuse among adolescents. There remains an urgent need to conduct evaluations of methods to identify childhood physical and sexual abuse including the mode of administration of screens in young people. It is recommended that future studies include diverse populations and randomized and quasi-experimental approaches. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A screening protocol for child abuse at out-of-hours primary care locations: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Maartje C M; van Stel, Henk F; Verheij, Theo J M; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; van de Putte, Elise M

    2016-11-08

    Child abuse is often unrecognized at out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) services. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the screening instrument SPUTOVAMO-R2 for child abuse (checklist), followed by a structured approach (reporting code), at OOH-PC services. The reporting code with five steps should ensure consistent action in case of a suspicion. All children attending one of the five participating OOH-PC services in the region of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in a year time, were included. The checklist is an obligatory field in the electronic patient file and was filled in for all children. In case of a positive checklist, the steps in the reporting code were followed. Additionally, the case was evaluated in a multidisciplinary team to determine the probability of child abuse. The checklist was filled in for 50671 children; 108 (0.2 %) were positive. The multidisciplinary team diagnosed child abuse in 24 (22 %) of the 108 positive checklists, and no child abuse in 36 (33 %). Emotional neglect was the most frequent type of abuse diagnosed. For all abused children, care was implemented according to the protocol. The most frequent care given was a referral to the hospital (N = 7) or contact with child's own general practitioner (N = 6). A checklist followed by a reporting code guarantees consistent actions and care for children with a suspicion of child abuse. The percentage of positive checklists is lower than expected. Validity of the checklist should be assessed in a diagnostic study.

  8. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  9. Accuracy of Screening Tools for Pap Smears in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Harding

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Data extraction tools (DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice, despite their limitations. Objective This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit. Method A widely available DET was used to establish the rate of Pap smears in a large multi-general practice (multi-GP in regional New South Wales followed by a manual audit of patient files. The main outcome measure was identification of possible discrepancies between the rates established. Results The DET used significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to the manual audit. In some instances, the patient file contained phone/specialist record of Pap smear conducted elsewhere, which accounted for the failure of the DET to detect some smears. Those patients who had Pap smears whose pathology codes differed between time intervals, i.e. from different pathology providers or from within the same provider but using a different code, were less likely to have had their most recent Pap smear detected by the DET (p < 0.001. Conclusion Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records. How this fits in DETs are increasingly being used for research and audit of general practice. This study explores the accuracy of Pap smear rates obtained with a DET compared to that of the Pap smear rate obtained with a manual file audit The DET tested significantly underestimated the level of cervical screening compared to manual screening. Data obtained from DETs should be used with caution as they may not accurately reflect the rate of Pap smears from electronic medical records

  10. Characteristics of the GPCOG, a screening tool for cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Kemp, Nicola M; Low, Lee-Fay

    2004-09-01

    Early dementia diagnosis is aided by the use of brief screening tests; scores can be biased by patient and informant characteristics such as age, gender and education. To assess whether the General Practitioner's Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG), a brief screening tool for detecting cognitive impairment comprising a patient cognitive test and questions to an informant, is biased by patient and informant characteristics. Sixty-seven general practitioners recruited consecutive patients (with informants). Patients were subsequently assessed by a research psychologist, and DSM-IV diagnoses assigned following a case-conference. Primary Care. Two hundred and eighty three home-dwelling individuals, 11.3% of whom were aged 50-74 years with suspected memory problems and the rest aged 75 or more. The GPCOG, Cambridge Mental Disorder of the Elderly Examination cognitive scale (CAMCOG), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the SF-12 Health Survey (SF-12) were administered and demographic data were collected and consensus DSM-IV diagnoses of dementia made. Relationships between patient and informant characteristics and the GPCOG measure were examined using Pearson correlations and linear regression analyses. There were correlations in GPCOG-patient scores with age, education and depression scores but on regression analysis only age was associated with the GPCOG-patient section. The GPCOG-informant section was free of bias. The GPCOG has advantages for use in primary care and is free of many biases common in other scales.

  11. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services.

  12. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  13. Application of corrosion screening tools for riser inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamir Mohamed Daud; Vijayan, S.

    2003-01-01

    As offshore facilities approach the end of their design life, owners would like to assess the condition and integrity of plant and equipment. Detailed inspection, including non-destructive testing (NDT), are implemented and results are utilised for predictive maintenance and estimating useful remaining life. Except for risk based inspection, the extent of surface coverage required would be more compared to inspection of pre-determined spots. Risers, for example, usually have several layers of coating that prevent use of conventional techniques for inspection of corrosion. Complete coverage requires access (including removal coatings and insulation). Inspection utilising the conventional NDT tools can be very slow and expensive. However, recent advances have forwarded the use of specialised NDT techniques that were developed for inspection of corrosion under insulation (CUI). This paper details two screening inspection tools, LIXI Profiler and RTD-INCOTEST that have been applied to inspection of risers. LIXI Profiler is based on attenuation of penetrating radiation by materials, and RTD-INCOTEST is based on decay of pulsed eddy current in materials. (Author)

  14. A decision support tool for identifying abuse of controlled substances by ForwardHealth Medicaid members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Allan T; Cummings, Stephen W; Mugdh, Mrinal

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to use Wisconsin's Medicaid Evaluation and Decision Support (MEDS) data warehouse to develop and validate a decision support tool (DST) that (1) identifies Wisconsin Medicaid fee-for-service recipients who are abusing controlled substances, (2) effectively replicates clinical pharmacist recommendations for interventions intended to curb abuse of physician and pharmacy services, and (3) automates data extraction, profile generation and tracking of recommendations and interventions. From pharmacist manual reviews of medication profiles, seven measures of overutilization of controlled substances were developed, including (1-2) 6-month and 2-month "shopping" scores, (3-4) 6-month and 2-month forgery scores, (5) duplicate/same day prescriptions, (6) count of controlled substance claims, and the (7) shopping 6-month score for the individual therapeutic class with the highest score. The pattern analysis logic for the measures was encoded into SQL and applied to the medication profiles of 190 recipients who had already undergone manual review. The scores for each measure and numbers of providers were analyzed by exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) to determine significant thresholds and combinations of predictors of pharmacist recommendations, resulting in a decision tree to classify recipients by pharmacist recommendations. The overall correct classification rate of the decision tree was 95.3%, with a 2.4% false positive rate and 4.0% false negative rate for lock-in versus prescriber-alert letter recommendations. Measures used by the decision tree include the 2-month and 6-month shopping scores, and the number of pharmacies and prescribers. The number of pharmacies was the best predictor of abuse of controlled substances. When a Medicaid recipient receives prescriptions for controlled substances at 8 or more pharmacies, the likelihood of a lock-in recommendation is 90%. The availability of the Wisconsin MEDS data warehouse has

  15. Screening for common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, R A; Hammam, R A M; El-Gohary, S S; Sabik, L M E; Hunter, M S

    2013-01-01

    Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egypt. All participants were invited to complete a structured questionnaire through a semi-structured interview which included the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ-20) and the work stress scale. Assessment of drug use included urine-based screening tests for common substances abused. The prevalence of job stress, common mental disorders and substance abuse, particularly tramadol and cannabis (Bango), was significantly higher in the studied temporary cleaners compared to permanent cleaners. Risk factors associated with increased susceptibility of the temporary cleaners to common mental disorders were family history of substance abuse, high crowding index, history of physical illness, low educational level, and smoking; while being unmarried, male sex, family history of mental disorder, age ≥40 years, smoking, and length of service ≥8 years, were associated with substance abuse among the same group. Temporary hired hospital cleaners suffered from impaired mental health more than permanent cleaners. Therefore, expanding the coverage of current laws and occupational safety and health standards to cover workers in the informal sector especially in developing countries is recommended.

  16. Substance abuse screening and brief intervention for adolescents in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Sarah; Shrier, Lydia A

    2014-10-01

    Adolescent substance use is common and is associated with serious mental, physical, and social risks, warranting systematic screening in the primary care setting. It is important for clinicians to become familiar with Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT), including administration of validated screening tools to identify level of risk associated with substance use and application of appropriate brief interventions. Positive reinforcement and brief advice is indicated for those adolescents with no or minimal risk for a substance use disorder. Providing a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies with subsequent close clinical follow-up is warranted when an adolescent meets criteria for a mild to moderate substance use disorder. Referral to treatment is recommended in cases of severe substance use. Immediate action, including breaking confidentiality, may be necessary when an adolescent's behavior raises acute safety concerns. Making time to interview adolescents alone is essential. It is also important to review the limitations of confidentiality with patients and parents/guardians and offer them strategies to discuss sensitive issues with their adolescents. Available resources for adolescents, parents/guardians, and clinicians regarding the risks of adolescent substance use and evidence-based treatment options can be used to support implementation of SBIRT in adolescent primary care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The Evaluation of a Screening Tool for Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Karen; Paxton, Donna; Murray, George; Milanesi, Paula; Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study outlines the evaluation of an intellectual disability screening tool, the "Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire" ("CAIDS-Q"), with two age groups. A number of aspects of the reliability and validity of the "CAIDS-Q" were assessed for these two groups, including inter-rater reliability, convergent and…

  18. Screening malnutrition in hospital outpatients. Can the SNAQ malnutrition screening tool also be applied to this population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F; Kruizenga, H M; de Vet, Henrica C W; Seidell, J C; Butterman, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is known from earlier studies that only 15% of the malnourished hospital outpatient population is recognized and receives nutritional treatment. To increase this number, a quick and easy malnutrition screening tool would be helpful. Because such a tool is lacking, we developed

  19. Screening malnutrition in hospital outpatients. Can the SNAQ malnutrition screening tool also be applied to this population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, F.; Kruizenga, H.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Seidell, J.C.; Butterman, M.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Background & aims: It is known from earlier studies that only 15% of the malnourished hospital outpatient population is recognized and receives nutritional treatment. To increase this number, a quick and easy malnutrition screening tool would be helpful. Because such a tool is lacking, we developed

  20. (MUAC) as screening tool in an urban township in the Eastern Cape

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screening tools to identify SAM and MAM, respectively, in children between six and 60 months of age.2,3 According to the WHO and. UNICEF,3 the WHZ and MUAC may be used interchangeably as a screening tool to identify malnourished infants and children, as they reveal a very similar prevalence of SAM in the field.

  1. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanoh D

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Divya Vanoh,1 Suzana Shahar,1 Razali Rosdinom,2 Normah Che Din,3 Hanis Mastura Yahya,4 Azahadi Omar5 1Dietetic Programme, Centre of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Department of Psychiatry, University Kebangsaan Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Health Psychology Programme, 4Nutrition Programme, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 5Institute of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background and aim: Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS. Methodology: A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion: TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic

  2. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): toward a public health approach to the management of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; McRee, Bonnie G; Kassebaum, Patricia A; Grimaldi, Paul L; Ahmed, Kazi; Bray, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a comprehensive and integrated approach to the delivery of early intervention and treatment services through universal screening for persons with substance use disorders and those at risk. This paper describes research on the components of SBIRT conducted during the past 25 years, including the development of screening tests, clinical trials of brief interventions and implementation research. Beginning in the 1980s, concerted efforts were made in the US and at the World Health Organization to provide an evidence base for alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary health care settings. With the development of reliable and accurate screening tests for alcohol, more than a hundred clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and cost effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care, emergency departments and trauma centers. With the accumulation of positive evidence, implementation research on alcohol SBI was begun in the 1990s, followed by trials of similar methods for other substances (e.g., illicit drugs, tobacco, prescription drugs) and by national demonstration programs in the US and other countries. The results of these efforts demonstrate the cumulative benefit of translational research on health care delivery systems and substance abuse policy. That SBIRT yields short-term improvements in individuals' health is irrefutable; long-term effects on population health have not yet been demonstrated, but simulation models suggest that the benefits could be substantial.

  3. Malnutrition risk in hospitalized children: use of 3 screening tools in a large European population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourdakis, Michael; Hecht, Christina; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos; Joosten, Koen Fm; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Koetse, Harma A; Ksiazyk, Janusz; Lazea, Cecilia; Shamir, Raanan; Szajewska, Hania; Koletzko, Berthold; Hulst, Jessie M

    2016-05-01

    Several malnutrition screening tools have been advocated for use in pediatric inpatients. We evaluated how 3 popular pediatric nutrition screening tools [i.e., the Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP), and the Screening Tool for Risk of Impaired Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGKIDS)] compared with and were related to anthropometric measures, body composition, and clinical variables in patients who were admitted to tertiary hospitals across Europe. The 3 screening tools were applied in 2567 inpatients at 14 hospitals across 12 European countries. The classification of patients into different nutritional risk groups was compared between tools and related to anthropometric measures and clinical variables [e.g., length of hospital stay (LOS) and infection rates]. A similar rate of completion of the screening tools for each tool was achieved (PYMS: 86%; STAMP: 84%; and STRONGKIDS: 81%). Risk classification differed markedly by tool, with an overall agreement of 41% between tools. Children categorized as high risk (PYMS: 25%; STAMP: 23%; and STRONGKIDS: 10%) had a longer LOS than that of children at low risk (1.4, 1.4, and 1.8 d longer, respectively; P malnutrition risk varied across the pediatric tools used. A considerable portion of children with subnormal anthropometric measures were not identified with all of the tools. The data obtained do not allow recommending the use of any of these screening tools for clinical practice. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01132742. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Albuminuria as pre-screening tool for better risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozyilmaz, Akin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are common health problems and originates predominantly from generalized atherosclerosis. Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia are well known risk factors for atherosclerosis. Screening for and treatment of these risk factors

  5. DOVIS: A Tool for High-throughput Virtual Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jiang, Xiaohui; Kumar, Kamal; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2007-01-01

    We developed a DOcking-based Virtual Screening (DO DOVIS) pipeline to predict how small molecules may interact with a given protein, so that we can rank a large database of molecules based on their predicted affinities to the protein...

  6. Noninvasive screening tools for Down syndrome: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Smith, MS,Meagan

    2013-01-01

    Meagan Smith, Jeannie Visootsak Emory University, Department of Human Genetics, Atlanta, GA, USA Abstract: Down syndrome is the leading cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities, accounting for 53% of all reported chromosome conditions. Testing strategies, guidelines, and screening options have expanded from their conception in the 1970s, and now include such options as anatomical ultrasound, maternal serum screening, and noninvasive prenatal testing. This review summarizes all currently av...

  7. Self-Screening for Malnutrition Risk in Outpatient Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amindeep; Mosli, Mahmoud; Yan, Brian; Wu, Thomas; Gregor, Jamie; Chande, Nilesh; Ponich, Terry; Beaton, Melanie; Rahman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is associated with poor outcomes. Our aim is to determine if patient self-administered malnutrition screening using the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) is reliable by comparing patient scores with those derived from the healthcare practitioner (HCP), the gold standard. We conducted a prospective validation study at a tertiary Canadian academic center that included 154 adult outpatients with IBD. All patients with IBD completed a self-administered nutrition screening assessment using the MUST score followed by an independent MUST assessment performed by HCPs. The main outcome measure was chance-corrected agreement (κ) of malnutrition risk categorization. For patient-administered MUST, the chance-corrected agreement κ (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 0.83 (0.74-0.92) when comparing low-risk and combined medium- and high-risk patients with HCP screening. Weighted κ analysis comparing all 3 risks groups yielded a κ (95% CI) of 0.85 (0.77-0.93) between patient and HCP screening. All patients were able to screen themselves. Overall, 96% of patients reported the MUST questionnaire as either very easy or easy to understand and to complete. Self-administered nutrition screening in outpatients with IBD is valid using the MUST screening tool and is easy to use. If adopted, this tool will increase utilization of malnutrition screening in hectic outpatient clinic settings and will help HCPs determine which patients require additional nutrition support. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Auditory brainstem response – a valid and cost-effective screening tool for vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafique, Irfan; Wennervaldt, Kasper; Melchiors, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Conclusion: Contemporary auditory brainstem response (ABR) is not valid as a screening tool for VS, when considering the sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of 77%, and the positive predictive value of 3.4%, MRI screening is superior to ABR in Denmark when considering cost-effectiveness......Abstract: Conclusion: Contemporary auditory brainstem response (ABR) is not valid as a screening tool for VS, when considering the sensitivity of 80%, the specificity of 77%, and the positive predictive value of 3.4%, MRI screening is superior to ABR in Denmark when considering cost...

  9. Case-mix tool, costs and effectiveness in improving primary care mental health and substance abuse services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riihimäki, Kirsi; Heiska-Johansson, Ainomaija; Ketola, Eeva

    2018-02-01

    Despite its importance in improving care and developing services, high-quality data evaluating cost-effectiveness and services in different case-mix populations is scarce in primary care. The objective was to investigate the service use of those mental health and substance abuse patients, who use lots of services. Primary health care diagnosis-related groups (pDRG) is a tool to evaluate service provider system and improve efficiency, productivity and quality. We viewed all pDRG results available from the year 2015 concerning municipal mental health and substance abuse services. In primary care mental health and substance abuse services, the most common ICD-10-codes were depression and substance abuse. One-fifth of patients produced 57% of costs. Their medium of appointments was 16 per year versus 6 per year of all patients. Only 54% of their diagnoses were recorded in the electronic health records versus 75% of all patients. They made 5.7 different pDRG episodes, including 1.8 episodes of depression, per patient. The average episode cost for this patient group was 301€. pDRG makes health care production transparent also in mental health and substance abuse services. It is easy to identify patients, who use a lot of services and thus induce the majority of costs, and focus on their needs in managing and developing services.

  10. New psychoactive substances as part of polydrug abuse within opioid maintenance treatment revealed by comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometric urine drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikman, Pertti; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    At present, polydrug abuse comprises, besides traditional illicit drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines (N-PPM). Polydrug abuse was comprehensively evaluated among opioid-dependent patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Two hundred consecutively collected urine samples from 82 OMT patients (52 male) treated with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone medication were studied using a liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening method. The method enables simultaneous detection of hundreds of abused substances covering the traditional drugs of abuse and many NPS as well as N-PPM. Ninety-two (45.8%) samples were positive for the abused substances. Benzodiazepines (29.0%), amphetamines (19.5%), cannabinoids (17.0%), NPS (13.0%), N-PPM (9.0%), and opioids (9.0%) were detected in different combinations. The simultaneous occurrence of up to three groups of abused substances was common (40.0%), and in one sample, all six groups were found. The stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone was found in 10.0% and the sedative N-PPM pregabalin in 4.0% of the samples. The patients were seldom aware of what particular NPS they had abused. A widespread occurrence of abused substances beyond the ordinary was revealed. Identifying these patients is essential as polydrug abuse is a safety risk to the patient and may cause attrition from OMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA's SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Del Boca, Frances; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings. SBIRT programs in the two evaluated SAMHSA cohorts screened more than 1 million patients/clients. SBIRT implementation was facilitated by committed leadership and the use of substance use specialists, rather than medical generalists, to deliver services. Although the quasi-experimental nature of the outcome evaluation does not permit causal inferences, pre-post differences were clinically meaningful and statistically significant for almost every measure of substance use. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. Both brief intervention and brief treatment were associated with positive outcomes, but brief intervention was more cost-effective for most substances. Sixty-nine (67%) of the original performance sites adapted and redesigned SBIRT service delivery after initial grant funding ended. Four factors influenced SBIRT sustainability: presence of program champions, availability of funding, systemic change and effective management of SBIRT provider challenges. The US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program was adapted successfully to the needs of early identification efforts for hazardous use of alcohol and illicit drugs. SBIRT is an innovative way to integrate the

  12. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental Communication as a Tool Kit for Preventing Sexual Abuse among Adolescent Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayo, Ajayi Beatrice; Olawuyi, B. O.

    2016-01-01

    This study employed the survey design to investigate the relevance of parent communication in preventing sexual abuse among secondary school students in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection tagged "Parent Communication Strategy for Preventing Sexual Abuse questionnaire" (PCOSPSAQ), was a researcher designed instrument. It was…

  14. Motivational Interviewing: An Intervention Tool for Child Welfare Case Workers Working with Substance-Abusing Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, Melinda M.

    1998-01-01

    Child welfare workers have long known that abuse of alcohol and drugs is a major problem with many parents on their caseloads. This article discusses motivational interviewing, an intervention technique with substance abusers which postulates that motivation is created in an interaction between the client and worker. Principles of motivational…

  15. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hayat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications.

  16. Climate risk screening tools and their application: A guide to the guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traerup, S.; Olhoff, A.

    2011-07-01

    Climate risk screening is an integral part of efforts to ascertain current and future vulnerabilities and risks related to climate change. It is a prerequisite for identifying and designing adaptation measures, and an important element in the process of integrating, or mainstreaming, climate change adaptation into development project, planning and policy processes. There is an increasing demand and attention among national stakeholders in developing countries to take into account potential implications of climate variability and change for planning and prioritizing of development strategies and activities. Subsequently, there is a need for user friendly guidance on climate risk screening tools and their potentials for application that targets developing country stakeholders. This need is amplified by the sheer volume of climate change mainstreaming guidance documents and risk screening and assessment tools available and currently under development. Against this background, this paper sets out to provide potential users in developing countries, including project and programme developers and managers, with an informational entry point to climate risk screening tools. The emphasis in this report is on providing: 1) An overview of available climate risk screening and assessment tools along with indications of the tools available and relevant for specific purposes and contexts (Section 3). 2) Examples of application of climate risk screening and assessment tools along with links to further information (Section 4). Before turning to the respective sections on available climate risk screening tools and examples of their application, a delimitation of the tools included in this paper is included in Section 2. This section also provides a brief overview of how climate screening and related tools fit into decision making steps at various planning and decision making levels in conjunction with an outline of overall considerations to make when choosing a tool. The paper is

  17. Development and validation of NIMHANS screening tool for psychological problems in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2014-08-01

    Screening for psychiatric morbidity helps to identify disease, enable initiation of treatment and intervention to reduce mortality and suffering from psychological problems. There is a dearth of such scales in India and South East Asia. The present work aims to develop and validate the NIMHANS screening tool for psychological problems in Indian context. 754 (229 normal subjects and 525 clinical subjects) were taken from the community and in-patient and out patient psychiatric setting of the hospital. Socio-demographic datasheet and the newly developed tool were administered on them. Split half reliability of the tool was .84. Score of 12 & 24 and above indicated presence of psychiatric distress in normal and clinical group respectively. Discriminate validity developed with sensitivity of .76 and specificity of .82. The NIMHANS screening tool for psychological problems has a utility in screening out psychiatric distress in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  19. MR angiography as a screening tool for intracranial aneurysms: feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaymakers, T. W.; Buys, P. C.; Verbeeten, B.; Ramos, L. M.; Witkamp, T. D.; Hulsmans, F. J.; Mali, W. P.; Algra, A.; Bonsel, G. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Vonk, C. M.; Buskens, E.; Limburg, M.; van Gijn, J.; Gorissen, A.; Greebe, P.; Albrecht, K. W.; Tulleken, C. A.; Rinkel, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: MR angiography may be an appropriate tool to screen for unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Feasibility, test characteristics, and interobserver agreement in evaluation of MR angiograms were assessed by members of the MARS (Magnetic resonance Angiography in Relatives of patients with

  20. Reliability and validity of screening instruments for drug and alcohol abuse in adults seeking evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, B S; Simpson, T L; Ries, R; Roy-Byrne, P

    2000-01-01

    A growing number of adults are seeking evaluation for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Screening for substance use disorders should be included as part of any comprehensive ADHD evaluation. We describe the validity and reliability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in adults seeking evaluation for ADHD. Internal reliability estimates were excellent for both instruments. Scores on the DAST and AUDIT were higher among patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of current drug abuse or dependence or current alcohol abuse or dependence, respectively. A cutoff score of 6 or above appears to be optimal for identifying individuals who are current drug abusers. A cutoff score of 6 or above on the AUDIT is suggested for detection of current alcohol abuse in this population. Comparable rates of substance use disorders were observed in ADHD and non-ADHD patients. Both measures are valid and reliable instruments for screening for alcohol and drug abuse among adults seeking evaluation for ADHD.

  1. Accuracy of a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uilenburg, Noëlle; Wiefferink, Karin; Verkerk, Paul; van Denderen, Margot; van Schie, Carla; Oudesluys-Murphy, Ann-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: A screening tool called the "VTO Language Screening Instrument" (VTO-LSI) was developed to enable more uniform and earlier detection of language impairment. This report, consisting of 2 retrospective studies, focuses on the effects of using the VTO-LSI compared to regular detection procedures. Method: Study 1 retrospectively…

  2. Enhancing BECCUS (Bio-Energy Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage) Screening Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gragg, Evan James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard Stephen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report describes the benefits of the BECCUS screening tools. The goals of this project are to utilize NATCARB database for site screening; enhance NATCARB database; run CO2-EOR simulations and economic models using updated reservoir data sets (SCO2T-EOR).

  3. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST)

    OpenAIRE

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sar?kaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire includi...

  4. Validation of a Nutrition Screening Tool for Pediatric Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Dos Santos Simon, Miriam Isabel; Forte, Gabriele Carra; da Silva Pereira, Juliane; da Fonseca Andrade Procianoy, Elenara; Drehmer, Michele

    2016-05-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), nutrition diagnosis is of critical relevance because the early identification of nutrition-related compromise enables early, adequate intervention and, consequently, influences patient prognosis. Up to now, there has not been a validated nutrition screening tool that takes into consideration clinical variables. To validate a specific nutritional risk screening tool for patients with CF based on clinical variables, anthropometric parameters, and dietary intake. Cross-sectional study. The nutrition screening tool was compared with a risk screening tool proposed by McDonald and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation criteria. Patients aged 6 to 18 years, with a diagnosis of CF confirmed by two determinations of elevated chloride level in sweat (sweat test) and/or by identification of two CF-associated genetic mutations who were receiving follow-up care through the outpatient clinic of a Cystic Fibrosis Treatment Center. Earlier identification of nutritional risk in CF patients aged 6 to 18 years when a new screening tool was applied. Agreement among the tested methods was assessed by means of the kappa coefficient for categorical variables. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values were calculated. The significance level was set at 5% (PCystic Fibrosis Foundation criteria was lower (κ=0.418; P<0.001), and the sensitivity and specificity were both 72%. The proposed screening tool with defined clinical variables promotes earlier identification of nutritional risk in pediatric patients with CF. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug discrimination: A versatile tool for characterization of CNS safety pharmacology and potential for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedberg, Michael D B

    2016-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies for assessment of psychoactive properties of drugs in safety pharmacology and drug abuse and drug dependence potential evaluation have traditionally been focused on testing novel compounds against standard drugs for which drug abuse has been documented, e.g. opioids, CNS stimulants, cannabinoids etc. (e.g. Swedberg & Giarola, 2015), and results are interpreted such that the extent to which the test drug causes discriminative effects similar to those of the standard training drug, the test drug would be further characterized as a potential drug of abuse. Regulatory guidance for preclinical assessment of abuse liability by the European Medicines Agency (EMA, 2006), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, 2010), the International Conference of Harmonization (ICH, 2009), and the Japanese Ministry of Health Education and Welfare (MHLW, 1994) detail that compounds with central nervous system (CNS) activity, whether by design or not, need abuse and dependence liability assessment. Therefore, drugs with peripheral targets and a potential to enter the CNS, as parent or metabolite, are also within scope (see Swedberg, 2013, for a recent review and strategy). Compounds with novel mechanisms of action present a special challenge due to unknown abuse potential, and should be carefully assessed against defined risk criteria. Apart from compounds sharing mechanisms of action with known drugs of abuse, compounds intended for indications currently treated with drugs with potential for abuse and or dependence are also within scope, regardless of mechanism of action. Examples of such compounds are analgesics, anxiolytics, cognition enhancers, appetite control drugs, sleep control drugs and drugs for psychiatric indications. Recent results (Swedberg et al., 2014; Swedberg & Raboisson, 2014; Swedberg, 2015) on the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) antagonists demonstrate that compounds causing hallucinatory effects in humans did not exhibit

  6. Rapid screening of abused drugs by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) combined with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ru; Wu, Zhongping; Lv, Xiaobao; Rao, Yulan; Li, Haiyang; Li, Jinghua; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Zhang, Yurong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing in cases involving drugs of abuse leads to heavy burden for law enforcement agencies, exacerbating demand for rapid screening technique. In this study, atmospheric pressure ionization technologies including direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (DART-TOF-MS)as well asdopant-assisted positive photoionization ion mobility spectrometry (DAPP-IMS) without radioactivity were utilized together as the powerful analytical tool for the rapid screening and identification of 53 abused drugs.The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.05-2μg/mL when using DART-TOF-MS and 0.02-2μg when using DAPP-IMS which could satisfy the actual requirement in forensic science laboratory. The advantages of this method included fast response, high-throughput potential, high specificity, and minimal sample preparation. A screening library of reduced mobility (K 0 ), accurate mass of informative precursor ion ([M+H] + ) and fragment ions was established respectively by employing a bench-top DAPP-IMS and TOF-MS in-source collision induced dissociation (CID) mode. Then the standardized screening procedure was developed with criteria for the confirmation of positive result. A total of 50 seized drug samples provided by local forensic laboratory we reanalyzed to testify the utility of the method. This study suggests that a method combing DART-TOF-MS and DAPP-IMS is promising for the rapid screening and identification of abused drugs with minimal sample preparation and absence of chromatography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GPURFSCREEN: a GPU based virtual screening tool using random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, P B; Ajay, Mathias K; Nufail, M; Gopakumar, G; Jaleel, U C A

    2016-01-01

    In-silico methods are an integral part of modern drug discovery paradigm. Virtual screening, an in-silico method, is used to refine data models and reduce the chemical space on which wet lab experiments need to be performed. Virtual screening of a ligand data model requires large scale computations, making it a highly time consuming task. This process can be speeded up by implementing parallelized algorithms on a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). Random Forest is a robust classification algorithm that can be employed in the virtual screening. A ligand based virtual screening tool (GPURFSCREEN) that uses random forests on GPU systems has been proposed and evaluated in this paper. This tool produces optimized results at a lower execution time for large bioassay data sets. The quality of results produced by our tool on GPU is same as that on a regular serial environment. Considering the magnitude of data to be screened, the parallelized virtual screening has a significantly lower running time at high throughput. The proposed parallel tool outperforms its serial counterpart by successfully screening billions of molecules in training and prediction phases.

  9. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, A.; Miller, K.; Cockburn, M.

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20-25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection e -Health t ools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention.

  10. Screening tools used for measuring depression among people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, T; Lloyd, C E; Pouwer, F

    2012-01-01

    Inventory and the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were the most popular screening tools (used in 24% and 21% of studies). Information on the cultural applicability of screening tools was mostly unavailable and, where reported, included only details of the language translation process....... Information on the cultural applicability of these instruments is even scantier. Further research is required in order to determine the suitability of screening tools for use in clinical practice and to address the increasing problem of co-morbid diabetes and depression.......BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes, has a strong negative impact on the quality of life of patients and is associated with poor outcomes and higher mortality rates. Several guidelines encourage screening of patients with diabetes for depression...

  11. Validation of a new language screening tool for patients with acute stroke: the Language Screening Test (LAST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamand-Roze, Constance; Falissard, Bruno; Roze, Emmanuel; Maintigneux, Lisa; Beziz, Jonathan; Chacon, Audrey; Join-Lambert, Claire; Adams, David; Denier, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Standard aphasia scales such as the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation are inappropriate for use in acute stroke. Likewise, global stroke scales do not reliably detect aphasia, and existing brief aphasia screening scales suitable for patients with stroke have several limitations. The objective of this study was to generate and validate a bedside language screening tool, the Language Screening Test, suitable for use in the emergency setting. The Language Screening Test comprises 5 subtests and a total of 15 items. To avoid retest bias, we created 2 parallel versions of the scale. We report the equivalence of the 2 versions, their internal and external validity, and their interrater reliability. We validated the scale by administering it to 300 consecutive patients within 24 hours after admission to our stroke unit and to 104 stabilized patients with and without aphasia using the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation as a reference. The 2 versions of the Language Screening Test were equivalent with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.96. Internal validity was good; none of the items showed a floor or ceiling effect with no redundancy and good internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.88). External validation against the Boston Diagnosis Aphasia Evaluation showed a sensitivity of 0.98 and a specificity of 1. Interrater agreement was near perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.998). The median time to complete the Language Screening Test was approximately 2 minutes. Importantly, the Language Screening Test does not need to be administered by a speech and language therapist. This comprehensively validated language rating scale is simple and rapid, making it a useful tool for bedside evaluation of patients with acute stroke in routine clinical practice.

  12. Optical imaging: a newer screening tool in oncological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aejaz, Shiekh

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The decrease in the incidence and the mortality of cancer has ushered in a palpable excitement in the oncology community. The recent and significant advances in the care of cancer patients is consequent to the developments in the fields of imaging, molecular diagnostics and n'folecularly targeted therapies. Targeted and Activable Optical imaging is a rapidly expanding discipline of molecular imaging designed to detect very small clusters of cancer cells at its earliest stage. This modality has higher sensitivity and is destined to open new vistas in cancer screening and intra-operative guidance of resection of very small volume disease. Use of contrast is optional. Optical imaging can differentiate tumors from healthy tissue on the principle based on absorption of hemoglobin, found in higher abundance in vascular tumors. The only shortcoming being its non-use for whole body scanning and use in only areas accessible to direct imaging. The optical probes are innovative marvels for being activable and targetable have greater sensitivity and portability. They find their use in topical and intravenous use for screening of colon, bladder and tumors of tracheo-bronchial tree

  13. Towards the Development of an Intimate Partner Violence Screening Tool for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Hall, Casey D.; Williams, Whitney; Sato, Kimi; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research suggests that gay and bisexual men experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at rates comparable to heterosexual women. However, current screening tools used to identify persons experiencing IPV were largely created for use with heterosexual women. Given the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men in the United States, the lack of IPV screening tools that reflect the lived realities of gay and bisexual men is problematic.This paper describes the development of a short-form IPV screening tool intended to be used with gay and bisexual men. Methods: A novel definition of IPV, informed by formative Focus Group Discussions, was derived from a quantitative survey of approximately 1,100 venue-recruited gay and bisexual men. From this new definition, a draft IPV screening tool was created. After expert review (n=13) and cognitive interviews with gay and bisexual men (n=47), a screening tool of six questions was finalized.A national, online-recruited sample (n=822) was used to compare rates of IPV identified by the novel tool and current standard tools. Results: The six-item, short-form tool created through the six-stage research process captured a significantly higher prevalence of recent experience of IPV compared to a current and commonly used screening tool (30.7% versus 7.5%, ptool described additional domains of IPV not currently found in screening tools, including monitoring behaviors, controlling behaviors, and HIV-related IPV. The screener takes less than five minutes to complete and is 6th grade reading level. Conclusion: Gay and bisexual men experiencing IPV must first be identified before services can reach them. Given emergent literature that demonstrates the high prevalence of IPV among gay and bisexual men and the known adverse health sequela of experiencing IPV, this novel screening tool may allow for the quick identification of men experiencing IPV and the opportunity for referrals for the synergistic management of

  14. Screening for malnutrition among nursing home residents - a comparative analysis of the mini nutritional assessment, the nutritional risk screening, and the malnutrition universal screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, R; Winning, K; Uter, W; Kaiser, M J; Sieber, C C; Volkert, D; Bauer, J M

    2013-04-01

    The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) has recommended the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA®), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS), and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) for nutritional screening in various settings and age groups. While in recent years all three tools have been applied to nursing home residents, there is still no consensus on the most appropriate screening tool in this specific setting. The present study aims at comparing the MNA, the NRS, and the MUST with regard to applicability, categorization of nutritional status, and predictive value in the nursing home setting. MNA, NRS, and MUST were performed on 200 residents from two municipal nursing homes in Nuremberg, Germany. Follow-up data on infection, hospitalization, and mortality were collected after six and again after twelve months. Among 200 residents (mean age 85.5 ± 7.8 years) the MNA could be completed in 188 (94.0%) and the NRS and MUST in 198 (99.0%) residents. The prevalence of 'malnutrition' according to the MNA was 15.4%. The prevalence of 'risk of malnutrition' (NRS) and 'high risk of malnutrition' (MUST), respectively, was 8.6% for both tools. The individual categorization of nutritional status showed poor agreement between NRS and MUST on the one hand and MNA on the other. For all tools a significant association between nutritional status and mortality was demonstrated during follow-up as classification in 'malnourished', respectively 'high risk of malnutrition' or 'nutritional risk', was significantly associated with increased hazard ratios. However, the MNA showed the best predictive value for survival among well-nourished residents. The evaluation of nutritional status in nursing home residents by MNA, NRS, and MUST shows significant differences. This observation may be of clinical relevance as nutritional intervention is usually based on screening results. As the items of the MNA reflect particularities of the nursing home

  15. Protein tethering enables rapid and label-free SERS platform for screening drugs of abuse (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhanta, Soumik; Wróbel, Maciej S.; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    A quick, cost-effective method for detection of drugs of abuse in biological fluids would be of great value in healthcare, law enforcement, and home testing applications. The alarming rise in narcotics abuse has led to considerable focus on developing potent and versatile analytical tools that can address this societal problem. While laboratory testing plays a key role in the current detection of drug misuse and the evaluation of patients with drug induced intoxication, these typically require expensive reagents and trained personnel, and may take hours to complete. Thus, a significant unmet need is to engineer a facile method that can rapidly detect drugs with little sample preparation, especially the bound fraction that is typically dominant in the blood stream. Here we report an approach that combines the exquisite sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a facile protein tethering mechanism to reliably detect four different classes of drugs, barbiturate, benzodiazepine, amphetamine and benzoylecgonine. The proposed approach harnesses the reliable and specific attachment of proteins to both drugs and nanoparticle to facilitate the enhancement of spectral markers that are sensitive to the presence of the drugs. In conjunction with chemometric tools, we have shown the ability to quantify these drugs lower than levels achievable by existing clinical immunoassays. Through molecular docking simulations, we also probe the mechanistic underpinnings of the protein tethering approach, opening the door to detection of a broad class of narcotics in biological fluids within a few minutes as well as for groundwater analysis and toxin detection.

  16. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  17. Testing the reliability of the Fall Risk Screening Tool in an elderly ambulatory population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Susan J; McKay, Michael; Hyrkas, Kristiina

    2013-11-01

    To identify and test the reliability of a fall risk screening tool in an ambulatory outpatient clinic. The Fall Risk Screening Tool (Albert Lea Medical Center, MN, USA) was scripted for an interview format. Two interviewers separately screened a convenience sample of 111 patients (age ≥ 65 years) in an ambulatory outpatient clinic in a northeastern US city. The interviewers' scoring of fall risk categories was similar. There was good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.834-0.889) and inter-rater reliability [intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.824-0.881] for total, Risk Factor and Client's Health Status subscales. The Physical Environment scores indicated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.742) and adequate reliability (ICC = 0.688). Two Physical Environment items (furniture and medical equipment condition) had low reliabilities [Kappa (K) = 0.323, P = 0.08; K = -0.078, P = 0.648), respectively. The scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool demonstrated good reliability in this sample. Rewording two Physical Environment items will be considered. A reliable instrument such as the scripted Fall Risk Screening Tool provides a standardised assessment for identifying high fall risk patients. This tool is especially useful because it assesses personal, behavioural and environmental factors specific to community-dwelling patients; the interview format also facilitates patient-provider interaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the AC-OK mental health and substance abuse screening measure in an international sample of Latino immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ligia M; Shrout, Patrick E; Wang, Ye; Collazos, Francisco; Carmona, Rodrigo; Alegría, Margarita

    2017-11-01

    Early detection and intervention in primary care is integral to behavioral health. Valid, practical screening assessments are scarce, particularly for non-English speaking populations. We address this need by evaluating the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the AC-OK Screen for Co-occurring Disorders for first and second generation immigrant Latinos in Massachusetts, USA, and Madrid and Barcelona, Spain. 567 Latino participants were recruited in waiting areas of clinics or by referral from Primary Care, Mental Health, Substance Use, and HIV Treatment Clinics, as well as Community Agencies. We use confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the factor structure, correlation analysis to examine concurrent and discriminant validity, and receiver operating curves (ROC) to determine the ability of the AC-OK to approximate a composite of established instruments designed to measure depression, generalized anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, alcohol, and drugs (including benzodiazepines) as external criteria. The original two factor structure was replicated in samples of Latino respondents in the US and Spain. Correlations with other measures followed the expected pattern. In both the US and Spain, ROC analyses suggested that the AC-OK scale was an adequate approximation to other specific measures of mental health (ROC=0.90) and substance abuse problems (ROC=0.83). The Spanish version of the AC-OK Screen has good to excellent psychometric properties in both its subscales. These findings are robust across sites, gender, and type of clinic. We recommend its use for clinical research and for routine screening at treatment centers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic review of fall risk screening tools for older patients in acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Maria; Ivziku, Dhurata; Bartolozzi, Francesco; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-06-01

    To determine the most accurate fall risk screening tools for predicting falls among patients aged 65 years or older admitted to acute care hospitals. Falls represent a serious problem in older inpatients due to the potential physical, social, psychological and economic consequences. Older inpatients present with risk factors associated with age-related physiological and psychological changes as well as multiple morbidities. Thus, fall risk screening tools for older adults should include these specific risk factors. There are no published recommendations addressing what tools are appropriate for older hospitalized adults. Systematic review. MEDLINE, CINAHL and Cochrane electronic databases were searched between January 1981-April 2013. Only prospective validation studies reporting sensitivity and specificity values were included. Recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Reviews have been followed. Three fall risk assessment tools were evaluated in seven articles. Due to the limited number of studies, meta-analysis was carried out only for the STRATIFY and Hendrich Fall Risk Model II. In the combined analysis, the Hendrich Fall Risk Model II demonstrated higher sensitivity than STRATIFY, while the STRATIFY showed higher specificity. In both tools, the Youden index showed low prognostic accuracy. The identified tools do not demonstrate predictive values as high as needed for identifying older inpatients at risk for falls. For this reason, no tool can be recommended for fall detection. More research is needed to evaluate fall risk screening tools for older inpatients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Radioimmunoassay screening and GC/MS confirmation of whole blood samples for drugs of abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiehler, V.R.; Sedgwick, P.

    From 1981 to 1984, an average of 300 radioimmunoassay screens on whole blood were performed each week in the authors laboratory. Most samples were screened for opiates phencyclidine and its analogs, barbiturates, and cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine. A commercially available radioimmunoassay was used with modifications to facilitate screening of whole blood. Increasing sample size increased the sensitivity of the assay. Changing reagent concentration (1:1 dilution), incubation time, sample matrix (water, urine, or blood), or fraction counted (precipitate or supernatant) did not affect the utility of the standard curve or the sensitivity of the assay. All positive results for phencyclidine, opiates, cocaine, and related compounds were confirmed by GC/MA. Barbiturate positives were confirmed by UV spectrophotometry.

  1. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: disease burden and screening tools : towards newborn screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vries, Jutte Jacoba Catharina de

    2012-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common congenital viral infection worldwide. The symptom of congenital CMV infection encountered most frequently is sensorineural hearing loss, which will affect approximately one out of five congenitally infected newborns. Because of the late-onset nature of the hearing loss, up to half of the children with congenital CMV-related hearing loss may not be detected in the newborn hearing screening. This thesis addresses several aspects of congenital CM...

  2. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Wittbrodt, Jonas N.; Liebel, Urban; Gehrig, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. ...

  3. The Feasibility of Tree Coring as a Screening Tool for Selected Contaminants in the Subsurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen

    on their physico-chemical properties. A small sample of the wood (a tree core) can be collected and analyzed to give information on potential subsurface contamination. To date the focus of tree coring has mainly been on the use as a screening tool for chlorinated solvents including perchloroethylene (PCE...... attained through established site characterization methods. The site investigations showed that the use of tree coring as a screening tool for heavy metals and BTEX in the subsurface is more complex than for chlorinated solvents. Heavy metals were expected to be good candidates for tree coring due...... (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and chlorinated solvents. The large number of contaminated sites has created a need for effective and reliable site investigations. In this PhD project the feasibility of tree coring as a screening tool for selected contaminants in the subsurface has been investigated...

  4. Screening tool development for health impact assessment of large administrative structural changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anne Katrine; Nicolaisen, Henriette; Linnrose, Karina

    2008-01-01

    available on the Internet and in the scientific literature, in many cases lack of access to those tools creates a barrier to the use of HIA. RESULTS: Denmark is undergoing a major structural change in state administration, moving many responsibilities from the state to the local level. Newly constructed......AIMS: Screening is the first, extremely important step of health impact assessment (HIA) methodology. It contributes to the decision to conduct or not conduct a full assessment, and predefines the main fields of interest of the assessment. METHODS: Although there are examples of screening tools...... councils are faced with challenges regarding their responsibilities in health promotion and other fields, and this has opened a window for the introduction of HIA at a local level. Owing to the lack of experience with HIA in Denmark, screening tools are lacking and are frequently requested by councils...

  5. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  6. Novel Screening Tool for Stroke Using Artificial Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Vida; Goyal, Nitin; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Hosseinichimeh, Niyousha; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Elijovich, Lucas; Metter, Jeffrey E; Alexandrov, Anne W; Liebeskind, David S; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Zand, Ramin

    2017-06-01

    The timely diagnosis of stroke at the initial examination is extremely important given the disease morbidity and narrow time window for intervention. The goal of this study was to develop a supervised learning method to recognize acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) and differentiate that from stroke mimics in an emergency setting. Consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department with stroke-like symptoms, within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset, in 2 tertiary care stroke centers were randomized for inclusion in the model. We developed an artificial neural network (ANN) model. The learning algorithm was based on backpropagation. To validate the model, we used a 10-fold cross-validation method. A total of 260 patients (equal number of stroke mimics and ACIs) were enrolled for the development and validation of our ANN model. Our analysis indicated that the average sensitivity and specificity of ANN for the diagnosis of ACI based on the 10-fold cross-validation analysis was 80.0% (95% confidence interval, 71.8-86.3) and 86.2% (95% confidence interval, 78.7-91.4), respectively. The median precision of ANN for the diagnosis of ACI was 92% (95% confidence interval, 88.7-95.3). Our results show that ANN can be an effective tool for the recognition of ACI and differentiation of ACI from stroke mimics at the initial examination. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Screening tool for late-effect pediatric neuro-oncological clinics: a treatment-oriented questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg-Kushnir, Noa; Freedman, Sigal; Eshel, Rina; Zwerdling, Nirit; Elhasid, Ronit; Dvir, Rina; Yalon, Michal; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Constantini, Shlomi

    2013-08-01

    Many survivors of pediatric brain tumors (SPBTs) suffer from long-term late effects (LEs). Our aim was to create a practical screening tool for detecting LEs in this population. Such a screening tool will improve our ability to identify those patients who may benefit from treatment in LE clinics while focusing on individual relevant issues. We developed the Treatment-Oriented Screening Questionnaire (TOSQ); a self-reported, risk-based questionnaire that addresses all LEs SPBTs can potentially suffer. As a basis for the TOSQ design we used the Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines published by the Children's Oncology Group. Output includes individual recommendations for further treatment. We prospectively assessed whether the TOSQ can accurately detect treatment targets in SPBTs by comparing patient and caregiver questionnaire scores with physician evaluations. Data are presented from 41 SPBTs. The TOSQ is a precise screening tool for identifying LEs in SPBTs based on the significant correlation (P patient difficulties and quality of life. The TOSQ is the first described screening tool for identification of LEs designed specifically for SPBTs. It is simple to use and provides a valid, comprehensive and economic assessment followed by targeted treatment plan for each patient. By repeatedly using the TOSQ over the years, we can improve our ability to detect and give focused treatment to those who require assistance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Screening for cancer-related distress: Summary of evidence from tools to programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, P. E.; Johansen, C.; Mitchell, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. A number of studies have addressed the development and testing of tools for measuring cancer-related distress. Except for studies of diagnostic validity, knowledge on the effect of screening for psychological distress on psychological well-being is limited. We aimed to describe...... and critically discuss the findings of randomized trials of the effect of screening and to identify components necessary for future studies of the effectiveness of screening programmes. Methods. A search was made of the Embase/Medline and Web of Knowledge abstract databases from inception to September 2010. Our...

  9. Patient-completed or symptom-based screening tools for endometriosis: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrey, Eric; Carter, Cathryn M; Soliman, Ahmed M; Khan, Shahnaz; DiBenedetti, Dana B; Snabes, Michael C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this review was to evaluate existing patient-completed screening questionnaires and/or symptom-based predictive models with respect to their potential for use as screening tools for endometriosis in adult women. Validated instruments were of particular interest. We conducted structured searches of PubMed and targeted searches of the gray literature to identify studies reporting on screening instruments used in endometriosis. Studies were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria that followed the PICOS (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, study design) framework. A total of 16 studies were identified, of which 10 described measures for endometriosis in general, 2 described measures for endometriosis at specific sites, and 4 described measures for deep-infiltrating endometriosis. Only 1 study evaluated a questionnaire that was solely patient-completed. Most measures required physician, imaging, or laboratory assessments in addition to patient-completed questionnaires, and several measures relied on complex scoring. Validation for use as a screening tool in adult women with potential endometriosis was lacking in all studies, as most studies focused on diagnosis versus screening. This literature review did not identify any fully validated, symptom-based, patient-reported questionnaires for endometriosis screening in adult women.

  10. A novel multidimensional geriatric screening tool in the ED: evaluation of feasibility and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Bieri, Christoph; Özgüler, Onur; Moser, André; Haberkern, Monika; Zimmermann, Heinz; Stuck, Andreas E; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis

    2014-06-01

    Geriatric problems frequently go undetected in older patients in emergency departments (EDs), thus increasing their risk of adverse outcomes. We evaluated a novel emergency geriatric screening (EGS) tool designed to detect geriatric problems. The EGS tool consisted of short validated instruments used to screen 4 domains (cognition, falls, mobility, and activities of daily living). Emergency geriatric screening was introduced for ED patients 75 years or older throughout a 4-month period. We analyzed the prevalence of abnormal EGS and whether EGS increased the number of EGS-related diagnoses in the ED during the screening, as compared with a preceding control period. Emergency geriatric screening was performed on 338 (42.5%) of 795 patients presenting during screening. Emergency geriatric screening was unfeasible in 175 patients (22.0%) because of life-threatening conditions and was not performed in 282 (35.5%) for logistical reasons. Emergency geriatric screening took less than 5 minutes to perform in most (85.8%) cases. Among screened patients, 285 (84.3%) had at least 1 abnormal EGS finding. In 270 of these patients, at least 1 abnormal EGS finding did not result in a diagnosis in the ED and was reported for further workup to subsequent care. During screening, 142 patients (42.0%) had at least 1 diagnosis listed within the 4 EGS domains, significantly more than the 29.3% in the control period (odds ratio 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-2.29; Pdeterminants of subsequent care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RAPID progression: tool for screening aggressive course of disease (ACD) in Alzheimer dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavichachart, Nuntika; Worakul, Puangsoy; Farlow, Martin R

    2011-04-01

    There is a need for a tool in clinical practice to assess the rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The present study purpose was to develop a tool for screening and progression assessing of AD patients with Aggressive Course of Disease (ACD). The Thai Realtime Assessment of Progression In Dementia (RAPID) was developed for screening AD patients with ACD through a caregiver questionnaire. At baseline and at a 6-month follow up visit, patients were tested by the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive component (ADAS-Cog), while their caregivers completed the Thai RAPID. The tests were run by a team of psychiatrists in the Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Fifty patients with cognitive impairment were recruited. As a screening tool, the Thai RAPID cut-off point of 9-points yielded a fair sensitivity and specificity (0.625 and 0.643, respectively) for rapid progression as defined by 4 point or greater deterioration in ADAS-Cog. As a progression assessment tool, a cutoff point of 3-points yielded a good sensitivity and specificity (0.875 and 0.810, respectively). The present pilot study suggests that the Thai RAPID can be a valuable tool for the ACD screening and for progression assessment in AD patients.

  12. Developing Family Healthware, a family history screening tool to prevent common chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Paula W; Scheuner, Maren T; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J

    2009-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with personalized recommendations for lifestyle changes and screening. The tool collects data on health behaviors, screening tests, and disease history of a person's first- and second-degree relatives. Algorithms in the software analyze the family history data and assess familial risk based on the number of relatives affected, their age at disease onset, their sex, how closely related the relatives are to each other and to the user, and the combinations of diseases in the family. A second set of algorithms uses the data on familial risk level, health behaviors, and screening to generate personalized prevention messages. Qualitative and quantitative formative research on lay understanding of family history and genetics helped shape the tool's content, labels, and messages. Lab-based usability testing helped refine messages and tool navigation. The tool is being evaluated by 3 academic centers by using a network of primary care practices to determine whether personalized prevention messages tailored to familial risk will motivate people at risk to change their lifestyles or screening behaviors.

  13. Effectiveness of a screening tool to detect injuries during Army Health Care Specialist training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Rice, Valerie J; Connolly, Vickie L; Pritchard, Allyson; Bergeron, Annette; Mays, Mary Z

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of an initial screening and referral process in reducing the impact of musculosketetal injuries among soldiers attending Health Care Specialist training. Musculoskeletal injury among Army Health Care Specialist students have been reported to be approximately 24% for men and 24-30% for women. The highest student visit rate to the troop medical clinic for musculoskeletal injuries, for men and women, occurs during the first week of training. Anecdotal reports indicate that many students arrive for training with existing injuries or symptoms. This project was designed to assess whether formalized early screening, referral, and intervention could 1) identify arriving students who need musculoskeletal injury-related medical attention, 2) reduce the number of students receiving limited duty status during their 10-week training, 3) decrease the total number of limited duty days for students, and 4) decrease the number of students who cannot graduate due to musculoskeletal injury. Students (N=291) from one company were divided into three groups of 97 students. Three methods were used to screen and refer students for medical intervention: 1) traditional (T), 2) by health care providers (HCP), or 3) by Drill Sergeants (DS). Screening by HCP and DSs involved using a new screening tool to identify and consequently refer students with symptoms to a troop medical clinic (TMC) for early evaluation and intervention. Using the screening tool, HCPs identified 92% of students with injuries, while DSs accurately identified 80%. The screening did not reduce the number of students receiving limited duty status, total limited duty days, or the number of students that could not graduate due to musculoskeletal injury ("holdovers") (p>0.05). The screening tool demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity whether conducted by HCPs or DSs. It failed to demonstrate efficacy in reducing the impact of musculoskeletal injuries among

  14. Validation of the Healthy Foot Screen: A Novel Assessment Tool for Common Clinical Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Reneeka; Coutts, Patricia M; Brandon, Alisa; Verma, Luvneet; Elliott, James A; Sibbald, R Gary

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this learning activity is to provide information about the Healthy Foot Screen, a new tool for assessment of common foot abnormalities. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:1. Recognize prevalence, causes, risk factors, signs, and types of common foot problems.2. Identify the results of this study about the new foot screening tool and its implications in primary care. Foot health is a key component of general health and well-being. Nevertheless, feet are often overlooked by healthcare providers and patients. Common foot problems include infections or inflammatory conditions, abnormal nail disorders (eg, onychomycosis), structural bony abnormalities, circulation disorders, and other conditions. The development of an easy-to-use, rapid, clinical tool to assess foot health can facilitate primary care provider recognition and treatment of common foot problems. This study ascertained interrater item reliability and validity from the preliminary version of one such tool called the Healthy Foot Screen.A total of 18 patients from a community dermatology clinic were individually screened by 11 interprofessional healthcare assessors using the preliminary tool. The assessors included a dermatologist/internist, family physicians, nurses, and podiatrists. The initial draft of the Healthy Foot Screen was created through an extensive literature review, complemented by the clinical judgment of the study team. Cronbach α was calculated for each item to determine interrater reliability. A minimum value of 0.6 was set for an item to be included in the final tool. Where applicable, scores for each item on the screen were calculated for right and left lower limbs and then averaged. Assessors were asked to complete a short survey.Interrater reliability scores for items on the

  15. The Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire: a new tool for assessing and managing sleep in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Charles; James, Lois; Lawson, Doug; Meeuwisse, Willem

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a subjective, self-report, sleep-screening questionnaire for elite athletes. This paper describes the development of the Athlete Sleep Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ). A convenience sample of 60 elite athletes was randomly distributed into two groups; 30 athletes completed a survey composed of current psychometric tools, and 30 athletes completed a revised survey and a sleep specialist structured clinical interview. An item analysis was performed on the revised survey with comparison to clinical decisions regarding appropriate intervention based on a sleep specialist assessment. A comparison of existing sleep-screening tools with determination of clinical need from a sleep specialist showed low consistency, indicating that current sleep-screening tools are unsuitable for assessing athlete sleep. A new 15-item tool was developed (ASSQ) by selecting items from existing tools that more closely associated with the sleep specialist's reviews. Based on test-retest percentage agreement and the κ-statistic, we found good internal consistency and reliability of the ASSQ. To date, 349 athletes have been screened, and 46 (13.2%) identified as requiring follow-up consultation with a sleep specialist. Results from the follow-up consultations demonstrated that those athletes identified by the ASSQ as abnormal sleepers have required intervention. The research developed a new athlete-specific sleep-screening questionnaire. Our findings suggest that existing sleep-screening tools are unsuitable for assessing sleep in elite athletes. The ASSQ appears to be more accurate in assessing athlete sleep (based on comparison with expert clinical assessment). The ASSQ can be deployed online and provides clinical cut-off scores associated with specific clinical interventions to guide management of athletes' sleep disturbance. The next phase of the research is to conduct a series of studies comparing results from the ASSQ to blinded clinical reviews and

  16. CrossCheck: an open-source web tool for high-throughput screen data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafov, Jamil; Najafov, Ayaz

    2017-07-19

    Modern high-throughput screening methods allow researchers to generate large datasets that potentially contain important biological information. However, oftentimes, picking relevant hits from such screens and generating testable hypotheses requires training in bioinformatics and the skills to efficiently perform database mining. There are currently no tools available to general public that allow users to cross-reference their screen datasets with published screen datasets. To this end, we developed CrossCheck, an online platform for high-throughput screen data analysis. CrossCheck is a centralized database that allows effortless comparison of the user-entered list of gene symbols with 16,231 published datasets. These datasets include published data from genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR screens, interactome proteomics and phosphoproteomics screens, cancer mutation databases, low-throughput studies of major cell signaling mediators, such as kinases, E3 ubiquitin ligases and phosphatases, and gene ontological information. Moreover, CrossCheck includes a novel database of predicted protein kinase substrates, which was developed using proteome-wide consensus motif searches. CrossCheck dramatically simplifies high-throughput screen data analysis and enables researchers to dig deep into the published literature and streamline data-driven hypothesis generation. CrossCheck is freely accessible as a web-based application at http://proteinguru.com/crosscheck.

  17. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  18. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of CRAFFT Substance Abuse Screening Test among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandemir H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Kandemir,1 Ömer Aydemir,2 Suat Ekinci,3 Salih Selek,4 Sultan B Kandemir,5 Hüseyin Bayazit61Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, 2Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, 3Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, Texas, USA; 5Department of Psychiatry, Balikligol State Hospital, Sanliurfa, 6Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, TurkeyAim: This study aimed to validate the CRAFFT diagnostic test, against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fourth Edition, Axis 1-based diagnostic inventory in a Turkish population of adolescents.Method: The 124 adolescents who were 15–18 years old were enrolled to this study. CRAFFT was self-administered. Interviews took approximately 30 minutes, including the DSM-IV diagnostic interview for alcohol/drug dependence.Results: The mean age of subjects was 16.653 years (minimum: 15 years, maximum: 18 years. A score of 2 or higher in part B was found to be optimal for detecting youths with substance dependence problems (sensitivity: 0.82; specificity: 0.88 and it was sufficiently discriminative.Conclusion: The CRAFFT is a valid and reliable instrument for identifying Turkish-speaking youths at risk for substance use disorders.Keywords: CRAFFT, substance abuse, validity, Turkish, adolescent

  19. Which screening tools can predict injury to the lower extremities in team sports?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M

    2012-09-01

    Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H

  20. A web-based screening tool for near-port air quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community model for near-PORT applications (C-PORT) is a screening tool with an intended purpose of calculating differences in annual averaged concentration patterns and relative contributions of various source categories over the spatial domain within about 10 km of the port...

  1. A developmental screening tool for toddlers with multiple domains based on Rasch analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Wen Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MuSiC can be applied simultaneously to well-child care visits as a universal screening tool for children aged 1–3 years on multiple domains. Items with sound validity for infants need to be further developed.

  2. Translation and discriminative validation of the STarT Back Screening Tool into Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT) is a nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies low back pain patients into low, medium or high risk of poor prognosis. When assessed by GPs, these subgroups can be used to triage patients into different evidence-based treatment pa...

  3. Preliminary Analysis of a Modified Screening Tool to Increase the Frequency of Palliative Care Consults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Emily; Yessayan, Lenar; Mendez, Michael; Hammad, Aws; Jennings, Jeffrey

    2018-03-01

    Palliative care interventions have been shown to improve patient quality of life but the benefit may be less if interventions occur late in the patient's disease process. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether an objective screening tool could improve the frequency and timeliness of palliative care consultation. Using a quasi-experimental design with 2 geographically separate medical intensive care units (MICUs), the control MICU continued existing consultation practice and the intervention MICU implemented a screening tool with each new admission. Any item checked on the screening tool triggered a palliative care consult within 24 hours of admission to the MICU. A total of 223 MICU admissions were evaluated: 156 patients in the control group and 67 patients in the intervention group. More consults were generated in the intervention group (22.39%) compared to the control group (7.05%; P < .001). The median time to consultation was lower in the intervention group compared to the control group (1 day vs 2 days; P < .01). Implementing a simple, objective screening tool increased palliative consultation rates and decreased median time to palliative consultation in our institution's MICU.

  4. Evaluation of a two-question screening tool in the detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Saimen

    by-nc/3.0 ... Participants were asked about their experience of intimate partner violence during the past 12 months. ..... whether the sensitivity of the screening tool could be enhanced by using different criteria. Analysis of outcome for ...

  5. PROFSS : A screening tool for early identification of functional somatic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gol, Janna M; Burger, Huibert; Janssens, Karin A M; Slaets, Joris P J; Gans, Rijk O B; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate a brief screening tool for predicting functional somatic symptoms (FSS) based on clinical and non-clinical information from the general practitioner referral letter, and to assess its inter-rater reliability. Methods: The-derivation sample consisted of 357

  6. Development of an innovative uav-mountd screening tool for landfill gas emisiions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, L.; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga...

  7. Development of an innovative uav-mounted screening tool for landfill gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Thomasen, T. B.; Valbjørn, I. L.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of landfill gas emission hot spots are potentially a very time consuming process, and the use of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) based screening tool could be an effective investigation strategy. In this study, the potential use of a long-wave thermal infrared camera was investiga...

  8. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  9. Preconception care: a screening tool for health assessment and risk detection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerd, S. de; Bij, A.K. van der; Cikot, R.J.L.M.; Braspenning, J.C.C.; Braat, D.D.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Identification of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome is a main component of preconception care, but requires adequate time and knowledge. This study compares self-administered questionnaires to history taking by a physician to evaluate the reliability of such a screening tool for

  10. Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Mack D.; Davis, John L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Fogarty, Melissa Shea

    2014-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior…

  11. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  12. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Eighty children aged 5 -15 years with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (HbSS) in a steady state attending the Lagos State University ... The sensitivity and specificity of the Micral-Test make it a good screening tool to detect MA in children with SCA. The Micral- .... The average cost of performing the Micral-Test was USD5.

  13. START (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment)--an evidence-based screening tool to detect prescribing omissions in elderly patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, P J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Inappropriate prescribing encompasses acts of commission i.e. giving drugs that are contraindicated or unsuitable, and acts of omission i.e. failure to prescribe drugs when indicated due to ignorance of evidence base or other irrational basis e.g. ageism. There are considerable published data on the prevalence of inappropriate prescribing; however, there are no recent published data on the prevalence of acts of omission. The aim of this study was to calculate the prevalence of acts of prescribing omission in a population of consecutively hospitalised elderly people. METHODS: A screening tool (screening tool to alert doctors to the right treatment acronym, START), devised from evidence-based prescribing indicators and arranged according to physiological systems was prepared and validated for identifying prescribing omissions in older adults. Data on active medical problems and prescribed medicines were collected in 600 consecutive elderly patients admitted from the community with acute illness to a teaching hospital. On identification of an omitted medication, the patient\\'s medical records were studied to look for a valid reason for the prescribing omission. RESULTS: Using the START list, we found one or more prescribing omissions in 57.9% of patients. In order of prevalence, the most common prescribing omissions were: statins in atherosclerotic disease (26%), warfarin in chronic atrial fibrillation (9.5%), anti-platelet therapy in arterial disease (7.3%) and calcium\\/vitamin D supplementation in symptomatic osteoporosis (6%). CONCLUSION: Failure to prescribe appropriate medicines is a highly prevalent problem among older people presenting to hospital with acute illness. A validated screening tool (START) is one method of systematically identifying appropriate omitted medicines in clinical practice.

  14. Can abstract screening workload be reduced using text mining? User experiences of the tool Rayyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Hanna; Brolund, Agneta; Hellberg, Christel; Silverstein, Rebecca; Stenström, Karin; Österberg, Marie; Dagerhamn, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    One time-consuming aspect of conducting systematic reviews is the task of sifting through abstracts to identify relevant studies. One promising approach for reducing this burden uses text mining technology to identify those abstracts that are potentially most relevant for a project, allowing those abstracts to be screened first. To examine the effectiveness of the text mining functionality of the abstract screening tool Rayyan. User experiences were collected. Rayyan was used to screen abstracts for 6 reviews in 2015. After screening 25%, 50%, and 75% of the abstracts, the screeners logged the relevant references identified. A survey was sent to users. After screening half of the search result with Rayyan, 86% to 99% of the references deemed relevant to the study were identified. Of those studies included in the final reports, 96% to 100% were already identified in the first half of the screening process. Users rated Rayyan 4.5 out of 5. The text mining function in Rayyan successfully helped reviewers identify relevant studies early in the screening process. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evaluating the reliability of an injury prevention screening tool: Test-retest study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelman, Michael A; Kincaid, Madeline; Denny, Sarah; Wervey Arnold, Melissa; FitzGerald, Michael; Carle, Adam C; Mara, Constance A

    2016-10-01

    A standardized injury prevention (IP) screening tool can identify family risks and allow pediatricians to address behaviors. To assess behavior changes on later screens, the tool must be reliable for an individual and ideally between household members. Little research has examined the reliability of safety screening tool questions. This study utilized test-retest reliability of parent responses on an existing IP questionnaire and also compared responses between household parents. Investigators recruited parents of children 0 to 1 year of age during admission to a tertiary care children's hospital. When both parents were present, one was chosen as the "primary" respondent. Primary respondents completed the 30-question IP screening tool after consent, and they were re-screened approximately 4 hours later to test individual reliability. The "second" parent, when present, only completed the tool once. All participants received a 10-dollar gift card. Cohen's Kappa was used to estimate test-retest reliability and inter-rater agreement. Standard test-retest criteria consider Kappa values: 0.0 to 0.40 poor to fair, 0.41 to 0.60 moderate, 0.61 to 0.80 substantial, and 0.81 to 1.00 as almost perfect reliability. One hundred five families participated, with five lost to follow-up. Thirty-two (30.5%) parent dyads completed the tool. Primary respondents were generally mothers (88%) and Caucasian (72%). Test-retest of the primary respondents showed their responses to be almost perfect; average 0.82 (SD = 0.13, range 0.49-1.00). Seventeen questions had almost perfect test-retest reliability and 11 had substantial reliability. However, inter-rater agreement between household members for 12 objective questions showed little agreement between responses; inter-rater agreement averaged 0.35 (SD = 0.34, range -0.19-1.00). One question had almost perfect inter-rater agreement and two had substantial inter-rater agreement. The IP screening tool used by a single individual had excellent

  16. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  18. Tomosynthesis as a screening tool for breast cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coop, P.; Cowling, C.; Lawson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mammography is an important screening tool for reducing breast cancer mortality. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) can potentially be integrated with mammography to aid in cancer detection. Method: Using the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of current literature was conducted to identify issues relating to the use of tomosynthesis as a screening tool together with mammography. Findings: Using tomosynthesis with digital mammography (DM) increases breast cancer detection, reduces recall rates and increases the positive predictive value of those cases recalled. Invasive cancer detection is significantly improved in tomosynthesis compared to mammography, and has improved success for women with heterogeneous or extremely dense breasts. Conclusion: Tomosynthesis reduces some limitations of mammography at the time of screening that until recently were most often addressed by ultrasound at later work-up. Tomosynthesis can potentially be adopted alongside mammography as a screening tool. - Highlights: • Using tomosynthesis with digital mammography increases breast cancer detection. • Tomosynthesis has improved detection for women with extremely dense breasts. • Tomosynthesis reduces the need for ultrasound to address mammography limitations. • When Tomosynthesis is combined with mammography, recall rates are reduced.

  19. Is the presence of a validated malnutrition screening tool associated with better nutritional care in hospitalized patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Halfens, Ruud J G; Lohrmann, Christa

    2017-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between the use of clinical guidelines and the use of validated screening tools, evaluate the nutritional screening policy in hospitals, and examine the association between the use of validated screening tools and the prevalence of malnutrition and nutritional interventions in hospitalized patients. This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire on three levels: institution (presence of a guideline for malnutrition), department (use of a validated screening tool), and patient (e.g., malnutrition prevalence). In all, 53 hospitals with 5255 patients participated. About 45% of the hospitals indicated that they have guidelines for malnutrition. Of the departments surveyed, 38.6% used validated screening tools as part of a standard procedure. The nutritional status of 74.5% of the patients was screened during admission, mostly on the basis of clinical observation and patient weight. A validated screening tool was used for 21.2% of the patients. Significant differences between wards with and without validated screening tools were found with regard to malnutrition prevalence (P = 0.002) and the following interventions: referral to a dietitian (P malnutrition screening tools is associated with better nutritional care and lower malnutrition prevalence rates in hospitalized patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The development of a mental health screening tool and referral pathway for police custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, Heather L; Walsh, Elizabeth C L; Shaw, Jenny J; Senior, Jane

    2015-04-01

    Time spent in police custody should present an opportunity for the early identification of mental ill health. However, this stage of the criminal justice system (CJS) is currently the least developed in terms of its links with health and social services. In England, police custody sergeants administer a standardized risk assessment tool to determine a detainee's need for health-care and/or risk reduction measures while detained. Specialized mental health services are often reliant on this process to generate referrals; however, previous research has shown this to be ineffective. The aim of this study was to develop an improved mental health screening tool and referral pathway to better identify individuals with mental ill health in police custody. Mental health professionals, police officers and service users across six sites throughout England took part in qualitative interviews, controlled feedback consultations and an action learning group. By combining a previously validated CJS mental health screening tool with elements of the custody risk assessment, the Police Mental Health Screening Questionnaire (PolQuest) was created. It is accompanied by a referral pathway that outlines services' responsibilities, expected actions and response times. The study resulted in a screening tool, referral pathway and training package. PolQuest is expected to facilitate the mental health screening of all adult detainees; improve the early identification of mental ill health; aid timely access to services; provide clear indicators for referral; and reduce ambiguity in the roles and responsibilities of staff across a range of criminal justice and health-care services. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Terrestrial avoidance behaviour tests as screening tool to assess soil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Susana [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)]. E-mail: sloureiro@bio.ua.pt; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Nogueira, Antonio J.A. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2005-11-15

    To assess soil quality and risk assessment, bioassays can be useful tools to gauge the potential toxicity of contaminants focusing on their bioavailable fraction. A rapid and sublethal avoidance behaviour test was used as a screening tool with the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus, where organisms were exposed during 48 h to several chemicals (lindane, dimethoate and copper sulphate, for isopods and carbendazim, benomyl, dimethoate and copper sulphate for earthworms). Both species were also exposed to soils from an abandoned mine. For all bioassays a statistical approach was used to derive EC{sub 50} values. Isopods and earthworms were able to perceive the presence of toxic compounds and escaping from contaminated to clean soil. Furthermore the behaviour parameter was equally or more sensitive then other sublethal parameters (e.g. reproduction or growth), expressing the advantages of Avoidance Behaviour Tests as screening tools in ERA. - Avoidance Behaviour Tests with earthworms and isopods can be used as screening tools in the evaluation of soil contamination.

  2. Identifying obstructive sleep apnea after stroke/TIA: evaluating four simple screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Mark I; Wan, Anthony; Im, James; Elias, Sara; Frankul, Fadi; Atalla, Mina; Black, Sandra E; Basile, Vincenzo S; Sundaram, Arun; Hopyan, Julia J; Boyle, Karl; Gladstone, David J; Murray, Brian J; Swartz, Richard H

    2016-05-01

    Despite its high prevalence and unfavorable clinical consequences, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often remains underappreciated after cerebrovascular events. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the clinical utility of four simple paper-based screening tools for excluding OSA after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Sixty-nine inpatients and outpatients with stroke or TIA during the past 180 days completed the 4-Variable screening tool (4V), STOP-BAG questionnaire (ie, STOP-BANG questionnaire without the neck circumference measurement), Berlin questionnaire, and the Sleep Obstructive apnea score optimized for Stroke (SOS). They subsequently underwent objective testing using a portable sleep monitoring device. Cutoffs were selected to maximize sensitivity and exclude OSA (AHI ≥ 10) in ≥10% of the cohort. The mean age was 68.3 ± 14.2 years and 47.8% were male. Thirty-two patients (46.4%) were found to have OSA. Male sex, body mass index (BMI), and atrial fibrillation were independent predictors of OSA. Among the screening tools, the 4V had the greatest area under the curve (AUC) of 0.688 (p = 0.007); the sensitivity was 96.9% for a cutoff of stroke/TIA. Due to the atypical presentation of poststroke/TIA OSA, these tools are only moderately predictive; objective testing should still be used for OSA diagnosis in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittbrodt, Jonas N; Liebel, Urban; Gehrig, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods.

  4. Use of geriatric assessment and screening tools of frailty in elderly patients with prostate cancer. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Garrido, Maria-José; Guillén-Ponce, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    The management of prostate cancer in the elderly is a major public health concern in most countries. Currently, most prostate cancers are diagnosed in elderly males. The elderly population is very heterogeneous. Thus, the current challenge is to identify better those individuals for whom specific screening tools and a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) would be beneficial. On the basis of the recommendations of the Prostate Cancer Working Group in the International Society of Geriatric Oncology, older patients with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status and not by their age. CGA is the best tool for determining the health status of an older patient. In this article, we sought to assemble all available evidence on the models of CGA and the prevalence of geriatric conditions in older patients with prostate cancer. We also discuss the feasibility of the most used screening tools in elderly patients, that is, the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) and G-8 as screening tools in this group of patients.

  5. Development of a Screening Tool to Improve Management of the Welfare Caseload in Kentucky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Donovan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the evaluation of the welfare program in Kentucky, descriptive and multivariate techniques were used to develop and test a brief screening tool. The purpose of this tool is to identify clients at risk of using 80% or more of the lifetime limit for cash assistance provided through the Kentucky’s Transitional Assistance Program (KTAP. The variables for the screening tool were identified through discriminant analysis and logistic regression using data from the KTAP administrative records and from two surveys: a panel study conducted with a representative group of KTAP recipients, and a point-in-time survey conducted with a representative sample of clients who reached their lifetime limit of cash assistance in 2001. Descriptive analyses using panel data show the stability of measures over time and their ability to set apart the segment of population at risk for high utilization of their available time on KTAP. The predictive value of the screening tool was tested with regression models using the KTAP utilization information available from the administrative records.

  6. Bruising characteristics discriminating physical child abuse from accidental trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Aldridge, Sara; O'Flynn, Justine; Lorenz, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to conduct a pilot study to identify discriminating bruising characteristics and to model those findings into a decision tool for screening children at high risk for abuse. A case-control study of children 0 to 48 months of age who were admitted to a PICU because of trauma was performed. Case subjects (N = 42) were victims of physical abuse, and control subjects (N = 53) were children admitted because of accidental trauma during the same time period. Bruising characteristics (total number and body region) and patient age were compared for children with abusive versus accidental trauma. The development of a decision rule for predicting abusive trauma was accomplished with the fitting of a classification and regression tree through binary recursive partitioning. Ninety-five patients were studied. Seventy-one (33 of 42 patients in the abuse group and 38 of 53 in the accident group) were found to have bruising, and the characteristics were modeled. Characteristics predictive of abuse were bruising on the torso, ear, or neck for a child abuse. Discriminating differences exist in bruising characteristics for abusive versus accidental trauma. The body region- and age-based bruising clinical decision rule model functions as a clinically sensible screening tool to identify young children who require further evaluation for abuse.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Turkish versions of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in the prison setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Ogel, Kultegin; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in prisoners with (n = 124) or without (n = 78) drug use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the DUDIT, the DAST-10, and the Addiction Profile Index-Short (API-S). The DUDIT and the DAST-10 were found to be psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measures with high convergent validity when compared with each other (r = 0.86), and API-S (r = 0.88 and r = 0.84, respectively), and to have a Cronbach's α of 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. In addition, a single component accounted for 58.28% of total variance for DUDIT, whereas this was 47.10% for DAST-10. The DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.95 and 0.79, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 10, whereas these scores were 0.88 and 0.74 for the DAST-10 when using the optimal cut-off score of 4. Additionally, both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 showed good discriminant validity as they differentiated prisoners with drug use disorder from those without. Findings support the Turkish versions of both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 as reliable and valid drug abuse screening instruments that measure unidimensional constructs.

  8. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Anne; DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne; Conigliaro, Joseph

    2016-07-08

    Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient's visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade "1" for the statement, "I would like to use this system frequently" during the first round of testing but a "5" during the second round of analysis. The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size of MOAs that participated. The results may have been biased to

  9. The relationship between mothers' child abuse potential and current mental health symptoms: implications for screening and referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Deborah J; Becker, Marion A; Buckley, Pamela R; Dailey, Kathy; Reichardt, Charles S; Graeber, Carla; VanDeMark, Nancy R; Brown, Ellen

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examined data from mothers at 2 of the 9 sites participating in Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA's) national Women Co-occurring Disorders and Violence Study (WCDVS). According to previous literature, it was hypothesized that women in the WCDVS would be at high risk of perpetrating child abuse. This research examined mothers' potential for physical child abuse and assessed the association between child abuse potential, current mental health symptoms, alcohol and drug use severity, and trauma. Results revealed that participants had significant potential for child abuse. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that current mental health symptoms were the strongest predictor of mothers' scores on the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory. This study highlights the important relationships between commonly used instruments across the mental health, substance, and child welfare fields and the potential dual use of these instruments. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  10. Is early detection of abused children possible?: a systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of the identification of abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailhache, Marion; Leroy, Valériane; Pillet, Pascal; Salmi, Louis-Rachid

    2013-12-05

    Early detection of abused children could help decrease mortality and morbidity related to this major public health problem. Several authors have proposed tools to screen for child maltreatment. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence on accuracy of tools proposed to identify abused children before their death and assess if any were adapted to screening. We searched in PUBMED, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, FRANCIS and PASCAL for studies estimating diagnostic accuracy of tools identifying neglect, or physical, psychological or sexual abuse of children, published in English or French from 1961 to April 2012. We extracted selected information about study design, patient populations, assessment methods, and the accuracy parameters. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS criteria. A total of 2 280 articles were identified. Thirteen studies were selected, of which seven dealt with physical abuse, four with sexual abuse, one with emotional abuse, and one with any abuse and physical neglect. Study quality was low, even when not considering the lack of gold standard for detection of abused children. In 11 studies, instruments identified abused children only when they had clinical symptoms. Sensitivity of tests varied between 0.26 (95% confidence interval [0.17-0.36]) and 0.97 [0.84-1], and specificity between 0.51 [0.39-0.63] and 1 [0.95-1]. The sensitivity was greater than 90% only for three tests: the absence of scalp swelling to identify children victims of inflicted head injury; a decision tool to identify physically-abused children among those hospitalized in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit; and a parental interview integrating twelve child symptoms to identify sexually-abused children. When the sensitivity was high, the specificity was always smaller than 90%. In 2012, there is low-quality evidence on the accuracy of instruments for identifying abused children. Identified tools were not adapted to screening because of low sensitivity and late identification

  11. μ-structured devices as tools for screening process intensification in biocatalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Woodley, John

    in productivity is evaluated through process metrics. A case study demonstrates the applicability of using a micro-scale packed bed column for screening synthetic resins for in-situ product removal. CFD simulations were performed to guide the design of a packed column for efficient operation. Further case studies......Biocatalytic processes have been emerging as potential replacements of traditional chemical synthesis in many industrial relevant production processes. However the implementation of new biocatalytic processes can be a very challenging procedure which requires both biocatalyst and process screening...... and characterization for economic evaluation before scale-up. Microstructured devices have been used as screening tools that allow paradigm changes in process development by shortening process development times through modularity and intensification. Customized reactor designs and process configurations by integrating...

  12. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a screening tool for children prior to school entrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Mantoudis, Stelios; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Janikian, Mari; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development, application and validation of the Α' TEST, a screening tool administered individually to kindergarten children to determine their school preparedness. The A' TEST evaluates six cognitive domains (abstract thinking, critical reasoning, language skills, visual perception, visual motor skills and organizational skills). It was administered to 2002 preschool children, and validated through comparison with well-established classification systems. Also, in order to examine the predictive value of the A' TEST, 201 of the examined children were reevaluated by their teachers two years after initial assessment. Analysis provided evidence of structure, convergent, concurrent and discriminant validity and reliability, as well as predictive validity. Overall, the Α' TEST predicted that 9.1% of the children were not school-ready, giving a 98.5% correct prediction when compared with the teachers' evaluations two years later. In conclusion, the Α' TEST is a valid and appropriate screening tool for school readiness.

  14. Comparison of two approaches to screen for dysphagia among acute ischemic stroke patients: nursing admission screening tool versus National Institutes of Health stroke scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravata, Dawn M; Daggett, Virginia S; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa; Plue, Laurie; Russell, Scott; Allen, George; Williams, Linda S; Harezlak, Jaroslaw; Chumbler, Neale R

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the positive and negative predictive values and the sensitivity and specificity of a nursing dysphagia screening tool and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) for the identification of dysphagia for veterans hospitalized with ischemic stroke.A secondary objective of this study was to evaluate the speech-language pathology consult rate before and after the nursing admission dysphagia screening tool. This retrospective cohort study evaluated veterans admitted to one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center with ischemic stroke during the 6 months both before and after the implementation of a nursing dysphagia screening tool, which was part of the admission nursing template. Stroke severity was measured with the use of the retrospective NIHSS. Dysphagia diagnosis was based on speech-language pathology evaluations.Dysphagia was present in 38 of 101 patients (38%) with ischemic stroke. The nursing dysphagia screening tool had a positive predictive value of 50% and a negative predictive value of 68%, with a sensitivity of 29% and specificity of 84%. The use of the NIHSS to identify dysphagia risk had a positive predictive value of 60% and a negative predictive value of 84%.The NIHSS had better test characteristics in predicting dysphagia than the nursing dysphagia screening tool. Future research should evaluate the use of the NIHSS as a screening tool for dysphagia.

  15. The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The ligase chain reaction Mycobacterium tuberculosis assay uses ligase chain reaction technology to detect tuberculous DNA sequences in clinical specimens. A study was undertaken to determine its sensitivity and specificity as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis. METHODS: The study was conducted on 2420 clinical specimens (sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, pleural fluid, urine) submitted for primary screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to a regional medical microbiology laboratory. Specimens were tested in parallel with smear, ligase chain reaction, and culture. RESULTS: Thirty nine patients had specimens testing positive by the ligase chain reaction assay. Thirty two patients had newly diagnosed tuberculosis, one had a tuberculosis relapse, three had tuberculosis (on antituberculous therapy when tested), and three had healed tuberculosis. In the newly diagnosed group specimens were smear positive in 21 cases (66%), ligase chain reaction positive in 30 cases (94%), and culture positive in 32 cases (100%). Using a positive culture to diagnose active tuberculosis, the ligase chain reaction assay had a sensitivity of 93.9%, a specificity of 99.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.8%, and a negative predictive value of 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the largest clinical trial to date to report the efficacy of the ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The authors conclude that ligase chain reaction is a useful primary screening test for tuberculosis, offering speed and discrimination in the early stages of diagnosis and complementing traditional smear and culture techniques.

  16. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  17. Accuracy of Brief Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Kartik K.; Zlotnick, Caron; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Ware, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 3 subscales for identifying postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. METHODS: Mothers enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview and the 10-item EPDS at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Three subscales of the EPDS were assessed as brief screening tools: 3-item anxiety subscale (EPDS-3), 7-item depressive symptoms subscale (EPDS-7), and 2-item subscale (EPDS-2) that resemble the Patient Health Questionnaire-2. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy. The sensitivities and specificities of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder. Repeated-measures longitudinal analytical techniques were used. RESULTS: A total of 106 women contributed 289 postpartum visits; 18% of the women met criteria for incident postpartum depression by psychiatric diagnostic interview. When used as continuous measures, the full EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 performed equally well (area under the curve >0.9). Optimal cutoff scores for a positive depression screen for the EPDS and EPDS-7 were lower (≥9 and ≥7, respectively) than currently recommended cutoff scores (≥10). At optimal cutoff scores, the EPDS and EPDS-7 both had sensitivities of 90% and specificities of >85%. CONCLUSIONS: The EPDS, EPDS-7, and EPDS-2 are highly accurate at identifying postpartum depression among adolescent mothers. In primary care pediatric settings, the EPDS and its shorter subscales have potential for use as effective depression screening tools. PMID:24344102

  18. Implementation of nutrition risk screening using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool across a large metropolitan health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P L; Raja, R; Golder, J; Stewart, A J; Shaikh, R F; Apostolides, M; Savva, J; Sequeira, J L; Silvers, M A

    2016-12-01

    A standardised nutrition risk screening (NRS) programme with ongoing education is recommended for the successful implementation of NRS. This project aimed to develop and implement a standardised NRS and education process across the adult bed-based services of a large metropolitan health service and to achieve a 75% NRS compliance at 12 months post-implementation. A working party of Monash Health (MH) dietitians and a nutrition technician revised an existing NRS medical record form consisting of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and nutrition management guidelines. Nursing staff across six MH hospital sites were educated in the use of this revised form and there was a formalised implementation process. Support from Executive Management, nurse educators and the Nutrition Risk Committee ensured the incorporation of NRS into nursing practice. Compliance audits were conducted pre- and post-implementation. At 12 months post-implementation, organisation-wide NRS compliance reached 34.3%. For those wards that had pre-implementation NRS performed by nursing staff, compliance increased from 7.1% to 37.9% at 12 months (P compliance improved at MH with strong governance support and formalised implementation; however, the overall compliance achieved appears to have been affected by the complexity and diversity of multiple healthcare sites. Ongoing education, regular auditing and establishment of NRS routines and ward practices is recommended to further improve compliance. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Development of a mnemonic screening tool for identifying subjects with Hunter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Gabriel M; Morin, Isabelle; Whiteman, David A H

    2013-07-01

    The Hunter Outcome Survey (HOS), an international, long-term observational registry of patients with Hunter syndrome, was used to develop a simple mnemonic screening tool (HUNTER) to aid in the diagnosis of Hunter syndrome. Data regarding the prediagnosis prevalence of ten specific signs and symptoms present in individual patients enrolled in the HOS were used to develop the HUNTER mnemonic screening tool. A total score of 6 or greater using a weighting scheme in which certain manifestations were assigned a weight of 2 (facial dysmorphism, nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, enlarged tongue, enlarged liver, enlarged spleen, joint stiffness) and others assigned a weight of 1 (hernia, hearing impairment, enlarged tonsils, airway obstruction or sleep apnea) correctly identified 95 % of patients who had no family history of Hunter syndrome or who were not diagnosed prenatally. No association between age at diagnosis and HUNTER score was found. The HUNTER mnemonic appears to be a useful screening tool. Further validation in the clinical setting will be necessary to confirm its utility.

  20. Urinary screening for methylphenidate (Ritalin) abuse: a comparison of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and immunoassay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorst, J; Etter, M; Lepage, J; Lehotay, D C

    2004-03-01

    To develop a routine method for detecting methylphenidate (Ritalin) use among drug abusers using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The new methodology was designed to replace less reliable and/or more expensive and time-consuming techniques (GC/MS and ELISA) currently employed in our laboratory, and to provide a combined one-step screening and confirmation LC/MS/MS method. Because methylphenidate abuse is very prevalent in Saskatchewan, there is a demand to provide high volume urine screening both to detect abuse, and to monitor compliance. Random urine samples sent for drugs of abuse testing, standards, and controls were diluted 1:100 in methanol. Diluted specimens were injected directly into an Agilent 1100 liquid chromatograph coupled to a Sciex API 2000 mass spectrometer. The method utilized selected reaction monitoring (SRM) as well as an electrospray ionization source (EIS) to detect both urinary methylphenidate and the more prevalent metabolite, ritalinic acid (RA). There appeared to be little or no sacrifice in sensitivity because the higher dilutions exhibited much less matrix effect. Limit of quantitation (LOQ) for methylphenidate was 100 nM and 500 nM for RA. Linear calibration curves from 100 to 1000 nM for Ritalin and 500 to 5000 nM for RA were acquired. Imprecision of spiked and true specimens did not exceed 10% and at the LOQ, it was less than 20%. A rapid, sensitive, reliable, and highly specific method by LC/MS/MS for detecting methylphenidate and its metabolite, RA, were developed. Both the cost and performance of the LC/MS/MS method were superior to GC/MS or ELISA, and it allows use of a single rapid procedure for both screening and confirmation.

  1. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  2. Identification and Evaluation of Physical Abuse in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Erin F; Wilson, Paria M; Riney, Lauren C; Ngo, Vi; Bennett, Berkeley; Duma, Elena

    2018-03-01

    Child physical abuse affects hundreds of thousands of children annually and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Pediatric health care providers play a key role in the recognition and treatment of suspected child abuse. Abusive injuries are often missed, which may lead to dire consequences for the child. Standardized screening tools and treatment guidelines can enhance early recognition of child abuse. This article reviews key findings in a medical history and physical examination that should raise suspicion for abuse. We also review the recommended evaluation that should occur when child abuse is suspected, as well as indications for reporting to child protective services. [Pediatr Ann. 2018;47(3):e97-e101.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Risk factors for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients and comparison of different screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Moreira de Souza

    Full Text Available HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND is relatively frequent among HIV-infected patients and is often underdiagnosed. Assessment of HAND in daily clinical practice is challenging and different tools have been proposed. Objective : To evaluate risk factors and compare different screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected patients. Methods : HIV-infected patients were evaluated using the International HIV-Dementia Scale (IHDS, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and a neurocognitive self-perception questionnaire recommended by the European AIDS Clinical Society. Sociodemographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained through chart review and patient interview. Results : Among the 63 patients included, low performance on the IHDS was observed in 54.0% and IHDS score was inversely associated with age (OR 0.13; 95%CI [0.02-0.67]. Regarding cognitive self-perception, 63.5% of patients reported no impairment on the three domains covered by the questionnaire. Among those patients self-reporting no problems, 42.1% had low performance on the IHDS. None of the patients scored below the education-adjusted cut-off on the MMSE. Conclusion : IHDS scores suggestive of HAND were observed in more than half of the patients and lower scores were found among older patients. There was low agreement between the different tools, suggesting that the MMSE may be inadequate for assessing HAND. The self-assessment questionnaire had low sensitivity and might not be useful as a screening tool.

  4. Automated tool for virtual screening and pharmacology-based pathway prediction and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandh Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The virtual screening is an effective tool for the lead identification in drug discovery. However, there are limited numbers of crystal structures available as compared to the number of biological sequences which makes (Structure Based Drug Discovery SBDD a difficult choice. The current tool is an attempt to automate the protein structure modelling and automatic virtual screening followed by pharmacology-based prediction and analysis. Starting from sequence(s, this tool automates protein structure modelling, binding site identification, automated docking, ligand preparation, post docking analysis and identification of hits in the biological pathways that can be modulated by a group of ligands. This automation helps in the characterization of ligands selectivity and action of ligands on a complex biological molecular network as well as on individual receptor. The judicial combination of the ligands binding different receptors can be used to inhibit selective biological pathways in a disease. This tool also allows the user to systemically investigate network-dependent effects of a drug or drug candidate.

  5. Fast and highly selective LC-MS/MS screening for THC and 16 other abused drugs and metabolites in human hair to monitor patients for drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Remco A; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDernagel, Joanneke E L; Uges, Donald R A

    2014-04-01

    To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine, codeine, heroin, 6-monoacteylmorphine, methadone, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine, and cotinine in human hair. The hair preparation method contains a 3-step wash procedure with dichloromethane followed by a simultaneous hair pulverization and extraction procedure with disposable metal balls. The developed liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method uses a single injection to detect and confirm all 17 abused drugs, including THC, within 4.8 minutes. Nicotine was validated with a linear range of 800-25,000 pg/mg hair, and all other substances were validated with a linear range of 30.0-2500 pg/mg hair. For inaccuracy and imprecision, the overall bias did not exceed -8.2% and the overall coefficient of variation did not exceed 17.7%. Autosampler stability was proven for 48 hours at 10°C for all substances. Analytical cutoff concentrations were defined for each substance at the lowest validated inaccuracy and imprecision concentration with a bias and coefficient of variation within 15% and qualifier/quantifier ratios within 20% of the set ratio. The analytical cutoff concentrations were 200 pg/mg for codeine and 80.0 pg/mg for 6-MAM, heroin, EDDP, and THC. The analytical cutoff concentration for nicotine was 800 pg/mg and for all other validated substances 30.0 pg/mg. This method was successfully applied to analyze hair samples from patients who were monitored for drug abuse. Hair samples of 47 subjects (segmented into 129 samples) showed 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, methadone, EDDP, THC, nicotine, and cotinine above the analytical cutoff. The

  6. Validation and inter-rater reliability of a three item falls risk screening tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Maree Said

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Falls screening tools are routinely used in hospital settings and the psychometric properties of tools should be examined in the setting in which they are used. The aim of this study was to explore the concurrent and predictive validity of the Austin Health Falls Risk Screening Tool (AHFRST, compared with The Northern Hospital Modified St Thomas’s Risk Assessment Tool (TNH-STRATIFY, and the inter-rater reliability of the AHFRST. Methods A research physiotherapist used the AHFRST and TNH-STRATIFY to classify 130 participants admitted to Austin Health (five acute wards, n = 115 two subacute wards n = 15; median length of stay 6 days IQR 3–12 as ‘High’ or ‘Low’ falls risk. The AHFRST was also completed by nursing staff on patient admission. Falls data was collected from the hospital incident reporting system. Results Six falls occurred during the study period (fall rate of 4.6 falls per 1000 bed days. There was substantial agreement between the AHFRST and the TNH-STRATIFY (Kappa = 0.68, 95% CI 0.52–0.78. Both tools had poor predictive validity, with low specificity (AHFRST 46.0%, 95% CI 37.0–55.1; TNH-STRATIFY 34.7%, 95% CI 26.4–43.7 and positive predictive values (AHFRST 5.6%, 95% CI 1.6–13.8; TNH-STRATIFY 6.9%, 95% CI 2.6–14.4. The AHFRST showed moderate inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.36–0.67, p < 0.001 although 18 patients did not have the AHFRST completed by nursing staff. Conclusions There was an acceptable level of agreement between the 3 item AHFRST classification of falls risk and the longer, 9 item TNH-STRATIFY classification. However, both tools demonstrated limited predictive validity in the Austin Health population. The results highlight the importance of evaluating the validity of falls screening tools, and the clinical utility of these tools should be reconsidered.

  7. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Z

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Zhao Ma, Yong Yang,* JiSheng Lin, XiaoDong Zhang, Qian Meng, BingQiang Wang, Qi Fei* Department of Orthopedics, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA in a Han Chinese population.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.Results: At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST based on age

  8. Use of a functional movement screening tool to determine injury risk in female collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorba, Rita S; Chorba, David J; Bouillon, Lucinda E; Overmyer, Corey A; Landis, James A

    2010-06-01

    Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional movement screening tool.

  9. Cross-cultural validity of standardized motor development screening and assessment tools: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Bianca; Sargent, Barbara; Fetters, Linda

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether standardized motor development screening and assessment tools that are used to evaluate motor abilities of children aged 0 to 2 years are valid in cultures other than those in which the normative sample was established. This was a systematic review in which six databases were searched. Studies were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria and appraised for evidence level and quality. Study variables were extracted. Twenty-three studies representing six motor development screening and assessment tools in 16 cultural contexts met the inclusion criteria: Alberta Infant Motor Scale (n=7), Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (n=2), Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, 3rd edition (n=8), Denver Developmental Screening Test, 2nd edition (n=4), Harris Infant Neuromotor Test (n=1), and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, 2nd edition (n=1). Thirteen studies found significant differences between the cultural context and normative sample. Two studies established reliability and/or validity of standardized motor development assessments in high-risk infants from different cultural contexts. Five studies established new population norms. Eight studies described the cross-cultural adaptation of a standardized motor development assessment. Standardized motor development assessments have limited validity in cultures other than that in which the normative sample was established. Their use can result in under- or over-referral for services. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  10. A Lyapunov Function Based Remedial Action Screening Tool Using Real-Time Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Joydeep [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ben-Idris, Mohammed [University of Nevada, Reno; Faruque, Omar [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deb, Sidart [LCG Consulting, Los Altos, CA

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the outcome of a research project that comprised the development of a Lyapunov function based remedial action screening tool using real-time data (L-RAS). The L-RAS is an advanced computational tool that is intended to assist system operators in making real-time redispatch decisions to preserve power grid stability. The tool relies on screening contingencies using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions to avoid, to the extent possible, the use of time domain simulations. This enables transient stability evaluation at real-time speed without the use of massively parallel computational resources. The project combined the following components. 1. Development of a methodology for contingency screening using a homotopy method based on Lyapunov functions and real-time data. 2. Development of a methodology for recommending remedial actions based on the screening results. 3. Development of a visualization and operator interaction interface. 4. Testing of screening tool, validation of control actions, and demonstration of project outcomes on a representative real system simulated on a Real-Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) cluster. The project was led by Michigan State University (MSU), where the theoretical models including homotopy-based screening, trajectory correction using real-time data, and remedial action were developed and implemented in the form of research-grade software. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) contributed to the development of energy margin sensitivity dynamics, which constituted a part of the remedial action portfolio. Florida State University (FSU) and Southern California Edison (SCE) developed a model of the SCE system that was implemented on FSU's RTDS cluster to simulate real-time data that was streamed over the internet to MSU where the L-RAS tool was executed and remedial actions were communicated back to FSU to execute stabilizing controls on the simulated system. LCG Consulting developed the visualization

  11. Development and validation of a mental health screening tool for asylum-seekers and refugees: the STAR-MH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Debbie C; Mancuso, Serafino G; Sundram, Suresh

    2018-03-16

    There is no screening tool for major depressive disorder (MDD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in asylum-seekers or refugees (ASR) that can be readily administered by non-mental health workers. Hence, we aimed to develop a brief, sensitive and rapidly administrable tool for non-mental health workers to screen for MDD and PTSD in ASR. The screening tool was developed from an extant dataset (n = 121) of multiply screened ASR and tested prospectively (N = 192) against the M.I.N.I. (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview) structured psychiatric interview. Rasch, Differential Item Functioning and ROC analyses evaluated the psychometric properties and tool utility. A 9-item tool with a median administration time of six minutes was generated, comprising two 'immediate screen-in' items, and a 7-item scale. The prevalence of PTSD &/or MDD using the M.I.N.I. was 32%, whilst 99% of other diagnosed mental disorders were comorbid with one or both of these. Using a cut-score of ≥2, the tool provided a sensitivity of 0.93, specificity of 0.75 and predictive accuracy of 80.7%. A brief sensitive screening tool with robust psychometric properties that was easy to administer at the agency of first presentation was developed to facilitate mental health referrals for asylum-seekers and new refugees.

  12. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  13. [Mini Mental State Examination and Brief neuropsychological Examination as neuropsychological screening tools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissi, Marianna; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    An adequate neuropsychological evaluation is essential today to obtain a correct diagnosis in most neurological and geriatric areas. For these purposes, a number of screening and evaluation tools are in use to aid the neuropsychologist for diagnosis of cognitive disorder and for assessing the type of the disease. The present research compares two neuropsychological tools, commonly used in the daily practice: the "Mini Mental State Examination" and the "Brief Neuropsychological Examination". This study explores the neuropsychological profile of 56 post-stroke patients in rehabilitation phase. Patients were divided in three groups, in order to the stroke brain area: left, right and multinfarctual. No significant difference in the three pathological groups were observed, in the mean MMSE-score. On the opposite, ENB demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity in discrimination between pathological groups, but only on the descriptive level: for example, right-stroke patients performed worse in visuo-spatial tests while left-stroke patients had lower performance in verbal memory tests. Our results showed an inadequacy of neuropsychological screening evaluation in post-stroke patients: both Mini Mental State Examination and the Brief Neuropsychological Examination appear to be inadequate to underline specific cognitive deficits in patients with different brain lesions; therefore it is important to consider the tools adequacy and the time-after-stroke when doing neuropsychological evaluation.

  14. Development of a brief validated geriatric depression screening tool: the SLU "AM SAD".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkamparambil, Binu; Chibnall, John T; Graypel, Ernest A; Manepalli, Jothika N; Bhutto, Asif; Grossberg, George T

    2015-08-01

    Combining five commonly observed symptoms of late-life depression to develop a short depression screening tool with similar sensitivity and specificity as the conventional, more time-consuming tools. We developed the St. Louis University AM SAD (Appetite, Mood, Sleep, Activity, and thoughts of Death) questionnaire. The frequency of each symptom in the prior 2 weeks is quantified as 0, 1, or 2. Patients 65 years or older from our clinics were administered the AM SAD, the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the St. Louis University Mental Status Exam (SLUMS). 100 patients were selected. AM SAD correlation with GDS was 0.72 and MADRS 0.80. AM SAD yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 62% against diagnosis of depression; of 88% and 62% with GDS-15; and 92% and 71% with MADRS. The AM SAD can be reliably used as a short depression screening tool in patients with a SLUMS score of 20 or higher. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Jana; Regos, Ionela; Farag, Mohamed A; Ahmad, Asma F; Kusek, Justyna; Castro, Ana; Schlangen, Karin; Carbonero, Christine Hayot; Gadjev, Ilya Z; Smith, Lydia M J; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) is a traditional fodder legume showing multiple benefits for the environment, animal health and productivity but weaker agronomic performance in comparison to other legumes. Benefits can be mainly ascribed to the presence of polyphenols. The polyphenol metabolism in O. viciifolia was studied at the level of gene expression, enzyme activity, polyphenol accumulation and antioxidant activity. A screening of 37 accessions regarding each of these characters showed a huge variability between individual samples. Principal component analysis revealed that flavonols and flavan 3-ols are the most relevant variables for discrimination of the accessions. The determination of the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase provides a suitable screening tool for the estimation of the ratio of flavonols to flavan 3-ols and can be used for the selection of samples from those varieties that have a specific optimal ratio of these compounds for further breeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multifactorial screening for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults in the primary care office: development of the fall risk assessment & screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Mindy Oxman; Fehrer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Unintentional falls is an increasing public health problem as incidence of falls rises and the population ages. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 1 in 3 adults aged 65 years and older will experience a fall this year; 20% to 30% of those who fall will sustain a moderate to severe injury. Physical therapists caring for older adults are usually engaged with these patients after the first injury fall and may have little opportunity to abate fall risk before the injuries occur. This article describes the content selection and development of a simple-to-administer, multifactorial, Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool (FRAST), designed specifically for use in primary care settings to identify those older adults with high fall risk. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool incorporates previously validated measures within a new multifactorial tool and includes targeted recommendations for intervention. Development of the multifactorial FRAST used a 5-part process: identification of significant fall risk factors, review of best evidence, selection of items, creation of the scoring grid, and development of a recommended action plan. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool has been developed to assess fall risk in the target population of older adults (older than 65 years) living and ambulating independently in the community. Many fall risk factors have been considered and 15 items selected for inclusion. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool includes 4 previously validated measures to assess balance, depression, falls efficacy, and home safety. Reliability and validity studies of FRAST are under way. Fall risk for community-dwelling older adults is an urgent, multifactorial, public health problem. Providing primary care practitioners (PCPs) with a very simple screening tool is imperative. Fall Risk Assessment & Screening Tool was created to allow for safe, quick, and low-cost administration by minimally trained office staff with interpretation and

  17. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-02-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in minor refugees, in order to make recommendations for clinical practice. Results show that studies on diagnostic accuracy of assessment instruments and efficacy of mental healthcare interventions in this population are lacking. Traumatic experiences pre-flight, during the flight and at resettlement, superimposed by parental PTSD, and other contextual factors, might lead to more than 25% of minor refugees developing PTSD. To enhance the number of minor refugees recognized with PTSD, we recommend the use of a brief screening instrument. A public health approach, focusing on environmental supportive factors is the first step in treatment for this group, followed by short-term psychological group interventions focusing on psycho-education and stress reduction. Minor refugees with no improvement in PTSD symptoms by these interventions need referral to specialized mental health care services. Mental health providers should be culturally competent. What is Known: • Post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, sleeping problems, and depression are the most common psychiatric disorders in minor refugees. • Evidence based methods on screening and interventions in minor refugees with psychiatric disorders are lacking. What is New: • In the absence of validated screening tools a best practice reliable, quick and child-friendly tool is presented. • A layered system for mental health care and psychosocial support in minor refugees is explained.

  18. VitalQPlus: a potential screening tool for early diagnosis of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui CF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chee Fai Sui,1 Long Chiau Ming,2,3 Chin Fen Neoh,2,4 Baharudin Ibrahim1 1School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 3Brain Degeneration and Therapeutics Group, 4Collaborative Drug Discovery Research (CDDR Group, Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences (PLS Community of Research (CoRe, UiTM, Selangor, Malaysia Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers. Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83 were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia compared to 75.9% (63/83 from Sabah (Borneo region. Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6 ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of ≥5 yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1

  19. PROFSS: a screening tool for early identification of functional somatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Janna M; Burger, Huibert; Janssens, Karin A M; Slaets, Joris P J; Gans, Rijk O B; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2014-12-01

    To develop and validate a brief screening tool for predicting functional somatic symptoms (FSS) based on clinical and non-clinical information from the general practitioner referral letter, and to assess its inter-rater reliability. The derivation sample consisted of 357 consecutive patients referred to an internal outpatient clinic by their general practitioner. Referral letters were scored for candidate predictors for the main outcome measure, which was a final diagnosis of FSS made by the internist. Logistic regression identified the following independent predictors: type of symptoms, somatic and psychiatric comorbidity, absence of abnormal physical findings by the general practitioner, previous specialist consultation, and the use of illness terminology. Temporal validation was performed in a cohort of 94 consecutive patients in whom predictors were scored by two independent raters. In both the derivation and validation sample, the discriminatory power of the model was good with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.84 (95%confidence interval: 0.80-0.88) after bootstrapping and 0.82 (95%confidence interval: 0.73-0.91), respectively. Calibration of the models was excellent in both samples and the interobserver agreement in the validation sample was very good (intraclass coefficient: 0.82 (95%confidence interval: 0.75-0.88)). Based on this model, we constructed the brief screening tool PROFSS (Predicted Risk Of Functional Somatic Symptoms). PROFSS identified patient groups with risks of FSS ranging from 17% (95%CI: 10-26%) to 92% (95%CI:86-96%). The presence of FSS can be predicted with the brief screening tool PROFSS, based on a limited set of items present in the general practitioner referral letter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional A...

  1. 'Screening audit' as a quality assurance tool in good clinical practice compliant research environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sinyoung; Nam, Chung Mo; Park, Sejung; Noh, Yang Hee; Ahn, Cho Rong; Yu, Wan Sun; Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Seung Min; Kim, Jin Seok; Rha, Sun Young

    2018-04-25

    With the growing amount of clinical research, regulations and research ethics are becoming more stringent. This trend introduces a need for quality assurance measures for ensuring adherence to research ethics and human research protection beyond Institutional Review Board approval. Audits, one of the most effective tools for assessing quality assurance, are measures used to evaluate Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and protocol compliance in clinical research. However, they are laborious, time consuming, and require expertise. Therefore, we developed a simple auditing process (a screening audit) and evaluated its feasibility and effectiveness. The screening audit was developed using a routine audit checklist based on the Severance Hospital's Human Research Protection Program policies and procedures. The measure includes 20 questions, and results are summarized in five categories of audit findings. We analyzed 462 studies that were reviewed by the Severance Hospital Human Research Protection Center between 2013 and 2017. We retrospectively analyzed research characteristics, reply rate, audit findings, associated factors and post-screening audit compliance, etc. RESULTS: Investigator reply rates gradually increased, except for the first year (73% → 26% → 53% → 49% → 55%). The studies were graded as "critical," "major," "minor," and "not a finding" (11.9, 39.0, 42.9, and 6.3%, respectively), based on findings and number of deficiencies. The auditors' decisions showed fair agreement with weighted kappa values of 0.316, 0.339, and 0.373. Low-risk level studies, single center studies, and non-phase clinical research showed more prevalent frequencies of being "major" or "critical" (p = 0.002, < 0.0001, < 0.0001, respectively). Inappropriateness of documents, failure to obtain informed consent, inappropriateness of informed consent process, and failure to protect participants' personal information were associated with higher audit grade (p

  2. Are We There Yet? A Review of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Implementation Fidelity Tools and Proficiency Checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, Kaitlyn; Agley, Jon; DeSalle, Mallori; Gassman, Ruth A

    2016-08-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol is an evidence-based prevention practice designed to reduce frequency and severity of alcohol misuse. Many studies have validated the effectiveness of SBI for reducing levels of alcohol misuse, especially in primary medical care. Additional research continues to be conducted in terms of the effectiveness of including referral to treatment (SBIRT) and addressing illicit drug use and prescription drug abuse. Importantly, cross-comparison among SBIRT programs is difficult because evaluative processes vary widely between programs, which themselves often are substantively different. In this brief report, we utilized cross-comparison techniques to elucidate similarities and differences among SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. In early 2014, researchers completed a systematic review of SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists published or made available from 2004 through April 2014; in total, eleven instruments were located and assessed. The analytic methodology consisted of creating a matrix with key SBIRT components identified from the literature prior to assessment. Three researchers populated the matrix with the identified fidelity tools and proficiency checklists before assessing each tool for the presence or absence of each component. The level of agreement between the researchers was checked for inter-rater reliability using free-marginal Kappa statistics. The results of the matrix analysis suggested heterogeneity among existing SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. Importantly, it was not the case that this lack of concordance reflected poorly on any given fidelity tool. Rather, it emphasized the multi-partite and variable nature of SBIRT programs. It was not evident that a single standardized SBIRT fidelity tool or proficiency checklist could appropriately determine the level of fidelity to SBIRT for all programs. Suggestions for next steps in SBIRT fidelity research are provided

  3. Uncle Tony's computer: order-of-magnitude modelling as a screening tool in environmental analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available : order-of-magnitude modelling as a screening tool in environmental analysis R.J. Scholes Introduction When Tony Starfield took up his position at the University of Minnesota, he wanted to stay in contact with his young nephews in South Africa... study. The method assumes a good, but not highly quantitative, knowledge of the system, and does not apply to cumulative effects. *CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. E-mail: bscholes@csir.co.za. production sources or loss...

  4. Validation of a Type 2 Diabetes Screening Tool in Rural Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Evan C.; Herman, William H.; Aiello, Allison E.; Danielson, Kris R.; Mendoza-Avelarez, Milton O.; Piette, John D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate a low-cost tool for identifying diabetic patients in rural areas of Latin America. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A regression equation incorporating postprandial time and a random plasma glucose was used to screen 800 adults in Honduras. Patients with a probability of diabetes of ≥20% were asked to return for a fasting plasma glucose (FPG). A random fifth of those with a screener-based probability of diabetes Honduras and could be used to identify diabetic patients in poor clinics in Latin America. PMID:19918008

  5. HDAT: web-based high-throughput screening data analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rong; Hassan, Taimur; Rallo, Robert; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    The increasing utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) in toxicity studies of engineered nano-materials (ENMs) requires tools for rapid and reliable processing and analyses of large HTS datasets. In order to meet this need, a web-based platform for HTS data analyses tools (HDAT) was developed that provides statistical methods suitable for ENM toxicity data. As a publicly available computational nanoinformatics infrastructure, HDAT provides different plate normalization methods, various HTS summarization statistics, self-organizing map (SOM)-based clustering analysis, and visualization of raw and processed data using both heat map and SOM. HDAT has been successfully used in a number of HTS studies of ENM toxicity, thereby enabling analysis of toxicity mechanisms and development of structure–activity relationships for ENM toxicity. The online approach afforded by HDAT should encourage standardization of and future advances in HTS as well as facilitate convenient inter-laboratory comparisons of HTS datasets. (paper)

  6. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.797. BFH

  7. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  8. The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test and the DSM-5 in the general population: Optimal thresholds and underlying common structure using multiple factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legleye, Stéphane

    2017-11-10

    The Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) aims at screening the problematic use of cannabis. It has never been validated against the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 and its relationships with this latter have never been studied. We used a probabilistic telephone survey collected in 2014 (1351 past-year cannabis users aged 15-64) implementing the CAST and a DSM-5 adaptation of the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview assessing cannabis use disorders. Data were weighted, and CAST items were considered categorical. Factorial structures were assessed with confirmatory factor analyses; the relationships between the instruments were studied with multiple factor analysis (MFA). One factor for the DSM-5 and two correlated factors for the CAST were the best confirmatory factor analyses solutions. The CAST thresholds for screening moderate/severe and severe cannabis use disorders were 5 (sensitivity = 78.2% and specificity = 79.6%) and 8 (sensitivity = 86.0% and specificity = 86.7%), respectively. The MFA identified two orthogonal dimensions: The first was equally shared by both instruments; the second was the second CAST dimension (extreme frequencies of use before midday and alone, memory problems, and reproaches from friends/family). The CAST structure and screening properties were confirmed. The MFA explains its screening performances by its first dimension and identified the problematic patterns (the second dimension) that are not captured by the DSM-5. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Validation of the Greek Version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Brozou, Vassiliki; Stavropoulou, Evmorfia; Argyra, Erifilli; Siafaka, Ioanna; Kararizou, Evangelia; Bouhassira, Didier; Perrot, Serge; Zis, Vassileios; Vadalouca, Athina

    2017-09-01

    The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) is a brief, simple, and straightforward self-administered questionnaire that was developed by Perrot et al. for the detection of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with diffuse chronic pain. The aim of our study was to develop and validate the Greek version of FiRST. The study was set up as a prospective observational study. The original French version of FiRST was adapted into Greek using forward and backward translation. Patients with chronic diffuse pain with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis based on the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were invited to participate to the study. Of the 101 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 42 were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 59 with osteoarthritis. The 2 groups did not differ significantly regarding gender and pain characteristics (duration, intensity). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.79. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 89% (95% confidence interval = 83 to 95%; SE: 0.032, P Greek version of FiRST is a valid screening tool for fibromyalgia in daily practice. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Texas Renewable Energy Evaluation Software (TREES): A screening tool for economic assessment of renewable energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, G.C.; Hunn, B.D.; Kapileshwari, R.

    1996-01-01

    Screening software has been developed to assess the economic feasibility of renewable energy alternatives for applications in Texas. The renewable options include solar water heating and PV and wind for electric power generation. A range of hot water applications, from swimming pool heating to process heat are permitted, and PV and wind energy may be considered for either stand-alone or grid-connected use. The user inputs data such as application type, location, size of load, system cost, competing fuel cost, and discount rate. For the solar water heating options the software outputs the optimum collector area, life cycle savings compared to a conventional system, and a cost effectiveness index to assess economic feasibility. For the PV and wind options the software outputs life cycle savings, the average unit cost of delivered electricity, and a cost effectiveness index to assess economic feasibility. The software is designed as a screening tool, rather than design tool, and is developed for use with a spreadsheet program

  11. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500 μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70 mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90 min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis

  12. A Transparent Decision Support Tool in Screening for Laryngeal Disorders Using Voice and Query Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Minelga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a transparent tool for analysis of voice (sustained phonation /a/ and query data capable of providing support in screening for laryngeal disorders. In this work, screening is concerned with identification of potentially pathological cases by classifying subject’s data into ’healthy’ and ’pathological’ classes as well as visual exploration of data and automatic decisions. A set of association rules and a decision tree, techniques lending themselves for exploration, were generated for pathology detection. Data pairwise similarities, estimated in a novel way, were mapped onto a 2D metric space for visual inspection and analysis. Accurate identification of pathological cases was observed on unseen subjects using the most discriminative query parameter and six audio parameters routinely used by otolaryngologists in a clinical practice: equal error rate (EER of 11.1% was achieved using association rules and 10.2% using the decision tree. The EER was further reduced to 9.5% by combining results from these two classifiers. The developed solution can be a useful tool for Otolaryngology departments in diagnostics, education and exploratory tasks.

  13. Development of Screening Tools for the Interpretation of Chemical Biomonitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Becker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of a larger number of chemicals in commerce from the perspective of potential human health risk has become a focus of attention in North America and Europe. Screening-level chemical risk assessment evaluations consider both exposure and hazard. Exposures are increasingly being evaluated through biomonitoring studies in humans. Interpreting human biomonitoring results requires comparison to toxicity guidance values. However, conventional chemical-specific risk assessments result in identification of toxicity-based exposure guidance values such as tolerable daily intakes (TDIs as applied doses that cannot directly be used to evaluate exposure information provided by biomonitoring data in a health risk context. This paper describes a variety of approaches for development of screening-level exposure guidance values with translation from an external dose to a biomarker concentration framework for interpreting biomonitoring data in a risk context. Applications of tools and concepts including biomonitoring equivalents (BEs, the threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC, and generic toxicokinetic and physiologically based toxicokinetic models are described. These approaches employ varying levels of existing chemical-specific data, chemical class-specific assessments, and generic modeling tools in response to varying levels of available data in order to allow assessment and prioritization of chemical exposures for refined assessment in a risk management context.

  14. A screening tool for the risk of disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Heliövaara, Markku; Ahola, Kirsi; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Haukka, Eija; Kausto, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Peppiina; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Lallukka, Tea

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to develop and validate a risk screening tool using a points system to assess the risk of future disability retirement due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Methods The development population, the Health 2000 Survey, consisted of a nationally representative sample of Finnish employees aged 30-60 years (N=3676) and the validation population, the Helsinki Health Study, consisted of employees of the City of Helsinki aged 40-60 years (N=6391). Both surveys were linked to data on disability retirement awards due to MSD from national register for an 11-year follow-up. Results The discriminative ability of the model with seven predictors was good (Gönen and Heller's K concordance statistic=0.821). We gave points to seven predictors: sex-dependent age, level of education, pain limiting daily activities, multisite musculoskeletal pain, history of arthritis, and surgery for a spinal disorder or carpal tunnel syndrome. A score of 3 or higher out of 7 (top 30% of the index) had good sensitivity (83%) and specificity (70%). Individuals at the top 30% of the risk index were at 29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 15-55) times higher risk of disability retirement due to MSD than those at the bottom 40%. Conclusion This easy-to-use screening tool based on self-reported risk factor profiles can help identify individuals at high risk for disability retirement due to MSD.

  15. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Sunny, Sumsum P.; Gurpur, Praveen; Reber, Clay D.; D’Ambrosio, Michael V.; Raghavan, Nisheena; James, Bonney Lee; Ramanjinappa, Ravindra D.; Suresh, Amritha; Kandasarma, Uma; Birur, Praveen; Kumar, Vinay V.; Galmeanu, Honorius-Cezar; Itu, Alexandru Mihail; Modiga-Arsu, Mihai; Rausch, Saskia; Sramek, Maria; Kollegal, Manohar; Paladini, Gianluca; Kuriakose, Moni; Koch, Felix; Fletcher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device) combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF) in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings. PMID:29176904

  16. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in aesthetic rhinoplasty: Validating a new screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekakis, Garyfalia; Picavet, Valerie A; Gabriëls, Loes; Grietens, Jente; Hellings, Peter W

    2016-08-01

    To validate a new screening tool for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients seeking aesthetic rhinoplasty. We performed a prospective instrument validation study in an academic rhinology clinic. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire-Aesthetic Surgery (BDDQ-AS) is a seven-item short questionnaire validated in 116 patients undergoing aesthetic rhinoplasty. Screening was positive if the patient acknowledged on the BDDQ-AS that he/she was concerned about their appearance (question 1 = yes) AND preoccupied with these concerns (question 2 = yes) AND that these concerns caused at least moderate distress or impairment in different domains of daily life (question 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 ≥ 3 or question 7 = yes). Construct validity was assessed by comparing the BDDQ-AS to the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Derriford Appearance Scale-59. To determine concurrent validity, the BDDQ-AS was compared to the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD. Finally, the predictive value of the BDDQ-AS on satisfaction 12 months after rhinoplasty was evaluated using a visual analogue scale and the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation. Reliability of the BDDQ-AS was adequate, with Cronbach alpha = .83 for rhinoplasty patients and .84 for controls. Sensitivity was 89.6% and specificity 81.4%. BDDQ-AS-positive patients (n = 55) were more impaired in daily life and experienced more appearance-related distress and dysfunction compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. Moreover, they had more severe BDD symptoms. Finally, BDDQ-AS-positive patients were less satisfied after surgery compared to BDDQ-AS-negative patients. We hereby validated a new screening tool for BDD in an aesthetic rhinoplasty population. 3b. Laryngoscope, 126:1739-1745, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Radiographic Absorptiometry as a Screening Tool in Male Osteoporosis: Results from the Odense Androgen Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S.J.; Nielsen, M.M.F.; Ryg, J.; Wraae, K.; Andersen, M.; Brixen, K. (Dept. of Endocrinology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Osteoporosis screening with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA) is not recommended due to low diagnostic utility and costs. Radiographic absorptiometry (RA) determines bone mineral density (BMD) of the phalangeal bones of the hand and is a potential osteoporosis pre-screening tool. Purpose: To determine the ability of RA to identify patients with osteoporosis in a male population. Material and Methods: As part of the Odense Androgen Study, we measured BMD of the intermediate phalanges of the second to fourth finger, lumbar spine (L2-L4), and total hip in 218 men aged 60-74 years (mean 68.8 years), randomly invited from the population, using RA (MetriScan) and DXA (Hologic 4500-A). Osteopenia and osteoporosis were defined as a T-score of less than -1.0 and -2.5, respectively, in the hip and/or lumbar spine. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) were computed. Results: BMDRA of the phalanges correlated significantly with BMDDXA of the hip (R=0.47, P<0.001) and lumbar spine (R=0.46, P<0.001). A total of 105 men (48.2%) were osteopenic and 15 (6.9%) osteoporotic. The AUC (Sweden) value for detecting osteoporosis was 0.75 (0.06). The sensitivity and specificity of RA in identifying osteoporosis were 0.93 and 0.50, respectively. Conclusion: BMDRA correlated weakly with BMDDXA of the lumbar spine and total hip, and RA has a moderate ability to identify osteoporotic individuals. Nevertheless, RA may be used as a pre-screening tool in men, since the diagnosis may be ruled out in half the population at little cost.

  18. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Sunny, Sumsum P; Gurpur, Praveen; Reber, Clay D; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Raghavan, Nisheena; James, Bonney Lee; Ramanjinappa, Ravindra D; Suresh, Amritha; Kandasarma, Uma; Birur, Praveen; Kumar, Vinay V; Galmeanu, Honorius-Cezar; Itu, Alexandru Mihail; Modiga-Arsu, Mihai; Rausch, Saskia; Sramek, Maria; Kollegal, Manohar; Paladini, Gianluca; Kuriakose, Moni; Ladic, Lance; Koch, Felix; Fletcher, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device) combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF) in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.

  19. Mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer in India: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the most common type of cancer among men in India and other countries in South Asia. Late diagnosis contributes significantly to this mortality, highlighting the need for effective and specific point-of-care diagnostic tools. The same regions with high prevalence of oral cancer have seen extensive growth in mobile phone infrastructure, which enables widespread access to telemedicine services. In this work, we describe the evaluation of an automated tablet-based mobile microscope as an adjunct for telemedicine-based oral cancer screening in India. Brush biopsy, a minimally invasive sampling technique was combined with a simplified staining protocol and a tablet-based mobile microscope to facilitate local collection of digital images and remote evaluation of the images by clinicians. The tablet-based mobile microscope (CellScope device combines an iPad Mini with collection optics, LED illumination and Bluetooth-controlled motors to scan a slide specimen and capture high-resolution images of stained brush biopsy samples. Researchers at the Mazumdar Shaw Medical Foundation (MSMF in Bangalore, India used the instrument to collect and send randomly selected images of each slide for telepathology review. Evaluation of the concordance between gold standard histology, conventional microscopy cytology, and remote pathologist review of the images was performed as part of a pilot study of mobile microscopy as a screening tool for oral cancer. Results indicated that the instrument successfully collected images of sufficient quality to enable remote diagnoses that show concordance with existing techniques. Further studies will evaluate the effectiveness of oral cancer screening with mobile microscopy by minimally trained technicians in low-resource settings.

  20. A brief marital satisfaction screening tool for use in primary care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Justin; Kerley, Sara; Kibelstis, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    In the last 3 decades, research has shown consistent association with marriage and mortality and morbidity benefits. Despite the known emotional and physiological benefits of marriage, and the high rate of marriage failure, there are no well-defined screening tools to identify at-risk marriages in primary care settings. Patients presenting to a family medicine clinic were asked to complete a one-item screening question about the level of satisfaction with their marriage. Participants were also asked to fill out the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), a validated 32-item marital adjustment scale. A total of 159 of 208 (76%) respondents completed the survey. The average DAS score was 111 (SD=21.5), similar to the national average of 114 (SD=17.8). Using the DAS as the gold standard for marital satisfaction, we assessed the level of agreement between the one item screener and the longer DAS. A Pearson's Correlation Coefficient showed a correlation of 0.67. ROC curve showed sensitivity 86% and specificity 86% for the one item screener. Area under the curve was 0.89 (95% CI=0.83-0.93). In addition, analysis of variance showed that predictors of marital satisfaction included more dinners shared a week (compared 0--2, 3-6, 7 nights a week) and dates a month (0, 1--3, >3). Paired t test showed perceived health and living with spouse to be significant. The one-item screening question was shown to have good correlation to the gold standard, as well as acceptable sensitivity and specificity for identifying current dissatisfaction with marriage in a primary care setting. Further research is needed to determine if screening in a primary care setting, correlated with early intervention, can help improve satisfaction and avoid divorce.

  1. Is high pressure liquid chromatography an effective screening tool for characterization of molecular defects in hemoglobinopathies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Moorchung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hemoglobinopathies constitute entities that are generated by either abnormal hemoglobin or thalassemias. high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC is one of the best methods for screening and detection of various hemoglobinopathies but it has intrinsic interpretive problems. The study was designed to evaluate the different mutations seen in cases of hemoglobinopathies and compare the same with screening tests. Materials and Methods: 68 patients of hemoglobinopathies were screened by HPLC. Mutation studies in the beta globin gene was performed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based allele-specific Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS. Molecular analysis for the sickle cell mutation was done by standard methods. Results: The IVS 1/5 mutation was the commonest mutation seen and it was seen in 26 (38.23% of the cases. This was followed by the IVS 1/1, codon 41/42, codon 8/9, del 22 mutation, codon 15 mutation and the -619 bp deletion. No mutation was seen in eight cases. There was a 100% concordance between the sickle cell trait as diagnosed by HPLC and genetic testing. Discussion and Conclusion: Our study underlies the importance of molecular testing in all cases of hemoglobinopathies. Although HPLC is a useful screening tool, molecular testing is very useful in accurately diagnosing the mutations. Molecular testing is especially applicable in cases with an abnormal hemoglobin (HbD, HbE and HbS because there may be a concomitant inheritance of a beta thalassemia mutation. Molecular testing is the gold standard when it comes to the diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies.

  2. Simple screening tools to identify limited health literacy in a low-income patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Kelly R; Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Lanning, Beth A; During, Christina; Laschober, Ryan; Griggs, Jackson O

    2018-03-01

    Adults with limited health literacy have difficulty managing chronic conditions, higher hospitalization rates, and more healthcare expenditures. Simple screening tools have been developed, but limited work has evaluated instruments among low-income populations. This study assessed health literacy among primary care patients of a federally qualified health center, and compared a single screening question about perceived difficulty completing medical forms.A cross-sectional survey was administered to English-speaking patients ≥40 years. Both the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), a 6-item questionnaire, and a single-item screening question about perceived difficulty with completing medical forms, assessed health literacy. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inadequate health literacy and receiver operator curves compared the NVS and single-item question.Participants (n = 406) were, on average, aged 58.5 years (±11.3), 72.2% female, and identified as Hispanic/Latino (19.2%), non-Hispanic white (31.0%), non-Hispanic black (40.9%), or other (8.9%). Of the 406 participants, 335 (82.5%) completed the NVS. Patients who declined NVS were more likely to be older (P literacy. Older adults, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black patients, patients with missed office visits, and those reporting less confidence completing medical forms were significantly more likely to have inadequate health literacy. Perceived confidence completing medical forms demonstrated low sensitivity but high specificity at multiple thresholds.This is the first investigation to compare the NVS and confidence completing medical forms question. Many patients declined health literacy assessments, but health literacy screening may identify patients who need additional health education and resources.

  3. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  4. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  5. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Bryan R.; Vaughn, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks included ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), arugula (Eruca vesicaria L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.), shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) and upland cress (Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.). Other selection criteria included saturated FA content, iodine value (IV), content of FAs containing twenty or more carbons and content of trienoic FAs. Anise oil satisfied all selection criteria and was therefore selected for further investigation. Arugula, cumin and upland cress oils were selected as antagonists to the selection criteria. Preparation of FA methyl esters (FAMEs, ≥ 92 wt % yield) following conventional alkaline-catalyzed methanolysis preceded fuel property determination. Of particular interest were oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Also measured were kinematic viscosity (40 °C), IV, acid value, free and total glycerol content, sulfur and phosphorous content, cetane number, energy content and lubricity. FAMEs prepared from anise oil yielded properties compliant with biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 whereas the antagonists failed at least one specification contained within the standards. As a result, FA profile was an efficient predictor of compliance with biodiesel standards and is therefore recommended as a screening tool for investigation of alternative feedstocks. -- Highlights: ► Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared from several alternative feedstocks. ► Fatty acid composition was a principal factor influencing fuel properties. ► Oxidative stability and cold flow properties of biodiesel were examined in detail. ► Limits were developed

  6. Pediatric Pain Screening Tool (PPST): Rapid identification of risk in youth with pain complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Laura E.; Smith, Allison; Ibagon, Camila; Coakley, Rachael; Logan, Deirdre E.; Schechter, Neil; Borsook, David; Hill, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Moderate to severe chronic pain is a problem for 1.7 million children, costing $19.5 billion annually in the United States alone. Risk-stratified care is known to improve outcomes in adults with chronic pain. However, no tool exists to stratify youth who present with pain complaints to appropriate interventions. The Pediatric Pain Screening Tool (PPST) presented here assesses prognostic factors associated with adverse outcomes among youth and defines risk groups to inform efficient treatment decision-making. Youth (n=321, ages 8-18, 90.0% Caucasian, 74.8% female) presenting for multidisciplinary pain clinic evaluation at a tertiary care center participated. Of these, 195 (61.1%) participated at 4-month follow-up. Participants completed the 9-item PPST in addition to measures of functional disability, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Sensitivity and specificity for the PPST ranged from adequate to excellent, with regard to significant disability (78%, 68%) and high emotional distress (81%, 63%). Participants were classified into low (11%), medium (32%), and high (57%) risk groups. Risk groups did not significantly differ by pain diagnosis, location, or duration. Only 2-7% of patients who met reference standard case status for disability and emotional distress at 4-month follow-up were classified as low-risk at baseline, whereas 71-79% of patients who met reference standard case status at follow-up were classified as high risk at baseline. A 9-item screening tool identifying factors associated with adverse outcomes among youth who present with pain complaints appears valid and provides risk stratification that can potentially guide effective pain treatment recommendations in the clinic setting. PMID:25906349

  7. Development and evaluation of RAMP I - a practitioner's tool for screening of musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in manual handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carl Mikael; Forsman, Mikael; Rose, Linda Maria

    2017-10-16

    RAMP I is a screening tool developed to support practitioners in screening for work-related musculoskeletal disorder risk factors related to manual handling. RAMP I, which is part of the RAMP tool, is based on research-based studies combined with expert group judgments. More than 80 practitioners participated in the development of RAMP I. The tool consists of dichotomous assessment items grouped into seven categories. Acceptable reliability was found for a majority of the assessment items for 15 practitioners who were given 1 h of training. The usability evaluation points to RAMP I being usable for screening for musculoskeletal disorder risk factors, i.e., usable for assessing risks, being usable as a decision base, having clear results and that the time needed for an assessment is acceptable. It is concluded that RAMP I is a usable tool for practitioners.

  8. A first approach to a neuropsychological screening tool using eye-tracking for bedside cognitive testing based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Krimly, Amon; Bauer, Lisa; Schulenburg, Sarah; Böhm, Sarah; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Gorges, Martin; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Abrahams, Sharon; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2017-08-01

    Reliable assessment of cognitive functions is a challenging task in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients unable to speak and write. We therefore present an eye-tracking based neuropsychological screening tool based on the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS), a standard screening tool for cognitive deficits in ALS. In total, 46 ALS patients and 50 healthy controls matched for age, gender and education were tested with an oculomotor based and a standard paper-and-pencil version of the ECAS. Significant correlation between both versions was observed for ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score and in all of its ALS-specific domains (all r > 0.3; all p ALS patients and healthy controls in the ECAS total score (p ALS patients who are unable to speak or write.

  9. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Screening Tools in American Adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joey A; Laurson, Kelly R

    2016-08-01

    To identify which feasible obesity and insulin resistance (IR) screening tools are most strongly associated in adolescents by using a nationally representative sample. Adolescents aged 12.0 to 18.9 years who were participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n=3584) and who were measured for height, weight, waist circumference (WC), triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) level were included. Adolescents were split by gender and grouped by body mass index (BMI) percentile. Age- and gender-specific classifications were constructed for each obesity screening tool measure to account for growth and maturation. General linear models were used to establish groups objectively for analysis based on when IR began to increase. Additional general linear models were used to identify when IR significantly increased for each IR measure as obesity group increased and to identify the variance accounted for among each obesity-IR screening tool relationship. As the obesity group increased, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and FI significantly increased, while FG increased only (above the referent) in groups with BMI percentiles ≥95.0, and glycated hemoglobin level did not vary across obesity groups. The most strongly associated screening tools were WC and FI in boys (R(2)=0.253) and girls (R(2)=0.257). FI had the strongest association with all of the obesity measures. BMI associations were slightly weaker than WC in each in relation to IR. Our findings show that WC and FI are the most strongly associated obesity and IR screening tool measures in adolescents. These feasible screening tools should be utilized in screening practices for at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal vaccination and preterm birth: using data mining as a screening tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orozova-Bekkevold, Ivanka; Jensen, Henrik; Stensballe, Lone

    2007-01-01

    Objective The main purpose of this study was to identify possible associations between medicines used in pregnancy and preterm deliveries using data mining as a screening tool. Settings Prospective cohort study. Methods We used data mining to identify possible correlates between preterm delivery...... and medicines used by 92,235 pregnant Danish women who took part in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). We then evaluated the association between one of the identified exposures (vaccination) and the risk for preterm birth by using logistic regression. The women were classified into groups according...... measure Preterm birth, a delivery occurring before the 259th day of gestation (i.e., less than 37 full weeks). Results Data mining had indicated that maternal vaccination (among other factors) might be related to preterm birth. The following regression analysis showed that, the women who reported being...

  11. Tissue microarray analysis as a screening tool for neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Julie Benedicte; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NCB) is a fairly recent diagnostic entity added by WHO in 2003. Since then, studies have indicated that NCB potentially displays a worse prognosis than invasive ductal carcinoma. However, due to a lack of standard use of immunohistochemical staining...... for neuroendocrine markers and the fact that NCB may only show slight neuroendocrine morphology that can easily be overlooked, NCB is often underdiagnosed. Consequently, there is a need for fast and reliable detection method for NCB. Here, we take a first step toward finding an easy way of identifying NCB...... by investigating the usefulness of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis as a screening tool. We present our findings with regard to sensitivity and specificity compared with whole-mount sections. The material consists of 240 cases of breast cancer divided into 20 TMA blocks that were all immunohistochemically stained...

  12. Bullying: Effects on School-Aged Children, Screening Tools, and Referral Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Cassidy, Brenda; Mitchell, Ann M

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is not a new concept or behavior, and is now gaining national attention as a growing public health concern. Bullying leads to short- and long-term physical and psychological damage to both the victims and the bullies. The serious implications of bullying drive a clinical mandate for teachers and school nurses to be educated and adequately trained to identify and address bullying within schools. This review of the literature describes screening tools that can be utilized to identify both victims and bullies. In addition, referral services utilizing collaborative intervention measures are discussed. This literature review will help school nurses and teachers to identify and expand their role in school-wide bullying prevention and intervention measures.

  13. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. A comparison of electronic and manual fracture risk assessment tools in screening elderly male US veterans at risk for osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S T; Lawrence, P T; Miller, K L; Crook, J L; LaFleur, J; Cannon, G W; Nelson, R E

    2017-11-01

    This study compares four screening tools in their ability to predict osteoporosis. We found that there was no significant difference between the tools. These results provide support for the use of automated screening tools which work in conjunction with the electronic medical record and help improve screening rates for osteoporosis. The purpose of this study is to compare the performance of four fracture risk assessment tools (FRATs) in identifying osteoporosis by bone mineral density (BMD) T-score: Veterans Affairs Fracture Absolute Risk Assessment Tool (VA-FARA), World Health Organization's Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), electronic FRAX (e-FRAX), and Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Screening Tool (OST). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of all patients enrolled in the VA Salt Lake City bone health team (BHT) who had completed a DXA scan between February 1, 2012, and February 1, 2013. DXA scan results were obtained by chart abstraction. For calculation of FRAX, osteoporosis risk factors were obtained from a screening questionnaire completed prior to DXA. For VA-FARA and e-FRAX, risk factors were derived from the electronic medical record (EMR). Clinical risk scores were calculated and compared against the gold standard of DXA-based osteoporosis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted, and areas under the curve (AUC) were compared. A cohort of 463 patients met eligibility criteria (mean age 80.4 years). One hundred twelve patients (24%) had osteoporosis as defined by DXA T-score ≤-2.5. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated. ROC statistics were compared and did not reach statistical significance difference between FRATs in identifying DXA-based osteoporosis. Our study suggests that all FRATs tested perform similarly in identifying osteoporosis among elderly, primarily Caucasian, male veterans. If these electronic screening methods perform

  15. Immunoassays: biological tools for high throughput screening and characterisation of combinatorial libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, M Angela

    2008-05-01

    In the demanding field of proteomics, there is an urgent need for affinity-catcher molecules to implement effective and high throughput methods for analysing the human proteome or parts of it. Antibodies have an essential role in this endeavour, and selection, isolation and characterisation of specific antibodies represent a key issue to meet success. Alternatively, it is expected that new, well-characterised affinity reagents generated in rapid and cost-effective manners will also be used to facilitate the deciphering of the function, location and interactions of the high number of encoded protein products. Combinatorial approaches combined with high throughput screening (HTS) technologies have become essential for the generation and identification of robust affinity reagents from biological combinatorial libraries and the lead discovery of active/mimic molecules in large chemical libraries. Phage and yeast display provide the means for engineering a multitude of antibody-like molecules against any desired antigen. The construction of peptide libraries is commonly used for the identification and characterisation of ligand-receptor specific interactions, and the search for novel ligands for protein purification. Further improvement of chemical and biological resistance of affinity ligands encouraged the "intelligent" design and synthesis of chemical libraries of low-molecular-weight bio-inspired mimic compounds. No matter what the ligand source, selection and characterisation of leads is a most relevant task. Immunological assays, in microtiter plates, biosensors or microarrays, are a biological tool of inestimable value for the iterative screening of combinatorial ligand libraries for tailored specificities, and improved affinities. Particularly, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are frequently the method of choice in a large number of screening strategies, for both biological and chemical libraries.

  16. Screen and clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn

    2010-04-01

    Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher-dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high-dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24.

  17. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO 4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO 4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (pgait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  20. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  1. Evaluation of the electronic self-report Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathy; Lee Dupuis, L; Gibson, Paul; Johnston, Donna L; Baggott, Christina; Portwine, Carol; Spiegler, Brenda; Kuczynski, Susan; Tomlinson, Deborah; Tomlinson, George A; Sung, Lillian

    2018-03-01

    We previously developed the paper-based Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi) designed for paediatric cancer symptom screening. Objectives were to evaluate and refine the electronic mobile application (app) of SSPedi using the opinions of children with cancer. Participants were children 8-18 years of age with cancer. Participants completed electronic SSPedi on their own and then responded to semistructured questions to determine whether they found electronic SSPedi easy or difficult to complete and understand, understood and liked the app features (audio and animation), and understood previously difficult to understand concepts with the introduction of a help menu. After each group of 10 children, responses were reviewed to determine whether modifications were required. 20 children evaluated electronic SSPedi. None found electronic SSPedi difficult to complete or understand. All children understood the app features and each of the 4 more difficult to understand concepts after using the help menu. 19 of 20 children thought the app was a good way to communicate with doctors and nurses. We finalised an electronic version of SSPedi that is easy to use and understand with features specifically designed to facilitate child self-report. Future work will evaluate the psychometric properties of electronic SSPedi. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Digital microscopy as a screening tool for the diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisjes, R; van Solinge, W W; Levin, M D; van Wijk, R; Riedl, J A

    2018-04-01

    Evaluation of red blood cell (RBC) morphology is an important first step in the differential diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia. It is, however, labor intensive, expensive, and prone to subjectivity. To improve and standardize the analysis of RBC morphology as a screening tool in the diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia, we studied its automated analysis by digital microscopy (DM). Blood from 90 patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia and 32 normal control subjects was analyzed by the CellaVision DM96 Digital Microscope. All hemolytic RBC abnormalities could be distinguished by the presence of at least one aberrant red cell type. In particular, the percentage of microcytes was highly sensitive and specific (AUC ROC  = 0.97) for RBC membrane disorders, and a cut-off of 5.7% microcytes was calculated to be optimal to distinguish patients from healthy controls. Subgroup analysis of patients with RBC membrane disorders revealed additional distinct differences according to the underlying gene defect. A number of cell types were significantly elevated in sickle cell anemia patients, such as polychromatic cells, macrocytes, and poikilocytes. The increase in helmet cells (AUC ROC  = 0.96) and hypochromic cells (AUC ROC  = 0.91) was specific for β-thalassemia, whereas patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency showed a significant increased polychromatic cells, macrocytes, and ovalocytes. Patients with hereditary xerocytosis showed significantly higher numbers of polychromatic cells, macrocytes, and target cells. DM holds a promise as a useful screening tool in the diagnosis of hereditary hemolytic anemia by detecting and quantifying distinct morphological changes in RBCs in patients with various forms of hereditary hemolytic anemia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Validation of a Dietary Screening Tool in a Middle-Aged Appalachian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Ventura Marra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Proactive nutrition screening is an effective public health strategy for identifying and targeting individuals who could benefit from making dietary improvements for primary and secondary prevention of disease. The Dietary Screening Tool (DST was developed and validated to assess nutritional risk among rural older adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility and validity of the DST to identify nutritional risk in middle-aged adults. This cross-sectional study in middle-aged adults (45–64 year olds, n = 87 who reside in Appalachia, examined nutritional status using an online health survey, biochemical measures, anthropometry, and three representative 24-h dietary recalls. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI was calculated to describe overall diet quality. Adults identified by the DST with a nutrition risk had lower HEI scores (50 vs. 64, p < 0.001 and were much more likely to also be considered at dietary risk by the HEI (OR 11.6; 3.2–42.6 when compared to those not at risk. Those at risk had higher energy-adjusted total fat, saturated fat, and added sugar intakes and lower intakes of dietary fiber, and several micronutrients than those classified as not at risk by the DST. Similarly, the at-risk group had significantly lower serum levels of α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin but did not differ in retinol or methylmalonic acid compared with those not at risk. The DST is a valid tool to identify middle-aged adults with nutritional risk.

  4. Newborn Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laboratory Sciences Office of Public Health Genomics Publications & Articles Newborn Screening Lab Bulletin Laboratory Partners Multimedia Tools Newborn Screening Program – Role of Laboratories Meet the Scientist Newborn Screening: Family Stories Newborn Screening: Public Health ...

  5. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  6. Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Miragoli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to provide preliminary findings on the reliability and the validity of the Italian Child Abuse Potential (CAP Inventory, a screening tool that measures parents’ potential for child physical abuse. The CAP Inventory and measures on parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index–Short Form [PSI-SF] and parents’ perceptions of child adjustment (Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL] were administered in a nonclinical sample of Italian parents (N = 551 with a 2- to 6-year-old child. The Abuse scale showed adequate internal consistency (α = .87, with significantly negative correlations between socioeconomic status and educational level of the parents. Also, the Abuse scale scores were significantly predicted by high levels of parenting stress and by parental negative perceptions of the child’s behavior. Finally, using a cut score for the English version of the Abuse scale (where 95% of parents would be expected to be classified, 93.8% of Italian parents were classified as nonabusive by the Abuse scale. These results supported the cross-cultural generalizability of the Abuse scale. However, complementary studies with abusive samples are needed to verify the ability of the instrument to discriminate between abusive and nonabusive parents also in the Italian population.

  7. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  8. Screening for Frailty in Hospitalized Older Adults: Reliability and Feasibility of the Maastricht Frailty Screening Tool for Hospitalized Patients (MFST-HP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnier, Ron M J; van Rossum, Erik; van Leendert, Jannic A A; Pijls, Noor A T; Mulder, Wubbo J; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2016-09-01

    As nurses in hospitals are confronted with increasing numbers of older patients, their geriatric nursing skills and knowledge must be integrated into daily clinical practice. Early risk identification via screening tools may help improve geriatric care. To reduce the assessment burden of nurses, the Maastricht Frailty Screening Tool for Hospitalized Patients (MFST-HP) was developed. The aim of the current study was to explore aspects of reliability, validity, and feasibility of the MFST-HP. Intrarater reliability was assessed by measuring patients two times within 24 hours. Interrater reliability was assessed by having patients screened by two different nurses. Construct validity was studied by the associations between the MFST-HP scores and age and comorbidities. Intraclass correlation coefficients for both intra- and interrater reliability were good (>0.93). Older patients and those with more comorbidity showed higher scores on the MFST-HP compared to younger patients and those with less comorbidity. The MFST-HP shows promise as a reliable, valid, and feasible screening tool for frailty among hospitalized older adults. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(5):243-251.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Menstrual pad, a cervical cancer screening tool, a population-based study in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budukh, Atul; Palayekar, Vrushali; Maheshwari, Amita; Deodhar, Kedar; Purwar, Pallavi; Bagal, Sonali; Vadigoppula, Ashok; Lokhande, Manoj; Panse, Nandkumar; Dikshit, Rajesh; Badwe, Rajendra

    2017-07-12

    In the rural areas of India, women generally use a piece of old cloth as a menstrual device. The aim of this study was to detect human papilloma virus (HPV) from menstrual blood on the menstrual pad and assess whether this could be a useful screening tool for cervical cancer. In Jamkhed area of rural Maharashtra, (population A), we collected menstrual pads from women who provided consent in the 30-50 year age group. The women who had provided menstrual pads underwent HC2 testing. We standardized the method for extracting DNA by PCR from the menstrual pad. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of HC2/PCR testing, underwent colposcopy. In the rural population of Pune area of Maharashtra state (population B), menstrual pads were collected. HPV was tested using the PCR method. HPV-positive women and a few HPV-negative women, selected randomly, underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. In population A, 164 women provided their used menstrual pads and also underwent an HC2 screening test. Of these, six (3.2%) cases were reported as HPV positive. In population B, 365 women provided their used menstrual pads for HPV testing, of which 18 (4.9%) cases were diagnosed as HPV positive. The women who tested HPV positive, on the basis of PCR testing, and 10% randomly selected HPV-negative cases (37) and 18 women who voluntary requested testing underwent colposcopy and HC2 testing. The sensitivity of menstrual pad HPV testing compared with gold standard HC2 testing was 83% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47-0.97], 67% (95% CI: 0.30-0.91) and specificity was 99% (95% CI: 0.96-0.99), 88% (95% CI: 0.77-0.94) in population A and population B, respectively. The sensitivity of diagnosing CIN lesion was 83% (95% CI: 0.44-0.97) and specificity was 95% (95% CI: 0.91-0.97). On the basis of the sensitivity and specificity results, and the completely noninvasive, simple and convenient method of detecting HPV, menstrual pad might be considered a cervical cancer screening tool in rural

  10. Development of the SaFETy Score: A Clinical Screening Tool for Predicting Future Firearm Violence Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstick, Jason E; Carter, Patrick M; Walton, Maureen A; Dahlberg, Linda L; Sumner, Steven A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2017-05-16

    Interpersonal firearm violence among youth is a substantial public health problem, and emergency department (ED) physicians require a clinical screening tool to identify high-risk youth. To derive a clinically feasible risk index for firearm violence. 24-month prospective cohort study. Urban, level 1 ED. Substance-using youths, aged 14 to 24 years, seeking ED care for an assault-related injury and a proportionately sampled group of non-assault-injured youth enrolled from September 2009 through December 2011. Firearm violence (victimization/perpetration) and validated questionnaire items. A total of 599 youths were enrolled, and presence/absence of future firearm violence during follow-up could be ascertained in 483 (52.2% were positive). The sample was randomly split into training (75%) and post-score-construction validation (25%) sets. Using elastic-net penalized logistic regression, 118 baseline predictors were jointly analyzed; the most predictive variables fell predominantly into 4 domains: violence victimization, community exposure, peer influences, and fighting. By selection of 1 item from each domain, the 10-point SaFETy (Serious fighting, Friend weapon carrying, community Environment, and firearm Threats) score was derived. SaFETy was associated with firearm violence in the validation set (odds ratio [OR], 1.47 [95% CI, 1.23 to 1.79]); this association remained (OR, 1.44 [CI, 1.20 to 1.76]) after adjustment for reason for ED visit. In 5 risk strata observed in the training data, firearm violence rates in the validation set were 18.2% (2 of 11), 40.0% (18 of 45), 55.8% (24 of 43), 81.3% (13 of 16), and 100.0% (6 of 6), respectively. The study was conducted in a single ED and involved substance-using youths. SaFETy was not externally validated. The SaFETy score is a 4-item score based on clinically feasible questionnaire items and is associated with firearm violence. Although broader validation is required, SaFETy shows potential to guide resource allocation

  11. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-03-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  12. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  13. Evidence of clonazepam abuse liability: results of the tools developed by the French Centers for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Pauly, Vanessa; Pradel, Vincent; Rouby, Frank; Arditti, Jocelyne; Thirion, Xavier; Lapeyre Mestre, Maryse; Micallef, Joëlle

    2011-10-01

    Recent observations suggest the existence of clonazepam abuse. To determine its importance in France, a quantitative and systematic synthesis of all clonazepam data of several epidemiological tools of the Centers for Evaluation and Information on Pharmacodependence (CEIP) network has been performed in comparison with data on others benzodiazepines (BZD). Data on clonazepam and other BZD have been analysed from different epidemiological tools: OSIAP survey that identifies drugs obtained by means of falsified prescriptions, Observation of Illegal Drugs and Misuse of Psychotropic Medications (OPPIDUM) survey that describes modalities of use and data from regional French health reimbursement system. In OSIAP survey, the proportion of clonazepam falsified prescriptions among all BZD falsified prescriptions increased. During the 2006 OPPIDUM survey, the analysis of the BZD modalities of use highlights clonazepam abuse liability (for example 23% of illegal acquisition), in second rank after flunitrazepam. Studies based on data from the French health reimbursed system show that 1.5% of subjects with clonazepam dispensing had a deviant behaviour. Among BZD, clonazepam has the second most important doctor-shopping indicator (3%) after flunitrazepam. All these data provide some arguments in favour of clonazepam abuse liability in real life and the necessity to reinforce its monitoring. © 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  14. Screening for psychosocial risk at pediatric cancer diagnosis: the psychosocial assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Barakat, Lamia P; Ditaranto, Susan; Biros, Daniel; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Beele, David; Kersun, Leslie; Alderfer, Melissa A; Mougianis, Ifigenia; Hocking, Matthew C; Reilly, Anne

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of integrating an evidence-based screening tool of psychosocial risk in pediatric cancer care at diagnosis. Parents of children newly diagnosed with cancer received either the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT; n=52) or psychosocial care as usual (n=47; PAU), based on their date of diagnosis and an alternating monthly schedule. Time to completion of the PAT, time to communication of PAT results to clinical care teams, distribution of PAT risk scores, and identification of psychosocial risks in the medical record were examined. Of families receiving the PAT, 88% completed it within 48 hours. PAT was scored and results communicated within 48 hours in 98% of cases. Most families (72%) were classified as Universal risk based on the underlying Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model, 24% were classified as Targeted risk, and 4% scored in the Clinical range. Significantly more psychosocial risks were recorded in the medical record during PAT intervals than during PAU. An evidence-based psychosocial screener is feasible in pediatric oncology care and is associated with documentation of psychosocial risks in the medical record. Although the majority of families report low levels of psychosocial risk, about one-quarter report problems.

  15. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Body Mass Index (BMI) nutritional intervention among old people in primary health care, in order to evaluate whether they were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention. The methods used were a literature search; classification of participants with respect to nutritional risk according to the different nutritional screening tools; and validation (i.e., evaluation of whether the different tools were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention by assessing the positive [PPV] and negative [NPV] predictive values). MNA-SF, NRS-2002, BMI nutritional intervention. The findings should be confirmed in further validation and intervention studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze serious games outcomes: A pilot study for a new cognitive screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Vanessa; Mitache, Andrei V; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Computer games for a serious purpose - so called serious games can provide additional information for the screening and diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Moreover, they have the advantage of being an ecological tool by involving daily living tasks. However, there is a need for better comprehensive designs regarding the acceptance of this technology, as the target population is older adults that are not used to interact with novel technologies. Moreover given the complexity of the diagnosis and the need for precise assessment, an evaluation of the best approach to analyze the performance data is required. The present study examines the usability of a new screening tool and proposes several new outlines for data analysis.

  17. A screening tool for vulnerability assessment of pesticide leaching to groundwater for the islands of Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenemo, Fredrik; Ray, Chittaranjan; Yost, Russell; Matsuda, Steven

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an updated version of a screening tool for groundwater vulnerability assessment to evaluate pesticide leaching to groundwater, based on a revised version of the attenuation factor. The tool has been implemented in a geographical information system (GIS) covering the major islands of the state of Hawaii, USA. The Hawaii Department of Agriculture currently uses the tool in their pesticide evaluation process as a first-tier screening tool. The basic soil properties and pesticide properties necessary to compute the index, and estimates of their uncertainty, are included in the GIS. Uncertainties in soil and pesticide properties are accounted for using first-order uncertainty analysis. Classifications of pesticides as 'likely', 'uncertain' or 'unlikely' to leach are made on the basis of the uncertainty and a comparison of the revised attenuation factor with values and uncertainties of two reference chemicals. The reference chemicals represent what are considered to be a 'leachable' and a 'non-leachable' pesticide under Hawaii conditions. It is concluded that the tool is suitable for screening new and already used pesticides for the islands of Hawaii. However, the tool is associated with uncertainties that are not accounted for, so a conservative approach with respect to interpretation of the results and selection of pesticide parameters used in the tool is recommended.

  18. Using molecular similarity to highlight the challenges of routine immunoassay-based drug of abuse/toxicology screening in emergency medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siam Mohamed G

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laboratory tests for routine drug of abuse and toxicology (DOA/Tox screening, often used in emergency medicine, generally utilize antibody-based tests (immunoassays to detect classes of drugs such as amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opiates, and tricyclic antidepressants, or individual drugs such as cocaine, methadone, and phencyclidine. A key factor in assay sensitivity and specificity is the drugs or drug metabolites that were used as antigenic targets to generate the assay antibodies. All DOA/Tox screening immunoassays can be limited by false positives caused by cross-reactivity from structurally related compounds. For immunoassays targeted at a particular class of drugs, there can also be false negatives if there is failure to detect some drugs or their metabolites within that class. Methods Molecular similarity analysis, a computational method commonly used in drug discovery, was used to calculate structural similarity of a wide range of clinically relevant compounds (prescription and over-the-counter medications, illicit drugs, and clinically significant metabolites to the target ('antigenic' molecules of DOA/Tox screening tests. These results were compared with cross-reactivity data in the package inserts of immunoassays marketed for clinical testing. The causes for false positives for phencyclidine and tricyclic antidepressant screening immunoassays were investigated at the authors' medical center using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a confirmatory method. Results The results illustrate three major challenges for routine DOA/Tox screening immunoassays used in emergency medicine. First, for some classes of drugs, the structural diversity of common drugs within each class has been increasing, thereby making it difficult for a single assay to detect all compounds without compromising specificity. Second, for some screening assays, common 'out-of-class' drugs may be structurally similar to the target

  19. Reliability of Patient-Led Screening with the Malnutrition Screening Tool: Agreement between Patient and Health Care Professional Scores in the Cancer Care Ambulatory Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Alexandra; Blake, Claire; Young, Adrienne; Pelecanos, Anita; Brown, Teresa

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition in patients with cancer is reported as high as 60% to 80%, and malnutrition is associated with lower survival, reduced response to treatment, and poorer functional status. The Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) is a validated tool when administered by health care professionals; however, it has not been evaluated for patient-led screening. This study aims to assess the reliability of patient-led MST screening through assessment of inter-rater reliability between patient-led and dietitian-researcher-led screening and intra-rater reliability between an initial and a repeat patient screening. This cross-sectional study included 208 adults attending ambulatory cancer care services in a metropolitan teaching hospital in Queensland, Australia, in October 2016 (n=160 inter-rater reliability; n=48 intra-rater reliability measured in a separate sample). Primary outcome measures were MST risk categories (MST 0-1: not at risk, MST ≥2: at risk) as determined by screening completed by patients and a dietitian-researcher, patient test-retest screening, and patient acceptability. Percent and chance-corrected agreement (Cohen's kappa coefficient, κ) were used to determine agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST (inter-rater reliability) and MST completed by patient on admission to unit (patient-MSTA) and MST completed by patient 1 to 3 hours after completion of initial MST (patient-MSTB) (intra-rater reliability). High inter-rater reliability and intra-rater reliability were observed. Agreement between patient-MST and dietitian-MST was 96%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.92, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97). Agreement between repeated patient-MSTA and patient-MSTB was 94%, with "almost perfect" chance-adjusted agreement (κ=0.88, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). Based on dietitian-MST, 33% (n=53) of patients were identified as being at risk for malnutrition, and 40% of these reported not seeing a dietitian. Of 156 patients who provided

  20. Development and Usability Testing of a Computer-Tailored Decision Support Tool for Lung Cancer Screening: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Harris, Lisa; Comer, Robert Skipworth; Goyal, Anurag; Vode, Emilee Christine; Hanna, Nasser; Ceppa, DuyKhanh; Rawl, Susan M

    2017-11-16

    Awareness of lung cancer screening remains low in the screening-eligible population, and when patients visit their clinician never having heard of lung cancer screening, engaging in shared decision making to arrive at an informed decision can be a challenge. Therefore, methods to effectively support both patients and clinicians to engage in these important discussions are essential. To facilitate shared decision making about lung cancer screening, effective methods to prepare patients to have these important discussions with their clinician are needed. Our objective is to develop a computer-tailored decision support tool that meets the certification criteria of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument version 4.0 that will support shared decision making in lung cancer screening decisions. Using a 3-phase process, we will develop and test a prototype of a computer-tailored decision support tool in a sample of lung cancer screening-eligible individuals. In phase I, we assembled a community advisory board comprising 10 screening-eligible individuals to develop the prototype. In phase II, we recruited a sample of 13 screening-eligible individuals to test the prototype for usability, acceptability, and satisfaction. In phase III, we are conducting a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 60 screening-eligible participants who have never been screened for lung cancer. Outcomes tested include lung cancer and screening knowledge, lung cancer screening health beliefs (perceived risk, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy), perception of being prepared to engage in a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, occurrence of a patient-clinician discussion about lung cancer screening, and stage of adoption for lung cancer screening. Phases I and II are complete. Phase III is underway. As of July 15, 2017, 60 participants have been enrolled into the study, and have completed the baseline survey, intervention, and first

  1. Towards a Systematic Screening Tool for Quality Assurance and Semiautomatic Fraud Detection for Images in the Life Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Koppers, Lars; Wormer, Holger; Ickstadt, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The quality and authenticity of images is essential for data presentation, especially in the life sciences. Questionable images may often be a first indicator for questionable results, too. Therefore, a tool that uses mathematical methods to detect suspicious images in large image archives can be a helpful instrument to improve quality assurance in publications. As a first step towards a systematic screening tool, especially for journal editors and other staff members who are responsible for ...

  2. Direct Push Optical Screening Tool for High Resolution, Real-Time Mapping of Chlorinated Solvent DNAPL Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    sites impacted by petroleum hydrocarbon fuels, creosotes , and MGP tars. The rapid, high-resolution, real-time nature of LIF technologies described...Green Optical Screening Tool (TarGOST®) are popular tools for real-time, high-resolution mapping of petroleum hydrocarbons, creosotes , and coal tar...solvent DNAPL at many sites will have more complex architectures and be present at lower saturations and in thinner layers than MGP tar, creosote , and

  3. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  4. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Felix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS E , enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  5. Validation of the Brazilian version of the "pediatric obstructive sleep apnea screening tool" questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Priscila J S; Mattiello, Rita; Lumertz, Magali S; Morsch, Thiago P; Fagondes, Simone C; Nunes, Magda L; Gozal, David; Stein, Renato T

    2018-03-01

    To validate the pediatric obstructive sleep apnea screening tool (PosaST) for use in Brazil. The Brazilian version of this questionnaire, originally validated and tested in the United States, was developed as follows: (a) translation; (b) back-translation; (c) completion of the final version; (d) pre-testing. The questionnaire was applied prior to polysomnography to children aged 3-9 years from October 2015 to October 2016, and its psychometric properties (i.e., validity and reliability) were evaluated. PosaST accuracy was assessed from comparisons between polysomnographic results and corresponding PosaST scores. Sixty patients were enrolled, and based on polysomnographic findings, 48% patients had normal apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), while the remaining 52% met the criteria for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Minimum O 2 saturation level was significantly lower among OSA children (p=0.021). Satisfactory concordance was found between individual AHI and PosaST scores. Bland-Altman plot-derived bias was 0.1 for the difference between measures, with 5.34 (95% CI: 4.14-6.55) and -5.19 (95%CI: -6.39 to -3.98) for the upper and lower agreement range. PosaST internal consistency derived from Cronbach's alpha was 0.84 (95%CI: 0.78-0.90). The PosaST was translated to and validated into Brazilian-Portuguese version, and showed good reliability and concordance with AHI. This questionnaire offers a reliable screening option for sleep-disordered breathing in children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  6. Supine awake oximetry as a screening tool for daytime hypercapnia in super-obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yewon; Garden, Frances L; Jee, Adelle S; Srikantha, Subash; Gupta, Saurabh; Buchanan, Peter R; Collett, Peter W; Marks, Guy B; Vedam, Hima

    2017-10-01

    Evidence-based screening tools are required for detection of daytime hypercapnia in high-risk patient populations. To determine the validity of supine awake oximetry as a test for daytime hypercapnia and severe sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in super-obese patients. This was a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation of super-obese adults (body mass index >50 kg/m 2 ) presenting to Liverpool Hospital, Australia, between 2009 and 2015 for diagnostic polysomnography (PSG) and arterial blood gas measurement. Supine awake oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) was determined using oximetry measurements from the first three awake epochs of raw PSG data. Sensitivity and specificity of SpO 2 for detecting patients with daytime hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >45 mmHg) and severe SDB (respiratory disturbance index (RDI) >30 events/h) were assessed at various cut-off points and displayed using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Area under the ROC curve and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) in the present patient population were derived. Of 52 patients, 23 (44%) had daytime hypercapnia. SpO 2 measured awake in the supine position was associated with the presence of daytime hypercapnia but not with the presence of severe SDB. Overall, awake supine SpO 2 <91.2% had 34.8% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity and 88.8% PPV, and SpO 2 <96.7% had 87.0% sensitivity, 20.7% specificity and 66.7% NPV for the presence of daytime hypercapnia. Awake supine oximetry is an easily performed test that may have novel use in identifying patients at high risk of respiratory failure. Future studies are required to evaluate prospectively its role in screening patients at risk of daytime hypercapnia. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Differences in Psychosocial and Behavioral Variables by Dietary Screening Tool Risk Category in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Geoffrey W; Lofgren, Ingrid; Paulin, Chelsea; Greaney, Mary L; Clark, Phillip G

    2018-01-01

    The Dietary Screening Tool (DST) has been validated as a dietary screening instrument for older adults defining three categories of potential nutritional risk based on DST score cutoffs. Previous research has found that older adults classified as being "at risk" differed from those categorized as being "not at risk" for a limited number of health-related variables. The relationship between risk categories and a wide variety of variables has not yet been explored. This research will contribute to an increased understanding of clustering of multiple health concerns in this population. The aim of this study was to determine whether DST risk categories differed by demographic, anthropometric, cognitive, functional, psychosocial, or behavioral variables in older adults. This study utilized a cross-sectional design with data collected from September 15, 2009 to July 31, 2012. Participants completed an interviewer-administered survey including the DST and other measures. Community-dwelling older adults (n=255) participating in the Study of Exercise and Nutrition in Older Rhode Islanders Project were included if they met study inclusion criteria (complete DST data with depression and cognitive status scores above cutoffs). DST scores were used to classify participants' dietary risk (at risk, possible risk, and not at risk). Multiple analysis of variance and χ 2 analyses examined whether DST risk categories differed by variables. Significant predictors were entered into a logistic regression equation predicting at-risk compared to other risk categories combined. Participants' mean age was 82.5±4.9 years. Nearly half (49%, n=125) were classified as being at possible risk, with the remainder 26% (n=66) not at risk and at risk 25% (n=64). At-risk participants were less likely to be in the Action/Maintenance Stages of Change (PDST in assessment of older adults and suggests a clustering of health concerns among those classified as at risk. Copyright © 2018 Academy of

  8. Yeast Estrogen Screen Assay as a Tool for Detecting Estrogenic Activity in Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bistan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater, surface water, groundwater and even drinking water has become a major concern worldwide, since they negatively affect wildlife and humans. Therefore, these substances should be effectively removed from effluents before they are discharged into surface water to prevent pollution of groundwater, which can be a source of drinking water. Furthermore, an efficient control of endocrine-disrupting compounds in wastewater based on biological and analytical techniques is required. In this study, a yeast estrogen screen (YES bioassay has been introduced and optimized with the aim to assess potential estrogenic activity of waters. First, assay duration, concentration of added substrate to the assay medium and wavelength used to measure the absorbance of the substrate were estimated. Several compounds, such as 17-β-estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, genisteine, hydrocortisone, dieldrin, atrazine, methoxychlor, testosterone and progesterone were used to verify its specificity and sensitivity. The optimized YES assay was sensitive and responded specifically to the selected estrogenic and nonestrogenic compounds in aqueous samples. Potential estrogenicity of influent and effluent samples of two wastewater treatment plants was assessed after the samples had been concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure using Oasis® HLB cartridges and methanol as eluting solvent. Up to 90 % of relative estrogenic activity was detected in concentrated samples of influents to wastewater treatment plants and estrogenic activity was still present in the concentrated effluent samples. We found that the introduced YES assay is a suitable screening tool for monitoring the potential estrogenicity of effluents that are discharged into surface water.

  9. Screening for potential child maltreatment in parents of a newborn baby : The predictive validity of an Instrument for early identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and Neglect (IPARAN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, Claudia E.; Bouwmeester-Landweer, Merian B.R.; Landsmeer-Beker, Eleonore A.; Wit, Jan M.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Kousemaker, N. Pieter J.; Baartman, Herman E.M.

    2017-01-01

    For preventive purposes it is important to be able to identify families with a high risk of child maltreatment at an early stage. Therefore we developed an actuarial instrument for screening families with a newborn baby, the Instrument for identification of Parents At Risk for child Abuse and

  10. Assessing local capacity to expand rural breast cancer screening and patient navigation: An iterative mixed-method tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inrig, Stephen J; Higashi, Robin T; Tiro, Jasmin A; Argenbright, Keith E; Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2017-04-01

    Despite federal funding for breast cancer screening, fragmented infrastructure and limited organizational capacity hinder access to the full continuum of breast cancer screening and clinical follow-up procedures among rural-residing women. We proposed a regional hub-and-spoke model, partnering with local providers to expand access across North Texas. We describe development and application of an iterative, mixed-method tool to assess county capacity to conduct community outreach and/or patient navigation in a partnership model. Our tool combined publicly-available quantitative data with qualitative assessments during site visits and semi-structured interviews. Application of our tool resulted in shifts in capacity designation in 10 of 17 county partners: 8 implemented local outreach with hub navigation; 9 relied on the hub for both outreach and navigation. Key factors influencing capacity: (1) formal linkages between partner organizations; (2) inter-organizational relationships; (3) existing clinical service protocols; (4) underserved populations. Qualitative data elucidate how our tool captured these capacity changes. Our capacity assessment tool enabled the hub to establish partnerships with county organizations by tailoring support to local capacity and needs. Absent a vertically integrated provider network for preventive services in these rural counties, our tool facilitated a virtually integrated regional network to extend access to breast cancer screening to underserved women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bade, R.; Causanilles, A.; Emke, E.; Bijlsma, L.; Sancho, J.V.; Hernandez, F.; de Voogt, P.

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >

  12. Identifying Feeding Problems in Mentally Retarded Persons: Development and Reliability of the Screening Tool of Feeding Problems (STEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Kuhn, David E.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 570 individuals with mental retardation developed the Screening Tool of Feeding Problems, an assessment designed to identify feeding problems presented by persons with mental retardation, and thus facilitate the process of identifying who would benefit from some type of behavioral or medical intervention. Psychometric data are…

  13. Screening tool for oropharyngeal dysphagia in stroke - Part I: evidence of validity based on the content and response processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tatiana Magalhães de; Cola, Paula Cristina; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Magalhães, Hipólito Virgílio; Magnoni, Carlos Daniel; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2017-08-17

    The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence of validity based on the content and response process of the Rastreamento de Disfagia Orofaríngea no Acidente Vascular Encefálico (RADAVE; "Screening Tool for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Stroke"). The criteria used to elaborate the questions were based on a literature review. A group of judges consisting of 19 different health professionals evaluated the relevance and representativeness of the questions, and the results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index. In order to evidence validity based on the response processes, 23 health professionals administered the screening tool and analyzed the questions using a structured scale and cognitive interview. The RADAVE structured to be applied in two stages. The first version consisted of 18 questions in stage I and 11 questions in stage II. Eight questions in stage I and four in stage II did not reach the minimum Content Validity Index, requiring reformulation by the authors. The cognitive interview demonstrated some misconceptions. New adjustments were made and the final version was produced with 12 questions in stage I and six questions in stage II. It was possible to develop a screening tool for dysphagia in stroke with adequate evidence of validity based on content and response processes. Both validity evidences obtained so far allowed to adjust the screening tool in relation to its construct. The next studies will analyze the other evidences of validity and the measures of accuracy.

  14. Parent-completed developmental screening in premature children: a valid tool for follow-up programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Flamant

    Full Text Available Our goals were to (1 validate the parental Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ as a screening tool for psychomotor development among a cohort of ex-premature infants reaching 2 years, and (2 analyse the influence of parental socio-economic status and maternal education on the efficacy of the questionnaire. A regional population of 703 very preterm infants (<35 weeks gestational age born between 2003 and 2006 were evaluated at 2 years by their parents who completed the ASQ, by a pediatric clinical examination, and by the revised Brunet Lezine psychometric test with establishment of a DQ score. Detailed information regarding parental socio-economic status was available for 419 infants. At 2 years corrected age, 630 infants (89.6% had an optimal neuromotor examination. Overall ASQ scores for predicting a DQ score ≤85 produced an area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.85 (95% Confidence Interval:0.82-0.87. An ASQ cut-off score of ≤220 had optimal discriminatory power for identifying a DQ score ≤85 with a sensitivity of 0.85 (95%CI:0.75-0.91, a specificity of 0.72 (95%CI:0.69-0.75, a positive likelihood ratio of 3, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.21. The median value for ASQ was not significantly associated with socio-economic level or maternal education. ASQ is an easy and reliable tool regardless of the socio-economic status of the family to predict normal neurologic outcome in ex-premature infants at 2 years of age. ASQ may be beneficial with a low-cost impact to some follow-up programs, and helps to establish a genuine sense of parental involvement.

  15. Development of the Sydney Falls Risk Screening Tool in brain injury rehabilitation: A multisite prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Duncan; Fisher, Murray J; Pryor, Julie; Bonser, Melissa; Jesus, Jhoven De

    2017-08-22

    To develop a falls risk screening tool (FRST) sensitive to the traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population. Falls are the most frequently recorded patient safety incident within the hospital context. The inpatient traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population is one particular population that has been identified as at high risk of falls. However, no FRST has been developed for this patient population. Consequently in the traumatic brain injury rehabilitation population, there is the real possibility that nurses are using falls risk screening tools that have a poor clinical utility. Multisite prospective cohort study. Univariate and multiple logistic regression modelling techniques (backward elimination, elastic net and hierarchical) were used to examine each variable's association with patients who fell. The resulting FRST's clinical validity was examined. Of the 140 patients in the study, 41 (29%) fell. Through multiple logistic regression modelling, 11 variables were identified as predictors for falls. Using hierarchical logistic regression, five of these were identified for inclusion in the resulting falls risk screening tool: prescribed mobility aid (such as, wheelchair or frame), a fall since admission to hospital, impulsive behaviour, impaired orientation and bladder and/or bowel incontinence. The resulting FRST has good clinical validity (sensitivity = 0.9; specificity = 0.62; area under the curve = 0.87; Youden index = 0.54). The tool was significantly more accurate (p = .037 on DeLong test) in discriminating fallers from nonfallers than the Ontario Modified STRATIFY FRST. A FRST has been developed using a comprehensive statistical framework, and evidence has been provided of this tool's clinical validity. The developed tool, the Sydney Falls Risk Screening Tool, should be considered for use in brain injury rehabilitation populations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.; Lopez, Elena; Monzon, Andres; Otero Pastor, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  17. Vitamin D: a poor screening tool for biochemical and radiological rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Giles T; Yates, Edward W; Wadia, Farokh; Paton, Robin W

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine if a relationship exists between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the diagnosis of biochemical or radiological rickets in children with bone and joint pain, muscle fatigue or varus/valgus knees. A retrospective biochemistry database and case note study was undertaken on 115 new patients referred to the senior authors' elective Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic in 2010. Their mean age was 10.95 years (95% CI 10.24-11.68). Mean serum vitamin D was 18.27 mcg/l (95% CI 16.13-20.41), while 30 mcg/l is the normal threshold. One hundred and three children (88%) had vitamin D levels below normal. Winter/springtime blood samples were more likely to be deficient and this was statistically significant. Three Asian females (2.61%) were diagnosed with radiological rickets. Vitamin D levels below normal are common in children presenting with vague limb or back pain, but this rarely presents with biochemical or radiological rickets. Serum vitamin D level is not a suitable screening tool for biochemical or radiological rickets. Vitamin D requirement in children is unclear and requires further study.

  18. Using a nutritional screening tool to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Mei-Yu; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We assessed which nutrition evaluation method [subjective global assessment (SGA); malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST); nutritional risk index (NRI)] provided the most efficacious combination of high validity, low cost, and ease of use to examine and improve the status of malnutrition for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The SGA, MUST, and NRI scales were used to analyze the preoperative status of malnutrition for 45 CRC patients in a medical center in Taiwan. Differences in the reliability of the 3 methods were compared using the kappa (κ) coefficient of agreement. Lengths of hospital stays were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the effect of malnutrition in CRC patients. The SGA κ coefficient was higher with the MUST than with the NRI. Preoperative and postoperative weight losses were significantly different on the NRI, and the longer the length of the hospital stay, the greater was the weight loss. Although the SGA had a higher validity and lower cost than the NRI, we recommend using the MUST method for a routine nutrition evaluation because it is easier to use and is less expensive than the SGA and the NRI.

  19. The efficacy of spirometry as a screening tool in detection of air flow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzar, Nabeel; Haque, A Suleman; Manzar, Bushra; Irfan, Muhammad

    2010-09-23

    In developing countries, spirometry has not been considered a part of routine medical check-up. The purpose of the study was to establish the usefulness of spirometry as a primary screening tool in detecting air flow obstruction (AFO) during routine medical check-up (RMC). This was a hospital based, retrospective, non-randomized case series study of 3696 participants, who presented to hospital for routine medical check-up. All subjects were assisted at the Pulmonary Medicine Department, from January 2003 till December 2008 who, having met other inclusion criteria, underwent spirometry. Data were analyzed using proportion, group means, standard deviations and Pearson Chi Square test. The overall yield from spirometry in detecting AFO was 211 patients (5.7%); 174 males (6.1%) and 37 females (4.4%) (P=0.158, Pearson Chi Square test). Greater age at presentation and BMI correlated significantly with AFO in the target group (P=<0.001; P=<0.005) respectively. Dyspnoea was the most frequent symptomatology observed in those diagnosed with AFO. These results suggest that spirometry during RMC for all persons can detect a significant number of patients with AFO particularly among the middle and older age groups with a low BMI.

  20. Confoscan: an ideal therapeutic aid and screening tool in acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kharousi, Nadia; Wali, Upender K

    2012-10-01

    Although present worldwide, Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare condition. It is a protozoal infection of the eye that is generally caused by wearing contaminated contact lenses or lens solutions. Confoscan and confocal scanning laser tomography (CSLT) are in vivo noninvasive diagnostic tools which provide high definition images of corneal microstructures. Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a very common refractive surgery. We report a case series in which the first patient had contact lens induced Acanthamoeba keratitis with corneal epitheliopathy that was unresponsive to conservative treatment. Epithelial debridement was performed based on confoscan findings which confirmed the presence of Acanthamoeba cysts. Subsequently, the cornea re-epithelialized over two days. Another patient had CSLT prior to the LASIK which showed stromal cyst-like structures suggestive of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Four months after medical therapy, repeat CSLT was negative for Acanthamoeba cysts. Third patient was diagnosed with Acanthamoeba infection after undergoing lamellar keratoplasty. CSLT should be used as a screening procedure prior to any corneal refractive surgery to detect and treat protozoal and other infections preoperatively.

  1. Landscape Diversity as a Screening Tool to Assess Agroecosystems Sustainability; Preliminary Study in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visicchio

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Modernization of agricultural activities has strongly modified agricultural landscapes. Intensive agriculture, with the increased use of inorganic fertiliser and density of livestock, affects water quality discharging nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies. Nutrients in rivers, subsequently, are excellent indicators to assess sustainability/ land-use intensity in agroecosystems. Landscape, however, is a dynamic system and is the product of interaction amongst the natural environment and human activities, including farming which is a main driving force. At present not much has been investigated on the predictive role of landscape on land-use intensity. Aim of this study is to determine if, in Italian agroecosystem, landscape complexity can be related to land-use intensity. Indexes of landscape complexity (i.e. edge density, number of patches, Shannon’s diversity index, Interspersion-Juxtaposition index derived by processing Corine Land Cover data (level IV, 1:25.000 of Lazio Region, were related with landuse intensity (values of compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus and other parameters found in rivers monitored in accordance to European Directives on Waste Water. Results demonstrate that some landscape indexes were related to some environment parameters. Consequently landscape complexity, with further investigation, could be an efficient screening tool, at large scale, to assess water quality and ultimately agroecosystems sustainability in the absence of monitoring stations.

  2. Evaluation of an inpatient fall risk screening tool to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Kang, Chun-Mei; Ho, Mu-Hsing; Kuo, Jessie Ming-Chuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lien; Chang, Wen-Yin

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the inpatient fall risk screening tool and to identify the most critical fall risk factors in inpatients. Variations exist in several screening tools applied in acute care hospitals for examining risk factors for falls and identifying high-risk inpatients. Secondary data analysis. A subset of inpatient data for the period from June 2011-June 2014 was extracted from the nursing information system and adverse event reporting system of an 818-bed teaching medical centre in Taipei. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and logistic regression analysis. During the study period, 205 fallers and 37,232 nonfallers were identified. The results revealed that the inpatient fall risk screening tool (cut-off point of ≥3) had a low sensitivity level (60%), satisfactory specificity (87%), a positive predictive value of 2·0% and a negative predictive value of 99%. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0·805 (sensitivity, 71·8%; specificity, 78%). To increase the sensitivity values, the Youden index suggests at least 1·5 points to be the most suitable cut-off point for the inpatient fall risk screening tool. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a considerably increased fall risk in patients with impaired balance and impaired elimination. The fall risk factor was also significantly associated with days of hospital stay and with admission to surgical wards. The findings can raise awareness about the two most critical risk factors for falls among future clinical nurses and other healthcare professionals and thus facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions. This study highlights the needs for redefining the cut-off points of the inpatient fall risk screening tool to effectively identify inpatients at a high risk of falls. Furthermore, inpatients with impaired balance and impaired elimination should be closely

  3. An In-Depth Survey of the Screening and Assessment Practices of Highly Regarded Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Jeremy; Falco, Mathea; Schackman, Bruce R.; Winters, Ken C.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To examine the quality of screening and assessment practices at some of the most highly regarded adolescent substance use treatment programs in the United States. Methods: Between March and September 2005, telephone surveys were administered to directors of highly regarded programs. Several different publications and databases were then used…

  4. Performance of a brief asthma control screening tool in community pharmacy: a cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMay, Kate S; Armour, Carol L; Reddel, Helen K

    2014-03-01

    Guidelines recommend basing asthma management on assessment of asthma control. Validated control tools, while suitable for clinical research, may not be feasible for routine use in primary care. To describe the performance of the Pharmacy Asthma Control Screening tool (PACS) compared with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ-6). Data were obtained from a multicentre study of a community pharmacy asthma management programme in Australia, with three or four visits over six months. Eligible participants had suboptimal asthma control or no recent visit to their doctor for asthma. Asthma control was assessed at baseline and at six months with the PACS tool and ACQ-6. A total of 570 patients were enrolled and 398 (70%) completed the programme. The average ACQ-6 score was 1.58±1.05 at baseline and 0.96±0.88 (n=392) after six months. Sensitivity and specificity of PACS 'poor control' for not well-controlled asthma (ACQ- 6 >1.0) were 0.92 and 0.66, respectively, at baseline and 0.76 and 0.83 at six months. Agreement between the two tools at six months was moderate (κ=0.54). Both tools showed highly significant change during the study (p<0.0001 for each), but agreement between the change in the two tools was only fair (κ=0.31). This study shows that a simple asthma control screening tool is feasible for use in community pharmacies and has good sensitivity for identifying patients with not well-controlled asthma. Screening tools are useful in primary care to identify patients who require more detailed assessment of their asthma status, whereas for monitoring asthma control over time, a continuous control measure is more appropriate.

  5. Identification of Abuse and Health Consequences for Military and Civilian Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Jacquelyn

    1999-01-01

    ...% of the screened women reported lifetime emotional abuse. Analyses of the cases and controls are currently underway to explore the health consequences of partner abuse and preferences for partner abuse screening...

  6. COLPOSCOPY- A PRIMARY ALTERNATIVE SCREENING TOOL FOR CERVICAL PRE-CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Sangisapu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cancer cervix is the most common and preventable malignancy in females. 80% of cases in India are detected in advanced stages. Paucity of cytologists in India is one of the important reasons for failure of screening by Pap smear. Visual Inspection of cervix with Acetic acid (VIA and Visual Inspection of cervix with application of Lugol’s Iodine (VILI are two alternative strategies in low resource settings. Colposcopy involves the same principles of VIA and VILI under better magnification. We have hospitals with not so low resource settings, where gynaecologists are available, but cytologists are not. We need to evolve an alternative strategy appropriate to our resources such as colposcopy and guided biopsy. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the feasibility of colposcopy as an alternative screening tool for cervical precancer. The objective of the study is therefore to compare the colposcopy with the known reference standard that is Pap smear and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3000 women were compared with simultaneous colposcopy and Pap smear with latter as reference standard. Colposcopy-guided cervical biopsy was performed for suspicious lesions. RESULTS Unsatisfactory colposcopy due to nonvisualisation of transformation zone is an insignificant percentage (1.7%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of colposcopy for the threshold of normal versus all grades of abnormality (all age groups and all abnormal reports included are 76.74%, 99.34%, 63.46% and 99.65%, respectively. Pap smear is taken as a reference standard. This is the primary objective of our study. Colposcopy-guided biopsy specimens of minor abnormal colposcopic lesions falling outside the transformation zone have not yielded any abnormal findings on histopathology. Three high-grade lesions were detected by colposcopy as well as Pap smear. They have also positively

  7. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  9. Performance of screening tools in detecting major depressive disorder among patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yanping; Yang, Hui; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane; Liu, Meiyan

    2015-03-01

    Eligible studies published before 31 Dec 2013 were identified from the following databases: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Eligible studies published before 31, Dec 2013 were identified from the following databases: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, psycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Eight studies aiming to identify MDD in CHD patients were included, and there were 10 self-reporting questionnaires (such as PHQ-2, PHQ-9, PHQ categorical algorithm, HADS-D, BDI, BDI-II, BDI-II-cog, CES-D, SCL-90, 2 simple yes/no items) and 1 observer rating scale (Ham-D). For MDD alone, the sensitivity and specificity of various screening tools at the validity and optimal cut-off point varied from 0.34 [0.19, 0.52] to 0.96 [0.78, 1.00] and 0.69 [0.65, 0.73] to 0.97 [0.93, 0.99]. Results showed PHQ-9 (≥10), BDI-II (³14 or ≥16), and HADS-D (≥5 or ≥4) were widely used for screening MDD in CHD patients. There is no consensus on the optimal screening tool for MDD in CHD patients. When evaluating the performance of a screening tool, balancing the high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) between specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for screening or diagnostic purpose should be considered. After screening, further diagnosis, appropriate management, and necessary referral may also improve cardiovascular outcomes.

  10. GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury Muin J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. Although genetic association studies account for a substantial proportion of the abstracts in PubMed, identifying them with standard queries is not always accurate or efficient. Further automating the literature-screening process can reduce the burden of a labor-intensive and time-consuming traditional literature search. The Support Vector Machine (SVM, a well-established machine learning technique, has been successful in classifying text, including biomedical literature. The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. Results The data source for this research was the HuGE Navigator, formerly known as the HuGE Pub Lit database. Weighted SVM feature selection based on a keyword list obtained by the two-way z score method demonstrated the best screening performance, achieving 97.5% recall, 98.3% specificity and 31.9% precision in performance testing. Compared with the traditional screening process based on a complex PubMed query, the SVM tool reduced by about 90% the number of abstracts requiring individual review by the database curator. The tool also ascertained 47 articles that were missed by the traditional literature screening process during the 4-week test period. We examined the literature on genetic associations with preterm birth as an example. Compared with the traditional, manual process, the GAPscreener both reduced effort and improved accuracy. Conclusion GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. The user-friendly graphical user interface makes this a practical, stand-alone application. The software can be downloaded at no charge.

  11. Rapid screening for drugs of abuse in biological fluids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Schaff, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    We present a UPLC(®)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric method to simultaneously screen for nineteen benzodiazepines, twelve opiates, cocaine and three metabolites, and three "Z-drug" hypnotic sedatives in both blood and urine specimens. Sample processing consists of a high-speed, high-temperature enzymatic hydrolysis for urine samples followed by a rapid supported liquid extraction (SLE). The combination of ultra-high resolution chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry allows all 38 analytes to be uniquely detected with a ten minute analytical run. Limits of detection for all target analytes are 3ng/mL or better, with only 0.3mL of specimen used for analysis. The combination of low sample volume with fast processing and analysis makes this method a suitable replacement for immunoassay screening of the targeted drug classes, while providing far superior specificity and better limits of detection than can routinely be obtained by immunoassay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J. M. H.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, H. J.; Zonderland, H. M.; van Tinteren, H.; Visser, O.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005-July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS categories, work-up,

  13. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.M.H.; Doorne-Nagtegaal, H.J. van; Zonderland, H.M.; Tinteren, H. van; Visser, O; Verbeek, A.L.M.; Heeten, G.J. den; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. METHODS: The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005-July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS

  14. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  15. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  16. Dialysis Malnutrition and Malnutrition Inflammation Scores: screening tools for prediction of dialysis-related protein-energy wasting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvinder, Gilcharan Singh; Swee, Winnie Chee Siew; Karupaiah, Tilakavati; Sahathevan, Sharmela; Chinna, Karuthan; Ahmad, Ghazali; Bavanandan, Sunita; Goh, Bak Leong

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is highly prevalent in Malaysian dialysis patients and there is a need for a valid screening tool for early identification and management. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the sensitivity of the Dialysis Malnutrition Score (DMS) and Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) tools in predicting protein-energy wasting (PEW) among Malaysian dialysis patients. A total of 155 haemodialysis (HD) and 90 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients were screened for risk of malnutrition using DMS and MIS and comparisons were made with established guidelines by International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) for PEW. MIS cut-off score of >=5 indicated presence of malnutrition in all patients. A total of 59% of HD and 83% of PD patients had PEW by ISRNM criteria. Based on DMS, 73% of HD and 71% of PD patients exhibited moderate malnutrition, whilst using MIS, 88% and 90%, respectively were malnourished. DMS and MIS correlated significantly in HD (r2=0.552, pmalnutrition classification were established (score >=5) for use amongst Malaysian dialysis patients. Both DMS and MIS are valid tools to be used for nutrition screening of dialysis patients especially those undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The DMS may be a more practical and simpler tool to be utilized in the Malaysian dialysis settings as it does not require laboratory markers.

  17. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  18. Translation and discriminative validation of the STarT Back Screening Tool into Danish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsø, Lars; Albert, Hanne; Kent, Peter; Manniche, Claus; Hill, Jonathan

    2011-12-01

    The STarT Back Screening Tool (STarT) is a nine-item patient self-report questionnaire that classifies low back pain patients into low, medium or high risk of poor prognosis. When assessed by GPs, these subgroups can be used to triage patients into different evidence-based treatment pathways. The objective of this study was to translate the English version of STarT into Danish (STarT-dk) and test its discriminative validity. Translation was performed using methods recommended by best practice translation guidelines. Psychometric validation of the discriminative ability was performed using the Area Under the Curve statistic. The Area Under the Curve was calculated for seven of the nine items where reference standards were available and compared with the original English version. The linguistic translation required minor semantic and layout alterations. The response options were changed from "agree/disagree" to "yes/no" for four items. No patients reported item ambiguity using the final version. The Area Under the Curve ranged from 0.735 to 0.855 (CI95% 0.678-0.897) in a Danish cohort (n = 311) and 0.840 to 0.925 (CI95% 0.772-0.948) in the original English cohort (n = 500). On four items, the Area Under the Curve was statistically similar between the two cohorts but lower on three psychosocial sub-score items. The translation was linguistically accurate and the discriminative validity broadly similar, with some differences probably due to differences in severity between the cohorts and the Danish reference standard questionnaires not having been validated. Despite those differences, we believe the results show that the STarT-dk has sufficient patient acceptability and discriminative validity to be used in Denmark.

  19. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Does the STOP-Bang, an obstructive sleep apnea screening tool, predict difficult intubation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, H V; Yarkan Uysal, H; Kaya, A; Ceyhan, A; Dikmen, B

    2014-07-01

    A close relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and difficult intubation has been suggested. We hypothesized that the STOP-Bang questionnaire, a screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), can predict difficult intubation. In this prospective cohort study, 200 adult surgical patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were studied to evaluate the usefulness of the STOP-Bang questionnaire for predicting difficult intubation. STOP-Bang questionnaire results, Mallampati score and tonsil size, as well as demographic data, were recorded preoperatively. Cormack & Lehane grading and difficulty of intubation (Cormack & Lehane grade III or IV, need of an intubation aid, or need of three or more intubation attempts) were also evaluated. Eighty-three out of 200 patients had a high risk of OSA based on the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The occurrence of difficult intubation was higher in the patients at a high risk of OSA (i.e., a STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3) than in the patients at a low risk (13.3% vs. 2.6%) (p = 0.004). Higher age, greater weight, higher body mass index, greater neck circumference, male gender, presence of comorbidities, lower preoperative SpO2, longer extubation times, higher Mallampati score, higher Cormack & Lehane grading, tonsil size and difficult intubation were significantly correlated with a high risk of OSA (p < 0.001). Fourteen out of 200 patients had difficulty in intubation. A STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3 was seen more frequently in the difficult intubation patients (78.6% vs. 38.7%) (p = 0.009). Greater weight, greater neck circumference, greater Mallampati score, a STOP-Bang score ≥ 3 and male gender were significantly correlated with difficult intubation (p < 0.05). A STOP-Bang score of ≥ 3 was a predictor for difficult intubation.

  1. The RT-18: a new screening tool to assess young adult risk-taking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan1, Esther Kuipers1, Yvanca Kuerten1, Margriet van Laar2, Berend Olivier1, Joris Cornelis Verster11Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University; 2Trimbos Institute, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Risk-taking behavior is a major determinant of health and plays a central role in various diseases. Therefore, a brief questionnaire was developed to assess risk taking among young adults with known different levels of risk-taking behavior (social drinkers and recreational drug users. In Study 1, N = 522 university students completed the RT-18 risk taking questionnaire. N = 100 students were retested after 2 to 4 weeks and performed the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT. Mean RT-18 score was 7.69 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.886. The test-retest reliability was r = 0.94. Significant correlation was found between the RT-18 score and CGT scores of risk taking, bet proportion, and risk adjustment. In Study 2, N = 7834 young adult social drinkers, and recreational drug users, mean RT-18 score was 9.34 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.80. Factor analysis showed that the RT-18 comprises two factors assessing level of risk-taking behavior and risk assessment. Men scored significantly higher than women on the RT-18. Recreational drug users had significantly higher scores when compared to social drinkers. In Study 3 of N = 1000 students, construct validity was confirmed by showing that the RT-18 outcome correlates significantly with scores on the Stimulating-Instrumental Risk Inventory. In conclusion, the RT-18 is a valid and reliable screening tool to differentiate levels of risk-taking behavior. This short scale is quick and practical to administer, imposing minimal demands on participants. The RT-18 is able to differentiate risk taking and risk assessment which can help target appropriate intervention strategies.Keywords: risk taking, impulsivity, sensation

  2. Corneal K-Values as a Diagnostic Screening Tool for Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Jan; Boehringer, Daniel; Eberwein, Philipp; Reinhard, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is diagnosed based on Ghent nosology, including major and minor criteria such as increased axial length (AXL) and flattened corneal curvature (higher K-values) or myopia of more than -3 diopters (D) in its latest revision. Because corneal flattening may, in part, be caused by AXL increase, it may be helpful to consider K-values separately. We present statistical evaluation of using corneal K-values for identifying MFS. A retrospective study of K-values of 74 right eyes of 74 patients with MFS, who were compared with an age- and AXL-matched group of 74 right eyes of 74 patients without MFS. After multivariate analysis, receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated. Mean age was 44.1 years versus 44.9 years (P = 0.834). Mean AXL was 25.22 mm versus 25.47 mm (P = 0.661). K-values showed significant differences: mean Kmax was 8.25 mm (40.91 D) versus 7.9 mm (42.72 D) (P < 0.001) and mean Kmin was 8.22 mm (41.06 D) versus 7.69 mm (43.89 D) (P < 0.001). The area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic analysis was 0.82 for Kmax and 0.78 for Kmin; the best cutoff was seen at a Kmax of at least 8.16 mm (41.36 D; sensitivity 73% and specificity 81%). Although both K-values differ significantly, Kmax is the better marker to identify MFS. A Kmax of more than 8.16 mm (41.36 D) seems to be a reasonable cutoff (specificity of 81% and sensitivity of 73%). Because this biometric value is easily obtained and standardized, we see it as a good supporting screening tool for MFS suspects.

  3. Performance of Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) to detect fibromyalgia syndrome in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Angelique; Tournadre, Anne; Pereira, Bruno; Tatar, Zuzana; Couderc, Marion; Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Mathieu, Sylvain; Soubrier, Martin; Dubost, Jean-Jacques

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) self-questionnaire for the detection of FM associated with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. This cross-sectional, French single-centre study was carried out between September 2014 and April 2015 in all patients who consulted for RA, SpA or CTD. Diagnosis of FM was based on ACR 90 criteria and rheumatologist opinion. The self-questionnaire was completed by 605 patients (279 RA, 271 SpA, 57 CTD). It detected 143 concomitant FMs (24.4%). When assessed against ACR 90 criteria, FiRST had a sensitivity of 74.5%, a specificity of 80.4%, a positive predictive value of 26.6% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.1%. Specificity was lower in the CTD group (RA: 84.4%, SpA: 80.2%, CTD: 59.6%) (P = 0.001). When assessed against the rheumatologist's opinion, FiRST had a sensitivity of 75.8%, a specificity of 85.1%, a positive predictive value of 48.3% and an NPV of 95%. Sensitivity was lower in the SpA group than in the CTD group (66% vs 94.4%) (P = 0.004). Performance varied according to self-questionnaire items. Although it performs less well in inflammatory rheumatic disease, FiRST's opinion is close to that of the rheumatologist. It can be used by the rheumatologist in clinical practice for patients facing an apparent treatment failure and to rule out a potential FM diagnosis which could interfere with the treatment response. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Validation of the nutrition screening tool 'Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II' among octogenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wham, C A; Redwood, K M; Kerse, N

    2014-01-01

    To determine the validity of the nutrition screening tool 'Seniors in the Community: Risk Evaluation for Eating and Nutrition, version II' (SCREEN II) among a purposive sample of octogenarians. Cross-sectional validation study. Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Forty-five community-living residents aged 85-86 years. Equal proportions of participants were recruited at low, medium and high nutrition risk based on their SCREEN II score 12 months prior. Nutrition risk was assessed using SCREEN II. Demographic and health data were established. Using established criterion a dietitian's nutrition risk rating assessment ranked participants from low risk (score of 1) to high risk (score of 10). The assessment included a medical history, anthropometric measures and dietary intake. Dietary intake was established from three 24 hour multiple pass recalls (MPR). A Spearman's correlation determined the association between the SCREEN II score and the dietitian's risk score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were completed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off point for high nutrition risk. The SCREEN II score was significantly correlated with the dietitian's risk rating (rs = -0.76 (ptool for detection of nutrition risk people aged 85-86 years.

  5. The iSCREEN Electronic Diabetes Dashboard: A Tool to Improve Knowledge and Implementation of Pediatric Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahanova, Stacy; Tsouka, Alexandra; Palmert, Mark R; Mahmud, Farid H

    2017-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide evidence-based recommendations for patient care but may not be optimally applied in clinical settings. As a pilot study, we evaluated the impact of a computerized, point-of-care decision support system (CDSS) on guideline knowledge and adherence in our diabetes clinic. iSCREEN, a CDSS, integrated with a province-wide electronic health record, was designed based on the Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. Evaluation data were gathered by retrospective chart review and clinician questionnaire prior to and after implementation of iSCREEN. Records of patients with type 1 diabetes, 14 to 18 years of age, were assessed for appropriate screening for complications and comorbidities. To assess guideline adherence, 50 charts were reviewed at 2 time periods (25 before and 25 after launch of iSCREEN). Results revealed improved frequency of appropriate screening for diabetic nephropathy (p=0.03) and retinopathy (p=0.04), accompanied by a decrease in under- and overscreening for these outcomes. To assess guideline knowledge, 58 surveys were collected (31 prior to and 27 after the launch of iSCREEN) from care providers in the field of pediatric diabetes. There was a trend toward improved guideline knowledge in all team members (p=0.06). Implementation of a de novo CDSS was associated with improved rates of appropriate screening for diabetes-related complications. A trend toward improvement in health professionals' knowledge of the guidelines was also observed. Evaluation of this point-of-care computerized decision support tool suggests that it may facilitate diabetes care by optimizing complication screening and CPG knowledge, with the potential for broader implementation. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  7. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may

  8. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  9. [Translation and validation of the Spanish version of the EAT-10 (Eating Assessment Tool-10) for the screening of dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, R; Sarto, B; Segurola, H; Romagosa, A; Puiggrós, C; Vázquez, C; Cárdenas, G; Barcons, N; Araujo, K; Pérez-Portabella, C

    2012-01-01

    The Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT-10) is a self-administered, analogical, direct-scoring screening tool for dysphagia. To translate and adapt the EAT-10 into Spanish, and to evaluate its psychometric properties. After the translation and back-translation process of the EAT-10 ES, a prospective study was performed in adult patients with preserved cognitive and functional abilities. Patients in 3 clinical situations, diagnosed with dysphagia (DD), patients at risk of dysphagia (RD), and patients not at risk of dysphagia (SRD) were recruited from 3 settings: a hospital Nutritional Support Unit (USN), a nursing home (RG) and primary care centre (CAP). Patients completed the EAT-10 ES during a single visit. Both patients and researchers completed a specific questionnaire regarding EAT-10 ES' comprehension. 65 patients were included (age 75 ± 9.1 y), 52.3% women. Mean time of administration was 3.8 ± 1.7 minutes. 95.4% of patients considered that all tool items were comprehensible and 72.3% found it easy to assign scores. EAT-10 ES' internal consistency, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was 0.87. A high correlation was observed between all tool items and global scores (p EAT-10 ES (p EAT-10 ES has proven to be reliable, valid and to have internal consistency. Is it an easy-to-understand tool that can be completed quickly, making it useful for the screening of dysphagia in routine clinical practice.

  10. The LEAF questionnaire: a screening tool for the identification of female athletes at risk for the female athlete triad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Tornberg, Asa B; Skouby, Sven; Faber, Jens; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2014-04-01

    Low energy availability (EA) in female athletes with or without an eating disorder (ED) increases the risk of oligomenorrhoea/functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and impaired bone health, a syndrome called the female athlete triad (Triad). There are validated psychometric instruments developed to detect disordered eating behaviour (DE), but no validated screening tool to detect persistent low EA and Triad conditions, with or without DE/ED, is available. The aim of this observational study was to develop and test a screening tool designed to identify female athletes at risk for the Triad. Female athletes (n=84) with 18-39 years of age and training ≥5 times/week filled out the Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), which comprised questions regarding injuries and gastrointestinal and reproductive function. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated in a subsample of female dancers and endurance athletes (n=37). Discriminant as well as concurrent validity was evaluated by testing self-reported data against measured current EA, menstrual function and bone health in endurance athletes from sports such as long distance running and triathlon (n=45). The 25-item LEAF-Q produced an acceptable sensitivity (78%) and specificity (90%) in order to correctly classify current EA and/or reproductive function and/or bone health. The LEAF-Q is brief and easy to administer, and relevant as a complement to existing validated DE screening instruments, when screening female athletes at risk for the Triad, in order to enable early detection and intervention.

  11. Fecal occult blood test and flexible rectosigmoidoscopy: tools for the screening of colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Jucá, Mario Jorge; Assunção, Paulo Roberto Torres; Hasten-Reiter Júnior, Hermann Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) and flexible rectosigmoidoscopy (RSS), as tools used in the CRC screening, in asymptomatic patients, from 50 years of age. METHODS: The study is transversal and presents a sample of 102 individuals. The FOBT used was the guaiaco, FECA-CULT(r) method, held at a single time, in feces collected from a complete evacuation. Individuals, who presented the positive FOBT, were sent to colonoscopy complement, al...

  12. Impact of acute geriatric care in elderly patients according to the Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment criteria in northern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frély, Anne; Chazard, Emmanuel; Pansu, Aymeric; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Puisieux, François

    2016-02-01

    In France, over 20% of hospitalizations of elderly people are a result of adverse drug events, of which 50% are considered preventable. Tools have been developed to detect inappropriate prescriptions. The Screening Tool of Older Persons' Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment (STOPP/START) criteria are innovative and adapted to French prescriptions. This is one of the first French prospective studies to evaluate the impact of acute geriatric care on prescriptions at discharge in elderly patients using the STOPP/START criteria. The evaluation of prescriptions according to STOPP/START was carried out on admission and at discharge of patients in acute geriatric units at three hospitals in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, France. A total of 202 elderly hospitalized patients were included during the 4.5 months of the study (1.5 months per center). The mean number of drugs was seven on admission and at discharge. Over half of the prescriptions at admission contained at least one potentially inappropriate medication or one potential prescription omission. The prescriptions at discharge contained significantly fewer potentially inappropriate medications than prescriptions on admission (P France improves prescriptions in terms of potentially inappropriate medication, but has no impact on potential prescription omissions. Further studies must be carried out to see if STOPP/START could be used as a tool in French prescription. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Refining Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer Disease Screening: A Tool for Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Natalia; Cesari, Matteo; Canevelli, Marco; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Lilamand, Matthieu; Kelaiditi, Eirini; Soto, Maria E; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Weiner, Michael W; Andrieu, Sandrine; Vellas, Bruno

    2016-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a substantial minority of people clinically diagnosed with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) in fact do not fulfill the neuropathological criteria for the disease. A clinical hallmark of these phenocopies of AD is that these individuals tend to remain cognitively stable for extended periods of time, in contrast to their peers with confirmed AD who show a progressive decline. We aimed to examine the prevalence of patients clinically diagnosed with mild-to-moderate AD who do not experience the expected clinically significant cognitive decline and identify markers easily available in routine medical practice predictive of a stable cognitive prognosis in this population. Data were obtained from two independent, longitudinal, observational multicenter studies in patients with mild-to-moderate AD. The two studies were the European "Impact of Cholinergic Treatment Use" (ICTUS) and the French "REseau sur la maladie d'Alzheimer FRançais" (REAL.FR). We used prospective data of 756 patients enrolled in ICTUS and 340 enrolled in REAL.FR. A prediction rule of cognitive decline was derived on ICTUS using classification and regression tree analysis and then cross-validated on REAL.FR. A range of demographic, clinical and cognitive variables were tested as predictor variables. Overall, 27.9% of patients in ICTUS and 20.9% in REAL.FR did not decline over 2 years. We identified optimized cut-points on the verbal memory items of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale capable of classifying patients at baseline into those who went on to decline and those who remained stable or improved over the duration of the trial. The application of this simple rule would allow the identification of dementia cases where a more detailed differential diagnostic examination (eg, with biomarkers) is warranted. These findings are promising toward the refinement of AD screening in the clinic. For a further optimization of our classification rule, we

  14. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainara Garde

    -home screening tool, with the capability of monitoring patients over multiple nights.

  15. Utility of a Brief Screening Tool for Medication-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Margie E.; Pater, Karen S.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Doebbeling, Brad N.; Smith, Randall B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication therapy management (MTM) services position pharmacists to prevent, detect, and resolve medication-related problems (MRPs.) However, selecting patients for MTM who are most at risk for MRPs is a challenge. Using self-administered scales that are practical for use in clinical practice are one approach. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief self-administered scale as a screening tool for MRPs. Methods This was a non-randomized study utilizing questionnaires administered cross-sectionally. In Phase 1, patients (n=394) at community pharmacies and outpatient clinics completed 78 items, provided to the study team by item authors, assessing perceived MRPs. These data were used to select items for further investigation as a brief, self-administered scale, and estimate the reliability and construct validity of the resulting instrument. In Phase 2, a convenience sample of patients (n=200) at community pharmacies completed a nine-item, self-administered scale. After completion, they were engaged in a comprehensive medication review by their pharmacist who was blinded to questionnaire responses. The main outcome measure for estimating the criterion-related validity of the scale was the number of pharmacist-identified medication-related problems (MRPs.) Item statistics were computed as well as bivariate associations between scale scores and other variables with MRPs. A multivariate model was constructed to examine the influence of scale scores on MRPs after controlling for other significant variables. Results Higher scores on the questionnaire were positively correlated with more pharmacist-identified MRPs (r = 0.24; p= 0.001) and scores remained as a significant predictor (p= 0.031) when controlling for other relevant variables in a multivariate regression model (R2= 0.21; p < 0.001.) Conclusions Patient responses on the scale may have a modest role in predicting MRPs. The use of self

  16. Adaptação transcultural para o português (Brasil da Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS para rastreio da violência contra idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Maia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A literatura aponta a insuficiência de instrumentos disponibilizados em português para a detecção da violência contra idosos. Assim, parece oportuno disponibilizar versões lusófonas de ferramentas advindas de outras culturas. A Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale (VASS contém 12 itens que constatam o risco à violência contra idosos. Este trabalho objetivou promover a adaptação transcultural para o Brasil da VASS. Verificou-se que o conceito utilizado para a construção do instrumento, bem como seus itens mostram-se adequados à investigação do fenômeno. Evidenciou-se boa equivalência semântica entre os itens das retrotraduções e do instrumento original, especialmente quanto aos resultados de T1 – R1. Os juízes optaram pelo uso de 11 itens de T1 à versão-síntese. A equivalência operacional mostrou-se satisfatória. Em geral, os resultados apresentados mostram-se aceitáveis. Destaca-se que o instrumento ainda não apresentou resultados satisfatórios que indiquem viabilidade de seu uso. Conclui-se que é necessário revisar, replicar o instrumento para a verificação da validade.

  17. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  18. Effective gender-based violence screening tools for use in primary health care settings in Afghanistan and Pakistan: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J

    2013-03-01

    Health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention and response to violence against women. However, the existing tools for screening for gender-based violence have been mostly formulated in the context of developed countries. This paper assesses which violence screening tools designed for use as the primary health care level would be feasible for use in Afghanistan and Pakistan, countries characterized by limited resources, unsupportive institutional frameworks and gender and social norms that reinforce domestic violence. A systematic review was made of the literature to evaluate the different screening instruments. The Women's Experience with Battering Scale (short version) and the Ongoing Violence Assessment Tool were judged to be the most useful tools for screening for violence against women in Afghanistan and Pakistan because they are short, S easy to administer and to score and respond to health care provider identified barriers of time and knowledge constraints for conducting screening for intimate partner violence.

  19. Comorbidity-Adjusted life expectancy: A new tool to inform recommendations for optimal screening strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Cho Dr. (Hyunsoon); C.N. Klabunde (Carrie); K.R. Yabroff Dr. (K. Robin); Z. Wang Dr. (Zhuoqiao); A. Meekins Dr. (Angela); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Mariotto Dr. (Angela)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many guidelines recommend considering health status and life expectancy when making cancer screening decisions for elderly persons. Objective: To estimate life expectancy for elderly persons without a history of cancer, taking into account comorbid conditions. Design:

  20. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...... Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment...

  1. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to p...

  2. Derivation of a clinical prediction rule for pediatric abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymel, Kent P; Willson, Douglas F; Boos, Stephen C; Pullin, Deborah A; Homa, Karen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Herman, Bruce E; Graf, Jeanine M; Isaac, Reena; Armijo-Garcia, Veronica; Narang, Sandeep K

    2013-02-01

    Abusive head trauma is a leading cause of traumatic death and disability during infancy and early childhood. Evidence-based screening tools for abusive head trauma do not exist. Our research objectives were 1) to measure the predictive relationships between abusive head trauma and isolated, discriminating, and reliable clinical variables and 2) to derive a reliable, sensitive, abusive head trauma clinical prediction rule that-if validated-can inform pediatric intensivists' early decisions to launch (or forego) an evaluation for abuse. Prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional, observational. Fourteen PICUs. Acutely head-injured children less than 3 years old admitted for intensive care. None. Applying a priori definitional criteria for abusive head trauma, we identified clinical variables that were discriminating and reliable, calculated likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities of abuse, and applied recursive partitioning to derive an abusive head trauma clinical prediction rule with maximum sensitivity-to help rule out abusive head trauma, if negative. Pretest probability (prevalence) of abusive head trauma in our study population was 0.45 (95 of 209). Post-test probabilities of abusive head trauma for isolated, discriminating, and reliable clinical variables ranged from 0.1 to 0.86. Some of these variables, when positive, shifted probability of abuse upward greatly but changed it little when negative. Other variables, when negative, largely excluded abusive head trauma but increased probability of abuse only slightly when positive. Some discriminating variables demonstrated poor inter-rater reliability. A cluster of five discriminating and reliable variables available at or near the time of hospital admission identified 97% of study patients meeting a priori definitional criteria for abusive head trauma. Negative predictive value was 91%. A more completeunderstanding of the specific predictive qualities of isolated, discriminating, and reliable variables

  3. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  4. Postpartum nurses' perceptions of barriers to screening for intimate partner violence: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillery Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a human rights violation that is pervasive worldwide, and is particularly critical for women during the reproductive period. IPV includes physical, sexual and emotional abuse. Nurses on in-patient postpartum units are well-positioned to screen women for IPV, yet low screening rates suggest that barriers to screening exist. The purpose of this study was to (a identify the frequency of screening for IPV, (b the most important barriers to screening, (c the relationship between the barriers to screening and the frequency of screening for types of abuse, and (d to identify other factors that contribute to the frequency of screening for IPV. Methods In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 96 nurses from postpartum inpatient units in three Canadian urban hospitals. The survey included the Barriers to Abuse Assessment Tool (BAAT, adapted for postpartum nurses (PPN. Ordinary least squares (OLS regression models were used to predict barriers to screening for each type of IPV. Results The frequency of screening varied by the type of abuse with highest screening rates found for physical and emotional abuse. According to the BAAT-PPN, lack of knowledge was the most important barrier to screening. The BAAT-PPN total score was negatively correlated with screening for physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Using OLS regression models and after controlling for demographic characteristics, the BAAT-PPN explained 14%, 12%, and 11% of the variance in screening for physical, sexual and emotional abuse, respectively. Fluency in the language of the patient was negatively correlated with screening for each type of abuse. When added as Step 3 to OLS regression models, language fluency was associated with an additional decrease in the likelihood of screening for physical (beta coefficient = -.38, P P = .05, and emotional abuse (beta coefficient = -.48, P Conclusions Our findings support an inverse

  5. Developing clinical decision tools to implement chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care: the BETTER 2 program (building on existing tools to improve chronic disease prevention and screening in primary care).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Donna Patricia; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris; Kandola, Kami; Aguilar, Carolina; Baxter, Julia; Meaney, Christopher; Salvalaggio, Ginetta; Carroll, June C; Faria, Vee; Nykiforuk, Candace; Grunfeld, Eva

    2015-08-04

    The Building on Existing Tools to Improve Chronic Disease Prevention and Screening in Family Practice (BETTER) trial demonstrated the effectiveness of an approach to chronic disease prevention and screening (CDPS) through a new skilled role of a 'prevention practitioner'(PP). The PP has appointments with patients 40-65 years of age that focus on primary prevention activities and screening of cancer (breast, colorectal, cervical), diabetes and cardiovascular disease and associated lifestyle factors. There are numerous and occasionally conflicting evidence-based guidelines for CDPS, and the majority of these guidelines are focused on specific diseases or conditions; however, primary care providers often attend to patients with multiple conditions. To ensure that high-level evidence guidelines were used, existing clinical practice guidelines and tools were reviewed and integrated into blended BETTER tool kits. Building on the results of the BETTER trial, the BETTER tools were updated for implementation of the BETTER 2 program into participating urban, rural and remote communities across Canada. A clinical working group consisting of PPs, clinicians and researchers with support from the Centre for Effective Practice reviewed the literature to update, revise and adapt the integrated evidence algorithms and tool kits used in the BETTER trial. These resources are nuanced, based on individual patient risk, values and preferences and are designed to facilitate decision-making between providers across the target diseases and lifestyle factors included in the BETTER 2 program. Using the updated BETTER 2 toolkit, clinicians 1) determine which CDPS actions patients are eligible to receive and 2) develop individualized 'prevention prescriptions' with patients through shared decision-making and motivational interviewing. The tools identify the patients' risks and eligible primary CDPS activities: the patient survey captures the patient's health history; the prevention visit form

  6. Nutrition screening tools as predictor of malnutrition for hemodialysis patients in Dr. Sardjito Hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susetyowati Susetyowati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients must be monitored routinely through nutrition screening so that morbidity and mortality can be decreased. Comparing the validity of the simple nutrition screening tool (SNST and nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002 as valid and reliable nutrition screening tools in predicting malnutrition. The data were collected from March to April 2015 in the Hemodialysis Unit of Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Indonesia as an observational study. A cross-sectional design study was used to screen 105 MHD patients using the SNST and NRS 2002, and then, the nutritional status of all individuals was assessed used the following subjective parameters: subjective global assessment (SGA and dialysis malnutrition score (DMS. The objective parameters were the following: Body mass index (BMI, mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC, handgrip strength (HGS, and a three-day food record. Chi-squared test, t-test, and receiving operating characteristic curve were used for the statistical analysis. In predicting malnutrition, the validity of the SNST is better than the NRS 2002 in MHD patients against either SGA (Se 94.3% vs. 82.9%; Sp 60% vs. 58.6%; and area under curve (AUC 0.847 vs. 0.749 or DMS (Se 90.0% vs. 81.6%; Sp 74.0% vs. 62.8%; and AUC 0.833 vs. 0.746, while the NRS 2002 is better than the SNST based on BMI, MUAC, HGS, and energy intake (P <0.001. In predicting malnutrition, SNST is better than NRS 2002 based on the subjective assessments (SGA and DMS, and NRS 2002 is better than SNST based on the objective assessments (BMI, MUAC, and HGS.

  7. Evaluation of clinical features scoring system as screening tool for influenza A (H1N1 in epidemic situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influenza A (H1N1 hit the headlines in recent times and created mass hysteria and general panic. The high cost and non-availability of diagnostic laboratory tests for swine flu, especially in the developing countries underlines the need of having a cheaper, easily available, yet reasonably accurate screening test. Aims: This study was carried out to develop a clinical feature-based scoring system (CFSS for influenza A (H1N1 and to evaluate its suitability as a screening tool when large numbers of influenza-like illness cases are suspect. Settings and Design: Clinical-record based study, carried out retrospectively in post-pandemic period on subject′s case-sheets who had been quarantined at IG International Airport′s quarantine center at Delhi. Materials and Methods: Clinical scoring of each suspected case was done by studying their case record sheet and compared with the results of RT-PCR. RT-PCR was used to confirm the diagnosis (Gold Standard. Statistical Analysis: We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the clinical feature-based scoring system (the proposed new screening tool at different cut-off values. The most discriminant cut-off value was determined by plotting the ROC curve. Results: Of the 638 suspected cases, 127 (20% were confirmed to have H1N1 by RT-PCR examination. On the basis of ROC, the most discriminant clinical feature score for diagnosing Influenza A was found to be 7, which yielded sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of 86%, 88%, 64%, and 96%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical features scoring system (CFSS can be used as a valid and cost-effective tool for screening swine flu (influenza A (H1N1 cases from large number of influenza-like illness suspects.

  8. Fast Gradient Elution Reversed-Phase HPLC with Diode-Array Detection as a High Throughput Screening Method for Drugs of Abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter W. Carr; K.M. Fuller; D.R. Stoll; L.D. Steinkraus; M.S. Pasha; Glenn G. Hardin

    2005-12-30

    A new approach has been developed by modifying a conventional gradient elution liquid chromatograph for the high throughput screening of biological samples to detect the presence of regulated intoxicants. The goal of this work was to improve the speed of a gradient elution screening method over current approaches by optimizing the operational parameters of both the column and the instrument without compromising the reproducibility of the retention times, which are the basis for the identification. Most importantly, the novel instrument configuration substantially reduces the time needed to re-equilibrate the column between gradient runs, thereby reducing the total time for each analysis. The total analysis time for each gradient elution run is only 2.8 minutes, including 0.3 minutes for column reequilibration between analyses. Retention times standard calibration solutes are reproducible to better than 0.002 minutes in consecutive runs. A corrected retention index was adopted to account for day-to-day and column-to-column variations in retention time. The discriminating power and mean list length were calculated for a library of 47 intoxicants and compared with previous work from other laboratories to evaluate fast gradient elution HPLC as a screening tool.

  9. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  10. Technology-assisted title and abstract screening for systematic reviews: a retrospective evaluation of the Abstrackr machine learning tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Allison; Johnson, Cydney; Hartling, Lisa

    2018-03-12

    Machine learning tools can expedite systematic review (SR) processes by semi-automating citation screening. Abstrackr semi-automates citation screening by predicting relevant records. We evaluated its performance for four screening projects. We used a convenience sample of screening projects completed at the Alberta Research Centre for Health Evidence, Edmonton, Canada: three SRs and one descriptive analysis for which we had used SR screening methods. The projects were heterogeneous with respect to search yield (median 9328; range 5243 to 47,385 records; interquartile range (IQR) 15,688 records), topic (Antipsychotics, Bronchiolitis, Diabetes, Child Health SRs), and screening complexity. We uploaded the records to Abstrackr and screened until it made predictions about the relevance of the remaining records. Across three trials for each project, we compared the predictions to human reviewer decisions and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, precision, false negative rate, proportion missed, and workload savings. Abstrackr's sensitivity was > 0.75 for all projects and the mean specificity ranged from 0.69 to 0.90 with the exception of Child Health SRs, for which it was 0.19. The precision (proportion of records correctly predicted as relevant) varied by screening task (median 26.6%; range 14.8 to 64.7%; IQR 29.7%). The median false negative rate (proportion of records incorrectly predicted as irrelevant) was 12.6% (range 3.5 to 21.2%; IQR 12.3%). The workload savings were often large (median 67.2%, range 9.5 to 88.4%; IQR 23.9%). The proportion missed (proportion of records predicted as irrelevant that were included in the final report, out of the total number predicted as irrelevant) was 0.1% for all SRs and 6.4% for the descriptive analysis. This equated to 4.2% (range 0 to 12.2%; IQR 7.8%) of the records in the final reports. Abstrackr's reliability and the workload savings varied by screening task. Workload savings came at the expense of potentially missing

  11. Touch screens as a tool in patient care in the IBD outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lone; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Fallingborg, Jan; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius; Jess, Tine

    2016-09-01

    We have introduced online touch screens in the waiting room for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) for recording of symptoms before their consultation. This has made disease activity scores readily available to the physician in our newly established database, 'Gastrobio'. We wanted to validate the use of touch screens compared to paper questionnaires. A total of 54 patients with UC and 74 patients with CD were included in the study. The UC patients filled out the Short Health Scale (SHS) and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SSCAI). The CD patients filled out the SHS and Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI). Paper questionnaires and touch screen versions were used in random order and comparison between the two modalities was made by Spearman correlation test, Bland-Altman plots, and Kappa-statistics. Among the 128 patients, the two SHS scores (SHS touch versus SHS paper) were found to be highly correlated (Spearman correlation; 0.92 for UC and 0.92 for CD). Also, on average, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated a difference close to zero between the two modalities. Agreement between paper version and touch screen version of SCCAI and HBI scores was also high (Kappa-statistics; 78% raw and 98% weighted for SCCAI; 65% raw and 97% weighted for HBI). It is feasible to introduce touch screens in the outpatient clinic and to have patients record their symptoms before the consultation. However, the study may not be representative for elderly patients.

  12. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillence, Kelly A.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Roberts, Llinos A.; Overton, Timothy G.; Avent, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques. PMID:26835682

  13. A Comparison of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 Tool With the Subjective Global Assessment Tool to Detect Nutritional Status in Chinese Patients Undergoing Surgery With Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Juntao; Yin, Shaohua; Zhu, Yongjian; Gao, Fengli; Song, Xinna; Song, Zhenlan; Lv, Junying; Li, Miaomiao

    The objectives of this study were to describe the nutritional status of Chinese patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery and to compare the ease of use, diversity, and concordance of the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 with the Subjective Global Assessment in the same patients. A total of 280 gastrointestinal cancer patients admitted for elective surgery were evaluated by the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) tools within 48 hours of admission from April to October 2012. Related opinions about ease of using the tools were obtained from 10 nurses. The prevalence of patients at nutritional risk with the SGA and NRS 2002 was 33.9% and 53.2% on admission. In the total group, ≤70 age group, and >70 age group, respectively, consistency was observed in 214 (76.4%), 175 (91.1%), and 39 (44.3%); and kappa values were 0.54 (p 70 age group (p nutritional status of patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing surgery, but it appeared to detect more patients at nutritional risk in the >70 age group.

  14. Informed choice about Down syndrome screening - effect of an eHealth tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Mette M; Draborg, Eva; Lamont, Ronald F

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an eHealth intervention (interactive website) on pregnant women's ability to make an informed choice about Down syndrome screening. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with allocation...... to an intervention group and a control group in a ratio of 1:1. Subsequent subgroup analysis was conducted. Participants were recruited from 5 August 2013 to 25 April 2014 at Odense University Hospital, Denmark. Inclusion criteria were: pregnant women aged ≥18 years who were invited to participate in Down syndrome...... screening. Exclusion criteria were: high risk of abortion, psycho-socially vulnerable women, late referral, inability to speak Danish and women declining to participate. The primary outcome was informed choice about Down syndrome screening. The Multidimensional Measure of Informed Choice was used to assess...

  15. Using a configurable EMR and decision support tools to promote process integration for routine HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert; Moore, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Given the clinical and public health benefits of routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing in the emergency department (ED) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, Maricopa Medical Center, as part of Maricopa Integrated Health System, started Test, Educate, Support, and Treat Arizona (TESTAZ) and became the first and, to-date, only hospital in Arizona to implement routine, non-targeted, opt-out, rapid HIV screening in the ED. The authors describe the implementation of a universal, routine, opt-out HIV screening program in the adult ED of an urban safety-net hospital serving under-served populations, including the uninsured and under-insured. Through a controlled and collaborative process, the authors integrated custom documentation elements specific to HIV screening into the triage/intake process, implemented and utilized clinical decision support tools to guide clinicians in each step of the process, and used electronic data collection and reporting to drive new screening protocols that led to a significant increase in overall HIV testing rates. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Use of a self-reported psychosocial distress screening tool as a predictor of need for psychosocial intervention in a general medical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Schuyler C; Aizvera, Jeasmine; Wakim, Paul; Felber, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    This study describes the development of a self-reported psychosocial distress screening tool for a general medical population and criteria to predict the need for psychosocial intervention. The objectives were to develop criteria to determine which patients need in-person screening and establish criteria identifying patients who are more likely to require psychosocial interventions. The outcomes have bearing on reducing initial psychosocial screening workload for medical social workers in high volume medical settings. Furthermore, a criterion for scoring the self-reported tool can predict which patients will need further social work intervention. The results suggest criteria are a score on the adapted Distress Thermometer of five or greater, at least two negative emotions, and a lack of health insurance. The optimal criterion identified 36% (446/1228) of patients in need of in-person screening with the remaining 64% (782/1228) screened low risk through the tool, representing a significant workload reduction.

  17. A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI adults or those who have prediabetes (PD or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1 were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D. Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV. All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.

  18. Development and validation of a hospital screening tool for malnutrition : the short nutritional assessment questionnaire (SNAQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizenga, H M; Seidell, J C; de Vet, Henrica C W; Wierdsma, N.J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    OBJECTIVE: For the early detection and treatment of malnourished hospital patients no valid screening instrument for the Dutch language exists. Calculation of percentage weight loss and body mass index (BMI) by the nurse at admission to the hospital appeared to be not feasible. Therefore, the short,

  19. Psychiatric screening and interventions for minor refugees in Europe: an overview of approaches and tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, Annerieke; Hein, Irma

    2018-01-01

    Currently hundreds of thousands of minor refugees entered Europe. This group has been exposed to traumatic events pre-, during, and post-migration and is at increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders. In this article, we describe the results of our literature search on screening and

  20. Pap screening as preventive tool against cervical cancer: a report of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of cervical cancer in the developed countries has significantly reduced as a result of well-organized and coordinated Pap screening program, which is aimed at detection of pre-invasive lesions that are then promptly treated. We report a 45-year old woman whose immediate elder sister had breast carcinoma, ...

  1. Use of Compact Digital Cervicography: An Adjuvant Screening Tool for Precancerous Cervical Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zip-Pon Chen

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The use of compact digital cervicography with the RCI scoring system is a significant device for screening abnormal Pap cases. It helps to improve patient care. Further research is required to understand the discrepancies among diagnostic results of Pap smears (the Bethesda system, cervicography with RCI, and histopathology. [Taiwan J Obstet Cynecol 2008;47(2:187-191

  2. Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey George

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students and teachers using online instructional multimedia developed entirely from the classroom teacher's traditional live-lecture format. This study investigated academic achievement, engagement, preference, and curriculum development using screen-capture instructional…

  3. LASSO-ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-01-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  4. LASSO—ligand activity by surface similarity order: a new tool for ligand based virtual screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Darryl; Sadjad, Bashir S.; Zsoldos, Zsolt; Simon, Aniko

    2008-06-01

    Virtual Ligand Screening (VLS) has become an integral part of the drug discovery process for many pharmaceutical companies. Ligand similarity searches provide a very powerful method of screening large databases of ligands to identify possible hits. If these hits belong to new chemotypes the method is deemed even more successful. eHiTS LASSO uses a new interacting surface point types (ISPT) molecular descriptor that is generated from the 3D structure of the ligand, but unlike most 3D descriptors it is conformation independent. Combined with a neural network machine learning technique, LASSO screens molecular databases at an ultra fast speed of 1 million structures in under 1 min on a standard PC. The results obtained from eHiTS LASSO trained on relatively small training sets of just 2, 4 or 8 actives are presented using the diverse directory of useful decoys (DUD) dataset. It is shown that over a wide range of receptor families, eHiTS LASSO is consistently able to enrich screened databases and provides scaffold hopping ability.

  5. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool is useful for predicting acute readmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Schultz, Martin; Dynesen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    . Patients ≥ 65 years treated during a 14-day period were included. Their mean age was 78 years. Screening with the Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) was performed (n = 198) by the Mobile Geriatric Team (MGT). The patients' medical journals were assessed retrospectively by the SG to determine any need...

  6. Parents' perceptions about child abuse and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse: A study from primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dosari, Mohammed N; Ferwana, Mazen; Abdulmajeed, Imad; Aldossari, Khaled K; Al-Zahrani, Jamaan M

    2017-01-01

    To determine perceptions of parents about child abuse, and their impact on physical and emotional child abuse. Two hundred parents attending three primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Riyadh serving National Guard employes and their families, were requested to participate in this survey. Data was collected by self administered questionnaire. Five main risk factors areas/domains were explored; three were parent related (personal factors, history of parents' childhood abuse, and parental attitude toward punishment), and two were family/community effects and factors specific to the child. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included computation of mean, median, mode, frequencies, and percentages; Chi-square test and t -test were used to test for statistical significance, and regression analysis performed to explore relationships between child abuse and various risk factors. Thirty-four percent of the parents reported a childhood history of physical abuse. Almost 18% of the parents used physical punishment. The risk factors associated significantly with child abuse were parents' history of physical abuse, young parent, witness to domestic violence, and poor self-control. Child-related factors included a child who is difficult to control or has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parents who did not own a house were more likely to use physical punishment. Abusive beliefs of parent as risk factors were: physical punishment as an effective educational tool for a noisy child; parents' assent to physical punishment for children; it is difficult to differentiate between physical punishment and child abuse; parents have the right to discipline their child as they deem necessary; and there is no need for a system for the prevention of child abuse. The causes of child abuse and neglect are complex. Though detecting child abuse may be difficult in primary care practice, many risk factors can be identified early. Parents' attitudes can

  7. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, Richard [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellón (Spain); Voogt, Pim de, E-mail: w.p.devoogt@uva.nl [KWR Watercycle Research Institute, Chemical Water Quality and Health, P.O. Box 1072, 3430 BB Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94248, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually.

  8. The computerized adaptive diagnostic test for major depressive disorder (CAD-MDD): a screening tool for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Hooker, Giles; Finkelman, Matthew D; Weiss, David J; Pilkonis, Paul A; Frank, Ellen; Moore, Tara; Kupfer, David J

    2013-07-01

    To develop a computerized adaptive diagnostic screening tool for depression that decreases patient and clinician burden and increases sensitivity and specificity for clinician-based DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD). 656 individuals with and without minor and major depression were recruited from a psychiatric clinic and a community mental health center and through public announcements (controls without depression). The focus of the study was the development of the Computerized Adaptive Diagnostic Test for Major Depressive Disorder (CAD-MDD) diagnostic screening tool based on a decision-theoretical approach (random forests and decision trees). The item bank consisted of 88 depression scale items drawn from 73 depression measures. Sensitivity and specificity for predicting clinician-based Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders diagnoses of MDD were the primary outcomes. Diagnostic screening accuracy was then compared to that of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). An average of 4 items per participant was required (maximum of 6 items). Overall sensitivity and specificity were 0.95 and 0.87, respectively. For the PHQ-9, sensitivity was 0.70 and specificity was 0.91. High sensitivity and reasonable specificity for a clinician-based DSM-IV diagnosis of depression can be obtained using an average of 4 adaptively administered self-report items in less than 1 minute. Relative to the currently used PHQ-9, the CAD-MDD dramatically increased sensitivity while maintaining similar specificity. As such, the CAD-MDD will identify more true positives (lower false-negative rate) than the PHQ-9 using half the number of items. Inexpensive (relative to clinical assessment), efficient, and accurate screening of depression in the settings of primary care, psychiatric epidemiology, molecular genetics, and global health are all direct applications of the current system. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Hernandez, Felix; Voogt, Pim de

    2016-01-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of > 200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. - Highlights: • A hidden target non-target screening method is utilised using two databases • Two software (MsXelerator and Sieve 2.1) used for both methods • 22 compounds tentatively identified following MS/MS reinjection • More information gleaned from this combined approach than individually

  10. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air Pollutants 2011 web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  11. US EPA Office of Research and Development Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) Air web mapping service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map service displays all air-related layers used in the USEPA Community/Tribal-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C/T-FERST) mapping application...

  12. Use of a modified GreenScreen tool to conduct a screening-level comparative hazard assessment of conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Jennifer; Heine, Lauren; Hwang, Nina

    2016-11-08

    Increased concern for potential health and environmental impacts of chemicals, including nanomaterials, in consumer products is driving demand for greater transparency regarding potential risks. Chemical hazard assessment is a powerful tool to inform product design, development and procurement and has been integrated into alternative assessment frameworks. The extent to which assessment methods originally designed for conventionally-sized materials can be used for nanomaterials, which have size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have not been well established. We contracted with a certified GreenScreen profiler to conduct three GreenScreen hazard assessments, for conventional silver and two forms of nanosilver. The contractor summarized publicly available literature, and used defined GreenScreen hazard criteria and expert judgment to assign and report hazard classification levels, along with indications of confidence in those assignments. Where data were not available, a data gap (DG) was assigned. Using the individual endpoint scores, an aggregated benchmark score (BM) was applied. Conventional silver and low-soluble nanosilver were assigned the highest possible hazard score and a silica-silver nanocomposite called AGS-20 could not be scored due to data gaps. AGS-20 is approved for use as antimicrobials by the US Environmental Protection Agency. An existing method for chemical hazard assessment and communication can be used - with minor adaptations- to compare hazards across conventional and nano forms of a substance. The differences in data gaps and in hazard profiles support the argument that each silver form should be considered unique and subjected to hazard assessment to inform regulatory decisions and decisions about product design and development. A critical limitation of hazard assessments for nanomaterials is the lack of nano-specific hazard data - where data are available, we demonstrate that existing hazard assessment systems can work. The work

  13. Quick screening tool for patients with severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness: psychometric study of the negative emotions due to chronic illness screening test (NECIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Hsin; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Chen, Hsiu-Jung; Cheng, Yih-Ru; Hung, Fu-Chien; Leung, Kai-Kuan; Lue, Bee-Horng; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Wu, Yin-Chang

    2018-01-16

    Severe negative emotional reactions to chronic illness are maladaptive to patients and they need to be addressed in a primary care setting. The psychometric properties of a quick screening tool-the Negative Emotions due to Chronic Illness Screening Test (NECIS)-for general emotional problems among patients with chronic illness being treated in a primary care setting was investigated. Three studies including 375 of patients with chronic illness were used to assess and analyze internal consistency, test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, a cut-off point for distinguishing maladaptive emotions and clinical application validity of NECIS. Self-report questionnaires were used. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged from 0.78 to 0.82, and the test-retest reliability was 0.71 (P emotions, with a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3 and 69.0%, and 68.5 and 83.0%, respectively. The clinical application validity analysis revealed that low NECIS group showed significantly better adaptation to chronic illness on the scales of subjective health, general satisfaction with life, self-efficacy of self-care for disease, illness perception and stressors in everyday life. The NECIS has satisfactory psychometric properties for use in the primary care setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The parenting responsibility and emotional preparedness (PREP) screening tool: a 3-item screen that identifies teen mothers at high risk for nonoptimal parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Bert, Shannon Carothers

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the ability of a 3-item screening tool (Parenting Responsibility and Emotional Preparedness [PREP]) to detect adolescent mothers at elevated risk for nonoptimal parenting and poor child development outcomes at 2 years of age. DESIGN A 4-site prospective cohort study conducted from December 2001 to August 2007 of adolescent mothers recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy and followed up at 4, 8, 18, and 24 months post partum. SETTING Community clinics and home settings in Birmingham, Alabama; Kansas City, Kansas and Missouri; South Bend, Indiana; and Washington, DC. PARTICIPANTS A total of 270 first-time adolescent mothers (aged 15-19 years) and their infants (birth to 2 years of age). MAIN EXPOSURES Naturalistic observations of parent-child interactions and quality of home environment during the first 2 years of life. OUTCOME MEASURES Maternal mental health and cognitive indicators, positive mother-child interactions, quality of home environment, child social-emotional development, and child cognitive development (Bayley scales). RESULTS PREP scores identified adolescent mothers with significantly elevated depressive symptoms and childhood trauma and lower scores of knowledge of infant development and maternal IQ. PREP predicted significantly lower quality of home environments and higher levels of nonoptimal mother-child interactions at 4, 8, and 18 months. PREP also predicted significantly lower child outcomes at 2 years of age for cognitive scores and higher levels of depressive and withdrawal symptoms and dysregulation and negative emotionality. CONCLUSIONS PREP is a low-cost, easily administered, nonstigmatizing screening tool that identifies adolescent mothers who self-recognize that they need help to meet their infants' social, emotional, and cognitive needs.

  15. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study

  16. Risk stratification for surgical outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients using ISAR-HP and G8 screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souwer, Esteban T D; Verweij, Norbert M; van den Bos, Frederiek; Bastiaannet, Esther; Slangen, Rob M E; Steup, Willem H; Hamaker, Marije E; Portielje, Johanna E A

    2018-03-01

    Older patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after surgical treatment of cancer. Identifying patients at risk could affect treatment decisions and prevent functional decline. Screening tools are available to select patients for Geriatric Assessment. Until now their predictive value for adverse outcomes in older colorectal cancer patients has not been investigated. To study the predictive value of the Geriatric 8 (G8) and Identification of Seniors at Risk for Hospitalized Patients (ISAR-HP) screening tools for adverse outcomes after elective colorectal surgery in patients older than 70years. Primary outcomes were 30-day complication rates, secondary outcomes were the length of hospital stay and six-month mortality. Multicentre cohort study from two hospitals in the Netherlands. Frail was defined as a G8 ≤14 and/or ISAR-HP ≥2. Odds ratio (OR) is given with 95% CI. Overall, 139 patients (52%) out of 268 patients were included; 32 patients (23%) were ISAR-HP-frail, 68 (50%) were G8-frail, 20 were frail on both screening tools. Median age was 77.7years. ISAR-HP frail patients were at risk for 30-day complications OR 2.4 (CI 1.1-5.4, p=0.03), readmission OR 3.4 (1.1-11.0), cardiopulmonary complications OR 5.9 (1.6-22.6), longer hospital stay (10.3 versus 8.9day) and six-months mortality OR 4.9 (1.1-23.4). When ISAR-HP and G8 were combined OR increased for readmission, 30-day and six-months mortality. G8 alone had no predictive value. ISAR-HP-frail patients are at risk for adverse outcomes after colorectal surgery. ISAR-HP combined with G8 has the strongest predictive value for complications and mortality. Patients screening frail on ISAR-HP are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Screening results of G8 alone was not predictive for postoperative outcomes. Predictive value increased when G8 and ISAR-HP were combined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pressler Taylor R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a

  18. A comparison of the malnutrition screening tools, MUST, MNA and bioelectrical impedance assessment in frail older hospital patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Adrian; Birch, Deborah; Stokoe, David

    2015-04-01

    This cohort study aimed to investigate and compare the ability to predict malnutrition in a group of frail older hospital patients in the United Kingdom using the nutritional risk screening tools, MUST (malnutrition universal screening tool), MNA-SF(®) (mini nutritional assessment-short form) and bioelectrical impedance assessment (BIA) of body composition. MUST and MNA-SF was performed on 78 patients (49 males and 29 females, age: 82 y ± 7.9, body mass index (BMI): 25.5 kg/m(2) ± 5.4), categorised by nutritional risk, and statistical comparison and test reliability performed. BIA was performed in 66 patients and fat free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and body cell mass (BCM) and index values (kg/m(2)) calculated and compared against reference values. MUST scored 77% patients 'low risk', 9% 'medium risk' and 14% 'high risk', compared to MNA-SF categorisation: 9%, 46% and 45%, respectively (P tools (coefficient, r = 0.4). Significant positive correlations were found between most variables (P males low/depleted, 21% borderline/at risk with 96% categorised by MNA-SF as either malnourished or at risk (MUST-35%). 29% males had low FM index and all appropriately classified by MNA-SF. 30% females had low FFM index or borderline, MNA-SF screening appropriately categorised 86% (compared to MUST-29%). This preliminary data may have significant clinical implications and highlights the potential ability of the MNA-SF and BIA to accurately assess malnutrition risk over MUST in frail older hospital patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Utility of quantitative sensory testing and screening tools in identifying HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in Western Kenya: pilot testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna Cettomai

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of HIV but is widely under-diagnosed in resource-constrained settings. We aimed to identify tools that accurately distinguish individuals with moderate/severe peripheral neuropathy and can be administered by non-physician healthcare workers (HCW in resource-constrained settings.We enrolled a convenience sample of 30 HIV-infected outpatients from a Kenyan HIV-care clinic. A HCW administered the Neuropathy Severity Score (NSS, Single Question Neuropathy Screen (Single-QNS, Subjective Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Subjective-PNS, and Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (Brief-PNS. Monofilament, graduated tuning fork, and two-point discrimination examinations were performed. Tools were validated against a neurologist's clinical assessment of moderate/severe neuropathy.The sample was 57% male, mean age 38.6 years, and mean CD4 count 324 cells/µL. Neurologist's assessment identified 20% (6/30 with moderate/severe neuropathy. Diagnostic utilities for moderate/severe neuropathy were: Single-QNS--83% sensitivity, 71% specificity; Subjective-PNS-total--83% sensitivity, 83% specificity; Subjective-PNS-max and NSS--67% sensitivity, 92% specificity; Brief-PNS--0% sensitivity, 92% specificity; monofilament--100% sensitivity, 88% specificity; graduated tuning fork--83% sensitivity, 88% specificity; two-point discrimination--75% sensitivity, 58% specificity.Pilot testing suggests Single-QNS, Subjective-PNS, and monofilament examination accurately identify HIV-infected patients with moderate/severe neuropathy and may be useful diagnostic tools in resource-constrained settings.

  20. The utility of screen for child anxiety related emotional disorders (SCARED) as a tool for identifying children at high risk for prevalent anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Merckelbach, H.; Kindt, M.; Bögels, S.; Dreessen, L.; van Dorp, C.; Habets, A.; Rosmuller, S.; Snieder, N.

    2001-01-01

    The current study examined the utility of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) as a screening tool for the identification of children at high risk for prevalent childhood anxiety disorders. The child version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (KSCID) was used

  1. Relationship between STarT Back Screening Tool and prognosis for low back pain patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Jonathan; Newell, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is common and costly and few treatments have been shown to be markedly superior to any other. Effort has been focused on stratifying patients to better target treatment. Recently the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) has been developed for use in primary care to enable sub grouping of patients based on modifiable baseline characteristics and has been shown to be associated with differential outcomes. In the UK the SBT is being recommended to assist in car...

  2. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of a two-question screening tool for depression in a specialist palliative care unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Payne, Ann

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective in this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a two-item screening interview for depression versus the formal psychiatric interview, in the setting of a specialist palliative in-patient unit so that we may identify those individuals suffering from depressive disorder and therefore optimise their management in this often-complex population. METHODS: A prospective sample of consecutive admissions (n = 167) consented to partake in the study, and the screening interview was asked separately to the formal psychiatric interview. RESULTS: The two-item questionnaire, achieved a sensitivity of 90.7% (95% CI 76.9-97.0) but a lower specificity of 67.7% (95% CI 58.7-75.7). The false positive rate was 32.3% (95% CI 24.3-41.3), but the false negative rate was found to be a low 9.3% (95% CI 3.0-23.1). A subgroup analysis of individuals with a past experience of depressive illness, (n = 95), revealed that a significant number screened positive for depression by the screening test, 55.2% (16\\/29) compared to those with no background history of depression, 33.3% (22\\/66) (P = 0.045). CONCLUSION: The high sensitivity and low false negative rate of the two-question screening tool will aid health professionals in identifying depression in the in-patient specialist palliative care unit. Individuals, who admit to a previous experience of depressive illness, are more likely to respond positively to the two-item questionnaire than those who report no prior history of depressive illness (P = 0.045).

  4. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-07-26

    Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a 'grey literature' search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can inform care planning, thereby improving residents' quality of life

  5. Nanotechnology: A Tool for Improved Performance on Electrochemical Screen-Printed (BioSensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Jubete

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Screen-printing technology is a low-cost process, widely used in electronics production, especially in the fabrication of disposable electrodes for (biosensor applications. The pastes used for deposition of the successive layers are based on a polymeric binder with metallic dispersions or graphite, and can also contain functional materials such as cofactors, stabilizers and mediators. More recently metal nanoparticles, nanowires and carbon nanotubes have also been included either in these pastes or as a later stage on the working electrode. This review will summarize the use of nanomaterials to improve the electrochemical sensing capability of screen-printed sensors. It will cover mainly disposable sensors and biosensors for biomedical interest and toxicity monitoring, compiling recent examples where several types of metallic and carbon-based nanostructures are responsible for enhancing the performance of these devices.

  6. Gastropods as an evaluation tool for screening the irritating potency of absorption enhancers and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, E; Remon, J P

    1999-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a simple alternative test using naked snails (slugs) for screening the irritating potency of chemicals on mucosal surfaces. The effect of various absorption enhancers and two beta-blocking agents on the mucosal tissue was determined from the total protein and lactate dehydrogenase released from the foot mucosa after treatment. Additionally, mucus production and reduction in body weight of the slugs caused by the treatment were measured. According to the effects on the mucosal epithelium of the slugs the following rank order of increasing toxicity was established: PBS, HP-beta-CD (5%), beta-CD (1.8%) and oxprenolol hydrochloride (1%) mucus production and weight loss reliable toxicity information can be obtained. This demonstrates rapid screening tests can be carried out using simple toxicity endpoints.

  7. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-10

    alternative fuels are often major impediments to certification of these fuels as Fit-For- Purpose (FFP) for the U.S. Navy. A method whereby a candidate...1900 Elkin Street, Suite 230, Alexandria, VA 22308 Navy mobility fuels Fit-for-Purpose Certification Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry GC-MS...time; 6) f-ratio selector; 7) Feature selected TIC for class A and 8) Feature selected TIC for class B. 8. FCAST ANOVA screen alignment window. 9

  8. Multidimensional Reaction Screening for Photochemical Transformations as a Tool for Discovering New Chemotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, V?ronique I.; Goodell, John R.; Ingham, Oscar J.; Porco, John A.; Beeler, Aaron B.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an automated photochemical microfluidics platform that integrates a 1 kW high-pressure Hg vapor lamp and allows for analytical pulse flow or preparative continuous flow reactions. Herein, we will discuss the use of this platform toward the discovery of new chemotypes through multidimensional reaction screening. We will highlight the ability to discretely control wavelengths with optical filters, allowing for control of reaction outcomes.

  9. Optimising screening for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder: Validation and evaluation of objective and subjective tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Støttrup, Mette Marie; Nayberg, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    by correlation with established objective and subjective cognitive measures, and decision validity was determined with Receiver-Operating-Characteristic analyses. Correlations and linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the associations between objective and subjective cognitive impairment......Introduction Cognitive impairment is common in bipolar disorder and contributes to socio-occupational difficulties. The objective was to validate and evaluate instruments to screen for and monitor cognitive impairments, and improve the understanding of the association between cognitive measures...

  10. Multidimensional reaction screening for photochemical transformations as a tool for discovering new chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Véronique I; Goodell, John R; Ingham, Oscar J; Porco, John A; Beeler, Aaron B

    2014-05-02

    We have developed an automated photochemical microfluidics platform that integrates a 1 kW high-pressure Hg vapor lamp and allows for analytical pulse flow or preparative continuous flow reactions. Herein, we will discuss the use of this platform toward the discovery of new chemotypes through multidimensional reaction screening. We will highlight the ability to discretely control wavelengths with optical filters, allowing for control of reaction outcomes.

  11. Use of a screening tool and primary health care gerontology nurse specialist for high-needs older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anna; Boyd, Michal; Dagley, Lynelle

    2017-02-01

    To describe implementation of an innovative gerontology nurse specialist role within one primary health organisation in Auckland, New Zealand. Quantitative outcomes of the screening tool as well as the nurse specialist assessment will be presented. The intervention involved use of the Brief Risk Identification for Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT) to identify high-needs older people with subsequent comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) performed by the gerontology nurse specialist. A total 384 of the 416 BRIGHTs were completed (92% response rate) and 15% of these were identified as high risk (n = 57). The BRIGHTs for high-risk older people revealed the highest scoring question was 'needing help with housework' (26%). The most frequent intervention by the gerontology nurse specialist was education (30%). The primary health care gerontology nurse specialist model delivers a proactive case finding and specialist gerontology intervention for older people at high risk of functional or health decline.

  12. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  13. The PSS-SR as a screening tool for PTSD in first-episode psychosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Gwen-Li; Abdin, Edimansyah; Lee, Jimmy

    2012-05-01

    We examined the validity of the PTSD Symptom Scale - Self-Report (PSS-SR) as a screening instrument for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients recovering from first-episode psychosis. Sixty-one patients from the Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore completed the PSS-SR questionnaire. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale was administered by a blinded interviewer as the 'gold standard' to identify patients with PTSD. The sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic curve were used to determine the screening performance of the PSS-SR. The score representing the optimal cut-off point for the PSS-SR was 14, with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.83 and 0.71, respectively. The area under the curve was determined to be 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70-0.95). These data suggest that the PSS-SR can be a useful screening instrument for PTSD in patients recovering from their first psychotic episode. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  15. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...

  16. Reporting completeness and transparency of meta-analyses of depression screening tool accuracy: A comparison of meta-analyses published before and after the PRISMA statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Danielle B; Kloda, Lorie A; Shrier, Ian; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-08-01

    Meta-analyses that are conducted rigorously and reported completely and transparently can provide accurate evidence to inform the best possible healthcare decisions. Guideline makers have raised concerns about the utility of existing evidence on the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools. The objective of our study was to evaluate the transparency and completeness of reporting in meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools using the PRISMA tool adapted for diagnostic test accuracy meta-analyses. We searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO from January 1, 2005 through March 13, 2016 for recent meta-analyses in any language on the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools. Two reviewers independently assessed the transparency in reporting using the PRISMA tool with appropriate adaptations made for studies of diagnostic test accuracy. We identified 21 eligible meta-analyses. Twelve of 21 meta-analyses complied with at least 50% of adapted PRISMA items. Of 30 adapted PRISMA items, 11 were fulfilled by ≥80% of included meta-analyses, 3 by 50-79% of meta-analyses, 7 by 25-45% of meta-analyses, and 9 by reporting in meta-analyses of the diagnostic test accuracy of depression screening tools of meta-analyses were identified. Authors, reviewers, and editors should adhere to the PRISMA statement to improve the reporting of meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of depression screening tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. AD-SISCOLO: a decision-support tool to aid the management of a cervical cancer screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Yacoub Mohammed Ahmed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction: This paper aims to develop a data warehouse (AD-SISCOLO in order to support the management of the cervical cancer screening program in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. As a part of the management process, the program managers of the municipality perform tedious manual work in order to calculate a series of performance indicators and then take decisions based on them. Methods AD-SISCOLO was implemented using the Pentaho BI Suite Business Intelligence Platform and the MySQL database management system. The indicators to be calculated and visualized in the tool were based on the municipal data of the cytopathology and histopathology tests from January 2012 until December 2014, which was obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer (SISCOLO after a record linkage process. The follow-up indicators were based on a simplified version of the Brazilian guidelines for the cervical cancer screening. Results AD-SISCOLO allows the visualization of a set of test-based and follow-up indicators from different views and dimensions, which enable managers to monitor all the phases of the screening process and to identify the process’ failures. Conclusions Compared with the current available environments in Brazil, AD-SISCOLO is unique in its visualization of the follow-up indicators of groups of women, according to their test results and age. Thereby it provides presentation flexibility to suit the program manager's needs.

  18. Scoring the home falls and accidents screening tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP): Evidence from one epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie

    2018-03-30

    Falls in older people are a major public health concern. To target falls prevention interventions, screening tools need to be able to identify older people at greater risk of falling. This study aimed to investigate the screening capacity of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool for health professionals (HOME FAST-HP), and to identify the best cut-off score to identify older people at higher risk of falls using the HOME FAST-HP. The study used cross-sectional data from a random sample of 650 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Selected women were sent a postal survey including the HOME FAST-HP, falls history, and other health factors. Scores on the home fast were calculated and the cut-point for optimal sensitivity and specificity of the HOME FAST-HP in relation to falls was assessed using a Receiver Operating Characteristic curve. A total of 567 older women participated (response rate 87%). The mean age of participants was 77.5 yrs (95% CI 77.31-77.70). A total of 153 participants (27%) reported a fall in the previous six months. The mean number of hazards using the HOME FAST-HP was 9.74 (95% CI 9.48-10.01), range 2-22. Non-fallers had a mean of 9.6 hazards (95% CI 9.32-9.91) and fallers had a mean of 10.63 hazards (95% CI 10.08-11.19) which was a significant difference (t = 3.41, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) was 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.64). A HOME FAST-HP cut-off score of 9 was associated with the optimal sensitivity for falls (73.9%), with specificity (37.9%), and positive predictive value was 30.6% and negative predictive value was 79.7%. The HOME FAST-HP can be used as a screening tool to identify fallers with a cut-off score of nine indicating a higher risk of falling. © 2018 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. High-throughput migration modelling for estimating exposure to chemicals in food packaging in screening and prioritization tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Huang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening and prioriti......Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current models, however, are not suitable for emerging applications in decision-support tools, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment and risk-based screening...... and prioritization, which require rapid computation of accurate estimates for diverse scenarios. To fulfil this need, we develop an accurate and rapid (high-throughput) model that estimates the fraction of organic chemicals migrating from polymeric packaging materials into foods. Several hundred step......-wise simulations optimised the model coefficients to cover a range of user-defined scenarios (e.g. temperature). The developed model, operationalised in a spreadsheet for future dissemination, nearly instantaneously estimates chemical migration, and has improved performance over commonly used model simplifications...

  20. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, pChildren from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  1. Mid-upper arm circumference as a screening tool for identifying children with obesity: a 12-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; Barnes, J D; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Tremblay, M S

    2017-12-01

    No studies have examined if mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) can be an alternative screening tool for obesity in an international sample of children differing widely in levels of human development. Our aim is to determine whether MUAC could be used to identify obesity in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 7337 children aged 9-11 years. Anthropometric measurements were objectively assessed, and obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization reference data. In the total sample, MUAC was strongly correlated with adiposity indicators in both boys and girls (r > 0.86, p obesity was high in both sexes and across study sites (overall area under the curve of 0.97, sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 90%). The MUAC cut-off value to identify obesity was ~25 cm for both boys and girls. In country-specific analyses, the cut-off value to identify obesity ranged from 23.2 cm (boys in South Africa) to 26.2 cm (girls in the UK). Results from this 12-country study suggest that MUAC is a simple and accurate measurement that may be used to identify obesity in children aged 9-11 years. MUAC may be a promising screening tool for obesity in resource-limited settings. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  2. A screening tool with five risk factors was developed for fall-risk prediction in community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongue, Bienvenu; Dupré, Caroline; Beauchet, Olivier; Rossat, Arnaud; Fantino, Bruno; Colvez, Alain

    2011-10-01

    To develop a simple clinical screening tool for community-dwelling older adults. A prospective multicenter cohort study was performed among healthy subjects of 65 years and older, examined in 10 health examination centers for the French health insurance. Falls were ascertained monthly by telephone for 12-month follow-up. Multivariate analyses using Cox regression models were performed. Regression coefficients of the predictors in the final model were added up to obtain the total score. The discriminative power was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). Thousand seven hundred fifty-nine subjects were included. The mean age was 70.7 years and 51% were women. At least one fall occurred among 563 (32%) participants. Gender, living alone, psychoactive drug use, osteoarthritis, previous falls, and a change in the position of the arms during the one-leg balance (OLB) test were the strongest predictors. These predictors were used to build a risk score. The AUC of the score was 0.70. For a cutoff point of 1.68 in a total of 4.90, the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 72.0% and 72.7%, respectively. A screening tool with five risk factors and the OLB test could predict falls in healthy community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Navy Fuel Composition and Screening Tool (FCAST) v.2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    0.7721 Viscosity 40C cSt D445 570 8 0.9007 Acid Number mg/g KOH D3242 280 5 0.0296 Cetane Index -- D976 508 5 1.5487 Dist. IBP (°C) °C D86 (a) (a...typical jet and diesel distillation curves, for reference.. If there is insufficient alkane peaks to calculate the temperature access, the screen...selected compound; 6) Calculated properties of the sample; 7) Compositional profile in area percent; 8) Chemical structure of the selected compound in

  5. Criticism of the Pap Smear as a Diagnostic Tool in Cervical Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Volker

    2017-01-01

    This editorial by Dr. Leopold G. Koss appeared in the January 1980 issue of Acta Cytologica. It addressed recent critical opinions in the general media on cervical screening and its costs. It marked the beginning of a more critical approach to cytology by the lay press, health care providers, and epidemiologists. It was also the first of a series of highly informative editorials by Dr. Koss that illustrated the critical issues of cytology during the 1980s. The elegance and clarity of his articles reflect the high standard of editorial writing in Acta Cytologica at this time. These articles are reviewed and excerpts are presented. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The Identification of Seniors at Risk screening tool is useful for predicting acute readmissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Schultz, Martin; Dynesen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acutely ill elderly medical patients have a higher chance of survival if they are admitted to a specialised geriatric unit instead of a general medical unit. This was shown in a meta-analysis from 2011 which included more than 10,000 elderly patients. The best effect of geriatric...... be supplemented with the ISAR screening. Furthermore, patients with a score of ≥ 2 should be assessed by the MGT so that a post-discharge plan including treatment/rehabilitation and follow-up may be drawn up. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was approved and registered with the Danish Data...

  7. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. 2014 APA

  8. The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme: its role as an assessment and stratification tool

    OpenAIRE

    Timmers, J. M. H.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, H. J.; Zonderland, H. M.; van Tinteren, H.; Visser, O.; Verbeek, A. L. M.; den Heeten, G. J.; Broeders, M. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the suitability of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) as a quality assessment tool in the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. Methods The data of 93,793 screened women in the Amsterdam screening region (November 2005–July 2006) were reviewed. BI-RADS categories, work-up, age, final diagnosis and final TNM classification were available from the screening registry. Interval cancers were obtained through linkage with the cancer registry. BI-RADS was ...

  9. Two Screens and an Ocean: Collaborating across Continents and Cultures with Web-Based Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark; Andone, Diana

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and results of a cross-cultural pairing between college students in the United States and Romania who worked together over the period of one month to create a multimedia presentation that shared their learning about topics of multimedia and culture. Students could use any web-based collaboration tools of…

  10. EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    P2P is a computer-based tool that supports the comparison of process and product alternatives in terms of environmental impacts. This tool provides screening-level information for use in process design and in product LCA. Twenty one impact categories and data for approximately ...

  11. Feasibility of the STarT back screening tool in chiropractic clinics: a cross-sectional study of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Johannesen, Else; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The STarT back screening tool (SBT) allocates low back pain (LBP) patients into three risk groups and is intended to assist clinicians in their decisions about choice of treatment. The tool consists of domains from larger questionnaires that previously have been shown to be predictive of non-reco...

  12. Using Collaborative Simulation Modeling to Develop a Web-Based Tool to Support Policy-Level Decision Making About Breast Cancer Screening Initiation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Burnside MD, MPH, MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no publicly available tools designed specifically to assist policy makers to make informed decisions about the optimal ages of breast cancer screening initiation for different populations of US women. Objective: To use three established simulation models to develop a web-based tool called Mammo OUTPuT. Methods: The simulation models use the 1970 US birth cohort and common parameters for incidence, digital screening performance, and treatment effects. Outcomes include breast cancers diagnosed, breast cancer deaths averted, breast cancer mortality reduction, false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis. The Mammo OUTPuT tool displays these outcomes for combinations of age at screening initiation (every year from 40 to 49, annual versus biennial interval, lifetime versus 10-year horizon, and breast density, compared to waiting to start biennial screening at age 50 and continuing to 74. The tool was piloted by decision makers (n = 16 who completed surveys. Results: The tool demonstrates that benefits in the 40s increase linearly with earlier initiation age, without a specific threshold age. Likewise, the harms of screening increase monotonically with earlier ages of initiation in the 40s. The tool also shows users how the balance of benefits and harms varies with breast density. Surveys revealed that 100% of users (16/16 liked the appearance of the site; 94% (15/16 found the tool helpful; and 94% (15/16 would recommend the tool to a colleague. Conclusions: This tool synthesizes a representative subset of the most current CISNET (Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model outcomes to provide policy makers with quantitative data on the benefits and harms of screening women in the 40s. Ultimate decisions will depend on program goals, the population served, and informed judgments about the weight of benefits and harms.

  13. Hearing loss in the developing world: evaluating the iPhone mobile device as a screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, S; Fagan, J J

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have the world's highest prevalence of hearing loss, and hearing screening programmes are scarce. Mobile devices such as smartphones have potential for audiometric testing. To evaluate the uHear app using an Apple iPhone as a possible hearing screening tool in the developing world, and to determine accuracy of certain hearing thresholds that could prove useful in early detection of hearing loss for high-risk populations in resource-poor communities. This was a quasi-experimental study design. Participants recruited from the Otolaryngology Clinic, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, completed a uHear test in three settings--waiting room (WR), quiet roon (QR) and soundproof room (SR). Thresholds were compared with formal audiograms. Twenty-five patients were tested (50 ears). The uHear test detected moderate or worse hearing loss (pure-tone average (PTA) > 40 dB accurately with a sensitivity of 100% in all three environments. Specificity was 88% (SR), 73% (QR) and 68% (WR). Its was highly accurate in detecting high-frequency hearing loss (2 000, 4 000, 6 000 Hz) in the QR and SR with 'good' and 'very good' kappa values, showing statistical significance (p iPhone, uHear is a feasible screening test to rule out significant hearing loss (PTA > 40 dB). It is highly sensitive for detecting threshold changes at high frequencies, making it reasonably well suited to detect presbycusis and ototoxic hearing loss from HIV, tuberculosis therapy and chemotherapy. Portability and ease of use make it appropriate to use in developing world communities that lack screening programmes.

  14. Validation of a new mass screening tool for cognitive impairment: Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoda K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Onoda,1 Tsuyoshi Hamano,2 Yoko Nabika,1 Atsuo Aoyama,1 Hiroyuki Takayoshi,1 Tomonori Nakagawa,1 Masaki Ishihara,1 Shingo Mitaki,1 Takuya Yamaguchi,1 Hiroaki Oguro,1 Kuninori Shiwaku,3 Shuhei Yamaguchi1 1Department of Neurology, 2Center for Community-Based Health Research and Education, Shimane University, Izumo, 3Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan Background: We have developed a new screening test for dementia that runs on an iPad and can be used for mass screening, known as the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version (CADi. The CADi consists of items involving immediate recognition memory for three words, semantic memory, categorization of six objects, subtraction, backward repetition of digits, cube rotation, pyramid rotation, trail making A, trail making B, and delayed recognition memory for three words. The present study examined the reliability and validity of the CADi. Methods: CADi evaluations were conducted for patients with dementia, healthy subjects selected from a brain checkup system, and community-dwelling elderly people participating in health checkups. Results: CADi scores were lower for dementia patients than for healthy elderly individuals and correlated significantly with Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Cronbach’s alpha values for the CADi were acceptable (over 0.7, and test–retest reliability was confirmed via a significant correlation between scores separated by a one-year interval. Conclusion: These results suggest that the CADi is a useful tool for mass screening of dementia in Japanese populations. Keywords: dementia, mass screening, early detection, iPad

  15. Is amino acid racemization a useful tool for screening for ancient DNA in bone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Matthew J; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Rohland, Nadin; Shapiro, Beth; Dobberstein, Reimer C; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Hofreiter, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many rare and valuable ancient specimens now carry the scars of ancient DNA research, as questions of population genetics and phylogeography require larger sample sets. This fuels the demand for reliable techniques to screen for DNA preservation prior to destructive sampling. Only one such technique has been widely adopted: the extent of aspartic acid racemization (AAR). The kinetics of AAR are believed to be similar to the rate of DNA depurination and therefore a good measure of the likelihood of DNA survival. Moreover, AAR analysis is only minimally destructive. We report the first comprehensive test of AAR using 91 bone and teeth samples from temperate and high-latitude sites that were analysed for DNA. While the AAR range of all specimens was low (0.02-0.17), no correlation was found between the extent of AAR and DNA amplification success. Additional heating experiments and surveys of the literature indicated that d/l Asx is low in bones until almost all the collagen is lost. This is because aspartic acid is retained in the bone within the constrained environment of the collagen triple helix, where it cannot racemize for steric reasons. Only if the helix denatures to soluble gelatin can Asx racemize readily, but this soluble gelatine is readily lost in most burial environments. We conclude that Asx d/l is not a useful screening technique for ancient DNA from bone.

  16. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI): A screening tool for identifying acquired communication disorders in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth M; Ciccone, Natalie; Hersh, Deborah; Katzenellebogen, Judith; Coffin, Juli; Thompson, Sandra; Flicker, Leon; Hayward, Colleen; Woods, Deborah; McAllister, Meaghan

    2017-06-01

    Acquired communication disorders (ACD), following stroke and traumatic brain injury, may not be correctly identified in Aboriginal Australians due to a lack of linguistically and culturally appropriate assessment tools. Within this paper we explore key issues that were considered in the development of the Aboriginal Communication Assessment After Brain Injury (ACAABI) - a screening tool designed to assess the presence of ACD in Aboriginal populations. A literature review and consultation with key stakeholders were undertaken to explore directions needed to develop a new tool, based on existing tools and recommendations for future developments. The literature searches revealed no existing screening tool for ACD in these populations, but identified tools in the areas of cognition and social-emotional wellbeing. Articles retrieved described details of the content and style of these tools, with recommendations for the development and administration of a new tool. The findings from the interview and focus group views were consistent with the approach recommended in the literature. There is a need for a screening tool for ACD to be developed but any tool must be informed by knowledge of Aboriginal language, culture and community input in order to be acceptable and valid.

  18. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  19. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  20. Criterion Validity of the “HRQOLISP-E”: A New Context-Specific Screening Tool for Poststroke Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akin Ojagbemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The optimal tool for identifying postsroke depression (PSD is yet to be identified. In the present study, we rely on the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D as a meaningful criterion to investigate the psychometric properties of the HRQOLISP-E, a new context-specific screening tool for PSD developed from a large cross-cultural sample. Methods. We assessed baseline data being collected as part of an intervention to improve one-year blood pressure control among recent (≤one month stroke survivors. Depression was measured using the HADS-D and the HRQOLISP-E. We determined sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and posttest probability. The area under a receiver operator curve (AUC and the most appropriate HRQOLISP-E cut-off were also determined using standard procedures. Results. Using data derived from 387 recent stroke survivors, the HRQOLISP-E showed high agreement with the HADS-D, sensitivity = 73.7%, specificity = 79.3%, and posterior test probability = 88% (95% CI = 84%–91%. The AUC was 0.81 (95% CI = 0.76–0.86. The HRQOLISP-E cut-off, corresponding to HADS-D score ≥ 8, was 20/21 (out of a total score of 30. Conclusions. Within limitations of using the HADS-D as a referent criterion, the present results provide justification for further development of the HRQOLISP-E as the first stroke-specific screening tool for depression.

  1. Role of nutrition impact symptoms in predicting nutritional status and clinical outcome in hemodialysis patients: a potential screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katrina L; Bauer, Judith D; Ikehiro, Aya; Johnson, David W

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to establish the utility of the Nutrition Impact Symptoms (NIS), a part of the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) as a nutritional screening tool in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). This was a prospective observational study. The study took place in a single public tertiary in-center dialysis facility in Australia. Patients included 213 individuals receiving maintenance HD for at least 3 months who were older than 18 years of age (mean age, 58.9 ± 16.3 years; 55.4% [n = 118] male patients). Malnutrition, which was classified by the Subjective Global Assessment rating (SGA, B or C) and the nutrition-related clinical outcome (decline in weight [>5%], SGA, reduction in serum albumin [>5 g/L]), or 12-month mortality. Patients assessed as malnourished totaled 23.5% (n = 50). Total PG-SGA and NIS scores showed a comparable ability to predict malnutrition (area under the curve, 0.93 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.90-0.97] and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.80-0.93], respectively). NIS (score ≥2) was independently related to poor nutrition-related clinical outcome (odds ratio [OR], 3.03; 95% CI, 1.47-6.20) and mortality (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20) adjusted for age, dialysis vintage, serum albumin level, and comorbidities. NIS score is a promising nutritional screening tool for the identification of patients receiving hemodialysis who are at risk of malnutrition and poor clinical outcome. Further research is required to investigate the reliability and utility of this tool in a larger population group. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  3. Developing Family Healthware, a Family History Screening Tool to Prevent Common Chronic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Paula W.; Scheuner, Maren T.; Jorgensen, Cynthia; Khoury, Muin J.

    2008-01-01

    Family health history reflects the effects of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors and is an important risk factor for a variety of disorders including coronary heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed Family Healthware, a new interactive, Web-based tool that assesses familial risk for 6 diseases (coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancer) and provides a "prevention plan" with pe...

  4. Assessing trauma and mental health in refugee children and youth: a systematic review of validated screening and measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeberg, A K; Montgomery, E; Frederiksen, H W; Norredam, M

    2017-06-01

    : It is estimated that children below 18 years constitute 50% of the refugee population worldwide, which is the highest figure in a decade. Due to conflicts like the Syrian crises, children are continuously exposed to traumatic events. Trauma exposure can cause mental health problems that may in turn increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. Tools such as questionnaires and interview guides are being used extensively, despite the fact that only a few have been tested and their validity confirmed in refugee children and youth. : Our aim was to provide a systematic review of the validated screening and measurement tools available for assessment of trauma and mental health among refugee children and youth. : We systematically searched the databases PubMed, PsycINFO and PILOTS. The search yielded 913 articles and 97 were retained for further investigation. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines two authors performed the eligibility assessment. The full text of 23 articles was assessed and 9 met the eligibility criteria. Results : Only nine studies had validated trauma and mental health tools in refugee children and youth populations. A serious lack of validated tools for refugee children below the age of 6 was identified. : There is a lack of validated trauma and mental health tools, especially for refugees below the age of 6. Detection and treatment of mental health issues among refugee children and youth should be a priority both within the scientific community and in practice in order to reduce morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting cannabis abuse screening test (CAST) scores: a recursive partitioning analysis using survey data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; van Laar, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users. 59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden), n = 2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed. Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65-73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p = 0.01). Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the most relevant variable. The identified

  6. Predicting cannabis abuse screening test (CAST scores: a recursive partitioning analysis using survey data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs Blankers

    Full Text Available Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at-risk cannabis users using traditional hypothesis-driven approaches. Therefore, the use of a data-mining technique called binary recursive partitioning is demonstrated in this study by creating a classification tree to profile at-risk users.59 variables on cannabis use and drug market experiences were extracted from an internet-based survey dataset collected in four European countries (Czech Republic, Italy, Netherlands and Sweden, n = 2617. These 59 potential predictors of problematic cannabis use were used to partition individual respondents into subgroups with low and high risk of having a cannabis use disorder, based on their responses on the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Both a generic model for the four countries combined and four country-specific models were constructed.Of the 59 variables included in the first analysis step, only three variables were required to construct a generic partitioning model to classify high risk cannabis users with 65-73% accuracy. Based on the generic model for the four countries combined, the highest risk for cannabis use disorder is seen in participants reporting a cannabis use on more than 200 days in the last 12 months. In comparison to the generic model, the country-specific models led to modest, non-significant improvements in classification accuracy, with an exception for Italy (p = 0.01.Using recursive partitioning, it is feasible to construct classification trees based on only a few variables with acceptable performance to classify cannabis users into groups with low or high risk of meeting criteria for cannabis use disorder. The number of cannabis use days in the last 12 months is the most relevant variable

  7. Transposon activation mutagenesis as a screening tool for identifying resistance to cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Li; Schmidt, Emmett V; Stuart, Lynda; Ohsumi, Toshiro K; Burgess, Shawn; Varshney, Gaurav K; Dastur, Anahita; Borowsky, Mark; Benes, Cyril; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The development of resistance to chemotherapies represents a significant barrier to successful cancer treatment. Resistance mechanisms are complex, can involve diverse and often unexpected cellular processes, and can vary with both the underlying genetic lesion and the origin or type of tumor. For these reasons developing experimental strategies that could be used to understand, identify and predict mechanisms of resistance in different malignant cells would be a major advance. Here we describe a gain-of-function forward genetic approach for identifying mechanisms of resistance. This approach uses a modified piggyBac transposon to generate libraries of mutagenized cells, each containing transposon insertions that randomly activate nearby gene expression. Genes of interest are identified using next-gen high-throughput sequencing and barcode multiplexing is used to reduce experimental cost. Using this approach we successfully identify genes involved in paclitaxel resistance in a variety of cancer cell lines, including the multidrug transporter ABCB1, a previously identified major paclitaxel resistance gene. Analysis of co-occurring transposons integration sites in single cell clone allows for the identification of genes that might act cooperatively to produce drug resistance a level of information not accessible using RNAi or ORF expression screening approaches. We have developed a powerful pipeline to systematically discover drug resistance in mammalian cells in vitro. This cost-effective approach can be readily applied to different cell lines, to identify canonical or context specific resistance mechanisms. Its ability to probe complex genetic context and non-coding genomic elements as well as cooperative resistance events makes it a good complement to RNAi or ORF expression based screens

  8. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  10. The two most popular malnutrition screening tools in the light of the new ESPEN consensus definition of the diagnostic criteria for malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna; Klek, Stanislaw; Doundoulakis, Ioannis; Bouras, Emmanouil; Karayiannis, Dimitrios; Baschali, Aristea; Passakiotou, Marili; Chourdakis, Michael

    2017-08-01

    The new definition of malnutrition in adults proposed recently by The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) changed the view on the issue and raised the question of the reliability of available diagnostic tools. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of the two most commonly used screening tools by comparing their findings with the new ESPEN criteria. Nutritional screening was performed in 1146 (median age 60 years, interquartile range: 44-73 years, 617 males, 529 females) patients on admission to hospitals with two nutritional screening tools: Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). The screening results were then compared to the ESPEN new diagnostic criteria for malnutrition. According to the NRS2002 13.5% and 27.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. With the use of MUST 9.1% and 14.9% of the outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were found to be at moderate/high risk of malnutrition. According to the ESPEN diagnostic criteria 6.4% and 11.3% of outpatients and hospitalized patients respectively were classified as malnourished. MUST was found to be better correlated to the latter for both outpatients (K = 0.777, p malnutrition screening tool in the light of the new ESPEN definition for malnutrition. According to our results, MUST was better correlated with ESPEN criteria for the definition of malnutrition, leading us to the conclusion that it can more efficiently identify the malnourished patients, during the screening process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  11. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  12. Comprehensive development and testing of the ASIST-GBV, a screening tool for responding to gender-based violence among women in humanitarian settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, A L; Glass, N; Pham, K; Perrin, N; Rubenstein, L S; Singh, S; Vu, A

    2016-01-01

    Conflict affected refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are at increased vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Health, psychosocial, and protection services have been implemented in humanitarian settings, but GBV remains under-reported and available services under-utilized. To improve access to existing GBV services and facilitate reporting, the ASIST-GBV screening tool was developed and tested for use in humanitarian settings. This process was completed in four phases: 1) systematic literature review, 2) qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV survivors and service providers, respectively, 3) pilot testing of the developed screening tool, and 4) 3-month implementation testing of the screening tool. Research was conducted among female refugees, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia, and female IDPs, aged ≥18 years in Colombia. The systematic review and meta-analysis identified a range of GBV experiences and estimated a 21.4 % prevalence of sexual violence (95 % CI:14.9-28.7) among conflict-affected populations. No existing screening tools for GBV in humanitarian settings were identified. Qualitative research with GBV survivors in Ethiopia and Colombia found multiple forms of GBV experienced by refugees and IDPs that occurred during conflict, in transit, and in displaced settings. Identified forms of violence were combined into seven key items on the screening tool: threats of violence, physical violence, forced sex, sexual exploitation, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, and early or forced marriage. Cognitive testing further refined the tool. Pilot testing in both sites demonstrated preliminary feasibility where 64.8 % of participants in Ethiopia and 44.9 % of participants in Colombia were identified with recent (last 12 months) cases of GBV. Implementation testing of the screening tool, conducted as a routine service in camp/district hospitals, allowed for identification of GBV cases and referrals to

  13. PIGE as a screening tool for Per- and polyfluorinated substances in papers and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Evelyn E.; Dickinson, Margaret E.; Harron, John P.; Lunderberg, David M.; DeYoung, Paul A.; Robel, Alix E.; Field, Jennifer A.; Peaslee, Graham F.

    2017-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a large array of man-made fluorinated chemicals. It is an emerging chemical class of concern because many PFASs are environmentally persistent and some have known ecological and human toxicity. Consumer products treated with PFASs result in human exposure to PFASs through inhalation, ingestion, and environmental exposure to emissions from wastewater or from landfills. A rapid screening method based on total fluorine was developed and applied to quantify PFASs on consumer papers and textiles. Particle-Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) spectroscopy provides a non-destructive and quantitative measurement of total fluorine on papers and textiles. This technique is both rapid and sensitive, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 13 nmol F/cm2 for papers and 24-45 nmol F/cm2 for textiles, with reproducibility of ±12% RSD for both. PIGE is a high throughput (>20 samples/hr typically) method that was applied to 50 papers and 50 textiles in commerce to demonstrate the method.

  14. Screening for glycosidase activities of lactic acid bacteria as a biotechnological tool in oenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Martín, Raúl; Palop, María Llanos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability from a number of lactic acid bacteria isolated from different sources to produce glycosidase enzymes. Representative isolates (225) from clusters obtained after genotyping, using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis, of 1,464 isolates, were screened for β-D-glucosidase activity. Thirty-five of them were selected for subsequent analysis. These strains were able to hydrolyze α-D-glucopyranoside, β-D-xylopyranoside and α-L-arabinofuranoside although β-D-glucosidase activity was the predominant activity for 22 of the selected strains. Only some of them did so with α-L-rhamnopyranoside. All of these were from wine samples and were identified as belonging to the Oenococcus oeni species using Amplification and Restriction Analysis of 16S-rRNA gene (16S-ARDRA). When the influence of pH, temperature and ethanol or sugars content on β-D-glucosidase activity was assayed, a strain-dependent response was observed. The β-D-glucosidase activity occurred in both whole and sonicated cells but not in the supernatants from cultures or obtained after cell sonication. Strains 10, 17, 21, and 23 retained the most β-D-glucosidase activity when they were assayed at the conditions of temperature, pH, ethanol and sugar content used in winemaking. These results suggest that these strains could be used as a source of glycosidase enzymes for use in winemaking.

  15. Use of near infrared hyperspectral tools for the screening of extractable polyphenols in red grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-Bueno, Julio; Baca-Bocanegra, Berta; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco José; Heredia, Francisco José; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Hyperspectral images of intact grapes were recorded at harvest time using a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm). Spectral data have been correlated with red grape skin extractable polyphenols (total phenolic, anthocyanins and flavanols) by modified partial least squares regression (MPLS) using a number of spectral pretreatments. The obtained results (coefficient of determination (RSQ) and standard error of prediction (SEP), respectively) for the developed models were: 0.82 and 0.92 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable total phenolic content, 0.79 and 0.63 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable anthocyanin content, 0.82 and 0.45 mg g(-1) of grape skin for extractable flavanol content. The obtained results present a good potential for a fast and reasonably inexpensive screening of the extractable polyphenolic compounds in intact grapes. Moreover, the heterogeneity of extractable polyphenols within the ripeness stage has been also evaluated using the proposed method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n=203; repetitive implantation failure (n=188; severe male factor (n=116; previous trisomic pregnancy (n=33; and advanced maternal age (n=880. CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n=774; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n=320; mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n=235; and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n=91. Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2% and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9% were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1% due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3% and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%. We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation.

  17. Postnatal psychiatric morbidity: a validation study of the GHQ-12 and the EPDS as screening tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Purificación; Ascaso, Carlos; Garcia-Esteve, Lluïsa; Aguado, Jaume; Torres, Anna; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    To assess the validity of the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in screening for the most common postnatal psychiatric morbidities (mood, anxiety and adjustment disorders). A two-phase cross-sectional study was designed. First, a sample of 1453 women visiting at 6 weeks postpartum completed the GHQ-12 and the EPDS questionnaires. Second, based upon EPDS outcomes, participants were stratified and randomly selected within each stratum for clinical evaluation [Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID)]. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used. The concurrent validity was satisfactory (0.80). At optimum cut-off scores, both GHQ-12 and EPDS yielded very good sensitivity (80; 85.5) and specificity (80.4; 85.3), respectively. ROC curves showed that the performance of the EPDS (AUC=0.933) is slightly superior to that of GHQ-12 (AUC=0.904). Both GHQ-12 and EPDS are valid instruments to detect postnatal depression as well as postnatal anxiety and adjustment disorders.

  18. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  19. The panic disorder screener (PADIS): Development of an accurate and brief population screening tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterham, Philip J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2015-07-30

    The Panic Disorder Screener (PADIS) was developed as a new screener to identify panic disorder in the community and to assess severity of symptoms. The PADIS was developed to fill a gap in existing screening measures, as there are no brief panic screeners available that assess severity. The current study aimed to test the performance of the screener relative to the Patient Health Questionnaire-panic scale (PHQ-panic). The 4-item PADIS was administered to 12,336 young Australian adults, together with the PHQ-panic. A subsample of 1674 participants also completed a phone-based clinical interview to determine whether they met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS (77% sensitivity, 84% specificity) had higher sensitivity for identifying panic disorder based on clinical criteria than the PHQ-panic (57% sensitivity, 91% specificity), although with reduced specificity. Administration of the PADIS required a mean of 1.9 items, compared to 4.7 items for the PHQ-panic. Each one-point increase in PADIS score was associated with 69% increased odds of meeting clinical criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS was found to be a valid, reliable and brief panic screener that is freely available for use in research and clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of the Short Gambling Harm Screen (SGHS): A Tool for Assessment of Harms from Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Matthew; Goodwin, Belinda C; Rockloff, Matthew J

    2017-06-03

    It is common for jurisdictions tasked with minimising gambling-related harm to conduct problem gambling prevalence studies for the purpose of monitoring the impact of gambling on the community. However, given that both public health theory and empirical findings suggest that harms can occur without individuals satisfying clinical criteria of addiction, there is a recognized conceptual disconnect between the prevalence of clinical problem gamblers, and aggregate harm to the community. Starting with an initial item pool of 72 specific harms caused by problematic gambling, our aim was to develop a short gambling harms scale (SGHS) to screen for the presence and degree of harm caused by gambling. An Internet panel of 1524 individuals who had gambled in the last year completed a 72-item checklist, along with the Personal Wellbeing Index, the PGSI, and other measures. We selected 10 items for the SGHS, with the goals of maximising sensitivity and construct coverage. Psychometric analysis suggests very strong reliability, homogeneity and unidimensionality. Non-zero responses on the SGHS were associated with a large decrease in personal wellbeing, with wellbeing decreasing linearly with the number of harms indicated. We conclude that weighted SGHS scores can be aggregated at the population level to yield a sensitive and valid measure of gambling harm.

  1. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  2. Preliminary Study of a Caregiver-based Infant and Child Feeding and Swallowing Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie M; Linn, Chris; Thompson, Heather L; Byrd, Robert S; Steinfeld, Mary B; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Silverman, Alan H

    2017-06-01

    The Infant and Child Feeding Questionnaire (ICFQ) was created to facilitate early detection of feeding and swallowing problems. This is achieved by promoting effective communication between caregivers and health care providers resulting in referral for evaluation and treatment of feeding and swallowing problems by specialists. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether items from the ICFQ could be used to screen for differences between children with known feeding problems (FP) and without known feeding problems (NFP). Caregivers of children ages 36 months or younger with FP and NFP were recruited to complete the ICFQ and demographic questions. T tests were completed to compare demographic characteristics of the research groups. Responses to ICFQ items were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and odds ratios to determine whether questionnaire items distinguished between study groups. Sixty-four caregivers of children with FP and 57 caregivers of NFP children were recruited. Three participants in the NFP group did not meet inclusion criteria and were excluded from analysis. A combination of 4 ICFQ questions distinguished between groups (receiver operating characteristic = 0.974). Significant odds ratios were also found for 9 feeding behaviors that distinguished between groups. A subset of items from the ICFQ showed promise for distinguishing FP from NFP groups. Future work will expand the regional representation of the participant samples and obtain equal representation of participants across all age-adjusted questionnaires to determine whether the same combination of ICFQ items continues to distinguish between FP and NFP groups.

  3. Use of the 'BEARS' sleep screening tool in a pediatric residents' continuity clinic: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Dalzell, Victoria

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a simple, 5-item pediatric sleep screening instrument, the BEARS (B=Bedtime Issues, E=Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, A=Night Awakenings, R=Regularity and Duration of Sleep, S=Snoring) in obtaining sleep-related information and identifying sleep problems in the primary care setting. Pediatric residents' continuity clinic in a tertiary care children's hospital. BEARS forms were placed in the medical records of a convenience sample of 2 to 12 year old children presenting for well child visits over the 5 month study period. Sleep-related information recorded in the BEARS visit and in the pre-BEARS visit, which was the subject's most recent previous well child check (WCC), was coded with respect to whether or not a sleep problem was indicated, and whether sleep issues were addressed. A total of 195 children had both a documented pre-BEARS and BEARS WCC visit. BEARS visits were significantly more likely than the pre-BEARS visits to have any sleep information recorded (98.5% vs. 87.7%, pcare setting.

  4. Beck Depression Inventory is a useful screening tool for major depressive disorder in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, A H; Robertson, M M; Orth, M

    2006-06-01

    This study determined the prevalence of and factors associated with comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD) in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). How a simple self-report instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), correlates with clinical assessment of comorbid MDD in this population was assessed. In a continuous sample of 114 adult patients with GTS, assessed clinically using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, 26 (23%) patients met criteria for MDD; more severe tics as measured with the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale, conduct disorder in childhood or higher age at the time of assessment were associated with MDD. The BDI score had a high negative predictive value for diagnosis of MDD, but a low positive predictive value. Using the BDI as a screening tool for comorbid MDD in patients with GTS is suggested.

  5. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  6. The patient health questionnaire-15 and its abbreviated version as screening tools for depression in Korean college and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Younghyun C; Ju, Sejin; Kim, Eunjung; Kim, Jieun E; Lee, Junghyun H

    2014-04-01

    Over half of all suicides worldwide occur in Asia. Given the close association between suicide and depression, it is quite unexpected that depression is least frequently diagnosed in Asia. This is, in part, due to the fact that Asians somatize depression. Young adults including college and graduate students are no exceptions. Therefore, a somatic symptom-focused screening tool would be useful in detecting depression in Asian college and graduate students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15) in screening for depression among Korean college and graduate students. In addition, we developed an abbreviated version of the PHQ-15 (aPHQ-15) and studied validity measures. Three-hundred and fifty Korean college and graduate students were screened with the PHQ-15. Of all participants, 176 were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode, while the other 174 were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Report (IDS-SR). Reliability and validity measures including the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion, convergent, and divergent validity were tested. Principal component analysis was used in developing the abbreviated version of the PHQ-15. The PHQ-15 showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.82, intra-class correlation coefficient 0.87). The optimal cut-off point for detecting depression was estimated to be 8. There were strong correlations between the PHQ-15 total scores and self-report measures of depressive symptom severity (BDI-II: r=0.69 and pdepression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transcultural adaption and psychometric properties of the STarT Back Screening Tool among Finnish low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piironen, Susanna; Paananen, Markus; Haapea, Marianne; Hupli, Markku; Zitting, Paavo; Ryynänen, Katja; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Korniloff, Katariina; Hill, Jonathan C; Häkkinen, Arja; Karppinen, Jaro

    2016-01-01

    The STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) is a 9-item questionnaire designed for screening low back pain (LBP) patients into three prognostic groups for stratified care. The stratified care approach has proven to be clinically more beneficial and cost-effective than the current best physiotherapy practice. The objective of this study was to translate, culturally adapt and study psychometric properties of the SBST among Finnish LBP patients. The SBST was translated into Finnish using appropriate translation guidelines. A total of 116 patients were recruited from outpatient clinics. They were asked to fill out two questionnaires within 1-7 days. The first questionnaire set included the SBST, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire (ÖMPSQ) and intensities of back and leg pain (10-cm Visual Analogue Scale). The second questionnaire form included the SBST and a question about persistence of symptoms. Some linguistic and cultural differences emerged during the translation process with item 1 ("spread down my legs"), item 2 ("neck and shoulder pain"), item 6 ("worrying thoughts") and item 9 ("bothersome"). The test-retest reliability of the SBST total score was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.78) and of the psychosocial subscale good (0.68). Cronbach's alpha for the psychosocial subscale was 0.55. Spearman's correlation coefficient between SBST total score and BDI was 0.38, ODI 0.39, ÖMPSQ 0.45, intensity of leg pain 0.45 and LBP 0.31. Based on analysis of variance, the SBST discriminated low- and medium-risk groups better than medium- and high-risk groups. The Finnish translation of the SBST is linguistically accurate and has been adapted to the Finnish-speaking population. It showed to be a valid and reliable instrument and comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it may be used in clinical work with Finnish LBP patients.

  8. Prospective screening with the validated Opioid Risk Tool demonstrates gynecologic oncology patients are at low risk for opioid misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Christine; Lefkowits, Carolyn; Pelkofski, Elizabeth; Blackhall, Leslie; Duska, Linda R

    2017-11-01

    To characterize risk for opioid misuse among gynecologic oncology patients. The Opioid Risk Tool (ORT), a validated screen for opioid misuse risk, was administered to a convenience sample of patients with gynecologic cancer receiving opioid prescriptions in gynecologic oncology or palliative care clinics from January 2012-June 2016. Demographic and clinical information was abstracted on chart review. The primary outcome was ORT risk level (low vs. moderate or high). Chi-square tests were performed for categorical variables. A total of 118 women were screened. Most women were Caucasian (79%) with a median age of 57years. Ovarian cancer patients comprised 46% of the cohort with fewer endometrial (25%), cervical (23%), vulvar (4%), and vaginal (2%) cancer patients. The median ORT score was 1.0 (range, 0-10) out of a possible 26. Overall, 87% of patients were categorized as low-risk for opioid misuse, 7% as moderate-risk, and 6% as high-risk. Patients who were at moderate or high-risk of opioid misuse were significantly younger (47 vs. 58years, p=0.02), more likely to have cervical cancer (p=0.02), be smokers (p=0.01) and be uninsured or on Medicare (p=0.03). Most gynecologic oncology patients in our cohort were low-risk for opioid misuse (87%). Cervical cancer patients were more likely to be moderate to high-risk for misuse. Future screening efforts for opioid misuse may have the highest utility in this subset of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  10. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rosanna Frati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV testing from dried urine spots (DUS. Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the test was 98.21% (95% CI: 90.56–99.68 for DUS stored for 1 week and 96.42% (95% CI: 87.88–99.01 for DUS stored for 4 weeks. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 89.28–100 at both time points. The concordance between DUS and fresh urine HPV testing was “almost perfect” using the κ statistic. These preliminary data suggest that a DUS-based assay could bypass sociocultural barriers and sa