WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse road traffic

  1. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  2. Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    In the light of the serious road accident that occurred on 3 February 2008, you are reminded that: the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events; failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him to abandon his vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade...

  3. Reminder: Alcohol abuse, road traffic and safety on the site

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2011-01-01

    You are reminded that: - the legal blood alcohol limit in force under the Host States’ traffic regulations (0.5 g per 1000 ml of blood) also applies on the CERN site; - the consumption of alcohol is forbidden during working hours and is only tolerated in the restaurants at certain times, unless an exception is granted for special events (Operational Circular No. 8); - failure to observe these rules may result in disciplinary action by the Organization, independently of any sanctions that may be applicable pursuant to the road traffic regulations of the Host State concerned. Furthermore, the Reception and Access Control Service, the site guards and the Fire Brigade have been instructed to stop any driver in an obvious state of intoxication and to ask him/her to abandon the vehicle on the spot. In case of disagreement, they may also suggest that he/she submits to a voluntary blood alcohol level test at the CERN Medical Service or Fire Brigade. They will also stop and question any obviously intoxicate...

  4. Road Traffic Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ As everybody knows that automobiles have been greatly changing our life. However, everything has two sides, motor vehicles have also caused a huge number of people's deaths, injuries and property damage. Traffic crashes are perhaps the number one public health problem in developed countries [1]. In the United States, pre-retirement years of life lost in traffic crashes are more than that of the two combined leading diseases: cancer and heart disease [1]. Today road traffic crash (RTC) ranks 11th in leading cause of death and accounts for 2.1% of all deaths globally.

  5. Road Traffic Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  6. Assessing Road Traffic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic is a problem which is increasing in cities with large population. Unrelated to this fact the number of portable and wearable devices has also been increasing throughout the population of most countries. With this advent, the capacity to monitor and register data about people habits and locations as well as more complex data such as intensity and strength of movements has created an opportunity to contribute to the general wealth and comfort within these environments. Ambient Intelligence and Intelligent Decision Making processes can benefit from the knowledge gathered by these devices to improve decisions on everyday tasks such as deciding navigation routes by car, bicycle or other means of transportation and avoiding route perils. The concept of computational sustainability may also be applied to this problem. Current applications in this area demonstrate the usefulness of real time system that inform the user of certain conditions in the surrounding area. On the other hand, the approach presented in this work aims to describe models and approaches to automatically identify current states of traffic inside cities and use methods from computer science to improve overall comfort and the sustainability of road traffic both with the user and the environment in mind. Such objective is delivered by analyzing real time contributions from those mobile ubiquitous devices to identifying problematic situations and areas under a defined criteria that have significant influence towards a sustainable use of the road transport infrastructure.

  7. Road traffic noise and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Hvidberg, Martin; Andersen, Zorana J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before.......Epidemiological studies suggest that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk of cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between exposure to road traffic noise and risk for stroke, which has not been studied before....

  8. Road traffic injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-guo 王正国

    2003-01-01

    @@ The appearance of cars has raised materialistic civilization and living standard to an unprecedented level. Today, it is hard to imagine how we human beings can live without cars.Yet, motor vehicles can cause a great number of deaths and injuries as well as considerable economic losses, which have constituted the global burden. Understanding of the occurrence and development of road traffic injuries will contribute to the prevention and control of crash and to the implementation of "everybody has the right to enjoy health" proposed by WHO.

  9. Road traffic injuries in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Francelina; Nizamo, Hanifa; Mapasse, Domingos; Rafico, Momede Mussá; José, João; Mataruca, Simão; Efron, M Lúcia; Omondi, Lucas O; Leifert, Thelma; Bicho, Joaquim M L Marungo

    2003-01-01

    Road traffic injuries affect the economy, health and quality of life of the people of Mozambique. Current road safety programmes are inadequate and inefficient given the magnitude of the problem. Data reported on road traffic crashes in the period 1990 to 2000 from the National Institute for Road Safety, the traffic police and the Central Hospital of Maputo were reviewed. The burden of road traffic injuries in Mozambique is rising, with at least three people killed daily. The age group most affected is 25-38 (39.35%), followed by 16-24 (20.79%). The main causes of crashes include reckless driving, drunken driving, roads with potholes, inadequate signs, lack of protection for pedestrians, and inadequate traffic law enforcement. However, the data are not adequate to reveal the true magnitude of the problem. Data collected by different sources are incomplete and not coordinated with other sources and databases. In urban areas, however, better response to crashes, treatment of the injured, reporting and data collection is attributable to a greater concentration of police and medical facilities. Road traffic safety programmes in Mozambique are inadequate and inefficient, starting with the data collection system. Improvement of injury surveillance systems is needed to help make road traffic safety a national development agenda priority and for developing and implementing road safety policies. For road safety programmes to be effective, government must facilitate stakeholders' involvement, and the clear definition of government activities, civil society activities and public-private partnerships need to be established.

  10. Road Traffic in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jie, L.; Van Zuylen, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic is tightly related to the social and economic development in a country. In China the development of the economy has been very fast in the past 30 years and this is still continuing. The transport infrastructure shows a similar pattern, while traffic is also rapidly growing. In urban areas th

  11. Methanol - alternative fuel road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muendler, H.

    1980-09-01

    This brochure names the fuel properties that are required for road traffic, discusses the replacement of petrol by methanol, discusses the possibilities of manufacturing methanol, draws up a timetable and an organigram for a (M-15) large scale test and compares costs of petrol, methanol, synthesis process petrol and hydrogenation process petrol. Furthermore, the technical requirements of vehicles as well as test results of exhaust gas emissions are also discussed.

  12. Road traffic emission monitoring on motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.; Beek, P.J.G. van

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic noise is one of the major environmental noise sources that is known to cause health problems. Despite existing noise reception items, the continuing growth of traffic causes higher levels than the lims allow. Consequently, excessive costs are incurred for noise barriers along roads and

  13. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B;

    2012-01-01

    Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures.......Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures....

  14. Calculating Traffic based on Road Sensor Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisseling, Rob; Gao, Fengnan; Hafkenscheid, Patrick; Idema, Reijer; Jetka, Tomasz; Guerra Ones, Valia; Sikora, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Road sensors gather a lot of statistical data about traffic. In this paper, we discuss how a measure for the amount of traffic on the roads can be derived from this data, such that the measure is independent of the number and placement of sensors, and the calculations can be performed quickly for la

  15. Light signals for road traffic control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Signals for road traffic control are a major constituent of the modern traffic scene, particularly in built-up areas. A vast amount of research has been executed in the last two decennia, resulting in a fairly generally accepted view on what the requirements for effective traffic lights are. For the

  16. Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loo, Becky P. Y.; Anderson, Tessa Kate

    Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book...... outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link...

  17. Encapsulating Urban Traffic Rhythms into Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Wei, Dong; He, Kun; Gong, Hang; Wang, Pu

    2014-02-01

    Using road GIS (geographical information systems) data and travel demand data for two U.S. urban areas, the dynamical driver sources of each road segment were located. A method to target road clusters closely related to urban traffic congestion was then developed to improve road network efficiency. The targeted road clusters show different spatial distributions at different times of a day, indicating that our method can encapsulate dynamical travel demand information into the road networks. As a proof of concept, when we lowered the speed limit or increased the capacity of road segments in the targeted road clusters, we found that both the number of congested roads and extra travel time were effectively reduced. In addition, the proposed modeling framework provided new insights on the optimization of transport efficiency in any infrastructure network with a specific supply and demand distribution.

  18. Injury profiles of road traffic deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Ricart, Isabel; Arroyo, Amparo; Castellà, Josep; Borrell, Carme

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to describe injuries of road traffic deaths in Barcelona and identify injury profiles by road user type, through a cross-sectional study including road traffic deaths for the period 1997-2004. The data source was the Institut de Medicina Legal de Catalunya. Diagnoses were coded using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification, and classified using the Barell Matrix. Of the 719 deaths studied, 45% were pedestrians, 32% two wheel motor vehicle users, and 23% car occupants. The injury profile of the road traffic deaths in Barcelona is internal injuries and fractures to the torso and to the head/neck. This profile is repeated in all the road user groups, although pedestrians present higher frequencies of fractures and contusions to extremities and contusions to the head/neck, and fewer internal torso injuries than car occupants or two wheel motor vehicle users.

  19. Injuries to pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, R. M.; Turner, W H; Duthie, R. B.; Wilde, B. R.

    1988-01-01

    Although there have been many reports on injuries to occupants of cars in road traffic accidents, there have been few prospective studies of injuries to pedestrians in such accidents. For this reason a two year prospective study of pedestrians in road traffic accidents in the Oxford region was carried out. The incidence of death in pedestrians was significantly higher than in car occupants or motorcyclists. The principal determinant of death was the weight of the vehicle concerned. The most c...

  20. Transportation, road and traffic; Yuso / doro / kotsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneda, K.; Oshita, T.; Kimura, K.; Ishikura, T. [Ministry of Construction Ibaragi (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Road transportation of cargos and passengers is increasing recently. Securing funds for road construction projects is under severe condition due to retrenchment in finance. The number of four-wheel vehicles possessed by users totaled to 65.18 million at the end of March, 1996, showing 3.0% increase compared with that of the previous year. The number of motorcycles increased by 40 thousand in the area of two-wheel vehicles. The number of light two-wheeled vehicles showed no marked fluctuations. No statistic was made public concerning motor-bicycles. Outlines of the budget for road construction and road maintenance situation are given. The traffic density was much heavier than the increasing rate of the road extension at the end of March, 1996. The advanced road traffic system is a new road traffic system which utilizes most advanced information communication technology to decrease traffic snarls and traffic accidents and to improve the riding comfort of users, and 9 development fields and 20 user service systems are being developed currently. 7 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for road traffic accidents in Gulu municipality, Uganda. ... Traffic Accidents (RTA), establish the safety measures in place to protect road users to ... drivers of different categories of vehicles, motorcyclists and bicyclists locally known ...

  2. Multi Agent system Randomized in Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouiouez Mounir,

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the rapid growth of road traffic density in theworld generates a rising request for tools that can be used toanalyze and control the traffic networks. Microscopic trafficsimulation[1,2,3] has proven to be one of the most useful toolsfor analysis of various traffic systems. Thus microscopic trafficsimulation has become an ever increasing field of research anddevelopment. In this paper we present a new model formicroscopic traffic simulation; Traditional traffic simulationmodels neglect some real-life factors that need to be considered,such as the effect of random distribution in the entry of lanehence ,this paper presents the development of a concept and anassociated architecture called the MAS2RT (Multi Agentsystem Randomized in Road Traffic, which is based on thecombination of Multi-Agent Systems (MAS [4,5], Poissondistribution in urban Traffic and a stochastic model [6,7] tocapture the randomness of individual agent. The secondcontribution of this paper is about the internal structure ofmobile agents[8], initially reacts according to the instructions ofthe Main agent (MA and in the case of a lack of dynamicinformation, the mobile agents take decisions based on theirexperiences accumulated during previous interactions.The obtained results illustrate that using the randomness in thereaction of agent enhanced greatly the performance ofsimulation.

  3. Distraction-related road traffic collisions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drivers at the collision time over one and half years. Driver's inattentive ... drivers involved in road traffic collisions (RTC) were using mobile phones. Our study supports .... two groups in age, gender, nationality, seat belt usage, or death on the ...

  4. Hypertension and road traffic noise exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Gansevoort, Ronald T.; Miedema, Henk M. E.; de Jong, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between road traffic noise exposure at home and the prevalence of hypertension. Methods: We conducted cross-sectional analyses in a large random sample (N = 40,856) of inhabitants of Groningen City, and in a subsample (the Preventio

  5. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  6. Road traffic and cardiovascular health effects - Road traffic noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to both environmental noise and air pollution has been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until now, few studies have considered both stressors simultaneously. Two large studies were carried out investigating the relationship between road traffic noise and several cardiovascular

  7. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A.; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H.; Zalat, Marwa M.; Qabshawi, Reem I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. Methods: This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Results: Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Conclusion: Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers’ faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA. PMID:25828277

  8. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...

  9. IMPROVEMENT OF ROAD TRAFFIC QUALITY IN ACCIDENT CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic with its share from 2/3 to 3/4 of the total volume of transport service represents rather large and complicated social and production system with several subsystems that include roads, transport facilities, road traffic organization, law enforcement, personnel training, road traffic service and others. Road traffic quality can be quantitatively evaluated in accordance with values of losses pertaining to social and economic cost of discretionary (unenforced expenses for road traffic process. Road traffic contains accident, ecological, economic and social risks. Accidence is considered as the most important risk for participants involved in road traffic because it directly concerns their life, health and welfare. So accident response has rather high social significance and it is considered as a matter of national importance. In this connection role of road traffic organization has become very important and it is directed on improvement of its quality including security in the accident clusters.Methodological principles for improvement of road traffic quality have been developed in the paper. These principles presuppose the following: maximization of danger while selecting investigation object; minimization of total losses while evaluating quality and selecting solutions on improvement in road traffic safety; balanced accountability of accidental and ecological losses while selecting solutions on higher road traffic safety in ambiguous situations; minimization of total cost pertaining to object operation while selecting measures on improvement of road traffic safety; obligatory operative control evaluation of accidence on the basis of method for conflict situations while introducing measures of road traffic safety. Such approaches will contribute to higher quality of the decisions taken in the field of road traffic organization.

  10. FWFA Optimization based Decision Support System for Road Traffic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, D. N.; Zaki, F. A.; Munjeri, I. J.; Putri, N. U.

    2017-01-01

    Several ways and efforts have been already conducted to formally solve the road traffic congestion. However, the objective strategy type of road traffic engineering could not be proven truly. Try and error is one inefficient way in road traffic engineering to degrade the level of congestion. The combination between fuzzy-logic and water flow algorithm methods (called FWFA) was used as a main method to construct the decision support system (DSS) for selecting the objective strategy in road traffic engineering. The proposed DSS can suggest the most optimal strategy decision in road traffic engineering. Here, a main traffic road of Juanda in area Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan, province Banten, Indonesia; was selected as a research object in this study. The constructed DSS for road traffic engineering was structurally delivered in this paper.

  11. Traffic Accidents on Slippery Roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonnesbech, J. K.; Bolet, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Police registrations from 65 accidents on slippery roads in normally Danish winters have been studied. The study showed: • 1 accident per 100 km when using brine spread with nozzles • 2 accidents per 100 km when using pre wetted salt • 3 accidents per 100 km when using kombi spreaders The results...... of accidents in normally Danish winter seasons are remarkable alike the amount of salt used in praxis in the winter 2011/2012. • 2.7 ton NaCl/km when using brine spread with nozzles • 5 ton NaCl/km when using pre wetted salt. • 5.7 ton NaCl/km when using kombi spreaders The explanation is that spreading...

  12. An analysis of Malaysia road traffic death distribution by road environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YUSRIA DARMA; MOHAMED REHAN KARIM; SULAIMAN ABDULLAH

    2017-09-01

    Various initiatives, strategies and programmes have been taken by the Government of Malaysia to resolve issues pertaining to road traffic deaths. Nevertheless, the implementation of the programmes outlined in Malaysian Road Safety Plan 2006 needs to be enhanced in order to achieve the set targets. In this regard, it is imperative for all parties concerning road safety to determine the factors that significantly contribute to road traffic deaths. According to the Ministry of Works, Malaysia, the blackspot treatment programme (which is centred on the elimination of road hazards by engineering approaches) is successful in reducing the number of injuries due to road traffic accidents up to a certain extent. This study is focussed on analysing road traffic deaths caused by various road environment elements recorded by the police from 2000 to 2011 in order to determine their distribution, proportion and relationship with fatal accidents. The Chi-square test and Marascuilo procedure with 5% level of significance are used in this study. Based on locality, the number of road traffic deaths in rural area (66%) is significantly higher compared with that in urban areas (34%). Based on road category, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for federal roads, whereas the highest rate of fatalities per kilometre is recorded for expressways. Based on road segment, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for straight road segments, followed by bends. In addition, the number of road traffic deaths is the highest for Y/T junctions,followed by cross junctions. The lowest number of road traffic deaths is recorded for interchanges and roundabouts. The results show that only 11.25% of the total road traffic deaths are related to road defects. The highest proportion of deaths due to road defects (48.6%) is associated with lack of street lighting provision,whereas road shoulder edge drop-off and potholes contribute 15.4% and 11.2% of road traffic deaths,respectively.

  13. Modeling Road Traffic Using Service Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARAGOS, I.-M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transport systems have an essential role in modern society because they facilitate access to natural resources and they stimulate trade. Current studies aimed at improving transport networks by developing new methods for optimization. Because of the increase in the global number of cars, one of the most common problems facing the transport network is congestion. By creating traffic models and simulate them, we can avoid this problem and find appropriate solutions. In this paper we propose a new method for modeling traffic. This method considers road intersections as being service centers. A service center represents a set consisting of a queue followed by one or multiple servers. This model was used to simulate real situations in an urban traffic area. Based on this simulation, we have successfully determined the optimal functioning and we have computed the performance measures.

  14. Road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, N J; Ansari, M; al-Kalai, D

    1994-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major health hazard in Saudi Arabia, particularly during Ramadan. The ensuing trauma has increased in direct proportion to the increase in the number of road vehicles. An audit of RTAs over a one-year period revealed that, out of 361 victims, 16% were under 10 years and 47% between 11 and 30 years. None of those involved in accidents was wearing a seat belt. Half of the children injured were pedestrians. There was a male to female ratio of 4:1 reflecting the driving laws in Saudi Arabia. Burst tyres due to intense heat were identified as a common cause (39%) of accidents. The introduction of seat belt legislation and stricter law enforcement should lead to a rapid reduction in morbidity and mortality on the roads in Saudi Arabia.

  15. ACCOUNT OF ROAD CONDITIONS WHILE INVESTIGATING TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Selioukov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems on better traffic safety at government, authority, engineering and driver activity levels, account of road conditions while investigating traffic accidents. The paper also provides road defects mentioned in forensic transport examinations of traffic accidents.

  16. On urban road traffic state evaluation index system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Dong, Honghui; Jia, Limin; Sun, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Traffic state evaluation is a basic and critical work in the research on road traffic congestion. It can provide basic data support for the improvement measures and information release in traffic management and service. The aim of this research is to obtain a comprehensive value to describe traffic state accurately based on the evaluation index system. In this paper, it is carried out using fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm and fuzzy entropy weight method. In the framework, traffic flow was classified into six different states to determine the fuzzy range of indices using the improved FCM clustering analysis. Besides, fuzzy entropy weight method is proposed to compute the evaluation result of traffic state for section, road and road network, respectively. The experiments based on the traffic information in a subset of Beijing’s road network prove that the findings of traffic evaluation are in accordance with the actual situation and people’s sense of traffic state.

  17. Green supply chain: Simulating road traffic congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Muhammad Zulqarnain Hakim Abd; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Laailatul Hanim Mat Desa, Wan; Khalid, Ruzelan; Khalid Abduljabbar, Waleed; Ramli, Razamin

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing awareness of the consumers about environmental issues, businesses, households and governments increasingly want use green products and services which lead to green supply chain. This paper discusses a simulation study of a selected road traffic system that will contribute to the air pollution if in the congestion state. Road traffic congestion (RTC) can be caused by a temporary obstruction, a permanent capacity bottleneck in the network itself, and stochastic fluctuation in demand within a particular sector of the network, leading to spillback and queue propagation. A discrete-event simulation model is developed to represent the real traffic light control (TLC) system condition during peak hours. Certain performance measures such as average waiting time and queue length were measured using the simulation model. Existing system uses pre-set cycle time to control the light changes which is fixed time cycle. In this research, we test several other combination of pre-set cycle time with the objective to find the best system. In addition, we plan to use a combination of the pre-set cycle time and a proximity sensor which have the authority to manipulate the cycle time of the lights. The sensors work in such situation when the street seems to have less occupied vehicles, obviously it may not need a normal cycle for green light, and automatically change the cycle to street where vehicle is present.

  18. Road traffic congestion a concise guide

    CERN Document Server

    Falcocchio, John C

    2015-01-01

    This book on road traffic congestion in cities and suburbs describes congestion problems and shows how they can be relieved. The first part (Chapters 1 - 3) shows how congestion reflects transportation technologies and settlement patterns. The second part (Chapters 4 - 13) describes the causes, characteristics, and consequences of congestion. The third part (Chapters 14 - 23) presents various relief strategies - including supply adaptation and demand mitigation - for nonrecurring and recurring congestion. The last part (Chapter 24) gives general guidelines for congestion relief and provides a general outlook for the future. The book will be useful for a wide audience - including students, practitioners and researchers in a variety of professional endeavors: traffic engineers, transportation planners, public transport specialists, city planners, public administrators, and private enterprises that depend on transportation for their activities.  

  19. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    OpenAIRE

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines of vehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others. Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impacts of the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoring along different roads in the area of...

  20. DETERMINING ROAD LIGHTING IMPACT ON TRAFFIC STREAM CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Edigbe Johnnie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at estimating road lighting impact on traffic stream characteristics; flow, speed, density and headway for an uninterrupted traffic flow. Volume, speed and headway data were collected during daylight, road lighting and dry weather conditions. Flowrate, speed, density and headways were estimated for daylight and road lighting periods; then compared. Since flowrate, free-flow speed, optimum speed critical density and headways during daylight and road lighting periods did not differ significantly: the study concluded that road lighting does not affect traffic stream characteristics significantly.

  1. Dynamic evaluation of traffic flows on city roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Yongshen; Guo Jifu; Wen Huimin; Sun Jianping

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the random fluctuations, deferred conduction effect and periodicity of road traffic based on the basic features of road networks. It also discusses the limitations of road network evaluation theories based on road "V/C". In addition, it proposes a set of theoretical and technical methods for the real-time evaluation of traffic flows for entire road networks, and for solving key technical issues, such as real-time data collection and process- ing in areas with no blind zones, the spatial-temporal dynamic analysis of road network traffic, and the calibration of key performance index thresholds. It also provides new technical tools for the strategic transportation planning and real-time diagnosis of road traffic. The new tools and methodology presented in this paper are validated using a case study in Beijing.

  2. The relationship between traffic volume and road safety on the secondary road network : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, K.

    2010-01-01

    On motorways, congestion is a well-known traffic problem. On the secondary road network, the same problem arises when traffic volume increases and the driven speed decreases. At certain times of day, roads get congested and the number of interactions between road users increases. In general, higher

  3. Robust, Optimal, Predictive, and Integrated Road Traffic Control: Research proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weg, G.S.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    The development of control strategies for traffic lights, ramp metering installations, and variable speed limits to improve the throughput of road traffic networks can contribute to a more efficient use of road networks. In this project, a hierarchical controller will be developed for the improvemen

  4. Road lighting and traffic safety : a functional approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1970-01-01

    Requirements to be made on the traffic facilities in order to reduce the number of night-time accidents are covered. Traffic facilities include apart from public lighting and road lighting by means of headlamps of vehicles, also road markings and signs, marker lights, catadioptric devices and others

  5. THE ROLE OF TRAFFIC IN THE DEGRADATION OF EARTH ROADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BWEMBA CHARLES

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the contribution of traffic to earth road degradation. This study leads to degradation evolution laws based on the traffic factor.The Nkol-Afamba-Dzeng (earth road section of Divisional road 46 (D46 of the priority national road network was chosen as case study. Traffic and degradation census forms were designed and their exploitation on the field over a period of nine (9 months enabled the plotting of Degradation/Traffic curves.Various findings were interpreted, leading to the establishment of degradation laws. This study would be a useful tool for decision-makers who, in order to ensure timely maintenance,must consider the evolution of degradation and traffic on any given stretch of road.

  6. Increase the Safety of Road Traffic Accidents by Applying Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Goran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of continual increase of number of traffic accidents and alarming trend of increasing number of traffic accidents with catastrophic consequences for human life and health, it is necessary to actively research and develop methods to combat these trends. One of the measures is the implementation of advanced information systems in existing traffic environment. Accidents clusters, as databases of traffic accidents, introduce a new dimension in traffic systems in the form of experience, providing information on current accidents and the ones that have previously occurred in a given period. This paper proposes a new approach to predictive management of traffic processes, based on the collection of data in real time and is based on accidents clusters. The modern traffic information services collects road traffic status data from a wide variety of traffic sensing systems using modern ICT technologies, creating the most accurate road traffic situation awareness achieved so far. Road traffic situation awareness enhanced by accident clusters' data can be visualized and distributed in various ways (including the forms of dynamic heat maps and on various information platforms, suiting the requirements of the end-users. Accent is placed on their significant features that are based on additional knowledge about existing traffic processes and distribution of important traffic information in order to prevent and reduce traffic accidents.

  7. Road Pricing, Traffic Congestion and Economic Welfare: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Ingo Böbel; Casimir de Rham

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, the subject of road pricing to reduce traffic congestion gained increasing importance in Europe. This paper uses a standard microeconomic approach to show that road user price charging to avoid traffic congestion is optimal from a society’s point of view as it improves economic efficiency of allocating a scarce resource (road space) by reducing the welfare loss (as being measured by a loss in consumer surplus) for everyone in the society.

  8. Bayesian Data Assimilation for Improved Modeling of Road Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hinsbergen, C.P.Y.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the optimal use of existing models that predict certain phenomena of the road traffic system. Such models are extensively used in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS), Dynamic Traffic Management (DTM) or Model Predictive Control (MPC) approaches in order to improve the

  9. Port Moresby road traffic accident survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourie, J; Sinha, S

    1983-01-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTA's) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Papua New Guinea today. A survey of casualties from RTA's attending Port Moresby General Hospital over a seven-month period from November 1982 to June 1983 showed that of 209 patients seen, one-third were in cars and one-quarter were in utilities. The most dangerous positions in vehicles were (1) in the open back of a utility or truck, and (2) in the front seat (driver or passenger) of a car or utility. Only 13% of injured front-seat occupants of cars or utilities were wearing a seat-belt; in one-third of vehicles no seat belts were fitted. A plea is made for the strengthening of legislation to ensure the safety of passengers travelling in the open back of trucks or utilities, and for the introduction of legislation for fitting and wearing of seat-belts by front-seat occupants.

  10. Effects of traffic infrastructure and road design on safe driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    One of the building blocks of the Dutch success in road safety is the Sustainable Safety approach. This philosophy specifies that road safety should be a design requirement in road traffic with a focus on the use of human characteristics as a starting point, considering both humans’ physical

  11. Effects of traffic infrastructure and road design on safe driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2014-01-01

    One of the building blocks of the Dutch success in road safety is the Sustainable Safety approach. This philosophy specifies that road safety should be a design requirement in road traffic with a focus on the use of human characteristics as a starting point, considering both humans’ physical vulnera

  12. Road Traffic Accidents: A Wild Life Exterminator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Kavandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Once commonly traced in various parts of Southwest Asia, the Iranian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, a disparagingly endangered cheetah subspecies, seems to have been driven to extinction. Restricted to its only remained appropriate habitat, The Iranian cheetah has barely survived in Iran's Dasht-e Kavir plateau. Throughout the 1970s, about 200 cheetahs were estimated to live in seven protected areas in Iran (1. Nevertheless, the figures dramatically declined to 50 and 60 individuals in 2005–2006. Over ten years, Iranian researchers captured images of 76 individual cheetahs using 80 camera traps implanted throughout the Dasht-e Kavir plateau (2. Disappointingly in 2011, camera traps captured only 20 individuals in the protected areas (2, 3. What adds insult to the injury is knowing the fact that two-thirds of cheetah deaths in 2012–2013 were due to road accidents(4.      Beside the human fatalities and injuries, road traffic accidents remain as serious threats for wildlife. Although numerous measures are taken to hinder the extinction of this subspecies, efforts should be concentrated on long-term planning at both national and international levels to raise awareness and promote willingness to address this ongoing yet controllable damage.

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF ROAD SAFETY THROUGH MORE EFFECTIVE ROAD AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SZCZURASZEK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To make the policy aimed at mitigating the risk of road incidents more effective, Poland should see the introduction of the more efficient road and traffic management. In November 2008 the European Parliament and the European Council published the Directive on "infrastructure safety management" which provides guidance on the procedures for carrying impact assessments of traffic safety, traffic safety audits, safety management on the road network and monitoring traffic safety in Member States. In this article, the authors have proposed a systemic approach to road and traffic management, involving the implementation of consistent procedures that should include regular revisions of roads, eliminating hazardous sites, speed management, as well as the approval and implementation of traffic organization designs.

  14. Road Safety Barriers, the Need and Influence on Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butāns, Ž.; Gross, K. A.; Gridnevs, A.; Karzubova, E.

    2015-11-01

    Constantly increasing intensity of road traffic and the allowed speed limits seem to impose stronger requirements on road infrastructure and use of road safety systems. One of the ways to improve road safety is the use of road restraint systems. Road safety barriers allow not only reducing the number of road traffic accidents, but also lowering the severity of accidents. The paper provides information on the technical requirements of road safety barriers. Various types of road safety barriers and their selection criteria for different types of road sections are discussed. The article views an example of a road traffic accident, which is also modelled by PC-Crash computer program. The given example reflects a road accident mechanism in case of a car-to-barrier collision, and provides information about the typical damage to the car and the barrier. The paper describes an impact of the road safety barrier type and its presence on the road traffic accident mechanism. Implementation and maintenance costs of different barrier types are viewed. The article presents a discussion on the necessity to use road safety barriers, as well as their optimal choice.

  15. Air pollution due to road traffic in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is due to road traffic an inevitable outcome of internal combustion in engines ofvehicles and some other processes. Air near the roads is more polluted with some pollutants,such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and some others.Monitoring the air quality is a key issue, when one wants to estimate environmental impactsof the road traffic. The article shows a method of passive samplers for air quality monitoringalong different roads in the area of Ljubljana Municipality.

  16. Predictability of road traffic and congestion in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyuan; Mao, Yu; Li, Jing; Xiong, Zhang; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    Mitigating traffic congestion on urban roads, with paramount importance in urban development and reduction of energy consumption and air pollution, depends on our ability to foresee road usage and traffic conditions pertaining to the collective behavior of drivers, raising a significant question: to what degree is road traffic predictable in urban areas? Here we rely on the precise records of daily vehicle mobility based on GPS positioning device installed in taxis to uncover the potential daily predictability of urban traffic patterns. Using the mapping from the degree of congestion on roads into a time series of symbols and measuring its entropy, we find a relatively high daily predictability of traffic conditions despite the absence of any priori knowledge of drivers' origins and destinations and quite different travel patterns between weekdays and weekends. Moreover, we find a counterintuitive dependence of the predictability on travel speed: the road segment associated with intermediate average travel speed is most difficult to be predicted. We also explore the possibility of recovering the traffic condition of an inaccessible segment from its adjacent segments with respect to limited observability. The highly predictable traffic patterns in spite of the heterogeneity of drivers' behaviors and the variability of their origins and destinations enables development of accurate predictive models for eventually devising practical strategies to mitigate urban road congestion.

  17. Pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin County, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Mariusz; Nogalski, Adam; Khayesi, Meleckidzedeck; Lübek, Tomasz; Zuchora, Beata; Goniewicz, Krzysztof; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2012-06-01

    Road traffic injury patients admitted to 35 hospitals in Lublin region. To describe the pattern of road traffic injuries in Lublin county, Poland. Review of medical records for the period from January 2004 to December 2005. Pedestrians accounted for the largest share of the Road traffic crash (RTC) injury cases (35.8%) and 46.4% of deaths. The highest mortality was observed in motorcycle occupants (7.1%) and victims with abdominal injuries (9.8%). Vulnerable road users represented 71.4% of all RTC deaths, with mortality 5.8%. Early transfers accounted for 82.5% of cases. Mortality in early transfers is 4 times higher than in late transfers. Poland ranks as one of the worst European countries in terms of severity and fatal outcomes of road traffic injuries. Groups of road users in Poland at the highest risk are pedestrians, cyclists, children and young male drivers. The highest mortality rate occurs among road users affected by multiple trauma and head/vertebral column injuries. Alleviation of consequences of road traffic injuries in Poland may be achieved by coordinated efforts and collective responsibility of government, central level agencies, rescue team members and community groups.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in AP Vojvodina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Durić, Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov, Marica

    2009-01-01

    .... It is estimated that every day in the world 1308 person die in car accidents. Causes of traffic accidents are factors of road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one being the cause of more than 90...

  19. INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES FOR MONITORING AND INTELLECTUAL ROAD TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Belov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of automatic management of road traffic technologies in major cities of Ukraine is carried out in the given article. Priority directions of studies are determined for producing modern and perspective technologies in the given area. The facilities for monitoring and intelligence management of the road traffic on the basis of the programmed logical controller, using the device of fuzzy logic are considered.

  20. Penetrating eye injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B C; Morgan, L H

    1988-03-01

    A review of all penetrating eye injuries treated by the Manchester Eye Hospital over four years (1 February 1982-31 January 1986) was undertaken. One hundred and ninety-six penetrating eye injuries were seen, of which 16 (8.2%) were due to road traffic accidents. Eight patients (nine eyes) were seen in the 12 months prior to the introduction of the seat-belt legislation on 1 February 1983. None of these patients was wearing a seat-belt whereas two of the eight patients (10 eyes) seen after the seat-belt legislation were. Both these patients suffered severe visual loss due to intraocular glass from shattered windscreens. Three patients had bilateral penetrating eye injuries, one before and two after the seat-belt legislation. Two of the nine eyes involved prior to the legislation and three of the 10 eyes after the legislation had an eventual visual acuity of 6/12 or better. In the majority of patients, failure to wear seat-belts or defective use is to blame. Flying glass from shattered toughened windscreens is a preventable danger. Nine of the 16 patients were first seen in the general accident and emergency department and, of these, seven did not have visual acuities recorded prior to referral to an ophthalmologist. The importance of measurement of the visual acuity and detection of an afferent pupillary defect is stressed based on these findings.

  1. Detecting Anomaly in Traffic Flow from Road Similarity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xinran

    2016-06-02

    Taxies equipped with GPS devices are considered as 24-hour moving sensors widely distributed in urban road networks. Plenty of accurate and realtime trajectories of taxi are recorded by GPS devices and are commonly studied for understanding traffic dynamics. This paper focuses on anomaly detection in traffic volume, especially the non-recurrent traffic anomaly caused by unexpected or transient incidents, such as traffic accidents, celebrations and disasters. It is important to detect such sharp changes of traffic status for sensing abnormal events and planning their impact on the smooth volume of traffic. Unlike existing anomaly detection approaches that mainly monitor the derivation of current traffic status from history in the past, the proposed method in this paper evaluates the abnormal score of traffic on one road by comparing its current traffic volume with not only its historical data but also its neighbors. We define the neighbors as the roads that are close in sense of both geo-location and traffic patterns, which are extracted by matrix factorization. The evaluation results on trajectories data of 12,286 taxies over four weeks in Beijing show that our approach outperforms other baseline methods with higher precision and recall.

  2. Improvement of driving safety in road traffic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ke-Ping; Gao Zi-You

    2005-01-01

    A road traffic system is a complex system in which humans participate directly. In this system, human factors play a very important role. In this paper, a kind of control signal is designated at a given site (i.e., signal point) of the road. Under the effect of the control signal, the drivers will decrease their velocities when their vehicles pass the signal point. Our aim is to transit the traffic flow states from disorder to order, and then improve the traffic safety.We have tested this technique for the two-lane traffic model that is based on the deterministic Nagel-Schreckenberg (NaSch) traffic model. The simulation results indicate that the traffic flow states can be transited from disorder to order. Different order states can be observed in the system, and these states are safer.

  3. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Lenthe, F.J. van; Visschedijk, A.J.H.; Zandveld, P.Y.J; Miedema, H.M.E.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship bet

  4. Adverse Effects of Long Term Exposure to Road Traffic Noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. de Kluizenaar (Yvonne)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Road traffic is a prominent source of environmental noise exposure in urbanized areas. Because of its common presence, traffic is a source of exposure that is not easy to avoid. As a consequence, it is affecting a substantial proportion of residents in their homes, and

  5. Road Traffic Accident Variations in Lagos State, Nigeria: A Synopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    This means that the dominant and strongest road traffic accident pattern of. Lagos State ... Kenya has one of the highest road fatality rates in relation to vehicle ownership ... the higher the accident and fatality rate as well as the severity and non- ..... On the other hand, the aggregate effect of these number of cycles of differing.

  6. Improved road traffic emission inventories by adding mean speed distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Poelman, M.; Schrijver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Does consideration of average speed distributions on roads-as compared to single mean speed-lead to different results in emission modelling of large road networks? To address this question, a post-processing method is developed to predict mean speed distributions using available traffic data from a

  7. Active traffic management on road networks: a macroscopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhanskiy, Alex A; Varaiya, Pravin

    2010-10-13

    Active traffic management (ATM) is the ability to dynamically manage recurrent and non-recurrent congestion based on prevailing traffic conditions in order to maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of road networks. It is a continuous process of (i) obtaining and analysing traffic measurement data, (ii) operations planning, i.e. simulating various scenarios and control strategies, (iii) implementing the most promising control strategies in the field, and (iv) maintaining a real-time decision support system that filters current traffic measurements to predict the traffic state in the near future, and to suggest the best available control strategy for the predicted situation. ATM relies on a fast and trusted traffic simulator for the rapid quantitative assessment of a large number of control strategies for the road network under various scenarios, in a matter of minutes. The open-source macrosimulation tool Aurora ROAD NETWORK MODELER is a good candidate for this purpose. The paper describes the underlying dynamical traffic model and what it takes to prepare the model for simulation; covers the traffic performance measures and evaluation of scenarios as part of operations planning; introduces the framework within which the control strategies are modelled and evaluated; and presents the algorithm for real-time traffic state estimation and short-term prediction.

  8. Reconfigurable SRTM System for Road Traffic in Kingdom of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Medany Wael

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reconfigurable hardware architecture for smart road traffic system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The design can be reconfigured for different timing of the traffic signals according to the received and collected data read by the different sensors on the road; the design has been described using VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The SRTM (Smart Road Traffic Management System has some more features that help passenger to avoid traffic jamming by sending the collected information through web/mobile applications to find the best road between the start and destination points, which will be displayed on Google maps, at the same time it will also shows the points of traffic jamming on Google maps. SRTM system can also manage emergency vehicles such as ambulance and fire fighter and also can send snapshots and video streaming for different roads and junctions to show the points of traffic jamming. The design has been simulated and tested using ModelSim PE student edition 10.4. Spartan 3 FPGA starter kit from Xilinx has been used for implementing and testing the design in a hardware level.

  9. Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Predrag

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Material and methods. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. Results. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Discussion. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time, but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Conclusion. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  10. Analysis of fatal road traffic crashes in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackaah, Williams; Adonteng, David O

    2011-03-01

    The major objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) and to propose remedial measures to address them. Fatal RTC data for the period 2005-2007 in Ghana were analysed using the Micro-computer Accident Analysis Package (MAAP) software. Other transport-related research works were reviewed and incorporated in the article. The study showed that pedestrians accounted for 42% of all road traffic fatalities and nearly one-third (33%) of these crashes occurred during the early night-time hours. Children alone constituted almost one-third of all pedestrian fatalities. The occupants of goods vehicles accounted for 12% of all road traffic fatalities although goods vehicles constitute just about 9% of the total motor vehicle population in Ghana. Pedestrians, especially children bear a disproportionately high share of road traffic fatalities in Ghana. The risk of being killed as a pedestrian in traffic is exacerbated during night time. Excessive vehicular speeds, inappropriate use of goods vehicles for passenger transport, excessive loading and inadequate trauma care are the key contributory risk factors to the high number of road traffic fatalities. Concerted efforts spanning education, engineering, enforcement and trauma care are needed to stem the rise in fatal crashes in Ghana.

  11. Non-vehicular homicides masquerading as road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, K U; Mugadlimath, Anand B; Sane, Mandar Ramchandra; Bhuyyar, Chandrashekhar; Rathod, S N

    2016-03-01

    Interfering with or planting evidence to disguise the cause of a death is not uncommon in forensic practice. Homicides staged as road accidents are, however, rarely encountered by crime scene investigators. We report two homicides which were presented as road traffic accidents. Case 1: Dead body of a 35-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. Primary police inquiry suggested that the victim was knocked down by a speeding four-wheeler, while walking by the side of a high way with his friends. On postmortem examination the deceased's death was found due to homicidal smothering staged as a road traffic accident. Case 2: Dead body of 40-year-old male was brought for autopsy with history of road traffic accident. It was an unwitnessed crush by a speeding four-wheeler. However, on postmortem examination, the deceased was found to have died from homicidal multiple stab wounds with his death staged as a road traffic accident. Importance of meticulous autopsy to determine accurately the cause of death is emphasized. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Road traffic accidents in Dubai, 2002-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Marzooqi, Ali Hassan; Badi, Mohamed; El Jack, Aizeldin

    2010-07-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are among the leading causes of mortality in Dubai, and the burden of the problem on the health system is vast. This study aims to explore trends in road traffic accidents and to identify the most common factors associated with RTIs. A cross-sectional study was conducted using secondary data for the period from 2002 to 2008. Dubai reported steadily increasing numbers of road traffic injuries, from 2203 in the year 2002 to 3043 in the year 2008, representing a 38% increase. The associated mortality showed the same trend with an overall increase of 54% during the same period. The age distribution of road traffic injuries per 100 000 in the population shows 2 peaks in the age groups 18 to 26 years and 63 to 71 years. The trend of road traffic fatalities is increasing among UAE nationals as well as expatriates. RTIs were found to be more frequent on roads with high speed limits and with the presence of trucks. Further research is needed to identify associated risk factors.

  13. Analysis of traffic safety at road works.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W. & Spittje, H.

    2010-01-01

    Road works create a risk, both to road workers and drivers. SWOV conducted research into 58 severe crashes to gain more insight into the causes of crashes at work zones. Finally, 50 work-zones were visited to obtain more insight into (1) the extent to which the Dutch guidelines for safe road works a

  14. A COMPACT MODEL FOR PREDICTING ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Golmohammadi ، M. Abbaspour ، P. Nassiri ، H. Mahjub

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Noise is one of the most important sources of pollution in the metropolitan areas. The recognition of road traffic noise as one of the main sources of environmental pollution has led to develop models that enable us to predict noise level from fundamental variables. Traffic noise prediction models are required as aids in the design of roads and sometimes in the assessment of existing, or envisaged changes in, traffic noise conditions. The purpose of this study was to design a prediction road traffic noise model from traffic variables and conditions of transportation in Iran.This paper is the result of a research conducted in the city of Hamadan with the ultimate objective of setting up a traffic noise model based on the traffic conditions of Iranian cities. Noise levels and other variables have been measured in 282 samples to develop a statistical regression model based on A-weighted equivalent noise level for Iranian road condition. The results revealed that the average LAeq in all stations was 69.04± 4.25 dB(A, the average speed of vehicles was 44.57±11.46 km/h and average traffic load was 1231.9 ± 910.2 V/h.The developed model has seven explanatory entrance variables in order to achieve a high regression coefficient (R2=0.901. Comparing means of predicted and measuring equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq showed small difference less than -0.42 dB(A and -0.77 dB(A for Tehran and Hamadan cities, respectively. The suggested road traffic noise model can be effectively used as a decision support tool for predicting equivalent sound pressure level index in the cities of Iran.

  15. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  16. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopalakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents (RTAs have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country.

  17. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osoro Mogaka Eric

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. METHODS: Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS. Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219 were male. Nineteen percent (56/300 of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15 had head injury while 38% (115 had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users comprised 33% (99/300 of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9, road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5 and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.1-3.9 were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. CONCLUSION: Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries

  18. Factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries, Thika, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogaka, Eric Osoro; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Oundo, Joseph; Omolo, Jared; Luman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic injuries continue to exert a huge burden on the health care system in Kenya. Few studies on the severity of road traffic injuries have been conducted in Kenya. We carried out a cross-sectional study to determine factors associated with severity of road traffic injuries in a public hospital in Thika district, Kenya. Road crash victims attending the Thika district hospital, a 265-bed public hospital, emergency room were recruited consecutively between 10th August 2009 and 15th November 2009. Epidemiologic and clinical information was collected from medical charts and through interview with the victims or surrogates using a semi-structured questionnaire. Injuries were graded as severe or non-severe based on the Injury Severity Score (ISS). Independent factors associated with injury severity were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. The mean age of participants was 32.4 years, three quarters were between 20-49 years-old and 73% (219) were male. Nineteen percent (56/300) of the victims had severe injury. Five percent (15) had head injury while 38% (115) had fractures. Vulnerable road users (pedestrians and two-wheel users) comprised 33% (99/300) of the victims. Vulnerable road users (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.0-3.9), road crashes in rainy weather (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.3-6.5) and night time crashes (OR=2.0, 95%CI=-1.1-3.9) were independent risk factors for sustaining severe injury. Severe injury was associated with vulnerable road users, rainy weather and night time crashes. Interventions and measures such as use of reflective jackets and helmets by two wheel users and enhanced road visibility could help reduce the severity of road traffic injuries.

  19. Road rage and road traffic accidents among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M A; Shaikh, I A; Siddiqui, Z

    2012-04-01

    Road rage and road traffic accidents increase the burden of morbidity and mortality in a population. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was conducted among commercial vehicle drivers in Lahore, Pakistan (n = 901) to record their behaviours/experiences regarding road rage and road traffic accidents. Respondents were asked about incidents of shouting/cursing/rude gestures or threats to physically hurt the person/vehicle, by others or themselves, in the previous 24 hours or 3 months, and their involvement in road traffic accidents in the previous 12 months. Auto-rickshaw drivers were significantly more likely to report various road rage experiences/behaviours and involvement in accidents compared with bus and wagon drivers. A total of 112 respondents (12.4%) reported being involved in a road traffic accident in the previous 12 months but traffic police did not record the accident in 52.7% of cases. The results of this study underline the need to improve road safety in Pakistan.

  20. [Development of forecasting models for fatal road traffic injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aichun; Tian, Danping; Huang, Yuanxiu; Gao, Lin; Deng, Xin; Li, Li; He, Qiong; Chen, Tianmu; Hu, Guoqing; Wu, Jing

    2014-02-01

    To develop the forecasting models for fatal road traffic injuries and to provide evidence for predicting the future trends on road traffic injuries. Data on the mortality of road traffic injury including factors as gender and age in different countries, were obtained from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. Other information on GDP per capita, urbanization, motorization and education were collected from online resources of World Bank, WHO, the United Nations Population Division and other agencies. We fitted logarithmic models of road traffic injury mortality by gender and age group, including predictors of GDP per capita, urbanization, motorization and education. Sex- and age-specific forecasting models developed by WHO that including GDP per capita, education and time etc. were also fitted. Coefficient of determination(R(2)) was used to compare the performance between our modes and WHO models. 2 626 sets of data were collected from 153 countries/regions for both genders, between 1965 and 2010. The forecasting models of road traffic injury mortality based on GDP per capita, motorization, urbanization and education appeared to be statistically significant(P forecasting models that we developed seemed to be better than those developed by WHO.

  1. Benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the associated risk of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orriols, L; Philip, P; Moore, N; Castot, A; Gadegbeku, B; Delorme, B; Mallaret, M; Lagarde, E

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible for a traffic accident was higher in users of benzodiazepine hypnotics (odds ratio (OR) = 1.39 (1.08-1.79)) and in the 155 drivers to whom a dosage of more than one pill of zolpidem a day had been dispensed during the 5 months before the collision (OR = 2.46 (1.70-3.56)). No association was found between the use of zopiclone and risk of traffic accidents. Although this study did not find any association between the use of zolpidem as recommended and causation of traffic accidents, the potential risk related to possible abuse of the drug and risky driving behaviors should be further investigated. The results related to benzodiazepine hypnotics are consistent with those of previous studies.

  2. Research of Road Traffic Facilities System Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu-Jian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the labor efficiency and economic benefit of road traffic facilities system and reduce resource waste, a scheme of road traffic facilities system based on GIS is provided in this paper. In the new scheme, firstly, we proposed Visual C++ embedding MapX component to program for the visualization of data and function analysis of space, and constructed core table in database and established property database and space database to improve efficiency; then we put forward the system function of traditional traffic facilities such as data collection, construction and management of engineering and so on. The results show that the system can ensure the safety and smooth of traffic than ever.

  3. Bi-objective network equilibrium, traffic assignment and road pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT; Ehrgott, M

    2014-01-01

    Multi-objective equilibrium models of traffic assignment state that users of road networks travel on routes that are efficient with respect to several objectives, such as travel time and toll. This concept provides a general framework for modelling traffic flow in tolled road networks. We present the concept of time surplus maximisation as a way of handling user preferences. Given a toll, users have a maximum time they are willing to spend for a trip. Time surplus is this maximum time minus a...

  4. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borge, Rafael; de Miguel, Isabel; de la Paz, David; Lumbreras, Julio; Pérez, Javier; Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2012-12-01

    Many cities in Europe have difficulties to meet the air quality standards set by the European legislation, most particularly the annual mean Limit Value for NO2. Road transport is often the main source of air pollution in urban areas and therefore, there is an increasing need to estimate current and future traffic emissions as accurately as possible. As a consequence, a number of specific emission models and emission factors databases have been developed recently. They present important methodological differences and may result in largely diverging emission figures and thus may lead to alternative policy recommendations. This study compares two approaches to estimate road traffic emissions in Madrid (Spain): the COmputer Programme to calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT4 v.8.1) and the Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA v.3.1), representative of the 'average-speed' and 'traffic situation' model types respectively. The input information (e.g. fleet composition, vehicle kilometres travelled, traffic intensity, road type, etc.) was provided by the traffic model developed by the Madrid City Council along with observations from field campaigns. Hourly emissions were computed for nearly 15 000 road segments distributed in 9 management areas covering the Madrid city and surroundings. Total annual NOX emissions predicted by HBEFA were a 21% higher than those of COPERT. The discrepancies for NO2 were lower (13%) since resulting average NO2/NOX ratios are lower for HBEFA. The larger differences are related to diesel vehicle emissions under "stop & go" traffic conditions, very common in distributor/secondary roads of the Madrid metropolitan area.In order to understand the representativeness of these results, the resulting emissions were integrated in an urban scale inventory used to drive mesoscale air quality simulations with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modelling system (1 km2 resolution). Modelled NO2 concentrations were compared

  5. Joint optimization traffic signal control for an urban arterial road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yin-fei; CHEN Shu-ping

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal traffic signal setting for an urban arterial road. By introducing the concepts of synchronization rate and non-synchronization degree, a mathematical model is constructed and an optimization problem is posed. Then, a new iterative algorithm is developed to solve this optimal traffic control signal setting problem. Convergence properties for this iterative algorithm are established. Finally, a numerical example is solved to illustrate the effectiveness of the method.

  6. The influence of road traffic noise on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. L.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of road traffic noise on the sleep of adults and 6-11 year old children was studied by using electrophysiological methods. Young adults, unaccustomed to traffic noise, were disturbed by continuous and intermittent traffic noise at 45 dB(A). No sleep disturbances were found for continuous traffic noise at 36 dB(A). Car passages with a peak noise level of 55 dB(A) caused awakenings. The equivalent sound pressure level ( Leq) did not correlate with sleep disturbance effects. A better noise dose description was found in the number of vehicles per night that made most noise. Children wer about 10 dB(A) less sensitive than adults to awakening reactions, and even less sensitive with respect to disturbances of REM sleep and deep sleep. Total habituation to road traffic noise did not occur, even after at least one year of exposure. Sound reduction in the bedroom induced increased amounts of deep sleep for adults and reduced falling-asleep time for children. Road traffic noise during the first hours of a night's sleep tended to disturb sleep more than when it ocurred later in the night, the main effects being a reduction of the total amount of REM sleep during the night and an increased duration of intermittent wakefulness during the hours of exposure.

  7. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  8. Road accident rates: strategies and programmes for improving road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, K; Goniewicz, M; Pawłowski, W; Fiedor, P

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the problem of road accident rates is one of the most important health and social policy issues concerning the countries in all continents. Each year, nearly 1.3 million people worldwide lose their life on roads, and 20-50 million sustain severe injuries, the majority of which require long-term treatment. The objective of the study was to identify the most frequent, constantly occurring causes of road accidents, as well as outline actions constituting a basis for the strategies and programmes aiming at improving traffic safety on local and global levels. Comparative analysis of literature concerning road safety was performed, confirming that although road accidents had a varied and frequently complex background, their causes have changed only to a small degree over the years. The causes include: lack of control and enforcement concerning implementation of traffic regulation (primarily driving at excessive speed, driving under the influence of alcohol, and not respecting the rights of other road users (mainly pedestrians and cyclists), lack of appropriate infrastructure and unroadworthy vehicles. The number of fatal accidents and severe injuries, resulting from road accidents, may be reduced through applying an integrated approach to safety on roads. The strategies and programmes for improving road traffic should include the following measures: reducing the risk of exposure to an accident, prevention of accidents, reduction in bodily injuries sustained in accidents, and reduction of the effects of injuries by improvement of post-accident medical care.

  9. Road traffic noise frequency and prevalent hypertension in Taichung, Taiwan : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Ta Yuan; Beelen, Rob; Li, Su Fei; Chen, Tzu I.; Lin, Yen Ju; Bao, Bo Ying; Liu, Chiu Shong

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported the association between hypertension and exposure to road traffic noise, but the association between noise frequency characteristics is not clear. This study investigated the association between exposure to different frequency components of road traffic noise an

  10. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. V. Kapsky; D. V. Mozalevsky; V. N. Kuzmenko; A. V. Korzhova; A. S. Polkhovskaya; E. N. Kostiukovich; N. V. Ariushevskaya

    2015-01-01

    population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic...

  11. Mechanisms of injury of pedestrians in road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of direction of car impact on pedestrian is complex interdisciplinary biomechanical analysis, which sintetize the work of legal medicine and traffic engineering professions. Injury characteristics depends on constitution and position of pedestrian, and type of passenger car. There are different mechanisms of injury arising from sum of effect of complex mechanical forces, from motion and impact on human body. Results are showing that new generation car, with aerodinamic wedge front, favorize occurrence of hyperextensive injuries, while speed presents dominant factor of intensity of injuries. In modern traffic conditions, we found multiple reduction of number of deaths of pedestrians in road traffic accidents.

  12. Automatic road traffic safety management system in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskarbski Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic incidents and accidents contribute to decreasing levels of transport system reliability and safety. Traffic management and emergency systems on the road, using, among others, automatic detection, video surveillance, communication technologies and institutional solutions improve the organization of the work of various departments involved in traffic and safety management. Automation of incident management helps to reduce the time of a rescue operation as well as of the normalization of the flow of traffic after completion of a rescue operation, which also affects the reduction of the risk of secondary accidents and contributes to reducing their severity. The paper presents the possibility of including city traffic departments in the process of incident management. The results of research on the automatic incident detection in cities are also presented.

  13. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imawan, Ardi; Indikawati, Fitri Indra; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2016-08-23

    The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS) centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information) system-a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index) that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  14. Querying and Extracting Timeline Information from Road Traffic Sensor Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Imawan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The escalation of traffic congestion in urban cities has urged many countries to use intelligent transportation system (ITS centers to collect historical traffic sensor data from multiple heterogeneous sources. By analyzing historical traffic data, we can obtain valuable insights into traffic behavior. Many existing applications have been proposed with limited analysis results because of the inability to cope with several types of analytical queries. In this paper, we propose the QET (querying and extracting timeline information system—a novel analytical query processing method based on a timeline model for road traffic sensor data. To address query performance, we build a TQ-index (timeline query-index that exploits spatio-temporal features of timeline modeling. We also propose an intuitive timeline visualization method to display congestion events obtained from specified query parameters. In addition, we demonstrate the benefit of our system through a performance evaluation using a Busan ITS dataset and a Seattle freeway dataset.

  15. Application of Internet in Road Traffic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dadić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the implementation of Internet in trafficengineering with the purpose of improving the professionaland scientific research development of the traffic system in theRepublic of Croatia.Fast growth of the world computer network, Internet, andits applications in almost all the fields of human activities,change the picture of the modern world. The current exchangeof data in all their forms and the daily growth of the network,supplemented by almost incredible amounts of data that can bealmost instantly accessible, indicates that Internet is not just theinfomwtion technology revolution, but that it is a revolutionper se. More than 100 million computers are estimated to benetworked beginning of the 21" century.Internet seems almost as if it were created for the purposesof knowledge and expe1ience exchange in traffic, a relativelyyoung scientific branch. 11 can be concluded that the presenceof traffic engineers in Internet is today's reality and tomon·ow'snecessity.

  16. Fuzzy peak hour for urban road traffic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Li-Min; Dong, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Zun-Dong; Ye, Yang-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Traffic congestion is now nearly ubiquitous in many urban areas and frequently occurs during rush hour periods. Rush hour avoidance is an effective way to ease traffic congestion. It is significant to calculate the rush hour for alleviating traffic congestion. This paper provides a method to calculate the fuzzy peak hour of the urban traffic network considering the flow, speed and occupancy. The process of calculation is based on betweenness centrality of network theory, optimal separation method, time period weighting, probability-possibility transformations and trapezoidal approximations of fuzzy numbers. The fuzzy peak hour of the urban road traffic network (URTN) is a trapezoidal fuzzy number [m1, m2, m3, m4]. It helps us (i) to confirm a more detailed traffic condition at each moment, (ii) to distinguish the five traffic states of the traffic network in one day, (iii) to analyze the characteristic of appearance and disappearance processes of the each traffic state and (iv) to find out the time pattern of residents travel in one city.

  17. Road Usage Heterogeneity and Mitigation of Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomzalez, Marta C.; Wang, Pu

    2012-02-01

    Road networks form the backbone of the social and economic life of a city. Until recently, however, data have not been available to study the impact of trip selection on traffic congestion at an urban scale. To that end, we combined the most complete record of daily trips with the detailed road GIS data to analyze the road usage patterns in two US metropolitan areas. We classify the importance of road segments based on their ability to attract drivers from diverse sources and find that most of them are mainly used by drivers from very few sources. Thanks to this heterogeneity, we find that it is possible to design an efficient strategy to largely reduce the travel time in the road system.

  18. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  19. How traffic law enforcement can contribute to safer roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Exceeding speed limits, drink or distracted driving and failure to wear a seat belt are still the leading causes of death and serious injury on European roads. Despite legislation designed to prevent all four, many drivers involved in fatal traffic collisions clearly failed to comply with one or

  20. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children after Road Traffic Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete; Timm, Karin; Gnehm, Hanspeter E.; Sennhauser, Felix H.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively assess the prevalence, course, and predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) in children after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Method: Sixty-eight children (6.5-14.5 years old) were interviewed 4-6 weeks and 12 months after an RTA with the Child PTSD Reaction Index (response rate 58.6%). Their mothers (n = 60)…

  1. How traffic law enforcement can contribute to safer roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Exceeding speed limits, drink or distracted driving and failure to wear a seat belt are still the leading causes of death and serious injury on European roads. Despite legislation designed to prevent all four, many drivers involved in fatal traffic collisions clearly failed to comply with one or mor

  2. How traffic law enforcement can contribute to safer roads.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Exceeding speed limits, drink or distracted driving and failure to wear a seat belt are still the leading causes of death and serious injury on European roads. Despite legislation designed to prevent all four, many drivers involved in fatal traffic collisions clearly failed to comply with one or mor

  3. Road traffic noise and annoyance: A quantification of the effect of quiet side exposure at dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Janssen, S.A.; Vos, H.; Salomons, E.M.; Zhou, H.; Berg, F. van den

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that residents may benefit from a "quiet side" to their dwellings. The influence of the level of road traffic noise exposure at the least exposed side on road traffic noise annoyance was studied in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Road traffic noise exposure was assessed at the

  4. Road traffic safety in conjunction with in-vehicle ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja TOPOLŠEK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in Intelligent Transportation Systems comes from the problems caused by traffic congestion, road accidents and air pollution. Traffic congestion continues to grow worldwide as a result of increased motorization, population growth, changes in population density and urbanization. Interest in ITS can also be attributed to reducing road accidents and increasing traffic safety. The most common causes for road accidents are excessive speed, inattentive driving and ignorance of the right-of-way rules. To eliminate these causes, experience, knowledge of traffic regulations and a new car are not enough – vehicle safety systems have to take part as well. Therefore, the European Union issued a directive on the installation of intelligent systems, whose functions are active support during driving, warning the driver in dangerous situations and alerting passengers of the car in case of irregularities in motor function or actions carried out by the driver that may cause danger, such as swerving while falling asleep. These systems help drivers to avoid accidents, and in the event of a collision, an emergency call is automatically made. Furthermore, they can be used to regulate traffic patterns or to reduce engine performance, which would reduce pollution. With these benefits in mind, the EU has indicated to the automotive industry that installation of these new Intelligent Transportation Systems should be mandatory in their new vehicles.

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  6. Overtaking as Indicator of Road Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking is presemed as one of the indicators of roadtraffic flow. The possibility of overtaking depends on the existenceof an intetval in the opposing traffic flow sufficient to performovertaking. It also analyses the probability of overtakingby applying adequate equations and graphical presentations

  7. Representing the road infrastructure in open traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminga, G.; Knoppers, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the design of network objects for all types of assignment methods, varying from macroscopic assignments to micro simulation models. The basic idea is that the model environment should allow the simulation of traffic at multiple scales, based on standardized data formats. We

  8. Road Traffic Accidents - The Number One Killer in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmajid Ahmed Ali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: It is estimated that 1.26 million people worldwide died in 2000 from road traffic accidents, 90% of them in low and middle-income countries. In 2000, the road traffic injury mortality rate for the world was 20.8 per 100,000 populations (30.8 in males, 11.0 in females [1].The Arab population constitutes 3.6% of the world’s population and it owns 1% of the world’s vehicles. Its human losses as a result of road traffic accidents (RTA account for 4.8% of that of the world’s losses [2]. It is estimated that the annual cost of road crashes is about 1% of the Gross National Product (GNP in developing countries, 1.5 in transitional countries and 2% in highly motorised countries [3].In Libya the situation is worse. It is a sad fact that road traffic accidents are the number one killer in Libya. As a matter of fact I consider it to be an ‘epidemic’ in all sectors of the Libyan society. There is not a day that goes by in Libya without us hearing about families, young men, women and children getting killed in horrific car accidents.It is alarming that young children are knocked down on a daily basis by speeding young drivers, whose understanding of driving skills may have been acquired from "playstation games"! (You can watch some of the shameful video clips sent by some of these drivers on this link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doWEDjiHlVoI feel it is our responsibility as physicians observing the situation to raise awareness about the scale of the problem, possible causes, and how to tackle it. POSSIBLE CAUSES:• A driving licence in Libya is not issued on the basis of how much you know. Therefore the majority of drivers know little or nothing about the law.• Wearing seat belts is not compulsory in most parts of Libya. In some places, especially in the Eastern part of Libya, you could be penalised for wearing one. I was stopped many years ago by the traffic police in the Eastern part of Libya because I was wearing sunglasses

  9. Brazilian road traffic fatalities: a spatial and environmental analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTI are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1. The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. CONCLUSIONS: By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies.

  10. Analysis of Road Traffic Network Cascade Failures with Coupled Map Lattice Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is growing literature concerning the cascading failure of network characteristics. The object of this paper is to investigate the cascade failures on road traffic network, considering the aeolotropism of road traffic network topology and road congestion dissipation in traffic flow. An improved coupled map lattice (CML model is proposed. Furthermore, in order to match the congestion dissipation, a recovery mechanism is put forward in this paper. With a real urban road traffic network in Beijing, the cascading failures are tested using different attack strategies, coupling strengths, external perturbations, and attacked road segment numbers. The impacts of different aspects on road traffic network are evaluated based on the simulation results. The findings confirmed the important roles that these characteristics played in the cascading failure propagation and dissipation on road traffic network. We hope these findings are helpful to find out the optimal road network topology and avoid cascading failure on road network.

  11. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimohammadi, Iraj; Zokaei, Mojtaba; Sandrock, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise is one of the main important sources in urban noise pollution, which causes various physiological and psychological effects that can cause disturbs in performance, sleep disturbances, hearing loss and impact on job performance. This study was conducted to verify the impact of road traffic noise on reaction time in terms of extraversion and sex. Methods: Traffic noise was measured and recorded in 10 arterial streets in Tehran, and then the recorded noise was emitted towards participants in an acoustic room. The participants were 80 (40 cases and 40 controls) students. Personality type was determined by Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) questioner. Reaction time before and after exposure to traffic noise was measured. Results: Reaction time before exposure to traffic noise did not differ (P=0.437) significantly between introverts and extraverts. However, it was increased significantly in both groups after exposure to traffic noise (PIntrovert’s reaction time was more increased than that of extraverts. Conclusion: Traffic noise augmented reaction time of both males and females. This study also revealed that exposure to traffic noise leads to increase in reaction time. PMID:26634199

  12. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic...... and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors...

  13. Traffic Prediction Based on Correlation of Road Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Road section data packet is very necessary for the estimation and prediction in short-time traffic condition. However, previous researches on this problem are lack of quantitative analysis. A section correlation analyzing method with traffic flow microwave data is proposed for this problem. It is based on the metric multidimensional scaling theory. With a dissimilarity matrix, scalar product matrix can be calculated. Subsequently, a reconstructing matrix of section traffic flow could be got with principal components factor analysis, which could display section groups in low dimension. It is verified that the new method is reliable and effective. After that, Auto Regressive Moving Average (A RMA model is used for forecasting traffic flow and lane occupancy. Finally, a simulated example has shown that the technique is effective and exact. The theoretical analysis indicates that the forecasting model and algorithms have a broad prospect for practical application.  

  14. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases-free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams-occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  15. Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.

    2009-11-01

    Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.

  16. A cluster analysis on road traffic accidents using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Sabariah; Baragona, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The analysis of traffic road accidents is increasingly important because of the accidents cost and public road safety. The availability or large data sets makes the study of factors that affect the frequency and severity accidents are viable. However, the data are often highly unbalanced and overlapped. We deal with the data set of the road traffic accidents recorded in Christchurch, New Zealand, from 2000-2009 with a total of 26440 accidents. The data is in a binary set and there are 50 factors road traffic accidents with four level of severity. We used genetic algorithm for the analysis because we are in the presence of a large unbalanced data set and standard clustering like k-means algorithm may not be suitable for the task. The genetic algorithm based on clustering for unknown K, (GCUK) has been used to identify the factors associated with accidents of different levels of severity. The results provided us with an interesting insight into the relationship between factors and accidents severity level and suggest that the two main factors that contributes to fatal accidents are "Speed greater than 60 km h" and "Did not see other people until it was too late". A comparison with the k-means algorithm and the independent component analysis is performed to validate the results.

  17. Safety in traffic for vulnerable military road users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar J. Bulajić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Army of Serbia, as a relatively closed system, regulates the field of traffic safety; however, during peacetime, general rules apply to all participants in traffic circulation. The Republic of Serbia is in the group of countries with a high number of road fatalities. The level of traffic safety in the Serbian Army has been on constant increase since 2000, although the relevant transport authorities in the military are not yet satisfied with the achieved level (even one lost life is too much. The increase can be deceptive, since if we take into account the substantial reduction in vehicle use due to various factors in the last few years (poor financial situation in the country as well as in the military, under-investment in the purchase of new vehicles, purchase of transportation services, fewer drivers drafted and more vehicles driven by trained officers, etc., it is not surprising that there are fewer accidents and fewer road deaths and injuries among military personnel. This paper aims at approaching the problem of pedestrian safety as a segment of road safety and at making an educational impact on all members of the military, because they all participate in traffic daily, if not as drivers or passengers, then certainly in large numbers as pedestrians. The basis of this paper is aimed at shedding light on the causes of pedestrian road fatalities due to their mistakes, i. e. 'negligence' of the participants in car accidents with the participation of pedestrians, as well as at proposing measures to reduce and prevent traffic accidents with pedestrians.

  18. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF PROTECTION AGAINST ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Gardziejczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents factors for assessment of road traffic noise level and possible actions towards the minimization of excessive noise in the roadway neighborhood. Changes of equivalent sound level values were analyzed in relation to traffic intensity, categorization and vehicles speed. In relation to measures reducing noise level in roadway’s surroundings particular attention was given to anti-noise protections and tyre/noise reduction. Acoustic effectiveness of specific solutions was showed based on chosen examples. It was proved that when admissible noise level is slightly exceeded the need for noise barrier use may be replaced by a proper design and maintenance of road pavement or by enforcement of speed limit.

  19. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmera-Suárez, Rocío; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Galán, Iñaki

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents cause substantial morbidity and disease burden; few studies have examined their impact on disability. To estimate the magnitude and distribution of disability due to road traffic accidents according to socio-demographic variables, and its main socioeconomic and health determinants. A cross-sectional study was conducted in community-dwelling participants in the "2008 Spanish National Disability Survey", a representative sample of 91,846 households with 20,425 disabled persons older than 15 years; 443 had disability due to road traffic accidents. The prevalence was 2.1 per 1000 inhabitants (95% CI:1.8-2.3), with no differences by sex. Risk was highest among persons aged 31 to 64 years, and onset of disability showed a sharp inflection point at age 16 years in both sexes. Odds ratios (ORs) were higher (OR=1.3; 95% CI:1.1- 1.7) for participants with secondary education than for those with the lowest educational levels and were lower (OR: 0.5; 95% CI:0.3-0.8) for participants with the highest household income levels than for those with lowest. Only 24% of disabled participants were gainfully employed. As compared to other sources of disability, traffic crashes caused greater disability in terms of mobility (OR=3.1;p<0.001), a greater need for health/social services (OR=1.5;p=0.003), and more problems with private transportation (OR=1.6;p<0.001), moving around outside the home (OR=1.6;p<0.001) and changes in economic activity (OR=2.4;p<0.001). The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Road Traffic Injury in Lagos, Nigeria: Assessing Prehospital Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nasiru A; Ajani, Abdul Wahab O; Mustafa, Ibrahim A; Balogun, Rufai A; Oludara, Mobolaji A; Idowu, Olufemi E; Solagberu, Babatunde A

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Injuries are the third most important cause of overall deaths globally with one-quarter resulting from road traffic crashes. Majority of these deaths occur before arrival in the hospital and can be reduced with prompt and efficient prehospital care. The aim of this study was to highlight the burden of road traffic injury (RTI) in Lagos, Nigeria and assess the effectiveness of prehospital care, especially the role of Lagos State Ambulance Service (LASAMBUS) in providing initial care and transportation of the injured to the hospital. A three-year, retrospective review of road traffic injured patients seen at the Surgical Emergency Room (SER) of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Nigeria, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2014 was conducted. Parameters extracted from the Institution Trauma Registry included bio-data, date and time of injury, date and time of arrival in SER, host status, type of vehicle involved, and region(s) injured. Information on how patients came to the hospital and outcome in SER also were recorded. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS; IBM Corporation; Armonk, New York USA) version 16. A total of 23,537 patients were seen during the study period. Among them, 16,024 (68.1%) had trauma. Road traffic crashes were responsible in 5,629 (35.0%) of trauma cases. Passengers constituted 42.0% of the injured, followed by pedestrians (34.0%). Four wheelers were the most frequent vehicle type involved (54.0%), followed by motor cycles (30.0%). Regions mainly affected were head and neck (40.0%) and lower limb (29.0%). Less than one-quarter (24.0%) presented to the emergency room within an hour, while one-third arrived between one and six hours following injury. Relatives brought 55.4%, followed by bystanders (21.4%). Only 2.3% had formal prehospital care and were brought to the hospital by LASAMBUS. They also had significantly shorter arrival time. One hundred and nine patients

  1. Road traffic injuries in developing countries: research and action agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cheng-Min; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Médico, Magíster en Ciencias de la Salud.; Lunnen, Jeffrey C.; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Candidato a Magíster en Estudios de la Mujer.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Médico, Magíster y Doctor en Epidemiología.; Hyder, Adnan A.; International Injury Research Unit, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Baltimore, MD, USA. Médico Magíster y Doctor en Salud Pública.

    2010-01-01

    Road traffic injury (RTI) is the leading cause of death in persons aged 10-24 worldwide and accounts for about 15% of all male deaths. The burden of RTI is unevenly distributed amongst countries with over eighty-fold differences between the highest and lowest death rates. Thus the unequal risk of RTI occurring in the developing world, due to many reasons, including but not limited to rapid motorization and poor infrastructure, is a major global challenge. This editorial highlights a numbe...

  2. Modelling the Magnetic Disturbances Due to Road-Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J -J Schott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic disturbances due to the traffic are tentatively modelled assuming that the sources are moving dipoles. The influencing section of the road ("useful" portion should be modelled in 3D. The parameters of the model (time of closest position to the magnetometer, velocity, including its sign, dipole moment are fairly accurately estimated. The fit is improved with the incorporation of a small induction effect.

  3. Road traffic accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liam, C K; How, L G; Tan, C T

    1996-03-01

    Three patients involved in road traffic accidents were suspected to have obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Two of them fell asleep while riding motorcycles and one patient fell asleep behind the wheel of a truck causing it to overturn. The diagnosis of OSA in each case was suspected based on a history of loud snoring, restless sleep, and excessive daytime somnolence and was confirmed by sleep studies.

  4. HOMICIDE BY A ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths from road traffic accidents need a meticulous autopsy examination and a proper interpretation of injuries, as they can be a source of potential homicide among them. We report a case of homicide which was brought as a death in a ‘hit and run’ case to our mortuary. After our post mortem examination and issuing of our report, the investigative authorities were able to nab the actual culprit involved in the murder.

  5. Spinal cord injuries from road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad R Rasouli; Mohsen Nouri; Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) induced by road traffic crashes in southeastern Iran for better understanding the pattern of these injuries and therefore for better designing health system planning.Methods: In this historical cohort study, the patients who had been transferred to Level I trauma center in southeastern Iran due to road traffic accidents with radiographic documented SCI were evaluated.Results: Among 64 patients with SCI, 38 patients (59.4%, 36 males and 2 females, aged 27.42 years ± 9.44 years on average) were injured by road traffic accidents.Car and motorcycle accidents were responsible for 26 cases (68.4%) and 12 cases (31.6%), respectively. And 31 patients (81. 6%) had complete SCI. Conus medularis (T12-L2) was the most affected level.Conclusions: Results are discussed in terms of preventive measures, specifically those concerning the use of restraint and helmet and driving behavior. This study should be extended nationally to gain a larger case series so that the SCI risk of particular vehicle configurations,considering other crash factors, can be more precisely quantified and the characteristics for low occurrence of SCI can be more precisely identified.

  6. Human resources for the control of road traffic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Charles; Kobusingye, Olive; Anh, Le Vu; Afukaar, Francis; Arreola-Risa, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    The definition of the ideal numbers and distribution of human resources required for control of road traffic injury (RTI) is not as advanced as for other health problems. We can nonetheless identify functions that need to be addressed across the spectrum of injury control: surveillance; road safety (including infrastructure, vehicle design, and behaviour); and trauma care. Many low-cost strategies to improve these functions in low- or middle-income countries can be identified. For all these strategies, there is need for adequate institutional capacity, including funding, legal authority, and human resources. Several categories of human resources need to be developed: epidemiologists who can handle injury data, design surveillance systems, and undertake research; engineers and planners versed in safety aspects of road design, traffic flow, urban planning, and vehicle design; police and lawyers who understand the health impact of traffic law; clinicians who can develop cost-effective improvements in the entire system of trauma treatment; media experts to undertake effective behaviour change and social marketing; and economists to assist with cost-effectiveness evaluations. RTI control can be strengthened by enhancing such training in these disciplines, as well as encouraging retention of those who have the needed skills. Mechanisms to enhance collaboration between these different fields need to be promoted. Finally, the burden of RTI is borne disproportionately by the poor; in addition to technical issues, more profound equity issues must be addressed. This mandates that people from all professional backgrounds who work for RTI control should develop skills in advocacy and politics.

  7. Valuation of the impacts from road traffic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otterstroem, T. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Energy Ltd. participated in 1993 in the MOBILE research programme of the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MTI) by carrying out the project `Valuation of the impacts of road traffic fuels emissions`. The project was financed by the MTI, Ekono Energy Ltd and Neste Oy. The aim of the project was to assess the external costs of Finnish road traffic, which are incurred by the environmental effects of fuel related emissions (motor petrol and diesel fuel). To this end, the survey studied the environmental impacts of emissions on people and the environment locally, nationally and globally. The main target was to develop a method for calculating the economic value of these effects. The method has been applied to road traffic emissions in 1990 and emission forecasts for 2000. The valuation calculations made should be regarded as indicative examples. The article presents a possible way of assessing the cost of effects. This kind of review indicates the cost of impacts compared with the cost of reducing emissions. It also indicates the way in which environmental taxes could be developed and reveals those impacts which should be researched and the impacts and emissions components the restricting of which should be enhanced. (author)

  8. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should be maintained on every road segment in order to optimize the energy used and the fuel consumed while observing a time schedule. The system takes into account the road vertical profile, the fixed and variable speed limits and the traffic information retrieved using V2V and V2I communications. The system has been tested on real road sections with satisfactory results in fuel savings.

  9. Transport Traffic Analysis for Abusive Infrastructure Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Then they extracted DNS information from each URL’s domain and used custom web crawlers to visit each URL to retrieve HTTP behavior and landing pages...reveals additional important properties of scams, they only focused on scams that involved selling products, typically those with questionable legality...Our traffic based approach is more general, applicable to a variety of scams while Levchenko et al. focused on the weak spot of the spam value chain

  10. Countermeasures for traffic accidents due to road conditions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Yu-long; MA Ji

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the postulate of traffic infrastmcture and vehicles, much attention should be given to the effect of road conditions on accidents. With large numbers of traffic accidents on Shenda Freeway, Liaoning Province, Harbin City and others in P. R. China, parameters and the effect of accidents caused by horizontal alignment, vertical alignment, cross section and intersection are studied systematically The disciplinary analysis of these effects are presented in this paper. The viewpoint is acknowledged that high sub grade and steep slopes are against traffic safety, which is common and ignored in high-usage highways in China. Design parameters of the current design criteria and the corresponding countermeasures are suggested for safety on our highways.

  11. The Pattern of Road Traffic Crashes in South East Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Mahdieh; Martiniuk, Alexandra Lc; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mohammadi, Mahdi; Rashedi, Fariborz; Ghasemi, Ardavan

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described. This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year in South East of Iran. Data collected included: demographics, the type of crash, type of involved vehicle, location of crash and factors contributing to the crash. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Collisions with other vehicles or objects contributed the highest proportion (62.4%) of motor vehicle crashes. Human factors including careless driving, violating traffic laws, speeding, and sleep deprivation/fatigue were the most important causal factors accounting for 90% of road crashes. Data shows that 41% of drivers were not using a seat belt at the time of crash. One- third of the crashes resulted in injury (25%) or death (5%). Reckless driving such as speeding and violation of traffic laws are major risk factors for crashes in the South East of Iran. This highlights the need for education along with traffic law enforcement to reduce motor vehicle crashes in future.

  12. A comparative study of road traffic accidents in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J F

    1978-11-01

    The problem of road traffic accidents in developing countries is now becoming a cause for concern. This is more so as preventive measures have not kept pace with economic progress and development. This paper reviews the present situation in West Malaysia, one of the better developed countries of the East, during the period 1970 to 1975. A comparative study has been made between the United States and Malaysia. To enable the urgency of the problem in developing countries to be appreciated the increases in the country's population and in the number of vehicles in use and their relation to the lesser increase in road mileage over the period of study have been discussed. The study has considered every aspect of the causative factors leading to traffic accidents, such as the effects of weather, seasonal variation, and road and lighting conditions. The common human errors leading to accidents have been discussed. Other factors, such as the ethnic distribution in Malaysia, and their relation to road accidents have shown the effect of the social structure on the problems. The data evaluated in this study make it clear that preventive measures are very necessary in underdeveloped as well as in developed countries.

  13. Road safety and road traffic accidents in Saudi Arabia. A systematic review of existing evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuri, Farah A; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Zalat, Marwa M; Qabshawi, Reem I

    2015-04-01

    To identify the changing trends and crucial preventive approaches to road traffic accidents (RTAs) adopted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) over the last 2.5 decades, and to analyze aspects previously overlooked. This systematic review was based on evidence of RTAs in KSA. All articles published during the last 25 years on road traffic accident in KSA were analyzed. This study was carried out from December 2013 to May 2014 in the Department of Family and Community Medicine, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, KSA. Road traffic accidents accounted for 83.4% of all trauma admissions in 1984-1989, and no such overall trend was studied thereafter. The most frequently injured body regions as reported in the latest studies were head and neck, followed by upper and lower extremities, which was found to be opposite to that of the studies reported earlier. Hospital data showed an 8% non-significant increase in road accident mortalities in contrast to police records of a 27% significant reduction during the years 2005-2010. Excessive speeding was the most common cause reported in all recent and past studies. Disparity was common in the type of reporting of RTAs, outcome measures, and possible causes over a period of 2.5 decade. All research exclusively looked into the drivers' faults. A sentinel surveillance of road crashes should be kept in place in the secondary and tertiary care hospitals for all regions of KSA.

  14. Do unpaved, low-traffic roads affect bird communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammides, Christos; Kounnamas, Constantinos; Goodale, Eben; Kadis, Costas

    2016-02-01

    Unpaved, low traffic roads are often assumed to have minimal effects on biodiversity. To explore this assertion, we sampled the bird communities in fifteen randomly selected sites in Pafos Forest, Cyprus and used multiple regression to quantify the effects of such roads on the total species richness. Moreover, we classified birds according to their migratory status and their global population trends, and tested each category separately. Besides the total length of unpaved roads, we also tested: a. the site's habitat diversity, b. the coefficient of variation in habitat (patch) size, c. the distance to the nearest agricultural field, and d. the human population size of the nearest village. We measured our variables at six different distances from the bird point-count locations. We found a strong negative relationship between the total bird richness and the total length of unpaved roads. The human population size of the nearest village also had a negative effect. Habitat diversity was positively related to species richness. When the categories were tested, we found that the passage migrants were influenced more by the road network while resident breeders were influenced by habitat diversity. Species with increasing and stable populations were only marginally affected by the variables tested, but the effect of road networks on species with decreasing populations was large. We conclude that unpaved and sporadically used roads can have detrimental effects on the bird communities, especially on vulnerable species. We propose that actions are taken to limit the extent of road networks within protected areas, especially in sites designated for their rich avifauna, such as Pafos Forest, where several of the affected species are species of European and global importance.

  15. Behavioral Responses of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens to Roads and Traffic: Implications for Population Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bouchard

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A key goal in road ecology is to determine which species are most vulnerable to the negative effects of roads on population persistence. Theory suggests that species that avoid roads are less likely to be negatively affected by roads than those that do not avoid roads. The goal of this study was to take a step toward testing this prediction by evaluating the behavioral response to roads and traffic of a species whose populations are known to be negatively affected by roads and traffic, the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens. We studied the movement patterns of northern leopard frogs during their spring migration from overwintering sites in a river to various breeding ponds that were disconnected from the river by roads. We performed short-distance translocations of migrating frogs, followed them visually, and documented their movement coordinates following each hop, both near the roads and in non-roaded areas. We found that frogs took longer to move near roads with more traffic and that their movement was quickest in areas without roads nearby. Frogs tended to deviate more from a straight-line course when they were released near roads than compared with control areas, but this response was independent of traffic volume. All frogs released near roads attempted to cross the road. On very low traffic roads (10.86 mean vehicles per hour, 94% of frogs crossed the road successfully, whereas at higher traffic roads (58.29 mean vehicles per hour 72% were successful. Our results suggest that frog's inability to avoid going onto roads and their slow movement combine to make them particularly vulnerable to road mortality, which likely explains the strong negative effects of roads on frog population abundance. Conservation efforts should focus on preventing frogs from accessing the road surface through the use of drift fencing and culverts.

  16. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  17. Analysis of Individual and Environmental Factors for Road Traffic Accidents in Sirjan-Bandarabbas Road between 2010 and 2011, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sirjan -Bandarabbas road is one of the important commercial roads in Iran and for Sirjan’s area situation and relevance between Sirjan and other states in Iran so high percentage of goods that forwarded from Bandarabbas to other states transit from Sirjan .Therefore this road is as one important transition road and traffic road too .This study analyzed road traffic accidents were occurred between 2010 and 201in Sirjan- Bandarabbas road. Individual and demographic factors include Time of accidents, Drivers age, time of the days, seat belt and safety laws, Guilty vehicle, Mode of accident and education Level. Time of day analyses suggested that the highest percentage of road traffic injuries occurred in the time group between 12-18 hours. Drivers with the age group of 36-50 had more involvement in death accidents. The findings of this study also revealed that most of the collisions was front to back and front to side. Female drivers were found to be generally safer drivers than their male counterparts; male drivers had a higher involvement rate in road traffic accidents. This study indicated that Observe safety laws, Guilty vehicle and Mode of accidents have a meaningful relationship with Type of accidents in road traffic accidents in Sirjan Bandarabbas road.

  18. Road Traffic Control Based on Genetic Algorithm for Reducing Traffic Congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehiro, Yuji; Miyakawa, Takuya; Masuda, Tatsuya

    In this paper, we propose a road traffic control method for reducing traffic congestion with genetic algorithm. In the not too distant future, the system which controls the routes of all vehicles in a certain area must be realized. The system should optimize the routes of all vehicles, however the solution space of this problem is enormous. Therefore we apply the genetic algorithm to this problem, by encoding the route of all vehicles to a fixed length chromosome. To improve the search performance, a new genetic operator called “path shortening” is also designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by the experiment.

  19. Road traffic noise, air pollution components and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; van Lenthe, Frank J; Visschedijk, Antoon J H; Zandveld, Peter Y J; Miedema, Henk M E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-01-01

    Traffic noise and air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular health effects. Until date, only a limited amount of prospective epidemiological studies is available on long-term effects of road traffic noise and combustion related air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between road traffic noise and air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD: International Classification of Diseases (ICD9) 410-414) or cerebrovascular disease (cerebrovascular event [CVE]: ICD9 430-438). We linked baseline questionnaire data to 13 years of follow-up on hospital admissions and road traffic noise and air pollution exposure, for a large random sample (N = 18,213) of inhabitants of the Eindhoven region, Netherlands. Subjects with cardiovascular event during follow-up on average had higher road traffic noise day, evening, night level (L den) and air pollution exposure at the home. After adjustment for confounders (age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, exercise, marital status, alcohol use, work situation, financial difficulties), increased exposure did not exert a significant increased risk of hospital admission for IHD or cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RRs) for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for L den; 1.04 (0.90-1.21) for particulate matter (PM 10 ); 1.05 (0.91-1.20) for elemental carbon (EC); and 1.12 (096-1.32) for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) in the full model. While the risk estimate seemed highest for NO 2 , for a 5 (th) to 95 (th) percentile interval increase, expressed as RRs per 1 μg/m 3 increases, hazard ratios seemed highest for EC (RR 1.04 [0.92-1.18]). In the subgroup of study participants with a history of cardiovascular disease, RR estimates seemed highest for noise exposure (1.19 [0.87-1.64] for L den); in the subgroup of elderly RR seemed highest for air pollution exposure (RR 1.24 [0.93-1.66] for NO 2 ).

  20. A study on urban road traffic safety based on matter element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qizhou; Zhou, Zhuping; Sun, Xu

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines a new evaluation of urban road traffic safety based on a matter element analysis, avoiding the difficulties found in other traffic safety evaluations. The issue of urban road traffic safety has been investigated through the matter element analysis theory. The chief aim of the present work is to investigate the features of urban road traffic safety. Emphasis was placed on the construction of a criterion function by which traffic safety achieved a hierarchical system of objectives to be evaluated. The matter element analysis theory was used to create the comprehensive appraisal model of urban road traffic safety. The technique was used to employ a newly developed and versatile matter element analysis algorithm. The matter element matrix solves the uncertainty and incompatibility of the evaluated factors used to assess urban road traffic safety. The application results showed the superiority of the evaluation model and a didactic example was included to illustrate the computational procedure.

  1. The Effects of Road Traffic Noise on Mental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Alimohammadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Noise is one of the more widespread pollutions of road transportation system, which can cause deterioration in performance. This experimental study was designed to assess the effect of road traffic noise on performance with regard to extra/introversion and sex of participants. The personality trait of extra/introversion has been remarked as relevant factor to mental performance.Results:Thirty six (26 males and 10 females medical sciences students of Tehran University participated in the study. The students were placed in an unechoing room and performed the Cognitrone test from Vienna Test System in quiet condition and under road traffic noise (71 dBA. The results of this study pointed out that noise increased the percentage of sum of correct answers but had no effect on the speed of performance. Furthermore this study showed that performance was enhanced in extroverts (P=0.001 but no significant difference was found in introverts (P ≤0.05.Conclusions:The regression analysis revealed that extra/introversion was more important than sex to predict the performance parameters.

  2. Impact of road traffic accidents on the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehad, H; Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Sh; Davoudi-Kiakalaye, A; Moghadam Dehnadi, A; Hemati, H; Mohtasham-Amiri, Z

    2015-01-01

    Older adults are a vulnerable road user group with high mortality and morbidity in road crash. The aim of this study was to show pattern of road traffic injuries in this special aging group. In a cross sectional study, pre-hospital emergency system reports, hospital and police records of all motor vehicle collisions injured above 60 years old who were admitted to Pour-Sina hospital from April 2011 to March 2012 were studied. Demographic data, characteristic of road traffic incidents and in-hospital medical profiles were derived. Data were analyzed with SPSS ver. 18. Differences between demographic and injuries situation were calculated by chi square test. A p-value of accident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρaccident injured. Mean age of them was 70.9 ± 6.7 years. Most of them were male (74.7%). 40.5% were pedestrians, 22.1% were car occupants and 19.1% were motorcyclists.76.7% had multiple trauma. Head and neck were the most prevalent regions of injured. Total in-hospital mortality rate was 10.1% that was higher in old elderly pedestrians and motorcyclists in comparison to young elderly (16.1% vs. 7.9%) and other type of victims (ρtraffic injuries in this group especially in pedestrians should be taken into consideration and strategies aimed at the road-user safety including periodic medical examination and improvement of road structure and facilities. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. THE AUTOMATED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT ON ROAD TRANSPORT IN THE CITIES OF UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Naumov

    2009-01-01

    The mathematic model of a cross-roads for projecting local automatic system of traffic control has been given. The software realization of model used in a module of automatic system of traffic control has been considered.

  4. Fatal road traffic accidents in Mauritius (2006 – 2011) – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    2016-01-13

    Jan 13, 2016 ... Management and Road Safety Unit, and the Ministry of Public. Infrastructure ... the influence of alcohol, riding without restraint, poor vehicle maintenance and ... on patterns of road traffic fatalities and the risk factors3-10 while.

  5. Road Traffic Noise Level Assessment at an Institutional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Swaroop

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unplanned and rapid urbanization, industrialization, increasing number of vehicles, poor traffic management, poor road condition etc. are the major causes of higher noise levels in most of the Indian cities. Prolonged exposure to higher noise levels can lead to irreversible Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL. Noise-induced hearing loss is contributing one-third to the total persons suffering from hearing loss in every country in the world. The present study aims at measuring the noise levels in the university campus to analyze the current situation and suggesting noise control measures to be adopted in University campus and along MMA Jauhar Marg. The numbers of vehicles were counted during November 17-21, 2012 and noise levels were measured at various pre decided locations. The traffic load in horizon years 2013, 2017, 2022, 2027 and 2032 on the MMA Jauhar Marg Road is predicted on the basis of observed traffic data and expected annual growth rate as 8.0% for pre Metro and 3.5% for post Metro. The noise levels were measured using Larson Davis Model 831 Class 1 Sound Level Meter on both sides of road at foot paths along MMA Jauhar Marg and at various receptor locations inside the different buildings in the university campus. Model RLS-90 is used for prediction of noise levels. The prediction of metro noise is carried out using statistical calculations. The combined noise levels were compared with standard criteria for silent zone and found on higher side. Installation of environment noise barrier is suggested as one of the noise control measure to be adopted along MMA Jauhar Marg and along metro viaduct to save students and staff from exposure of higher noise levels.

  6. Traffic process control. Automation of road- and rail traffic; Verkehrsleittechnik. Automatisierung des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, Eckehard (ed.) [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssicherheit und Automatisierungstechnik

    2007-07-01

    Traffic control aims the comprehensive guidance of complex traffic flows. The book provides a solid foundation, from design to realization with highly detailed technical systems. It presents a functionally oriented traffic process control strategy as its main topic, valuable for further technology change. Four main topics treat tasks and structures of traffic process control systems: single vehicle control and information management; traffic flow control; node control; operation and network management. The book addresses students and specialists of traffic science, who already have basic knowledge of the road- and rail sector and control engineering in relation systems theory. (GL) [German] Ziel der Verkehrsleittechnik ist die Beherrschung komplexer Verkehrsstroeme des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs. Vom Entwurf bis zur Realisierung mit technischen Einrichtungen, die eine grosse Detailfuelle aufweisen, wird eine solide Grundlage vermittelt. Das vorliegende Buch stellt dafuer eine funktional orientierte Verkehrsleittechnik in den Mittelpunkt, die ueber den Technologiewandel hinaus gilt. Vier Abschnitte behandeln die Aufgaben und Strukturen von Verkehrsleitsystemen: Einzelfahrzeugsteuerung und -informationsmanagement; Verkehrsflusssteuerung; Knotensteuerung; Betriebs- und Netzmanagement. Das Buch richtet sich an Studierende und Fachleute des Verkehrswesens. Voraussetzungen sind Kenntnisse des Strassen- und Schienenverkehrs und der Regelungstechnik bzw. Systemtheorie. (orig.)

  7. Road Traffic Noise Exposure in Gothenburg 1975-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Ögren

    Full Text Available Traffic noise exposure within a city varies over time and space. In this study, we developed a modified noise calculation method and used this method together with population and traffic data to estimate the time trend of noise exposure for the population in Gothenburg, Sweden, from 1975 to 2010. The noise calculation method was based on the standard Nordic method for road traffic noise with modifications using area-level statistics for population and building structures instead of precise geocoding of each inhabitant. Noise emission per vehicle was assumed to be constant over the period. The results show an increase in noise exposure over time. The number of inhabitants exposed at an equivalent level above 55 dB increased from 93000 to 146000 inhabitants between 1975 and 2010, and the percentage of the population exposed at this level increased from 22% to 29% over the same period. Traffic increase (1.4% per year and population increase/concentration (0.50% per year were approximately equally important factors behind this increase in exposure.

  8. Data, modelling and inference in road traffic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbens, Richard J; Saatci, Yunus

    2008-06-13

    In this paper, we study UK road traffic data and explore a range of modelling and inference questions that arise from them. For example, loop detectors on the M25 motorway record speed and flow measurements at regularly spaced locations as well as the entry and exit lanes of junctions. An exploratory study of these data helps us to better understand and quantify the nature of congestion on the road network. From a traveller's perspective it is crucially important to understand the overall journey times and we look at methods to improve our ability to predict journey times given access jointly to both real-time and historical loop detector data. Throughout this paper we will comment on related work derived from US freeway data.

  9. The effects of impulsiveness and alcohol abuse on traffic code violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the contribution of the facets assessed by the I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (viz., impulsiveness, venturesomeness and empathy, and of alcohol abuse, to the prediction of traffic rule violations controlling for the effect of variables such as age and annual mileage. To this end, a study was conducted on a sample of 535 drivers aged 20–73 years and the results were examined separately by gender. Based on them, impulsiveness and venturesomeness account for a substantial proportion of traffic violations reported by males and females, even if the effects of other variables such as age or annual mileage are considered. By contrast, empathy is relevant only for male drivers. The results also reveal a strong relationship between alcohol abuse and Highway Code violations, which significantly increases the predictive ability of personality variables in both males and females. These results support the need to consider the drivers’ personality in the design of interventions for driving offenders, whereas programs which are focused only on road safety education may be insufficient. Results also evidence the need to highlight the role in the intervention of alcohol abuse and its relationship with driving behaviours.

  10. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association...... to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10dB road traffic noise at the residential address...... was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air...

  11. The Burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd Province - Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the Disabled-adjusted Life Years (DALYs of Road Traffic Accidents in patients referred to hospitals in Yazd Province, central Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Yazd province during 2010. To calculate the Years of Life Lost (YLL due to premature death and to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD, the data were collected from Yazd death registration system and hospital records. The causes of death and nature of non-fatal injuries were classified using International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. We estimated Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs on the guidelines of the Global Burden of Disease Study (discount rate: 0.03, age weight: 0.04, constant age weight correction factor: 0.165. Age and sex composition was taken from the National Statistical Center for the year 2010. Results: During 2009, 483 deaths were caused by traffic accidents in Yazd Province, 382 (79.09% of which were males, and 101 (20.91% were females. The mortality rates for males and females were 70.98 and 20.15 in 100,000, respectively. The years of life lost due to premature deaths were 15.84/1000 in men and 4.75/1,000 in women. Total YLLs caused by traffic accidents were 10,908 years . The injuries caused by traffic accidents were calculated as 15.21 and 3.73/1,000 in males and females, respectively. The total YLDs was calculated 1.51/1,000. The total burden of Road Traffic Injuries in Yazd province was 12478 years (DALYs, 87.41% of which was due to premature death, and 12.59% was related to disability. Also, 78.32% was lost in males. The age specific peak of burden was in 15-29 year. Conclusion: This study showed that traffic accidents in Yazd impose a high burden. It seems that it is one of the health sector priorities. It is recommended to revise laws on use of motorcycles, especially on helmet use for motorcyclists, enforce strict laws in residential areas, and review social

  12. Acute severe head injury resulted from road traffic accidents:a report on 231 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敬业; 张赛; 等

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiology and clinical outcome of acute severe head injurey induced by road traffic accidents.Methods:The data of 231 patients with acute severe head injury induced by road traffic accidents were retrospectively studied.Results:The major victim-maker was automobiles (98.8%).The first three common types of traffic accidents were automobiles crashing into automobiles,automobiles crashing into bicycles(42.9%),and automobiles crashing pedestrians(40.3%).Eighty-seven patients out of 231 died,with the mortality of 37.7%.Conclusions:It suggests tat improving traffic administration and traffic safety consciousness may significantly reduce traffic trauma.

  13. Road traffic injuries in the People's Republic of China, 1951-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Xiang, Huiyun; Jing, Ruiwei; Tu, Zhibin

    2011-12-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) have become the leading cause of injury deaths in China. This article analyzed the trends in all crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities from road traffic crashes from 1951 to 2008 and compared the crash frequency, crash severity, and crash patterns by provinces, types of road, and injured road users. Road traffic crash data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security and National Bureau of Statistics of China. Descriptive statistical analyses were conducted. Over the past 5 decades, road traffic injuries have increased substantially in China. From 1951 to 2008, the total number of road traffic crashes, nonfatal injuries, and fatalities increased by 43-fold, 58-fold, and 85-fold, respectively. Linear regression suggested a significant decline of 30.1 percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-35.3) in the mortality rate per 100,000 people during the period 2002 to 2008. From 2004 to 2008, road traffic crash mortality rate per 100,000 people varied greatly in China from the lowest of 3.0 in Henan in 2008 to the highest of 21.7 in Xizang in 2004. RTIs in China disproportionally affected the following populations: males, persons 21 to 50 years of age, pedestrians, and motorcyclists/bicyclists. Adults aged more than 65 years accounted for approximately 10 percent of total road traffic deaths. Road types and RTIs severity were closely related; highways were associated with greater mortality rates. Road traffic injuries have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  14. Daylight Saving Time Transitions and Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Lahti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythm disruptions may have harmful impacts on health. Circadian rhythm disruptions caused by jet lag compromise the quality and amount of sleep and may lead to a variety of symptoms such as fatigue, headache, and loss of attention and alertness. Even a minor change in time schedule may cause considerable stress for the body. Transitions into and out of daylight saving time alter the social and environmental timing twice a year. According to earlier studies, this change in time-schedule leads to sleep disruption and fragmentation of the circadian rhythm. Since sleep deprivation decreases motivation, attention, and alertness, transitions into and out of daylight saving time may increase the amount of accidents during the following days after the transition. We studied the amount of road traffic accidents one week before and one week after transitions into and out of daylight saving time during years from 1981 to 2006. Our results demonstrated that transitions into and out of daylight saving time did not increase the number of traffic road accidents.

  15. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soil Due to Road Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Athanasopoulou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Particles coming from the pavement’s maintenance or from the traffic on it enter the soil carried by water. More pollutants transferred by air are dispersed in different distances, also polluting the soil. Precautionary and remedial measures are suggested for urban, peri-urban, and rural zones crossed by roadways, as a function of the plants' species and the level of the road. The proposed measures are based on the soil's chemical composition and draining conditions. Iron and the non-volatile heavy metals, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, are often found in roadside topsoil, as well as in roots and leafage of vegetables and trees. Manganese is found in combination with iron in many minerals and not as free element. The reasons and frequency of existence of metals have to be examined so as to take measures against contamination and possible health hazards. Heavy metal concentrations of soils have been seldom studied in Greece and there is a lack of data sources for the environmental impact of these elements in soil and dust from the pavements and the traffic. The impacts of road construction and service on the surrounding soil masses are studied and analyzed in view of their quality as nutrient materials

  16. Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Hearing Impairment Among Traffic Policemen in Surat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, B. N.; Macwan, J. E. M.

    2017-06-01

    Among all of the sources responsible for noise pollution, traffic related sources are of great environmental concern and increasing level of discomfort in urban areas with increasing traffic concentration. It will be a larger and serious problem in the future, if effective precautions are not taken addressed and attended to. Hence, a study was undertaken to measure the levels of road traffic noise at major intersections of Surat city, located in Western India and assess the hearing impairment among the exposed group of population i.e. the traffic policemen. Manual noise measurements and vehicle counts were performed at three of the busiest traffic intersections in the city for a period of 12 h. Audiometric screening was done on 46 policemen working at these intersections to determine the occurrence of hearing impairment. At all the three intersections, Leq measured was well above the permissible levels of 65 dBA for daytime. The Lmax recorded for three intersections were 84.6 dBA (07:36 pm), 87.3 dBA (06:32 pm) and 85.6 dBA (11:41 am). Audiometric screening showed that only 10 policemen (22%) had normal hearing. Slight, moderate and severe hearing impairment was recorded among 13 (28%), 18 (39%) and 5 (11%) policemen respectively. Of the total 46 policemen, none had profound impairment (deafness, hearing loss >81 dB). Of the 36 policemen having hearing impairment, 27 had bilateral impairment.

  17. Road traffic accidents in Libya: An undeclared War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salamat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: In his outstanding article regarding Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs in Libya [1], Dr Abdulmajid Ali has raised awareness and started a debate about this extremely important issue. Before responding to some points in Dr Ali’s article, I would like to tell a real story of a tragic accident that happened last week, which highlights several issues related to RTAs in Libya. A 55 year old driver left after Fajr prayer to the vegetable market to buy a few things for his daughter’s wedding lunch. While trying to avoid a big pothole in the middle of the road, he was hit by a truck without headlights coming from the opposite direction. The truck driver continued driving as if nothing had happened. None of the road users cared to help the victim but he was able to contact his son by mobile phone to come and help him out of the wreckage. His son took him to the main Trauma Hospital in Tripoli. The patient had no external injuries. He was admitted for observation only. A few hours later the patient died as a result of major internal haemorrhage. Further information revealed that the truck driver had no driving licence and the truck was not road worthy.This story is not unique However, it highlights the complex and intermingled issues that need to be addressed to have any real impact on this disastrous problem in Libya. The specific points I would like to add to Dr Ali’s article are:There is no doubt that RTAs are a major killer in Libya especially in the young age group. The annual reporting of road causalities is considered to be the yard stick to measure the effectiveness of any national traffic policy,; in the UK for example the target is to reduce fatalities from RTAs by 50% by 2010 [2]. It is a disgrace not to have accurate official statistics published at least annually of fatalities, injuries, disabilities and the economic consequences of this undeclared war in Libya. There is evidence to support that there could be a positive

  18. Attenuation of Road Traffic Noise by Vegetation in Urban Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Radosavljević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The last decades of the 20 th century and the beginning of the 21 st century have been characterized by rapid urban growth of cities, which resulted in overcrowding and the lack of land. The aftermath of such circumstances is the construction of many buildings near the main roads and the bus stations, which causes population exposure to significant levels of noise. In the cities aimed at maintaining sustainable urban environment, greenery is a key element that can be used to approach this issue successfully. Green facades, also known as vertical greenery systems, are becoming increasingly popular in urban areas. Vertical green systems on the facade walls, low belts of green vegetation and trees of different heights, widths and lengths contribute to reducing the level of traffic noise. The ability of greenery to attenuate noise is greater with the increasing frequency of traffic. This paper describes the effects of certain types of vegetation on traffic noise reduction, depending on the parameters such as: the type of vegetation, the dimensions of the green belt, the distance from the noise source, frequency range, etc.

  19. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incident diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Nordsborg, Rikke B

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic noise at normal urban levels can lead to stress and sleep disturbances. Both excess of stress hormones and reduction in sleep quality and duration may lead to higher risk for type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise...

  20. Preliminary study on alterations of altitude road traffic in China from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yin, Zhiyong; Xiang, Hongyi; Liao, Zhikang; Wang, Zhengguo

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic can play an important role in strengthening regional economic activities, especially at high altitude, and it is necessary to know important traffic-related information. Although previous studies reported on road traffic in China, there has been little research on high-altitude road traffic to date. The annual official census of road traffic safety from 2006 to 2013 was used to obtain data on the general population, registered drivers, registered vehicles, newly built roads, road traffic accidents (RTAs), mortality rate per 100 000 populations and per 10 000 vehicles in high-altitude provinces, including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Gansu, Yunnan, Sichuan, and Chongqing. These provincial data were reviewed retrospectively, with the national data as the reference. Statistical analysis (i.e., t test) was used to compare the estimated average annual change rate of population, number of registered drivers, registered vehicles, and newly built roads in high-altitude provinces with the national rates. Compared with the national data, there are significantly higher annual rates of population growth in Tibet and Xinjiang, registered drivers in Gansu, registered vehicles in Gansu, Sichuan, and Chongqing, and newly built roads in Tibet and Qinghai. Among the investigated provinces, Tibet, Qinghai, and Yunnan had a higher proportion of the roads with the high class. RTAs and RTA-induced casualties in the high-altitude provinces indicated a decreasing trend. The mortality rate per 10 000 vehicles and per 100 000 populations showed a decreasing trend, while the RTA-related mortality rate in Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Gansu remained high. Major changes for road traffic in high-altitude provinces have occurred over the past decade; however, the RTA-related mortality rate in high-altitude provinces has remained high. This study furthers understanding about road traffic safety in China; further studies on road traffic safety at high altitude should be performed.

  1. ROAD TRAFFIC NOISE IN DOWNTOWN AREA OF TEHRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mansouri, M. Pourmahabadian, M. Ghasemkhani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. The present study was conducted to determine the noise levels of road traffic at central area of Tehran. It focused on one of the busy and crowded square along with its 7 connecting streets, which had a heavy traffic and located in the downtown of the city. Total of 115 measuring points were selected along the roads, pavements and in the shopping areas to adequately represent the different acoustically commercial situations. The measuring points were divided in to 4 site-groups namely; Street, Pavement, Shop and Barrier each with 60, 40, 10, and 5 measuring points respectively. The measurements were carried out during a full week days started on Saturday morning and end on Friday evening. The A-weighted continuous equivalent sound level values, LAeq; LA max; LA min ; and the statistical levels: L1, L10, L50, L90 and L99 as well as the octave band center frequencies sound pressure levels were manually measured at each point separately. The mean values of LAeq for Street, Pavement, Shop and Barrier site groups were 78.5, 73.3, 68.7 and 70.8 dBA respectively and the overall mean of LAeq was 74.7 dBA. The statistical test (p<0.01 showed that the mean values for LAeq in all site groups as well as the overall mean value were higher than 65 dBA, which is the daytime governmentally prescribed noise limit for commercial areas. Comparing the individual measurements has also shown the 86.6% exceeded values from 65 dBA. The highest mean noise level in center frequencies upper than 1000 Hz was 71.5 dBA which was observed in the Street site group and the lowest one was 43.2 dBA in the Shop site group at 8000Hz center frequency. The corresponding values for the center frequencies lower than 1000 Hz were 78.2 and 66.1dBA at 63 and 500 Hz which were also observed in the Street and Shop site groups respectively. It can be concluded that the downtown of the city is environmentally noise

  2. Development of Road Traffic Assignment and Assessment Sub-Model Applied in the Traffic Study ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Topolnik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The described sub-model is just one small segment of theTraffic Study of the City of Zagreb, in the development of whichnumerous foreign and national experts and institutions tookpart. After comprehensive collection and processing of inputdata, the traffic experts, using the software package "MVATRIPS" for the analysis and search for optimal solutions to theproblem of traffic system, provided the models of public urbantransit for the future.This paper describes the analysis and assessment of sub-models in road traffic assignment for the morning peak, afternoonpeak and average off-peak hours. The principles of assignmentprocedure have been described as well as the convergencetests. The following has been specified: the users categories,the public transit pre-load, and the passenger car unit(PC U. The key guideline in selecting the route is a generalisedformulation of costs presented in the paper. The procedures ofcalibration and the assessment of the finite model have alsobeen defined according to the screenline flows, link flows, andtravelling times. In the end, the summary is given of the basiccharacteristics of the finite travelling matrices.

  3. Using Probe Vehicle Data for Automatic Extraction of Road Traffic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Popescu Maria Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this paper the author aims to study and find solutions for automatic detection of traffic light position and for automatic calculation of the waiting time at traffic light. The first objective serves mainly the road transportation field, mainly because it removes the need for collaboration with local authorities to establish a national network of traffic lights. The second objective is important not only for companies which are providing navigation solutions, but especially for authorities, institutions, companies operating in road traffic management systems. Real-time dynamic determination of traffic queue length and of waiting time at traffic lights allow the creation of dynamic systems, intelligent and flexible, adapted to actual traffic conditions, and not to generic, theoretical models. Thus, cities can approach the Smart City concept by boosting, efficienting and greening the road transport, promoted in Europe through the Horizon 2020, Smart Cities, Urban Mobility initiative.

  4. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W.; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity. PMID:26016432

  5. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  6. Modelling traffic hindrance caused by road construction as part of a multi-criteria assessment framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, Eric C.; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Jacob, B.; Kovarik, J.; Motyka, V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the consequences of the increased utilization of road infrastructure is more frequent maintenance work. Since generally road works result in less available road capacity, we can witness an increase in traffic hindrance, which involves delays and externalities as noise, air quality, safety and

  7. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Paul; Heinen, Eva; Methorst, Rob; Wegman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  8. Road safety and bicycle usage impacts of unbundling vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urban networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Heinen, E. Methorst, R. & Wegman, F.

    2015-01-01

    Bicycle-motor vehicle crashes are concentrated along distributor roads where cyclists are exposed to greater volumes of high-speed motorists than they would experience on access roads. This study examined the road safety impact of network-level separation of vehicular and cycle traffic in Dutch urba

  9. Modelling traffic hindrance caused by road construction as part of a multi-criteria assessment framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van Eric; Huerne, ter Henny; Jacob, B.; Kovarik, J.; Motyka, V.

    2014-01-01

    One of the consequences of the increased utilization of road infrastructure is more frequent maintenance work. Since generally road works result in less available road capacity, we can witness an increase in traffic hindrance, which involves delays and externalities as noise, air quality, safety and

  10. Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Yang, Yaming; Chen, Yu; Yao, Hongyan; Wu, Ming; Cui, Mengjing; Li, Yang; Hu, Jie; Zhang, Cong; Li, Zhen; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2017-01-02

    The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence and potential risk factors of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China. A cross-sectional study was used to interview 1,422 farm vehicle drivers in southern China. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes that occurred from December 2013 to November 2014 were investigated. Data on farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes and related factors were collected by face-to-face interviews. The prevalence of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes among the investigated drivers was 7.2%. Farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes were significantly associated with self-reported vision problem (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.48, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.86-10.87), self-reported sleep disorders (AOR = 10.03, 95% CI, 6.28-15.99), self-reported stress (AOR = 20.47, 95% CI, 9.96-42.08), reported history of crashes (AOR = 5.40, 95% CI, 3.47-8.42), reported history of drunk driving (AOR = 5.07, 95% CI, 2.97-8.65), and reported history of fatigued driving (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI, 3.73-8.78). The number of road traffic crashes was highest in the daytime and during harvest season. In over 96% of farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes, drivers were believed to be responsible for the crash. Major crash-causing factors included improper driving, careless driving, violating of traffic signals or signs, and being in the wrong lane. Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country.

  11. Does Temperature Modify the Effects of Rain and Snow Precipitation on Road Traffic Injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Kyung; Lee, Hye-Ah; Hwang, Seung-sik; Kim, Ho; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few data on the interaction between temperature and snow and rain precipitation, although they could interact in their effects on road traffic injuries. Methods The integrated database of the Korea Road Traffic Authority was used to calculate the daily frequency of road traffic injuries in Seoul. Weather data included rain and snow precipitation, temperature, pressure, and fog from May 2007 to December 2011. Precipitation of rain and snow were divided into nine and six temperature range categories, respectively. The interactive effects of temperature and rain and snow precipitation on road traffic injuries were analyzed using a generalized additive model with a Poisson distribution. Results The risk of road traffic injuries during snow increased when the temperature was below freezing. Road traffic injuries increased by 6.6% when it was snowing and above 0°C, whereas they increased by 15% when it was snowing and at or below 0°C. In terms of heavy rain precipitation, moderate temperatures were related to an increased prevalence of injuries. When the temperature was 0–20°C, we found a 12% increase in road traffic injuries, whereas it increased by 8.5% and 6.8% when it was 20°C, respectively. The interactive effect was consistent across the traffic accident subtypes. Conclusions The effect of adverse weather conditions on road traffic injuries differed depending on the temperature. More road traffic injuries were related to rain precipitation when the temperature was moderate and to snow when it was below freezing. PMID:26073021

  12. ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY AUDIT AT LOCAL OBJECT OF MINSK ROADWAY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kapsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available population of the Republic. Quality of the road traffic or its specific characteristics can be quantitatively estimated  in terms of losses and by that we understand social and economic value of non-obligatory expenses in road traffic. That is why any decision on road traffic organization must be estimated and optimized in accordance with its loss minimization criterion (accidental, economic and ecological.Research and Development Centre for Road Traffic at the BNTU Branch - “Research Division” has developed loss methodology in road traffic for  conflict objects – roads crossings and speed cushions. Such approach has made it possible to compare two alternative options for organization of road traffic at conflict objects. The paper considers an example of selection and substantiation of the accepted decision for an uncontrolled  T-junction with closely located pedestrian crossing in the Ya. Kolas Street, Building 12, Minsk. Planning and organizational and technical measures that increase road traffic safety and decrease economic and ecological losses have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations. The investigations and analysis of the existing conditions of the road traffic at the uncontrolled Ya.Kolas Street –Ya.Kolas off-street junction have revealed that the rate of total losses in the road traffic constitutes   nearly 92,000 c.u./year, including accidental losses – 7,900 c.u./year. Realization of the developed measures will permit to reduce the rate of accidental losses at pedestrian crossing approximately by 4,400 c.u./year with reduction of accidents by 50–55 %

  13. Motorcycles entering from access points and merging with traffic on primary roads in Malaysia: behavioral and road environment influence on the occurrence of traffic conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Manan, Muhammad Marizwan

    2014-09-01

    This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.

  14. Simulation model based on Monte Carlo method for traffic assignment in local area road network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchuan DU; Yuanjing GENG; Lijun SUN

    2009-01-01

    For a local area road network, the available traffic data of traveling are the flow volumes in the key intersections, not the complete OD matrix. Considering the circumstance characteristic and the data availability of a local area road network, a new model for traffic assignment based on Monte Carlo simulation of intersection turning movement is provided in this paper. For good stability in temporal sequence, turning ratio is adopted as the important parameter of this model. The formulation for local area road network assignment problems is proposed on the assumption of random turning behavior. The traffic assignment model based on the Monte Carlo method has been used in traffic analysis for an actual urban road network. The results comparing surveying traffic flow data and determining flow data by the previous model verify the applicability and validity of the proposed methodology.

  15. [Forecast the trend of burden from fatal road traffic injuries between 2015 and 2030 in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aichun; Tian, Danping; Huang, Yuanxiu; Gao, Lin; Deng, Xin; Li, Li; He, Qiong; Chen, Tianmu; Hu, Guoqing; Wu, Jing

    2014-05-01

    To predict the burden caused by fatal road traffic injuries from 2015 to 2030. We searched the websites of United Nations Population Division,United States Department of Agriculture, World Health Organization, China Energy Research Foundation and other agencies to obtain the predictive values of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization, motorization and education from 2015 to 2030 in China. Predicted values were then applied to log-linear models to estimate the numbers and years of life lost due to road traffic injuries from 2015 to 2030. The mortality rate caused by road traffic injury decreased slightly, from 13.7/100 000 in 2015 to 11.8/100 000 in 2030. 191, 189, 183, 169 thousand persons were estimated to die from road traffic crashes in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030, respectively, showing a declining trend. Years of Life Lost (YLLs) caused by road traffic deaths were predicted to be 6 918, 6 634, 6 189, 5 513 thousand years in 2015, 2020, 2025 and 2030, respectively, also showing a gradual downward trend. But the YLLs displayed an increase among people at 55 years of age or older, between 2015 and 2030. Results from the sensitivity analysis showed a stable forecasting result. Mortality, number of deaths and YLLs from road traffic crashes were predicted to decrease slightly, between 2015 and 2030 but the number of deaths and YLLs due to road traffic injuries will continue to increase from 2015 to 2030.

  16. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Mark

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented.

  17. Opportunities for knowledge translation in the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rocca, Gregory J; Dunbar, Robert P; Burgess, Andrew R; Smith, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations has identified road traffic safety as an important objective for the decade 2011-2020. It has implemented a 5-tiered program: improving health care services, improving management of road safety, improving road network safety, improving vehicular safety, and improving road safety legislation. A small body of practical research has been generated by the medical and surgical (including orthopaedic) communities regarding the road traffic safety, but a substantial amount of work remains to be performed. This article will review published research in each of the 5 tiers of the Decade of Action for Road Traffic Safety and will identify areas where research is insufficient or absent, such that new research programming and funding can be developed.

  18. [The risk of road traffic accidents among primary school children in Kuala Terengganu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, M; Osman, A; Masyarakat, J K; Perubatan, F

    1997-12-01

    A case control study was conducted in 1996 among primary school student in Terengganu. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between road traffic accidents and factors such as socio-economic status, distance from school, number of siblings, behavioural problems, knowledge and attitudes of pupil and their parents towards road safety and parents' educational status. A total of 140 cases was obtained from 3 urban schools and 3 from rural schools. Cases were matched with control according to age sex and locality of residence. There were significant associations between road traffic accidents and pupils' knowledge regarding road crossing (OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.19-0.85), parental supervision (OR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.64) and parents having driving licences (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.856-0.999). Road safety education for pupils and parental supervision are key measures in preventing road traffic accidents among primary school children.

  19. Can health public expenditure reduce the tragic consequences of road traffic accidents? The EU-27 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    This study uses data for the EU-27 countries in the period 1999-2009 to estimate determinants of road traffic fatality rates. Controlling for country attributes and road safety policy variables, we examine the influence of variables related with the national health systems; the number of hospital beds per square kilometer, and the percentage of health expenditures over gross domestic product. We find evidence that the density of hospital beds contributes to the fall in traffic-related fatalities. Furthermore, the quality of general medical facilities and technology associated with increases in health expenditure may be also a relevant factor in reducing road traffic fatalities.

  20. Effects of Roads and Traffic on Wildlife Populations and Landscape Function: Road Ecology is Moving toward Larger Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney van der Ree

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Road ecology has developed into a significant branch of ecology with steady growth in the number of refereed journal articles, books, conferences, symposia, and "best practice" guidelines being produced each year. The main objective of this special issue of Ecology and Society is to highlight the need for studies that document the population, community, and ecosystem-level effects of roads and traffic by publishing studies that document these effects. It became apparent when compiling this special issue that there is a paucity of studies that explicitly examined higher order effects of roads and traffic. No papers on landscape function or ecosystem-level effects were submitted, despite being highlighted as a priority for publication. The 17 papers in this issue, from Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and USA, all deal to some extent with either population or community-level effects of roads and traffic. Nevertheless, many higher order effects remain unquantified, and must become the focus of future studies because the complexity and interactions among the effects of roads and traffic are large and potentially unexpected. An analysis of these complex interrelations requires systematic research, and it is necessary to further establish collaborative links between ecologists and transportation agencies. Many road agencies have "environmental sustainability" as one of their goals and the only way to achieve such goals is for them to support and foster long-term and credible scientific research. The current situation, with numerous small-scale projects being undertaken independently of each other, cannot provide the information required to quantify and mitigate the negative effects of roads and traffic on higher levels. The future of road ecology research will be best enhanced when multiple road projects in different states or countries are combined and studied as part of integrated, well-replicated research projects.

  1. [Hospital information system performance for road traffic accidents analysis in a hospital recruitment based area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, A-S; Fauconnier, J

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents in France are mainly analyzed through reports completed by the security forces (police and gendarmerie). But the hospital information systems can also identify road traffic accidents via specific documentary codes of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether hospital stays consecutive to road traffic accident were truly identified by these documentary codes in a facility that collects data routinely and to study the consistency of results from hospital information systems and from security forces during the 2002-2008 period. We retrieved all patients for whom a documentary code for road traffic accident was entered in 2002-2008. We manually checked the concordance of documentary code for road traffic accident and trauma origin in 350 patient files. The number of accidents in the Grenoble area was then inferred by combining with hospitalization regional data and compared to the number of persons injured by traffic accidents declared by the security force. These hospital information systems successfully report road traffic accidents with 96% sensitivity (95%CI: [92%, 100%]) and 97% specificity (95%CI: [95%, 99%]). The decrease in road traffic accidents observed was significantly less than that observed was significantly lower than that observed in the data from the security force (45% for security force data against 27% for hospital data). Overall, this study shows that hospital information systems are a powerful tool for studying road traffic accidents morbidity in hospital and are complementary to security force data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Visual impairment and road traffic accidents among drivers in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biza, Mohamed; Mossie, Andualem; Woldemichael, Kifle; Gelaw, Yeshigeta

    2013-04-01

    Vision play a vital role in driving where good and efficient visual functioning of the driver is essential. Any significant loss of visual function will diminish a driver's ability to operate a motor vehicle safely and will thus contribute to road traffic injury. However, there is little evidence indicating that defects of vision alone cause road traffic accidents. To determine the impact of visual impairment and other factors on road traffic accident among vehicle drivers. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 249 sampled drivers in Southwest Ethiopia. A pretested interviewer led questionnaire was used for interview and vision tests were done using Snellen's acuity chart and Ishihara pseudo-isochromatic plates. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 16.0. The mean age of drivers was 33.6 years (SD +/- 10.3). The relative frequency of self reported road traffic accident was 15.3%. The prevalence of uncorrected binocular visual impairment was 1.6% and there was a significant association between visual impairment and road traffic accident (P traffic accident. There is need for consistent inspection and screening, strict rules and regulations of licensing and health education for drivers to minimize road traffic accident.

  3. REDUCTION IN PROBABILITY OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON HIGH-CLASS ROAD USING RAMP ACCESS CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yu. Lagerev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.

  4. Emission factors and source apportionment for abrasion particles produced by road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Figi, R.; Hill, M.; Richard, A.; Furger, M.; Rickers, K.; Cliff, S. S.; Baltensperger, U.; Gehrig, R.

    2009-04-01

    Particle emissions of road traffic are generally associated with fresh exhaust emissions only. However, recent studies identified a clear contribution of non-exhaust emissions to the PM10 load of the ambient air. These emissions consist of particles produced by abrasion from brakes, road wear, tire wear, as well as resuspension of deposited road dust. For many urban environments, quantitative information about the contributions of the individual abrasion processes is still scarce. For effective PM10 reduction scenarios it is of particular interest to know whether road wear, resuspension or fresh abrasion from vehicles is dominating the non-exhaust PM10 contribution. In Switzerland, the emissions of road traffic abrasion particles into the ambient air were characterized in the project APART (Abrasion Particles produced by Road Traffic). The project aimed at finding the contribution of the non-exhaust sources to total traffic-related PM10 and PM2.5 for different traffic conditions, by determining specific elemental fingerprint signatures for the various sources. This was achieved by hourly elemental mass concentration measurements in three size classes (2.5-10, 1-2.5 and 0.1-1 micrometers) with a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). The elemental fingerprint measurements were embedded into a large set of aerosol, gas phase, meteorological and traffic count measurements. To identify traffic related emissions, measurements were performed upwind and downwind of selected roads. For a better investigation of road wear, a road wear simulator was applied in additional experiments. This allows for the identification and quantification of the different source contributions by means of source-receptor modeling, and for the calculation of real-world emission factors for the individual abrasion sources. The preliminary analysis of hourly resolved trace element measurements in a street canyon in Zürich showed

  5. Sleep disturbances caused by vibrations from heavy road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, P W; Bennerhult, O; Eberhardt, J L

    1990-09-01

    The influence of whole-body vibrations, noise, and a combination of the two, caused by heavy road traffic (150 events/night) on sleep, subjectively experienced sleep quality, and performance was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions for male and female subjects 20-35 years of age. A room was built above a vibrator table, with the legs of the bed mounted directly on the table through holes in the floor. Vertical vibrations were found to be attenuated by the mattress with 20-40 dB for frequencies greater than 10 Hz, whereas horizontal vibrations were slightly amplified. It could be concluded that when traffic noise [50-dB (A) peak level] is accompanied by vibrations with peak levels of 0.24 m/s2 vertically and 0.17 m/s2 horizontally as measured on the frame of the bed (stimulus duration approximately 2 s, dominant frequency approximately 12 Hz), sleep is more disturbed than is the case when noise alone occurs. The amount of REM sleep, which was significantly reduced for the vibration level mentioned above, was even more disturbed when a higher exposure level, 0.34 m/s2 vertically and 0.24 m/s2 horizontally, was applied. The subjectively rated sleep quality was lower for the higher than for the lower vibration level. Performance in the morning was only influenced for the higher vibration level. It could be concluded that vibration exposure levels near the recommendation made in ISO-standard 2631 for the awake state disturb sleep in man.

  6. Method and application of grade division for road traffic congestion based on driver’s feeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Qi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although road traffic congestion is an objective state of traffic flow, drivers have different feelings about road traffic congestion. First of all, in order to reveal the law that driver’s mental state changes along with congested degree of road traffic, the targeted questionnaire was designed to analyze the driver’s psychological feeling under different state of traffic flow. Then, from the perspectives of the driver’s subjective feeling, the new definition of road traffic congestion was put forward, so the pressure coefficient of traffic congestion, which is written as χ press t 0 − t n , is defined to measure traffic congestion pressure. Furthermore, by adopting statistical methods to associate the driver’s subjective feeling toward traffic congestion with objective parameters of traffic flow, the grading thresholds of the unblocked state, mild congested state, moderate congested state, and severe congested state were calculated, which are χ press t 0 − t n = 0 . 37 , χ press t 0 − t n = 0 . 51 , and χ press t 0 − t n = 0 . 65 , respectively. And in the field of application for the grading thresholds, Fourier Transform theory was introduced to calculate domain frequency indexes of the driver’s heart rate variability in the four states of traffic flow, respectively. The results show that the domain frequency indexes of the driver’s heart rate variability present obvious differences in the four states, which illustrates the solving rationality and applied value of the new grading thresholds for traffic congestion based on driver’s feeling. On one hand, the new grading method for traffic congestion, which combines the subjectivity with objectivity, can reflect the driver’s actual feeling; on the other hand, it lays the foundation for the study about the influence of traffic congestion on the driver’s physiological and psychological characteristics.

  7. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  8. Alternatives of Strategic Environmental Assessment for Road Traffic Development Planning-Case of Changchun City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chong; XU Ye; SHANG Jincheng; Gordon HUANG

    2009-01-01

    On analyzing the achievement of the goal in the modern urban road traffic development planning, the alternative of Strategic Environmental Assessment for urban traffic planning should include the basic scheme, the extended scheme and the environmental protection scheme. This study from different perspectives designed the alternatives for Changchun's county-level road and urban road system planning, and used the method of System Dynamics to simulate, optimize and analyze those alternatives. Thereafter, some methods including the correlation function method were used to comprehensively assess and rank those alternatives for recommending two best alternatives with the consideration to the indicators, such as the total emission amount of CO, the total emission amount of nitrogen oxides, the noise value, the road construction cost, the fossil oil consumption and the traffic capacity. The result showed that the study would provide substantial supports for decision-makers to make more scientific decisions and promote the sustainable urban traffic in Changchun City.

  9. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  10. Visual Function as a Risk Factor for Road Traffic Accidents among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information obtained included demographic data, operational route, history of involvement in road traffic accident ... Frequency tables were then generated. ... Periodic ocular examination will contribute significantly to the reduction of RTAs.

  11. Stochasticity of Road Traffic Dynamics: Comprehensive Linear and Nonlinear Time Series Analysis on High Resolution Freeway Traffic Records

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, H; Siegel, Helge; Belomestnyi, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical properties of road traffic time series from North-Rhine Westphalian motorways are investigated. The article shows that road traffic dynamics is well described as a persistent stochastic process with two fixed points representing the freeflow (non-congested) and the congested state regime. These traffic states have different statistical properties, with respect to waiting time distribution, velocity distribution and autocorrelation. Logdifferences of velocity records reveal non-normal, obviously leptocurtic distribution. Further, linear and nonlinear phase-plane based analysis methods yield no evidence for any determinism or deterministic chaos to be involved in traffic dynamics on shorter than diurnal time scales. Several Hurst-exponent estimators indicate long-range dependence for the free flow state. Finally, our results are not in accordance to the typical heuristic fingerprints of self-organized criticality. We suggest the more simplistic assumption of a non-critical phase transition between...

  12. Fleet size estimation for spreading operation considering road geometry, weather and traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I-Jy Chien

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions(i.e. snow storm in winter time have caused significant travel disruptions and increased delay and traffic accidents. Snow plowing and salt spreading are the most common counter-measures for making our roads safer for motorists. To assist highway maintenance authorities with better planning and allocation of winter maintenance resources, this study introduces an analytical model to estimate the required number of trucks for spreading operation subjective to pre-specified service time constraints considering road geometry, weather and traffic. The complexity of the research problem lies in dealing with heterogeneous road geometry of road sections, truck capacities, spreading patterns, and traffic speeds under different weather conditions and time periods of an event. The proposed model is applied to two maintenance yards with seven road sections in New Jersey (USA, which demonstrates itself fairly practical to be implemented, considering diverse operational conditions.

  13. The Association between Road Traffic Noise Exposure, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between road traffic noise exposure, annoyance caused by different noise sources and validated health indicators in a cohort of 1375 adults from the region of Basel, Switzerland. Road traffic noise exposure for each study participant was determined using modelling, and annoyance from various noise sources was inquired by means of a four-point Likert scale. Regression parameters from multivariable regression models for the von Zerssen s...

  14. Forecasting mortality of road traffic injuries in China using seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujun; Pang, Yuanyuan; Cui, Mengjing; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun

    2015-02-01

    Road traffic injuries have become a major public health problem in China. This study aimed to develop statistical models for predicting road traffic deaths and to analyze seasonality of deaths in China. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was used to fit the data from 2000 to 2011. Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and mean absolute percentage error were used to evaluate the constructed models. Autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function of residuals and Ljung-Box test were used to compare the goodness-of-fit between the different models. The SARIMA model was used to forecast monthly road traffic deaths in 2012. The seasonal pattern of road traffic mortality data was statistically significant in China. SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12 model was the best fitting model among various candidate models; the Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, and mean absolute percentage error were -483.679, -475.053, and 4.937, respectively. Goodness-of-fit testing showed nonautocorrelations in the residuals of the model (Ljung-Box test, Q = 4.86, P = .993). The fitted deaths using the SARIMA (1, 1, 1) (0, 1, 1)12 model for years 2000 to 2011 closely followed the observed number of road traffic deaths for the same years. The predicted and observed deaths were also very close for 2012. This study suggests that accurate forecasting of road traffic death incidence is possible using SARIMA model. The SARIMA model applied to historical road traffic deaths data could provide important evidence of burden of road traffic injuries in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dioxin emission of road traffic; Dioxin-Emission des Strassenverkehrs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, U. [Antriebstechnik Ferretti GmbH (Germany); Essers, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen]|[Forschungsinstut fuer Kraftfahrwesen und Fahrzeugmotoren, Stuttgart (Germany).; Greiner, R. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungsmotoren und Kraftfahrwesen

    1997-07-01

    The well-founded determination of the dioxin and furan emission (PXDD/PXDF) of road traffic was the aim of a research project jointly conducted by the Chair of Ecological Chemistry and Geochemistry at the University of Bayreuth (Prof. Hutzinger), the Institute for Organic Chemistry at the University of Tuebingen (Prof. Hagenmaier) and the IVK (Prof. Essers). The non-standardised examinations of an otto engine, a passenger car and a truck diesel engine required the development of sample-taking and analysis methods as well as of engine test technology. The otto engine driven with leaded gasoline containing scavengers showed the highest dioxin and furan emission while, on the other hand, the otto engine driven with unleaded gasoline, the diesel engines and in particular the otto engine with three-way catalytic converter showed much lower values. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die fundierte Ermittlung der Dioxin- und Furan-Emissionen (PXDD/PXDF) des Strassenverkehrs war das Ziel eines vom Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie und Geochemie der Universitaet Bayreuth, dem Institut fuer Organische Chemie der Universitaet Tuebingen und dem IVK der Universitaet Stuttgart gemeinsam bearbeiteten Forschungsprojekts. Die nicht standardisierten Untersuchungen an einem Ottomotor, einem Pkw- und einem Lkw-Dieselmotor erforderten die Entwicklung von Probenahme- und Analyseverfahren sowie der motorischen Prueftechnik. Der mit verbleitem, scavengerhaltigem Benzin betriebene Ottomotor wies die hoechsten Dioxin- und Furanemissionen auf. Demgegenueber waren die Emissionen des mit unverbleitem Benzin betriebenen Ottomotors, der Dieselmotoren und besonders des Ottomotors mit Drei-Wege-Katalysator deutlich geringer. (orig.)

  16. Road-traffic noise: annoyance, risk perception, and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Turunen, Anu W; Ung-Lanki, Sari; Vartiainen, Anna-Kaisa; Tiittanen, Pekka; Lanki, Timo

    2015-05-26

    Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09-3.82) and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00-1.14) were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (pnoise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  17. Road-Traffic Noise: Annoyance, Risk Perception, and Noise Sensitivity in the Finnish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enembe Oku Okokon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to road-traffic noise commonly engenders annoyance, the extent of which is determined by factors not fully understood. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence and determinants of road-traffic noise annoyance and noise sensitivity in the Finnish adult population, while comparing the perceptions of road-traffic noise to exhausts as environmental health problems. Using a questionnaire that yielded responses from 1112 randomly selected adult Finnish respondents, we estimated road-traffic noise- and exhausts-related perceived exposures, health-risk perceptions, and self-reported annoyance on five-point scales, while noise sensitivity estimates were based on four questions. Determinants of noise annoyance and sensitivity were investigated using multivariate binary logistic regression and linear regression models, respectively. High or extreme noise annoyance was reported by 17% of respondents. Noise sensitivity scores approximated a Gaussian distribution. Road-traffic noise and exhausts were, respectively, considered high or extreme population-health risks by 22% and 27% of respondents. Knowledge of health risks from traffic noise, OR: 2.04 (1.09–3.82 and noise sensitivity, OR: 1.07 (1.00–1.14 were positively associated with annoyance. Knowledge of health risks (p < 0.045 and positive environmental attitudes (p < 000 were associated with higher noise sensitivity. Age and sex were associated with annoyance and sensitivity only in bivariate models. A considerable proportion of Finnish adults are highly annoyed by road-traffic noise, and perceive it to be a significant health risk, almost comparable to traffic exhausts. There is no distinct noise-sensitive population subgroup. Knowledge of health risks of road-traffic noise, and attitudinal variables are associated with noise annoyance and sensitivity.

  18. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children's Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-05-06

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Road Traffic Control Using a Fuzzy Cellular Model

    CERN Document Server

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a method is proposed for performance evaluation of road traffic control systems. The method is designed to be implemented in an on-line simulation environment, which enables optimisation of adaptive traffic control strategies. Performance measures are computed using a fuzzy cellular traffic model, formulated as a hybrid system combining cellular automata and fuzzy calculus. Experimental results show that the introduced method allows the performance to be evaluated using imprecise traffic measurements. Moreover, the fuzzy definitions of performance measures are convenient for uncertainty determination in traffic control decisions.

  20. Moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distribution in relation to road traffic in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, A.C.; Wright, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    Park managers are concerned that moose (Alces alces), caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) may be avoiding areas along the 130 km road through Denali National Park as a result of high traffic volume, thus decreasing opportunities for visitors to view wildlife. A wildlife monitoring system was developed in 1996 that used 19 landscape level viewsheds, stratified into four sections based on decreasing traffic along the road corridor. Data were collected from 22 samplings of all viewsheds during May-August in 1996 and 1997. In 1997, nine backcountry viewsheds were established in three different areas to determine whether density estimates for each species in the backcountry were higher than those for the same animals in similar road-corridor areas. Densities higher than those in the road corridor were found in one backcountry area for moose and in two backcountry areas for grizzly bears. None of the backcountry areas showed a higher density of caribou. We tested hypotheses that moose, caribou, and grizzly bear distributions were unrelated to the road and traffic. Moose sightings were lower than expected within 300 m of the road. More caribou and grizzly bears than expected occurred between 601 and 900 m from the road, while more moose and fewer caribou than expected occurred between 900 and 1200 m from the road. Bull moose in stratum 1 were distributed farther from the road than bulls and cows in stratum 4; cows in stratum 1 and bulls in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than cows in stratum 4. Grizzly bears in stratum 2 were distributed farther from the road than bears in stratum 3. The distribution of moose sightings suggests traffic avoidance, but the spatial pattern of preferred forage may have had more of an influence. Caribou and grizzly bear distributions indicated no pattern of traffic avoidance.

  1. A study of a main-road cellular automata traffic flow model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄乒花; 孔令江; 刘慕仁

    2002-01-01

    A main-road cellular automata traffic flow model on two dimensions is presented based on the Biham-Middleton-Levine traffic model. Its evolution equations are given and the self-organization and organization cooperation phenomenain this model are also studied by using computer simulation.

  2. Environmentally friendly traffic management system using integrated road-vehicle system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmod, M.M.; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Local habitability is coming under increasing pressure from harmful traffic emissions. This emission is strongly correlated to the characteristics and dynamics of traffic: type of vehicle, speed, acceleration and deceleration. This paper investigates the use of integrated road-vehicle systems for en

  3. Effects of road infrastructure and traffic complexity in speed adaptation behaviour of distracted drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Haque, Md Mazharul; King, Mark; Washington, Simon

    2017-04-01

    The use of mobile phones while driving remains a major human factors issue in the transport system. A significant safety concern is that driving while distracted by a mobile phone potentially modifies the driving speed leading to conflicts with other road users and consequently increases crash risk. However, the lack of systematic knowledge of the mechanisms involved in speed adaptation of distracted drivers constrains the explanation and modelling of the extent of this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to investigate speed adaptation of distracted drivers under varying road infrastructure and traffic complexity conditions. The CARRS-Q Advanced Driving Simulator was used to test participants on a simulated road with different traffic conditions, such as free flow traffic along straight roads, driving in urbanized areas, and driving in heavy traffic along suburban roads. Thirty-two licensed young drivers drove the simulator under three phone conditions: baseline (no phone conversation), hands-free and handheld phone conversations. To understand the relationships between distraction, road infrastructure and traffic complexity, speed adaptation calculated as the deviation of driving speed from the posted speed limit was modelled using a decision tree. The identified groups of road infrastructure and traffic characteristics from the decision tree were then modelled with a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) with repeated measures to develop inferences about speed adaptation behaviour of distracted drivers. The GLMM also included driver characteristics and secondary task demands as predictors of speed adaptation. Results indicated that complex road environments like urbanization, car-following situations along suburban roads, and curved road alignment significantly influenced speed adaptation behaviour. Distracted drivers selected a lower speed while driving along a curved road or during car-following situations, but speed adaptation was negligible in the

  4. Accident rates related to rural road geometry elements and daily traffic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, DG

    1994-02-01

    Full Text Available The available data bases for accidents, road geometry (photolog output) and traffic counts were combined and the accident rates determined for two lane, four lane and six lane road categories as well as for 22 geometric element categories...

  5. Intertwining road user behaviour and traffic psychology with ITS in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Road safety is a core problem that the South African government battle with year-on year. One of the areas where South Africa has sadly been lacking behind is within the field of road and traffic psychology. This is despite the fact that presumably...

  6. IMPROVEMENT OF TRAFFIC SAFETY BY ROAD-VEHICLE COOPERATIVE SMART CRUISE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio HOSAKA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopes have been pinned on the development of intelligent systems for road traffic as a way of solving road traffic safety and other such issues. To be sure, work is moving ahead with the incorporation of intelligent systems into automobiles but, with automobiles alone, there are limits in areas such as environment recognition. Compensation for the limits imposed by automobiles can be provided by the support given to environment recognition and related areas of road infrastructure. This paper examines the special features of vehicles and road infrastructure, and describes what role is played by roads and what role is played by vehicles. On the basis of the observations made, road-vehicle cooperative support systems called “smart cruise systems”, which are currently being developed, will be introduced and the expected effects of these systems will be outlined.

  7. The use of yellow longitudinal markings on roads with two-directional traffic. Contribution to OECD Research Group TS 304 "Improving road safety at night".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The question is posed whether the application of a colour difference for the central line on the road is the best solution available for the coding of the categories of road. It has been proposed to apply yellow centre lines on roads with two-way traffic and white centre lines on roads with one-wa

  8. Long-term exposure to road traffic noise and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Jenny; Nilsson, Mats E; Bluhm, Gösta; Rosenlund, Mats; Lindqvist, Magnus; Nise, Gun; Pershagen, Göran

    2009-03-01

    An association has been reported between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but the evidence is limited and inconclusive. No previous study has simultaneously analyzed the role of exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic in the risk of MI. A population-based case-control study on MI was conducted 1992-1994 in Stockholm County. Participants answered a questionnaire and underwent a physical examination. Residential exposure to noise and air pollution from road traffic between 1970 and 1992-1994 was assessed for 3666 participants (1571 cases of MI and 2095 controls), based on residential history combined with information on traffic intensity and distance to nearby roads. Information was also obtained on factors potentially affecting the relationship between noise exposure and MI, such as noise annoyance. The correlation between long-term individual exposure to noise and air pollution from traffic was high (r = 0.6). The adjusted odds ratio for MI associated with long-term road traffic noise exposure of 50 dBA or higher was 1.12 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.33). In a subsample, defined by excluding persons with hearing loss or exposure to noise from other sources, the corresponding odds ratio was 1.38 (1.11-1.71), with a positive exposure-response trend. No strong effect modification was apparent by sex or cardiovascular risk factors, including air pollution from road traffic. The results lend some support to the hypothesis that long-term exposure to road traffic noise increases the risk for MI.

  9. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; de Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. PMID:27706375

  10. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. METHODS We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM – Mortality Information System related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. RESULTS The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males. More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%, individuals with low schooling (24.0%, and motorcyclists (28.5%. The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. CONCLUSIONS The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality, in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists.

  11. Risk assessment on an Argentinean road with a dynamic traffic simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Baumann, Valérie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Penna, Ivanna

    2014-05-01

    The National Route 7 in Argentina is one of the most important corridors crossing the Andean Cordillera. It concentrates most of the traffic related to the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), it also connects Mendoza city (the fourth most populated in Argentina) with Santiago de Chile (the Chile capital city), and is used by tourists to access to the Aconcagua National park, Puente del Inca natural monument, skiing resorts, and to local displacements for the villages along the Mendoza valley. The road crosses the Andes through the Mendoza river valley at an elevation between 2'000 and 3'000 m. The traffic (2500 vehicles/day) is composed of motorcycles, cars and pickup trucks, trucks without trailer, buses, and semi-trailer trucks. Debris flows developed along tributaries of the Mendoza River, and due to remobilization of talus materials, impact frequently the road, causing traffic disruptions, bridges damages, etc. Rock falls detached from highly fractured outcrops also impact frequently the road, causing sometimes casualties. The aim of this study is to evaluate risk along sections of the National Road 7 develop along the Mendoza river, using a dynamic traffic simulator based on MATLAB© routine. The dynamic traffic simulator developed for natural hazards events on roads consider different scenarios based on traffic speeds, vehicle types, interactions types, road properties and natural processes. Here we show that vehicle types and traffic variations may influence the risk estimation. The analyzed risk on several critical sections of the National Route 7 demonstrates that risk may significantly increase: 1) on sinuous sections, steep sections and because of road conditions changes (exit of tunnel, bridges, road width, etc.) because of decreasing vehicle speed, particularly with semi-trailer trucks; 2) when an event, such a debris flow, occurs and generates a vehicle tailback increasing their duration presence in the risk area.

  12. Traffic disruption in PAM DIRAC road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 8th September to 19th September, ST Division will be doing some road works to install HDPE ducts for optical fibre cables under the PAM DIRAC road. For this reason, the road will be closed during 2 days and alternative arrangements will be put in place to reroute the traffic. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 77779 - 160484 / 75498 - 163198

  13. Economic development and road traffic fatalities in two neighbouring African nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J. Wiebe

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Road crash fatalities increased in recent decades in both Zambia and Botswana. But the rapid economic development in Botswana over this time period appears to have driven proportionate road traffic fatality increases. There are opportunities for newly emerging economies such as Zambia, Angola, and others to learn from the Botswana experience. Evidence-based investments in road safety interventions should be concomitant with economic development.

  14. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅超群; 刘业进

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  15. Time-varying tolls in a dynamic model of road traffic congestion with elastic demand

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic model of road traffic congestion is presented, with an elastic overall demand for morning peak road usage, and with the congestion technology used being 'flow congestion'. It is demonstrated that in such a case, the optimal time-varying toll should include a 'flat', time-invariant component when road users share the same desired arrival time. This has important consequences for the design of optimal toll schemes in reality, because it implies that optimal tolls cannot...

  16. Benzodiazepine-Like Hypnotics and the Associated Risk of Road Traffic Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the use of benzodiazepine or benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and the risk of road traffic accidents. Data from three French national databases were matched: the health-care insurance database, police reports, and the police database of injury-related traffic accidents. A total of 72,685 drivers involved in injury-related road traffic accidents in France, from 2005 to 2008, were included in the study. The risk of being responsible f...

  17. Optimization model and algorithm for mixed traffic of urban road network with flow interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SI BingFeng; LONG JianCeng; GAO ZiYou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of interferences between motors and non-motors in ur-ban road mixed traffic network is considered and the corresponding link imped-ance function is presented based on travel demand, On the base of this, the main factors that influence travelers' traffic choices are all considered and a combined model including flow-split and assignment problem is proposed, Then a bi-level model with its algorithm for system optimization of urban road mixed traffic net-work is proposed. Finally the application of the model and its algorithm is illus-trated with a numerical example.

  18. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok M Ho

    Full Text Available Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences.Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15, and intensive care admission (ICU or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male, 1955 (18.9% had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4% had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2% required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6% died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7% patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05, severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15, and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11. Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0 and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6 compared to before the trauma event.Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  19. The journey from traffic offender to severe road trauma victim: destiny or preventive opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Rao, Sudhakar; Burrell, Maxine; Weeramanthri, Tarun S

    2015-01-01

    Road trauma is a leading cause of death and injury in young people. Traffic offences are common, but their importance as a risk indicator for subsequent road trauma is unknown. This cohort study assessed whether severe road trauma could be predicted by a history of prior traffic offences. Clinical data of all adult road trauma patients admitted to the Western Australia (WA) State Trauma Centre between 1998 and 2013 were linked to traffic offences records at the WA Department of Transport. The primary outcomes were alcohol exposure prior to road trauma, severe trauma (defined by Injury Severity Score >15), and intensive care admission (ICU) or death, analyzed by logistic regression. Traffic offences directly leading to the road trauma admissions were excluded. Of the 10,330 patients included (median age 34 years-old, 78% male), 1955 (18.9%) had alcohol-exposure before road trauma, 2415 (23.4%) had severe trauma, 1360 (13.2%) required ICU admission, and 267 (2.6%) died. Prior traffic offences were recorded in 6269 (60.7%) patients. The number of prior traffic offences was significantly associated with alcohol-related road trauma (odds ratio [OR] per offence 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.05), severe trauma (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.14-1.15), and ICU admission or death (OR 1.10, 95%CI 1.08-1.11). Drink-drinking, seat-belt, and use of handheld electronic device offences were specific offences strongly associated with road trauma leading to ICU admission or death--all in a 'dose-related' fashion. For those who recovered from road trauma after an ICU admission, there was a significant reduction in subsequent traffic offences (mean difference 1.8, 95%CI 1.5 to 2.0) and demerit points (mean difference 7.0, 95%CI 6.5 to 7.6) compared to before the trauma event. Previous traffic offences were a significant risk factor for alcohol-related road trauma and severe road trauma leading to ICU admission or death.

  20. INFLUENCE OF PLANNING, ORGANIZATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION ON ROAD TRAFFIC SAFETY OF PEDESTRIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharenok

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of research on planning, organizational characteristics and regulation modes at  the regulated pedestrian crossings, located out of crossroads in the street and road network of Minsk. Some regularities pertaining to the influence of the investigated characteristics on road traffic safety of pedestrians are revealed in the paper. Practical offers on increase of road traffic safety of pedestrians in the Republic of Belarus have been developed on the basis of the executed investigations and cited in the paper. 

  1. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. 'Policy triangle framework' was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. The policies of "pupil liaisons" and "safety belt" were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For 'pupil liaisons' policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is responsible for the implementation of the policies, and

  2. An epidemiological study of road traffic accident cases admitted in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S M; Jindal, A K; Verma, A K; Mahen, A

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity globally. In India, more than a million are injured annually and about a lakh are killed in road traffic accidents.(1) It causes the country to lose around 55,000 crores annually which is 2-3% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP).(2) This cross sectional study was conducted to elucidate the role of various factors involved in road traffic accidents. Road traffic accident cases admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 01 Oct 2009 and 28 Feb 2011 were included in the study. A total of 182 patients were studied. Information was collected through questionnaire, hospital records and on-site visit. OPD cases, comatose patients and deaths were excluded. Two-wheelers were the commonest vehicle involved in vehicular accidents. Most accidents happened at a speed of 40-60 km/h (37.9%). Most of the patients were aged between 20 and 30 years. Majority had a driving experience of less than 5 years. Monsoons witnessed 46.7% cases. Most cases occurred between 6 and 10 pm. Among severe injuries, the commonest was lower limb fractures (19.8%). There are multiple factors associated with road traffic accidents which due to the lack of road safety measures in the country are playing their role. It is the need of the hour to address this issue and formulate comprehensive, scientific and practical rules and regulations as well as evaluate its enforcement.

  3. Driving behaviours, traffic risk and road safety: comparative study between Malaysia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saif ur Rehman; Khalifah, Zainab Binti; Munir, Yasin; Islam, Talat; Nazir, Tahira; Khan, Hashim

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate differences in road safety attitude, driver behaviour and traffic risk perception between Malaysia and Singapore. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a sample of Singaporean (n = 187) and Malaysian (n = 313) road users. The data was analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling applied to measure comparative fit indices of Malaysian and Singaporean respondents. The results show that the perceived traffic risk of Malaysian respondents is higher than Singaporean counterparts. Moreover, the structural equation modelling has confirmed perceived traffic risk performing the role of full mediation between perceived driving skills and perceived road safety for both the countries, while perceived traffic skills was found to perform the role of partial mediation between aggression and anxiety, on one hand, and road safety, on the other hand, in Malaysia and Singapore. In addition, in both countries, a weak correlation between perceived driving skills, aggression and anxiety with perceived road safety was found, while a strong correlation exists with traffic risk perception. The findings of this study have been discussed in terms of theoretical, practical and conceptual implications for both scholars and policy-makers to better understand the young drivers' attitude and behaviour relationship towards road safety measures with a view to future research.

  4. Traffic injury mortality trends in children and adolescents in Lithuania among road users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strukcinskiene, Birute; Uğur-Baysal, Serpil; Raistenskis, Juozas

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes traffic mortality trends among road users from 1998 to 2012 in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Lithuania. National mortality data of pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and car occupants were used to compare trend lines. The study revealed that 56% of the deceased in road traffic crashes were car occupants, while 24% were pedestrians. The incidence of death from traffic injury was 2.5 times higher in boys than girls. Traffic injury mortality and pedestrian mortality rates declined significantly in the total group. There was also a significant decline in mortality among cyclists for the total group and female subgroup. Trends in mortality rates among motorcyclists and car occupants showed no significant changes. A long-term decline is more likely to be affected by efforts in the promotion of sustainable and permanent road safety. The reduced risk exposure may also have been influenced by the economic recession.

  5. Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.; Dooremalen, van C.; Jaarsma, C.F.

    2009-01-01

    Roads have large impacts on wildlife, as they form one of the principal causes of mortality, and disturbance and fragmentation of habitat. These impacts are mainly studied and mitigated on major roads. It is, however, a widespread misconception that most animals are killed on major roads. In this

  6. Quality of life following road traffic injury: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Ritva; Berg, Hans-Yngve; Hasselberg, Marie

    2017-09-19

    To assess and provide a systematic overview of current knowledge about the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and road traffic injury, and to appraise how QoL is affected by road traffic injury. A systematic review of the literature published since 1990 on QoL after a road traffic injury, including adult and paediatric populations, from three databases (Pubmed, PsychInfo and SafetyLit) was undertaken. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Thirty articles were included and assessed for quality. The QoL scores of those injured were similar to population norms at the first assessment, followed by a drop at the second assessment. An increase of QoL from the second to third assessment was reported, but participants never reached the population norms at the last follow-up (range six weeks to two years), with an exception of those claiming compensation and those with lower extremity fractures. Age, gender, socioeconomic status, injury severity, injury type and post-traumatic stress disorder were associated with reduced QoL. Available literature regarding QoL among injured in road traffic crashes is heterogeneous with regard to aims and tools used for assessment. Our review confirmed that independent of measure, the overall QoL was significantly reduced after a road traffic injury compared to the general population norms. Persons who are older, of female gender, lower socioeconomic status, diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder, with more severe injuries or injuries to the lower limbs are more vulnerable to loss of QoL following road traffic injury compared to other patient groups injured in road traffic crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome as a cause of road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, M; Valença, J; Felizardo, M; Caeiro, F; Moreira, S; Staats, R; Bugalho de Almeida, A A

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) patients have a higher rate of road traffic accidents. Our study aimed to analyse any differences in OSAS patients between those who reported having had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who did not. We studied 163 patients with OSAS (apnoea- hypopnoea index (AHI)>10/h) diagnosed using nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG), all drivers, 18.4% of whom drove for a living. Patients were asked at their first clinical interview to self-report road traffic accidents and/or near misses over the past 3 years which had been caused by abnormal daytime drowsiness. This allowed patients to be divided into two groups, those who had had road traffic accidents and/or near misses and those who had not. Both were compared as to age, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), daytime PaO2 and PaCO2, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) test and NPSG data. This latter was total sleep time (TTS), sleep efficiency, sleep stages, arousal index (ARI), AHI, minimal and average SaO2, % of time with SaO2 TDAH) (T test). Group I (no road traffic accidents) No=89 patients; group II (road traffic accidents) No=74 patients. Age (years) was 57.6+/-11.8 vs. 54.7+/-10.9 (ns); male gender, 75% vs. 78.4%; ESS, 12.3+/-5.4 vs. 17.6+/-4.3 (pTDAH (minutes), 98.5+/-63.7 vs. 133.3+/-83.2 (p=0,005). In our experience patients who had road traffic accidents and/or near misses had a more severe OSAS, with higher AHI, excessive daytime sleepiness and lower quality of life.

  8. Impact of road traffic emissions on tropospheric ozone in Europe for present day and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Mariano; Kerkweg, Astrid; Grewe, Volker; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic is an important anthropogenic source of NOx, CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) which act as precursors for the formation of tropospheric ozone. The formation of ozone is highly non-linear. This means that the contribution of the road traffic sector cannot directly be derived from the amount of emitted species, because they are also determined by local emissions of other anthropogenic and natural sources. In addition, long range transport of precursors and ozone can play an important role in determining the local ozone budget. For a complete assessment of the impact of road traffic emissions it is therefore important to resolve both, local emissions and long range transport. This can be achieved by the use of the newly developed MECO(n) model system, which on-line couples the global chemistry-climate-model EMAC with the regional chemistry-climate-model COSMO-CLM/MESSy. Both models use the same chemical speciation. This allows a highly consistent model chain from the global to the local scale. To quantify the contribution of the road traffic emissions to tropospheric ozone we use an accounting system of the relevant reaction pathways of the different species from different sources (called tagging method). This tagging scheme is implemented consistently on all scales, allowing a direct comparison of the contributions. With this model configuration we investigate the impact of road traffic emissions to the tropospheric ozone budget in Europe. For the year 2008 we compare different emission scenarios and investigate the influence of both model and emission resolution. In addition, results of a mitigation scenario for the year 2030 are presented. They indicate that the contribution of the road traffic sector can be reduced by local reductions of emissions during summer. During winter the importance of long range transport increases. This can lead to increased contributions of the road traffic sector (e.g. by increased emissions in the US) even if local

  9. Dynamic road marking applied to the amsterdam ring road - What are the traffic effects, according to INDY?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malone, K.M.; Versteegt, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of dynamic road marking on the Ring around Amsterdam. This Ring is congested during most of the day, but especially during the peak periods in the morning and evening rush hours. The goal is to determine what (traffic) effects, if any, can be found by applying Dyn

  10. Association between mandatory seatbelt laws and road traffic injuries in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soori, H; Nasermoadeli, A; Ainy, E; Hassani, S A; Mehmandar, M R

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of mandatory seatbelt legislation on traffic injuries and intensity of road traffic injuries (RTIs). We carried out a before- after interventional study. Data regarding road traffic accidents and injuries one year before and one and two years after the implementation of mandatory seatbelt legislation were obtained from the traffic police database. Traffic accident mortality was 13.0% of all RTIs during the year prior to implementation. This decreased to 9.7% and 11.4% during the first and second years after implementation, respectively (p < 0.001). The mortality rate was not consistent for seatbelt use since there was a slight increase in the mortality rate in second year after implementation of mandatory seatbelt use although this level was lower than the pre- implementation rate. Our findings suggest mandatory seatbelt use reduces the intensity of RTIs and reduces the crude number of RTIs.

  11. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dons, Evi, E-mail: evi.dons@vito.be [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Temmerman, Philip [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Van Poppel, Martine [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert [IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); IMOB (Transportation Research Institute), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2013-03-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7 μg/m{sup 3}) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6 μg/m{sup 3}), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1 μg/m{sup 3}). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (< 30 km/h) and at speeds above 80 km/h, in accordance to vehicle emission functions. Driving on roads with low traffic intensities resulted in lower exposures than driving on roads with higher traffic intensities (from 5.6 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with less than 500 veh/h, up to 12 μg/m{sup 3} for roads with over 2500 veh/h). Traffic intensity proved to be the major explanatory variable for in-vehicle BC exposure, together with timing of the trip and urbanization. For cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only. - Highlights: ► Aethalometers, an electronic diary and GPS were used to measure exposure in transport ► More

  12. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  13. Effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes:retrospective epidemic analysis during 2000-2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃华丽; 赵新才; 周继红; 邱俊; 杨在亮; 蒋志泉; 朱秉忠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To make an epidemiological analysis of the effect of environment on extremely severe road traffic crashes (RTCs). Methods: Epidemiologic data of extremely severe RTCs associated with environmental factors, including weather, topography, road conditions and other traffic conditions in Mainland China during 2000-2001, were collected and analyzed. Results: (1) During 2000-2001, there were 3 365 extremely severe RTCs with 13 666 deaths, 12 204 injuries and a direct economical loss of 136 million RMB. (2) Most extremely severe RTCs occurred in fine weather days and in the daytime. The high occurrence sites were plain areas, horizontal and straight roads, Grade B and C roads, ordinary road segment, and asphalt, smooth and mixed roads. (3) Compared with other RTCs, extremely severe RTCs were more likely to happen under following conditions: on cloudy, snowing, misty and blustering days; in hill and mountainous areas; on crooked and sloping roads; on freeway, Grade A, B, and C roads; mixed roads; ordinary, bridge, narrow and transitional roads; sand and dirt-roads; without traffic control measures; night without lighting. (4) Extremely severe RTCs of mountainous area or crooked and sloping roads were most severe in terms of deaths and injures per crash. Conclusions: Extremely severe RTCs are closely related with environmental factors. Rational road programming, enhancing road establishment and improving road conditions are probably effective measures to reduce the road traffic injuries.

  14. Brochure "towards a sustainable safe traffic system in the Netherlands : National Road Safety Investigation 1990-2010".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is one of the safety countries on earth when it comes to traffic on the road. Nevertheless, the Dutch government has set road safety targets: 50% fewer fatalities and 40% fewer hospital admissions resulting from road accidents by the year 2010. The SWOV Institute for Road Safety Rese

  15. Magnitude and outcomes of road traffic accidents at Hospitals in Wolaita Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemichael, Feleke; Suleiman, Mohammed; Pauolos, Wondimagegn

    2015-04-09

    A Road traffic accident is an incident on a way or street open to public traffic, resulting in one or more persons being killed or injured, and involving at least one moving vehicle. The aim of this study is to assess magnitude and outcome of road traffic accidents among trauma victims at hospitals in Wolaita zone. A cross sectional hospital based study design using retrospective chart review was conducted from March 5th to March 25th, 2014. Simple random sampling technique was applied to identify sample population. The data was entered in to Epi info version 3.5.1 and transferred to SPSS version 16 for further analysis. A total of 384 trauma victims were incorporated in the study of which 240 (62.5%) were due to road traffic accidents. The majority of patients were male 298 (77.6%) and most commonly aged between 20-29 (35.42%). The principal outcome of injury was more commonly lower extremity (182 patients, 47.4%), compared to upper extremity (126 patients, 32.8%). Of all trauma patient presenting to hospitals (62.5%) are the result of road traffic accident. Hence, the provision of tailored messages to all members of the community regarding knowledge and practices of road safety measures like appropriate use of pavements by pedestrians and avoiding risky driving behaviors. Besides this make use of compulsory motorcycle helmets would appear to be a very important intervention.

  16. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NO(x and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. RESULTS: We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (L(den was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.22 and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02-1.23 preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner.

  17. Real-time Detection of Road Traffic Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Škorput

    2010-07-01

    KEY WORDS: intelligent transport system, incident management system, traffic model in the status space, theory of estimation, extended Kalman filter, automatic incident detection, decision support system

  18. Residential road traffic noise exposure and survival after breast cancer - A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-11-01

    It is generally acknowledged that patients with already existing clinical conditions are especially vulnerable to the effects of traffic noise exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and breast cancer survival. Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident breast cancer cases (n=1,759) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with prognostic and socioeconomic factors. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in both unadjusted models, and adjusted for residential railway noise, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic variables. During a median of 7.3 years of follow-up, 402 patients died; 274 from breast cancer. We found no association between time-weighted averages of residential road traffic noise 1-, 3- or 5-years before death, or over the entire follow-up period, and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. A 10dB higher road traffic noise from diagnosis until censoring was associated with an adjusted MRR of 0.94 (0.81-1.08) for all-cause mortality. The association was modified by lymph node involvement, with a MRR of 1.20 (0.97-1.48) for those with tumor-positive lymph nodes and 0.76 (0.59-0.98) for those without. The present study suggests no association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined effects of road traffic noise and ambient air pollution in relation to risk for stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Lühdorf, Pernille; Ketzel, Matthias; Andersen, Zorana J; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution have both been associated with risk for stroke. The few studies including both exposures show inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate potential mutual confounding and combined effects between road traffic noise and air pollution in association with risk for stroke. In a population-based cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrollment, we identified 1999 incident stroke cases in national registries, followed by validation through medical records. Mean follow-up time was 11.2 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2009 were identified in national registers and road traffic noise and air pollution were modeled for all addresses. Analyses were done using Cox regression. A higher mean annual exposure at time of diagnosis of 10 µg/m(3) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and 10 dB road traffic noise at the residential address was associated with ischemic stroke with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.20) and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.24), respectively, in single exposure models. In two-exposure models road traffic noise (IRR: 1.15) and not NO2 (IRR: 1.02) was associated with ischemic stroke. The strongest association was found for combination of high noise and high NO2 (IRR=1.28; 95% CI=1.09-1.52). Fatal stroke was positively associated with air pollution and not with traffic noise. In conclusion, in mutually adjusted models road traffic noise and not air pollution was associated ischemic stroke, while only air pollution affected risk for fatal strokes. There were indications of combined effects.

  20. Epidemiology of road traffic mortality and injuries in Yazd, Iran during 2003-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossien Fallahzadeh; Atefeh Dehgani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are considered to be the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. The purpose of this study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of RTC during 2003-2008.Methods: Data were got from national health sources of Iran. These data included population, the number of RTCs,consequent fatalities, cause and place of death from 2003 to 2008.Results: RTC incidence rate increased from 868.5 per 100 000 population in the year 2003 to 1 643.6 in 2008. A total of 2 565 deaths from RTC were recorded in Yazd from 2003 to 2008. RTC mortality rate increased from 46.1 per 100 000 population in 2003 to 46.9 in 2006, then declined to 38.8 in 2008. During this time period, overall traffic injury incidence per 100 000 population increased from 368.8 in 2003 to 647.9 in 2006, then declined to 527.9 in 2008. Head injuries were the most common cause of road traffic-related mortality from 2003 to 2008. Following road traffic accidents, most of the deaths occurred before arriving hospital.Conclusions: Road traffic crash-related mortality and morbidity in Yazd in the recent six years are increased, but decreased in the last two years. This decline is most probably the result of a variety of interventions, including laws,police enforcement, improvements in traffic and transport,health care resources and media and public education.

  1. Policy Analysis of Road Traffic Injury Prevention in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Shabaninejad, Hosein; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Due to the large number of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) in Iran, authorities have implemented a number of policies for the prevention of RTIs. However, a scientific analysis of these policies has thus far been neglected. Therefore, this study was conducted for policy analysis of RTIs prevention in Iran. Methods This qualitative study with a case study approach was conducted in Iran during 2016 in two phases: First, by reviewing literature and documents of the past ten years, policies that have been executed to prevent RTIs in Iran were identified. In the second phase of the study, the identified policies were ranked by prioritization matrices. The two policies with the highest scores were selected. ‘Policy triangle framework’ was used for Policy analyzing. Stakeholders of these policies (42 people) were interviewed. Data were analyzed manually by implementing Content-Analysis methods. Results The policies of “pupil liaisons” and “safety belt” were selected for analysis from thirteen potential identified polices. The results of some studies revealed that safety belts had not been properly used in Iran (less than 80%). There was an eight-year hiatus between the approval of the safety belts policy and implementation of this policy. Eight actors were identified for safety belts policy. Lack of diligence in implementation of the policy, failing to pay adequate attention to education and the culture of driving, and failing to select an organization for the implementation of the policy, were identified as the main weaknesses of this policy. For ‘pupil liaisons’ policy, five actors were identified. Following the implementation of this policy, the number of penalties was reduced (17.9%). Neglecting scientific findings and individual-based nature of the policy were identified as the primary weaknesses of this policy. Conclusions Taking serious measures to properly execute the policy, educating people, selecting an efficient organization that is

  2. Time Headway Modelling of Motorcycle-Dominated Traffic to Analyse Traffic Safety Performance and Road Link Capacity of Single Carriageways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Priyantha Wedagama

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop time headway distribution models to analyse traffic safety performance and road link capacities for motorcycle-dominated traffic in Denpasar, Bali. Three road links selected as the case study are Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl.Hang Tuah, and Jl. Padma. Data analysis showed that between 55%-80% of motorists in Denpasar during morning and evening peak hours paid less attention to the safe distance with the vehicles in front. The study found that Lognormal distribution models are best to fit time headway data during morning peak hours while either Weibull (3P or Pearson III distributions is for evening peak hours. Road link capacities for mixed traffic predominantly motorcycles are apparently affected by the behaviour of motorists in keeping safe distance with the vehicles in front. Theoretical road link capacities for Jl. Hayam Wuruk, Jl. Hang Tuah and Jl. Padma are 3,186 vehicles/hour, 3,077 vehicles/hour and 1935 vehicles/hour respectively.

  3. Exploiting automatically generated databases of traffic signs and road markings for contextual co-occurrence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelhoff, Lykele; Creusen, Ivo M.; Woudsma, Thomas; de With, Peter H. N.

    2015-11-01

    Combined databases of road markings and traffic signs provide a complete and full description of the present traffic legislation and instructions. Such databases contribute to efficient signage maintenance, improve navigation, and benefit autonomous driving vehicles. A system is presented for the automated creation of such combined databases, which additionally investigates the benefit of this combination for automated contextual placement analysis. This analysis involves verification of the co-occurrence of traffic signs and road markings to retrieve a list of potentially incorrectly signaled (and thus potentially unsafe) road situations. This co-occurrence verification is specifically explored for both pedestrian crossings and yield situations. Evaluations on 420 km of road have shown that individual detection of traffic signs and road markings denoting these road situations can be performed with accuracies of 98% and 85%, respectively. Combining both approaches shows that over 95% of the pedestrian crossings and give-way situations can be identified. An exploration toward additional co-occurrence analysis of signs and markings shows that inconsistently signaled situations can successfully be extracted, such that specific safety actions can be directed toward cases lacking signs or markings, while most consistently signaled situations can be omitted from this analysis.

  4. Economic burden of road traffic injuries: a micro-costing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2008-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the economic burden incurred from road traffic injuries in Thailand. It was designed as a prevalence-based cost-of-illness analysis from a societal perspective, employing a micro-costing bottom-up approach. It covered direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and indirect cost or productivity loss. Productivity loss covers the costs of work absence or death due to road traffic injuries suffered by persons of working age. We collected data on road traffic injuries and resource utilization which occurred in the fiscal year 2004. A simple random sampling was used to select 200 patients for analysis. The average cost of road traffic injuries per patient was USD 2,596 at 2004 prices. This can be divided into direct cost (USD 102, or 4%) and indirect cost (USD 2,494, or 96%). From these results, we can see that the indirect cost far outweighed the direct cost. To base decisions regarding road safety campaigns on savings of direct costs, particularly direct medical costs, is inadequate. Therefore, data on the complete cost of illness should be taken into account in the planning and creation of a road safety policy.

  5. Assessing the impact of road traffic on cycling for leisure and cycling to work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareham Nicholas J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the relationship between leisure and commuter cycling with objectively measured levels of road traffic and whether any relationship was affected by traffic levels directly outside of home or in local neighbourhood. Findings We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the UK European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC Norfolk cohort in 2009. We used a geographical information system (GIS and gender specific multivariate models to relate 13 927 participants' reported levels of cycling with an index of road traffic volume (Road Traffic Volume Index Score - RTVIS. RTVIS were calculated around each participants home, using four distance based buffers, (0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and 3.2 km. Models were adjusted for age, social status, education, car access and deprivation. Both genders had similar decreases in leisure cycling as traffic volumes increased at greater distances from home (OR 0.42, (95% CI 0.32-0.52, p Conclusions Traffic volumes appear to have greater impact on leisure cycling than commuter cycling. Future research should investigate the importance of traffic on different types of cycling and include psychosocial correlates.

  6. Collection of road traffic information from satellite images and digital map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinmura, Fumito; Saji, Hitoshi

    2010-10-01

    There have been many reports on the analysis of the Earth's surface by remote sensing. The purpose of this study is to analyze traffic information, and we have been studying methods of collecting traffic information by remote sensing. To collect traffic information, sensors installed on the roadside are frequently used. However, methods using sensors only collect information around the positions of the sensors. In this study, we attempt to solve this problem by using satellite images, which have recently become increasingly available. We propose a method of collecting traffic information over a large area using satellite images as well as three-dimensional digital maps. We assess traffic conditions by computing the number of edges of vehicles per road section as follows. First, the edges of vehicles are detected in satellite images. During this processing, three-dimensional digital maps are used to increase the accuracy of vehicle edge detection. The number of vehicles per road section, which is computed from the number of edges of vehicles, is computed and referred to as the vehicle density. Traffic conditions can be assessed from the vehicle density and are considered useful for collecting information on traffic congestion. In this study, we experimentally confirm that congested roads can be extracted from satellite images by our method.

  7. A new modelling approach for road traffic emissions: VERSIT+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Rabé, E.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of VERSIT+ LD is to predict traffic stream emissions for light-duty vehicles in any particular traffic situation. With respect to hot running emissions, VERSIT+ LD consists of a set of statistical models for detailed vehicle categories that have been constructed using multiple linear r

  8. Achieving safe road traffic — the experience in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Oguchi

    2016-03-01

    This paper compares Japanese annual trends with those of other developed countries to show that Japan has recently become risen to the top level of traffic safety. In hopes of achieving an even safer traffic society in Japan, the paper summarizes the key factors for consideration.

  9. Game Theoretic Analysis of Road Traffic Problems in Nigeria (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... tyranny of small decisions by motorists and some other citizens, hence, traffic ... often it is not for the common good of the group, organization or society to .... makes the traffic situation worse off in the long run, while making.

  10. A new modelling approach for road traffic emissions: VERSIT+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Rabé, E.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of VERSIT+ LD is to predict traffic stream emissions for light-duty vehicles in any particular traffic situation. With respect to hot running emissions, VERSIT+ LD consists of a set of statistical models for detailed vehicle categories that have been constructed using multiple linear

  11. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy. The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  12. Impact of road traffic injuries on disability rates and long-term care costs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, Ramon; Ayuso, Mercedes; Guillén, Montserrat

    2013-11-01

    Road traffic injuries are one of the leading causes of increasing disability-adjusted life expectancy. We analyze long-term care needs associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in Spain and conclude that needs attributable traffic injuries are most prevalent during victims' mid-life years, they create a significant burden for both families and society as a whole given that public welfare programmes supporting these victims need to be maintained over a long time frame. High socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents (in Spain 0.04% of the GDP in 2008) are clearly indicative of the need for governments and policymakers to strengthen road accident preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Bigdeli, Maryam; Saadat, Soheil; Mohammadi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy). The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy) prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading and mathematical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Robert; Sörqvist, Patrik; Hygge, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    Irrelevant speech in classrooms and road traffic noise adjacent to schools have a substantial impact on children's ability to learn. Comparing the effects of different noise sources on learning may help construct guidelines for noise abatement programs. Experimental studies are important to establish dose-response relationships and to expand our knowledge beyond correlation studies. This experiment examined effects of road traffic noise and irrelevant speech on children's reading speed, reading comprehension, basic mathematics, and mathematical reasoning. A total of 187 pupils (89 girls and 98 boys), 12-13 years old, were tested in their ordinary classrooms. Road traffic noise was found to impair reading speed (P<0.01) and basic mathematics (P<0.05). No effect was found on reading comprehension or on mathematical reasoning. Irrelevant speech did not disrupt performance on any task. These findings are related to previous research on noise in schools and the implications for noise abatement guidelines are discussed.

  15. The effects of road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech on different memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygge, Staffan; Boman, Eva; Enmarker, Ingela

    2003-02-01

    To explore why noise has reliable effects on delayed recall in a certain text-reading task, this episodic memory task was employed with other memory tests in a study of road traffic noise and meaningful but irrelevant speech. Context-dependent memory was tested and self-reports of affect were taken. Participants were 96 high school students. The results showed that both road traffic noise and meaningful irrelevant speech impaired recall of the text. Retrieval in noise from semantic memory was also impaired. Attention was impaired by both noise sources, but attention did not mediate the noise effects on episodic memory. Recognition was not affected by noise. Context-dependent memory was not shown. The lack of mediation by attention, and road traffic noise being as harmful as meaningful irrelevant speech, are discussed in relation to where in the input/storing/output sequence noise has its effect and what the distinctive feature of the disturbing noise is.

  16. Air quality assessment based on road traffic pollutants dispersion modelling: Giurgiu – Ruse Bridge Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos MIHAI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case study related to air quality assessment along an important high traffic bridge (Giurgiu - Ruse, by dispersion modelling of the main pollutants. In order to estimate the level of pollution caused by bridge road traffic in the closest urban areas, Giurgiu and Ruse and based on the traffic data, four scenarios for the air quality assessment have been carried out according to different meteorological conditions. The dispersion modeling was realized on specialized environmental pollution software, which features a fully operational Gauss model in its base module. There are presented dispersion maps for the main road traffic pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2, THC, aiming to evaluate their impact on the urban areas vicinity, in four different wind directions scenarios, at a constant temperature. Conclusions are presented according to available European Legislation and future scenarios are proposed, for other different meteorological conditions.

  17. Research on the Application of Wireless Network in Collecting Road Traffic Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Hui-jiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of variability and dispersion in traffic information, to get the reliable real-time traffic information has been a bottleneck in the development of intelligent transportation systems. However, with the development of wireless network technology and mobile Internet, the mobile phones are rapidly developed and more popular, so it is possible to get road traffic information by locating the mobile phones in vehicles. The system structure for the road traffic information collection is designed based on wireless network and mobile phones in vehicles, and the vehicle recognition and its information computation methods are given and discussed. Also the simulation is done for vehicle recognition and computation based on fuzzy cluster analysis method and the results are obtained and analyzed.

  18. Exposure to road traffic and railway noise and postmenopausal breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Mette; Ketzel, Matthias; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to traffic noise may result in stress and sleep disturbances. Studies on self-reported sleep duration and breast cancer risk have found inconsistent results. In a population-based Danish cohort of 29,875 women aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1219 incident, postmenopausal breast cancer cases during follow-up through 2010. Mean follow-up time was 12.3 years. Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2010. We used Cox proportional hazard model for analyses and adjusted for hormone replacement therapy use, parity, alcohol consumption and other potential confounders. We found no overall association between residential road traffic or railway noise and breast cancer risk. Among women with estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, a 10-dB higher level of road traffic noise (continuous scale) during the previous 1, 5 and 10 years were associated with 28% (95% CI: 1.04-1.56), 23% (95% CI: 1.00-1.51) and 20% (95% CI: 0.97-1.48) higher risks of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer, respectively, in fully adjusted models. Similarly, a 10-dB increase in railway noise (1-year mean at diagnosis address) increased risk for estrogen receptor negative breast cancer by 38% (95% CI: 1.01-1.89). There was no association between road traffic or railway noise and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. In conclusion, these results suggest that residential road traffic and railway noise may increase risk of estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. As the first study on traffic noise and breast cancer results should be treated with caution. © 2013 UICC.

  19. Extent and determinants of cost of road traffic injuries in an Indian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy G. M. M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Studies aimed at estimating losses that are incurred as a result of road traffic injuries (RTIs, especially at the family level, are very limited. Aims : To ascertain the direct and productivity costs of road traffic injuries and their determinants. Settings and Design : This study was a cross-sectional survey of all the road traffic crashes recorded by traffic police during 2004 in Chandigarh, a modern planned city of north India. Material and Methods : All road traffic crashes recorded by the traffic police during the year 1st January to 31st December 2004 were included in the study. The houses of all the victims were visited. The direct costs included the immediate medical costs (i.e., emergency and hospital care, follow-up care, medicines and appliances, doctor bills, etc., and nonmedical costs (transportation, property damage cost, etc.. Statistical Analysis : Work productivity and activity questionnaire (WPAI-SHP, the health and labor questionnaire (HLQ and Human Capital Method were used for estimating the productivity costs. Percentage, mean, standard deviation of the outcome parameters were calculated. Results :Of the 121 crash victims listed, 95 agreed to participate in the study. The net direct costs incurred were Rs. 8,55,644 ($19,991. The vehicle repair costs constituted more than half of such cost. Surgery, which was conducted in 28 cases, constituted 14.5% of the direct costs. The total productivity cost incurred was Rs. 8,06,24,530 ($1,883,750. Costs incurred due to premature mortality constituted over 99% of these productivity losses suffered by society. Lost wages due to the crash constituted less than 1% [Rs. 1,40,230 ($3276] of the total productivity loss. Conclusions : Road traffic injuries are a significant financial drag on the society. The productivity costs far outweigh the direct costs. Premature mortality, vehicle damage and medical costs constituted the major share of the cost of RTIs.

  20. Forecasting Multivariate Road Traffic Flows Using Bayesian Dynamic Graphical Models, Splines and Other Traffic Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anacleto, Osvaldo; Queen, Catriona; Albers, Casper J.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic flow data are routinely collected for many networks worldwide. These invariably large data sets can be used as part of a traffic management system, for which good traffic flow forecasting models are crucial. The linear multiregression dynamic model (LMDM) has been shown to be promising for f

  1. Optimal proportion of studded tyres in traffic flow to prevent polishing of an icy road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Ari J; Sainio, Panu

    2014-04-01

    Studded tyres can significantly wear the road surface and increase particle emissions from the road surface, which has a negative impact on air quality in urban areas. However, road wear might have a positive aspect by roughening the road surface and thus preventing polishing. As a consequence, other vehicles than the ones using studded tyres might also benefit from the usage of studded tyres. The impact of the proportion of studded tyres in the traffic flow on the tyre-ice friction coefficient was studied with a fleet of real cars in a closed environment under strict procedural control. The results show that a proportion of 25-50% studded tyres in the traffic flow is enough to prevent ice from developing in a manner that is critically slippery for non-studded winter tyres. It was also observed that the visual appearance of the ice surface does not indicate if the ice has become more slippery or not.

  2. Impact of road traffic pollution on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Road traffic is a majorsource of air pollution and noise. Both exposures have been associated with hypertension in adults, but pregnant womenhave been less studied. METHODS: We examined single and joint effects of ambient air pollution and road traffic noise on preeclampsia...... increase the risk of preeclampsia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy through exposure to both ambient air pollution and noise, although associations with the two exposures were generally not found to be independent of one another. See video abstract, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B112...

  3. Analysis of road traffic crash injuries - a technique producing large un-decalcified histological sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Vesterby, Annie

    description of the facet joints is necessary for the optimal management of clinical conditions following road traffic crashes. Only few studies have dealt the preparation of large un-frozen specimen, in contrast to the many studies utilising cryomicrotomy of frozen tissues. We present a practicable method......Introduction:The lower cervical spine facet joints are important structures in cases of chronic pain syndromes following road traffic crashes. Pathophysiological segmental kinematics may occur, particularly during rear-impact collisions, which may cause injury to these joints. Detailed anatomical...

  4. Estimating Urban Traffic Patterns through Probabilistic Interconnectivity of Road Network Junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Manley

    Full Text Available The emergence of large, fine-grained mobility datasets offers significant opportunities for the development and application of new methodologies for transportation analysis. In this paper, the link between routing behaviour and traffic patterns in urban areas is examined, introducing a method to derive estimates of traffic patterns from a large collection of fine-grained routing data. Using this dataset, the interconnectivity between road network junctions is extracted in the form of a Markov chain. This representation encodes the probability of the successive usage of adjacent road junctions, encoding routes as flows between decision points rather than flows along road segments. This network of functional interactions is then integrated within a modified Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC framework, adapted for the estimation of urban traffic patterns. As part of this approach, the data-derived links between major junctions influence the movement of directed random walks executed across the network to model origin-destination journeys. The simulation process yields estimates of traffic distribution across the road network. The paper presents an implementation of the modified MCMC approach for London, United Kingdom, building an MCMC model based on a dataset of nearly 700000 minicab routes. Validation of the approach clarifies how each element of the MCMC framework contributes to junction prediction performance, and finds promising results in relation to the estimation of junction choice and minicab traffic distribution. The paper concludes by summarising the potential for the development and extension of this approach to the wider urban modelling domain.

  5. Space-time correlation analysis of traffic flow on road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Dong, Honghui; Jia, Limin; Tian, Zhao; Sun, Xuan

    2017-02-01

    Space-time correlation analysis has become a basic and critical work in the research on road traffic congestion. It plays an important role in improving traffic management quality. The aim of this research is to examine the space-time correlation of road networks to determine likely requirements for building a suitable space-time traffic model. In this paper, it is carried out using traffic flow data collected on Beijing’s road network. In the framework, the space-time autocorrelation function (ST-ACF) is introduced as global measure, and cross-correlation function (CCF) as local measure to reveal the change mechanism of space-time correlation. Through the use of both measures, the correlation is found to be dynamic and heterogeneous in space and time. The finding of seasonal pattern present in space-time correlation provides a theoretical assumption for traffic forecasting. Besides, combined with Simpson’s rule, the CCF is also applied to finding the critical sections in the road network, and the experiments prove that it is feasible in computability, rationality and practicality.

  6. Modeling Traffic Flow and Management at Un-signalized, Signalized and Roundabout Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kakooza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion continues to hinder economic and social development and also has a negative impact on the environment. A simple mathematical model is used to analyze the different types of road intersections in terms of their Performance in relation to managing traffic congestion and to establish the condition for stability of the road intersections after sufficiently longer periods of time (steady-state. In the analysis, single and double lane un-signalized, signalized and roundabout intersections are evaluated on the basis of their performance (expected number of vehicles and waiting time. Experimental scenarios are carefully designed to analyze the performance of the different types of intersections. It is noted that under light traffic, roundabout intersections perform better than un-signalized and signalized in terms of easing congestion. However under heavy traffic, signalized intersection perform better in terms of easing traffic congestion compared to un-signalized and roundabout intersections. It is further noted that for stability of a road intersection, the proportion of the time a road link stopping at an intersection is delayed should not exceed the utilization factor (the ratio of the arrival rate of vehicles to the product of number of service channels and service rate.

  7. Speed-Flow Analysis for Interrupted Oversaturated Traffic Flow with Heterogeneous Structure for Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Speed–flow functions have been developed by several transportation experts to predict accurately the speed of urban road network. HCM Speed-Flow Curve, BPR Curve, MTC Speed-Flow Curve, Akçelik Speed-Flow Curve are some extraordinary efforts to define the shape of speed-flow curve. However, the complexity of driver’s behaviour, interactions among different type of vehicles, lateral clearance, co-relation of driver’s psychology with vehicular characteristics and interdependence of various variables of traffic has led to continuous development and refinement of speed-flow curves. The problem gets more tedious in case of urban roads with heterogeneous traffic, oversaturated flow and signalized network (which includes some unsignalized intersections as well. This paper presents speed-flow analysis for urban roads with interrupted flow comprising of heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls. The model developed in this paper shall predict speed, delay, average queue and maximum queue estimates for urban roads and quantify congestion for oversaturated condition. The investigation details oversaturated portion of flow in particular.

  8. Temporal and spatial variations in road traffic noise for different frequency components in metropolitan Taichung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ven-Shing; Lo, Ei-Wen; Liang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Keh-Ping; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Road traffic noise exposure has been associated with auditory and non-auditory health effects, but few studies report noise characteristics. This study determines 24-h noise levels and analyzes their frequency components to investigate associations between seasons, meteorology, land-use types, and traffic. We set up 50 monitoring stations covering ten different land-use types and conducted measurements at three times of the year to obtain 24-h-average A-weighted equivalent noise levels (LAeq,24h) and frequency analyses from 2013 to 2014 in Taichung, Taiwan. Information on land-use types, road parameters, traffic flow rates, and meteorological variables was also collected for analysis with the annual averages of road traffic noise and its frequency components. The annual average LAeq,24h in Taichung was 66.4 ± 4.7 A-weighed decibels (dBA). Significant differences in LAeq,24h and frequency components were observed between land-use types (all p-values traffic flow rates, and land-use types were significantly associated with annual average LAeq,24h (all p-values traffic (Spearman's coefficient = 0.795) and the highest prediction in the multiple linear regression (R(2) = 0.803; adjusted R(2) = 0.765). These findings reveal the spatial variation in road traffic noise exposure in Taichung. The highest correlation and predictive capacity was observed between this variation and noise levels at 125 Hz. We recommend that governmental agencies should take actions to reduce noise levels from traffic vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Coexistence of up- and downstream traffic waves on a ring road

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, K.; Kanellopoulos, G.

    2016-09-01

    It is an observational fact that density waves in vehicle traffic can move in either direction: small-amplitude waves travel in the same direction as the cars (downstream) whereas high-amplitude waves or "jams" travel in the opposite direction (upstream). We construct a model of ring road traffic to demonstrate how this comes about. Our model shows the spontaneous generation of these density waves, explains their stability properties, and pinpoints the precise density level at which the wave speed changes direction.

  10. Road Traffic Injuries Among Iranian Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Salar Behzadnia; Soheila Shahmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of death and globally kill 1.2 million people every year and leave 20 - 50 million people injured and disabled. In Iran, traffic related fatalities are the leading cause of death among all inadvertent fatal injuries imposed on children under five. Herein, authors review the epidemiological studies performed on vehicle accidents among Iranian children and adolescents to improve the knowledge about these preventable events...

  11. The influences of drivers/riders in road traffic crashes in Ghana between 2001 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amo, Thompson

    2014-04-07

    The road traffic accident (RTA) is a global misfortune and the leading cause of death among young drivers. In safeguarding and developing innovative safety strategies to curtail the situation, the factors causing this menace needs proper attention and investigation. The objective of this study is to identify the potential factors responsible for causing a traffic accident in Ghana. In studying these factors extensively, a descriptive study with quantitative technique was employed. Analyses used data between 2001 and 2011 obtained from the Building and Road Research Institute (BRRI) with specific focus on the age, drinking, vehicle defect, driver/rider error, injury, road surface type and weather. A total of 200,528 cases of drivers/riders were analysed and discovered that, people with younger age (21-40) contribute 62.97% of total crashes. Crashes reduce steadily as drivers/riders age increases. Also, the vehicle defect analysis shows that 87.46% of accidents cannot be linked to the fault of the vehicle before incidence, while the majority (75.38%) of drivers/riders had no injury during a traffic accident. Higher number of fatalities are recorded on tar good roads (81.57%) and clear weather (91.75%). The fight against this canker by the authorities must consider periodic refresher courses for younger drivers/riders on traffic law to bring to bear the adherence of good driving/riding principles and attitudes to ensure that safety is guaranteed for all road users in the country.

  12. Epidemiological characteristics and relative factor of hospital death cases with road traffic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yadong; Hou Shuxun; Yao Yongming; Sheng Zhiyong; Wang Fu; Wang Yubin; Zheng Weijia

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and relative factor about hospital death in patients with road traffic trauma. Methods: The age, sex, road-use category, sites of injury, injury severity scale of 159 hospital death cases in 2436 cases with road traffic trauma were observed, and the relation between the causes of death and time elapsed after injury was also studied with likelihood ratio Chi-square test. Results: More hospital deaths happen more likely in the elderly patients and peasants with road traffic trauma. Motor vehicle was the most common culprit, and the majority of victims were pedestrians. The causes of death were related with the time elapsed after injury, and according to which the clinical course of the wounded patients could be divided into cerebral injury / shock phase, transitional phase, infection phase and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) phase.Conclusion: There is a significant relation between the hospital deaths and types of the injury and medical care in road traffic accidents. It should be emphasized that strategy of prevention of hospital deaths during hospital care should vary in different phases of the clinical course.

  13. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  14. Road Transportation and Traffic Law Enforcement in Nigeria: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 1Civil Engineering Department, College of Science and Engineering ... The methodology used for this paper was the collections of data. .... knowledge of traffic rules and regulations, .... of formal training in driving school.

  15. AN OVERVIEW OF LONGITUDINAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD TRAFFIC FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banihan GÜNAY

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available As multi-lane roadways have been widely used in many countries for years, analysis of two-dimensional vehicular interactions acquires special importance in highway design and operation. The simultaneous consideration of both lateral and longitudinal movements of traffic flow becomes vital in many aspects of traffic engineering, like modelling. The former component was reviewed elsewhere. In this paper, previous work on longitudinal characteristics of multi-lane traffic flow is scrutinised. Non-existence of such a review in recent literature was the main motive of the work, and it is hoped that it forms a reference report for other traffic analysts. In addition, the paper underlines a number of possible areas for future research.

  16. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN. PMID:25663835

  17. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN. Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  18. Traffic signal synchronization in the saturated high-density grid road network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Most existing traffic signal synchronization strategies do not perform well in the saturated high-density grid road network (HGRN). Traffic congestion often occurs in the saturated HGRN, and the mobility of the network is difficult to restore. In order to alleviate traffic congestion and to improve traffic efficiency in the network, the study proposes a regional traffic signal synchronization strategy, named the long green and long red (LGLR) traffic signal synchronization strategy. The essence of the strategy is to control the formation and dissipation of queues and to maximize the efficiency of traffic flows at signalized intersections in the saturated HGRN. With this strategy, the same signal control timing plan is used at all signalized intersections in the HGRN, and the straight phase of the control timing plan has a long green time and a long red time. Therefore, continuous traffic flows can be maintained when vehicles travel, and traffic congestion can be alleviated when vehicles stop. Using the strategy, the LGLR traffic signal synchronization model is developed, with the objective of minimizing the number of stops. Finally, the simulation is executed to analyze the performance of the model by comparing it to other models, and the superiority of the LGLR model is evident in terms of delay, number of stops, queue length, and overall performance in the saturated HGRN.

  19. Appraisals and Cognitive Coping Styles Associated with Chronic Post-Traumatic Symptoms in Child Road Traffic Accident Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Smith, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comparatively little is known about the cognitive appraisals and coping styles of child road traffic accident (RTA) survivors that are associated with chronic post-traumatic reactions. Methods: Seventy-five children and young people aged 7-18 who were involved in a road traffic accident and attended an accident and emergency department…

  20. The age-dependent incidence of injuries due to road traffic accidents in Odense, Denmark from 1980 to 1992

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L B; Poulsen, T K; Johannsen, H G

    1995-01-01

    The study was based on data concerning persons treated at Odense University Hospital as a result of road traffic accidents in the period 1980-92. Incidence rates of road traffic accident injuries were calculated on the basis of the population in Odense municipality. The study group included perso...

  1. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Factsheet Traffic safety basic facts 2010 : urban areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pace, J.-F. López de Cozar, E. Pérez-Fuster, P. Sanmartín, J. Yannis, G. Evgenikos, P. Argyropoulou, E. Papantoniou, P. Broughton, J. Knowles, J. Brandstaetter, C. Candappa, N. Christoph, M. Vis, M. Haddak, M. Moutengou, E. & Kirk, A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, 13.502 people were killed in traffic accidents on urban roads in the EU-19. This is 38% of all traffic accident fatalities in 2008. In the last decade, urban road fatalities have reduced by a quarter (25,7%), while the total number of fatalities has reduced by almost a third (31,5%). (Autho

  2. Self-organized Natural Roads for Predicting Traffic Flow: A Sensitivity Study

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bin; Yin, Junjun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we extended road-based topological analysis into both nationwide and urban road networks, and concentrated on a sensitivity study with respect to the formation of self-organized natural roads based on Gestalt principle of good continuity. Both Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data were used to correlate with a series of ranking metrics including five centrality-based metrics and two PageRank metrics. It was found that there exists a tipping point from segment- to road-based network topology in terms of correlation between ranking metrics and their traffic. To our big surprise, (1) this correlation is significantly improved if a selfish rather than utopian strategy is adopted in forming the self-organized natural roads, and (2) point-based metrics assigned by summation into individual roads tend to have a much better correlation with traffic flow than line-based metrics. These counter-intuitive surprising findings constitute emergent properties of self-orga...

  3. Can road traffic law enforcement permanently reduce the number of accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnskau, T; Elvik, R

    1992-10-01

    In this paper it is argued that conventional analyses of road user adaptation to traffic law enforcement, based on parametric rational-choice theory, are flawed. Such analyses only consider road-user actions as a response to enforcement level and penalty size and do not simultaneously consider enforcement as a response to road-user behaviour. If each party is considered a rational agent who adapts to the other's behaviour, the proper way to analyze the outcomes is by the way of game theory. A game-theoretic model is presented and the main implications are: (i) most attempts at enforcing road traffic legislation will not have any lasting effects, either on road-user behaviour or on accidents; (ii) imposing stricter penalties (in the form of higher fines or longer prison sentences) will not affect road-user behaviour; (iii) imposing stricter penalties will reduce the level of enforcement; (iv) implementing automatic traffic surveillance techniques and/or allocating enforcement resources according to a chance mechanism, and not according to police estimates of violation probability, can make enforcement effects last, but both alternatives are difficult to implement. Relevant empirical studies are reviewed, and they seem to support the conclusions arrived at by the game-theoretic model.

  4. Epidemiologic study of road traffic injuries by road user type characteristics and road environment in Iran: a community-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Vafaee, Reza; Hadadi, Mashyaneh; Abdalvand, Ali; Esnaashari, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Crash injuries in traffic accidents are affected by a variety of factors. In this study we analyzed road user type information based on different contributing factors. Data from all of the road traffic victims on a road extending from the east of the city of Tehran to Mazandaran province were included prospectively over a one-year period (May 2008 to May 2009). Data collected included the crash time, patient's age and sex, road user category, helmet or seat belt use, anatomical site of injury, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and mortality. Prevalence and cross-tabulations were included in the analysis. There were 433 patients, of whom 345 were hospitalized and 33 died either before or after arriving at the hospital. Sixty-nine percent of injured patients were vehicle occupants. Mean and median of ISS were higher for pedestrians, who accounted for 49 percent of the deaths. Head injury was the most common injury and injury to upper and lower extremities was the most common cause of admission. A significant difference in lower extremity injuries between vehicle occupants and nonoccupants was found. Sex and age group did not have a significant effect on mortality. Mortality was significantly higher in pedestrians (P injuries as front seat passengers, employment of newer laws and preventive measures targeting this group of occupants can prevent many road traffic injuries (RTIs).

  5. Quantifying the impact of energy traffic on local unpaved roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Nathan K.

    Converse, Goshen, Laramie, and Platte counties were selected in accordance with a legislative directive as part of a project to determine the impact of the oil and gas industry on county infrastructure. This thesis takes into account the impact of county gravel roads and strategies used to help develop methods to assess and mitigate this impact. With a lacking road and bridge budget, these counties are only just keeping up with the current impact. In order to receive additional funding from the state legislature, actual impact needs to be assessed. The different distresses and ride quality of all the county gravel roads showed that, on average, the roads were in good condition, no matter the level of impact. However, the cost to keep the impacted roads in this condition came at a much greater price. By modeling the data gathered in this study and comparing the differences between impacted and non-impacted roads, a better understanding of the degradation taking place and the main causes were examined and valuable information was attained. A priority ranking for impacted roads was also assessed to determine the severity of the impact for each county and to supply maintenance recommendations and costs for each road. This was done in hopes that the information from this model will then be used for more efficient maintenance strategies and a more cost effective use of the county's budget so that the counties may continue to keep up with the energy impacts. The process developed in this study could be very useful for other local agencies impacted by energy development.

  6. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and gen...

  7. The Road Traffic Analysis Based on an Urban Traffic Model of the Circular Working Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-zhe Li

    2004-01-01

    Under a relatively realistic model,this paper theoretically analyzes the road traffc status inside an urban working eld,including its radial roads and circular ones.Concretely,the radial and the circular average traveling distances of a car commuter in a tiny ring with wide dx are rst derived,and then the necessary road area,road area rate distributions,the proportion between the radial and the circular roads to be needed are also calculated.The results presented here and the properties shown through the numerical analysis are considered to be signi cant at the very beginning stage of designing an urban city.

  8. Road traffic administration and management in the third world mega-city: Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Asiyanbola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation from the literature shows that a city can only be as big as its transportation facilities can enable its people goes about their businesses, move and distribute their goods and services. In spite of these positive aspects of urban transportation system on one side of the coin, the other side of the coin reflects its negative impact that relate to traffic management and administration and road safety. The daily movement of people and freights within and outside the mega-city of LAGOS is becoming more difficult and complex. This is reflected in the increasing bumper-to-bumper traffic being experienced in the mega-city of Lagos during 6.30 am – 11.30am morning peak hours and (3.00pm – 7.30 pm evening peak hours. It now seems that traffic congestions are becoming forcefully acceptable excuses for workers being late to work in Lagos metropolis. One approach at solving this problem adopted by the Lagos State Government is traffic management through the establishment of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA. Traffic management could be regarded as a systematic and sustained effort on directing and controlling all traffics on our roads to make them free from negative effects of the transport system. The aim of this research work was to assess the impact of the Lagos State Traffic Management Authority (LASTMA with particular reference on the efforts to reduce road traffic problems. Both secondary and primary data sources that were collected in 2008 were used in the study. Policy implications of the findings are discussed in the paper.

  9. Pedestrian Traffic Conditions of Rural Roads and Built-Up Areas: The Analysis of the Existing Situation and Possibilities of Improving Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemunas Abukauskas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of lengthy thorough investigations into traffic safety situation show that the percentage of pedestrians getting involved in road traffic accidents on Lithuanian roads is significantly higher (more than 33 % of the total number of injury and fatal accidents than that compared to the other European Union member-states. The article studies traffic safety problems and their factors causing the largest influence on the occurrence of these accidents. Considering valuable experience gained by foreign countries, investigation was carried out to establish general and main factors causing insufficient road safety conditions and significance of these factors to road safety. The article also shows the main activity improving road safety in Lithuania and discusses the effectiveness of strategic and local (temporary and long term measures to improve conditions for pedestrian road safety. Article in Lithuanian

  10. CEDR Transnational Road Research Programme : Call 2013: Traffic Management: Implementation of Innovation in Traffic Management. METHOD (Managing European Traffic using Human-Oriented Designs), WP 1, Deliverable 2: Human Factors in Traffic Management; Information and advice for European traffic management practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Vissers, L.

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic management is an umbrella term. It encompasses all measures that (re)direct traffic flows over the road network, so that the movements of people and goods are optimised for reliability, safety and environmental sustainability. The levels of road mobility continue to increase year on

  11. CEDR Transnational Road Research Programme : Call 2013: Traffic Management: Implementation of Innovation in Traffic Management. METHOD (Managing European Traffic using Human-Oriented Designs), WP 1, Deliverable 2: Human Factors in Traffic Management; Information and advice for European traffic management practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Vissers, L.

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic management is an umbrella term. It encompasses all measures that (re)direct traffic flows over the road network, so that the movements of people and goods are optimised for reliability, safety and environmental sustainability. The levels of road mobility continue to increase year on yea

  12. Estimation of Populations Exposed to Road Traffic Noise in Districts of Seoul Metropolitan Area of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to model road traffic noise levels and estimate the human exposure at the 25 districts in the metropolitan Seoul, Republic of Korea. The SoundPLAN® Version 7.1 software package was used to model noise levels and simulated road traffic noise maps were created. The people exposed to daytime/nighttime road traffic noise were also estimated. The proportions of the population exposed to road traffic noise in major cities in the EU were also estimated and compared. Eight (8 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of the exposed population exceeding the daytime standard of 20% or more, and eleven (11 districts show 10%-20% and six (6 districts show less than 10%, which indicates considerable variation among districts. Two districts (Nowon-gu and Yangcheon-gu show the highest exposure rate during the daytime (35.2%. For nighttime noise levels, fourteen (14 districts show the exceeded rate (percentage of exposed population exceeding the nighttime standard over 30%. The average percentages of the exposed population exceeding the daytime/nighttime standards in Seoul and the EU were 16.6%/34.8% and 13.0%/16.1%, respectively. The results show that road traffic noise reduction measures should urgently be taken for the nighttime traffic noise in Seoul. When the grid noise map and the 3-D façade noise map were compared, the 3-D façade noise map was more accurate in estimating exposed population in citywide noise mapping.

  13. No evidence of a threshold in traffic volume affecting road-kill mortality at a large spatio-temporal scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grilo, Clara, E-mail: clarabentesgrilo@gmail.com [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Centro Brasileiro de Estudos em Ecologia de Estradas, Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Campus Universitário, 37200-000 Lavras, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ferreira, Flavio Zanchetta; Revilla, Eloy [Departamento de Biología de la Conservación, Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Calle Américo Vespucio s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies have found that the relationship between wildlife road mortality and traffic volume follows a threshold effect on low traffic volume roads. We aimed at evaluating the response of several species to increasing traffic intensity on highways over a large geographic area and temporal period. We used data of four terrestrial vertebrate species with different biological and ecological features known by their high road-kill rates: the barn owl (Tyto alba), hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Additionally, we checked whether road-kill likelihood varies when traffic patterns depart from the average. We used annual average daily traffic (AADT) and road-kill records observed along 1000 km of highways in Portugal over seven consecutive years (2003–2009). We fitted candidate models using Generalized Linear Models with a binomial distribution through a sample unit of 1 km segments to describe the effect of traffic on the probability of finding at least one victim in each segment during the study. We also assigned for each road-kill record the traffic of that day and the AADT on that year to test for differences using Paired Student's t-test. Mortality risk declined significantly with traffic volume but varied among species: the probability of finding road-killed red foxes and rabbits occurs up to moderate traffic volumes (< 20,000 AADT) whereas barn owls and hedgehogs occurred up to higher traffic volumes (40,000 AADT). Perception of risk may explain differences in responses towards high traffic highway segments. Road-kill rates did not vary significantly when traffic intensity departed from the average. In summary, we did not find evidence of traffic thresholds for the analysed species and traffic intensities. We suggest mitigation measures to reduce mortality be applied in particular on low traffic roads (< 5000 AADT) while additional measures to reduce barrier effects should take into

  14. Road Artery Traffic Light Optimization with Use of the Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Marsetič

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle of optimal traffic control is the appropriate real-time response to dynamic traffic flow changes. Signal plan efficiency depends on a large number of input parameters. An actuated signal system can adjust very well to traffic conditions, but cannot fully adjust to stochastic traffic volume oscillation. Due to the complexity of the problem analytical methods are not applicable for use in real time, therefore the purpose of this paper is to introduce heuristic method suitable for traffic light optimization in real time. With the evolution of artificial intelligence new possibilities for solving complex problems have been introduced. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate that the use of the Q learning algorithm for traffic lights optimization is suitable. The Q learning algorithm was verified on a road artery with three intersections. For estimation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm comparison with an actuated signal plan was carried out. The results (average delay per vehicle and the number of vehicles that left road network show that Q learning algorithm outperforms the actuated signal controllers. The proposed algorithm converges to the minimal delay per vehicle regardless of the stochastic nature of traffic. In this research the impact of the model parameters (learning rate, exploration rate, influence of communication between agents and reward type on algorithm effectiveness were analysed as well.

  15. Determinants of road traffic safety: New evidence from Australia using state-space analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son; Commandeur, Jacques J F; Connelly, Luke B

    2016-09-01

    This paper examines the determinants of road traffic crash fatalities in Queensland for the period 1958-2007 using a state-space time-series model. In particular, we investigate the effects of policies that aimed to reduce drink-driving on traffic fatalities, as well as indicators of the economic environment that may affect exposure to traffic, and hence affect the number of accidents and fatalities. The results show that the introduction of a random breath testing program in 1988 was associated with a 11.3% reduction in traffic fatalities; its expansion in 1998 was associated with a 26.2% reduction in traffic fatalities; and the effect of the "Safe4life" program, which was introduced in 2004, was a 14.3% reduction in traffic fatalities. Reductions in economic activity are also associated with reductions in road fatalities: we estimate that a one percent increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a 0.2% reduction in traffic fatalities.

  16. Epidemiology of road traffic mortality and injuries in Yazd, Iran during 2003?008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahzadeh Hossien

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic crashes (RTCs are considered to be the second highest cause of mortality in Iran. The purpose of this study was to describe the morbidity and mortality of RTC during 2003-2008. Methods: Data were got from national health sources of Iran. These data included population, the number of RTCs, consequent fatalities, cause and place of death from 2003 to 2008. Results: RTC incidence rate increased from 868.5 per 100 000 population in the year 2003 to 1 643.6 in 2008. A total of 2 565 deaths from RTC were recorded in Yazd from 2003 to 2008. RTC mortality rate increased from 46.1 per 100 000 population in 2003 to 46.9 in 2006, then declined to 38.8 in 2008. During this time period, overall traffic injury incidence per 100 000 population increased from 368.8 in 2003 to 647.9 in 2006, then declined to 527.9 in 2008. Head injuries were the most common cause of road traffic-related mortality from 2003 to 2008. Following road traffic accidents, most of the deaths occurred before arriving hospital. Conclusions: Road traffic crash-related mortality and morbidity in Yazd in the recent six years are increased, but decreased in the last two years. This decline is most probably the result of a variety of interventions, including laws, police enforcement, improvements in traffic and transport, health care resources and media and public education. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Wounds and injuries; Mortality

  17. Road traffic mortality in the Slovak Republic in 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazinova, Alexandra; Majdan, Marek

    2016-10-02

    Road traffic mortality takes an enormous toll in every society. Transport safety interventions play a crucial role in improving the situation. In the period 1996-2014 several road safety measures, including a complex new road traffic law in 2009, were implemented in the Slovak Republic, introducing stricter conditions for road users. The aim of this study is to describe and analyze the trends in road user mortality in the Slovak Republic in individual age groups by sex during the study period 1996-2014. Data on overall mortality in the Slovak Republic for the period 1996-2014 were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Mortality rates were age-adjusted to the European standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to assess the statistical significance of change in time trends of calculated standardized mortality rates. Mortality rates of all types of road users as well as all age groups and both sexes in the Slovak Republic in the period 1996-2014 are decreasing. The male : female ratio decreased from 4:1 in 1996 to 2:1 in 2014. Motor vehicle users (other than motorcyclists) and pedestrians have the highest mortality rates among road user groups. Both of these groups show a significant decline in mortality rates over the study period. Within the age groups, people age 65 years and over have the highest mortality rates, followed by the age groups 25-64 and 15-24 years old. Joinpoint regression confirmed a steady, significant decline in all mortality rates over the study period. A statistically significant decrease in mortality rates in the last years of the study period was observed in the age group 25-64 and in male motorcycle users. Assessing the impact of the 2009 road traffic law, a drop was observed in the average standardized mortality rate of all road traffic users from 14.56 per 100,000 person years in the period 1996-2008 to 7.69 per 100,000 person years in the period 2009-2014. A similar drop in the average standardized

  18. Roads at risk: traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N. K.; Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.; Nadim, F.

    2015-05-01

    Globalisation and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g. road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load, expressed as vehicle kilometres, because of debris-flow-related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network and quantify the associated path-failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and north-western part of the study area are associated with high link-failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying on speedy delivery of services and goods.

  19. Roads at risk – traffic detours from debris flows in southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Meyer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and interregional exchange of people, goods, and services has boosted the importance of and reliance on all kinds of transport networks. The linear structure of road networks is especially sensitive to natural hazards. In southern Norway, steep topography and extreme weather events promote frequent traffic disruption caused by debris flows. Topographic susceptibility and trigger frequency maps serve as input into a hazard appraisal at the scale of first-order catchments to quantify the impact of debris flows on the road network in terms of a failure likelihood of each link connecting two network vertices, e.g., road junctions. We compute total additional traffic loads as a function of traffic volume and excess distance, i.e. the extra length of an alternative path connecting two previously disrupted network vertices using a shortest-path algorithm. Our risk metric of link failure is the total additional annual traffic load expressed as vehicle kilometers because of debris-flow related road closures. We present two scenarios demonstrating the impact of debris flows on the road network, and quantify the associated path failure likelihood between major cities in southern Norway. The scenarios indicate that major routes crossing the central and northwestern part of the study area are associated with high link failure risk. Yet options for detours on major routes are manifold, and incur only little additional costs provided that drivers are sufficiently well informed about road closures. Our risk estimates may be of importance to road network managers and transport companies relying of speedy delivery of services and goods.

  20. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janneke Berecki-Gisolf

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  1. Self-control of traffic lights and vehicle flows in urban road networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmer, Stefan; Helbing, Dirk

    2008-04-01

    Based on fluid-dynamic and many-particle (car-following) simulations of traffic flows in (urban) networks, we study the problem of coordinating incompatible traffic flows at intersections. Inspired by the observation of self-organized oscillations of pedestrian flows at bottlenecks, we propose a self-organization approach to traffic light control. The problem can be treated as a multi-agent problem with interactions between vehicles and traffic lights. Specifically, our approach assumes a priority-based control of traffic lights by the vehicle flows themselves, taking into account short-sighted anticipation of vehicle flows and platoons. The considered local interactions lead to emergent coordination patterns such as 'green waves' and achieve an efficient, decentralized traffic light control. While the proposed self-control adapts flexibly to local flow conditions and often leads to non-cyclical switching patterns with changing service sequences of different traffic flows, an almost periodic service may evolve under certain conditions and suggests the existence of a spontaneous synchronization of traffic lights despite the varying delays due to variable vehicle queues and travel times. The self-organized traffic light control is based on an optimization and a stabilization rule, each of which performs poorly at high utilizations of the road network, while their proper combination reaches a superior performance. The result is a considerable reduction not only in the average travel times, but also of their variation. Similar control approaches could be applied to the coordination of logistic and production processes.

  2. Road traffic fatalities in Qatar Jordan and UAE

    OpenAIRE

    Elawad, Elmogiera

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smeed’s equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been found inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relations...

  3. Geometric and Road Environmental Effects against Total Number of Traffic Accidents in Kendari

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdin, M. Akbar; Welendo, La; Annisa, Nur

    2017-05-01

    From the large number of traffic accidents that occurred, the carrying of Kendari as the biggest contributor to accidents in the Southeast. The number of accidents in Kendari row since 2011 was recorded at 18 accidents due to the influence of geometric road, in 2012 registered at 13 accident and in 2013 amounted to 6 accidents, with accident data because of the influence Geometric recorded for 3 consecutive years the biggest contributor to accidents because of the influence of geometric is Abeli districts. This study aimed to determine the road which common point of accident-prone (Black spot) in Kecamatan Abeli as accident-prone areas in Kendari, analyze the influence of geometric and road environment against accidents on roads in Kecamatan Abeli, provide alternative treatment based on the causes of accidents on the location of the accident-prone points (blackspot) to reduce the rate of traffic accidents. From the results of a study of 6 curve the accident-prone locations, that the curve I, II, and VI is the “Black Spot” influenced by the amount and condition of traffic accidents, while at the curve II, a traffic accident that occurred also be caused by unsafe geometric where the type of geometric should be changed from Spiral-Spiral type to Spiral-Circle-Spiral type. This indicates geometric effect on the number of accidents.

  4. Comparisons of Traffic Collisions between Expressways and Rural Roads in Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangbok Lee

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study can be used as a guideline and a base line to develop a plan of action to prevent traffic accidents. It can also help to prepare formal regulations about a truck driver's vehicle maintenance and driving attitude for a precaution on road accidents.

  5. Annoyance due to single and combined sound exposure from railway and road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrström, Evy; Barregård, Lars; Andersson, Eva; Skånberg, Annbritt; Svensson, Helena; Angerheim, Pär

    2007-11-01

    Environmental noise is a growing and well recognized health problem. However, in many cases people are exposed not to a single noise source-for example, road, railway, or aircraft noise-but to a combination of noise exposures and there is only limited knowledge of the effects on health of exposure to combined noise sources. A socio-acoustic survey among 1953 persons aged 18-75 years was conducted in residential areas exposed to railway and road traffic noise with sound levels ranging from L(Aeq,24h) 45-72 dB in a municipality east of Gothenburg, Sweden. The objectives were to assess various adverse health effects, including annoyance, and to elucidate the impact of exposure to single and combined noise sources. In areas exposed to both railway and road traffic, the proportion annoyed by the total traffic sound environment (total annoyance) was significantly higher than in areas with one dominant noise source (rail or road traffic) with the same total sound exposure (L(Aeq,24h,tot)). This interaction effect was significant from 59 dB and increased gradually with higher sound levels. Effects of the total sound exposure should be considered in risk assessments and in noise mitigation activities.

  6. Prediction of road traffic death rate using neural networks optimised by genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Seyed Ali; Jahandideh, Sepideh; Jahandideh, Mina; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are realised as a main cause of public health problems at global, regional and national levels. Therefore, prediction of road traffic death rate will be helpful in its management. Based on this fact, we used an artificial neural network model optimised through Genetic algorithm to predict mortality. In this study, a five-fold cross-validation procedure on a data set containing total of 178 countries was used to verify the performance of models. The best-fit model was selected according to the root mean square errors (RMSE). Genetic algorithm, as a powerful model which has not been introduced in prediction of mortality to this extent in previous studies, showed high performance. The lowest RMSE obtained was 0.0808. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the use of Genetic algorithm as a powerful optimiser which selects the best input feature set to be fed into the neural networks. Seven factors have been known as the most effective factors on the road traffic mortality rate by high accuracy. The gained results displayed that our model is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better method for assessing the influence of road traffic mortality risk factors.

  7. A mathematical theory for related long term developments of road traffic and safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppe, S. & Koornstra, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents and discusses an adoptive evolution model for forecasting long term developments in road safety. It takes into account both traffic growth and human adaptation. Earlier parsimonious models such as those used here are also discussed, and shown to predict trends in accident rates

  8. Cardiovascular effects of road traffic noise with adjustment for air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Miedema, H.M.E.; Gansevoort, R.T.; Jong, P.E. de

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates cardiovascular effects of road traffic noise, accounting for air pollution. Noise and particulate matter (PM10) exposure was assessed for the City of Groningen sample (N = 40 856), and a selection of subjects that next visited the outpatient clinic (PREVEND cohort; N = 8 592)

  9. Calibrating Car Following Parameters for Snowy Road Conditions in the Microscopic Traffic Simulator VISSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asamer, J.; Van Zuylen, H.J.; Heilmann, B.

    2013-01-01

    Calibrated simulation models taking into account adverse weather conditions can be used to optimise traffic management strategies, such as speed adaptation and signal timing optimisation. On snowy road conditions, car following behaviour changes because drivers tend to accelerate more slowly, increa

  10. The effects of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on children's episodic memory: the RANCH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Mark; Clark, Charlotte; Martin, Rocio; van Kempen, Elise; Haines, Mary; Barrio, Isabel Lopez; Hygge, Staffan; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have found that chronic exposure to aircraft noise has a negative effect on children's performance on tests of episodic memory. The present study extended the design of earlier studies in three ways: firstly, by examining the effects of two noise sources, aircraft and road traffic, secondly, by examining exposure-effect relationships, and thirdly, by carrying out parallel field studies in three European countries, allowing cross-country comparisons to be made. A total of 2844 children aged between 8 years 10 months and 12 years 10 months (mean age 10 years 6 months) completed classroom-based tests of cued recall, recognition memory and prospective memory. Questionnaires were also completed by the children and their parents in order to provide information about socioeconomic context. Multilevel modeling analysis revealed aircraft noise to be associated with an impairment of recognition memory in a linear exposure-effect relationship. The analysis also found road traffic noise to be associated with improved performance on cued recall in a linear exposure-effect relationship. No significant association was found between exposure to aircraft noise and cued recall or prospective memory. Likewise, no significant association was found between road traffic noise and recognition or prospective memory. Taken together, these findings indicate that exposure to aircraft noise and road traffic noise can impact on certain aspects of children's episodic memory.

  11. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sørensen, M.; Andersen, Z.J.; Nordsborg, R.B.; Jensen, S.; Lillelund, K.G.; Beelen, R.M.J.; Schmidt, E.B.; Tjønneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 ca

  12. Redistribution of traffic related air pollution associated with a new road tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Christine T; Rose, Nectarios; Gillett, Robert; Walter, Scott; Marks, Guy B

    2012-03-06

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a new road tunnel on the concentration and distribution of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), specifically nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), and to determine its relationship to change in traffic flow. We used continuously recorded data from four monitoring stations at nonroadside locations within the study area and three regional monitors outside the area. The four monitors in the study area were in background locations where smaller pollutant changes were expected compared with changes near the bypassed main road. We also deployed passive samplers to assess finer spatial variability in NO(2) including application of a land use regression model (LUR). The study was conducted from 2006 to 2008. Analysis of the continuously recorded data showed that the tunnel intervention did not lead to consistent reductions in NO(2) or PM over the wider study area. However, there were significant decreases in NO(2), NO(x), and PM(10) in the eastern section of the study area. Analysis of passive sampler data indicated that the greatest reductions in NO(2) concentrations occurred within 100 m of the bypassed main road. The LUR model also demonstrated that changes in NO(2) were most marked adjacent to the bypassed main road. These findings support the use of methods that highlight fine spatial variability in TRAP and demonstrate the utility of traffic interventions in reducing air pollution exposures for populations living close to main roads.

  13. Road traffic injuries among children and adolescents in Singapore - Who is at greatest risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Shu-Ling; Tyebally, Arif; Chew, Su Yah; Lim, Yang Chern; Feng, Xun Yi; Chin, Sock Teng; Lee, Lois K

    2017-03-01

    Pediatric road traffic injuries remain a significant cause of death and disability in many countries in Asia, despite the implementation of road traffic safety laws. We aim to describe the injuries, the use of restraints among road users, and risk factors associated with severe injuries for children in Singapore. We performed a retrospective chart review of road traffic injuries presenting to the only two pediatric tertiary care hospitals in Singapore, from January 2012 to April 2016. We included children injuries (death, urgent resuscitation and emergent surgery). We performed a multivariate logistic regression to determine risk factors associated with severe injury. There were 2468 patients during the study period. The mean age was 7.9 years (SD 4.7); 60.1% of road injuries involved motor vehicle occupants (1483/2468). Most bicyclist/motorcyclists were not wearing helmets (70.0%, 245/350) and 51.1% of motor vehicle passengers (758/1483) were not restrained. Compared to motor vehicle passengers, pedestrians (adjusted OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.41-3.99), bicyclists (adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.04-4.32) and motorcyclists (adjusted OR 6.09, 95% CI 2.04-18.24) were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Child pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists are especially vulnerable for severe injures. Further injury prevention efforts must focus on the enforcement of legislation to protect these high-risk groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring road traffic congestion using a macroscopic traffic model and a statistical monitoring scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Zeroual, Abdelhafid

    2017-08-19

    Monitoring vehicle traffic flow plays a central role in enhancing traffic management, transportation safety and cost savings. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for detection of traffic congestion. Specifically, we combine the flexibility and simplicity of a piecewise switched linear (PWSL) macroscopic traffic model and the greater capacity of the exponentially-weighted moving average (EWMA) monitoring chart. Macroscopic models, which have few, easily calibrated parameters, are employed to describe a free traffic flow at the macroscopic level. Then, we apply the EWMA monitoring chart to the uncorrelated residuals obtained from the constructed PWSL model to detect congested situations. In this strategy, wavelet-based multiscale filtering of data has been used before the application of the EWMA scheme to improve further the robustness of this method to measurement noise and reduce the false alarms due to modeling errors. The performance of the PWSL-EWMA approach is successfully tested on traffic data from the three lane highway portion of the Interstate 210 (I-210) highway of the west of California and the four lane highway portion of the State Route 60 (SR60) highway from the east of California, provided by the Caltrans Performance Measurement System (PeMS). Results show the ability of the PWSL-EWMA approach to monitor vehicle traffic, confirming the promising application of this statistical tool to the supervision of traffic flow congestion.

  15. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  16. Study on serious road traffic injuries in the EU.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L.T. Commandeur, J.J.F. Welsh, R. Niesen, S. Lerner, M. Thomas, P. Bos, N. & Davidse, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    It is the ambition of the EU to reduce the number of killed and seriously injured on the roads over time. It has turned out that, especially in relation to serious injuries, there is still a significant knowledge gap on how to reduce these numbers in the EU. The Commission is therefore committed to

  17. Distinguishing traffic modes in analysing road safety development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipdonk, H. & Berends, E.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in mobility influence road safety. The effects of safety measures may even be overshadowed by the effects of temporary mobility fluctuations. Usually mobility is corrected for by defining risk as the ratio between fatalities and mobility. Due to lack of sufficient data, mobility is often

  18. Modelling of road traffic for traffic flow optimization of modern regional center as an example of Odessa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myronenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present sharply there is a problem of traffic management especially in big cities. The increase in the number of vehicles, both personal and public, led to congestion of city roads, many hours of traffic jams, difficulty of movement of pedestrians, increase the number of accidents, etc. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the possibility of using simulation models to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. To achieve this goal in a simulation environment the data base of the transport network will be developed. Materials and Methods: The problem of analysis and optimization of traffic flow is considered by the example of the city of Odessa (Ukraine, the results and recommendations can be easily adapted for other cities of Ukraine, and for the cities of most countries of the former socialist bloc. Features of transport systems make it impossible to build an adequate analytical model to explore options for the management of the system and its characteristic in different conditions. At the same time simulation modelling as a method to study such objects is a promising for the solution to this problem. As a simulation environment an OmniTRANS package as a universal tool for modeling of discrete, continuous and hybrid systems. Results: With OmniTRANS programs the model of traffic in Odessa was derived and the intensity of the traffic flow. B first approximation the transport network of the central district of the city was considered and built; without calibration and simulation it was developed a database of elements of the transport network and shown how it can be used to solve problems of analysis and optimization of traffic flows. Models constructed from elements of created database, allows you to change the level of detail of the simulated objects and phenomena, thereby obtaining models as macro and micro level.

  19. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  20. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-12-29

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  1. Road Traffic Injuries Among Iranian Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salar Behzadnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the leading cause of death and globally kill 1.2 million people every year and leave 20 - 50 million people injured and disabled. In Iran, traffic related fatalities are the leading cause of death among all inadvertent fatal injuries imposed on children under five. Herein, authors review the epidemiological studies performed on vehicle accidents among Iranian children and adolescents to improve the knowledge about these preventable events. Evidence Acquisition: International databases including PubMed, Google scholar, science direct Cochrane library, and national data bases such as scientific information database (SID were searched for terms; children, motor vehicle accident, road traffic injuries, Iran 2000 - 2015. Publication in Persian or English language related to the subject including Iranian children and adolescent's age groups were included. Among the 312 articles, 11 (two abstracts and nine full texts were selected. Nine full texts were reviewed. Results: From 22865 victims, about 3578 children and adolescents under 19 years old were identified. Males were more affected than females. Pedestrian injury with 43.66% was the most common case of road traffic injuries. Head trauma was the most common cause of injuries reported by eight of the reviewed articles. Most of the accidents occurred between 1:00 - 6:00 PM. Most of RTIs occurred in summer. Care by emergency medical services (EMS (29.14% was reported by five out of the nine reviewed article. Conclusions: Most of the road traffic injuries among Iranian children and adolescents are preventable using appropriate preventive strategies such as safety facilities, safe vehicles, and safe traffic behavior, and establishing comprehensive public education programs for older children and their parents.

  2. Correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending IIR hospital Kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibajee Debbarma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globally, road traffic accidents rank 8th among the leading causes of death. According to WHO data, deaths from road traffic injuries account for around 25% of all deaths from injury.Objective: To study the various correlates of road traffic accident in cases attending LLR Hospital, Kanpur.Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among road traffic accident cases attending Emergency Ward of Lala Lajpat Rai Hospital, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh during the period of March-September, 2015. Data was recorded in a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0.Results: Out of 609 RTA cases, maximum number (54.19% were in 20-40 years age group. Most of the RTA victims were males (69.95% and majority were literate (90.97%. Maximum number (28.74% of RTA took place between 4.00 p.m-8.00 p.m. Maximum number (36.95% of RTA victims were two-wheeler drivers, followed by two-wheeler riders (26.60%. 16.60% of drivers of motorized vehicles had no driving license. 85.48% of motorized vehicle users were not using any protective gear (helmet, seat belt etc. at the time of accident.Conclusion: Young adults in the economically most productive age group were the commonest victims of RTA. There is need of creating awareness regarding traffic rules among general public and strict enforcement of traffic rules by the concerned authorities.

  3. An Evaluation of Traffic Management at ISF Academy on Kong Sin Wan Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M.

    2016-12-01

    The ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students, is located on Kong Sin Wan Road. The majority of students from the academy commute to school every morning by private cars, school buses and other public transportation. For the past few years, the school management team has been imposing traffic management regulations to alleviate and minimize traffic congestion in the nearby area. In spite of that, traffic management on Kong Sin Wan Road is fairly limited and inadequate, resulting in congestion at the start and finish of the school day. As a school, we are dedicated to reduce and mitigate the number of private cars and school buses, as well as to control carbon dioxide emissions from the variety of vehicles. In order to implement strategies to make improvements to the current traffic management system, we, as a school, aim to establish a systematic approach to calculate and model the number of private cars, EV cars, plug-in hybrids and school buses flowing near the ISF campus every day, and the number of students on each vehicle. According to the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the average annual carbon dioxide emission for a typical passenger vehicle is 4.7 metric tons. By multiplying the average carbon dioxide emission by the number of cars coming to campus every morning, we will gain a better understanding of the amount of carbon dioxide emitted from school vehicles. To extend the research, we will design a survey to investigate and encourage carpooling between families and students who live close, in order to combat and relieve rising traffic congestion and minimize cars crowding the roads. The traffic study project will not only help the school community create a more environment-friendly campus, but also improve the traffic congestion around the school area.

  4. Culture related to road traffic safety: a comparison of eight countries using two conceptualizations of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfjærn, Trond; Şimşekoğlu, Özlem; Rundmo, Torbjorn

    2014-01-01

    The majority of previous cross-country studies of human factors relevant to traffic safety have not operationalized and measured culture. Also studies in this vein have mostly been carried out in Europe and the United States. The aim of the study was to examine country cluster differences, based on the Culture's Consequences framework, in road traffic risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in samples from Norway, Russia, India, Ghana, Tanzania, Uganda, Turkey and Iran. An additional aim was to examine cluster differences in road traffic culture as symbol use and to investigate whether this theoretical cultural framework predicts risk perception, attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour in the country clusters. The sample consisted of a total of 2418 individuals who were obtained by convenience sampling in the different countries. The countries segmented into four Culture's Consequences clusters; Norway, Russia and India, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Near East countries. The findings showed that Norwegians reported overall safer attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour than the remaining country clusters. Individuals in Africa reported the highest risk perception. The countries also differed substantially in road traffic culture as symbol use. Contrary to established cultural theory, prediction models revealed that cultural factors were stronger predictors of driver behaviour than of risk perception. Also, the social cognitive risk constructs (i.e. risk perception and attitudes) solely explained variance in driver behaviour in the Norwegian and Russia/India clusters. Previous empirical efforts, which aimed to demonstrate that culture is important for the risk perception criterion, may have focused on a criterion variable that is not strongly related to driver behaviour. Furthermore, countermeasures aimed to influence social cognition may have stronger applicability in countries with a more individualistic western

  5. Emission and energy consumption characteristics of interrupted over-saturated flow for urban roads with heterogeneous traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar SHARMA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is a major source of air pollution particularly in towns and cities. In urban areas road traffic accounts for more than half of the emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon mono-oxide and volatile organic compounds. This paper presents emission and energy consumption characteristics of urban roads with interrupted oversaturated flow comprising of heterogeneous traffic. Model has been developed for heterogeneous traffic under constraints of roadway geometry, vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic controls and has been calibrated and validated for interrupted oversaturated traffic conditions. Interrupted oversaturated flow conditions prevail in urban areas of most of the developing countries. The model developed shall predict carbon mono- oxide (CO, nitrogen oxides (NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOC, carbon dioxide (CO2 and fuel and energy consumption estimates for urban roads operating under oversaturated conditions of flow. Since model provides improved estimates of speed, delay and congestion it provides better estimates of emissions and energy consumption.

  6. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  7. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  8. MODELING OF THE VULNERABILITY RELATED TO THE DYNAMIC ROAD TRAFFIC

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The utilization of the road network by vehicles with different behaviors can generate a danger under normal and especially under evacuation situations. In Le Havre agglomeration (CODAH), there are 33 establishments classified SEVESO with high threshold. The modeling and assessment of the danger is useful when it intersects with the exposed stakes. The most important factor is people. In the literature, vulnerability maps are constructed to help decision makers assess t...

  9. Induced traffic demand, driven by road infrastructure improvements, in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marn, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    In this master thesis we confirmed the hypothesis that increased road capacity due to shorter travel times results in increased number of kilometers travelled by car. It deals with a theoretical basis of induced travel as well as with a review of numerous case studies in the international literature, evaluating the volume of induced travel. We have concluded that those studies that attributed an important impact to induced travel are numerous, more complex and they are of more recent date tha...

  10. Street characteristics and traffic factors determining road users' exposure to black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dons, Evi; Temmerman, Philip; Van Poppel, Martine; Bellemans, Tom; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-03-01

    Many studies nowadays make the effort of determining personal exposure rather than estimating exposure at the residential address only. While intra-urban air pollution can be modeled quite easily using interpolation methods, estimating exposure in transport is more challenging. The aim of this study is to investigate which factors determine black carbon (BC) concentrations in transport microenvironments. Therefore personal exposure measurements are carried out using portable aethalometers, trip diaries and GPS devices. More than 1500 trips, both by active modes and by motorized transport, are evaluated in Flanders, Belgium. GPS coordinates are assigned to road segments to allow BC concentrations to be linked with trip and road characteristics (trip duration, degree of urbanization, road type, traffic intensity, travel speed and road speed). Average BC concentrations on highways (10.7μg/m(3)) are comparable to concentrations on urban roads (9.6μg/m(3)), but levels are significantly higher than concentrations on rural roads (6.1μg/m(3)). Highways yield higher BC exposures for motorists compared to exposure on major roads and local roads. Overall BC concentrations are elevated at lower speeds (cyclists and pedestrians the range in BC exposure is smaller and models are less predictive; for active modes exposure seems to be influenced by timing and degree of urbanization only.

  11. MODEL CAR TRAFFIC ON SECTIONS OF ROADS WITH LIMITED VISIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Skrypnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Existing theoretical calculations speeds in areas of horizontal and vertical curves designed for the needs of construction and calculation of cars and can not be used for valuation. When calculating the value of the coefficient of friction velocity determined at full wheel lock that does not correspond to the actual conditions of braking stability conditions of the car within its lane. The article proposes to calculate the permissible vehicle speed for the sites of horizontal and vertical curves on forest roads from the requirement car stop within the zone of visibility without buckling considering assumptions: during braking movement remains manageable, the driver keeps the car in the outside lane; magnitude of the angular velocity of the steering wheel is small; fully utilized inhibitory properties least loaded wheel; cornering power coefficient of resistance of tires depends little on the change of loads on the bus; low rolling resistance. Studied are normal reactions to the vehicle wheels when braking, namely found that if the friction coefficient on the road for less than the calculated optimal braking, the restriction on the braking occurs danger of losing control of the car skidding due to the front wheels. If the coefficient of friction on the road more than the calculated optimal braking, the braking force limitation occurs for blocking the rear axle. When comparing full stopping distance with the existing area of visibility is determined permissible speed.

  12. Impact of traffic congestion on road accidents: a spatial analysis of the M25 motorway in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Quddus, Mohammed A; Ison, Stephen G

    2009-07-01

    Traffic congestion and road accidents are two external costs of transport and the reduction of their impacts is often one of the primary objectives for transport policy makers. The relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents however is not apparent and less studied. It is speculated that there may be an inverse relationship between traffic congestion and road accidents, and as such this poses a potential dilemma for transport policy makers. This study aims to explore the impact of traffic congestion on the frequency of road accidents using a spatial analysis approach, while controlling for other relevant factors that may affect road accidents. The M25 London orbital motorway, divided into 70 segments, was chosen to conduct this study and relevant data on road accidents, traffic and road characteristics were collected. A robust technique has been developed to map M25 accidents onto its segments. Since existing studies have often used a proxy to measure the level of congestion, this study has employed a precise congestion measurement. A series of Poisson based non-spatial (such as Poisson-lognormal and Poisson-gamma) and spatial (Poisson-lognormal with conditional autoregressive priors) models have been used to account for the effects of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation. The results suggest that traffic congestion has little or no impact on the frequency of road accidents on the M25 motorway. All other relevant factors have provided results consistent with existing studies.

  13. Can road traffic mask sound from wind turbines? Response to wind turbine sound at different levels of road traffic sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, Eja; van den Berg, Frits; Bakker, Roel; Bouma, Jelte

    Wind turbines are favoured in the switch-over to renewable energy. Suitable sites for further developments could be difficult to find as the sound emitted from the rotor blades calls for a sufficient distance to residents to avoid negative effects. The aim of this study was to explore if road

  14. The use of Grey System Theory in predicting the road traffic accident in Fars province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohammadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have become a more and more important factor that restrict the development of economy and threaten the safety of human beings. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the influencing factors on traffic accidents, traffic accident forecasting can be regarded as a grey system with unknown and known information, so be analyzed by grey system theory. Grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behavior of unknown systems. In this paper, first, the original predicted values of road traffic accidents are separately obtained by the GM (1,1 model, the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. The results of these models on predicting road traffic accident show that the forecasting accuracy of the GM(1,1 is higher than the Verhulst model and the DGM(2,1 model. Then, the GM(1,1 model is applied to predict road traffic accident in Fars province.

  15. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  16. HOW TRAVEL DEMAND AFFECTS DETECTION OF NON-RECURRENT TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON URBAN ROAD NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London’s urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  17. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  18. The improved degree of urban road traffic network: A case study of Xiamen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiguang; Zheng, Lili; Yu, Dexin

    2017-03-01

    The complex network theory is applied to the study of urban road traffic network topology, and we constructed a new measure to characterize an urban road network. It is inspiring to quantify the interaction more appropriately between nodes in complex networks, especially in the field of traffic. The measure takes into account properties of lanes (e.g. number of lanes, width, traffic direction). As much, it is a more comprehensive measure in comparison to previous network measures. It can be used to grasp the features of urban street network more clearly. We applied this measure to the road network in Xiamen, China. Based on a standard method from statistical physics, we examined in more detail the distribution of this new measure and found that (1) due to the limitation of space geographic attributes, traditional research conclusions acquired by using the original definition of degree to study the primal approach modeled urban street network are not very persuasive; (2) both of the direction of the network connection and the degree's odd or even classifications need to be analyzed specifically; (3) the improved degree distribution presents obvious hierarchy, and hierarchical values conform to the power-law distribution, and correlation of our new measure shows some significant segmentation of the urban road network.

  19. Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: a French registry-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine Orriols

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]. We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40] and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40] prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27]. CONCLUSION: The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.

  20. Noise Impact and Improvement on Indoors Acoustic Comfort for the Building Adjacent to Heavy Traffic Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhisheng; Li Dongmei; Mei Sheng; Zhang Guoqiang; Liu Jianlong

    2007-01-01

    A good acoustic environment is absolutely essential to maintaining a high level satisfaction and moral health among residents. Noise and other boresome sounds come from both indoor and outdoor sources. For the residential buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roads, outdoors traffic noise is the main source that affects indoor acoustic quality and health. Ventilation and outdoor noise prevention become a pair of contradictions for the residents in China nowadays for those buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roads. It is investigated that traffic noise emission is mainly constituted by the motors of trucks, buses and motorcycles as well as brake. In this paper, two methods of traffic noise reduction on the indoor sound environment and comfort are carried out to study and compare the residential buildings adjacent to heavy traffic roadway in a city. One is to install noise barriers on the two sides of the roadway, which consist of sound-proof glass and plastic materials. The effect of sound-insulation of this method is heavily dependent on the relative distance between the noise barrier and indoors. A reduction of sound with an average pressure level of 2-15dB is achieved on the places behind and under the noise barrier. However, for the equivalent of noise barrier height,the noise reduction effect is little. As for the places of higher than the noise barrier, the traffic noise will be even strengthened by 3-7 dB. Noise increment can be seen at the points of distance farther than 15m and height more than noise barrier; the noise reduction effect is not satisfactory or even worsened. In addition,not every location is appropriate to install the noise barrier along the heavy traffic roads. The other method of noise reduction for the buildings adjacent to heavy traffic is to install the airproof and soundproof windows, which is the conversion from natural ventilation to mechanical ventilation. A reduction of sound with an average pressure level of 5dB to 17dB can be

  1. An Operational System for Estimating Road Traffic Information from Aerial Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Leitloff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given that ground stationary infrastructures for traffic monitoring are barely able to handle everyday traffic volumes, there is a risk that they could fail altogether in situations arising from mass events or disasters. In this work, we present an alternative approach for traffic monitoring during disaster and mass events, which is based on an airborne optical sensor system. With this system, optical image sequences are automatically examined on board an aircraft to estimate road traffic information, such as vehicle positions, velocities and driving directions. The traffic information, estimated in real time on board, is immediately downlinked to a ground station. The airborne sensor system consists of a three-head camera system, a real-time-capable GPS/INS unit, five industrial PCs and a downlink unit. The processing chain for automatic extraction of traffic information contains modules for the synchronization of image and navigation data streams, orthorectification and vehicle detection and tracking modules. The vehicle detector is based on a combination of AdaBoost and support vector machine classifiers. Vehicle tracking relies on shape-based matching operators. The processing chain is evaluated on a large number of image sequences recorded during several campaigns, and the data quality is compared to that obtained from induction loops. In summary, we can conclude that the achieved overall quality of the traffic data extracted by the airborne system is in the range of 68% and 81%. Thus, it is comparable to data obtained from stationary ground sensor networks.

  2. Knowledge of Traffic Laws and Drivers Behavior on the Roads of Tripoli City, Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A.M. Yahia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the knowledge of traffic rules and laws among a sample of drivers from the city of Tripoli and their behavior with respect to the same. A random sample of 416 drivers was selected from various regions for Tripoli, namely: Tajura, Abo Saleem, City Centre and Janzour and administered a questionnaire that would elicit and record their knowledge and behavior regarding road rules and regulations. The study revealed that traffic accidents are most affected by and positively, statistically correlated with certain key behavioral variables determinants such as: commitment to the speed limit, respect for traffic signals, compliance with seat belt use, use of mobile phones, driving under psychological stress or when sick and eating while driving. The study also found that 56% are no committed to the speed limit, only 41% were seat-belt compliant while driving and 71% of them used mobile phones while driving. Sixty nine percent of drivers opted financial penalty for mobile phone use during driving, this may be an indication that alternate traffic rules penalties may be enforced to deter drivers from repeat offenses. Thereto, a numbers of recommendations were presented for implementation by the relevant authorities. Overall, the study found that Tripoli drivers' knowledge of/on traffic laws and accident-risks didn't affect their behavior on the road.

  3. STUDY OF INJURY PATTERN IN HUMAN BEINGS IN ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS INVOLVING TWO WHEELERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seethalakshmi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available India experienced very rapid population growth from 48 million to 1.2 billion in a span of decades. In India rapid urbanization, industrialization, population explosion and migration of people in past two decades r esults in enormous growth in the field of road transportation. This resulted in increasing amount of the road traffic leading to increased risk for occurrence of road traffic accidents. In India road traffic injuries will be third leading cause of death by 2020 with the increase in the use of two wheelers and congestion and environmental pollution this mortality rate will continue to rise. Considering the preciousness of human lives, this study has been undertaken to analyse the pattern of injuries in Road Traffic Accidents Involving Two Wheelers to create awareness among the law enforcing authorities, transport authorities and public regarding two wheeler fatalities. A sincere attempt has been made in this study to analyse the distribution of the pattern of injuries sustained by two wheeler travellers, so that appropriate interventional strategies can be evolved at various levels and by different agencies. 147 Two wheeler Accident victims were randomly selected from 1063 road traffic accident cases brought t o the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Madras Medical College Chennai - 3 for routine medico legal examination. Preliminary data were collected from the medico legal documents such as history of the case, Inquest form, First Information Report, Accident Regis ter, Death Report, Clinical data submitted by the investigating officer at the time of medico legal examination. During autopsy, on external exami nation, nature of injury, size, number were measured in all cases. Internal organ injuries were recorded. Caus e of death was arrived at based on the findings made out during autopsy. Totally 147 motorcyclist victims were included in this study in which demographic factors such as age, sex, time of accident, manner of collision

  4. Respiratory health before and after the opening of a road traffic tunnel: a planned evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine T Cowie

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The construction of a new road tunnel in Sydney, Australia, and concomitant reduction in traffic on a major road presented the opportunity to study the effects of this traffic intervention on respiratory health. METHODS: We made measurements in a cohort of residents in the year before the tunnel opened (2006 and in each of two years afterwards (2007-2008. Cohort members resided in one of four exposure zones, including a control zone. Each year, a respiratory questionnaire was administered (n = 2,978 and a panel sub-cohort (n = 380 performed spirometry once and recorded peak expiratory flow and symptoms twice daily for nine weeks. RESULTS: There was no consistent evidence of improvement in respiratory health in residents living along the bypassed main road, despite a reduction in traffic from 90,000 to 45,000 vpd. Residents living near tunnel feeder roads reported more upper respiratory symptoms in the survey but not in the panel sub-cohort. Residents living around the tunnel ventilation stack reported more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and had lower spirometric volumes after the tunnel opened. Air pollutant levels measured near the stack did not increase over the study period. CONCLUSION: The finding of adverse health effects among residents living around the stack is unexpected and difficult to explain, but might be due to unmeasured pollutants or risk factors or an unrecognized pollutant source nearby. The lack of improvement in respiratory health among people living along the bypassed main road probably reflects a minimal change in exposure due to distance of residence from the road.

  5. Man, road and vehicle: risk factors associated with the severity of traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Rosa Lívia Freitas de; Bezerra Filho, José Gomes; Braga, José Ueleres; Magalhães, Francismeire Brasileiro; Macedo, Marinila Calderaro Munguba; Silva, Kellyanne Abreu

    2013-08-01

    To describe the main characteristics of victims, roads and vehicles involved in traffic accidents and the risk factors involved in accidents resulting in death. METHODS A non-concurrent cohort study of traffic accidents in Fortaleza, CE, Northeastern Brazil, in the period from January 2004 to December 2008. Data from the Fortaleza Traffic Accidents Information System, the Mortality Information System, the Hospital Information System and the State Traffic Department Driving Licenses and Vehicle database. Deterministic and probabilistic relationship techniques were used to integrate the databases. First, descriptive analysis of data relating to people, roads, vehicles and weather was carried out. In the investigation of risk factors for death by traffic accident, generalized linear models were used. The fit of the model was verified by likelihood ratio and ROC analysis. RESULTS There were 118,830 accidents recorded in the period. The most common types of accidents were crashes/collisions (78.1%), running over pedestrians (11.9%), colliding with a fixed obstacle (3.9%), and with motorcycles (18.1%). Deaths occurred in 1.4% of accidents. The factors that were independently associated with death by traffic accident in the final model were bicycles (OR = 21.2, 95%CI 16.1;27.8), running over pedestrians OR = 5.9 (95%CI 3.7;9.2), collision with a fixed obstacle (OR = 5.7, 95%CI 3.1;10.5) and accidents involving motorcyclists (OR = 3.5, 95%CI 2.6;4.6). The main contributing factors were a single person being involved (OR = 6.6, 95%CI 4.1;10.73), presence of unskilled drivers (OR = 4.1, 95%CI 2.9;5.5) a single vehicle (OR = 3.9, 95%CI 2,3;6,4), male (OR = 2.5, 95%CI 1.9;3.3), traffic on roads under federal jurisdiction (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.7), early morning hours (OR = 2.4, 95%CI 1.8;3.0), and Sundays (OR = 1.7, 95%CI 1.3;2.2), adjusted according to the log-binomial model. CONCLUSIONS Activities promoting the prevention of traffic accidents should primarily focus on

  6. Road traffic accidents; An observational and analytical study exploring the hidden truths in Pakistan and South East-Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Hussain1, Li Yu Shu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite national traffic legislation and known safety benefits of traffic laws, awareness remains low in Pakistan. Study aim was to determine level of knowledge about traffic legislation and attitudes towards their observation in capital city Islamabad to provide baseline data for formulation of an intervention aimed at strengthening road safety law enforcement. Survey-Analysis with Random Observational study was conducted by using standard survey questionnaire focusing Roadsafety awareness levels and use of helmets/seatbelts on MainRoads and StreetRoads.Drivers/passengers/pedestrian were randomly selected to participate in face-to-face interview to ascertain attitudes. Overall, Deficient Road-Safety Awareness was at top(27%followed by wrong use/no use of seatbelts/helmets(21% and legislative aspects were at last(17%including under-age driving,vehicles without fitness and licensure problems exploring the bitter hidden truths. Actions areas for preventing Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs include interventions to improve road-safety education, identification /implementation of safety measures for traffic black-spots, enforcement of seatbelt/helmet laws and the development of highway ordinances. PRECAUTION IS BETTER THAN CURE as Road Traffic Accidents are 100% preventable.

  7. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tél. 72978 - 164082

  8. Single lane traffic in Adams road (Prévessin Site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 20th August, ST Division will be opening trenches in order to allow a number of power, control and optical fibre cables to be laid across Adams road (see plan). For the duration of the work, the road will be barred to all heavy loads/lorries and alternative arrangements will be put in place for normal traffic. Temporary lights will be installed. We kindly ask all users to respect these temporary arrangements. The work will take two weeks given favorable conditions. Thank you for your understanding in this matter. ST-EL Group Tel. 72978 - 164082

  9. Online Optimal Control of Connected Vehicles for Efficient Traffic Flow at Merging Roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pisu, Pierluigi [Clemson University

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of coordinating online connected vehicles at merging roads to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We present a framework and a closed-form solution that optimize the acceleration profile of each vehicle in terms of fuel economy while avoiding collision with other vehicles at the merging zone. The proposed solution is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of connected vehicles can reduce significantly fuel consumption and travel time at merging roads.

  10. Upon an issue of correlation between the running speed of vehicles and traffic capacity of a road section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiginschi, L.; Agape, I.

    2016-08-01

    The paper focuses on current algorithms for calculating the traffic capacity of the road sections, provided in various national standards. These algorithms were jointly considering some common groups of factors, such as factors related to the dynamic performance of vehicles and factors related to geometrical - dimensional configuration of the road. The algorithms have particular forms for continuous traffic flow and for discontinuous traffic. As a first stage, there were considered the algorithms for the continuous flows, for which were studied the points of extreme variance for traffic capacity, depending on the running speed. Maximum traffic capacity analytical form for a road section, in continuous traffic flow variant does not depend explicitly of average speed, but allows the evaluation of certain important factors (length section, acceleration at start-up, braking deceleration of vehicles, driver's perception-reaction time, brake friction coefficient, etc.). Consequently, various ways are identified to improve road traffic capacity. The paper justifies reconsideration of the notion of traffic fluence as defined by various national standards; as it stands, the definition of fluency is artificial in relation to the maximum legal speed on that road section, even though the value of that speed is physically impossible.

  11. Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabio Murena

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring campaign of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o- m- and p-xylene) was carried out nearby two tunnel portals in the urban area of Naples with the aim to verify air quality in this kind of urban sites. Sampling was carried out using the active adsorption technique. Sampling time was 1 h. Ambient temperature and traffic flow measurements were carried out during each sampling operation. The results indicate that average benzene concentrations at both sites exceed the limit value of 10 μg/Nm3 established by the European Community (EC) (Dir. 2000/69). Concentration levels of other BTEX are relatively high as well. A correlation between BTEX concentration and two wheeler vehicle flow was observed.

  12. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.

  13. Air quality nearby road traffic tunnel portals: BTEX monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murena, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    A monitoring campaign of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o- m- and p-xylene) was carried out nearby two tunnel portals in the urban area of Naples with the aim to verify air quality in this kind of urban sites. Sampling was carried out using the active adsorption technique. Sampling time was 1 h. Ambient temperature and traffic flow measurements were carried out during each sampling operation. The results indicate that average benzene concentrations at both sites exceed the limit value of 10 microg/Nm3 established by the European Community (EC) (Dir. 2000/69). Concentration levels of other BTEX are relatively high as well. A correlation between BTEX concentration and two wheeler vehicle flow was observed.

  14. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  15. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andishe Ranjbari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. METHODS: According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. RESULTS: It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of

  16. Analysis of factors associated with traffic injury severity on rural roads in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Ali Tavakoli; Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Ranjbari, Andishe

    2012-01-01

    Iran is a country with one of the highest rates of traffic crash fatality and injury, and seventy percent of these fatalities happen on rural roads. The objective of this study is to identify the significant factors influencing injury severity among drivers involved in crashes on two kinds of major rural roads in Iran: two-lane, two-way roads and freeways. According to the dataset, 213569 drivers were involved in rural road crashes in Iran, over the 3 years from 2006 to 2008. The Classification And Regression Tree method (CART) was applied for 13 independent variables, and one target variable of injury severity with 3 classes of no-injury, injury and fatality. Some of the independent variables were cause of crash, collision type, weather conditions, road surface conditions, driver's age and gender and seat belt usage. The CART model was trained by 70% of these data, and tested with the rest. It was indicated that seat belt use is the most important safety factor for two-lane, two-way rural roads, but on freeways, the importance of this variable is less. Cause of crash, also turned out to be the next most important variable. The results showed that for two-lane, two-way rural roads, "improper overtaking" and "speeding", and for rural freeways, "inattention to traffic ahead", "vehicle defect", and "movement of pedestrians, livestock and unauthorized vehicles on freeways" are the most serious causes of increasing injury severity. The analysis results revealed seat belt use, cause of crash and collision type as the most important variables influencing the injury severity of traffic crashes. To deal with these problems, intensifying police enforcement by means of mobile patrol vehicles, constructing overtaking lanes where necessary, and prohibiting the crossing of pedestrians and livestock and the driving of unauthorized vehicles on freeways are necessary. Moreover, creating a rumble strip on the two edges of roads, and paying attention to the design consistency of

  17. Simulating the interaction of road users: A glance to complexity of Venezuelan traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Juan C; Bazzan, Ana L C; Jaffe, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Automotive traffic is a classical example of a complex system, being the simplest case the homogeneous traffic where all vehicles are of the same kind, and using different means of transportation increases complexity due to different driving rules and interactions between each vehicle type. In particular, when motorcyclists drive in between the lanes of stopped or slow-moving vehicles. This later driving mode is a Venezuelan pervasive practice of mobilization that clearly jeopardizes road safety. We developed a minimalist agent-based model to analyze the interaction of road users with and without motorcyclists on the way. The presence of motorcyclists dwindles significantly the frequency of lane changes of motorists while increasing their frequency of acceleration-deceleration maneuvers, without significantly affecting their average speed. That is, motorcyclist "corralled" motorists in their lanes limiting their ability to maneuver and increasing their acceleration noise. Comparison of the simulations with re...

  18. PREDICTION OF THE VALUE OF IRREVERSIBLE DEFORMATION OF ROAD STRUCTURE FROM THE IMPACT OF TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. V. Matvienko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. The study of irreversible strains in areas of non-rigid pavement with asphalt coating under the influence of traffic flow requires development of methodologies for assessment of the operational status of asphalt concrete pavement subjected to the formation of ruts. To pre-dict the magnitude of irreversible deformation of the pavement, that is rut, mathematical model, methodology and instruments to measure the parameters of road construction should be developed.Results and conclusions. Measurements of the deflection of road construction and rut parameters, including wear and plastic deformation, proved the adequacy of the proposed mathematical model. Obtained analytical dependences allow prediction of pavement wear, plastic deformation and subgrade deterioration. In contrast to the known ones, they take into account the impact of traffic on the formation of a rut. Proposed methods allow estimation of irreversible pavement deformations based on the values obtained with the help of instruments.

  19. Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mynhardt, DC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport Conference, CSIR Convention Centre, Pretoria, 7-10 July 2014 Towards the development of a scientifically accountable, comprehensive and integrated national road traffic safety databank in South Africa D. C. MYNHARDT Council for Scientific...

  20. Road traffic injuries and data systems in Egypt: addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanachandra, P; Hoe, C; El-Sayed, H F; Saad, R; Al-Gasseer, N; Bakr, M; Hyder, A A

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of global mortality and morbidity, killing approximately 1.3 million people and injuring 20 to 50 million each year. The significance of this public health threat is most pronounced in low- and middle-income countries where 90 percent of the world's road traffic-related fatalities take place. Current estimates for Egypt show a road traffic fatality rate of 42 deaths per 100,000 population-one of the highest in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. RTIs are also responsible for 1.8 percent of all deaths and 2.4 percent of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost in the country. Despite this, studies surrounding this topic are scarce, and reliable data are limited. The overall goal of this article is to define the health impact of RTIs in Egypt and to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each data source for the purpose of improving the current RTI data systems. A 2-pronged approach was undertaken to assess the burden of RTIs in Egypt. First, a thorough literature review was performed using PubMed, Embase, ISIS Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Articles pertaining to Egypt and road traffic injuries were selected for screening. With assistance from Egyptian colleagues, a comprehensive exploration of data sources pertaining to RTIs in Egypt was undertaken and secondary data from these sources were procured for analysis. The literature review yielded a total of 20 studies, of which 6 were multi-country and 5 were hospital-based studies. None examined risk factors such as speeding, alcohol, or seat belt use. Secondary data sources were acquired from national hospital-based injury surveillance; a community-based health survey; pre-hospital injury surveillance; the Ministry of Transport; the General Authority for Roads, Bridges and Land Transport; death certificates; and the central agency for public motorization and statistics. Risk factor data are also limited from these sources. The results of this article

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  2. Identification of black spots for traffic injury in road intersections dependence of injury definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Hansen, Dennis; Lauritsen, Jens M

    2010-01-01

    accidents treated at three hospitals for a region covering roughly 0.5 mio persons were recorded routinely and subsequently geo-coded to exact location. For 8191 injured persons the traffic accident occurred in one of 2157 road intersections. In total the county holds 56.994 intersections. Hot spots were...... of intersections considered as a black spot. GIS methods must take this into consideration....

  3. Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies some of the properties and fundamentals of static models of road traffic congestion that have triggered much debate in the literature. The first part of the paper focuses in particular on the difficulties arising with the backward-bending cost curve in the context of 'continuous congestion'. Therelevance of the backward-bending segment of the cost curve for the static analysis of congestion is questioned by demonstrating that 'equilibria' on this segment produce upwards shi...

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Pattern of Severe Injury Due to Road Traffic Accidents in Children

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    Ye. A. Spiridonova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study stepwise differences in the severity and pattern of severe traumatic injuries due to road traffic accidents in patients during the qualified and specialized stages of medical care in the age groups of 1 month to 18 years in the Rostov Region. Material and methods. The 2004—2009 case reports were used to make a retrospective comparative assessment of the condition of victims with severe road traffic injury at care stages in 2 groups: 1 one-month- to 18-year-old children who had been primarily admitted to the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=61; 2 one-month-to 18-year-old patients from the intensive care unit of the Regional Children’s Hospital, referred from the qualified-stage intensive care units (n=133. Results. The number of specialized-stage children in grave and extremely extensive grave condition at the specialized stage was 14.7% more than that at the qualified stage (100 and 85.3%, espectively. Concomitant injury was encountered more frequently (by 13% in the specialized-stage patients (73.7 and 60.7%, respectively. The severity of road traffic injury was determined mainly by brain injuries at the qualified irnd specialized stages (96.7 and 96.1%, by skeletal injuries (11.6% more frequently and thoracic ones (9.8% more frequently at the specialized stage. The prevalence of abdominal injuries at the qualified stage was 9.8% higher. The pattern of brain injury in the specialized-stage patients showed a preponderance of brain contusion and epidural hematomas by 18.5 and 6.5%, respectively. Conclusion. Severe thoracic and brain injuries (craniocerebral injuries, brain contusion, and intracranial hematomas are an indication for patient referral to the specialized care stage in order to perform high-technological diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Key words: children, road traffic accidents, severe injury, medical care stages.

  5. ROAD TRAFFIC NUISANCE IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL AREAS IN MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY IN PINANG ISLAND

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELNASR OMRAN,

    2010-01-01

    Developing cities often face critical air pollution problems due to the rapid growth of transportation and industry sources. Some centers in Pinang Island are currently facing high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short-term and in the far future through climate change. Thus, this paper is investigated the road traffic nuisance in residentia...

  6. A Real-Time System for Abusive Network Traffic Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    modular architecture, SpamAssassin can be extended to include other filtering techniques, such as real-time blackhole lists (RBLs), whitelists...lookups in blackhole lists (RBL), collaborative filtering with Ryzor [30], Pyzor [53], and DCC [33]), because our virtual environment was insulated from...realtime blackhole list (RBL). Available: http://www.mail-abuse.com/pdf/WP_MAPS_RBL_060104.pdf. [13] J. Postel. (1981, September). Internet

  7. Analysis of Traffic Noise along Oyemekun - Oba-Adesida Road Akure Ondo State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. J Oyedepo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the research is to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along Oba-Adesida –Oyemekun Road. Measurements of noise were recorded in decibel (dBA using digital sound level meters (IEC651 Type 2. While, the traffic volume and spot speed were obtained using cine –camera at six selected locations namely Alagbaka(L1, Biological Garden(L2, Adegbola(L3, Ondo Bye Pass(L4, Ilesha Garage(L5 and FUTA junction(L6 along ObaAdesida- Oyemekun road during the peak period(7:30am -8:30 am & 4:00pm-5:00pm and off peak period(11:30pm- 12:30pm, repeated 3-5 times to account for time-fluctuation of these variables. All measurements were taken on a weighting frequency network, at a height of about 1.5m from the ground level. The vehicles were divided into five categories namely Cars, buses, motorcycles,2-axle load, and 3-axle loads; and were converted into “Passenger Car Units” (PCU by multiplying with recommended factors in accordance with Nigerian Federal Highway Capacity Manual 2006.The average L10(dBA are 72.8, 73.8, 73.4, 74.4, 73.9, and 75.0dBA ; while average combine sound pressure level(SPL in dBA are 76, 77, 78, 78, 77, and 78dBA for L1, L2, L3, L4, L5,and L6 respectively. Findings indicated that traffic generated noise pollution is at or above, the standard outdoor limits in most locations and area can adversely affect the welfare activities. The present study revealed that the study area is getting noisier due to high traffic density and lack of traffic management, practical action to limit and control the exposure to environmental noise are essential. However, road traffic noise by treatments at source (such as to reduce engine noise, exhaust pipe noise etc. is to be encouraged as the principal method of control. The techniques include road design, the management of traffic flow and the use of screens and barriers.

  8. The Epidemiology of Fatal road traffic Collisions in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies (2000–2011

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    Chavin D. Gopaul

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary of what was known• Few studies on road traffic collisions conducted in Latin American and the Caribbean region• Increasing car ownership within the region• Lack of seatbelt usage in Trinidad• Most accidents are associated with alcohol usage• High mortality among pedestriansSummary of what this study adds• Most collisions occur at night• Most collisions occur at weekends• Collisions are evenly distributed throughout the year• More males than females die in fatal collisions• The most productive age group (15–44 is affected the most• More drivers than pedestrians are affected• Reflects the pattern of developed rather than developing countries with respect to time of day for RTCs Background: The purpose of the study is to determine the epidemiology of road traffic collisions (RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago by characterizing RTCs in terms of number of collisions, fatalities, victim profiles, and locations for the purpose of informing accident prevention programs. Previous studies of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago were primarily concerned with patterns of drivers use of seat belts, road collisions as a cause of mortality in young men, and the economic burden of road collisions. Attempts were made to model road fatalities, but limited epidemiological data meant that it was difficult to determine trends or develop models. Methods: This study determined the epidemiology of RTCs in Trinidad and Tobago over the period 2000–2011using data collected by the Trinidad and Tobago Road Traffic Branch of the Police Service and secondary data from the Central Statistical Office. Data were analyzed using Excel, SPSS, and R statistical packages. Results: Fatalities were greater among men (80% than among women (20% and were highest on two major freeways in Trinidad [the Churchill–Roosevelt Highway and the Sir Solomon Hochoy Highway]. Most collisions occurred during the night among individuals between the ages of

  9. Human Auditory Communication Disturbances Due To Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Calabar City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Obisung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Study on auditory communication disturbances due to road transportation noise in Calabar Urban City, Nigeria was carried out. Both subjective (psycho-social and objective (acoustical measurements were made for a period of twelve months. Questionnaire/interview schedules containing pertinent questions were administered randomly to 500 respondents of age 15 year and above, who were also with a good level of literacy skills (reading writing and leaving in houses sited along or parallel to busy road, with heavy traffic volume for at least three (3 years. The questionnaires provided the psycho-social responses of respondents used in this study, their reactions to road traffic noise effect on communication activities (listening to radio, listening and watching television, verbal communication between individuals, speech communication and telephone/GSM communication. Acoustical measurements were made at the facades of respondents' houses facing the road using precision digital sound level meter, Bruel and Kjaer (B & K type 732 following ISO standards 1996. The meter read the road traffic noise levels at measurement sites (facades of respondents' houses. From the results obtained in this study residents of Calabar City suffer serious communication interferences as a result of excessive road traffic noise levels. The noise indices used for this study were LAeq and Ldn. Noise levels obtained were over 93 dB(A (daytime and 60 dB(A, (nighttime for LAeq and 80 dB(A for Ldn. These far exceeded the recommended theoretical values of 45-55 and 70 dB(A, for LAeqand Ldn respectively. A-weighted sound pressure level (SPLS range between 87.0 and 100.0 dB(A. In this study it was also observed that over 98% of the respondents reported their television watching/radio listening disturbed, 99% recorded telephone/GSM disturbed, and 98% reported face-to-face verbal conversation disturbed, and 98% reported speech communication disturbed. The background noise levels (BNLs of

  10. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  11. A study on posttraumatic experience of road traffic accident afflicted maxillofacial trauma patient at tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh Kumar; Shrestha, Suraksha

    2017-01-01

    Patients are usually left in a vulnerable state after an accident. Because of this, they long for a good encounter when they are brought to the hospital. Physical impairment and psychological morbidities are some of the complications that can occur to them. Traditionally, surgeons tend to pay little attention to a patient's emotional and psychological perspective. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of oral and maxillofacial trauma patients due to road traffic accident right from immediate after the accident till the end of definitive treatment. Phenomenological approach of qualitative study was used to explore these patients' experience. Twenty subjects involved in road traffic accidents without any cognitive impairment aged 18 and above were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to include maximal variation sample regarding age, gender, types of injury, and types of treatment received. Semi-structured and open-ended interview approach was used to obtain in-depth information. Seven themes were identified to describe the patients' response to and experience after meeting with a road traffic accident; they are unreal experiences, emotional responses, need to inform and need for information, need for assistance, their perception toward the maxillofacial injury, their experience on treatment and staff-patient interaction. This qualitative study has provided an in-depth understanding of patients experience during maxillofacial trauma and treatment, which otherwise cannot be obtained by the use of surveys and test questions.

  12. Road traffic crash injuries and fatalities in the city of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ghorbanali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate road traffic crash injuries and fatalities. Cases of 3902 road traffic injuries (1709 drivers, 891 passengers, 376 pedestrians and 926 motorcyclists) and 1564 road traffic fatalities (RTFs; 1222 males and 342 females) were collected from 2005 to 2008 using the database of the police forces and Department of Forensic Medicine in Kerman, respectively. Results showed that 66% of the injuries were related to car occupants (drivers and passengers) and men/women ratio was 5:1. The highest men/women ratio was (12.2:1) for drivers, while the lowest ratio (1.8:1) was for pedestrians. Most of the injuries had taken place at 16:01-20:00 h followed by 08:01-12:00 h. Highest numbers of injuries were found in male with the age groups of 18-24 years. The highest fatality rate of 79 per 100,000 population occurred in 2007-2008. Fatality ratio indicated higher male ratio, four times higher than females. The victims were 39% male between 30 and 55 years of age. Head injuries were present in 69% of the cases. In our series of forensic autopsy cases, head injuries were more frequent in motor vehicle occupants, pedestrians and motorcyclists. On average, two people died per day in RTFs in Kerman.

  13. A field study of effects of road traffic and railway noise on polysomnographic sleep parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Øverland, Britt; Ursin, Reidun; Moum, Torbjørn

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the effect of noise from railway and road traffic on sleep in subjects habitually exposed to nocturnal noise. Forty young and middle aged healthy subjects were studied with polysomnography (PSG) during two consecutive nights in their own bedroom. Noise measurements and recordings were conducted concurrently outside of the bedroom façade as well as inside the bedroom of each participant. Different noise exposure parameters were calculated (L(p,A,eq,night), L(p,A,Fmax,night), and L(AF5,night)) and analyzed in relation to whole-night sleep parameters. The group exposed to railway noise had significantly less Rapid eye movement, (REM) sleep than the group exposed to road traffic noise. A significant association was found between the maximum level (L(p,A,Fmax,night)) of railway noise and time spent in REM sleep. REM sleep was significantly shorter in the group exposed to at least a single railway noise event above 50 dB inside the bedroom. These results, obtained in an ecological valid setting, support previous laboratory findings that railway noise has a stronger impact than road traffic noise on physiological parameters during sleep, and that the maximum noise level is an important predictor of noise effects on sleep assessed by PSG, at least for railway noise. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  14. Traffic and meteorological impacts on near-road air quality: summary of methods and trends from the Raleigh Near-Road Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard; Thoma, Eben; Hays, Michael; Shores, Richard; Kinsey, John; Gullett, Brian; Kimbrough, Sue; Isakov, Vlad; Long, Thomas; Snow, Richard; Khlystov, Andrey; Weinstein, Jason; Chen, Fu-Lin; Seila, Robert; Olson, David; Gilmour, Ian; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Watkins, Nealson; Rowley, Patricia; Bang, John

    2008-07-01

    A growing number of epidemiological studies conducted worldwide suggest an increase in the occurrence of adverse health effects in populations living, working, or going to school near major roadways. A study was designed to assess traffic emissions impacts on air quality and particle toxicity near a heavily traveled highway. In an attempt to describe the complex mixture of pollutants and atmospheric transport mechanisms affecting pollutant dispersion in this near-highway environment, several real-time and time-integrated sampling devices measured air quality concentrations at multiple distances and heights from the road. Pollutants analyzed included U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-regulated gases, particulate matter (coarse, fine, and ultrafine), and air toxics. Pollutant measurements were synchronized with real-time traffic and meteorological monitoring devices to provide continuous and integrated assessments of the variation of near-road air pollutant concentrations and particle toxicity with changing traffic and environmental conditions, as well as distance from the road. Measurement results demonstrated the temporal and spatial impact of traffic emissions on near-road air quality. The distribution of mobile source emitted gas and particulate pollutants under all wind and traffic conditions indicated a higher proportion of elevated concentrations near the road, suggesting elevated exposures for populations spending significant amounts of time in this microenvironment. Diurnal variations in pollutant concentrations also demonstrated the impact of traffic activity and meteorology on near-road air quality. Time-resolved measurements of multiple pollutants demonstrated that traffic emissions produced a complex mixture of criteria and air toxic pollutants in this microenvironment. These results provide a foundation for future assessments of these data to identify the relationship of traffic activity and meteorology on air quality concentrations and

  15. On-road traffic emissions in a megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiola, Ariela; Dawidowski, Laura E.; Gómez, Darío R.; Osses, Mauricio

    2010-02-01

    A new annual bottom-up emission inventory of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases from on-road mobile sources was developed for 2006 for the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina, within a four-year regional project aimed at providing tools for chemical weather forecast in South America. Under the scarcity of local emission factors, we collected data from measuring campaigns performed in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia and compiled a data set of regional emission factors representative of Latin American fleets and driving conditions. The estimated emissions were validated with respect to downscaled national estimates and the EDGAR global emission database. Our results highlight the role of older technologies accounting in average for almost 80% of the emissions of all species. The area exhibits higher specific emissions than developed countries, with figures two times higher for criteria pollutants. We analyzed the effect on emissions of replacing gasoline by compressed natural gas, occurring in Argentina since 1995. We identified (i) a relationship between number of vehicles and a compound socioeconomic indicator, and (ii) time-lags in vehicle technologies between developed and developing countries, which can be respectively applied for spatial disaggregation and the development of projections for other Latin American cities. The results may also be employed to complement global emission inventories and by local policy makers as an environmental management tool.

  16. Overview of traffic safety aspects and design in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Bassan

    2016-07-01

    Drivers in road tunnels generally reduce their speed and increase their lateral position from the right tunnel wall while driving. In shorter tunnels, with reduced driving speed, driver vigilance may be more robust without being hindered by dull driving, which is more common in longer tunnels. Still, in spite of driver alertness, crash rates in tunnels occur due to the tunnel's unusual driving environment. Crash rates are lower in the tunnel inner zone due to driver alertness, especially after passing the transition zone and acclimating to the tunnel environment. The number of crashes, however, is higher along zone 4 (tunnel inner zone, which is the principal zone, as it covers longer driving distance. According to most studies, short tunnels were found to exhibit higher crash rates than long tunnels because the entrance zones incorporate higher crash rates, compared with the midzones; nonetheless, longer unidirectional (freeway and multilane tunnels with higher design speed, entail lower driver alertness and diminished concentration due to relatively monotonous driving in spite of a tunnel's closed environment.

  17. PATTERN OF HEAD INJURIES IN FATAL ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN INDORE REGION, M. P.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaturvedi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accident is the leading cause of serious injuries with associated head trauma especially in youth and middle age persons. Head injury is the most common cause of mortality and major health problem all over the world The Incidence of RTAs was higher in males and in 3rd to 4th decade of life owing to increase risk exposure to males due to more outdoor activities. Incidence of deaths due to RTAs was maximum (45.67% in two wheeler riders followed by pedestrians in 33.33% cases. The present study was conducted on dead bodies, died of accidents involving two wheeler, four wheeler and bicycle. The rate of incidence is higher in India because of bad traffic patterns and possibly the lack of awareness about traffic rules and also lack of good hospital services to our victims of RTAs

  18. Traffic Flow Prediction Model for Large-Scale Road Network Based on Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaosheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase the efficiency and precision of large-scale road network traffic flow prediction, a genetic algorithm-support vector machine (GA-SVM model based on cloud computing is proposed in this paper, which is based on the analysis of the characteristics and defects of genetic algorithm and support vector machine. In cloud computing environment, firstly, SVM parameters are optimized by the parallel genetic algorithm, and then this optimized parallel SVM model is used to predict traffic flow. On the basis of the traffic flow data of Haizhu District in Guangzhou City, the proposed model was verified and compared with the serial GA-SVM model and parallel GA-SVM model based on MPI (message passing interface. The results demonstrate that the parallel GA-SVM model based on cloud computing has higher prediction accuracy, shorter running time, and higher speedup.

  19. Study on characteristics of fractures from road traffic accidents in 306 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯树勋; 章亚东; 吴闻文

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of bone fractures from road traffic accidents and analyze their injury mechanisms so as to provide reference for the research and medical care of traffic trauma.   Methods: Three hundred and six patients with fractures from road traffic accidents were included into this study. A total of 507 fractures were identified and the injury mechanism, location distribution and frequency were analyzed.   Results: The most common location of fractures was the lower extremities, followed by the upper extremities, skull and maxillofacial region, and the rarest was the spine. A total of 56% of the patients suffered from multiple fractures. The fractures of the patella, femur and pelvis and the fractures of the olecranon, humerus and shoulder often happened simultaneously.   Conclusions: The injury mechanisms can be classified into four types: impact, incoordinate movement, stretch injury and crush and extrusion. The fractures from traffic accidents have the following characteristics: centrifugal distribution of the injuries, multiple fractures, force transmission and ipsilateral occurrence.

  20. Urban road traffic deaths: data linkage and identification of high-risk population sub-groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Miana Mattos Paixão

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzes the profile of deaths from road traffic accidents in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, by linking two public databases, the Information System of the Urban Transportation and Transit Company (BH10 and the Mortality Information System (SIM. The linked database (n = 306 identified a 24% under-recording rate for deaths and differed in the age distribution from the BH10 database and in roadway user category when compared to the mortality database. The mortality rate for road traffic accidents within the city limits was 10.2 per 100,000 thousand, and was higher among men, young adults, and the elderly. Poisson multivariate regression showed a higher mean death rate for motorcycle occupants (rate ratio – RR: 1.81; pedestrians (RR: 1.32; males (RR: 1.24; single/divorced (RR: 1.27; young adults 18-29 years of age (RR: 1.75; elderly (RR: 1.59; and deaths at the crash site (RR: 1.39 when compared to the reference categories. The study unveils the city’s traffic violence, expressed by the large proportion of deaths at the crash site and within the first 24 hours, and confirms the relevance of database linkage for characterizing vulnerable groups and traffic accident mortality in the urban setting.

  1. Characteristics of road traffic injuries in the second largest city of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Soroush

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Road traffic injuries (RTIs are the second leading causes of death in Iran. One of the most important steps in the prevention of traffic-related trauma and its consequences is gaining insight into the epidemiology of injuries. We conducted this study to describe the characteristics of RTIs and to find strategies for its prevention. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on consecutive road traffic trauma patients admitted to the emergency department (ED of the second largest trauma center in the northeast of Iran, during July to September 2013. Demographic characteristics, type of vehicle, and injured area of the body were documented for each patient. Results: Of 666 included patients, 562 (84.4% were male and 104 (15.6% were female, with a mean age of 28.89 ± 16.62 years. Most of the patients were uneducated. The highest frequency of RTIs was related to motorcyclists with an attributed risk of RTIs for motorcycles at 75.8%. The most common traumatized area was head, face, and lower extremities. Conclusion: The largest number of traumatized patients was among motorcyclists and uneducated population underscores the importance of public training about motorcycle usage and security and increase social awareness about reasons behind traffic law.

  2. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  3. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perron

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  4. Pedestrians’ adherence to road traffic regulations on the N1 Highway in Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noora, Charles Lwanga; Afari, Edwin Andrews; Nuoh, Robert Domo; Adjei, Eric Yirenkyi; Anthony, Gershon Kobla; Abdulai, Marijanatu; Sackey, Samuel Oko; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pedestrian behavior and adherence to road traffic regulation is vital in the prevention and control of road traffic accidents (RTA) especially on highways in Ghana. We assessed pedestrians’ adherence to road crossing regulations on the George Walker Bush (N1) Highway in Accra. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study of pedestrians crossing the N1 highway from both sides of the road between 7:00 am and 11:00am. We observed all pedestrians using a checklist and interviewed 413 using a structured questionnaire. We collected data on basic demographics, and pedestrians’ knowledge on road crossing (exposures). Data was, cleaned and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.4. Pearson Chi-square was used to assess differences in proportions for categorical variables. Binary logistic regression was used to test for association between pedestrian choice of route and exposures. Results We observed (n = 1856) pedestrians crossing the road during the study period; 1155 (62.2%) males, 461 (24.8%) did not use the approved route(s). Majority 317(76.8%) were adults between the ages of 20-49, mostly males 265 (56.4%). Most people (92.7%) had at least basic education. AOR for sex (male) was 1.7(1.1-2.6), and regular use of Highway (always) was 0.4(0.2-0.8) at 95% CI. Conclusion One out of every 4pedestrians using the N1 Highway used an unapproved route. Majority of pedestrians who regularly cross the Highway at unapproved routes were males. We recommend vigorous public education and addition of more footbridges. PMID:28149436

  5. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  6. Factors Impacting Mortality in the Pre-Hospital Period After Road Traffic Accidents in Urban India.

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    Chandrasekharan, Ananthnarayan; Nanavati, Aditya J; Prabhakar, Sandhya; Prabhakar, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    India currently has the dubious distinction of experiencing the highest number of road traffic accidents in the world. We believe that this study on road traffic accidents may help to identify factors in the pre-hospital setting that may influence mortality rates. A prospective observational study was carried out in a metro area in India over a period of one year. The study included consecutive patients admitted to the trauma service after road traffic accidents. Demographic information, time and place of accident, and details regarding the vehicle and the events leading up to the hospital admission were recorded. Injury severity, management in the hospital, and final outcomes in terms of mortality were noted. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. A total of 773 patients were enrolled. Of these, there were 197 deaths and 576 survivors. The majority of patients were aged 15 - 40 years (67%) and were male (87.84%). More accidents occurred at night (58.2%) than during the day (41.8%). Mortality was not significantly associated with age, sex, or time of accident. City roads (38.9%) saw more accidents than highways (26.13%), but highway accidents were more likely to be fatal. Two-wheeler riders (37.65%) and pedestrians (35.75%) formed the majority of our study population. Mortality was significantly associated with crossing the road on foot (P = 0.004). Pillion riders on two-wheeler vehicles were more likely to experience poor outcomes (relative risk [RR] = 1.9, P = 0.001). Front-seat occupants in four-wheeler vehicles were at an increased risk of not surviving the accident (61.98%; RR=2.56, P = 0.01). Lack of safety gear, such as helmets, seat belts, and airbags, was significantly associated with mortality (P = 0.05). Delays in transfers of patients to the hospital and a lack of pre-hospital emergency services was significantly associated with increased mortality (P = 0.000). A lack of respect for the law, weak legislation and law enforcement, disregard for

  7. Differential patterns, trends and hotspots of road traffic injuries on different road networks in Vellore district, southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Sarkar, Rajiv; Abraham, Vinod Joseph; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N

    2015-03-01

    To describe spatial and temporal profiles of Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs) on different road networks in Vellore district of southern India. Using the information in the police maintained First Information Reports (FIRs), daily time series of RTI counts were created and temporal characteristics were analysed with respect to the vehicle, road types and time of the day for the period January 2005 to May 2007. Daily incidence and trend of RTIs were estimated using a Poisson regression analysis. Of the reported 3262 RTIs, 52% had occurred on the National Highway (NH). The overall RTI rate on the NH was 8.8/100 000 vehicles per day with significantly higher pedestrian involvement. The mean numbers of RTIs were significantly higher on weekends. Thirteen percentage of all RTIs were associated with fatalities. Hotspots are major town junctions, and RTI rates differ over different stretches of the NH. In India, FIRs form a valuable source of RTI information. Information on different vehicle profile, RTI patterns, and their spatial and temporal trends can be used by administrators to devise effective strategies for RTI prevention by concentrating on the high-risk areas, thereby optimising the use of available personnel and resources. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The impact of road traffic noise on the environment and the management of road traffic noise%公路交通噪声对环境的影响及其治理措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方园; 李巧云; 关欣

    2009-01-01

    道路交通噪声污染已经严重危及人类赖以生存和发展的环境,对道路交通环境的防治已经成为当今社会环保的重要议题之一.综述了公路交通噪声污染对环境和植物的影响,以及噪声污染控制与治理的发展方向,并探讨了减少交通噪音污染的治理措施.%Road traffic noise pollution has been a serious threat to human survival and development environment. Prevention of road traffic environment in today's society has become one of the important topics of environmental protection. In this paper, to summarize the road traffic noise pollute on the environment and impact of plants, and noise pollution control and management of the direction of development and to explore the strategies and recommendations to reduce traffic pollution. Corresponding measures should be taken to reduce or eliminate the road traffic environmental pollution, and to protect the environment and ecosystem balance. Finally, prospect on the road traffic noise pollution research.

  9. Estimation of Road Traffic Mortality in Kurdistan Province, Iran, During 2004-2009, Using Capture-Recapture Method

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    Lida Gorgin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce traffic injuries in the country, health professionals should have accurate estimates of road traffic deaths. Multiple and sometimes inconsistent statistics presented by organizations in charge create high degree of uncertainty for planners and decision makers. To achieve an accurate estimate, several methods are available. Of them, capture-recapture method seems to be an appropriate and affordable method regarding the reliability of the data sources. This study aimed to estimate the number of road traffic deaths in Kurdistan Province during 2004-2009, using capture-recapture method and based on 2 sources of data obtained from Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Materials and Methods: All deaths due to road traffic accidents in Kurdistan Province were extracted during 2004-2009. These deaths were legally registered in Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Shared cases among these 2 sources were identified based on full name, age, gender, and date of death and finally the accurate number of deaths was calculated using the correct volume formula. Results: During study period, Forensic Medicine Department of the province had registered about 3289 cases of road traffic mortalities and Death Registration System had registered 3771 cases of death resulting from road traffic accidents. Using capture-recapture method, the number of deaths in the same years was estimated as 5726 people (5818-5634:CI95%. The proportion of mortality registered in the Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department of the province to the total estimated deaths were 65.8% and 57.4%, respectively and both systems together covered 85.4% of road traffic deaths, i.e. under-reporting of about 832 people. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that none of 2 sources of Forensic Medicine Department and Death Registration System, per se or both, fully covered road traffic mortalities and

  10. 道路交通伤的现状和未来%Current situation and future of road traffic injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王正国

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic injury is a global public health problem concerned seriously by the great majority of people. Based on the WHO reports, this article introduces the current situation and future of road traffic injury, deeply analyses human factors which lead to road traffic injury such as drinking driving, speeding, youth and road traffic injury ,individual protection, etc. The author presents remarkable progress and existing problems of road traf fic safety , and puts forward some prevention measures on road traffic crashes. It is believed that road traffic crashes will still exist in the future for a long period of time , and even increase in developing countries. Road traffic safety environment can be improved with the hard work of all the people in the world.%道路交通伤是备受关注的全球公共卫生问题.本文根据世界卫生组织道路安全报告,介绍了全球道路交通伤的现状和发生趋势,从酒后驾车、超速驾车、青少年交通伤、个人防护等方面对造成道路交通事故的人员因素作了深度分析,介绍了我国道路交通安全取得的显著进步和存在的问题,并提出了具体的道路交通事故预防措施.作者指出,道路交通事故在今后相当长的一段时间内还会继续存在,甚至有所发展,需要社会所有人士共同努力才能不断改善道路交通安全环境.

  11. A Study of Ocular Trauma Profile and Its Visual Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents

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    Abha Gahlot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is a prospective study of ocular trauma profile related to road traffic accidents that presented to a tertiary care centre in Western Maharashtra. Aims and Objectives: To study the epidemiology and pattern of ocular trauma among the road traffic accident cases in western Maharashtra. Methodology: Hospital based study conducted from September 2013 to March 2015. 114 subjects (122 eyes were enrolled in the study. 8 of these subjects had bilateral ocular trauma. The examination involved assessment of visual acuity and description of nature and extent of ocular injury. The visual outcome was taken to be the best corrected vision at 3 months post trauma. The chi-square test was used to statistically analyze the data. Results: It was observed that 32.79% of injuries were extra ocular, 59.02% were closed globe intraocular injuries and 8.19% were open globe intraocular injuries. 78.69 % of the injuries were mild, 9.84% were moderate and 11.84% were severe. The visual outcome was good (visual acuity of more than 6/18 at 3 months post-trauma in 89.34%. Only 4.10% of the total cases studied had used safety measures viz., helmets or seat belts. A total of 12% of subjects were found to be under the influence of alcohol at the time of accident. Conclusions: Primary preventive approach such as promoting safe riding practices and strict implementation of traffic rules like riding at safe speed wearing helmet and avoiding alcohol before driving are needed to prevent road traffic accidents associated ocular morbidity. [Natl J Med Res 2015; 5(3.000: 211-215

  12. Road traffic and sandy playground influence on ambient pollutants in schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M. C.; Rivas, I.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Font, O.; Córdoba, P.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.

    2015-06-01

    Urban air pollution has a greater impact on children's health compared to adults. In the framework of the BREATHE (BRain dEvelopment and Air polluTion ultrafine particles in scHool childrEn) project, the present work studies the impact of road traffic and the presence of sandy playgrounds on the outdoor air quality around schools. Four schools were selected for intensive campaigns of one month. PM2.5 samples were collected daily from 8:00 to 20:00 and chemically analysed. Real time measurements of NOx, black carbon (BC), PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were carried out. Sand samples from five school playgrounds were characterized. The results confirm the representativeness of the general BREATHE project campaigns (eight weekdays measurements at each of the 39 schools). NOx, BC and PMx concentrations were higher in the school located nearest to traffic in the city centre with the daily pattern reflecting the traffic rush hours. The NOx concentrations were found to decrease with distance to the main road. The road traffic influence on ambient pollutants was higher on weekdays than weekends. The PM10 concentrations at one of the schools were mainly driven by the influence of the sandy playground, with peaks up to 25, 57 and 12 times higher than night background concentrations during mid-morning break, lunch break and end of school day, respectively. The airborne mineral matter concentrations registered at this school further confirm this origin. Nevertheless the influence of the re-suspension from the sandy playground was very local and decreased drastically within a short distance. The possible impact of the use of the private car for children's commuting on the outdoor air quality of the schools cannot be quantitatively assessed due to the overlapping with the rush hour of the city.

  13. Aircraft and road traffic noise and children's cognition and health: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Berglund, B; Clark, C; Lopez-Barrio, I; Fischer, P; Ohrström, E; Haines, M M; Head, J; Hygge, S; van Kamp, I; Berry, B F

    Exposure to environmental stressors can impair children's health and their cognitive development. The effects of air pollution, lead, and chemicals have been studied, but there has been less emphasis on the effects of noise. Our aim, therefore, was to assess the effect of exposure to aircraft and road traffic noise on cognitive performance and health in children. We did a cross-national, cross-sectional study in which we assessed 2844 of 3207 children aged 9-10 years who were attending 89 schools of 77 approached in the Netherlands, 27 in Spain, and 30 in the UK located in local authority areas around three major airports. We selected children by extent of exposure to external aircraft and road traffic noise at school as predicted from noise contour maps, modelling, and on-site measurements, and matched schools within countries for socioeconomic status. We measured cognitive and health outcomes with standardised tests and questionnaires administered in the classroom. We also used a questionnaire to obtain information from parents about socioeconomic status, their education, and ethnic origin. We identified linear exposure-effect associations between exposure to chronic aircraft noise and impairment of reading comprehension (p=0.0097) and recognition memory (p=0.0141), and a non-linear association with annoyance (p<0.0001) maintained after adjustment for mother's education, socioeconomic status, longstanding illness, and extent of classroom insulation against noise. Exposure to road traffic noise was linearly associated with increases in episodic memory (conceptual recall: p=0.0066; information recall: p=0.0489), but also with annoyance (p=0.0047). Neither aircraft noise nor traffic noise affected sustained attention, self-reported health, or overall mental health. Our findings indicate that a chronic environmental stressor-aircraft noise-could impair cognitive development in children, specifically reading comprehension. Schools exposed to high levels of aircraft

  14. Traffic Signals Control with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Urban Road Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; FAN Xiao-ping

    2008-01-01

    An adaptive fuzzy logic controller (AFC) is presented for the signal control of the urban traffic network.The AFC is composed of the signal control system-oriented control level and the signal controller-oriented fuzzy rules regulation level.The control level decides the signal tunings in an intersection with a fuzzy logic controller.The regulation level optimizes the fuzzy rules by the Adaptive Rule Module in AFC according to both the system performance index in current control period and the traffic flows in the last one.Consequently the system performances are improved.A weight coefficient controller (WCC) is also developed to describe the interactions of traffic flow among the adjacent intersections.So the AFC combined with the WCC can be applied in a road network for signal timings.Simulations of the AFC on a real traffic scenario have been conducted.Simulation results indicate that the adaptive controller for traffic control shows better performance than the actuated one.

  15. A review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George

    2014-11-01

    Taking into consideration the increasing availability of real-time traffic data and stimulated by the importance of proactive safety management, this paper attempts to provide a review of the effect of traffic and weather characteristics on road safety, identify the gaps and discuss the needs for further research. Despite the existence of generally mixed evidence on the effect of traffic parameters, a few patterns can be observed. For instance, traffic flow seems to have a non-linear relationship with accident rates, even though some studies suggest linear relationship with accidents. On the other hand, increased speed limits have found to have a straightforward positive relationship with accident occurrence. Regarding weather effects, the effect of precipitation is quite consistent and leads generally to increased accident frequency but does not seem to have a consistent effect on severity. The impact of other weather parameters on safety, such as visibility, wind speed and temperature is not found straightforward so far. The increasing use of real-time data not only makes easier to identify the safety impact of traffic and weather characteristics, but most importantly makes possible the identification of their combined effect. The more systematic use of these real-time data may address several of the research gaps identified in this research.

  16. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  17. Factor analysis of fatal road traffic crashes with massive casualties in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis refers to a collection of statistical methods for reducing correlational data into a smaller number of dimensions or factors. In this study, factor analysis theory was used to determine the main influential factors of road traffic crashes with massive casualties. Twenty variables related to personnel, vehicles, roads, and environment were collected, and the significance of their correlations was tested for validity. A correlation coefficient matrix R was calculated, and its latent root λ was obtained based on the characteristic equation. A number of common factors were determined according to the value of latent root λ . Factor loading was used to express the relationship of each variable to the underlying main influential factors. An index system of accident factors was developed based on the results of factor loading, and the weight of each factor was calculated to classify the factor influence. The main influential factors of accidents were determined to be fault behavior, driving experience, condition of vehicle safety, purpose of vehicle, road lighting, driver, road surface condition, roadside protection facilities, and road terrain.

  18. A Population-Based Study on Nighttime Road Traffic Noise and Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evandt, Jorunn; Oftedal, Bente; Hjertager Krog, Norun; Nafstad, Per; Schwarze, Per E; Marit Aasvang, Gunn

    2017-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate how nighttime road traffic noise relates to self-reported symptoms of insomnia and sleep medication use. We used questionnaire data from the population-based study Health and Environment in Oslo (HELMILO) (2009-2010; n = 13019). The insomnia symptoms difficulties falling asleep, awakenings during the night, and waking up too early in the morning as well as self-reported sleep medication use were included as outcomes. Modeled noise levels (Lnight) were assigned to each participant's home address. For selecting covariates to the statistical model, we used a directed acyclic graph. The associations between noise and sleep were analyzed using logistic regression models. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found an odds ratio (OR) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.09) for the association between traffic noise and difficulties falling asleep, in the total study population. For the association between traffic noise and awakenings during the night, the OR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and for waking up too early, the OR was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.11). The effect estimates are given per 5-dB increase in traffic noise level (Lnight). Self-reported sleep medication use was not statistically significantly associated with traffic noise exposure. In an adult population from Oslo, traffic noise was associated with difficulties falling asleep and waking up too early. These findings indicate that sleep quantity may be compromised for individuals living in areas highly exposed to nighttime traffic noise.

  19. Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in Iran using willingness to pay (WTP method.

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    Elaheh Ainy

    Full Text Available We aimed to use the willingness to pay (WTP method to calculate the cost of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study of 846 randomly selected road users. WTP data was collected for four scenarios for vehicle occupants, pedestrians, vehicle drivers, and motorcyclists. Final analysis was carried out using Weibull and maximum likelihood method. Mean WTP was 2,612,050 Iranian rials (IRR. Statistical value of life was estimated according to 20,408 fatalities 402,314,106,073,648 IRR (US$13,410,470,202 based on purchasing power parity at (February 27th, 2014. Injury cost was US$25,637,870,872 (based on 318,802 injured people in 2013, multiple daily traffic volume of 311, and multiple daily payment of 31,030 IRR for 250 working days. The total estimated cost of injury and death cases was 39,048,341,074$. Gross national income of Iran was, US$604,300,000,000 in 2013 and the costs of traffic injuries constituted 6·46% of gross national income. WTP was significantly associated with age, gender, monthly income, daily payment, more payment for time reduction, trip mileage, drivers and occupants from road users. The costs of traffic injuries in Iran in 2013 accounted for 6.64% of gross national income, much higher than the global average. Policymaking and resource allocation to reduce traffic-related death and injury rates have the potential to deliver a huge economic benefit.

  20. Modeling of road traffic noise and estimated human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Jeong C; Park, Tae H; Ko, Joon H; Chang, Seo I; Kim, Minho; Holt, James B; Mehdi, Mohammed R

    2011-11-01

    Environmental noise is a major source of public complaints. Noise in the community causes physical and socio-economic effects and has been shown to be related to adverse health impacts. Noise, however, has not been actively researched in the United States compared with the European Union countries in recent years. In this research, we aimed at modeling road traffic noise and analyzing human exposure in Fulton County, Georgia, United States. We modeled road traffic noise levels using the United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Traffic Noise Model implemented in SoundPLAN®. After analyzing noise levels with raster, vector and façade maps, we estimated human exposure to high noise levels. Accurate digital elevation models and building heights were derived from Light Detection And Ranging survey datasets and building footprint boundaries. Traffic datasets were collected from the Georgia Department of Transportation and the Atlanta Regional Commission. Noise level simulation was performed with 62 computers in a distributed computing environment. Finally, the noise-exposed population was calculated using geographic information system techniques. Results show that 48% of the total county population [N=870,166 residents] is potentially exposed to 55 dB(A) or higher noise levels during daytime. About 9% of the population is potentially exposed to 67 dB(A) or higher noises. At nighttime, 32% of the population is expected to be exposed to noise levels higher than 50 dB(A). This research shows that large-scale traffic noise estimation is possible with the help of various organizations. We believe that this research is a significant stepping stone for analyzing community health associated with noise exposures in the United States.

  1. Second-order phase transition in two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow containing road sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Yi-Qi; Li, Hong; Zhong, Rui

    2007-11-01

    Two-dimensional cellular automaton model has been broadly researched for traffic flow, as it reveals the main characteristics of the traffic networks in cities. Based on the BML models, a first-order phase transition occurs between the low-density moving phase in which all cars move at maximal speed and the high-density jammed phase in which all cars are stopped. However, it is not a physical result of a realistic system. We propose a new traffic rule in a two-dimensional traffic flow model containing road sections, which reflects that a car cannot enter into a road crossing if the road section in front of the crossing is occupied by another car. The simulation results reveal a second-order phase transition that separates the free flow phase from the jammed phase. In this way the system will not be entirely jammed (“don’t block the box” as in New York City).

  2. Social norms and compliance with road traffic rules in urban areas: Initial impressions of drivers in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddie F. Mawanga

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the government of Uganda has formulated traffic rules for road drivers, set penalties for violation of these rules and deployed traffic personnel to enforce compliance. However, there is continued non-compliance with these rules, particularly among drivers of personal vehicles on Kampala roads. It is likely that the actions of these drivers are influenced by individual or social perceptions and pressures (social norms. These social norms include injunctive norms (influences from people that drivers respect, descriptive norms (influences from other drivers’ behaviour and perceived behaviour control (drivers exploiting available opportunities. The study explores the existence of these norms among drivers of personal vehicles and analyses the way the norms affect compliance with road traffic rules when moderated by road obstructions and control systems in Kampala, Uganda.

  3. Differential Effects of Roads and Traffic on Space Use and Movements of Native Forest-Dependent and Introduced Edge-Tolerant Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Ling Chen

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic infrastructure such as roads and non-native species are major causes of species endangerment. Understanding animal behavioral responses to roads and traffic provides insight into causes and mechanisms of effects of linear development on wildlife and aids effective mitigation and conservation. We investigated effects of roads and traffic on space use and movements of two forest-dwelling species: endemic, forest-dependent Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis and introduced, edge-tolerant Abert's squirrels (Sciurus aberti. To assess the effects of roads on space use and movement patterns, we compared the probability that a squirrel home range included roads and random lines in forests, and assessed effects of traffic intensity on rate of road crossing and movement patterns. Red squirrels avoided areas adjacent to roads and rarely crossed roads. In contrast, Abert's squirrels were more likely to include roads in their home ranges compared to random lines in forests. Both red squirrels and Abert's squirrels increased speed when crossing roads, compared to before and after road crossings. Increased hourly traffic volume reduced the rate of road crossings by both species. Behavioral responses of red squirrels to roads and traffic resemble responses to elevated predation risk, including reduced speed near roads and increased tortuosity of movement paths with increased traffic volume. In contrast, Abert's squirrels appeared little affected by roads and traffic with tortuosity of movement paths reduced as distance to roads decreased. We found that species with similar body size category (<1 kg but different habitat preference and foraging strategy responded to roads differently and demonstrated that behavior and ecology are important when considering effects of roads on wildlife. Our results indicate that roads restricted movements and space use of a native forest-dependent species while creating habitat preferred

  4. 城市道路占道施工交通管理对策研究%Traffic Management Countermeasure of Occupying-Road Construction in Urban Road

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩建国; 戴帅

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the level of road traffic management in occupying-road construction, the impact of occupying-road construction on traffic safety and traffic elements such as people, vehicles, roads and traffic safety were analyzed. And the main technical points that include organizing three sorts of traffic flow such as social vehicles, public transportation and people, remediating the traffic order, and car⁃rying out detailed design, were summarized. Furthermore, from the four aspects of traffic survey, supply and improvement of traffic system, formulation of traffic policy and the setting up of traffic facilities, the design way of traffic organization was discussed. Finally, the three aspects of security strategy were put for⁃ward, which is the decision-making of traffic management scheme, propaganda and guidance of traffic, monitoring and improvement of traffic management scheme.%为提高城市道路占道施工交通管理水平,在分析占道施工对城市道路交通参与要素中的人、车、道路和安全等方面影响的基础上,梳理总结了占道施工时的社会车辆、公共交通、交通参与人三类交通流组织和占道施工交通秩序整治、交通精细化设计的技术要点;然后从交通调查、交通系统供给与改善、交通管理政策措施制定和交通设施设置四个方面探讨了交通组织方案设计方法;最后,提出了交通管理方案决策、交通宣传诱导和交通管理方案的监测与完善三个方面的保障策略。

  5. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong-xiang, Feng; Shi-sheng, Lu; Wei-hua, Zhang; Nan-nan, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability. PMID:25610454

  6. A multi-sectoral approach to capture information on road traffic injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon Geetha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regularly available data is shown to be inadequate for developing, implementing, and evaluating injury prevention and control programs in India. The present study was undertaken in the hospitals of Bangalore and Pune, to examine the feasibility of gathering information on injuries using multiple sources. Materials and Methods: Stakeholders meeting and training programs were held for the hospital staff, police personnel, and traffic and transport staff, to identify their roles and responsibilities. Prospective data on morbidity and mortality due to injuries were collected by trained staff from Emergency Departments on a pre-tested questionnaire. The information gathered was cross-checked with the hospital and police records. Results: The stakeholders meeting and training programs were able to motivate the departments to provide the correct data. Data on 32188 patients could be extracted from hospital and police records during the study period. Injuries accounted for 16% of the emergency cases. Unintentional injuries were 64%, and 32% were intentional. Road traffic injuries accounted for 44% of all the injuries. One-third of the injured were children and young adults below 25 years. Among the injured, two wheeler riders were 29% and pedestrians were 23%. Conclusion: It was possible to improve the data on injuries by adequate training and a data linking mechanism between the Police, Hospital, and Transport Departments. The problem of road traffic injuries could be highlighted and addressed by a good data capture mechanism.

  7. Safety and accessibility effects of code modifications and traffic calming of an arterial road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leden, Lars; Wikström, Per-Erik; Gårder, Per; Rosander, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The European Road E12 through the community center of Storuman, Sweden was reconstructed in 1999 and 2000. Pedestrian walkways, traffic islands, chicanes of a type referred to as "Danish buns", a roundabout and a two-directional cycle track along the E12 were installed. The purpose of the reconstruction was to improve safety for pedestrians and bicyclists, primarily for children, the elderly and the disabled, and to reduce the barrier effect of the E12 thoroughfare. In May 2000, the code governing the conduct of drivers at marked crosswalks in Sweden became stricter to improve safety and mobility for pedestrians. The combined effect of reconstructions and change of code was analyzed. Traffic behavior was studied at the intersection where the roundabout was constructed. Yield behavior towards pedestrians changed significantly. The difference was even greater with respect to yielding to child bicyclists - from 6% before to 84% after - even though the code change only related to pedestrians. Crash data analysis suggests a minor increase in fall injuries after reconstructions and change of code. Measures of speed, behavioral studies, questionnaires, face-to-face interviews and crash data analysis suggest that safety has increased not only along the E12 but also along adjacent roads. The final conclusion is that a bypass is not needed in a case like Storuman. Traffic calming of the main arterial through the town seems sufficient.

  8. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley K.H. Wesson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods: In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results: Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion: Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  9. Road Traffic Accident Analysis of Ajmer City Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P.; Tripathi, S.; Palria, S.

    2014-12-01

    With advancement in technology, new and sophisticated models of vehicle are available and their numbers are increasing day by day. A traffic accident has multi-facet characteristics associated with it. In India 93% of crashes occur due to Human induced factor (wholly or partly). For proper traffic accident analysis use of GIS technology has become an inevitable tool. The traditional accident database is a summary spreadsheet format using codes and mileposts to denote location, type and severity of accidents. Geo-referenced accident database is location-referenced. It incorporates a GIS graphical interface with the accident information to allow for query searches on various accident attributes. Ajmer city, headquarter of Ajmer district, Rajasthan has been selected as the study area. According to Police records, 1531 accidents occur during 2009-2013. Maximum accident occurs in 2009 and the maximum death in 2013. Cars, jeeps, auto, pickup and tempo are mostly responsible for accidents and that the occurrence of accidents is mostly concentrated between 4PM to 10PM. GIS has proved to be a good tool for analyzing multifaceted nature of accidents. While road safety is a critical issue, yet it is handled in an adhoc manner. This Study is a demonstration of application of GIS for developing an efficient database on road accidents taking Ajmer City as a study. If such type of database is developed for other cities, a proper analysis of accidents can be undertaken and suitable management strategies for traffic regulation can be successfully proposed.

  10. Road traffic fatalities among pedestrians, bicyclists and mo-tor vehicle occupants in Sirjan, Kerman, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghorbanali Mohammadi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the crash and injury data in forensic medicine for years of 2004-2007. Methods: A sample of over 567 accident cases (9 pedestrians, 116 bicyclists, and 442 motor vehicle occupants) was considered from the Department of Foren-sic Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, in-volving drivers of all ages and covering a four-year period.Results: The male fatality rates were significantly higher than female ones. The groups at 15-30 years old and at 30-55 years old had the first and second highest numbers of deaths (40% and 34%, respectively). There were sub-stantial differences in distribution of injuries in motor ve-hicle occupants and pedestrians and bicyclists. Among motor vehicle occupants, there were more head injuries, such as skull fracture, brain contusion, subdural haemorrhage, and epidural haemorrhage. Nearly 77% of fatalities occurred during 08:00-22:00 in Sirjan. Internal bleeding was also higher in motor vehicle occupants. Pedestrians and bicyclists also had head injuries frequently.Conclusions: In spite of reduction of road traffic fatali-ties in Sirjan in 2007, it is still one of the cities with high road traffic fatality in the world. These results underline the im-portance of preventive strategies in transportation, sug-gesting that different methods are necessary to reduce fa-talities of various traffic participants.

  11. Combined Prediction Model of Death Toll for Road Traffic Accidents Based on Independent and Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to build a combined model which can meet the variation rule of death toll data for road traffic accidents and can reflect the influence of multiple factors on traffic accidents and improve prediction accuracy for accidents, the Verhulst model was built based on the number of death tolls for road traffic accidents in China from 2002 to 2011; and car ownership, population, GDP, highway freight volume, highway passenger transportation volume, and highway mileage were chosen as the factors to build the death toll multivariate linear regression model. Then the two models were combined to be a combined prediction model which has weight coefficient. Shapley value method was applied to calculate the weight coefficient by assessing contributions. Finally, the combined model was used to recalculate the number of death tolls from 2002 to 2011, and the combined model was compared with the Verhulst and multivariate linear regression models. The results showed that the new model could not only characterize the death toll data characteristics but also quantify the degree of influence to the death toll by each influencing factor and had high accuracy as well as strong practicability.

  12. Explorative spatial analysis of traffic accident statistics and road mortality among the provinces of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Saffet

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the inter-province differences in traffic accidents and mortality on roads of Turkey. Two different risk indicators were used to evaluate the road safety performance of the provinces in Turkey. These indicators are the ratios between the number of persons killed in road traffic accidents (1) and the number of accidents (2) (nominators) and their exposure to traffic risk (denominator). Population and the number of registered motor vehicles in the provinces were used as denominators individually. Spatial analyses were performed to the mean annual rate of deaths and to the number of fatal accidents that were calculated for the period of 2001-2006. Empirical Bayes smoothing was used to remove background noise from the raw death and accident rates because of the sparsely populated provinces and small number of accident and death rates of provinces. Global and local spatial autocorrelation analyses were performed to show whether the provinces with high rates of deaths-accidents show clustering or are located closer by chance. The spatial distribution of provinces with high rates of deaths and accidents was nonrandom and detected as clustered with significance of Paccidents and deaths were located in the provinces that contain the roads connecting the Istanbul, Ankara, and Antalya provinces. Accident and death rates were also modeled with some independent variables such as number of motor vehicles, length of roads, and so forth using geographically weighted regression analysis with forward step-wise elimination. The level of statistical significance was taken as Paccidents according to denominators in the provinces. The geographically weighted regression analyses did significantly better predictions for both accident rates and death rates than did ordinary least regressions, as indicated by adjusted R(2) values. Geographically weighted regression provided values of 0.89-0.99 adjusted R(2) for death and accident rates, compared with 0

  13. Real-time data fusion of road traffic and ETC data for road network monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mouzon, Olivier; El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin

    2007-04-01

    In our present work we introduce the use of data fusion in the field of Transportation and more precisely for motorway travel time estimation. We present an Ad-hoc approach as the operational foundation for the development of a novel travel time estimation algorithm, called Modified Cumulative Traffic Counts Method (MCTC). Based on a data fusion paradigm, we combine in real time multiple evidence derived from two complementary sources to feed our MCTC inference engine and attempt to best estimate prevailing travel time. Our approach has as its main advantages the modeling power of Theory of Evidence in expressing beliefs in some hypotheses, the ability to add the notions of uncertainty in terms of confidence interval. We evaluate our travel estimation algorithm prototype through a set of experiments that were conducted with real network traffic. We conclude that data fusion is a promising approach as it increases the estimation and prediction capability of our MCTC algorithm and increase the robustness of the estimation process.

  14. Towards an agent based traffic regulation and recommendation system for the on-road air quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Abderrahmane; El Fazziki, Abdelaziz; Ouarzazi, Jamal; Sadgal, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated and adaptive problem-solving approach to control the on-road air quality by modeling the road infrastructure, managing traffic based on pollution level and generating recommendations for road users. The aim is to reduce vehicle emissions in the most polluted road segments and optimizing the pollution levels. For this we propose the use of historical and real time pollution records and contextual data to calculate the air quality index on road networks and generate recommendations for reassigning traffic flow in order to improve the on-road air quality. The resulting air quality indexes are used in the system's traffic network generation, which the cartography is represented by a weighted graph. The weights evolve according to the pollution indexes and path properties and the graph is therefore dynamic. Furthermore, the systems use the available pollution data and meteorological records in order to predict the on-road pollutant levels by using an artificial neural network based prediction model. The proposed approach combines the benefits of multi-agent systems, Big data technology, machine learning tools and the available data sources. For the shortest path searching in the road network, we use the Dijkstra algorithm over Hadoop MapReduce framework. The use Hadoop framework in the data retrieve and analysis process has significantly improved the performance of the proposed system. Also, the agent technology allowed proposing a suitable solution in terms of robustness and agility.

  15. Illicit traffic and abuse of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Vigeant, H

    1985-01-01

    In 1984 cannabis derivatives, in particular marijuana, hashish and liquid hashish, continued to be the most readily available drugs of abuse in Canada. Marijuana originating in Colombia decreased on the illicit marijuana market in Canada from an estimated 45 per cent in 1983 to 30 per cent in 1984, but it remained the largest source of marijuana supply. Marijuana originating in Thailand remained at approximately the same level (20 per cent) in 1984 as in 1983, while marijuana of Jamaican origin increased its share in the illicit market from 10 per cent in 1983 to 20 per cent in 1984. Approximately 10 per cent of marijuana on the illicit market originated in Canada, 10 per cent in Mexico, and 10 per cent in the United States of America. In 1984 an estimated 85 per cent of hashish on the illicit market in Canada originated in Lebanon (55 per cent in 1983), 10 per cent in India or Pakistan (31 per cent in 1983) and 5 per cent in Jamaica (2 per cent in 1983). Illicit shipments in tonnes of hashish originating in Lebanon made this the dominant source of supply of the drug. Liquid hashish originating in Jamaica shared 88 per cent of the illicit market of this drug in Canada during 1984, while 10 per cent of the drug originated in Lebanon and 2 per cent in Canada. In 1984 an estimated 40 per cent of smuggled marijuana entered the illicit market in Canada by air and approximately the same amount by sea, while 20 per cent was smuggled over land. During the same year, hashish was smuggled into Canada primarily by sea, while air accounted for 5 per cent and land for 1 per cent only. Liquid hashish, in contrast, entered Canada primarily by air, and only 9 per cent by land and 1 per cent by sea.

  16. Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries people over 50 years of age represent a rapidly growing part of population. Their lifestyle is also becoming more active, which means that the percentage of older drivers in the population of all drivers is also increasing. Many different studies have shown that elderly drivers are more frequently involved in specific types of accidents, especially at intersections. In the past 15 years there was a trend of increasing popularity of roundabouts in Slovenia. Their introduction was generally supported by the arguments of increased traffic-flow capacity and traffic safety as well. The studies on which these arguments are based were performed with an “ideal” type of driver in mind; the one that fully understands new rules and reacts correctly in all situations that may occur at such intersections, where there are no light signals to guide them. An elderly person does not necessarily conform to that ideal and if the percentage of elderly drivers became significant, the premises of the above mentioned studies may not be correct anymore which in turn implies that their results could also be questioned. The present study concentrated on the evaluation of traffic safety of elderly drivers, at various types of intersection, from their own perspective. Various statistical analyses of obtained data were performed. The most important finding was that we may claim, with high degree of probability, that the average person of the age of over 60 feels more unsafe at double-lane roundabouts than they would feel had the same intersection been equipped with traffic lights. Elderly traffic participants will always cause more accidents or participate in them due to hazardous factors. Challenge, arising from many different studies and researches, is in studying what measures and solutions can reduce the risk for elderly participants. KEYWORDS: traffic safety, road intersections, roundabouts, elderly people, older drivers

  17. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Niiat, Khosro Sadegh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness) among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran) participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013-2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-4.77), smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15-3.97), and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.21). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07-1.23) and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07-23.83) were the best predictors for odds (increased risk) of road accidents. A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea - OSA). Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian occupational drivers. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under

  18. Sleep habits and road traffic accident risk for Iranian occupational drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the sleep quality and sleep disorders (prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness among occupational drivers in Iran and to determine which demographic factors and occupational habits are linked to road traffic accidents. Material and Methods: In this analytic cross-sectional study 556 occupational road drivers from Shahroud city (in the northeast of Iran participated, upon a prior verbal informed consent, during 2013–2014. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI standard questionnaire that scored on 7 point scale, the 8-item Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS questionnaire and the 8-question STOP-Bang questionnaire along with demographic information and occupational data were used. To explore the independent factors associated with odds of poor sleep quality and road accident, multiple logistic regression models were used. Results: Prevalence of previous road accidents, sleepiness while driving, and obstructive sleep apnea scored ≥ 3 in the study, and drivers accounted for 23.8%, 29%, and 24.8%, respectively. The global mean score of sleep quality and excessive sleepiness score were 5.2 and 4.8, respectively. The main factors related to the odds of poor sleep quality were snoring (odds ratio (OR = 2.34; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.15–4.77, smoking (OR = 2.12; 95% CI: 1.15–3.97, and driving times in a day (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03–1.21. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.07–1.23 and suffering from apnea (OR = 4.89; 95% CI: 1.07–23.83 were the best predictors for odds (increased risk of road accidents. Conclusions: A considerable proportion of Iranian drivers had records of road accidents; poor sleep quality, sleepiness while driving, and sleep disorder breathing (obstructive sleep apnea – OSA. Snoring, smoking, driving time in a day, excessive sleepiness, and presumably apnea increase the odds of poor sleep quality and road traffic accident for Iranian

  19. Estimation of postmortem interval using vitreous potassium levels in cases of fatal road traffic collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N. Foster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To produce a formula that can accurately predict postmortem interval (PMI based on vitreous potassium levels using road traffic collision fatalities. Material and methods: Vitreous humour samples were taken from 78 individuals who had died following road traffic collisions between 2010 and 2015. Samples were obtained from both eyes and were sent for on-site analysis. Measurement of potassium was by an indirect ion-specific electrode Siemens diagnostics ADVIA 2400 chemistry system. Exact time of death was known from police reports, the time of postmortem was recorded and the postmortem interval was calculated. Linear regression was then used to analyse the relationship between the two. The impact of age was also assessed. Results: PMI was between 6 and 162 hours. As vitreous potassium increases, the PMI also increases; exhibiting a linear relationship. This is illustrated by a regression equation of PMI = 6.42[K+] – 40.94, R = 0.67 (p < 0.001. This produced a formula closely comparable with three other studies proposed in previous literature and produces estimates that may exceed one calendar day. When both age and medical intervention are accounted for there is an insignificant improvement in prediction. Conclusions : Validated methods have been used to produce a formula for prediction of PMI using vitreous potassium. Although this is specific to road traffic collisions, the methods are transferable and can be seen to be comparable with other recently published methods. Nonetheless, if greater levels of accuracy are required it is suggested that biomarkers delivering a higher level of precision should still be sought.

  20. The Importance of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Investigation of Road Traffic Accidents: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younis M. Albalooshi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstain pattern analysis has become a field of specialization in Forensic sciences and plays an important role in the reconstruction of events at a crime scene. Research, books, and articles have been published on the analysis and interpretation of bloodstain patterns We present a case study of a road traffic accident in which bloodstain pattern analysis helped us to solve the discrepancy between reports produced by forensic examiners and by the forensic biology department. The case was of a 22-year-old man who died immediately and a 31- year-old woman who survived a road traffic accident. They were both found outside their overturned car and it was impossible to ascertain from initial observations which of the victims was driving the car at the time of the accident. An external examination of the man revealed multiple injuries, and the cause of his death was severe brain injury. The woman survived with a fracture of the forearm, dislocated clavicle bone, and other minor injuries. After initial examination of the car and based on the pattern of injuries the deceased received, forensic examiner concluded that the man was the driving the car at the time of accident. On the other hand, the forensic DNA analysis of bloodstains obtained from the driver's seat matched that of the woman, suggesting that she was the driver. This apparent discrepancy directed the forensic examiner to carry out a bloodstain pattern analysis on the driver's seat. The bloodstain pattern analysis helped resolve the discrepancy and enabled the investigators to identify the driver correctly. This case report emphasizes the importance of bloodstain pattern analysis in the reconstruction of cases involving road traffic accidents.

  1. [Monetary value of the human costs of road traffic injuries in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo; Sánchez Martínez, Fernando Ignacio; Abellán Perpiñán, José María; Pinto Prades, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Cost-benefit analyses in the field of road safety compute human costs as a key component of total costs. The present article presents two studies promoted by the Directorate-General for Traffic aimed at obtaining official values for the costs associated with fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries in Spain. We combined the contingent valuation approach and the (modified) standard gamble technique in two surveys administered to large representative samples (n1=2,020, n2=2,000) of the Spanish population. The monetary value of preventing a fatality was estimated to be 1.4 million euros. Values of 219,000 and 6,100 euros were obtained for minor and severe non-fatal injuries, respectively. These figures are comparable to those observed in neighboring countries. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Road Traffic Accident Victims' Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims' experiences of reintegration to normal life. The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims' needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims.

  3. Road Traffic Accident Victims’ Experiences of Return to Normal Life: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei Sabet, Fatemeh; Norouzi Tabrizi, Kian; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Saadat, Soheil; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Bastami, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background Road traffic accident (RTA) victims also suffer from different types of injuries and disabilities, which can affect their quality of life. They usually face with various physical, mental, and social problems. Most traffic accident victims had difficulty to return to normal life. Objectives This study aimed to understand the experiences of return to normal life in RTA victims. Patients and Methods This qualitative study with content analysis approach was conducted on 18 Iranian patients with disability in the upper or lower limbs caused by traffic accidents, who had passed a time between 3 months till 2 years. A purposeful sampling method was applied until reaching data saturation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Afterwards, the gathered data were analyzed through conventional content analysis. Results By analyzing 498 primary codes, four main categories, including supportive needs, adaptation to the new situation, seeking information, and transition from functional limitation, were extracted from traffic accident victims’ experiences of reintegration to normal life. Conclusions The results of this study may help policy-makers to take steps toward health promotion and recovery of RTA victims. Considering the results of this study, it is a need for further research to investigate RTAs victims’ needs for reintegration to home and community. Access to training and supportive facilities like strong therapeutic, nursing and social support, and the possibility to participate in self-care activities is essential for reintegration to community in RTA victims. PMID:27275399

  4. Burden, pattern and outcomes of road traffic injuries in a rural district of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Uthkarsh, Pallavi Sarji; Rao, Girish N; Jayaram, Ashok N; Panduranganath, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading public health problem and the understanding of RTIs in rural India is limited. The present report documents the burden, pattern, characteristics and outcomes of RTIs in a rural district of India using combined data sources: police and hospital. RTIs contributed for 38% of fatal and 39% of non-fatal injuries with an annual mortality rate of 18.1/100,000 population/year. Young males were affected most and two-wheeler users and pedestrians were involved in 45% and 20% of fatal crashes, respectively. Nearly half (51%) of fatal RTIs occurred on national highways of the district; 46% died immediately at the site. Among those hospitalised, 20% were under the influence of alcohol while use of helmets and seat belts was India with a focus on safe roads, safe vehicles and safe people along with trauma care.

  5. Camera location optimisation for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Shan; Huang, Hai-Jun; Long, Jiancheng

    2013-12-01

    New sensor technologies (e.g. surveillance cameras, loop detectors) enable the synthesis of disaggregated vehicle information from multiple locations. This article studies the camera location problem for traffic surveillance in urban road networks with multiple user classes. All users are differentiated by their own acceptance degree of camera monitoring and make their route choices in a logit-based stochastic user equilibrium manner. A bi-level programming model is proposed to formulate the problem and solved by the sensitivity analysis based branch and bound method. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model application and show the effectiveness of the solution method.

  6. A Dynamic Vulnerability Map to Assess the Risk of Road Network Traffic Utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Nabaa, Michel; Dutot, Antoine; Olivier, Damien; Mallet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Le Havre agglomeration (CODAH) includes 16 establishments classified Seveso with high threshold. In the literature, we construct vulnerability maps to help decision makers assess the risk. Such approaches remain static and do take into account the population displacement in the estimation of the vulnerability. We propose a decision making tool based on a dynamic vulnerability map to evaluate the difficulty of evacuation in the different sectors of CODAH. We use a Geographic Information system (GIS) to visualize the map which evolves with the road traffic state through a detection of communities in large graphs algorithm.

  7. Traffic-related air quality assessment for open road tolling highway facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Yu, Dan

    2008-09-01

    Open road tolling (ORT) design has been considered as an effective means of smoothing highway traffic and reducing travel delay on toll highways. In this paper it is demonstrated that ORT can also achieve significant air quality benefits over the conventional toll plaza design. The near roadside carbon monoxide (CO) concentration levels can be reduced by up to 37%, and diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions can decrease by as much as 58%. These large expected air quality benefits have great implications to the regional efforts of reducing mobile source air pollution toward achieving attainment status and healthier living environment.

  8. Particle number concentration near road traffic in Amsterdam (the Netherlands): Comparison of standard and real-world emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Zandveld, P.; Verhagen, H.; Stelwagen, U.; Jonge de, D.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, NOx and particle number concentration (PNC) at an urban background and a traffic location were measured in the city of Amsterdam (the Netherlands). Modelled and measured contributions to NOx and PNC at the traffic location were used to derive real-world PN emission factors for average urban road traffic. The results for NOx were applied to validate our approach. The real-world PN emission factors (#.km-1) were 2.9E+14 (urban road) and 3E+14 (motorway). These values were at least a factor eight higher than dynamometer-based PN emission factors from COPERT 4 and HBEFA databases. The real-world PN emission factors were used to model the contribution to PNC near road traffic in 2014. This was two to three times higher than the PNC urban background along urban roads over 20,000 vehicles per day and near motorways. The discrepancy between dynamometer-based and real-world emission factors demonstrates the need for more PNC observations to assess actual PN emissions from road traffic.

  9. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  10. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-11-08

    The unprecedented growth of today's cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city.

  11. A Harmonized Perspective on Transportation Management in Smart Cities: The Novel IoT-Driven Environment for Road Traffic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Masek, Jan; Frantik, Petr; Fujdiak, Radek; Ometov, Aleksandr; Hosek, Jiri; Andreev, Sergey; Mlynek, Petr; Misurec, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented growth of today’s cities together with increased population mobility are fueling the avalanche in the numbers of vehicles on the roads. This development led to the new challenges for the traffic management, including the mitigation of road congestion, accidents, and air pollution. Over the last decade, researchers have been focusing their efforts on leveraging the recent advances in sensing, communications, and dynamic adaptive technologies to prepare the deployed road traffic management systems (TMS) for resolving these important challenges in future smart cities. However, the existing solutions may still be insufficient to construct a reliable and secure TMS that is capable of handling the anticipated influx of the population and vehicles in urban areas. Along these lines, this work systematically outlines a perspective on a novel modular environment for traffic modeling, which allows to recreate the examined road networks in their full resemblance. Our developed solution is targeted to incorporate the progress in the Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, where low-power, embedded devices integrate as part of a next-generation TMS. To mimic the real traffic conditions, we recreated and evaluated a practical traffic scenario built after a complex road intersection within a large European city. PMID:27834796

  12. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moafian, Ghasem; Aghabeigi, Mohammad-Reza; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Sarikhani, Yaser

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA) and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type. A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%). The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%). The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years'of driving experience. Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%). Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively). We found significant association between type of accident and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P less than 0.001). Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  13. Optimizing transport logistics taking into account the state of roads and road traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikul’skaya Ol’ga Mikhaylovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The choice and use of rational routes at strict observance of deliveries terms help to achieve not only minimization of operational expenses, but also to reduce commodity and production stocks in warehouses by 1,5...2 times. Therefore special relevance is gained by the works allowing precisely calculating the volumes of a cargo transportation, to count the quantity of transport units necessary for providing cargo flow, to define the rational routes of transportation, and also to reduce total costs of transportation. On the basis of the analysis of the known mathematical methods applied in transport logistics, the authors drew a conclusion that the route of freight delivery is estimated according to the distance passed by the vehicle. However the time of freight delivery depends not only on distance, but also on a set of other factors, such as vehicle type, road capacity, intensity of transport stream, weather conditions, season and others. For taking note of additional factors when optimizing a freight delivery route the method of analogy and similarity is used by the authors. The transportation parameters were estimated by analogy with an electric chain. For this purpose the authors entered the new concepts “fictitious distance” and “conductivity of the road”. The mathematical model allowing optimizing the organization of freight delivery taking into account not only distances, but also the probable speed of the vehicle movement depending on the road quality, intensity of transport stream and weather conditions is developed. Further development of the system of decision-making support while choosing the optimum route of cargo delivery is planned.

  14. IMPROVEMENT OF EXPERT ANALYSIS FOR ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS USING COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Azemsha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing methods for auto-technical expertise presuppose selection of some parameters on the basis of the expert’s intuition and experience. Type of a vehicle and its loading rate, road conditions are not taken into account also in the case when deceleration is to be determined. While carrying out the analysis it has been established that an application of special software makes it possible to improve significantly efficiency of the executed works directed on solution of the assigned tasks, to speed up calculation processes, to decrease qualitatively probability of arithmetic errors and provides the possibility to visualize results of the conducted investigations. Possibility of using various models for dynamic motion simulation and collision of vehicles (in the form of 3D-models has been established in the paper. In such a case specific features of vehicle technical conditions, its loading rate and condition of roadway surface have been taken account in the paper. The given paper also permits to obtain a dynamic display of reconstructed accident mechanism in axonometric projection, to film video-clips when a camera is positioned at any spatial point: road, roadside, raised position, moving vehicle, driver's seat in the vehicle.The paper contains an analysis of possibilities of road traffic accident simulation programs, a statistical analysis that shows significance in differences between simulation results when various programs have been used. The paper presents initial data and results of vehicle speed calculation on the basis of braking track length which have been obtained with the help of road traffic accident express analysis (a classical approach and PC-Crash when additional influencing factors are taken into account. A number of shortcomings have been revealed while analyzing the simulation results of the applied software. The shortcomings must be removed in the analyzed software products.On the basis of the executed analysis in

  15. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  16. Impact of Lane Width of Road on Passenger Car Unit Capacity under Mix Traffic Condition in Cities on Congested Highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Khanorkar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Passenger car units are used to represent the effects of varying mixed vehicle types on traffic stream. The traffic volume information about roads which is important for, design and planning analysis for that roadway system. Traffic on congested highways is of the mixed nature to assess the different types of vehicles on highways. This study is concerned with determine the PCU values of vehicles in under mixed nature traffic flow at on congested highways. PCU is the different types of vehicles offer different degree of interference to the other traffic it necessary to bring all types to a common unit. The common unit adopted is expressing the volume as Passenger Car Unit (PCU per hour. In this paper the required data is collected at five main highways around and in Nagpur City using a digital video recorder. During recent years traffic on road has been grow up at rapid rate which causes congestion on the roads. Speeds of vehicle reduced due to congestion and vehicle operating cost is high on such highways. Accident rate is also usually high. Our aim is to work out the passenger car unit PCU for different types of vehicles under mixed nature traffic conditions.

  17. Mortality from road traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city: A 20-year analysis in Shenzhen, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Fu, Ying-Bin; Li, Shan-Shan; Ma, Han-Wu; Zou, Fei; Cheng, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends of motorization and mortality rates from road traffic accidents and examine their associations in a rapidly urbanizing city in China, Shenzhen. Using data from the Shenzhen Deaths Registry between 1994 and 2013, we calculated the annual mortality rates of road traffic accidents, in addition to the age- and sex-specific mortality rates and their annual percentage changes (APCs) for the period of 2000-2013. We also examined the associations between mortality rate of road traffic accidents and traffic growth with Spearman's rank correlation analysis and a log-linear model derived from Smeed's law. A total of 20,196 deaths due to road traffic accidents, including 14,391 (71.3%) male deaths and 5,805 (28.7%) female deaths, were recorded in Shenzhen from 1994 to 2013. The annual mortality rates in terms of deaths per population and deaths per vehicle changed in similar patterns, demonstrating an increase since 1994 and peaking in 1997, followed by a steady decrease thereafter. The decrease in mortality was faster in individuals aged 20 year or older compared to those younger than 20 years. The mortality rates in term of deaths per population were positively correlated with the total number of vehicles per kilometer of road but negatively correlated with the motorization rate in term of vehicles per population. The estimated model for deaths due to road traffic accidents in relation to the total population and the number of registered vehicles was ln (deaths/10,000 vehicles) = -1.902 × ln (vehicles/population) - 1.961. The coefficient was statistically significant (P traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city based observations in the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. The decreased mortality rate may be explained by the expansion of road network construction, improved road safety regulations and management, as well as more accessible ambulance services in recent years. Nevertheless, road traffic accidents remain a

  18. Application of magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods in environmental studies of urban pollution generated by road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucko, M.

    2012-11-01

    Road traffic is at present one of the major sources of environmental pollution in urban areas. Magnetic particles, heavy metals and other compounds generated by traffic can greatly affect ambient air quality and have direct implications for human health. The general aim of this research was to identify and characterize magnetic vehicle-derived particulates using magnetic, geochemical and micro-morphological methods. A combination of three different methods was used to discriminate sources of particular anthropogenic particles. Special emphasis was placed on the application of various collectors (roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags) to monitor spatial and temporal distribution of traffic pollution on roadsides. The spatial distribution of magnetic parameters of road dust accumulated in roadside soil, snow, lichens and moss bags indicates that the highest concentration of magnetic particles is in the sampling points situated closest to the road edge. The concentration of magnetic particles decreases with increasing distance from the road indicating vehicle traffic as a major source of emission. Significant differences in horizontal distribution of magnetic susceptibility were observed between soil and snow. Magnetic particles derived from road traffic deposit on soil within a few meters from the road, but on snow up to 60 m from the road. The values of magnetic susceptibility of road dust deposited near busy urban motorway are significantly higher than in the case of low traffic road. These differences are attributed to traffic volume, which is 30 times higher on motorway than on local road. Moss bags placed at the edge of urban parks situated near major roads show higher values of magnetic susceptibility than moss bags from parks located near minor routes. Enhanced concentrations of heavy metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Co) were observed in the studied samples. This may be associated with specific sources of vehicle emissions (e.g. exhaust and non

  19. Trends in traffic fatalities in Mexico: examining progress on the decade of action for road safety 2011-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Trejo, Arturo; Leenen, Iwin; Fabila-Carrasco, John Stewart; Rojas-Vargas, Roy

    2016-11-01

    We explore demographic, temporal and geographic patterns of 256,588 road traffic fatalities from 1998 to 2013 in Mexico, in context of UN´s decade of action for road safety 2010-2020 (DARS). Combined traffic mortality data and population counts were analyzed using mixed-effects logistic regression, distinguishing sex-age groups, vulnerable and protected road users, and municipal size. Rapid growth from 1998 to 2008 in traffic mortality rates has been reversed since 2009. Most deaths averted are among young male protected road users (reduction of 0.95 fatalities per 100,000 per year in males 12-49). In spite of a steady decrease over the full study period, mortality rates remain high in vulnerable road users over 50, with a high mortality rate of 26 per 100,000 males over 75 years in 2013. Progress on the reduction of deaths advances in Mexico, in line with DARS targets. National road safety efforts require strengthening. Initiatives should target vulnerable road users, specifically adults >50 years in urban areas. Strengthening of drink driving programs aimed at young drivers/occupants is promising.

  20. An experimental investigation into the effects of traffic noise on distributions of birds: avoiding the phantom road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christopher J W; Ware, Heidi E; Carlisle, Jay; Kaltenecker, Gregory; Barber, Jesse R

    2013-12-22

    Many authors have suggested that the negative effects of roads on animals are largely owing to traffic noise. Although suggestive, most past studies of the effects of road noise on wildlife were conducted in the presence of the other confounding effects of roads, such as visual disturbance, collisions and chemical pollution among others. We present, to our knowledge, the first study to experimentally apply traffic noise to a roadless area at a landscape scale-thus avoiding the other confounding aspects of roads present in past studies. We replicated the sound of a roadway at intervals-alternating 4 days of noise on with 4 days off-during the autumn migratory period using a 0.5 km array of speakers within an established stopover site in southern Idaho. We conducted daily bird surveys along our 'Phantom Road' and in a nearby control site. We document over a one-quarter decline in bird abundance and almost complete avoidance by some species between noise-on and noise-off periods along the phantom road and no such effects at control sites-suggesting that traffic noise is a major driver of effects of roads on populations of animals.

  1. [Particle number size distribution near a major road with different traffic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Wu, Ye; Song, Shao-Jie; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2012-03-01

    The profiles of number concentration of ambient particles at a roadside site in Beijing were studied with different traffic conditions. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was utilized to measure the number concentrations of fine and ultrafine (10-100 nm) particles in August 2008 and August 2009, which represented the normal and Olympic traffic conditions, respectively. Size distributions of particle number concentration were identified and their temporal variations were also discussed. Results indicated that with normal traffic pattern, the total number concentration of ultrafine and 10-478 nm particles were (1.15 +/- 0.49) x 10(4) cm(-3) and (1.61 +/- 0.57) x 10(4) cm(-3), respectively. While the concentrations were decreased to (0.55 +/- 0.14) x 10(4) cm(-3) and (1.21 +/- 0.24) x 10(4) cm(-3), respectively, with special traffic condition during the Beijing Olympic Games. Largest reduction of 52.2% was observed for ultrafine particles among all size ranges. With normal traffic condition, bimodal distribution was found with two peak values in number concentrations around 22.5 nm and 113.0 nm. During the Olympic period, nucleation mode particles were significantly reduced due to a series of temporal control measures on motor vehicles such as the removal of yellow-labeled vehicles from the roads and travel restrictions based on odd-even license plate numbers. As a result, the peak in particle number concentration at 22.5 nm disappeared. The temporal variation indicated that significantly higher ultrafine particle number concentrations occurred around 00 : 00-04 : 00, 11 : 00-13 : 00 and 17 : 00-20 : 00 with normal traffic situation, which primarily attributed to the contributions of diesel exhaust at night, secondary formation at noon and traffic jam in the evening, respectively. However during the Olympic period, the temporal variation pattern changed significantly. The gap in the number concentrations of ultrafine particle between these three time periods

  2. Design of Traffic Signs and Markings in France Road Traffic Engineering%法国公路交通工程标志标线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智俊; 李勇; 张晟斌

    2011-01-01

    研究目的:道路交通标志、标线是交通安全设施的一个重要组成部分,是最有效的引导车辆规范行驶的方式之一,可显著降低交通事故,提高交通效率.本文简要介绍了法国交通工程标志、标线的一些基本设计原则、理念及使用材料,希望能为我国公路设计工作者对海外公路项目设计提供有益的借鉴.研究结论:(1)为便利国际道路交通和提高道路的安全性,法国道路标志系统的建立遵循联合国制定的《道路交通公约》与《道路交通标志与信号公约》;(2)非洲公路交通工程体系一般采用欧洲国家标准;(3)我国交通工程体系与国外存在一定差异,但正在逐步与国际接轨;(4)我国标线施工机械与材料研制起步晚,与发达国家有一定的差距,应加大开发力度.%Research purposes: Road traffic signs and markings are important parts in the Traffic safety facilities, they are the most effective way of guiding vehicle along the way, which also can significantly reduce traffic accidents and improve transport efficiency. In this paper,, introduced some basic design principles, concepts and materials in french traffic engineering, which can be useful to China's highway designer and be helpful to develop overseas highway project. Research conclusions: (1) For the purpose of facilitating regional Traffic and improving road safety, France joined the "Convention on Road Traffic" and "Convention on Road Signs and Signals" which were formulated by United Nations . (2) Traffic system in Africa road usually adopted the Europe standards. (3) There are some differences between homeland and oversea in traffic engineering system, but it is gradually in line with oversea' s. (4) The construction machine and materials of traffic markings are developed more slowly in our country, there is disparity with the developed countries, and we should accelerate the development step in research area.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Mekelle town, northern Ethiopia, 2014: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Nigus Gebremedhin; Ingale, Lalit; Shumey, Ashenafi; Yang, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 World Health Organization Status Report on Road Safety estimated that approximately 1.24 million deaths occur annually due to road traffic crashes with most of the burden falling on low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this research is to study the prevalence of road traffic crashes in Mekelle, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia and to identify risk factors with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. This study used a cross-sectional design to measure the prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crashes among 4-wheeled minibus (n = 130) and 3-wheeled Bajaj (n = 582) taxi drivers in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between risk factors and drivers' involvement in a road traffic crash within the 3 years prior to the survey. Among the 712 taxi drivers, 26.4% (n = 188) of them reported involvement in a road traffic crash within the past 3 years. Drivers who listened to mass media had decreased likelihood of road traffic crash involvement (AOR = 0.51, 0.33-0.78), while speedy driving (AOR = 4.57, 3.05-7.44), receipt of a prior traffic punishment (AOR = 4.57, 2.67-7.85), and driving a mechanically faulty taxi (AOR = 4.91, 2.81-8.61) were strongly associated with road traffic crash involvement. Receiving mobile phone calls while driving (AOR = 1.91, 1.24-2.92) and history of alcohol use (AOR = 1.51, 1.00-2.28) were also associated with higher odds of road traffic crash involvement. The results of this study show that taxi drivers in Mekelle habitually place themselves at increased risk of road traffic crashes by violating traffic laws, especially related to speedy driving, mobile phone use, and taxi maintenance. This research can be used to support re-evaluation of the type, severity, and enforcement of traffic violation penalties.

  4. Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis DaCoTa. Workpackage 4, Decision Support: Deliverable 4.4: Forecasting road traffic fatalities in European countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, C. Papadimitriou, E. Yannis, G. Bijleveld, F.D. Commandeur, J.J.F. Broughton, J Knowles, J. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Giustianni, G. Shingo, D. Hermans, E. Lassarre, S. Perez, C. & Santamariña, E.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic crashes have a major impact to European society, in 2008 over 38,000 road users died and over 1.2 million were injured. The economic cost is immense and has been estimated at over 160 billion for the EU 15 alone. The European Commission and National Governments place a high priority on reduc

  5. The recent dramatic decline in road mortality in France: how drivers' attitudes towards road traffic safety changed between 2001 and 2004 in the GAZEL cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, A; Salmi, L R; Lafont, S; Chiron, M; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2008-10-01

    A very significant decline in the number of road casualties has been observed recently in France, concomitantly with a dramatic increase in law enforcement. The aim of this study was (i) to assess changes in attitudes about road traffic accident (RTA) prevention initiatives in France from 2001 to 2004 and (ii) to identify factors associated with an increase in positive attitudes towards RTA prevention initiatives. In 2001 and 2004, 9216 participants reported their attitudes towards traffic safety using the same self-administered Driving Behaviour and Road Safety Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, psychological and behavioural data were also available. The mean change in scores analysis showed that support for relaxing existing regulations decreased significantly during this period, while support for heightened enforcement and stricter regulations showed some decrease but remained high overall, especially concerning blood alcohol content and speed controls. Multivariate analyses suggest that highly educated drivers changed their attitudes towards road safety regulations more than other categories. Our results suggest that increased traffic law enforcement measures led to increasing support for current restrictions. Even if support for additional traffic law enforcement began to wane slightly in 2004, a large part of our population remained in favour of strengthening law enforcement related to speeding and drunk driving.

  6. The Relation between Self-Reported Worry and Annoyance from Air and Road Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Frits; Verhagen, Claudia; Uitenbroek, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c.) close to 0.6). For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4–0.5). Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5–0.9), also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors. PMID:25723645

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with road traffic crash among taxi drivers in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Quang Ngoc; Lee, Andy H; Meuleners, Lynn B; Van Duong, Dat

    2013-01-01

    Injury due to road traffic crash is a major cause of ill health and premature deaths in developing countries. Taxis provide a main mode of public transport in Vietnam but there has been little research on the risk of crash for taxi drivers. This retrospective study collected information on taxi crashes for the period 2006-2009 by interviewing drivers from five taxi companies in Hanoi, Vietnam, using a structured questionnaire. Of the total 1214 participants recruited, 276 drivers reported at least one crash, giving an overall crash prevalence of 22.7%. Among the crashed group, 50 drivers (18.1%) were involved in two to four crashes. Logistic regression analysis further identified age of driver, type of driving licence, employment status, perceived sufficiency of income, seat-belt usage, and traffic infringement history to be significantly associated with the crash risk. Further prospective and qualitative studies are recommended to provide detailed crash characteristics as well as behaviour and perception of taxi drivers, so that an effective intervention can be developed to improve road safety and to prevent injury of these commercial drivers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Operationalizing an orthopedic action plan for the decade of road traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Luke; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2014-01-01

    The decade of action for road traffic safety provides orthopaedic surgeons with an opportunity to contribute to policy that will improve the ability to deliver trauma care. In the previous 2 decades outcomes for orthopaedic trauma patients have improved significantly. The decade of action for road traffic safety will bring attention and funding to trauma related endeavors. The challenge before orthopaedic surgeons and orthopaedic trauma societies is to provide delivery mechanisms so that clinical care can reach populations around the globe. Organizing orthopaedic trauma care into care delivery value chains provides a tool for understanding how efficiency can be gained over the entire cycle of care from emergent management through rehabilitation and revision surgery when needed. Integrated practice units allow orthopaedic surgeons to collaborate with other trauma specialists to provide integrated care and exploit the areas of natural overlap to create trauma care systems that optimize communication for surgeons and simplify follow up for patients. By using these tools orthopaedic surgeons can deliver excellent trauma care to populations around the world.

  9. Self-Powered Intelligent Sensor Node Concept for Monitoring of Road and Traffic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Strache

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for future road construction is based on a surface, which is manufactured in a production plant and can be unrolled on a conventional basis. This paper deals with an idea of making the road “intelligent” by integrating a net of sensor nodes. Equipped with acceleration sensors these systems can detect the actual traffic situation. With the knowledge of the exact position and velocity of each car a driver assistance system is able to find the fastest route or provide exact and reliable warnings to prevent e.g. accidents at the end of traffic jams. This paper describes the main idea of a low cost, energy harvesting sensor node containing a MEMS accelerometer with a frontend, a processing unit, a photovoltaic energy harvesting power supply and a wireless communication link. Measurements show that the detection of passing vehicles using structure borne sound and MEMS accelerometers is feasible. Furthermore the described functionality can be integrated into a size of less than 2.45 cm ´ 2.45 cm x 1 cm and each senor node can be operated stand alone.

  10. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Nikolić, Vesna; Markič, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with a safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled by applying the five-factor model of personality ('Big Five') and the Personality Inventory NEO-PI. From these results it was concluded that safe operation of the vehicle in traffic involves the successful 'conduct' of oneself, which recognises the importance of certain personality traits of professional drivers for traffic safety and the need for appropriate professional selection in the case of employment of professional drivers. Research results implicate development of educational programmes aimed at achieving harmony of psychological, physical and sensory health, that is, programmes for permanent informing, educating and training professional drivers for defensive driving. The research opens the way for new research tasks that should help in creating a specific structure of curricula that can be used in a variety of transportation companies and enterprises to improve general and public safety.

  11. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Wittmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective: To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method: In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results: Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity. Conclusions: Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  12. Pediatric craniomaxillofacial injuries after road traffic crashes: characteristics of injuries and protective equipment use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Siti Salmiah Mohd; Ngeow, Wei Cheong; Ramli, Roszalina

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine the pattern of craniomaxillofacial (CMF) injuries among children involved in road traffic crashes was performed. The association of protective equipment use with the CMF injuries was evaluated. Retrospective records of children treated in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, after road traffic crashes between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012 were reviewed, and, after that, telephone interviews were made. Seventy-one children were included in this study. Fifty-two (73.6%) were involved in a motorcycle injury and 19 (23.4%) in a car crash. Their mean age was 6.02 years; SD, 3.46 (range between 0 to 13 years old). More male children were observed (52.1%) compared with females (47.9%). Thirty-nine point four percent of the children sustained CMF injuries, 33.8% body injuries, and 23.9% had both CMF and other body parts injuries. The highest injury severity score was 26, whereas the lowest was 0. Many children did not use protective equipment during traveling, 44.2% of children among motorcycle pillion riders, and 78.9% among car passengers. The association between helmet use and CMF injuries was shown to be statistically significant (P belt. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI) prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94,197 representing an N of 102,886,482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI) during the 12 months prior to the survey. The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (pAguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  14. Economics of global burden of road traffic injuries and their relationship with health system variables

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    Koustuv Dalal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To estimate the economic loss due to road traffic injuries (RTIs of the World Health Organization (WHO member countries and to explore the relationship between the economic loss and relevant health system factors. Methods: Data from the World Bank and the WHO were applied to set up the databases. Disability-adjusted life year (DALY and gross domestic product per capita were used to estimate the economic loss relating to RTIs. Regression analysis was used. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics, Versions 20.0. Results: In 2005, the total economic loss of RTIs was estimated to be 167,752.4 million United States Dollars. High income countries (HIC showed the greatest economic losses. The majority (96% of the top 25 countries with the greatest DALY losses are low and middle income countries while 48% of the top 25 countries with the highest economic losses are HIC. The linear regression model indicates an inverse relationship between nurse density in the health system and economic loss due to RTI. Conclusions: RTIs cause enormous death and DALYs loss in low-middle income countries and enormous economic loss in HIC. More road traffic prevention programs should be promoted in these areas to reduce both incidence and economic burden of RTIs.

  15. The Relation between Self-Reported Worry and Annoyance from Air and Road Traffic

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    Frits van den Berg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Negative perceptions such as fear or worry are known to be an important determinant of annoyance. Annoyance caused by noise and odour has been analysed in relation to worry about safety or health due to environmental hazards, using responses to a health survey. In the survey area high environmental impacts come from air and road traffic. The survey results show a correlation between worry due to the airport or passing aircraft and noise and odour annoyance from aircraft (correlation coefficient (c.c. close to 0.6. For the relation between worry about a busy street and annoyance from road traffic the correlation is lower (c.c. 0.4–0.5. Worries about different situations, such as living below sea level, close to an airport, busy street or chemical industry, are highly correlated (c.c. 0.5–0.9, also for situations that are not obviously related. Personal factors can also lead to more worry: being female, above 35 years of age, having a high risk for anxiety/depression and being in bad health increase the odds for being worried. The results thus suggest that worry about safety or health is correlated to both personal and environmental factors.

  16. Epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries in a Tertiary Care Centre of Lucknow

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    Ashish Chauhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is the second leading cause of mortality in 15-29 year age group and if the current trend continues then it will be the 5th leading cause of overall mortality worldwide. Objective:  To know the epidemiology of Road Traffic Injuries as seen in a tertiary care centre of Lucknow. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was done among patients of RTI admitted at a Tertiary Care Centre. A systematic random sampling technique was used to collect a sample of 267 patients of RTI in the study duration of four months. A pretested semi-structured interview schedule was used to collect necessary information regarding the time, place and the person involved in the accident. Descriptive statistics for continuous variables and frequency, percentage for categorical variables were determined. Chi-square test of uniform distribution was used to test distribution of variables. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients of RTI was 32 years and majority of the patients of RTI belonged to 16 to 30 years age group. Males outnumbered females giving a Male: Female ratio of 6.85: 1. Majority of the patients were from rural areas. A high proportion of the patients were MTV users. Conclusion: Fracture was the most common type of injury in the patients of RTI and Lower limb was the most common site of injury, followed by head.

  17. Effects of NO2 and NH3 from road traffic on epiphytic lichens.

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    Frati, L; Caprasecca, E; Santoni, S; Gaggi, C; Guttova, A; Gaudino, S; Pati, A; Rosamilia, S; Pirintsos, S A; Loppi, S

    2006-07-01

    The results of a survey aimed at investigating whether NO2 and NH3 emitted by road traffic can influence lichen diversity, lichen vitality and the accumulation of nitrogen in lichen thalli are reported. For this purpose, distance from a highway in a rural environment of central Italy was regarded as the main parameter to check this hypothesis. The results of the present survey indicated that road traffic is not a relevant source of NH3. On the other hand, NO2 concentrations, although rather low, were negatively correlated with distance from the highway according to a typical logarithmic function. No association between NO2 concentrations and the diversity of epiphytic lichens was found, probably because of the low NO2 values measured. Also bark properties were not influenced by distance from the highway. Accumulation of nitrogen, reduction in the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total carotenoids were found in transplanted thalli of Evernia prunastri, but NO2 was not responsible for these changes, which were probably caused by applications of N-based fertilizers.

  18. Economic Burden of Road Traffic Accidents; Report from a Single Center from South Eastern Iran

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    Aliyeh Sargazi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the economic burden of road traffic accidents (RTAs in patients admitted to a single center in south eastern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Amir-Al-Momenin hospital of Zabol affiliated with Zabol University of Medical Sciences during a 12-month period from April 2012 to April 2013. All the RTAs patients who were admitted to our emergency department were included. The direct expenses of hospital care were recorded according to their medical charts and the accountant registration information. Data are presented according to different RTAs characteristics. Results: Overall 1155 patients were included in the current study with mean age of 36.7 ± 5.14 years among whom there were 673(58.3% men and 482 (41.7% women. The annual incidence of RTAs were calculated to be 288 per 100,000 population. The RTAs economic burden in our center was 589,448.49 USD which accounted for 10.4% of total hospital expenses during the study period. The money spend on RTAs in our center was 130 times more than gross national income per capita. Cost of each patient in road traffic was 15 times more than cost of an average patient of the hospital in other sections. Conclusion: With considerable high ratio of accidents in Zabol, proper intervention is needed for controlling and preventing RTAs in order to decrease its injuries, impact and the associated economic burden.

  19. Traffic signal design and simulation for vulnerable road users safety and bus preemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Huang, Hsieh-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Mostly, pedestrian car accidents occurred at a signalized interaction is because pedestrians cannot across the intersection safely within the green light. From the viewpoint of pedestrian, there might have two reasons. The first one is pedestrians cannot speed up to across the intersection, such as the elders. The other reason is pedestrians do not sense that the signal phase is going to change and their right-of-way is going to be lost. Developing signal logic to protect pedestrian, who is crossing an intersection is the first purpose of this study. In addition, to improve the reliability and reduce delay of public transportation service is the second purpose. Therefore, bus preemption is also considered in the designed signal logic. In this study, the traffic data of the intersection of Chong-Qing North Road and Min-Zu West Road, Taipei, Taiwan, is employed to calibrate and validate the signal logic by simulation. VISSIM 5.20, which is a microscopic traffic simulation software, is employed to simulate the signal logic. From the simulated results, the signal logic presented in this study can protect pedestrians crossing the intersection successfully. The design of bus preemption can reduce the average delay. However, the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal will influence the average delay of cars largely. Thus, whether applying the pedestrian safety and bus preemption signal logic to an intersection or not should be evaluated carefully.

  20. Analyses of platinum group elements in mosses as indicators of road traffic emissions in Austria

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    Zechmeister, Harald G.; Hagendorfer, Harald; Hohenwallner, Daniela; Hanus-Illnar, Andrea; Riss, Alarich

    The concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE; platinum, palladium, rhodium) and 17 other elements in mosses growing at 32 sampling sites along 12 roads in Austria were analysed. The study included passive monitoring of naturally growing mosses with an experimental design using mosses samples exposed in a tunnel experiment. PGEs (Pt, Pd, Rh) were analysed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II, Perkin Elmer SCIEX) according to EN ISO 17294-2 Tl.29. Mean concentrations of PGEs in five moss species were: Pt 7.07±9.97, Pd 2.8±5.2 und Rh 0.6±0.8 ng g -1 dry weight. This is comparable to data derived from measurements of gasoline autocatalyst emissions or airborne particles (<10 μm). Compared to soils and road dust along highways, concentrations in mosses were lower by a factor of ten, compared to grasses they were comparable or somewhat higher. The ratios between the various PGEs were calculated as follows (mean values): Pt/Pd 7.9±10.2, Pt/Rh 12.6±8.3 and Pd/Rh 3.7±2.2. The number of light duty vehicles (<3.5 t) and the distance from the road were the main influential factors for PGE concentrations. Especially strong correlations could be found between Pt and Sb, Cu, Zn, and Cd (in decreasing order), which are all elements derived mainly from road traffic emissions. Cluster analysis (Partioning Around Medoids Method) separated elements derived mainly from soil dust (Ca, Al). An analysis of spatial deposition patterns of PGEs showed a reciprocal decrease of concentrations with increasing distance from the road, reaching background values at distances between 10 and 200 m, sometimes even more, but outside the spatial range of our investigation.

  1. The Characteristics of Road Traffic Fatalities in Kazakhstan's Semey Region, 2006-2010: A Descriptive Retrospective Study.

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    Ayan Myssayev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan, a developing middle-income country, has the highest road traffic collision (RTC mortality in the European Region. The aims of this study were to determine main characteristics of road traffic fatalities in Semey region, Kazakhstan and to compare findings with National data and middle-income European countries.This descriptive surveillance study assesses RTC mortality rates and epidemiology in the Semey Region of East Kazakhstan Oblast. Data of all 318 road traffic fatalities form the Semey Regional Center for Forensic Medicine were analyzed for the 5-year period of January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2010.Over the study period, the average road traffic mortality in the Semey Region was 12.1 per 100,000 population with downward trend by 35.1% (p=0.002. The victims mean age was 37.1 (SD=17 years. Males predominated at 74.5%. Vehicle fatality was the most common mode of fatality at 61.3%. The majority of collisions, 53.1%, occurred on highways. Most victims, 67.3%, have died at the scene of collision; in 67.3% of fatalities, autopsies identified multiple injuries as cause of death. The high number of fatal collisions took place in "no snow" season (P<0.001, with an overall 5-years downward dynamic.High proportion of males, pedestrians and car occupants among road traffic fatalities; high proportion of death on scene in case of highway collisions are specifics for Semey region, Kazakhstan. These findings can be used to formulate preventive strategies to reduce fatalities and to improve the medical care system for road traffic fatalities.

  2. Hybrid and electric low-noise cars cause an increase in traffic accidents involving vulnerable road users in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Stephan; Petri, Maximilian; Haas, Philipp; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Due to resource scarcity, the number of low-noise and electric cars is expected to increase rapidly. The frequent use of these cars will lead to a significant reduction of traffic related noise and pollution. On the other hand, due to the adaption and conditioning of vulnerable road users the number of traffic accidents involving pedestrians and bicyclists is postulated to increase as well. Children, older people with reduced eyesight and the blind are especially reliant on a combination of acoustic and visual warning signals with approaching or accelerating vehicles. This is even more evident in urban areas where the engine sound is the dominating sound up to 30 kph (kilometres per hour). Above this, tyre-road interaction is the main cause of traffic noise. With the missing typical engine sound a new sound design is necessary to prevent traffic accidents in urban areas. Drivers should not be able to switch the sound generator off.

  3. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

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    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  4. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  5. Terrorism-related injuries versus road traffic accident-related trauma: 5 years of experience in Israel.

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    Peleg, Kobi; Savitsky, Bella

    2009-12-01

    Terrorism victims comprise the minority among trauma injured people, but this small population imposes a burden on the health care system. Thirty percent of the population injured in terrorist activities experienced severe trauma (injury severity score > or =16), more than half of them need a surgical procedure, and 25% of the population affected by terrorism had been admitted to intensive care. Furthermore, compared with patients with non-terrorism-related trauma, victims of terrorism often arrive in bulk, as part of a mass casualty event. This poses a sudden load on hospital resources and requires special organization and preparedness. The present study compared terrorism-related and road accident-related injuries and examined clinical characteristics of both groups of patients. This study is a retrospective study of all patients injured through terrorist acts and road traffic accidents from September 29, 2000 to December 31, 2005, and recorded in the Israel Trauma Registry. Data on the nature of injuries, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the registry. Medical diagnoses were extracted from the registry and classified based on International Classification of Diseases coding. Diagnoses were grouped to body regions, based on the Barell Injury Diagnosis Matrix. The study includes 2197 patients with terrorism-related injuries and 30,176 patients injured in road traffic accidents. All in all, 27% of terrorism-related casualties suffered severe to critical injuries, comparing to 17% among road traffic accident-related victims. Glasgow Coma Scale scores terrorism victims, in contrast with 7.4% among people injured on the roads. The terrorism victims had a significantly higher rate of use of intensive care facilities (24.2% vs 12.4%). The overall inpatient death rate was 6.0% among terrorism victims and 2.4% among those injured in road traffic accidents. Casualties from terrorist events are more severely injured and require more resources relative to casualties

  6. Assessment of the impact of the vehicular traffic on BTEX concentration in ring roads in urban areas of Bari (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Maurizio; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Marzocca, Annalisa; Trizio, Livia; Tutino, Maria

    2010-09-01

    A BTEX monitoring campaign, consisting of two weekly periods, was carried out in Bari, south-eastern Italy, in order to evaluate the impact of the vehicular traffic on the air quality at the main access roads of the city. Twenty-one sampling sites were selected: the pollution produced by the traffic in the vicinity of all exits from the ring road and some access roads to the city, those with higher traffic density, were monitored. Contemporarily the main meteorological parameters (ambient temperature, wind, atmospheric pressure and natural radioactivity) were investigated. It was found that in the same traffic conditions, barriers, buildings and local meteorological conditions can have important effects on the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants. This situation is more critical in downtown where narrow roads and high buildings avoid an efficient dispersion producing higher levels of BTEX. High spatial resolution monitoring allowed both detecting the most critical areas of the city with high precision and obtaining information on the mean level of pollution, meaning air quality standard of the city. The same concentration pattern and the correlation among BTEX levels in all sites confirmed the presence of a single source, the vehicular traffic, having a strong impact on air quality.

  7. Clustering-based classification of road traffic accidents using hierarchical clustering and artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taamneh, Madhar; Taamneh, Salah; Alkheder, Sharaf

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used in predicting the severity of road traffic crashes. All available information about previously occurred accidents is typically used for building a single prediction model (i.e., classifier). Too little attention has been paid to the differences between these accidents, leading, in most cases, to build less accurate predictors. Hierarchical clustering is a well-known clustering method that seeks to group data by creating a hierarchy of clusters. Using hierarchical clustering and ANNs, a clustering-based classification approach for predicting the injury severity of road traffic accidents was proposed. About 6000 road accidents occurred over a six-year period from 2008 to 2013 in Abu Dhabi were used throughout this study. In order to reduce the amount of variation in data, hierarchical clustering was applied on the data set to organize it into six different forms, each with different number of clusters (i.e., clusters from 1 to 6). Two ANN models were subsequently built for each cluster of accidents in each generated form. The first model was built and validated using all accidents (training set), whereas only 66% of the accidents were used to build the second model, and the remaining 34% were used to test it (percentage split). Finally, the weighted average accuracy was computed for each type of models in each from of data. The results show that when testing the models using the training set, clustering prior to classification achieves (11%-16%) more accuracy than without using clustering, while the percentage split achieves (2%-5%) more accuracy. The results also suggest that partitioning the accidents into six clusters achieves the best accuracy if both types of models are taken into account.

  8. Risk of hypertension related to road traffic noise among reproductive-age women

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    Inga Bendokiene

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic noise exposure is associated with adverse pathophysiological effects, which may contribute to the progression of hypertension. However, evidence supporting its effect on women is still inconsistent. The aim of the study was to examine the hypertension risk related to road traffic noise in residential settings in an urban community amongst reproductive-aged women. Cross-sectional study data including 3,121 pregnant women, 20-45 years old, and a geographic information system (GIS to assess the average road noise (LAeq 24 hr for every subject at the current residential address were used. Effects on physician-diagnosed hypertension were estimated by logistic regression with adjustments for age, social status, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, parity, body mass index, chronic disease, and exposure duration. The prevalence of hypertension amongst women aged 20-45 years in the lowest exposure category was 13.1% in comparison to 13.6% and 18.1% amongst those exposed to the medium and the highest exposure category, respectively. After making adjustments for the selected variables, no exposure effects [Odds ratio (OR ≈ 1.0] were noted in the medium exposure category [51-60 dB(A]. However, a slight increase was noted in the highest exposure category [≥61 dB(A, OR 1.36; 95% CI 0.86-2.15]. The effect was more pronounced amongst women aged 30-45 years and a positive exposure-response relation was indicated for hypertension: An effect was seen at noise levels 51-60 dB(A (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.72-1.49 and at >61 dB(A (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.01-3.72. The present study shows some evidence for an association between the residential road traffic noise and hypertension amongst reproductive-aged women, and an exposure-response relationship.

  9. A drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents.

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    Riewpaiboon A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to develop a drug cost model for injuries due to road traffic accidents for patients receiving treatment at a regional hospital in Thailand. Methods: The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive analysis. The cases were all from road traffic accidents receiving treatment at a public regional hospital in the fiscal year 2004. Results: Three thousand seven hundred and twenty-three road accident patients were included in the study. The mean drug cost per case was USD18.20 (SD=73.49, median=2.36. The fitted drug cost model had an adjusted R2 of 0.449. The positive significant predictor variables of drug costs were prolonged length of stay, age over 30 years old, male, Universal Health Coverage Scheme, time of accident during 18:00-24:00 o’clock, and motorcycle comparing to bus. To forecast the drug budget for 2006, there were two approaches identified, the mean drug cost and the predicted average drug cost. The predicted average drug cost was calculated based on the forecasted values of statistically significant (p<0.05 predictor variables included in the fitted model; predicted total drug cost was USD44,334. Alternatively, based on the mean cost, predicted total drug cost in 2006 was USD63,408. This was 43% higher than the figure based on the predicted cost approach.Conclusions: The planned budget of drug cost based on the mean cost and predicted average cost were meaningfully different. The application of a predicted average cost model could result in a more accurate budget planning than that of a mean statistic approach.

  10. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran: analysis of driver-related factors

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    Moafian Ghasem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Road traffic accident (RTA and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran. This paper explores the as-sociation between driver-related factors and RTA in the country. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20, 2010 to June 10, 2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department. We included 538 588 RTA records, which were classified to control for the main confounders: accident type, final cause of accident, time of accident and driver-related factors. Driver-related factors included sex, educational level, license type, type of injury, duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver’s error type. Results: A total of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male, sex ratio of almost 13:1 were involved in the RTAs. Among them 423 932 (78.71% were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74% had a diploma degree. Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811, 54.00%. The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59 (75 024, 13.93%. The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years’ of driving experience. Ne-glect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589, 64.17%. Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175, 25.66% and 129 352, 24.02%, respectively. We found significant association between type of acci-dent and sex, education, license type, time of accident, final cause of accident, driver’s error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001. Conclusion: Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures, which will change inappropriate be-havior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Automobile

  11. Measurement of HONO Production From Traffic in a UK Road Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, L. J.; Crilley, L.; Adams, T. J.; Ball, S. M.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrous Acid (HONO) has an important role in the boundary layer as a source of hydroxyl radicals (OH) which can oxidize VOCs and, in the presence of NOx, lead to the formation of ozone. In urban areas with high traffic density, vehicular emissions can be an important source of HONO, however, there are limited real-world studies on HONO emissions from vehicles and large uncertainties on emission values from different traffic fleets (e.g. diesel, gasoline cars, and light- and heavy-duty vehicles). Here, we will present preliminary results from measurements of HONO, nitrogen oxides, CO2 and particulate matter performed over the summer in a road tunnel in Birmingham, UK. A broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy system (BBCEAS) was deployed to perform high temporal resolution measurements (20 s) of HONO and NO2, alongside commercial analysers for NO, NOy, CO2 and PM. Using information on vehicle density and traffic fleet, emissions ratios of HONO/NOx and estimates of direct HONO emissions will be presented.

  12. ROAD TRAFFIC NUISANCE IN RESIDENTIAL AND COMMERCIAL AREAS IN MALAYSIA: A CASE STUDY IN PINANG ISLAND

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    ABDELNASR OMRAN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing cities often face critical air pollution problems due to the rapid growth of transportation and industry sources. Some centers in Pinang Island are currently facing high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short-term and in the far future through climate change. Thus, this paper is investigated the road traffic nuisance in residential and commercial areas within Pinang Island (Malaysia. Information and Data were collected through questionnaire surveys on 50 residents within the selected major areas in the Island which is located in the north part of Malaysia. As results, it has proven that traffic caused air pollution especially in commercial and business areas. The environment in these areas has worsened due toexhaust emissions from motor vehicles. The traffic nuisance in the survey areas showed that the food and beverage outlets are mostly affected by the air pollution compared to other type of business.

  13. Temporal distribution of air quality related to meteorology and road traffic in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martinez, Pedro J; Miranda, Regina M

    2015-04-01

    The impact of climatology--air temperature, precipitation and wind speed--and road traffic--volume, vehicle speed and percentage of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs)--on air quality in Madrid was studied by estimating the effect for each explanatory variable using generalized linear regression models controlling for monthly variations, days of week and parameter levels. Every 1 m/s increase in wind speed produced a decrease in PM10 concentrations by 10.3% (95% CI 12.6-8.6) for all weekdays and by 12.4% (95% CI 14.9-9.8) for working days (up to the cut-off of 2.4 m/s). Increases of PM10 concentrations due to air temperature (7.2% (95% CI 6.2-8.3)) and traffic volume (3.3% (95% CI 2.9-3.8)) were observed at every 10 °C and 1 million vehicle-km increases for all weekdays; oppositely, slight decreases of PM10 concentrations due to percentage of HDVs (3.2% (95% CI 2.7-3.7)) and vehicle speed (0.7% (95% CI 0.6-0.8)) were observed at every 1% and 1 km/h increases. Stronger effects of climatology on air quality than traffic parameters were found.

  14. Mortality and potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries in Brazil, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Mello-Jorge, Maria Helena Prado de

    2016-10-03

    To estimate the potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries three years after the beginning of the Decade of Action for Traffic Safety. We analyzed the data of the Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM - Mortality Information System) related to road traffic injuries, in 2013. We estimated the crude and standardized mortality rates for Brazil and geographic regions. We calculated, for the Country, the proportional mortality according to age groups, education level, race/skin color, and type or quality of the victim while user of the public highway. We estimated the potential years of life lost according to sex. The mortality rate in 2013 was of 21.0 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants for the Country. The Midwest region presented the highest rate (29.9 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants). Most of the deaths by road traffic injuries took place with males (34.9 deaths per 100,000 males). More than half of the people who have died because of road traffic injuries were of black race/skin color, young adults (24.2%), individuals with low schooling (24.0%), and motorcyclists (28.5%). The mortality rate in the triennium 2011-2013 decreased 4.1%, but increased among motorcyclists. Across the Country, more than a million of potential years of life were lost, in 2013, because of road traffic injuries, especially in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The impact of the high mortality rate is of over a million of potential years of life lost by road traffic injuries, especially among adults in productive age (early mortality), in only one year, representing extreme social cost arising from a cause of death that could be prevented. Despite the reduction of mortality by road traffic injuries from 2011 to 2013, the mortality rates increased among motorcyclists. Estimar os anos potenciais de vida perdidos por acidente de transporte terrestre após três anos do início da Década de Ação pela Segurança no Trânsito. Foram analisados os dados do Sistema de Informa

  15. Prioritisation of road traffic injury interventions: results of a participative research with stakeholders in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Siller, S; Híjar, M; Mora, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study is to use a qualitative approach to prioritise road traffic injury (RTI) interventions for the city of Cuernavaca in Mexico. Seven focus group discussions and two nominal groups were held with participants representing different road users and social groups. All the focus group sessions were recorded and video filmed. Processing and analysis of the information gathered was done using qualitative methods. The problem of RTIs was well recognised by members of the local community, represented by participants in this study. The participants showed knowledge of the causes and related urban development dynamics. Participants identified possible interventions, and even rated them. The participatory approach utilised generated helpful insights and it enabled the researchers to identify key local actors and issues, for example, concerns of different road users, perception of certain factors and actors as causes of RTIs, and attitudes and behaviour within a specific physical environment. A prioritised list for 18 different interventions was developed. The first one will be implemented to prevent RTIs in the youth population. Understanding the social context to analyse the problem and possible solutions as seen by the community is important when analysing public health problems because it informs decision making when developing and implementing interventions.

  16. [Spatial analysis of road traffic accidents with fatalities in Spain, 2008-2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Cuadrado, Teresa; Llácer, Alicia; Palmera Suárez, Rocío; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the areas of greatest density of road traffic accidents with fatalities at 24 hours per km(2)/year in Spain from 2008 to 2011, using a geographic information system. Accidents were geocodified using the road and kilometer points where they occurred. The average nearest neighbor was calculated to detect possible clusters and to obtain the bandwidth for kernel density estimation. A total of 4775 accidents were analyzed, of which 73.3% occurred on conventional roads. The estimated average distance between accidents was 1,242 meters, and the average expected distance was 10,738 meters. The nearest neighbor index was 0.11, indicating that there were aggregations of accidents in space. A map showing the kernel density was obtained with a resolution of 1 km(2), which identified the areas of highest density. This methodology allowed a better approximation to locating accident risks by taking into account kilometer points. The map shows areas where there was a greater density of accidents. This could be an advantage in decision-making by the relevant authorities. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Admissions and costs to acute hospitals resulting from road traffic crashes, 2005-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-01

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) remain a leading cause of death and injury. The aim of this study was to explore the use of hospital data as a source of RTC-related injury data in Ireland, as current systems are believed to under-estimate the burden. Information on inpatient discharges for years 2005-2009, admitted with RTC-related injuries were extracted from HIPE. There were 14,861 discharges; 9,661 (65.0%) were male, with an average age of 33 years. The median length of stay was two days. The most common diagnosis was head injury (n = 4,644; 31.2%). The average inpatient hospital cost was Euro 6,395 per discharge. 1,498 (10.1%) were admitted to intensive care units. This study has identified 3.5 times more serious injuries (14,861) than identified in the Road Safety Authority (RSA) statistics (4,263) indicating that the extent of road injuries is greater than previously estimated. Hospital data could be used annually in conjunction with RSA and other data; ideally the data should be linked.

  18. Burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise - a quantification of healthy life years lost in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Charlotta; Bodin, Theo; Selander, Jenny

    2017-06-09

    Objectives National quantifications of the health burden related to traffic noise are still rare. In this study, we use disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) measure to assess the burden of disease from road traffic and railway noise in Sweden. Methods The number of DALY was assessed for annoyance, sleep disturbance, hypertension, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke using a method previously implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO). Population exposure to noise was obtained from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the Swedish Transport Administration. Data on disease occurrence were gathered from registers held by the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden. Disability weights (DW) and duration were based on WHO definitions. Finally, we used research-based exposure-response functions or relative risks to estimate disease attributable to noise in each exposure category. Results The number of DALY attributed to traffic noise in Sweden was estimated to be 41 033 years; 36 711 (90%) related to road traffic and 4322 (10%) related to railway traffic. The most important contributor to the disease burden was sleep disturbances, accounting for 22 218 DALY (54%), followed by annoyance, 12 090 DALY (30%), and cardiovascular diseases, 6725 DALY (16%). Conclusions Road traffic and railway noise contribute significantly to the burden of disease in Sweden each year. The total number of DALY should, however, be interpreted with caution due to limitations in data quality.

  19. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  20. Wind farms' influences for traffic safety. Study of distance requirements for road traffic, railway traffic, sea traffic and air travel; Tuulivoimaloiden vaikutukset liikenneturvallisuuteen. Selvitys etaeisyysvaatimuksista tie-, rautatie-, meri- ja lentoliikenteen osalta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hytoenen, K.; Harju, M.; Piispanen, J.; Haulos, S.

    2012-11-15

    As wind power projects, both design and implementation, have increased rapidly, wind power manufacturers have stated that infrastructure of traffic restricts and complicates implementation of wind power projects. Failure of wind farm and both snow and ice thrown from blades and tower are commonly thought to be dangerous for settlement and for road, railway and sea traffic. Based on the accessible information accidents, which are connected to wind farms, won't cause notable harm for outsiders. Majority of the human injury and fatal accidents concerns the personnel of the wind farm in implementation and operational phases, not outsiders. Purpose of this study has been to clarify how distances requirements in different forms of traffic in Finland differ from other countries that are included in this comparison, and to find grounds for possibly revising these guidelines. In Finland there are still longest distance requirements when placing wind farm nearby the main roads, even after Finnish Traffic Agency revised guidelines in 2012. Regarding roads, differences between all the countries were minor. Also distance requirements regarding railways differ relatively little. Sweden has shortest distance requirement. Distance requirements in Finland and Denmark have been reduced in past few years. Any of these countries have not stated actual defined distance requirements related for example to shipping channels or lanes. International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO has settled internationally rules for obstacle limitation surface nearby airports and marking flight obstacles. Countries have stated national aviation regulations according to these rules and for this reason these regulations are quite consistent. In this study distance requirements are recommended to be calculated for certain basis. In case of roads and railways a general minimum distance requirement is suggested to be 1 x wind farm overall height. Road owner is allowed to require higher distance for

  1. Road and Railway Traffic Seismicity Effect Comparison on Historical Building in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika

    2016-10-01

    The road and the railway traffic generate material and immaterial emissions. The immaterial emission produced by traffic is divided to the noise and the vibrations. All these aspects attacking the environment should to be assessed. For the assessment the national and international standards can be used. This paper contains only the vibration assessment and the comparison of the dynamic parameters influence in this process. The heritage buildings have more conservative criteria as another building. This approach is performed via experimental and numerical study and identification of the basic dynamic parameters. It is presented on two case studies of important historic buildings in Modra and Žilina (Slovakia). For both case studies buildings, the FEM (Finite Element Method) numerical models were created. The modes of the natural vibration and natural frequencies were obtained as the relevant results from numerical models. These parameters are very important for this type of assessment. For the FEM models the Scia Engineer were used as the numerical software system. The experimental measurements were realised for FEM model verification. Also these measurements were used for the assessment according Slovak standards. These models can be tuned based on the experimental measurements. The tuned FEM models can be used for the further extrapolations. The main part of the investigation was to compare traffic seismicity effect on the historical buildings. Both buildings were assed in the frequency and time domain. The comparison of the traffic seismicity effects was realised also in frequency and the time domain. It is necessary to taking to account this assessment for the heritage buildings.

  2. Analysis of harmful emissions generated by road traffic in the city of Zagreb and proposals of measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna GOLUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of registered road motor vehicles in Croatia in 2008 was 2,021,936 out of which 20.5% were registered in the city of Zagreb. Due to improper engine operating conditions, relatively low speeds (below 80km/h, large number of vehicles, high percentage of defective vehicles, poor fuel quality, the highest effect on air pollution in the city of Zagreb is generated by road motor vehicles. If air pollution in the city is analyzed from 2001 to 2009, it may be concluded that the biggest problem lies in the pollution by nitrogen oxides, airborne particles and ground-level ozone, which means that taking these pollution parameters in consideration the air was of Category II, i.e. moderately polluted. The most endangered city areas are the industrial zones and traffic nodes. Numerous European cities have been undertaking activities in order to reduce air pollution, which include also the introduction of new standards for new vehicles, improvement of fuel quality, fuel and vehicle taxing, usage of alternative fuels, etc. The city of Zagreb is no exception and since the current traffic system has not been solved in an optimal manner and since there is a lot of room for improvements in technical, technological and ecological sense, this paper will analyze the impact of road traffic on air pollution and offer proposals of measures to establish a sustainable traffic system of the City of Zagreb. Some of the proposals for reducing the harmful emissions from road traffic in the city of Zagreb include: reconstruction of the road network (emphasis on intersections, introduction of the traffic-dependent control of light signalized intersections, usage of intelligent transport systems for guiding and better organization of traffic, “Park-and-ride” system, etc. The traffic system of the city of Zagreb can be optimized without the construction of new roads by introducing intelligent traffic control with possible organizational changes and

  3. Road traffic incidents in Uganda: a systematic review of a five-year trend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikuddembe, Joseph Kimuli; Ardalan, Ali; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Nejati, Amir; Munanura, Kasiima Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Over the years, Uganda has been one of the low and middle-income countries bearing the heaviest burden of road traffic incidents (RTI). Since the proclamation of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020, a number of measures have been taken to reduce the burden. However, they ought to be premised on existing evidence-based research; therefore, the present review ventures to report the most recent five-year trend of RTI in Uganda. Methods: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Data Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was employed. Using a thematic analysis, the articles were grouped into: trauma etiology, trauma care, mortality, cost, trauma registry and communication, intervention and treatment for final analysis. Results: Of the nineteen articles that were identified to be relevant to the study, the etiology of RTI was inevitably observed to be an important cause of injuries in Uganda. The risk factors cut across: the crash type, injury physiology, cause, victims, setting, age, economic status, and gender. All studies that were reviewed have advanced varying recommendations aimed at responding to the trend of RTIs in Uganda, of which some are in tandem with the five pillars of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 – 2020. Conclusions: Peripheral measures of the burden of RTIs in Uganda were undertaken within a five-year timeframe (2011-2015) of implementing the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety. The measures however, ought to be scaled-up on robust evidence based research available from all the concerned stakeholders beyond Kampala or central region to other parts of Uganda. PMID:28039687

  4. The Application of Data Mining Technology to Build a Forecasting Model for Classification of Road Traffic Accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Ren Shiau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the ever-increasing number of vehicles on the road, traffic accidents have also increased, resulting in the loss of lives and properties, as well as immeasurable social costs. The environment, time, and region influence the occurrence of traffic accidents. The life and property loss is expected to be reduced by improving traffic engineering, education, and administration of law and advocacy. This study observed 2,471 traffic accidents which occurred in central Taiwan from January to December 2011 and used the Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE of Feature Selection to screen the important factors affecting traffic accidents. It then established models to analyze traffic accidents with various methods, such as Fuzzy Robust Principal Component Analysis (FRPCA, Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN, and Logistic Regression (LR. The proposed model aims to probe into the environments of traffic accidents, as well as the relationships between the variables of road designs, rule-violation items, and accident types. The results showed that the accuracy rate of classifiers FRPCA-BPNN (85.89% and FRPCA-LR (85.14% combined with FRPCA is higher than that of BPNN (84.37% and LR (85.06% by 1.52% and 0.08%, respectively. Moreover, the performance of FRPCA-BPNN and FRPCA-LR combined with FRPCA in classification prediction is better than that of BPNN and LR.

  5. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  6. An epidemiologic survey of road traffic accidents in Iran:analysis of driver-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Kamran Bagheri Lankarani; Yaser Sarikhani

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic accident (RTA)and its related injuries contribute to a significant portion of the burden of diseases in Iran.This paper explores the association between driver-related factors and RTA in the country.Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran and all data regarding RTAs from March 20,2010 to June 10,2010 were obtained from the Traffic Police Department.We included 538 588 RTA records,which were classified to control for the main confounders:accident type,final cause of accident,time of accident and driver-related factors.Driver-related factors included sex,educational level,license type,type of injury,duration between accident and getting the driving license and driver's error type.Results:Atotal of 538 588 drivers (91.83% male,sex ratio of almost 13:1) were involved in the RTAs.Among them 423 932 (78.71%) were uninjured; 224 818 (41.74%) had a diploma degree.Grade 2 driving license represented the highest proportion of all driving licenses (290 811,54.00%).The greatest number of accidents took place at 12:00-13:59(75 024,13.93%).The proportion of drivers involved in RTAs decreased from 15.90% in the first year of getting a driving license to 3.13% after 10 years' of driving experience.Neglect of regulations was the commonest cause of traffic crashes (345 589,64.17%).Non-observance of priority and inattention to the front were the most frequent final causes of death (138 175,25.66% and 129 352,24.02%,respectively).We found significant association between type of accident and sex,education,license type,time of accident,final cause of accident,driver's error as well as duration between accident and getting the driving license (all P<0.001).Conclusion:Our results will improve the traffic law enforcement measures,which will change inappropriate behavior of drivers and protect the least experienced road users.

  7. Road kill of animals by highway traffic in the tropical forests of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve, southern In