WorldWideScience

Sample records for abuse professional sap

  1. 49 CFR 655.52 - Substance abuse professional (SAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substance abuse professional (SAP). 655.52 Section 655.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... OPERATIONS Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 655.52 Substance abuse professional (SAP). The SAP must...

  2. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer look...... at SAP’s strategy, however, revealed a closely connected and coordinated network of strategic decisions and investments for which alignment and finding the right balance were key challenges. Hence, it was crucial to ask: What were the principal challenges for SAP in aligning its innovation and sourcing...

  3. SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Nikerle-Uhthoff, Dominique; Schwaerzler, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In late 2011, SAP, the German leader in the enterprise software industry, announced a major investment plan for expanding in China and also acquired a leading American firm in cloud-based human capital management software. At first glance, these investments seemed rather unconnected. A closer look...

  4. 46 CFR 16.203 - Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. 16.203 Section... CHEMICAL TESTING Required Chemical Testing § 16.203 Employer, MRO, and SAP responsibilities. (a) Employers...) Substance Abuse Professional (SAP). Individuals performing SAP functions must meet the training requirements...

  5. Exploring gender and elder abuse from the perspective of professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Lori; Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Arseneault, Rina; MacQuarrie, Colleen; Gagnon, Danie; LeBlanc, Ginette Marie

    2018-01-01

    We conducted an online survey of professionals working in two Canadian provinces to learn about their knowledge of elder abuse from a gender-based perspective. A total of 169 professionals (90% women) completed a survey in either French or English. Five topic areas emerged from the analysis: the influence of gender on the risk of abuse; types of abuse detected; knowledge gaps; capacity to respond to gender-based abuse; and awareness of resources. To gain further insight into these results, we conducted three focus groups with a total of 24 professionals. Professionals held relatively little recognition of, or knowledge about, gender related to elder abuse. Our results indicate the need to develop educational and awareness raising opportunities for professionals who work with abused older adults in both French and English to identify and respond to the unique needs of older women and men.

  6. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  7. Training Mental Health Professionals in Child Sexual Abuse: Curricular Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L

    2015-01-01

    Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources).

  8. Attitudes of Health Professionals to Child Sexual Abuse and Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, N.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)

  9. 49 CFR 40.295 - May employees or employers seek a second SAP evaluation if they disagree with the first SAP's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.295 May employees or employers... with a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation, when you have been evaluated by a SAP, you must not...

  10. 49 CFR 40.285 - When is a SAP evaluation required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.285 When is a SAP evaluation required? (a) As an employee, when you have violated DOT drug and...) For purposes of this subpart, a verified positive DOT drug test result, a DOT alcohol test with a...

  11. 49 CFR 40.297 - Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Does anyone have the authority to change a SAP's initial evaluation? 40.297 Section 40.297 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and...

  12. Impact of Uncertainty on Non-Medical Professionals' Estimates of Sexual Abuse Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargason, Crayton A., Jr.; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam C.; Fountain, Kathleen E.; Amaya, Michelle I.; Centor, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Assesses how an educational intervention describing uncertainty in child sexual-abuse assessments affects estimates of sexual abuse probability by non-physician child-abuse professionals (CAPs). Results, based on evaluations of 89 CAPs after the intervention, indicate they undervalued medical-exam findings and had difficulty adjusting for medical…

  13. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Practical Guide for Professional School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…

  14. 49 CFR 40.287 - What information is an employer required to provide concerning SAP services to an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process... provide concerning SAP services to an employee who has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? 40.287... has a DOT drug and alcohol regulation violation? As an employer, you must provide to each employee...

  15. 49 CFR 40.307 - What is the SAP's function in prescribing the employee's follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and... tests? (a) As a SAP, for each employee who has committed a DOT drug or alcohol regulation violation, and... frequency of follow-up tests and whether these tests will be for drugs, alcohol, or both, unless otherwise...

  16. 49 CFR 40.301 - What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the SAP's function in the follow-up evaluation of an employee? 40.301 Section 40.301 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and...

  17. Professionals' Perceptions of Drug and Alcohol Abuse among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B. Bradford

    1982-01-01

    Surveyed perceptions of the causes, severity, and treatment of elderly substance abuse as reported by 30 drug-abuse, health care, and social service practitioners. Perceptions differed as a function of both the basic type of services an agency provided and its specific response to older abusers. (Author)

  18. Workplace abuse among correctional health professionals in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Aaron W; Indig, Devon; Hampton, Stephen E; Hegney, Desley G; Jalaludin, Bin

    2012-05-01

    Studies have found that health workers are at elevated risk of being abused while at work. Little is known, however, about workplace abuse among correctional health professionals. We implemented a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence, sources and consequences of workplace abuse among correctional health professionals in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS All employees of Justice Health (a statutory health corporation) were invited to complete a self-administered survey, which was delivered via the internet. Among nurses, medical doctors and allied health professionals, 299 usable surveys were returned; a response rate of 42%. In the preceding 3 months, 76% of participants had personally experienced some form of abuse in their workplace, all but one of whom recalled verbal abuse. Only 16% reported physical abuse. Seventy per cent reported feeling safe in their workplace. Patients were identified as the main perpetrators of abuse, followed by fellow health staff. Participants felt that incidents of workplace abuse increased their potential to make errors while providing care to patients and reduced their productivity while at work. Compared with health workers who practise in a community setting, the risk of physical abuse among correctional health professionals appears to be low.

  19. Dilemmas of Professional Logics in the Response to Child Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard

    2017-01-01

    The field of child abuse is characterized by involving a multitude of different professions. With multiple professions working together, a dilemma between different logics can arise. This communication includes data from a study among social workers dealing with child abuse in Denmark. The study...

  20. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  1. [Childhood sexual behavior as an indicator of sexual abuse: professionals' criteria and biases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-01-01

    Some sexual behaviors are related to child sexual abuse experiences, but none unequivocally. Therefore, professionals might use non-empirical-based criteria and be biased when detecting and reporting victims. To check this hypothesis, we presented 974 Spanish and Latin American professionals from different fields (Psychology, Education, Health, Social Services, Justice, and Police Force) with hypothetical situations of child sexual behavior (varying the sex, age and behavior) by using an experimental vignette method based on Factorial Survey. Participants were asked to indicate whether such behaviors are a sign of abuse and whether they would report them. We also measured demographic, academic, professional and attitude factors. According to the analysis, professionals' suspicion of abuse is more affected by personal factors, whereas their reporting intention depends more on situational factors. The main criterion adopted is the type of sexual behavior, with professionals being more likely to suspect and report in response to aggressive sexual behavior and precocious sexual knowledge. Professionals' attitudes to sexuality seem to generate biases, as those who are erotophobic are more likely to suspect abuse. None of the sexual behaviors was seen as evidence of abuse.

  2. Leadership styles of service professionals aiding women of abuse: enhancing service delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    Leadership styles of service professionals--including social workers and teachers--in the area of family abuse were investigated. Leadership characteristics of the professionals were measured by their responses to a survey. Results indicated that the interviewed service professionals demonstrated productive leadership traits. Study findings are congruent with leadership styles described in the research. Holistic and collaborative services are required to enhance care for women of abuse, as their needs are multifaceted and complex. Specific leadership styles promote better care for women; leaders need to collaboratively initiate and deliver more interdisciplinary and unified service.

  3. 49 CFR 40.291 - What is the role of the SAP in the evaluation, referral, and treatment process of an employee who...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty..., referral, and treatment process of an employee who has violated DOT agency drug and alcohol testing... employee who has violated DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations? (a) As a SAP, you are charged...

  4. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  5. Appropriate care for shelter-based abused women: concept mapping with Dutch clients and professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Irene E; Jansen, Carinda C J M; Christians, Milou G M; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2014-04-01

    We conducted a concept mapping exercise to gain insight into the perspectives held by abused women and professionals with regard to appropriate care in Dutch women's shelters. Three brainstorming sessions generated 92 statements that were then rated by 56 clients and 51 professionals. A total of 11 clusters were identified. The three most important clusters were "help with finding a safe house if necessary," "safety and suitable care for the children," and "a personalized, respectful approach." The most important statement was "take women seriously and treat them with respect." The mapping exercise identified key practice-based elements of intervention that should better accommodate the needs of shelter-based abused women. We have used these elements in developing a new intervention for shelter-based abused women in the Netherlands.

  6. Reliability of Professional Judgments in Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Unsettled or Unsettling Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel; Berson, Nancy; Crowson, Mary; Robinson, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of photographic or DNA evidence, a credible eyewitness, or perpetrator confession, forensic evaluators in cases of alleged child sexual abuse must rely on psychosocial or "soft" evidence, often requiring substantial professional judgment for case determination. This article offers a three-part rebuttal to Herman's (2009) argument…

  7. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Alcohol Testing Program Requirements § 120.223 Alcohol...

  8. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  9. Mandatory Reporting of Child Abuse and Neglect: Crafting a Positive Process for Health Professionals and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; Wright, Elise; Gibson, Kathleen N.; Alldred, Tracy; Jacobson, Dustin; Niec, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals working with children and their families are often required by law to report to governmental authorities any reasonable suspicion of child abuse and/or neglect. Extant research has pointed toward various barriers to reporting, with scant attention to positive processes to support the reporting process. This paper focuses on…

  10. Internal and external factors in professional burnout of substance abuse counsellors in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In this study, burnout and its internal and external factors were investigated among substance abuse counsellors (no. = 68 who worked in centres for Prevention and Substance Abuse Treatment (no. = 18 in Croatia. METHODS: Maslach Burnout Inventory was used which measured three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment; and questionnaire of internal and external burnout factors. RESULTS: The higher levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, and the higher level of personal accomplishment were determined. Factors such as work conditions, emotions about us and work, work organization and certain personality traits showed significant relationship with three burnout dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings implicated a certain specificity of professional burnout in substance abuse counsellors, and the need for specific design of mental health care for them.

  11. Attitudes to professional boundaries among therapists with and without substance abuse history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietkiewicz Igor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is no empirical research exploring how substance abuse therapists perceive and manage their professional role or privacy boundaries. This study explores their attitudes associated with self-disclosure and dual relationships. Ten therapists, five who had recovered (neophytes and five who had never been substance dependent, shared their work experiences during semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which have been subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. While nonneophytes were generally reluctant to share personal information or establish alternative forms of relationship with current or former clients, neophytes were more open to using self-disclosure and admitted changing professional relationships into friendships. These findings are discussed in relation to ethical codes, training and supervision in substance abuse treatment.

  12. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make friends. Abuse is a significant cause of depression in young people. Some teens can only feel better by doing things that could hurt them like cutting or abusing drugs or alcohol. They might even attempt suicide. It's common for those who have been abused ...

  13. Exploring Predictors of Professional School Counselors' Ability to Accurately Recognize and Likelihood to Appropriately Report Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behun, Richard Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors related to personal characteristics (i.e., level of moral reasoning and personal attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse) and professional characteristics (i.e., experience, and training) of the professional school counselor influencing ability to accurately recognize and likelihood to…

  14. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or any sexual activity when the person is unable to understand, unwilling to consent, threatened or physically forced Willful deprivation: willfully denying ...

  15. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Manuela W A; de Ruiter, Corine; Öry, Ferko G

    2013-09-05

    Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers' child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed.

  16. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  17. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  18. Xylem sap proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.

  19. SAP HANA cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasekhar

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-understand guide, covering topics using practical scenarios and live examples, and answering all possible questions.If you are a solution architect, developer, modeler, sales leader, business transformation managers, directors, COO, or CIO; this book is perfect for you.If you are interested in other technologies and want to jump-start into SAP, this book gives you the chance to learn SAP HANA. Basic knowledge of RDBMS concepts enough is to get you started.

  20. Sex-specific substance abuse treatment for female healthcare professionals: implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koos, Erin; Brand, Michael; Rojas, Julio; Li, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Gender plays a significant role in the development and treatment of substance abuse disorders. Sex-specific treatment for girls and women has recurrently proven more effective, with better outcomes than traditional treatment. Research on impaired healthcare professionals (HCPs) has largely focused on men, garnering little attention for women and sex differences. With the increasing numbers of female HCPs, it is imperative to identify potential sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our study compared a convenience sample of male and female HCPs with substance abuse disorders treated in an outpatient program to identify sex differences that may have implications for treatment. Our sample consisted of 96 HCPs (54 men, 42 women) and 17 non-healthcare professional (N-HCP) women. All of the participants were evaluated using the program's clinical interview and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Chart review data contained categorical variables, qualitative variables, diagnoses, and psychological test scores. A second analysis was conducted through two separate comparisons: the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired male HCPs and the PAI results of comparing impaired female HCPs with impaired female N-HCPs. Statistically significant differences indicated more male participants received prior treatment and more intensive treatment than female participants. More female subjects reported being diagnosed as having a comorbid psychiatric condition and taking psychotropic medications. Several statistically significant differences in the PAI scores were found. Among female HCPs, elevations were found in anxiety, depression, paranoia, and borderline personality disorder. Substantive differences, although not statistically significant, were elevations in somatic complaints and anxiety disorders in female HCPs. In the comparison of female HCPs and N-HCPs, the only statistically significant difference was the significantly higher

  1. Can Addiction-Related Self-Help/Mutual Aid Groups Lower Demand for Professional Substance Abuse Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Keith

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the potential of self-help/mutual-aid groups as a way to reduce the demand for professional substance-abuse treatment and proposes a model that combines the two approaches for cost-effective and therapeutically effective networks of services. (SLD)

  2. The Impact of "Moral Panic" on Professional Behavior in Cases of Child Sexual Abuse: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Susan S. M.; Lohman, Jacquelien Soetenhorst-de Savonin

    1994-01-01

    Examines the narrative of two child abuse epidemics, one in England and one in the Netherlands. The authors examine the impact of these incidents on social work, policing, medical and pediatric practice, together with an analysis of the response of penal law and court practice. Effects of blame on the professionals involved is highlighted. (JPS)

  3. SAP Nuclear Competence Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this issue we continue and introduce the SAP Nuclear Competence Centre and its head Mr. Igor Dzama. SAP Nuclear Competence Centrum is one of the fi rst competence centres outside ENEL headquarters. It should operate in Slovakia and should have competencies within the whole Enel group. We are currently dealing with the issues of organisation and funding. We are trying to balance the accountability to the NPP directors and to the management of the competence centres at Enel headquarters; we are looking at the relations between the competence centres within the group and defining the services that we will provide for the NPPs. author)

  4. Software development on the SAP HANA platform

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Software Development on the SAP HANA Platform is a general tutorial guide to SAP HANA.This book is written for beginners to the SAP HANA platform. No knowledge of SAP HANA is necessary to start using this book.

  5. From Sap to Syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Janna

    2005-01-01

    Warm days, cold nights, melting snow-signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in some areas, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and…

  6. SAPS, Crime statistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perverse incentive' to under record violent crime, particularly the various forms of assault.6 In effect this has rendered the SAPS statistics for inter-personal. * Gould and Burger are senior researchers in the Crime and Justice Programme of the ISS ...

  7. The attitudes of professionals towards implementation of the registry of offenders of sexual abuse of juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sexual victimization of children has always drawn great attention from experts and criminal policy makers due to the nature of the violent behavior and the developmental specific characteristics of the victims which enjoy special criminal law protection in a developed society. The high dark number and sex offender recidivism, as referenced by the frequent media reports about new cases of sexual violence towards the youngest memebers of society, highlight the need to search for the most appropriate social response to this form of sexual offending. The establishment of a register of convicted sex offenders for acts of sexual violence committed against minors, as one approach with a primary special preventive purpose, found its application in criminal law theory and practice of the Republic of Serbia. The aim of the paper is to present the results of an attitudinal survey of professionals employed in the field of justice and social welfare in the Republic of Serbia on the provisions of the special measures to prevent the commission of crimes of sexual abuse against juveniles and the establishment of the register of sex offenders.

  8. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Program for Childcare Professionals: Comparison of a Web-Based and In-Person Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Zajac, Kristyn; Patton, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Recent prevention research has established the efficacy of some child sexual abuse prevention programs targeting adults; however, less is known about the feasibility of implementing such programs. The current study examines the feasibility and acceptability of a child sexual abuse prevention program for child care professionals provided in two…

  9. A comparison of the training needs of maternity and sexual health professionals in a London teaching hospital with regards to routine enquiry for domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Vitolas, C; Bacchus, L J; Aston, G

    2010-08-01

    To identify maternity and sexual healthcare professionals' training needs regarding routine enquiry for domestic abuse. A cross-sectional survey, part of a theory-based evaluation of a routine enquiry for domestic abuse intervention in a South London teaching hospital. Two hundred and twenty-eight maternity professionals (68% of staff) and 46 sexual health practitioners (45% of staff) attended a 1-day domestic abuse training session. Pre-training questionnaires were completed by 208 respondents (80% response rate). The questionnaire elicited information about previous training experiences, dealing with cases of abuse, general knowledge, attitudes towards victims of abuse and views on routine enquiry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify differences according to healthcare setting, prior training, and practitioners' demographic and experiential traits. Maternity and sexual health professionals reported positive attitudes towards women affected by abuse, but had limited domestic abuse training. Previously trained health professionals had good general knowledge, but failed to question attendees about abuse. Sexual health professionals were more likely to enquire about domestic abuse, and were more confident about implementing routine enquiry than maternity staff. Views on routine enquiry were influenced by health setting, demographic, attitudinal and experiential factors. Domestic abuse training is necessary in maternity and sexual health services. Educational interventions for routine enquiry should include practice-enabling components in addition to awareness modules and pre-training assessment of individuals' training needs to provide content that is tailored to their clinical practice and working environments. Institutional guidelines are recommended to enhance and sustain the positive effects of training. Copyright 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  11. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention.Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey.Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important, and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention.Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88, geriatrician (4.87, police officer (4.87, GEM (geriatric emergency management nurse (4.80, GEM social worker (4.78, community health worker (4.76, social worker/counsellor (4.74, family physician in community (4.71, paramedic (4.65, financial worker (4.59, lawyer (4.59, pharmacist (4.59, emergency physician (4.57, geriatric psychiatrist (4.33, occupational therapist (4.29, family physician in hospital (4.28, Crown prosecutor (4.24, neuropsychologist (4.24, bioethicist (4.18, caregiver advocate (4.18, victim support worker (4.18, and respite care worker (4.12.A large and

  12. SAP SE: Autism at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisano, Gary P.; Austin, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This case describes SAP's 'Autism at Work' program, which integrates people with autism into the company's workforce. The company has a stated objective of making 1% o its workforce people with autism by 2020. SAP's rationale for the program is based on the belief that 'neurodiversity' contributes...

  13. Social Service Professionals' Perceptions of Nonoffending Caregivers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfteich, Paula M.; Cline, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to assess social service workers' perceptions of nonoffending caregivers in cases of child sexual abuse. Attributions of blame were examined by administering questionnaires to staff at local social service agencies. It was hypothesized that social service workers who worked in the field longer, were male, or had less…

  14. Medical professional perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district of north Karnataka: A survey report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Kirankumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze medical professional, perception, attitude, knowledge, and experience about child abuse and neglect in Bagalkot district, north Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: Two hundred medical professional, working in both public and private sectors in the province were interviewed by a single operator. Descriptive analyses were carried out by using the obtained data. Results: Medical professional′s perception about child abuse and neglect (CAN is low and these professionals have poor attitude and knowledge toward CAN in accordance with the code of conduct and law. The available information and education is also poor. Conclusions: The results obtained from the study showed that there is lack of knowledge and poor attitude and perception about CAN among medical professionals that prevents them from detecting and identifying suspected cases. Continuing medical education is required to enhance the ability of professionals to detect CAN cases.

  15. Faculty Performance Evaluation: The CIPP-SAPS Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitcham, Maralynne

    1981-01-01

    The issues of faculty performance evaluation for allied health professionals are addressed. Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP (content-imput-process-product) model is introduced and its development into a CIPP-SAPS (self-administrative-peer- student) model is pursued. (Author/CT)

  16. Understanding of elder abuse and neglect among health care professionals in Malaysia: An exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Choo, Wan-Yuen; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Hairi, Farizah Mohd; Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Illiani Jaafar, Siti Nur

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) is a hidden public health challenge for Malaysia. This cross-sectional survey studied the awareness of EAN among 148 doctors and nurses from two neighboring states in Malaysia using a self-administered questionnaire exploring their knowledge, perceptions, practices, and experience concerning EAN. Both doctors and nurses demonstrated poor understanding of signs of EAN and exhibited misperceptions on reporting requirements. Both groups perceived EAN as a national burden and reporting it as their responsibility; but most felt they had not been trained to diagnose it. Many were unsure of procedures and whether their own intervention could be effective. Only four (nurses) of 41 participants who suspected abuse during the past year reported the cases. Targeted education and uniform protocols are mandatory to ensure best practice with regards to EAN. Further research is crucial to extend this inquiry into the broader health care workforce.

  17. 7 CFR 1437.107 - Maple sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Yield Coverage Using Actual Production History § 1437.107 Maple sap. (a) NAP assistance for maple sap is... maple sap. (g) The actual production history for maple sap shall be recorded on the basis of gallons of...

  18. Interventions to Improve the Response of Professionals to Children Exposed to Domestic Violence and Abuse: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William; Hester, Marianne; Broad, Jonathan; Szilassy, Eszter; Feder, Gene; Drinkwater, Jessica; Firth, Adam; Stanley, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of children to domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a form of child maltreatment with short- and long-term behavioural and mental health impact. Health care professionals are generally uncertain about how to respond to domestic violence and are particularly unclear about best practice with regards to children's exposure and their role in a multiagency response. In this systematic review, we report educational and structural or whole-system interventions that aim to improve professionals' understanding of, and response to, DVA survivors and their children. We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts for studies reporting quantitative outcomes for any type of intervention aiming to improve professional responses to disclosure of DVA with child involvement. We included interventions for physicians, nurses, social workers and teachers. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria: three randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 18 pre-post intervention surveys. There were 18 training and three system-level interventions. Training interventions generally had positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes towards DVA and clinical competence. The results from the RCTs were consistent with the before-after surveys. Results from system-level interventions aimed to change organisational practice and inter-organisational collaboration demonstrates the benefit of coordinating system change in child welfare agencies with primary health care and other organisations. Implications for policy and research are discussed. © 2015 The Authors. Child Abuse Review published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 'We searched 22 bibliographic databases and contacted topic experts'. We reviewed published evidence on interventions aimed at improving professionals' practice with domestic violence survivors and their children.Training programmes were found to improve participants' knowledge, attitudes and clinical competence up to a year after delivery.Key elements of

  19. Professionals' conduct as a condition for minimizing secondary victimization of the victims of spouse abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Through analysis of the 'administrative' aspects of experts' documentation kept by three services in one local community - the police station, the center for social welfare and the primary health care center, the possibility of reducing victimization of victims of partnership violence within the family is the subject of consideration. The results of the analysis point to the necessity of rationalization and standardization of recording and procedures by the professionals.

  20. Auditing and GRC automation in SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Chuprunov, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    Going beyond current literature, this book extends internal controls to efficiency and profitability. Offers an audit guide for an SAP ERP system, covers risks and control descriptions, and shows how to automate compliance management based on SAP GRC.

  1. Attitudes, beliefs, and perceived norms about corporal punishment and related training needs among members of the "American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Catherine A; Fleckman, Julia M; Lee, Shawna J

    2017-09-01

    Hitting children for disciplinary purposes (i.e., spanking or corporal punishment [CP]) is a strong risk factor for child physical abuse and is highly prevalent in the U.S. Yet, little is currently known about the relevant attitudes, beliefs, or training needs of key professionals who often advise parents regarding child discipline strategies. A survey of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC) membership, comprised of mental health professionals, physicians, child welfare professionals, and other professionals in the child maltreatment field, was conducted to assess attitudes, beliefs, perceived norms, training needs, and motivations to change norms regarding CP (N=571, response rate=51%). Most respondents agreed that spanking is a bad disciplinary technique (82%), is harmful for children (74%), and leads to negative outcomes (M=3.0, SD=0.6) more frequently than positive outcomes (M=2.1, SD=0.6; t=20.8; p<0.0001) for children. Professionals reported perceiving that their colleagues' level of endorsement of CP (M=2.4, SD=1.0) was higher than their own (M=1.9, SD=1.0; t(568)=-10.7, p<0.0001) though still below the midpoint. Professionals reported high levels of preparedness to effectively advise parents on non-physical child discipline strategies, but reported perceiving lower levels of preparedness amongst their colleagues. They reported highly valuing giving such advice to parents and being very motivated to participate in activities designed to change social norms regarding CP. Most APSAC members are poised to change these norms and, in doing so, to help reduce rates of child physical abuse in the U.S. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  3. Deterred drug abuse using superabsorbent polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropietro, David J; Muppalaneni, Srinath; Omidian, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine whether selected superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) could be used as a suitable alternative to thwart extraction, filtration, and syringeability attempts for abuse. Many abuse-deterrent formulations (ADFs) rely on high molecular weight polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) to provide crush and extraction resistance. However, these polymers suffer from slow dissolution kinetics, and are susceptible to a variety of abuse conditions. Several commercially available SAPs were evaluated for swelling behavior in extraction solvents, and tableting properties. Post-compaction abuse properties were evaluated by recoverable volume and syringeability after solvent extraction. Drug release and percent drug extraction were conducted using tramadol HCl as a model drug. Certain SAPs had the ability to rapidly imbibe solvent and effectively stop extraction processes in a variety of solvents, including water and water/alcohol mixtures. Tablets containing SAP and drug showed no effect on drug release in vitro. SAPs possess adequate properties for tableting, and maintain their high and fast swelling properties after compaction. The fast and extensive interactions of SAPs with aqueous medium are a major advantage over non-crosslinked high molecular weight viscosifying agents such as poly(ethylene oxide).

  4. Projecte d'integració entre SAP GH - SAP MM - Kàrdex

    OpenAIRE

    Perea Núñez, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Projecte d'integració entre dos sistemes SAP (gestió hospitalària i gestió de materials) amb un altre sistema aliè a SAP, el sistema de magatzem de medicaments Kàrdex, mitjançant comunicacions via SAP Process Integration. Proyecto de integración entre dos sistemas SAP (gestión hospitalaria y gestión de materiales) con otro sistema ajeno a SAP, el sistema de almacén de medicamentos Kardex, mediante comunicaciones vía SAP Process Integration.

  5. Decisions and Attitudes Concerning Child Sexual Abuse: Does the Gender of the Perpetrator Make a Difference to Child Protection Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsall, Lynn; Hetherton, Jacquie

    1998-01-01

    A study involving 65 social workers and 65 police officers investigated whether child protection investigators are as likely to take seriously a case of child sexual abuse perpetrated by a female rather than a male. Following male-perpetrated sexual abuse, case registration and perpetrator imprisonment was considered more appropriate. (Author/CR)

  6. Disruption of each of the secreted aspartyl proteinase genes SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 of Candida albicans attenuates virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hube, B; Sanglard, D; Odds, F C; Hess, D; Monod, M; Schäfer, W; Brown, A J; Gow, N A

    1997-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps), encoded by a gene family with at least nine members (SAP1 to SAP9), are one of the most discussed virulence factors produced by the human pathogen Candida albicans. In order to study the role of each Sap isoenzyme in pathogenicity, we have constructed strains which harbor mutations at selected SAP genes. SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3, which are regulated differentially in vitro, were mutated by targeted gene disruption. The growth rates of all homozygous null muta...

  7. Architecture of SAP ERP understand how successful software works

    CERN Document Server

    Boeder, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    This book - compiled by software architects from SAP - is a must for consultants, developers, IT managers, and students working with SAP ERP, but also users who want to know the world behind their SAP user interface.

  8. Physicochemical changes of raffia sap (Raphia mambillensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    galax-07

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... The raffia sap commonly called raffia wine is a part of a series called "palm wine" which refers to all alcoholic beverages from the fermentation of sap of various palm trees. The raffia wine is an alcoholic traditional, sweet, effervescent beverage, usually consumed by the poor populations of Black Africa, Latin ...

  9. Physicochemical changes of raffia sap ( Raphia mambillensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical content of a substance can influence its shelf life. Fermentation causes changes in freshly tapped sap and therefore makes its large scale use difficult. In order to study the effect of time on fermentation on the raffia sap property, its physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics were determined during ...

  10. Socioeconomic, demographic study on substance abuse among students of professional college in a southern town, Berhampur of Odisha state (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachidananda; Tripathy, Radhamadhab; Palo, Subrat Kumar; Jena, Dhaneswari

    2013-11-01

    Currently there is an increasing trend of substance abuse in developing countries like India. This study attempted to identify the different predisposing factors, associated psycho-social and medical problems, prevalence and types of substance abuse in students. The study covered a cross-section of 720 students with an overall male to female ratio of 4.1:1. The majority of the sufferers were from middle socioeconomic class, aged between 15 and 19 years. Common substances of abuse were chewable tobacco and cannabis. The risk of abuse was more in hostellers hailing from broken families (62.5%). Friends had the highest influence (59%). Most of them (49.4%) tried multiple times to give up, but peer pressure (53%) compelled them to restart. In 60.8% cases the parents were completely unaware about this behavior. The commonly associated problems were psychological (34.3%) and medical (29.5%). Our study at the end points out major risk factors and their remedial measures to curb substance abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Mekong Floods Fill Tonle Sap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The monsoon season in Southeast Asia brings recurring, often devastating floods to countries in the region, but these floods also play a necessary role in the region's water cycle. These MODIS images centered on Cambodia reveal extensive flooding of the Mekong River, which comes in from Laos in the north, to the right of center in the images, and flows south through Cambodia and southeast through Vietnam to empty into the South China Sea. The true-color image shows the brownish, sediment-laden floodwaters filling the Mekong Delta in southern Cambodia and Vietnam on September 15, 2001. The false color image above has been enhanced to bring out the contrast between the floodwaters and the lands, with sediment-carrying floodwaters in purple. Sediment can be seen flowing into the South China Sea as well. This year's floods have affected over a million people, and 100 people have been killed in Vietnam alone. The monsoon floods bring not only devastation, but renewal. The large body of water just left of center in Cambodia is the Tonle Sap. This shallow lake plays a changing role in the regional water cycle. During the dry season, the stream-fed Tonle Sap drains via the Tonle Sab River into the Mekong River. During the wet season (June-November), flooding of the Mekong reverses the course of the Tonle Sab, roughly tripling the lake's size from about 3000 km2 to about 10,000. When the dry season returns, the lake once again begins to drain into the Mekong Delta, where it provides a flow of fresh water that balances the intrusion of salty seawater into the delta's agricultural lands. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A quilitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, M.W.A.; Ruiter, C. de; Ory, F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child

  13. 49 CFR 40.293 - What is the SAP's function in conducting the initial evaluation of an employee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse... evaluation of an employee? As a SAP, for every employee who comes to you following a DOT drug and alcohol... make such a recommendation for every individual who has violated a DOT drug and alcohol regulation. (2...

  14. Drugs of abuse consumption in health professionals (physicians and nurses) from two outpatient services of first level attention in Bogota

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Hidalgo Catalina; Vargas-Casas Gina Milena; Salcedo-Monsalve Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a study to establish the prevalence of drugs of abuse consumption in physiciansand nurses in two health institutions in Bogota outpatient identify the frequency of consumption,to establish the prevalence of alcoholism using the CAGE questionnaire and explore the interestparticipate in prevention or reduction of consumption in the workplace. Materials and methods: Across-sectional study by applying an anonymous survey. Results: There were 58 questionnaires (38in physicians and 20 ...

  15. CT measurements of SAP voids in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sara; Bentz, Dale P.; Hasholt, Marianne Tange

    2010-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning is used to determine the SAP void distribution in hardened concrete. Three different approaches are used to analyse a binary data set created from CT measurement. One approach classifies a cluster of connected, empty voxels (volumetric pixel of a 3D image......) as one void, whereas the other two approaches are able to classify a cluster of connected, empty voxels as a number of individual voids. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) have been used to incorporate air into concrete. An advantage of using SAP is that it enables control of the amount and size...... of the created air voids. The results indicate the presence of void clusters. To identify the individual voids, special computational approaches are needed. The addition of SAP results in a dominant peak in two of the three air void distributions. Based on the position (void diameter) of the peak, it is possible...

  16. Nye integrerede ledelsesinformationssystemer SAP/R3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    1998-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel.......Artiklen beskriver og analyserer hovedindholdet i SAP/R3's controlling modul, speciel med sigte på hvilke forudsætninger systemet bygger på, dels med reference til den danske lønsomheds- og kapacitetsmodel....

  17. Recognising and referring children exposed to domestic abuse: a multi-professional, proactive systems-based evaluation using a modified Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; Armitage, Gerry; Taylor, Julie

    2017-03-01

    Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a prospective quality assurance methodology increasingly used in healthcare, which identifies potential vulnerabilities in complex, high-risk processes and generates remedial actions. We aimed, for the first time, to apply FMEA in a social care context to evaluate the process for recognising and referring children exposed to domestic abuse within one Midlands city safeguarding area in England. A multidisciplinary, multi-agency team of 10 front-line professionals undertook the FMEA, using a modified methodology, over seven group meetings. The FMEA included mapping out the process under evaluation to identify its component steps, identifying failure modes (potential errors) and possible causes for each step and generating corrective actions. In this article, we report the output from the FMEA, including illustrative examples of the failure modes and corrective actions generated. We also present an analysis of feedback from the FMEA team and provide future recommendations for the use of FMEA in appraising social care processes and practice. Although challenging, the FMEA was unequivocally valuable for team members and generated a significant number of corrective actions locally for the safeguarding board to consider in its response to children exposed to domestic abuse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clinical Presentation Of The Abuse Of Insulin: Hypoglycaemic Coma And Aspiration Pneumonia In Non-Professional Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Ivica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of medications that improve the physical performance of an individual represents a very serious worldwide health problem. The abuse of these medications is increasing. Herein, we describe a patient, at the age of 20, who was hospitalized due to loss of consciousness and difficulty breathing. At admission, the patient was unconsciousness, tahi-dyspnoic, and had a pale complexion and an athletic build. In gas analyses, extremely low saturation was observed, followed by acidosis, heavy hypoxia with normocapnia, higher lactates, hypocalcaemia and severe hypoglycaemia. The patient was treated with a hypertonic solution of glucose and intubated, with the aspiration of sanious content from the respiratory tract. After treatment, the patient woke from coma but was very confused. In the first 6 hours of hospitalization, severe hypoglycaemia occurred several times, despite the continuous administration of glucose. Due to the growth of inflammatory syndrome since the first day of hospitalization, the patient was kept in the hospital for treatment along with the administration of antibiotic treatment. On the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient stated that for the last year, he had been taking testosterone at a dose of 1 g a week, as well as tamoxifen pills and 15 i.j. of fast-acting human insulin (Actrapid® daily for their combined anabolic effect. Hypoglycaemic coma, caused by the abuse of insulin, represents a severe complication in patients, which can be followed by confusion, a slowed thinking process, the weakening of cognitive functions and even death. It is necessary to invest great efforts into the prevention of the purchase of these medications via the Internet or on the black market for purposes of abuse in order to prevent such serious and life-threatening complications.

  19. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version, located in the "Professional" section of our website: Child Sexual Abuse . Date this content was last updated is at the bottom of the page. ... PILOTS *, the largest citation database on PTSD. What is PILOTS? Subscribe Sign ...

  20. Drugs of abuse consumption in health professionals (physicians and nurses from two outpatient services of first level attention in Bogota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara-Hidalgo Catalina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to establish the prevalence of drugs of abuse consumption in physiciansand nurses in two health institutions in Bogota outpatient identify the frequency of consumption,to establish the prevalence of alcoholism using the CAGE questionnaire and explore the interestparticipate in prevention or reduction of consumption in the workplace. Materials and methods: Across-sectional study by applying an anonymous survey. Results: There were 58 questionnaires (38in physicians and 20 nurses. The substances most consumed in both groups were alcohol, cigarettesand energy drinks, followed on medical by marijuana in nursing followed by barbiturates, antidepressants,amphetamines and opiates. The prevalence of alcoholism was greater than 8% in bothgroups. 58% of physicians and 70% of nurses would participate in the design of occupational healthprograms to reduce the consumption of psychoactive substances. Conclusions: The use of drugs ofabuse is higher that found in the literature for most of the substances in the general population andis similar to the revised health personnel. It recommends the formulation and implementation ofcorporate policy within the framework of occupational health work of these institutions, aimed atreducing and preventing the consumption of psychoactive substances.

  1. Are clinicians being prepared to care for abused women? A survey of health professional education in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Clare

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current project undertook a province-wide survey and environmental scan of educational opportunities available to future health care providers on the topic of intimate partner violence (IPV against women. Methods A team of experts identified university and college programs in Ontario, Canada as potential providers of IPV education to students in health care professions at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. A telephone survey with contacts representing these programs was conducted between October 2005 and March 2006. The survey asked whether IPV-specific education was provided to learners, and if so, how and by whom. Results In total, 222 eligible programs in dentistry, medicine, nursing and other allied health professions were surveyed, and 95% (212/222 of programs responded. Of these, 57% reported offering some form of IPV-specific education, with undergraduate nursing (83% and allied health (82% programs having the highest rates. Fewer than half of undergraduate medical (43% and dentistry (46% programs offered IPV content. Postgraduate programs ranged from no IPV content provision (dentistry to 41% offering content (nursing. Conclusion Significant variability exists across program areas regarding the methods for IPV education, its delivery and evaluation. The results of this project highlight that expectations for an active and consistent response by health care professionals to women experiencing the effects of violence may not match the realities of professional preparation.

  2. SAP ERP financial accounting and controlling configuration and use management

    CERN Document Server

    Okungbowa, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    SAP ERP modules are notoriously hard to configure and use effectively without a lot of practice and experience. But as SAP ERP Financial Accounting and Controlling: Configuration and Use Management shows, it doesn't have to be so difficult. The book takes a systematic approach that leads SAP Financial Accounting and Controlling (FICO) users step by step through configuring and using all the program's facets. This approach makes configuration complexities manageable. The book's author-SAP expert, trainer, and accountant Andrew Okun

  3. E-SAP: Efficient-Strong Authentication Protocol for Healthcare Applications Using Wireless Medical Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoon-Jae Lee

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless medical sensor network (WMSN can sense humans’ physiological signs without sacrificing patient comfort and transmit patient vital signs to health professionals’ hand-held devices. The patient physiological data are highly sensitive and WMSNs are extremely vulnerable to many attacks. Therefore, it must be ensured that patients’ medical signs are not exposed to unauthorized users. Consequently, strong user authentication is the main concern for the success and large scale deployment of WMSNs. In this regard, this paper presents an efficient, strong authentication protocol, named E-SAP, for healthcare application using WMSNs. The proposed E-SAP includes: (1 a two-factor (i.e., password and smartcard professional authentication; (2 mutual authentication between the professional and the medical sensor; (3 symmetric encryption/decryption for providing message confidentiality; (4 establishment of a secure session key at the end of authentication; and (5 professionals can change their password. Further, the proposed protocol requires three message exchanges between the professional, medical sensor node and gateway node, and achieves efficiency (i.e., low computation and communication cost. Through the formal analysis, security analysis and performance analysis, we demonstrate that E-SAP is more secure against many practical attacks, and allows a tradeoff between the security and the performance cost for healthcare application using WMSNs.

  4. Conservation of element concentration in xylem sap of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the chemistry of xylem sap as a marker of red spruce metabolism and soil chemistry at three locations in northern New England. A Scholander pressure chamber was used to extract xylem sap from roots and branches cut from mature trees in early June and September. Root sap contained significantly greater concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and A1 than branch...

  5. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the...

  6. Do we need cross border education?: A Case of Pilot Course Multi-professional Approaches to Substance Abuse Care and Working with Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Orjasniemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine studentsʼ experiences of cross-border education based on a single course carried out in collaboration between two networks, Barents Cross-Border University (BCBU and the Thematic Network of Social Work (TNSWUA, as well as the experiences of teachers in the course. The course was a part of the curriculum for the Master’s Degree Programme (BCBU in Comparative Social Work. Most of the students were studying in this Master’s Programme, some of them were exchange students at the University of Lapland (UL and the rest were social work students at UL and the University of Iceland (UI.  The course ran for two weeks in April 2015, and included lectures, discussions and workshops; parts of the course were delivered electronically, while other sections were delivered by teachers on-site. This course provided a broad multi-professional introduction to the field of addiction and substance abuse care. Students learned about screening the alcohol culture and the relationship between society, addiction, gender, family, life phases, ageing, maternity and substance use. The data for this study was collected through focus group discussion, with students reflecting on one question: ‘Do we need cross-border education?’ Data from instructors was collected through discussions during the planning and post-course discussions. Overall, the experiences of students and instructors were positive. The collaboration did not face insuperable challenges. The findings highlighted four main themes: globalization, networking, comparing theory and practice, and using technology. Globalization has set new demands for social work and its professionals. Experts in cultural diversity and international social issues, as well as people with a comparative approach to different societies, are needed the world over. Regarding implications for cross-border education, we would recommend collaboration in the particular field of social work

  7. What's Nu(SAP) in mitosis and cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Jyoti; Moghe, Saili; Furukawa, Manabu; Tsai, Ming-Ying

    2011-06-01

    Unperturbed mitosis is a prerequisite for the generation of two genetically identical daughter cells. Nucleolar-spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is an important mitotic regulator. The activity of NuSAP is essential for a variety of cellular events that occur during mitosis starting from spindle assembly to cytokinesis. In addition to playing crucial roles during mitosis, NuSAP has been in the spotlight recently due to different studies exhibiting its importance in embryogenesis and cancer. In this review, we have extensively mined the current literature and made connections between different studies involving NuSAP. Importantly, we have assembled data pertaining to NuSAP from several proteomic studies and analyzed it thoroughly. Our review focuses on the role of NuSAP in mitosis and cancer, and brings to light several unanswered questions regarding the regulation of NuSAP in mitosis and its role in carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles Felzen

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide concern. It is an insidious, persistent, and serious problem that, depending on the population studied and definition used, affects 2-62% of women and 3-16% of men as victims. Pain and tissue injury from child sexual abuse can completely heal in time, but psychological and medical consequences can persist through adulthood. Associated sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV) and suicide attempts can be fatal. All physicians who treat children should be aware of the manifestations and consequences of child sexual abuse, and should be familiar with normal and abnormal genital and anal anatomy of children. This aim is best accomplished through training and routine examination of the anus and genitalia of children. Because as many as 96% of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse will have normal genital and anal examinations, a forensic interview by a trained professional must be relied on to document suspicion of abuse.

  9. 49 CFR 40.281 - Who is qualified to act as a SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process... for Certified Counselors, Inc. and Affiliates/Master Addictions Counselor (NBCC). (b) Basic knowledge...

  10. 49 CFR 40.311 - What are the requirements concerning SAP reports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty... initial evaluation that determines what level of assistance is needed to address the employee's drug and...

  11. AI User Support System for SAP ERP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Chebotareva, Victoria; Rakhimov, Marat; Kruglikov, Sergey

    2017-10-01

    An intelligent system for SAP ERP user support is proposed in this paper. It enables automatic replies on users’ requests for support, saving time for problem analysis and resolution and improving responsiveness for end users. The system is based on an ensemble of machine learning algorithms of multiclass text classification, providing efficient question understanding, and a special framework for evidence retrieval, providing the best answer derivation.

  12. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical damage. An abused child may become depressed. He or she may withdraw, ...

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Federal and national organizations and State contacts that work to prevent child abuse. Promoting child & family well-being Information on ... awareness & creating supportive communities Tools for sharing a child abuse ... research on what works, information on the role of related professionals, and ...

  14. Liquid effluent Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) implementation summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes liquid effluent analytical data collected during the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) Implementation Program, evaluates whether or not the sampling performed meets the requirements of the individual SAPs, compares the results to the WAC 173-200 Ground Water Quality Standards. Presented in the report are results from liquid effluent samples collected (1992-1994) from 18 of the 22 streams identified in the Consent Order (No. DE 91NM-177) requiring SAPs

  15. Usability testing of application programming interface for SAP2000

    OpenAIRE

    Šebenik, Žiga

    2013-01-01

    The SAP2000 Application Programming Interface (API) was developed to enable a two-way link between the SAP2000, which is a general-purpose structural program, and other software. In the context of this thesis, the possibility of using the API to enhance the performance within the SAP2000 program and to develop new, more specific software tools based on SAP2000 is examined. In the first part of the thesis we present the application programming interface, the implementation of programming la...

  16. Statistical characterization of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunduri, B.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Coster, A. J.; Oksavik, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow region of westward directed plasma convection typically observed in the dusk-midnight sector equatorward of the main auroral oval. SAPS plays an important role in mid-latitude space weather dynamics and has a controlling influence on the evolution of large-scale plasma features, such as Storm Enhanced Density (SED) plumes. In this study, data from North American mid-latitude SuperDARN radars collected between January 2011 and December 2014 have been used to compile a database of SAPS events for statistical analysis. We examine the dependence of SAPS velocity magnitude and direction on geomagnetic activity and magnetic local time. The lowest speed limit and electric fields observed during SAPS are discussed and histograms of SAPS velocities for different Dst bins and MLAT-MLT locations are presented. We find significant differences in SAPS characteristics between periods of low and high geomagnetic activity, suggesting that SAPS are driven by different mechanisms during storm and non-storm conditions. To further explore this possibility, we have characterized the SAPS location and peak speed relative to the ionospheric trough specified by GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data from the MIT Haystack Madrigal database. A particular emphasis is placed on identifying the extent to which the location, structure, and depth of the trough may play a controlling influence on SAPS speeds during storm and non-storm periods. The results are interpreted in terms of the current paradigm for active thermosphere-ionosphere feedback being an important component of SAPS physics.

  17. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural and binding studies of SAP-1 protein with heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vikash K; Mandal, Rahul S; Puniya, Bhanwar L; Kumar, Rahul; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2015-03-01

    SAP-1 is a low molecular weight cysteine protease inhibitor (CPI) which belongs to type-2 cystatins family. SAP-1 protein purified from human seminal plasma (HuSP) has been shown to inhibit cysteine and serine proteases and exhibit interesting biological properties, including high temperature and pH stability. Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (with varied chain length) which interacts with a number of proteins and regulates multiple steps in different biological processes. As an anticoagulant, heparin enhances inhibition of thrombin by the serpin antithrombin III. Therefore, we have employed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to improve our understanding of the binding interaction between heparin and SAP-1 (protease inhibitor). SPR data suggest that SAP-1 binds to heparin with a significant affinity (KD = 158 nm). SPR solution competition studies using heparin oligosaccharides showed that the binding of SAP-1 to heparin is dependent on chain length. Large oligosaccharides show strong binding affinity for SAP-1. Further to get insight into the structural aspect of interactions between SAP-1 and heparin, we used modelled structure of the SAP-1 and docked with heparin and heparin-derived polysaccharides. The results suggest that a positively charged residue lysine plays important role in these interactions. Such information should improve our understanding of how heparin, present in the reproductive tract, regulates cystatins activity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Guo, J.; Zhang, D.; Wang, C. P.; Sheng, C.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: SAPS simulation with GITM/UCLA-RCM coupled model Author: Yang Lu, Yue Deng, Jiapeng Guo, Donghe Zhang, Chih-Ping Wang, Cheng Sheng Ion velocity in the Sub Aurora region observed by Satellites in storm time often shows a significant westward component. The high speed westward stream is distinguished with convection pattern. These kind of events are called Sub Aurora Polarization Stream (SAPS). In March 17th 2013 storm, DMSP F18 satellite observed several SAPS cases when crossing Sub Aurora region. In this study, Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) has been coupled to UCLA-RCM model to simulate the impact of SAPS during March 2013 event on the ionosphere/thermosphere. The particle precipitation and electric field from RCM has been used to drive GITM. The conductance calculated from GITM has feedback to RCM to make the coupling to be self-consistent. The comparison of GITM simulations with different SAPS specifications will be conducted. The neutral wind from simulation will be compared with GOCE satellite. The comparison between runs with SAPS and without SAPS will separate the effect of SAPS from others and illustrate the impact on the TIDS/TADS propagating to both poleward and equatorward directions.

  20. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa T; Nurudeen, Quadri O; Salimon, Saoban S; Yakubu, Monsurat O; Jimoh, Rukayat O; Nafiu, Mikhail O; Akanji, Musbau A; Oladiji, Adenike T; Williams, Felicia E

    2015-01-01

    The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  1. Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) enhance efficient and eco-friendly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In arid and semiarid regions of northern China, there is an increasing interest in using reduced rate of chemical fertilizer along with water-saving superabsorbent polymer (SAP) for field crop production. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of different rates of SAP (low, 0.75; medium, 11.3 and high, 15.0 kg ha-1) ...

  2. Making sense of the numbers: Civil claims against the SAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years reports have increasingly pointed to the mounting quantum of claims for civil damages faced by the South African Police Service (SAPS). A close analysis of the publicly available data shows that increasingly large amounts of claims are filed against the SAPS, but that most of these claims are finalised without ...

  3. Assessing the ERP-SAP implementation strategy from cultural perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gunawan; Syaiful, Bakhri; Sfenrianto; Nurul, Fajar Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Implementing ERP-SAP projects in Indonesian large enterprises frequently create headaches for the consultants, since there are always be a large gap between the outcomes of the SAP with the expected results. Indonesian enterprises have experience with a huge amount of investments and ended up with minor benefits. Despite its unprecedented benefits, the SAP strategy is still considered as a mandatory enterprise system for every enterprise to compete in the marketplaces. The article examines the SAP implementation from cultural perspectives to present new horizon that commonly ignored by major Indonesian enterprises. The article applies the multiple case studies with three large Indonesia enterprises, such as KS, the largest steel producer; GEM, a subsidiary of conglomerate enterprise operates in the mining industry, and HS, a subsidiary of the largest retailer in Asia with more than 700 stores in Indonesia. The outcome of the article is expected to provide a comprehensive analysis from cultural perspectives regarding to common problems faced by SAP consultants.

  4. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  5. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug ...

  6. Thermal-dissipation sap flow sensors may not yield consistent sap-flux estimates over multiple years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; Barbara J. Bond; Julia A. Jones; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2010-01-01

    Sap flow techniques, such as thermal dissipation, involve an empirically derived relationship between sap flux and the temperature differential between a heated thermocouple and a nearby reference thermocouple inserted into the sapwood. This relationship has been widely tested but mostly with newly installed sensors. Increasingly, sensors are used for extended periods...

  7. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shasha; Cai, Chenxu; Li, Zehua; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Blonska, Marzenna; Li, Dan; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang; Dong, Zhongjun

    2017-02-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (T FH ) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in T FH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient T FH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. © 2017 Chen et al.

  8. Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenxu; Liu, Guangao; Wang, Yuande; Du, Juan; Lin, Xin; Yang, Meixiang

    2017-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)–associated protein (SAP) mutations in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) lead to defective NKT cell development and impaired humoral immunity. Because of the redundancy of SLAM family receptors (SFRs) and the complexity of SAP actions, how SFRs and SAP mediate these processes remains elusive. Here, we examined NKT cell development and humoral immunity in mice completely deficient in SFR. We found that SFR deficiency severely impaired NKT cell development. In contrast to SAP deficiency, SFR deficiency caused no apparent defect in follicular helper T (TFH) cell differentiation. Intriguingly, the deletion of SFRs completely rescued the severe defect in TFH cell generation caused by SAP deficiency, whereas SFR deletion had a minimal effect on the defective NKT cell development in SAP-deficient mice. These findings suggest that SAP-dependent activating SFR signaling is essential for NKT cell selection; however, SFR signaling is inhibitory in SAP-deficient TFH cells. Thus, our current study revises our understanding of the mechanisms underlying T cell defects in patients with XLP. PMID:28049627

  9. Child Abuse Hysteria and the Elementary School Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Lawrence D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes child abuse phenomenon and history of current public hysteria concerning child abuse. Discusses trend of high numbers of false reports of child abuse and neglect and need for counselors to be cognizant of problems of overzealous reporting, professionals looking for abuse in otherwise innocuous situations, and parents using accusations of…

  10. Psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, T B; Jeffrey, L K

    1991-12-01

    This paper reviews psychologic aspects of sexual abuse in female adolescents. It documents that sexual abuse is widespread, occurring at an alarming rate at all socioeconomic levels of society. It is perpetrated principally by adult men in the victim's family. Often its effects are tragic. Adolescent female sexual abuse victims are at high risk for subsequent acting out behavior, sexual promiscuity, physical and sexual abuse, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, alcohol and drug abuse or dependence, chronic sleep disturbance, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, emotional numbing, dissociation, guilt, shame, hyperalertness, suicidal ideation, and multiple associated psychiatric disorders. Although it may appear at a surface level that sexual abuse victims recover from such abuse, follow-up studies suggest that many remain disabled long after the abuse has ended. Health care professionals should be especially cognizant of the magnitude of the impact of sexual abuse on adolescent girls and recognize the need of these patients for psychologic and medical services.

  11. Freshwater bryozoa of Tonle Sap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Masato; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-06-01

    We identified a collection of freshwater bryozoans from Tonle Sap (meaning Tonle Lake), Cambodia, a body of water fed by the Mekong River and characterized by extreme fluctuations in water level between the wet and dry seasons. The collection also included specimens from the moat of Angkor Wat, located at the north end of the lake. We found four phylactolaemate species (Plumatella bombayensis, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella vorstmani, Hyalinella lendenfeldi) and one ctenostome species (Hislopia cambodgiensis) from the lake, and only a single, additional phylactolaemate species (Plumatella javanica) from the moat. We provide brief descriptions of these species, photographs of colonies for some, and photomicrographs by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of statoblasts. None of the species encountered in this study is endemic to Cambodia, and the wide distributions of the species are possibly related to the dispersability of floatoblasts by birds. We briefly discuss some of the taxonomic problems surrounding Hislopia cambodgiensis.

  12. Impacto emocional en estudiantes de pedagogía ante eventos de maltrato en la práctica profesional / Emotional impact on pedagogy students faced with abuse during professional practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse Alejandra Jaramillo Sandoval

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El objetivo de este estudio fue comprender la experiencia emocional de los estudiantes de pedagogía al enfrentarse a eventos de maltrato por parte de los docentes del establecimiento, en sus prácticas profesionales. Desde el enfoque cualitativo y utilizando la técnica de incidentes críticos, se entrevistó a 12 estudiantes que experimentaron maltrato durante su práctica y se recabó 15 incidentes críticos. De esta muestra, se categorizaron 5 conductas de maltrato, de las cuales, la angustia, la rabia e inseguridad fueron las principales emociones que manifestaron los estudiantes. Para ellos, dicha experiencia tuvo un intenso impacto emocional, asociándose a altos nivel de estrés. Se discute por una parte que estos eventos provocaron un significativo cuestionamiento en su identidad profesional y, por otra parte, sobre la importancia de fortalecer las habilidades socioemocionales en la formación docente, de modo que se maneje adecuadamente los conflictos y conservar el bienestar psicológico. ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to understand the emotional experience of pedagogy students faced with abusive events caused by teachers of the institution during their professional practice. From the qualitative approach, and using the critical incidents technique, we interviewed 12 students who experienced abuse during their practice and gathered 15 critical incidents. From this sample, it was categorized 5 abusive behaviors of which anguish, anger, and insecurity were the main emotions expressed by the students. For them, such experience had an intense emotional impact associating it with high levels of stress. The discussion that these events caused them to significantly question in their professional identity; and on the other hand, regarding the importance of strengthening the socio-emotional skills in teacher training, so that conflicts are managed properly – thereby maintaining the psychological well-being.

  13. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okato, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Tasuku; Tanaka, Mami; Tachibana, Masumi; Machizawa, Akira; Okayama, Jun; Endo, Mamiko; Senda, Masayoshi; Saito, Naoki; Iyo, Masaomi

    2018-01-01

    Child abuse and/or neglect is a serious issue, and in many cases, parents are the perpetrators. Hospital-based child protection teams (CPTs) play pivotal roles in the management of not only abused and/or neglected children but also of their parents; this is generally conducted through multidisciplinary practice. The aim of this study is to survey hospital-based CPT members to determine the professions they perceive to be most applicable to participation in CPTs. The participants were members of CPTs affiliated with hospitals that had pediatric emergency departments and which were located in Chiba Prefecture; specifically, 114 CPT members from 23 hospitals responded to this survey. The two main questionnaire items concerned are as follows: 1) each respondent's evaluation of conducting assessments, providing support, and implementing multidisciplinary collaborative practice in the treatment of abusive and negligent parents, and 2) each CPT member's opinion on the professions that are most important for CPT activities. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to explore the factor structure of the data, and a correlation analysis was performed using the result obtained. The EFA returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84) and assessment and support (α = 0.89). A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians ( r = 0.315, p = 0.001), neonatologists ( r = 0.261, p = 0.007), midwives ( r = 0.248, p = 0.011), and psychiatrists ( r = 0.194, p = 0.048); however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives ( r = 0.208, p = 0.039). This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important

  14. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  15. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  16. The Role of Race and Severity of Abuse in Teachers' Recognition or Reporting of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…

  17. Assessing the Consequences for Children and Families when a Parent Has a Problem with Substance Use and Abuse: Considerations for Social Workers and Other Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberley, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to contribute to scholarship, knowledge and public policy regarding child maltreatment and parenting capacity within the context of parental substance use and abuse. One goal is to give voice to the children who have moved to, or who are approaching, the threshold for needing a type of protection that is neither…

  18. Listening and Believing: An Examination of Young People's Perceptions of Why They Are Not Believed by Professionals When They Report Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    This article explores commonly held perceptions by young people as to why they are sometimes not believed by practitioners when reporting potential or actual instances of abuse or neglect. Using original data gained from telephone, individual and group interviews with over a hundred young people a "typology of disbelief" was constructed and is…

  19. 30 CFR 285.614 - When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... approved SAP? 285.614 Section 285.614 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.614 When may I begin conducting activities under my approved SAP? (a) You may begin conducting the activities approved in your SAP...

  20. The installations maintenance control using SAP R/3; O controle de manutencao de instalacoes utilizando o SAP R/3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges; Jorge, Kemal Vieira [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    TBG (Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A.) began their operations in 1999 and since the beginning the SAP R/3 PM module (Plant Maintenance) is used for the control of the maintenance activities and to manager the Master Maintenance and Inspection Plans. On these five years, a series of reports and SAP functionalities were developed or configured to adapt the system R/3 to the needs of TBG maintenance. Now, the whole management and control of the surface facilities maintenance (compression station, city gate, measurement station, etc) is accomplished by SAP R/3 system. (author)

  1. Testing sugar maple sap for sweetness with a refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; George M. Keiser

    1971-01-01

    We studied the consistency of refractometer sugar readings as influenced by sap evaporation, temperature, and the drying, cleaning, and calibration of the instrument. From the study results, we suggest field procedures for using the refractometer to insure reliable measurements.

  2. Speed of tapping does not influence maple sap yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Richard J. LaMore

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study showed no statistical difference in the quantity or sweetness of sugar maple sap collected from tapholes that were drilled with a variety of tappers running at different drilling speeds

  3. Variability of sap flow on forest hillslopes: patterns and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, Sibylle; Blume, Theresa

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow in trees is an essential variable in integrated studies of hydrologic fluxes. It gives indication of transpiration rates for single trees and, with a suitable method of upscaling, for whole stands. This information is relevant for hydrologic and climate models, especially for the prediction of change in water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum under climate change. To this end, we do not only need knowledge concerning the response of sapflow to atmospheric forcing but also an understanding of the main controls on its spatial variability. Our study site consists of several subcatchments of the Attert basin in Luxembourg underlain by schists of the Ardennes massif. Within these subcatchments we measure sap flow in more than 20 trees on a range of forested hillslopes covered by a variety of temperate deciduous tree species such as beech, oak, hornbeam and maple as well as conifers such as firs. Our sap flow sensors are based on the heat pulse velocity method and consist of three needles, one needle acting as the heating device and the other two holding three thermistors each, enabling us to simultaneously measure sap flow velocity at three different depths within the tree. In close proximity to the trees we collect additional data on soil moisture, matric potential and groundwater levels. First results show that the sensor design seems promising for an upscaling of the measured sap flow velocities to sap flow at the tree level. The maximum depth of actively used sapwood as well as the decrease in sap flow velocity with increasing depth in the tree can be determined by way of the three thermistors. Marked differences in sap flow velocity profiles are visible between the different species, resulting in differences in sap flow for trees of similar diameter. We examine the range of tree sap flow values and variation due to species, size class, slope position and exposition and finally relate them to the dynamics of soil moisture conditions with the

  4. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and... assist an employee to maintain sobriety or abstinence from drug use after the employee resumes the...

  5. Implantación del sistema ERP SAP R/3

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Fernandez, Jorge Juan

    2012-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo ha sido realizar un estudio de investigación y desarrollo sobre la implantación del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 de una empresa. L'objectiu d'aquest treball final de carrera ha estat realitzar un estudi d'investigació i desenvolupament sobre la implantació del sistema Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) SAP R/3 d'una empresa.

  6. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Musa paradisiaca Sap in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa T. Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The folkloric claim of Musa paradisiaca sap in the management of diarrhoea is yet to be substantiated or refuted with scientific data. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to screen the sap of M. paradisiaca for both its secondary metabolites and antidiarrhoeal activity at 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 mL in rats. Secondary metabolites were screened using standard methods while the antidiarrhoeal activity was done by adopting the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, castor oil-induced enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility models. The sap contained flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, and steroids while cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, triterpenes, cardenolides, and dienolides were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the sap significantly (P<0.05 prolonged the onset time of diarrhoea, decreased the number, fresh weight, and water content of feaces, and increased the inhibition of defecations. Na+-K+-ATPase activity in the small intestine increased significantly whereas nitric oxide content decreased. The decreases in the masses and volumes of intestinal fluid by the sap were accompanied by increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the enteropooling model. The sap decreased the charcoal meal transit in the gastrointestinal motility model. In all the models, the 1.00 mL of the sap produced changes that compared well with the reference drugs. Overall, the antidiarrhoeal activity of Musa paradisiaca sap attributed to the presence of alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, and/or saponins which may involve, among others, enhancing fluid and electrolyte absorption through de novo synthesis of the sodium potassium ATPase and/or reduced nitric oxide levels.

  7. Effect of microgravity on sap flow in plant stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Hiroaki; Nobol Ikeda, MR..

    2012-07-01

    A fundamental study was conducted to assess the possibility of plant growth suppression caused by poor movement of air in closed plant growth facilities in space farming. Sap water flow in plant stems, which plays an important role to transport fluid and nutrients from roots to leaves, will be suppressed through suppression of transpiration because of little natural convection of air under microgravity conditions. In this study, the sap flow in tomato stems was examined using a heat flow method at 0.01 and 1.0 g for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights in order to clarify the effect of microgravity on the sap flow in stems. Heat generated with a tiny heater installed in the stem was transferred upstream and downstream by conduction and upstream by the sap flow through xylems of the vascular tissue. The internal heat convection corresponding to the sap flow was analyzed with thermal images captured on stems near heated points. In results, the sap flow in stems at 0.01 g was suppressed under a retarded air condition at a wind speed of 0.1 m s-1 compared with that at 1 g. No suppression of the sap flow was observed under a stirred air condition at a wind speed of 0.5 m s-1. Suppressed sap water flow in stems would be caused by suppression of transpiration in leaves and would cause restriction of water and nutrient uptake in roots. The forced air movement is, therefore, essential to culture healthy plants at a high growth rate under microgravity conditions in space.

  8. Community approaches to elder abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Carmel B; Heisler, Candace J; Hill, Carrie A; Kim, Lucia C

    2005-05-01

    Collaboration of professionals from diverse disciplines is required to address the multiple, complex issues and needs of community-dwelling elders who are abused or neglected. Reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect cases to Adult Protective Service (APS) agencies provides access to services that address the social, medical, and legal needs of elderly persons. A geriatric interdisciplinary team can provide a comprehensive medical, functional, and social assessment. Based on the findings from the assessment and in collaboration with the APS team, the intervention plan can be formulated. Some cases of elder abuse or neglect may require intervention from the criminal justice or the civil justice system for serious legal issues such as sexual assault, financial exploitation, or guardianship. Other resources, such as Area Agencies on Aging, local women's shelters, and The National Center for Elder Abuse, are available to help manage elder abuse and neglect cases in the community.

  9. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  10. Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drinking to Excess U.S. National Library of Medicine, Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Last Updated: June 27, 2017 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol addiction ...

  11. Fetal Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  12. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  13. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  14. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  15. Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov., isolated from tree sap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2017-09-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative bacterial strains, SAP-32T and SAP-36, were isolated from sap drawn from the Acer pictum from Mount Halla in Jeju, Republic of Korea. The organisms were strictly aerobic, non-sporulating, motile rods and showed growth at 10-30 °C, pH 7-8 and with 0-2 % NaCl. The major isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The predominant fatty acids were C16 : 0, cyclo-C17 : 0, summed feature 3 and C18 : 0. The polar lipids contained phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown aminophosphoglycolipid, an unknown glycolipid, an unknown phospholipid and two unknown lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.4 mol%. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SAP-32T and SAP-36 formed a distinct cluster with members of the genus Pigmentiphaga within the family Alcaligenaceae. Both strains showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 100 % to each other. The closest relatives of the isolates were Pigmentiphaga daeguensis (97.08 % sequence similarity), Pigmentiphaga kullae (97.01 %) and Pigmentiphaga litoralis (96.73 %). On the basis of data from phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, SAP-32T (=KCTC 52619T=DSM 104039T) and SAP-36 (=KCTC 52620=DSM 104072) represent members of a novel species of the genus Pigmentiphaga, for which the name Pigmentiphaga aceris sp. nov. is proposed.

  16. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with ( Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora , and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla ) and without ( Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba , and Acacia auriculiformis ) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux ( J s ) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the F v / F m (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and Φ PSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that J s,d (daytime sap flux) and J s,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (Slope SMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (Slope SMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  17. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Gao, Jianguo; Zhao, Ping; McCarthy, Heather R.; Zhu, Liwei; Ni, Guangyan; Ouyang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla) and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis) photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js) and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII) and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII) values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux) and Js,n (nighttime sap flux) of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680) than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943). These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis. PMID:29416547

  18. A Novel Putrescine Exporter SapBCDF of Escherichia coli*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kanbe, Ayaka; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kurihara, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment. We observed putrescine concentration in the culture supernatant was increased from 0 to 50 μm during growth of E. coli under neutral conditions. Screening for the unidentified putrescine exporter was performed using a gene knock-out collection of E. coli, and deletion of sapBCDF significantly decreased putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Complementation of the deletion mutant with the sapBCDF genes restored putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Additionally, the ΔsapBCDF strain did not facilitate uptake of putrescine from the culture supernatant. Quantification of stable isotope-labeled putrescine derived from stable isotope-labeled arginine supplemented in the medium revealed that SapBCDF exported putrescine from E. coli cells to the culture supernatant. It was previously reported that SapABCDF of Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae conferred resistance toantimicrobial peptides; however, the E. coli ΔsapBCDF strain did not affect resistance to antimicrobial peptide LL-37. These results strongly suggest that the natural function of the SapBCDF proteins is the export of putrescine. PMID:27803167

  19. A Novel Putrescine Exporter SapBCDF of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuta; Nakamura, Atsuo; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Kanbe, Ayaka; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Katayama, Takane; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Kurihara, Shin

    2016-12-16

    Recent research has suggested that polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) in the intestinal tract impact the health of animals either negatively or positively. The concentration of polyamines in the intestinal tract results from the balance of uptake and export of the intestinal bacteria. However, the mechanism of polyamine export from bacterial cells to the intestinal lumen is still unclear. In Escherichia coli, PotE was previously identified as a transporter responsible for putrescine excretion in an acidic growth environment. We observed putrescine concentration in the culture supernatant was increased from 0 to 50 μm during growth of E. coli under neutral conditions. Screening for the unidentified putrescine exporter was performed using a gene knock-out collection of E. coli, and deletion of sapBCDF significantly decreased putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Complementation of the deletion mutant with the sapBCDF genes restored putrescine levels in the culture supernatant. Additionally, the ΔsapBCDF strain did not facilitate uptake of putrescine from the culture supernatant. Quantification of stable isotope-labeled putrescine derived from stable isotope-labeled arginine supplemented in the medium revealed that SapBCDF exported putrescine from E. coli cells to the culture supernatant. It was previously reported that SapABCDF of Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium and Haemophilus influenzae conferred resistance toantimicrobial peptides; however, the E. coli ΔsapBCDF strain did not affect resistance to antimicrobial peptide LL-37. These results strongly suggest that the natural function of the SapBCDF proteins is the export of putrescine. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Tree Species with Photosynthetic Stems Have Greater Nighttime Sap Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of evidence has shown that nighttime sap flux occurs in most plants, but the physiological implications and regulatory mechanism are poorly known. The significance of corticular photosynthesis has received much attention during the last decade, however, the knowledge of the relationship between corticular photosynthesis and nocturnal stem sap flow is limited at present. In this study, we divided seven tree species into two groups according to different photosynthetic capabilities: trees of species with (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei, Eucalyptus citriodora, and Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla and without (Castanopsis fissa, Schima superba, and Acacia auriculiformis photosynthetic stems, and the sap flux (Js and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for these species were measured. One-way ANOVA analysis showed that the Fv/Fm (Maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII and ΦPSII (effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII values were lower in non-photosynthetic stem species compared to photosynthetic stem species. The linear regression analysis showed that Js,d (daytime sap flux and Js,n (nighttime sap flux of non-photosynthetic stem species was 87.7 and 60.9% of the stem photosynthetic species. Furthermore, for a given daytime transpiration water loss, total nighttime sap flux was higher in species with photosynthetic stems (SlopeSMA = 2.680 than in non-photosynthetic stems species (SlopeSMA = 1.943. These results mean that stem corticular photosynthesis has a possible effect on the nighttime water flow, highlighting the important eco-physiological relationship between nighttime sap flux and corticular photosynthesis.

  1. Hospital-based child protection teams that care for parents who abuse or neglect their children recognize the need for multidisciplinary collaborative practice involving perinatal care and mental health professionals: a questionnaire survey conducted in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okato A

    2018-02-01

    returned two factors: multidisciplinary collaborative practice (α = 0.84 and assessment and support (α = 0.89. A correlational analysis showed that multidisciplinary collaborative practice had a positive correlation for obstetricians (r = 0.315, p = 0.001, neonatologists (r = 0.261, p = 0.007, midwives (r = 0.248, p = 0.011, and psychiatrists (r = 0.194, p = 0.048; however, assessment and support was only significantly correlated with midwives (r = 0.208, p = 0.039. Conclusion: This study showed that hospital-based CPT members highly evaluate multidisciplinary collaborative practice for the management of abusive and/or negligent parents, and they believe that, in addition to pediatric physicians and nurses, perinatal care and mental health professionals are the most important participants in advanced CPT activities. Keywords: child abuse and neglect, abusive parents, child protection services, multidisciplinary practice, maltreatment of children

  2. Chronic time abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglas, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  3. Arsenic speciation in xylem sap of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihucz, Victor G. [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); Tatar, Eniko [Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Virag, Istvan [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary); Cseh, Edit; Fodor, Ferenc [L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Plant Physiology, Budapest (Hungary); Zaray, Gyula [Joint Research Group of Environmental Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and L. Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary); Hungarian Satellite Centre of Trace Elements Institute to UNESCO, Budapest (Hungary); L. Eoetvoes University, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest (Hungary)

    2005-10-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) and high-performance liquid chromatography double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-DF-ICP-MS) were used for total arsenic determination and arsenic speciation of xylem sap of cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in hydroponics containing 2 {mu}mol dm{sup -3} arsenate or arsenite, respectively. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)] and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were identified in the sap of the plants. Arsenite was the predominant arsenic species in the xylem saps regardless of the type of arsenic treatment, and the following concentration order was determined: As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The amount of total As, calculated taking into consideration the mass of xylem sap collected, was almost equal for both treatments. Arsenite was taken up more easily by cucumber than arsenate. Partial oxidation of arsenite to arsenate (<10% in 48 h) was observed in the case of arsenite-containing nutrient solutions, which may explain the detection of arsenate in the saps of plants treated with arsenite. (orig.)

  4. Sap flow index as an indicator of water storage use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhdina Nadezhda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical temperature difference also known as the sap flow index (SFI forms the basis of the Heat Field Deformation sap flow measurement and is simultaneously collected whilst measuring the sap flow. SFI can also be measured by any sap flow method applying internal continuous heating through the additional installation of an axial differential thermocouple equidistantly around a heater. In earlier research on apple trees SFI was found to be an informative parameter for tree physiological studies, namely for assessing the contribution of stem water storage to daily transpiration. The studies presented in this work are based on the comparative monitoring of SFI and diameter in stems of different species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea omorika, Pinus sylvestris and tree sizes. The ability of SFI to follow the patterns of daily stem water storage use was empirically confirmed by our data. Additionally, as the HFD multipointsensors can measure sap flow at several stem sapwood depths, their use allowed to analyze the use of stored water in different xylem layers through SFI records. Radial and circumferential monitoring of SFI on large cork oak trees provided insight into the relative magnitude and timing of the contribution of water stored in different sapwood layers or stem sectors to transpiration.

  5. Auditoria fiscal previdenciária em ambiente SAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre David Viva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho busca identificar meios para efetuar auditoria fiscal nos bancos de dados do SAP - o mais adotado ERP da atualidade (Bae e Ashcroft, 2004, 1 e 5; Khan, 2005, 5. Pretende-se concentrar no método de acesso às tabelas SAP, um dos cinco métodos de acesso aos bancos de dados de ERP (Neil Raden, 2004, 10. Em um primeiro momento, é necessário o levantamento, por empresa, de uma listagem dos cabeçalhos das tabelas com as quais ela trabalha, em bancos de dados que já alcançam os terabytes (SAP, SAP NetWeaver: 50. Como o SAP é um programa multilíngüe e multiempresarial, suas tabelas são criptografadas, isto é, os nomes das tabelas e de duas colunas não guardam a menor relação com os dados que elas registram (Saphir, 2004, 1. Em um segundo momento, então, por meio do ACL, a listagem de cabeçalhos de tabelas obtida é filtrada. As tabelas que interessam ao Fisco são solicitadas à empresa de uma forma mais precisa, de modo a não sobrecarregar nem a empresa nem do Fisco. Em um terceiro momento, ainda com auxílio do ACL, as tabelas especificadas são analisadas (Primeiros Passos, 2003, 3.

  6. Development and psychometric evaluation of the self-assessment of psoriasis symptoms (SAPS) - clinical trial and the SAPS - real world patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Stokes, Jonathan; Sundaram, Murali; Shields, Alan L

    2017-09-01

    The Self-Assessment of Psoriasis Symptoms - Clinical Trials (SAPS-CT) and SAPS - Real World (SAPS-RW) were simultaneously created to assess the experience of plaque psoriasis in two unique contexts. Qualitative and quantitative research was conducted in four phases namely concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Following concept elicitation, 18 concepts were selected to inform questionnaire construction of the SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW. To accommodate each context of use, the SAPS-CT asks respondents to rate the target symptom 'at its worst' in the 24 h prior to assessment, while the SAPS-RW asks respondents to rate the target symptom "on average" in the 7 days prior to assessment. Cognitive debriefing confirmed that patients could comprehend and provide meaningful responses to both versions and, after minor modifications, resulted in 11-item questionnaires administered in an observational study (N = 200). Results from the observational study informed further item reduction (SAPS-RW to six items and SAPS-CT to nine items) and demonstrated that scores from each were reliable (Cronbach's α > 0.90, test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70), construct valid and able to differentiate among clinically distinct groups. The SAPS-CT and SAPS-RW are content-valid PRO questionnaires capable of producing psychometrically sound scores when administered chronic to plaque psoriasis patients.

  7. Parent education: an evaluation of STEP on abusive parents' perceptions and abuse potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, D C; Fishel, A H

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effects of a structured, time-limited parent training group on abusive or potentially abusive parents. A pretest-posttest control group design was used with consenting parents (N = 18) to examine the effects of Systematic Training for Effective Parenting (STEP) on abusive parents' perceptions of their children's behaviors and on the parents' potential to physically abuse. The Adlerian Parental Assessment of Child Behavior Scale and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory were used to measure treatment effects. After participating in STEP, abusive parents had significantly more positive perceptions of their children and were significantly less potentially abusive. Using volunteers, the project cost an average of $100 for each parent. The research lends empirical support to individual psychology and family systems theory. Future research is indicated using larger samples to examine lay vs. professional leadership of the groups, as well as comparisons of different parenting programs with abusive parents.

  8. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paper) paint thinner cleaning fluids nail polish remover rubber cement gasoline. Teenagers are the most common abusers ... severe cases, it can cause sudden death. Inhalants block oxygen flow to your brain and other organs. ...

  9. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  10. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a big part of moving from childhood into adolescence and adulthood. Unfortunately, some people may find themselves in a relationship that involves abuse or violence. It can be especially hard for guys to ...

  11. SAP BusinessObjects reporting cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Yahav, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    If you are a business analyst, BI developer, or an IT professional who wants to learn the A to Z of how to work with Web Intelligence reporting tools and different types of data, then this book is for you. The only thing you need is a basic understanding of what Business Intelligence is and data concepts.

  12. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  13. SAP and life-cycle management in the upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.

    1997-01-01

    Business relationships today depend more than ever on changing alliances and partnerships to leverage risk in a commodity market. SAP is a fully integrated, enterprise-wide software system that uses business processes tightly integrated around a common data model to facilitate these business relationships across the oil and gas supply chain. The SAP modules contain the business processes that are needed to handle the logistics and operations maintenance for operating an oil or gas field. Each industry has unique business-process requirements that the core SAP application set may not cover. In the oil and gas business, there are unique financial requirements in the upstream for working in joint ventures. In the downstream business segment, handling bulk hydrocarbons requires additional functionality

  14. SAPFLUXNET: towards a global database of sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2016-12-01

    Plant transpiration is the main evaporative flux from terrestrial ecosystems; it controls land surface energy balance, determines catchment hydrological responses and influences regional and global climate. Transpiration regulation by plants is a key (and still not completely understood) process that underlies vegetation drought responses and land evaporative fluxes under global change scenarios. Thermometric methods of sap flow measurement have now been widely used to quantify whole-plant and stand transpiration in forests, shrublands and orchards around the world. A large body of research has applied sap flow methods to analyse seasonal and diurnal patterns of transpiration and to quantify their responses to hydroclimatic variability, but syntheses of sap flow data at regional to global scales are extremely rare. Here we present the SAPFLUXNET initiative, aimed at building the first global database of plant-level sap flow measurements. A preliminary metadata survey launched in December 2015 showed an encouraging response by the sap flow community, with sap flow data sets from field studies representing >160 species and >120 globally distributed sites. The main goal of SAPFLUXNET is to analyse the ecological factors driving plant- and stand-level transpiration. SAPFLUXNET will open promising research avenues at an unprecedented global scope, namely: (i) exploring the spatio-temporal variability of plant transpiration and its relationship with plant and stand attributes, (ii) summarizing physiological regulation of transpiration by means of few water-use traits, usable for land surface models, (iii) improving our understanding of the coordination between gas exchange and plant-level traits (e.g., hydraulics) and (iv) analysing the ecological factors controlling stand transpiration and evapotranspiration partitioning. Finally, SAPFLUXNET can provide a benchmark to test models of physiological controls of transpiration, contributing to improve the accuracy of

  15. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  16. The Self-Image of Physically Abused Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Craig W.; Ostrov, Eric

    1982-01-01

    Physically abused and nonabused adolescents from similar backgrounds were compared via the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire. Abused adolescents were shown to feel worse in family relations, emotional stability, psychopathology, impulse control, coping skills, and overall self-image. Implications for the professional's treatment of abused children…

  17. Managing the Technology Acquisition Integration Paradox at SAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Kude, Thomas; Popp, Karl Michael

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel approach developed by SAP AG, the German enterprise software company, for managing the integration of acquisitions of companies to access innovative technologies and related capabilities: the Product Council approach. The value of the Product Council approach...... rests in ensuring critical speed while not compromising accuracy in the integration process. For SAP, the Product Council became a vital component in its technology acquisition capability that allows the company to retain its technological edge in the hypercompetitive software industry....

  18. Skladiščno poslovanje v informacijskem sistemu SAP

    OpenAIRE

    Volf, Aleksander

    2011-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava skladiščno poslovanje v informacijskem sistemu SAP z uporabo črtne kode. Podana je tudi proučitev možnosti za uvedbo radio frekvenčne identifikacijske (RFID) tehnologije. Na začetku je opisana zgodovina, proizvodni program in trend razvoja podjetja Domel d.d. V nadaljevanju sledijo teoretična izhodišča, kjer so podani splošni pojmi o logistiki, skladišču, informacijskem sistemu SAP, črtni kodi in RFID tehnologiji. Nato je bolj podrobno predstavljeno skladiščno poslova...

  19. Childhood history of abuse and child abuse potential: the role of parent's gender and timing of childhood abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L

    2014-03-01

    It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calidad de Vida Profesional y Burnout en Técnicos de Drogodependencias: Análisis Comparativo con otros Grupos Profesionales Professional Life Quality and Burnout Among Substance Abuse Technicians: A Comparative Analysis with other Professional Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio García Barquero

    2009-12-01

    ' job satisfaction and well-being is related to its productivity and quality of work. In the case of drug dependence technicians, existing research about its professional quality of life is scarce, being this a group exposed to several job stressors linked to emotional workload, patients, work team, etc. Aim: The main purpose is to analyze the relationship between professional quality of life and burnout in drug dependence technicians, compared to other sanitary and no sanitary professionals groups. Material and method: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 233. 33% (n =77 are workers of drug dependence sector, 79 subjects work at sanitary area, and the rest of the sample (n =77 are general working population. All participants completed anonymously the Professional Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results and conclusions: Drug dependence professionals showed lower professional quality of life scores and higher of burnout than other groups. Several aspects of professional quality of life such as workload, intrinsic motivation, and supervisor support showed a main effect on burnout, confirming its importance in preventing burnout.

  1. 30 CFR 285.610 - What must I include in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in my SAP? 285.610 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.610 What must I include in my SAP? Your SAP must... SAP, you must provide the following information: ER29AP09.115 (b) You must provide the results of...

  2. Five years' experience of the new SAPs: overview and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the five years' experience gained in applying the new safety assessment principles (SAPs). Beginning with a brief history of SAPs, it goes on to discuss their structure and their relevance to safety matters. It develops some of the more basic issues which users have to bear in mind and also considers how SAPs are used by NII. Finally, there is a look forward to future developments in SAPs usage and application. (author)

  3. Loss of Heterozygosity at an Unlinked Genomic Locus Is Responsible for the Phenotype of a Candida albicans sapsapsap6Δ Mutant ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkel, Nico; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The diploid genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans exhibits a high degree of heterozygosity. Genomic alterations that result in a loss of heterozygosity at specific loci may affect phenotypes and confer a selective advantage under certain conditions. Such genomic rearrangements can also occur during the construction of C. albicans mutants and remain undetected. The SAP2 gene on chromosome R encodes a secreted aspartic protease that is induced and required for growth of C. albicans wh...

  4. 30 CFR 285.606 - What must I demonstrate in my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I demonstrate in my SAP? 285.606 Section 285.606 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... demonstrate in my SAP? (a) Your SAP must demonstrate that you have planned and are prepared to conduct the...

  5. Development of syrup and “malt-like” drink from Raphia hookeri sap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural microflora fermentation causes changes in freshly tapped palm sap and therefore makes its storage, transport, and large scale use difficult. This study was aimed at developing stable and value added products, including syrup and non-alcoholic “malt-like” drink from the sap of palms. The sap of Raphia hookeri ...

  6. 30 CFR 285.613 - How will MMS process my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS process my SAP? 285.613 Section... Requirements Contents of the Site Assessment Plan § 285.613 How will MMS process my SAP? (a) The MMS will...) We will notify you if your submitted SAP lacks any necessary information; (b) The MMS will prepare...

  7. DMPD: The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15541655 The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Latour S, Veillette A. Se...min Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):409-19. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The SAP family of adaptors in immune ...regulation. PubmedID 15541655 Title The SAP family of adaptors in immune regulation. Authors Latour S, Veill

  8. Antimicrobial effects of Jatropha curcas sap and leaf extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas were screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal properties. Methanolic and aqueous extracts of each of fresh, dry leaves and sap were screened using 3 gram negative, 3 gram positive bacteria and a fungus, which are all clinical strains of human pathogenic microorganism. Cotrimoxazole was used as ...

  9. Time dependent analysis of concrete in SAP2000

    OpenAIRE

    Varona Moya, Francisco de Borja

    2018-01-01

    This document presents an example of time-dependent analysis of a concrete column using SAP2000. In order to understand the parameters required by the software to run the analysis, the formulation of time dependent properties of concrete according to Model Code 1990 is included.

  10. Determining sap sweetness in small sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin R. Koelling

    1967-01-01

    Describes a technique based on the use of a hypodermic needle for determining sap-sugar concentrations in small trees. The technique is applicable to pot cultures in greenhouses and also, with the use of a movable shelter, to seedlings in nursery beds.

  11. SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards 4.1 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, David

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer with a good command and knowledge of creating dashboards, but are not yet an advanced user of SAP BusinessObjects Dashboards, then this is the perfect book for you. Prerequisites include a good working knowledge of Microsoft Excel as well as knowledge of basic dashboard practices.

  12. Sugar and macrominerals composition of sap produced by Raphia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sucrose concentration was correlated with the sap volume. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen were present in the varied concentrations throughout the duration of the tapping operation. The concentration of the macrominerals were of the order of K>Mg>N>P>Na. Statistically, significant ...

  13. Accounting Control Technology Using SAP: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Joseph; Puccio, Christopher; Talisesky, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) revolutionized the accounting and audit industry. The use of preventative and process controls to evaluate the continuous audit process done via an SAP ERP ECC 6.0 system is key to compliance with SOX and managing costs. This paper can be used in a variety of ways to discuss issues associated with auditing and testing…

  14. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be family friends, neighbors or babysitters. ...

  15. Perception of Nigerian healthcare professionals about substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: With the poor health indices in most developing countries, the consequences of substance abuse by healthcare professionals are grave. While studies from western countries observed that a significant proportion of healthcare professionals abuse substances; and are less likely to seek help, the prevalence is ...

  16. Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in Concrete Construction State-of-the-Art Report Prepared by Technical Committee 225-SAP

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2012-01-01

    This is the state-of-the-art report prepared by the RILEM TC “Application of Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) in concrete construction”. It gives a comprehensive overview of the properties of SAP, specific water absorption and desorption behaviour of SAP in fresh and hardening concrete, effects of the SAP addition on rheological properties of fresh concrete, changes of cement paste microstructure and mechanical properties of concrete. Furthermore, the key advantages of using SAP are described in detail: the ability of this material to act as an internal curing agent to mitigate autogenous shrinkage of high-performance concrete, the possibility to use SAP as an alternative to air-entrainment agents in order to increase the frost resistance of concrete, and finally, the benefit of steering the rheology of fresh cement-based materials. The final chapter describes the first existing and numerous prospective applications for this new concrete additive.

  17. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  18. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children and Adults with Mental Retardation and Other Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharinger, Deborah; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Issues in the sexual abuse and exploitation of individuals with mental retardation are discussed, including sociolegal considerations of special protection from abuse and neglect, incidence of sexual abuse, increased vulnerability of individuals with mental retardation, nature of the abuse, initial and long-term effects, professional response, and…

  19. The evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Cindy W

    2015-05-01

    Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Implicações éticas da violência doméstica contra a criança para profissionais de saúde Ethical implications of child abuse for the health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Ferreira

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Baseando-se em alguns problemas com os quais profissionais de saúde se deparam no atendimento a crianças vítimas de violência, discutem-se as implicações éticas da interferência na dinâmica familiar utilizada para promover a proteção dessas crianças. Partindo do princípio de que a violência contra a criança é prima facie moralmente errada, aborda-se a questão dos direitos da criança e discute-se a intervenção praticada a partir de algumas teorias éticas: conseqüencialismo, utilitarismo e deontologia. Conclui-se que uma interferência que proteja a criança, tentando preservar a integridade familiar sempre que possível, é moralmente justificável.Based upon some problems faced by health professionals in the care of abused children, this is a discussion of the ethical implications in family interventions aiming to protect these children. Accepting the prima facie principle that violence is morally wrong, some issues related to the children's rights as well as some ethical theories such as consequentialism, utilitarianism and deontology are discussed. The conclusion is that the protection of these children is morally justifiable and the maintenance of the families' unity should always be attempted.

  1. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanforlin, Tamiris; Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Cortez, Cristian; Almeida, Igor C; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco

    2013-01-01

    To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP) comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD) responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP) and polyclonal (anti-SAP) antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs). Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE) that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP proteins and proposes a triggering role for extracellular SAP

  2. Functional dependency between the logistics security system and the MySAP ERP in metallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ranitović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available MySAP ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning (system - solution which provides a whole set of functions for the business analytics, finance, human resources management, logistics and corporate services has developed from SAP R/3. It is one of the main products of the SAP AG German multinational company and as such, it is a very important element of the international industrial and technological security system. By defining the functional dependency between the security systems (logistics security systems and the IT (My SAP ERP systems in metallurgy, a concept for designing MY SAP ERP system in metallurgic industry is defined, based on the security aspects.

  3. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  4. SAP modulates B cell functions in a genetic background-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Yigit, Burcu; Keszei, Marton; Castro, Wilson; Magelky, Erica M; Terhorst, Cox

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the SLAM-associated protein (SAP) are responsible for the X-linked lympho-proliferative syndrome (XLP), a severe primary immunodeficiency syndrome with disease manifestations that include fatal mononucleosis, B cell lymphoma and dysgammaglobulinemia. It is well accepted that insufficient help by SAP-/- CD4+ T cells, in particular during the germinal center reaction, is a component of dysgammaglobulinemia in XLP patients and SAP-/- animals. It is however not well understood whether in XLP patients and SAP-/- mice B cell functions are affected, even though B cells themselves do not express SAP. Here we report that B cell intrinsic responses to haptenated protein antigens are impaired in SAP-/- mice and in Rag-/- mice into which B cells derived from SAP-/- mice together with wt CD4+ T cells had been transferred. This impaired B cells functions are in part depending on the genetic background of the SAP-/- mouse, which affects B cell homeostasis. Surprisingly, stimulation with an agonistic anti-CD40 causes strong in vivo and in vitro B cell responses in SAP-/- mice. Taken together, the data demonstrate that genetic factors play an important role in the SAP-related B cell functions. The finding that anti-CD40 can in part restore impaired B cell responses in SAP-/- mice, suggests potentially novel therapeutic interventions in subsets of XLP patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Hendrich, Connor G.; Roepenack-Lahaye, von Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L.; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from

  6. Spatial and temporal variations in sap flux density in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) trees, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Han; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Wey, Tsong-Huei; Kume, Tomonori

    2013-04-01

    Sap flow measurement method is a technique widely used for measuring forest transpiration. However, variations in sap flow distribution can make accurately estimating individual tree-scale transpiration difficult. Significant spatial variations in sap flow across the sapwood within tree have been reported in many studies. In contrast, few studies have discussed azimuthal variations in sap flow, and even fewer have examined their seasonal change characteristics. This study was undertaken to clarify within-tree special and temporal variations in sap flow, and to propose an appropriate design for individual-tree scale transpiration estimates for Japanese cedar trees. The measurement was conducted in a Japanese cedar plantation located in Central Taiwan. Spatial distribution of sap flux density through the sapwood cross-section was measured using Granier's thermal dissipation technique. Sensors were installed at 1.3 m high on the east, west, north and south sides of the stem at 0-2 cm in 8 trees, and at 2-4 cm in the 6 larger trees. We found, in radial profile analysis, that sap flux densities measured at the depth of 2-4 cm were 50 % in average of those measured at depth of 0-2 cm. In azimuthal profile analysis, we found significant azimuthal variations in sap flux density. In one individual tree, the ratio of sap flux density on one aspect to another could be approximately 40-190 %, with no dependency on directions. Both radial and azimuthal profiles in most sample trees were fairly consistent throughout the measurement period. We concluded that radial and azimuthal variations in sap flow across sapwood might introduce significant errors in individual tree-scale transpiration estimations based on single point sap flow measurement, and seasonal change of within-tree spatial variations in sap flow could have insignificant impacts on accuracy of long-term individual tree-scale transpiration estimates. Keywords: transpiration, sap flow measurement, scaling up, sap flow

  7. Novel Aggregation Properties of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Sap6 Mediate Virulence in Oral Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohitashw; Saraswat, Darpan; Tati, Swetha; Edgerton, Mira

    2015-07-01

    Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found that mice infected sublingually with C. albicans cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and a Δsap8 strain) had thicker fungal plaques and more severe oral infection, while infection with the Δsap6 strain was attenuated. These hypervirulent strains had highly aggregative colony structure in vitro and higher secreted proteinase activity; however, the levels of proteinase activity of C. albicans Saps did not uniformly match their abilities to damage cultured oral epithelial cells (SCC-15 cells). Hyphal induction in cells overexpressing Sap6 (SAP6 OE and Δsap8 cells) resulted in formation of large cell-cell aggregates. These aggregates could be produced in germinated wild-type cells by addition of native or heat-inactivated Sap6. Sap6 bound only to germinated cells and increased C. albicans adhesion to oral epithelial cells. The adhesion properties of Sap6 were lost upon deletion of its integrin-binding motif (RGD) and could be inhibited by addition of RGD peptide or anti-integrin antibodies. Thus, Sap6 (but not Sap5) has an alternative novel function in cell-cell aggregation, independent of its proteinase activity, to promote infection and virulence in oral candidiasis.

  8. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Beyond Anatomical Dolls: Professionals' Use of Other Play Therapy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen A.

    1992-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 201 Boston-area professionals who work with child victims of sexual abuse. Questions concerned use of anatomical dolls and other techniques and behavioral indicators of sexual abuse. Results indicated that mental health professionals used significantly more techniques than did law enforcement professionals.…

  10. Stormtime Simulations of Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huba, J.; Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    We present simulation results from the self-consistently coupled SAMI3/RCM code on the impact of geomagnetic storms on the ionosphere/plasmasphere system with an emphasis on the development of sub-auroral plasma streams (SAPS). We consider the following storm events: March 31, 2001, March 17, 2013, March 17, 2015, September 3, 2012, and June 23, 2015. We compare and contrast the development of SAPS for these storms. The main results are the development of sub-auroral (< 60 degrees) low-density, high-speed flows (1 - 2 km/s). Additionally, we discuss the impact on plasmaspheric dynamics. We compare our model results to data (e.g., Millstone Hill radar, GPS TEC).

  11. 49 CFR 40.313 - Where is other information on SAP functions and the return-to-duty process found in this regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.313 Where is other information...

  12. 49 CFR 40.309 - What are the employer's responsibilities with respect to the SAP's directions for follow-up tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Substance Abuse Professionals and the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.309 What are the employer's...

  13. Sapņi un sapņošana Homēra eposos: funkcionālais aspekts

    OpenAIRE

    Skrauča, Zane

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba tēma ir Sapņi un sapņošana Homēra eposos: funkcionālais aspekts. Darba mērķis ir pētīt sapņu un sapņošanas funkcionālo aspektu Homēra eposos Īliada un Odiseja. Mērķa sasniegšanai tika izpētīta zinātniskā literatūra par Homēra eposiem, antīko episko stilu un sapņu un sapņošanas nozīmi antīkajā literatūrā. Tika atlasīti sapņi Homēra eposos un sadalīti pa funkcijām – nākotnes paredzējuma funkcija, mudināšanas funkcija un maldināšanas funkcija. Tika izpētīti tēli sapņos un to noz...

  14. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  15. p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of pro-apoptotic SAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madapura, Harsha S; Salamon, Daniel; Wiman, Klas G; Lain, Sonia; Klein, George; Klein, Eva; Nagy, Noémi

    2012-12-15

    Lack of functional SAP protein, due to gene deletion or mutation, is the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), characterized by functionally impaired T and NK cells and a high risk of lymphoma development. We have demonstrated earlier that SAP has a pro-apoptotic function in T and B cells. Deficiency of this function might contribute to the pathogenesis of XLP. We have also shown that SAP is a target of p53 in B cell lines. In the present study, we show that activated primary T cells express p53, which induces SAP expression. p53 is functional as a transcription factor in activated T cells and induces the expression of p21, PUMA and MDM2. PARP cleavage in the late phase of activation indicates that T cells expressing high levels of SAP undergo apoptosis. Modifying p53 levels using Nutlin-3, which specifically dissociates the MDM2-p53 interaction, was sufficient to upregulate SAP expression, indicating that SAP is a target of p53 in T cells. We also demonstrated p53's role as a transcription factor for SAP in activated T cells by ChIP assays. Our result suggests that p53 contributes to T cell homeostasis through the induction of the pro-apoptotic SAP. A high level of SAP is necessary for the activation-induced cell death that is pivotal in termination of the T cell response.

  16. Uses of tree saps in northern and eastern parts of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvar Svanberg

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the use of tree saps in northern and eastern Europe. Published accounts by travellers, ethnologists and ethnobotanists were searched for historical and contemporary details. Field observations made by the authors have also been used. The presented data shows that the use of tree sap has occurred in most north and eastern European countries. It can be assumed that tree saps were most used where there were extensive stands of birch or maple trees, as these two genera generally produce the largest amount of sap. The taxa most commonly used have been Betula pendula, B. pubescens, and Acer platanoides, but scattered data on the use of several other taxa are presented. Tree sap was used as a fresh drink, but also as an ingredient in food and beverages. It was also fermented to make light alcoholic products like ale and wine. Other folk uses of tree saps vary from supplementary nutrition in the form of sugar, minerals and vitamins, to cosmetic applications for skin and hair and folk medicinal use. Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are the only countries where the gathering and use of sap (mainly birch sap has remained an important activity until recently, due to the existence of large birch forests, low population density and the incorporation of sap into the former Soviet economic system. It is evident that gathering sap from birch and other trees was more widespread in earlier times. There are records indicating extensive use of tree saps from Scandinavia, Poland, Slovakia and Romania, but it is primarily of a historical character. The extraction of tree sap in these countries is nowadays viewed as a curiosity carried out only by a few individuals. However, tree saps have been regaining popularity in urban settings through niche trading.

  17. SAP97 and cortactin remodeling in arrhythmogenic Purkinje cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Dun

    Full Text Available Because structural remodeling of several proteins, including ion channels, may underlie the abnormal action potentials of Purkinje cells (PCs that survive in the 48 hr infarcted zone of the canine heart (IZPCs, we sought to determine the subcellular structure and function of the KV1.5 (KCNA5 protein in single IZPCs. Clustering of the Kv1.5 subunit in axons is regulated by a synapse-associated protein, SAP97, and is linked to an actin-binding protein, cortactin, and an intercellular adhesion molecule, N-cadherin. To understand the functional remodeling of the Kv1.5 channel and its regulation in IZPCs, Kv1.5 currents in PCs were measured as the currents blocked by 10 µM RSD1379 using patch-clamp techniques. Immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging were used for both single and aggregated IZPCs vs normal PCs (NZPCs to determine the relationship of Kv1.5 with SAP-97, cortactin and N-cadherin. In IZPCs, both the sarcolemma (SL and intercalated disk (ID Kv1.5 protein are abundant, and the amount of cytosolic Kv1.5 protein is greatly increased. SAP-97 is also increased at IDs and has notable cytosolic localization suggesting that SAP-97 may regulate the functional expression and stabilization of Kv1.5 channels in IZPCs. Cortactin, which is located with N-cadherin at IDs in NZPCs, remains at IDs but begins to dissociate from N-cadherin, often forming ring structures and colocalizing with Kv1.5 within IZPCs. At the same time, cortactin/Kv1.5 colocalization is increased at the ID, suggesting an ongoing active process of membrane trafficking of the channel protein. Finally, the Kv1.5 current, measured as the RSD1379-sensitive current, at +40 mV did not differ between NZPCs (0.81±0.24 pA/pF, n = 14 and IZPCs (0.83±0.21 pA/pF, n = 13, NS. In conclusion, the subcellular structural remodeling of Kv1.5, SAP97 and cortactin maintained and normalized the function of the Kv1.5 channel in Purkinje cells that survived myocardial infarction.

  18. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  19. SAPS effects on thermospheric winds during the 17 March 2013 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, C.; Lu, G.; Wang, W.; Doornbos, E.; Talaat, E. R.

    2017-12-01

    Strong subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) were observed by DMSP satellites during the main phase of the 17 March 2013 geomagnetic storm. Both DMSP F18 and GOCE satellites sampled at 19 MLT during this period, providing near-simultaneous measurements of ion drifts and neutral winds near dusk. The fortuitous satellite conjunction allows us to directly examine the SAPS effects on thermospheric winds. In addition, two sets of model runs were carried out for this event: (1) the standard TIEGCM run with high-latitude forcing; (2) the SAPS-TIEGCM run by incoporating an empirical model of SAPS in the subauroral zone. The difference between these two runs represents the influence of SAPS forcing. In particular, we examine ion-neutral coupling at subauroral latitudes through detailed forcing term analysis to determine how the SAPS-related strong westward ion drifts alter thermospheric winds.

  20. Phosphorylated SAP155, the spliceosomal component, is localized to chromatin in postnatal mouse testes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Ko, E-mail: etoko@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sonoda, Yoshiyuki [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Jin, Yuji [School of Basic Medicine, Jilin Medical College, Jilin 132013 (China); Abe, Shin-ichi [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    SAP155 is an essential component of the spliceosome and its phosphorylation is required for splicing catalysis, but little is known concerning its expression and regulation during spermatogenesis in postnatal mouse testes. We report that SAP155 is ubiquitously expressed in nuclei of germ and Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules of 6- and 35-day postpartum (dpp) testes. Analyses by fractionation of testes revealed that (1) phosphorylated SAP155 was found in the fraction containing nuclear structures at 6 dpp in amounts much larger than that at other ages; (2) non-phosphorylated SAP155 was detected in the fraction containing nucleoplasm; and (3) phosphorylated SAP155 was preferentially associated with chromatin. Our findings suggest that the active spliceosome, containing phosphorylated SAP155, performs pre-mRNA splicing on chromatin concomitant with transcription during testicular development.

  1. Combating child abuse: the role of a dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Shivani; Chopra, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse has serious physical and psychosocial consequences which adversely affect the health and overall well-being of a child. However, in a developing country like India there has been no knowledge of the extent, magnitude and trends of the problem. This study reviews the overall scenario of child abuse in India as well as the role of the dentist in recognising and thereby combating this problem. Among health professionals, dentists are probably in the most favourable position to recognise child abuse, with opportunities to observe and assess not only the physical and the psychological condition of the children, but also the family environment. The high frequency of facial injuries associated with physical abuse places the dentist at the forefront of professionals to detect and treat an abused child. Screening for maltreatment should be an integral part of any clinical examination performed on a child. Although many injuries are not caused by abuse, dentists should always be suspicious of traumatic injuries. The dental professional's role in child abuse and neglect is to know the current state law regarding reporting child abuse and to follow the law. Awareness, identification, documentation and notification should be carried out by the dentist. Paediatric dentists can provide valuable information and assistance to physicians about oral and dental aspects of child abuse and neglect. Such efforts will strengthen the ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance care and protection for the children.

  2. Evaluation of suspected child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Nancy D

    2007-06-01

    This report provides guidance in the clinical approach to the evaluation of suspected physical abuse in children. The medical assessment is outlined with respect to obtaining a history, physical examination, and appropriate ancillary testing. The role of the physician may encompass reporting suspected abuse; assessing the consistency of the explanation, the child's developmental capabilities, and the characteristics of the injury or injuries; and coordination with other professionals to provide immediate and long-term treatment and follow-up for victims. Accurate and timely diagnosis of children who are suspected victims of abuse can ensure appropriate evaluation, investigation, and outcomes for these children and their families.

  3. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section 285.607... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ...

  5. Introduced sap-feeding insect pests of crop plants in the Maltese Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Mifsud, David; Watson, Gillian W.

    1999-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects within Hemiptera and Thysanoptera are some of the most important crop pests world-wide. Apart from the loss of yield they cause by sap depletion, saliva toxicity and soiling of the leaves, some species transmit serious plant virus diseases. Important sap-feeding species that have been introduced to the Maltese Islands include the whitefly Bemisia tabaci; the scale insects Pseudo coccus !ongispinus, Planococcus citri and lcerya purchasi; the aphids Aphis gossypii, Aphis spi...

  6. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  7. Management Information Systems - A Comparative Analysis of SAP and Inova Using the Balanced Scorecard Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Imhof, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Information systems start to play a key-role in modern business as well as in modern government. When speaking of them, most European organisations will think first of SAP. This is mainly because of the first mover advantage of SAP, being one of the first to offer solutions that worked. Comparisons to other products are difficult, since SAP offers basically everything, from process management to data mining. Here it is important to clearly define a range, in within different products are comp...

  8. The adaptor molecule SAP plays essential roles during invariant NKT cell cytotoxicity and lytic synapse formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupali; Bassiri, Hamid; Guan, Peng; Wiener, Susan; Banerjee, Pinaki P; Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André; Orange, Jordan S; Nichols, Kim E

    2013-04-25

    The adaptor molecule signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) plays critical roles during invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell ontogeny. As a result, SAP-deficient humans and mice lack iNKT cells. The strict developmental requirement for SAP has made it difficult to discern its possible involvement in mature iNKT cell functions. By using temporal Cre recombinase-mediated gene deletion to ablate SAP expression after completion of iNKT cell development, we demonstrate that SAP is essential for T-cell receptor (TCR)-induced iNKT cell cytotoxicity against T-cell and B-cell leukemia targets in vitro and iNKT-cell-mediated control of T-cell leukemia growth in vivo. These findings are not restricted to the murine system: silencing RNA-mediated suppression of SAP expression in human iNKT cells also significantly impairs TCR-induced cytolysis. Mechanistic studies reveal that iNKT cell killing requires the tyrosine kinase Fyn, a known SAP-binding protein. Furthermore, SAP expression is required within iNKT cells to facilitate their interaction with T-cell targets and induce reorientation of the microtubule-organizing center to the immunologic synapse (IS). Collectively, these studies highlight a novel and essential role for SAP during iNKT cell cytotoxicity and formation of a functional IS.

  9. A ground-water sapping landscape in the Florida Panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, S. A.; Boyd, K. F.; Wolff, C. G.; Spitz, W. J.

    1995-07-01

    Drainage networks that have formed by ground-water sapping are developed in the highly permeable sands of the Citronelle Formation in the Florida Panhandle. The valleys resemble those formed on Hawaii, the Colorado Plateau and on Mars, but they have developed without significant lithologic controls. Drainage patterns range from trellis to dentritic depending on the effect of beach ridges and relative relief. Many of the drainage networks are not fully developed, and the adjacent uplands have been modified by marine, aeolian, and to a limited extent fluvial processes. Extension of the networks appears to be episodic, as a result of fires, hurricanes, and human activities, which damage or destroy vegetation.

  10. Xylem sap nitrogen compounds of some Crotalaria species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória Angela Pierre

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen species of Crotalaria were analysed for nitrogen compounds in the xylem root bleeding sap. Amino acids were the main form of organic nitrogen found, but only traces of ureides were present. Of the four species analysed for amino acid composition, asparagine was found to be the major amino acid, accounting for over 68% of the nitrogen transported. No striking deviations from this general pattern was found between species, between vegetative and floral stages of development, or between nodulated and non-nodulated plants. It was concluded that the Crotalaria species studied here have an asparagine-based nitrogen metabolism, consistent with many other non-ureide-producing legume species.

  11. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  13. Microscopic insight into thermodynamics of conformational changes of SAP-SLAM complex in signal transduction cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Sudipta; Mukherjee, Sanchita

    2017-04-01

    The signalling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors, expressed by an array of immune cells, associate with SLAM-associated protein (SAP)-related molecules, composed of single SH2 domain architecture. SAP activates Src-family kinase Fyn after SLAM ligation, resulting in a SLAM-SAP-Fyn complex, where, SAP binds the Fyn SH3 domain that does not involve canonical SH3 or SH2 interactions. This demands insight into this SAP mediated signalling cascade. Thermodynamics of the conformational changes are extracted from the histograms of dihedral angles obtained from the all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of this structurally well characterized SAP-SLAM complex. The results incorporate the binding induced thermodynamic changes of individual amino acid as well as the secondary structural elements of the protein and the solvent. Stabilization of the peptide partially comes through a strong hydrogen bonding network with the protein, while hydrophobic interactions also play a significant role where the peptide inserts itself into a hydrophobic cavity of the protein. SLAM binding widens SAP's second binding site for Fyn, which is the next step in the signal transduction cascade. The higher stabilization and less fluctuation of specific residues of SAP in the Fyn binding site, induced by SAP-SLAM complexation, emerge as the key structural elements to trigger the recognition of SAP by the SH3 domain of Fyn. The thermodynamic quantification of the protein due to complexation not only throws deeper understanding in the established mode of SAP-SLAM interaction but also assists in the recognition of the relevant residues of the protein responsible for alterations in its activity.

  14. SapF-mediated heme iron utilization enhances persistence and coordinates biofilm architecture of Haemophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Vogel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI is a common commensal bacterium that resides in the human upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. NTHI is also a known causative agent of multiple diseases including sinusitis, otitis media as well as exacerbates disease severity of patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have previously shown that the Sap ABC transporter mediates resistance to host antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and import of the iron-containing compound heme. Here, we analyzed the contribution of the Sap structural ATPase protein, SapF, in these essential functions. SapF was dispensable for NTHI survival when exposed to AMPs in vitro. SapF was responsible for heme utilization and recovery of depleted internal heme iron stores. Further, a loss of SapF resulted in morphological plasticity and enhanced community development and biofilm architecture, suggesting the potential role of heme iron availability in coordinating the complexity of NTHI biofilm architecture. SapF was required for colonization of the nasopharynx and acute infection of the middle ear, as SapF deficiency correlated with a statistically significant decrease in NTHI persistence in vivo. These data suggest that SapF is required for proper heme utilization which directly impacts NTHI survival. Thus, these studies further support a role for the Sap complex in the transport of multiple substrates and further defines substrate specificity for the two ATPase subunits. Given the multiple essential functions provided by the Sap ABC transporter, this complex could prove to be an effective therapeutic target for the treatment of NTHI diseases.

  15. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... clearly understood. A. Definitions 1. Substance Abuse Professional (SAP) FRA solicited comments whether a... have traditionally been known as certified engineers, conductors, brakemen, yard helpers, and yardmen...

  16. Counseling Abused Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Emily Jean

    This guide on counseling abused children was written to help counselors meet the needs of children and adolescents and to provide ways of working with the child's family. Chapter 1 presents an overview of child maltreatment by identifying types of maltreatment (neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and exploitation, and emotional abuse or neglect)…

  17. Preventing Internal Computer Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Substance Abuse . The use -)i illegal drugs or the abuse of prescribed drugs and/or alcohol must be proscribed from the workplace . Also, substance abuse ...resolving their own personal problems. Their problems include money, family, drug or alcohol addiction , gambling, or work-related difficulties perhaps...Moonlighting * Organizational Property * Nonuse/nondisclosure * Substance Abuse * Gambling Employee Assistance Program "Whistle

  18. Secondary school teachers and the emotional abuse of children: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers and other human service professionals have crucial roles to play in the provision of social programmes to support and protect children from violence and abuse. The objective of this study, therefore, was to find out the extent of the knowledge and understanding of emotional abuse held by teachers; their ability to ...

  19. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  20. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming.

  1. What shall we do about: Preventing child abuse and neglect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Like doctors and other healthcare professionals worldwide, many of us see children with injuries caused by physical violence and girls who have been raped. Sometimes we know that a child is malnourished, sick or traumatised because of abuse or neglect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of child abuse ...

  2. Evaluation of staphylococcus aureus class C non-specific acid phosphatase (SapS) as a reporter for gene expression and protein secretion in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, EM

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available own regulatory sequences in Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus halodurans. Transcriptional and translational fusions of the sapS gene with selected heterologous promoters and signal sequences were constructed and expressed in all three...

  3. Introduction of Sap ERP System Into a Heterogeneous Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornar, Vedran; Fertalj, Krešimir; Kalpić, Damir

    2010-06-01

    Introduction of a complex ERP system like SAP into a heterogeneous academic environment like the University of Zagreb is far from being a trivial task. The University comprises more than 30 constituents, called faculties or academies, geographically dispersed, with long and specific traditions. Financing according to the lump sum principle, enforced in Croatia as a side effect of the in Europe obligatory and omnipresent Bologna process, requires a unified view on the educational institutions in order to provide a more just and appropriate financing scheme than the current one. After the experience with own development to support educational tasks and student administration, for standard financial and administration tasks SAP has been chosen as the most appropriate platform. The developer was selected after public bidding and the authors' institution was chosen for the pilot project. The authors were playing principal roles in the process of successful deployment and still expect to offer their expertise for implementation in the rest of the University. However, serious risks stemming from lack of motivation by some constituents are present.

  4. Handling of the demilitarized zone using service providers in SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovan, A.; Robu, R.

    2016-02-01

    External collaboration needs to allow data access from the Internet. In a trusted Internet collaboration scenario where the external user works on the same data like the internal user direct access to the data in the Intranet is required. The paper presents a solution to get access to certain data in the Enterprise Resource Planning system, having the User Interface on a system in the Demilitarized Zone and the database on a system which is located in the trusted area. Using the Service Provider Interface framework, connections between separate systems can be created in different areas of the network. The paper demonstrates how to connect the two systems, one in the Demilitarized Zone and one in the trusted area, using SAP ERP 6.0 with Enhancement Package 7. In order to use the Service Provider Interface SAP Business Suite Foundation component must be installed in both systems. The advantage of using the Service Provider Interface framework is that the external user works on the same data like the internal user (and not on copies). This assures data consistency and less overhead for backup and security systems.

  5. SAP: structure, function, and its roles in immune-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Dan; Luo, TianTian; Xiong, Haowei; Liu, Jichen; Lu, Hao; Li, Menghao; Hou, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), also known as pentraxin-2, is a member of the pentraxin protein family with an established relationship to the immune response. In the last century, SAP has been used as a diagnostic marker in amyloidosis diagnosis and patient follow-up. SAP has been thought to have potential for treating and curing amyloidosis and fibrosis diseases. More recently, it has been shown that SAP may serve as both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target for many immune-related diseases, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, nephritic, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In the cardiovascular system, SAP has been defined as the culprit in amyloidosis in the heart. SAP may also exert a protective role during the early stage of atherosclerosis and myocardial fibrosis. In noncardiovascular system diseases, SAP is being developed for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. In this review, we summarize SAP history, structure, and its roles in immune-related diseases in different systems with emphasis on the cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Preliminary results of sugar maple carbohydrate and growth response under vacuum and gravity sap extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark L. Isselhardt; Timothy D. Perkins; Abby K. van den Berg; Paul G. Schaberg

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have increased the amount of sugar-enriched sap that can be extracted from sugar maple (Acer saccharum). This pilot study quantified overall sugar removal and the impacts of vacuum (60 cm Hg) and gravity sap extraction on residual nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and on stem and twig growth. Vacuum...

  7. Surface tension phenomena in the xylem sap of three diffuse porous temperate tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. K. Christensen-Dalsgaard; M. T. Tyree; P. G. Mussone

    2011-01-01

    In plant physiology models involving bubble nucleation, expansion or elimination, it is typically assumed that the surface tension of xylem sap is equal to that of pure water, though this has never been tested. In this study we collected xylem sap from branches of the tree species Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera and Sorbus...

  8. Distinct changes in soybean xylem sap proteome in response to pathogenic and symbiotic microbe interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Un-Haing

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant systemic signaling characterized by the long distance transport of molecules across plant organs involves the xylem and phloem conduits. Root-microbe interactions generate systemic signals that are transported to aerial organs via the xylem sap. We analyzed the xylem sap proteome of soybean seedlings in response to pathogenic and symbiotic interactions to identify systemic signaling proteins and other differentially expressed proteins. Results We observed the increase of a serine protease and peroxidase in the xylem sap in response to Phytophthora sojae elicitor treatment. The high molecular weight fraction of soybean xylem sap was found to promote the growth of Neurospora crassa in vitro at lower concentrations and inhibit growth at higher concentrations. Sap from soybean plants treated with a P. sojae elicitor had a significantly higher inhibitory effect than sap from control soybean plants. When soybean seedlings were inoculated with the symbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, the abundance of a xyloglucan transendoglycosyl transferase protein increased in the xylem sap. However, RNAi-mediated silencing of the corresponding gene did not significantly affect nodulation in soybean hairy root composite plants. Conclusion Our study identified a number of sap proteins from soybean that are differentially induced in response to B. japonicum and P. sojae elicitor treatments and a majority of them were secreted proteins.

  9. The SAPS crime statistics: What they tell us – and what they don't ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in September and the SAPS Annual Report shortly thereafter. In this article we draw on an earlier analysis by David Bruce (SACQ 31) that questioned the veracity of the SAPS statistics for inter-personal violence. We show that there remains reason ...

  10. Baseliner: an open source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; David Hawthorne; Ram Oren

    2016-01-01

    Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS). We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap...

  11. Collecting maple sap with unvented spouts, using aerial and ground lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1971-01-01

    Two methods of using plastic tubing to collect sugar maple sap were tried: aerial lines and ground lines. Unvented spouts were used in both. We found that the sap yields collected from the aerial and ground lines were not statistically different from each other.

  12. Comparison of vacuum and gravity sap flows from paired sugar maple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    Paired sugar maple trees with single tapholes were used to compare sap yields from vacuum-pumping with sap yields from gravity flow. Results indicated that vacuum yields were approximately twice as great as gravity flows. These results support previous findings from studies in which vacuum and gravity were compared with two tapholes on the same tree.

  13. Detoxification of Sap from Felled Oil Palm Trunks for the Efficient Production of Lactic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunasundari, Balakrishnan; Arai, Takamitsu; Sudesh, Kumar; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Othman; Stalin, Natra Joseph; Kosugi, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The availability of fermentable sugars in high concentrations in the sap of felled oil palm trunks and the thermophilic nature of the recently isolated Bacillus coagulans strain 191 were exploited for lactic acid production under non-sterile conditions. Screening indicated that strain 191 was active toward most sugars including sucrose, which is a major component of sap. Strain 191 catalyzed a moderate conversion of sap sugars to lactic acid (53%) with a productivity of 1.56 g/L/h. Pretreatment of oil palm sap (OPS) using alkaline precipitation improved the sugar fermentability, providing a lactic acid yield of 92% and productivity of 2.64 g/L/h. To better characterize potential inhibitors in the sap, phenolic, organic, and mineral compounds were analyzed using non-treated sap and saps treated with activated charcoal and alkaline precipitation. Phthalic acid, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid, aconitic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid were reduced in the sap after treatment. High concentrations of Mg, P, K, and Ca were also precipitated by the alkaline treatment. These results suggest that elimination of excess phenolic and mineral compounds in OPS can improve the fermentation yield. OPS, a non-food resource that is readily available in bulk quantities from plantation sites, is a promising source for lactic acid production.

  14. An interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew C. Oishi; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Sap flux sensors are an important tool for estimating tree-level transpiration in forested and urban ecosystems around the world. Thermal dissipation (TD) or Granier-type sap flux probes are among the most commonly used due to their reliability, simplicity, and low cost.

  15. 30 CFR 285.605 - What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... project easement, or to test technology devices. (1) Your SAP must describe how you will conduct your... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Site Assessment Plan (SAP)? 285.605 Section 285.605 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE...

  16. Genetic Variability of Candida albicans Sap8 Propeptide in Isolates from Different Types of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Carvalho-Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The secreted aspartic proteases (Saps are among the most studied virulence determinants in Candida albicans. These proteins are translated as pre-pro-enzymes consisting of a signal sequence followed by a propeptide and the mature enzyme. The propeptides of secreted proteinases are important for the correct processing, folding/secretion of the mature enzyme. In this study, the DNA sequences of C. albicans Saps were screened and a microsatellite was identified in SAP8 propeptide region. The genetic variability of the repetitive region of Sap8 propeptide was determined in 108 C. albicans independent strains isolated from different types of infection: oral infection (OI, oral commensal (OC, vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC, and bloodstream infections (BSI. Nine different propeptides for Sap8 processing were identified whose frequencies varied with the type of infection. OC strains presented the highest gene diversity while OI isolated the lowest. The contribution of the Saps to mucosal and systemic infections has been demonstrated and recently Sap8 has been implicated in the cleavage of a signalling glycoprotein that leads to Cek1-MAPK pathway activation. This work is the first to identify a variable microsatellite in the propeptide of a secreted aspartic protease and brings new insights into the variability of Sap8.

  17. Evaluasi Implementasi SAP Modul Material Management: Studi Kasus pada PT Bumitama Gunajaya Agro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Fernandi Wijaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An integrated information system is a necessity for a company to help solve problems in business transactions management. SAP application is an application that is able to provide solutions to such problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the running business processes on the Material Management module;evaluate the performance of the running SAP systems associated with the implementation and maintenance of SAP applications as well as to give sugestions based on the development of evaluation results obtained, in terms of business processes, performance, and financial. Utilized for analysis is IT Balanced Scorecard method, while ASAP (Accelerated SAP method is used for the system development. This study produced an analysis of the evaluation of the enterprise business processes in implementing the SAP development of ERP system modulesMaterial Management.

  18. Water Relations Link Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Discrimination to Phloem Sap Sugar Concentration in Eucalyptus globulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernusak, Lucas A.; Arthur, David J.; Pate, John S.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2003-01-01

    A strong correlation was previously observed between carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) of phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration in the phloem-bleeding tree Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (J. Pate, E. Shedley, D. Arthur, M. Adams [1998] Oecologia 117: 312–322). We hypothesized that correspondence between these two parameters results from covarying responses to plant water potential. We expected Δ13C to decrease with decreasing plant water potential and phloem sap sugar concentration to increase, thereby maintaining turgor within sieve tubes. The hypothesis was tested with analyses of E. globulus trees growing on opposite ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. The Δ13C of phloem sap sugars was closely related to phloem sap sugar concentration (r = −0.90, P globulus. PMID:12692314

  19. Fed-batch fermentation of nipa sap to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (f. Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dung Van

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient process for conversion of nipa sap to acetic acid was developed. Nipa sap was hydrolyzed with invertase and provided glucose as well as fructose as main sugars. Batch fermentation of glucose and fructose was inadequate with increased substrate concentration. By contrast, fed-batch technique on hydrolyzed nipa sap with high feeding rate drastically increased acetic acid concentration and productivity to be 42.6 g/L and 0.18 g/(L/h, respectively. All the sugars in hydrolyzed nipa sap were consumed, with acetic acid yield of 0.87 g/g sugar. Overall, nipa sap as hydrolyzed with invertase was efficiently fermented to acetic acid, which is a valuable chemical and a potential biorefinery intermediate.

  20. Revaluasi Inventory dengan Menu Standard pada SAP-B1 Sesuaikah dengan IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Novianti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Some available standard modules in SAP-B1 can be adapted for changes in accounting rules and regulations. One is the Inventory Revaluation menu of Inventory module. Users can use the menu to make Inventory value adjustments of value in SAP-B1, to be consistent with the values that must be presented in the financial statements. Based on the flexibility provided by SAP-B1menu, should not be too difficult for users of SAP-B1 to manage accounting transactions based on accounting rules that apply today, IFRS. IFRS requirements on inventory adjustment transactions with a value of SAP-B1 could be done more easily.

  1. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi SAP proteins with host-cell lysosome exocytosis-inducing activity required for parasite invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamiris Zanforlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To invade target cells, Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic forms engage distinct sets of surface and secreted molecules that interact with host components. Serine-, alanine-, and proline-rich proteins (SAP comprise a multigene family constituted of molecules with a high serine, alanine and proline residue content. SAP proteins have a central domain (SAP-CD responsible for interaction with and invasion of mammalian cells by metacyclic forms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a 513 bp sequence from SAP-CD in blastn analysis, we identified 39 full-length SAP genes in the genome of T. cruzi. Although most of these genes were mapped in the T. cruzi in silico chromosome TcChr41, several SAP sequences were spread out across the genome. The level of SAP transcripts was twice as high in metacyclic forms as in epimastigotes. Monoclonal (MAb-SAP and polyclonal (anti-SAP antibodies produced against the recombinant protein SAP-CD were used to investigate the expression and localization of SAP proteins. MAb-SAP reacted with a 55 kDa SAP protein released by epimastigotes and metacyclic forms and with distinct sets of SAP variants expressed in amastigotes and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCTs. Anti-SAP antibodies reacted with components located in the anterior region of epimastigotes and between the nucleus and the kinetoplast in metacyclic trypomastigotes. In contrast, anti-SAP recognized surface components of amastigotes and TCTs, suggesting that SAP proteins are directed to different cellular compartments. Ten SAP peptides were identified by mass spectrometry in vesicle and soluble-protein fractions obtained from parasite conditioned medium. Using overlapping sequences from SAP-CD, we identified a 54-aa peptide (SAP-CE that was able to induce host-cell lysosome exocytosis and inhibit parasite internalization by 52%. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel information about the genomic organization, expression and cellular localization of SAP

  2. Are Teachers Prepared? Predictors of Teachers' Readiness to Serve as Mandated Reporters of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greytak, Emily A.

    2009-01-01

    The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…

  3. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  4. Collection and chemical composition of phloem sap from Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck (sweet orange).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Faraj; Killiny, Nabil

    2014-01-01

    Through utilizing the nutrient-rich phloem sap, sap feeding insects such as psyllids, leafhoppers, and aphids can transmit many phloem-restricted pathogens. On the other hand, multiplication of phloem-limited, uncultivated bacteria such as Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) inside the phloem of citrus indicates that the sap contains all the essential nutrients needed for the pathogen growth. The phloem sap composition of many plants has been studied; however, to our knowledge, there is no available data about citrus phloem sap. In this study, we identified and quantified the chemical components of phloem sap from pineapple sweet orange. Two approaches (EDTA enhanced exudation and centrifugation) were used to collect phloem sap. The collected sap was derivatized with methyl chloroformate (MCF), N-methyl-N- [tert-butyl dimethylsilyl]-trifluroacetamide (MTBSTFA), or trimethylsilyl (TMS) and analyzed with GC-MS revealing 20 amino acids and 8 sugars. Proline, the most abundant amino acid, composed more than 60% of the total amino acids. Tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are considered essential for phloem sap-sucking insects, were also detected. Sucrose, glucose, fructose, and inositol were the most predominant sugars. In addition, seven organic acids including succinic, fumaric, malic, maleic, threonic, citric, and quinic were detected. All compounds detected in the EDTA-enhanced exudate were also detected in the pure phloem sap using centrifugation. The centrifugation technique allowed estimating the concentration of metabolites. This information expands our knowledge about the nutrition requirement for citrus phloem-limited bacterial pathogen and their vectors, and can help define suitable artificial media to culture them.

  5. Kindergarten teachers' experience with reporting child abuse in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-02-01

    The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics, attitudes about child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, and professional responsibility for reporting, subjective norms regarding support for reporting from the general and specific important persons, perceived behavioral control, and vignettes of child abuse, was used to collect data. A total of 598 kindergarten teachers (return rate 47%) provided data. While 97% of teachers reported having no experience with reporting a child abuse case, 11% indicated they had failed to report a suspected case of child abuse. Multiple regression revealed that, except for social norms, attitudes toward child discipline, punishments for perpetrators, and professional responsibility as well as perceived behavioral control explained 22.4% of variance of kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse. With the exception of the subjective norms, the findings of this study supported the TPB that kindergarten teachers' intention to report child abuse is associated with attitudes toward child discipline, punishment for perpetrators, professional responsibility, and perceived behavioral controls over reporting. This study revealed the problem of underreporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan, and highlighted the discrepancy between child abuse training and expected reporting outcomes suggesting an insufficiency in the current training programs on child abuse. There is a need to scrutinize the current training in child abuse and develop standardized training and clear reporting guidelines that will increase kindergarten teachers' confidence when confronted with suspected victims and perpetrators of child abuse in Taiwan. Copyright (c

  6. Bibliography for Drug Abuse and Narcotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCOPE, Stony Brook, NY.

    The material presented deals with the many facets of: (1) drug abuse, (2) drug addiction, (3) treatment, (4) alcoholism, (5) glue sniffing, (6) narcotic laws, (7) drugs and youth, and (8) the kinds of drugs used. The types of materials listed are: (1) pamphlets, (2) lay periodicals, (3) periodicals and professional articles, (4) books, and (5)…

  7. Child Abuse and Deafness: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebald, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The professional literature contains research and anecdotal information on various maltreatments affecting children and youth with and without disabilities. Unfortunately, little information exists on abused children with hearing loss. Reasons relate to a lack of quantity and quality in research on this population; challenges in conducting…

  8. The Medicalization and Legalization of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard

    1978-01-01

    Presented in part at the Second World Conference of the International Society on Family Law in 1977, the article discusses child abuse management from a critical sociological point of view, focusing on some of the professional conflicts between the medical and legal perspectives. (DLS)

  9. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  10. 30 CFR 285.612 - How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will my SAP be processed for Federal... Plan § 285.612 How will my SAP be processed for Federal consistency under the Coastal Zone Management Act? Your SAP will be processed based on how your commercial lease was issued: ER29AP09.118 ...

  11. 30 CFR 285.902 - What are the general requirements for decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decommissioning for facilities authorized under my SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.902 Section 285.902 Mineral Resources... SAP, COP, or GAP? (a) Except as otherwise authorized by MMS under § 285.909, within 2 years following... under your SAP, COP, or GAP, you must submit a decommissioning application and receive approval from the...

  12. 30 CFR 285.615 - What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MMS under my approved SAP? 285.615 Section 285.615 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.615 What other reports or notices must I submit to MMS under my approved SAP? (a) You must notify MMS in writing within...

  13. 30 CFR 285.617 - What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities require a revision to my SAP... OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Sap § 285.617 What activities require a revision to my SAP, and when will MMS approve the revision? (a) You must...

  14. Anogenital Warts in Children and Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Karateke

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the sexual abuse in children with anogenital warts (AGW together with their mothers by testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV typing. Material and Method: A total of 10 children with their mothers were included. HPV typing was performed in children and their mothers. Smear sample was taken from mothers. Child sexual abuse test was performed for 4 children in whom sexual abuse was suspected. Results: AGW was found in one of the mothers of 10 children with AGW. While HPV typing was positive in 4 children, 3 mothers was detected as %u201Ccompatible%u201D with HPV typing of their children. Two of those were type 6 and the remaining was type 11. While sexual abuse was identified to be %u201Cdefinite%u201D in 2 children and %u201Cprobable%u201D in 1 child. Other was identified as %u201Cpossible%u201D. Discussion: The diagnosis of sexual abuse in children with AGW and suspected sexual abuse can be facilitated by performing HPV typing in mothers of children. This requires professional teamwork to prevent any possible harm against the potential child victim of suspected sexual abuse. As other transmission routes of AGW are possible, accusing falsely innocent family before comprehensive examination should be avoided.

  15. [Intra and extra-familiar sexual abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveira, Francisco; Frazão, Sofia; Dias, Ricardo; Matos, Eduarda; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    strategies to diagnose and support the victims, namely, systematic denouncement by professionals who suspect this type of abuses, and systematic forensic psychological examination for better valorization of the victim's testimony as well as the veracity of its content.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  17. SAP buran injury management of mangoes (mangifera indica L.) in sri lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnapillai, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sap burn injury is one of the major postharvest disorders that causes postharvest losses of mangoes. Popular dessert mango fruits from northern Sri Lanka were selected for this study. Mature mango fruits - Willard, Karuthakolumban, Chembaddan and Ambalavi - were harvested carefully with 5cm stalk for different treatments to minimize sap burn injury. Stalks were removed and fruits were dipped in GRAS compounds of 1 and 5% sodium chloride (Table salt) and 0.5 and 1% calcium hydroxide separately for 5 minutes. De-stemming and dipping fruits in 5% sodium chloride and 1% calcium hydroxide were effective in reducing sap burn injury in Karuthakolumban. However, 1% table salt and 0.5% calcium hydroxide successfully reduced sap burn injury in Willard, Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. Fruit quality was measured in terms of pH, Total Soluble Solids (TSS) and marketability. Quality parameters of treated fruits were not significantly different (P=0.05) from non chemical treated good quality mango fruits. Sap management dynamics was very useful in controlling sap burn in Chembaddan and Ambalavi mangoes. No latex exudation was observed in these mangoes when stalk was broken by next day after harvesting. These results suggest that low cost environmentally friendly methods could be used to reduce sap burn injury in mangoes. (author)

  18. Variability with xylem depth in sap flow in trunks and branches of mature olive trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadezhdina, Nadezhda; Nadezhdin, Valeriy; Ferreira, Maria Isabel; Pitacco, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of sap flow variability in tree trunks is important for up-scaling transpiration from the measuring point to the whole-tree and stand levels. Natural variability in sap flow, both radial and circumferential, was studied in the trunks and branches of mature olive trees (Olea europea L., cv Coratina) by the heat field deformation method using multi-point sensors. Sapwood depth ranged from 22 to 55 mm with greater variability in trunks than in branches. Two asymmetric types of sap flow radial patterns were observed: Type 1, rising to a maximum near the mid-point of the sapwood; and Type 2, falling continuously from a maximum just below cambium to zero at the inner boundary of the sapwood. The Type 1 pattern was recorded more often in branches and smaller trees. Both types of sap flow radial patterns were observed in trunks of the sample trees. Sap flow radial patterns were rather stable during the day, but varied with soil water changes. A decrease in sap flow in the outermost xylem was related to water depletion in the topsoil. We hypothesized that the variations in sap flow radial pattern in a tree trunk reflects a vertical distribution of water uptake that varies with water availability in different soil layers.

  19. Management of setpoint information using SAP-PM; Gerenciamento das informacoes de setpoints usando o SAP-PM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Robison Tirre; Pereira, Paulo Manoel Borges [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    It is always a challenge to assure that the set points of field instruments and valves (e.g., transmitters, regulator valves, shut off valves, safety valves, etc) are adjusted in conformity either to the originally designed values or the ones established by the operations team, specially when multiple teams are involved in the activity. In such circumstances, keeping these values updated on proper data sheets is also a defying task. The correct information is essential to the Control Room operators and its accuracy is a step ahead towards operational availability and safety. TBG, through CMMS (Computerized Maintenance Management System) - SAP R/3, PM Module, developed a set of automated tools to integrate data from different environments (reports, handhelds, workflows and procedures), thus allowing allow a better control over the set point adjustment process. (author)

  20. Sap Flux Scaled Transpiration in Ring-porous Tree Species: Assumptions, Pitfalls and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, S. E.; Hultine, K. R.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow (Granier-type) at the whole tree and stand level are routinely used in forest ecology and site water balance studies. While the original empirical relationship used to calculate sap flow was reported as independent of wood anatomy (ring-porous, diffuse-porous, tracheid), it has been suggested that potentially large errors in sap flow calculations may occur when using the original calibration for ring-porous species, due to large radial trends in sap velocity and/or shallow sapwood depth. Despite these concerns, sap flux measurements have rarely been calibrated in ring-porous taxa. We used a simple technique to calibrate thermal dissipation sap flux measurements on ring-porous trees in the lab. Calibration measurements were conducted on five ring-porous species in the Salt Lake City, USA metropolitan area including Quercus gambelii (Gambel oak), Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust), Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive), Sophora japonica (Japanese pagoda), and Celtis occidentalis (Common hackberry). Six stems per species of approximately 1 m in length were instrumented with heat dissipation probes to measure sap flux concurrently with gravimetric measurements of water flow through each stem. Safranin dye was pulled through the stems following flow rate measurements to determine sapwood area. As expected, nearly all the conducting sapwood area was limited to regions within the current year growth rings. Consequently, we found that the original Granier equation underestimated sap flux density for all species considered. Our results indicate that the use of thermal dissipation probes for measuring sap flow in ring-porous species should be independently calibrated, particularly when species- specific calibration data are not available. Ring-porous taxa are widely distributed and represent an important component of the regional water budgets of many temperate regions. Our results are important for evaluating plant water

  1. Preventing Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... respect, and even their freedom. Guarding Against Child Sexual Abuse March 15, 2018 @ 9:58 AM | 9 Min ... Views You can help protect your children from sexual abuse by providing careful supervision, establishing open communication and ...

  2. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... referrals. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  6. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  8. How older persons explain why they became victims of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysyuk, Yuliya; Westendorp, Rudi Gerardus Johannes; Lindenberg, Jolanda

    2016-09-01

    elder abuse greatly impacts the quality of life of older individuals. Prevalence rates range from 3 to 30% depending on the definition used. Only about a dozen studies have explored how older victims themselves experience and explain abuse. It is essential that healthcare professionals understand the perceptions of older victims as they are among the most important groups to handle and report abuse. a qualitative study on the perceptions and experiences of victims of elder abuse was conducted using in-depth semi-structured interviews. abused individuals living independently, in residential care facilities and nursing homes. six males and 11 females aged 63-90 years. the main causes of abuse identified by older victims themselves were mutual dependency between victim and perpetrator, power and control imbalances, loneliness and a marginalised social position of older persons. Effects of abuse included negative feelings, physical and psychological distress, a change of personal norms and values, changed perspectives on money and low self-efficacy. These differential effects depended upon the types of abuse experienced and the relationship with the perpetrator. Coping strategies mentioned by victims were seeking informal or professional help and using self-help strategies. older victims perceive abuse differently depending on the expected acceptability of the type(s) of abuse experienced and the anticipated stigma associated with the perpetrator involved. The effects and chosen coping strategies are influenced by these considerations and therewith also influence their help-seeking behaviour. Healthcare professionals are encouraged to use these findings in practice to prevent, detect and intervene in elder abuse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  10. SAP EWM - varastohallintajärjestelmä : ominaisuudet, toiminta ja liiketaloudellinen merkitys

    OpenAIRE

    Kantonen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on SAP:n kehittynyt varastohallintajärjestelmä Extended Warehouse Management (EWM). Tutkimuksen tavoitteina on saada EWM-järjestelmä toimimaan SAP-ympäristössä, tutustua sen rakenteeseen ja toimintaan, pyrkiä selvittämään sen liiketaloudellista hyötyä ja vertailla sitä SAP:n varhaisempaan Warehouse Management (WM) varastohallintajärjestelmään. Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana on Fujitsu Finland Oy. Työn teoriaosuus sisältää varastohallintajärjestelmien vertailun lisäks...

  11. Nipa (Nypa fruticans) sap as a potential feedstock for ethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Tamunaidu, Pramila; Matsui, Naohiro; Okimori, Yasuyuki; Saka, Shiro

    2013-01-01

    The current study was initiated to evaluate the potential of sugar saps from nipa (Nypa fruticans) palm as sustainable feedstock for ethanol production. Nipa palms managed as plantations on four sites was chosen for this study with palms within 8–100 years of age. All palms studied were found to have the potential to produce sugar saps from 0.4 to 1.2 L d[-1] per palm. Further chemical characterization of its saps gave a total composition of 159–214 g kg[-1] mainly composed of sucrose, glucos...

  12. Sulfonic-based precursors (SAPs for silica mesostructures: Advances in synthesis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Rostamnia*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-based precursors (SAP play an important role in tailoring mesoporous silica’s and convert them to a solid acid catalyst with a Bronsted-type nature. These kinds of solid acids contribute to sustainable and green chemistry by their heterogeneous, recyclable, and high efficiency features. Therefore, knowing the properties and reactivity of SAPs can guide us to manufacture a sulfonated mesostructures compatible with reaction type and conditions. In the present review, some of the important SAPs, their reactivity and mechanism of functionalization are discussed.

  13. Elder Physical Abuse and Failure to Report Cases: Similarities and Differences in Case Type and the Justice System's Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Brian K.

    2013-01-01

    Treated initially as a social problem, elder abuse has only recently been criminalized. The criminalization of elder abuse involves penalizing offenders for actively abusing offenders as well as for violating mandatory reporting laws. Mandatory reporting laws exist to encourage professionals to report suspected cases of elder abuse. In this study,…

  14. To protect and serve: Restoring public confidence in the SAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistent incidents of brutality, criminal behaviour and abuse of authority by members of South Africa's police agencies have serious implications for public trust and confidence in the police. A decline in trust and confidence in the police is inevitably harmful to the ability of the government to reduce crime and improve public ...

  15. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse.

  16. Transient cocaine-associated behavioral symptoms rated with a new instrument, the scale for assessment of positive symptoms for cocaine-induced psychosis (SAPS-CIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-lang; Kranzler, Henry R; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay A; Pearson, Deborah; Cubells, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with a variety of behavioral symptoms. The current report describes the assessment of cocaine-related behavioral symptoms (CRB) using the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms of Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (SAPS-CIP). The CRB section, one of the three domains in the SAPS-CIP, consists of sub-domains, including Aggressive/Agitated Behavior, Repetitive/Stereotyped Behavior, and Unusual Social or Sexual Behavior. Severity scores are assigned according to operational criteria, and range from 0 (not present) to 5 (severe). We interviewed 261 unrelated cocaine-abusing adults using the SAPS-CIP, and 243 of them met criteria for inclusion in the study. The proportion of subjects endorsing different classes of CRBs varied across categories, with 109 of 243 (44.9%) subjects reporting aggressive and agitated behaviors, 180 subjects (74.1%) repetitive/stereotyped behaviors, and 192 (79.0%) unusual social/sexual behaviors. A substantial minority of the subjects (10.3-25.1%) reported that they experienced marked-to-severe behavioral symptoms associated with cocaine use. The proportions of subjects endorsing CRB did not differ by ethnic/racial group or by sex. Correlations among the different domains of CRB were strong, but behaviors rated in the CRB section were less well correlated with psychotic symptoms, which were rated in the hallucination and delusion sections of the instrument. A variety of CRBs are common in cocaine-dependent subjects, and many of these are highly intercorrelated. CRBs also correlate with hallucinations and delusions induced by cocaine, but to a lesser degree. Our findings suggest that there may be some common vulnerability factors that contribute to both cocaine-induced psychosis and CRBs.

  17. Child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela T

    2007-02-01

    To provide an overview of the problem and patterns of child abuse and neglect in the 7 countries of the Arab Peninsula, and to highlight some of the difficulties and shortcomings. This study was conducted by reviewing medical literature, published between January 1987 and May 2005. In addition, reports were obtained from regional meetings and professional organizations. Each study or report was reviewed, assessed, and summarized. Three studies from Kuwait identified 27 children; 22 with physical abuse, 3 with sexual abuse, and 2 with Munchausen's syndrome by proxy (MSP), and 3 deaths. Eleven case reports from Saudi Arabia identified 40 abused children; 24 with physical abuse, 6 with sexual abuse, 4 with MSP, and 6 with neglect. Fatal outcome was documented in 5 children. In Oman, 5 cases of MSP were reported. A total of 150 hospital-based cases were reported from Bahrain; 50 with physical abuse, 87 with sexual abuse, and 10 with both forms of abuse. In Yemen, population based surveys revealed a wide spread use of corporal punishments and cruelty to children at homes, schools, and juvenile centers, which ranged from 51-81%. Children in the Arab Peninsula are subjected to all forms of child abuse and neglect. Child abuse is ignored or may even be tolerated and accepted as a form of discipline, abused children continue to suffer and most abusers go free, unpunished and untreated. Confronting these realities is a necessary step in the long and hard road to break silence, respond to and prevent child abuse and neglect in the Arab Peninsula.

  18. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbakel, Werner, E-mail: werner.verbakel@chem.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Carmeliet, Geert, E-mail: geert.carmeliet@med.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Herestraat 49, Bus 902, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Engelborghs, Yves, E-mail: yves.engelborghs@fys.kuleuven.be [Laboratory of Biomolecular Dynamics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200G, Bus 2403, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. {yields} This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. {yields} NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. {yields} The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP

  19. SAP-like domain in nucleolar spindle associated protein mediates mitotic chromosome loading as well as interphase chromatin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbakel, Werner; Carmeliet, Geert; Engelborghs, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The SAP-like domain in NuSAP is a functional DNA-binding domain with preference for dsDNA. → This SAP-like domain is essential for chromosome loading during early mitosis. → NuSAP is highly dynamic on mitotic chromatin, as evident from photobleaching experiments. → The SAP-like domain also mediates NuSAP-chromatin interaction in interphase nucleoplasm. -- Abstract: Nucleolar spindle associated protein (NuSAP) is a microtubule-stabilizing protein that localizes to chromosome arms and chromosome-proximal microtubules during mitosis and to the nucleus, with enrichment in the nucleoli, during interphase. The critical function of NuSAP is underscored by the finding that its depletion in HeLa cells results in various mitotic defects. Moreover, NuSAP is found overexpressed in multiple cancers and its expression levels often correlate with the aggressiveness of cancer. Due to its localization on chromosome arms and combination of microtubule-stabilizing and DNA-binding properties, NuSAP takes a special place within the extensive group of spindle assembly factors. In this study, we identify a SAP-like domain that shows DNA binding in vitro with a preference for dsDNA. Deletion of the SAP-like domain abolishes chromosome arm binding of NuSAP during mitosis, but is not sufficient to abrogate its chromosome-proximal localization after anaphase onset. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments revealed the highly dynamic nature of this NuSAP-chromatin interaction during mitosis. In interphase cells, NuSAP also interacts with chromatin through its SAP-like domain, as evident from its enrichment on dense chromatin regions and intranuclear mobility, measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The obtained results are in agreement with a model where NuSAP dynamically stabilizes newly formed microtubules on mitotic chromosomes to enhance chromosome positioning without immobilizing these microtubules. Interphase NuSAP-chromatin interaction

  20. Use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in citrus nursery trees1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Augusto Girardi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow could be used as physiological parameter to assist irrigation of screen house citrus nursery trees by continuous water consumption estimation. Herein we report a first set of results indicating the potential use of the heat dissipation method for sap flow measurement in containerized citrus nursery trees. 'Valencia' sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck] budded on 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osbeck was evaluated for 30 days during summer. Heat dissipation probes and thermocouple sensors were constructed with low-cost and easily available materials in order to improve accessibility of the method. Sap flow showed high correlation to air temperature inside the screen house. However, errors due to natural thermal gradient and plant tissue injuries affected measurement precision. Transpiration estimated by sap flow measurement was four times higher than gravimetric measurement. Improved micro-probes, adequate method calibration, and non-toxic insulating materials should be further investigated.

  1. Effects on functional groups and zeta potential of SAP1pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong; Li, Xuenan; Lin, Songyi; Wang, Jia

    2017-01-01

    SAP 1 pulsed electric field (PEF) technology. The effects of electric field intensity and pulse frequency on SAP 1 electric field intensity 15 kV cm -1 , pulse frequency 1600 Hz and flow velocity 2.93 mL min -1 ). Furthermore, the PEF-treated SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa under optimal conditions lacked the characteristic absorbance of N-H, C = C and the amide band and the zeta potential was reduced to -18.0 mV. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that the improvement of antioxidant activity of SAP 1 < MW < 3kDa is a result of the contribution of the functional groups and the change in zeta potential when treated with PEF. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. (Auth.)

  3. Paraformaldehyde pellet not necessary in vacuum-pumped maple sap system

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith; Carter B. Gibbs

    1970-01-01

    In a study of sugar maple sap collection through a vacuum-pumped plastic tubing system, yields were compared between tapholes in which paraformaldehyde pellets were used and tapholes without pellets, Use of the pellets did not increase yield.

  4. Assessing ERP SAP implementation in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes; Gunawan, W.; Ikhsan, R. B.; Aries

    2018-03-01

    The consistent growth of Indonesian SMEs has received attention of global IT vendors. One of major ERP player in Indonesian market such as SAP, has introduced ERP solutions for SMEs through SAP Business One. Due to its fast growth, unfortunately, there are still very few articles can be found to understand the ERP implementation in Indonesian SMEs. The article addressed the common factors that affect the successful of the ERP implementation at SMEs. They are: identifying vendor quality, opening balance data migration, and A-SAP methodology. The article applied case study method to examine the fast growth companies owned by same owners, such as: GRK, MMM, and KM25; with the objectives to identify the practical pattern of ERP implementation in SMEs that will be useful for SAP project manager and consultants.

  5. Stormtime SAPS events: OpenGGCM-RCM-CTIM modeling and data comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Joachim; Cramer, William D.; Jensen, Joseph; Toffoletto, Frank; Sazykin, Stanislav; Vo, Hien; Foster, John; Erickson, Phil; Anderson, Phil

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Auroral Polarization Streams (SAPS) form through the interaction of magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere processes. Their primary ionosphere manifestation are fast westward flows that occur at latitudes lower than auroral precipitation, and well separated from the high-latitude convection pattern, along with atrough in electron density. SAPS are believed to be driven by a combination of region-2 currents and low ionospheric conductance. Here, we focus on the GEM-CEDAR storm event of 2013-03-17 (St. Patrick's day storm), which showed clearly developed SAPS structures. We compare OpenGGCM model results with data from DMSP, incoherent scatter radars, and other sources. We modify model parameters, such as precipitation, numerical resolution, and ring current feedback, to gain a better understanding of how SAPS form and whether or not a positive conductance feedback exists or not.

  6. Protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Hari B; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Bennett, John O; Sicher, Richard C

    2011-05-01

    The xylem, in addition to transporting water, nutrients and metabolites, is also involved in long-distance signaling in response to pathogens, symbionts and environmental stresses. Xylem sap has been shown to contain a number of proteins including metabolic enzymes, stress-related proteins, signal transduction proteins and putative transcription factors. Previous studies on xylem sap have mostly utilized plants grown in controlled environmental chambers. However, plants in the field are subjected to high light and to environmental stress that is not normally found in growth chambers. In this study, we have examined the protein and metabolite composition of xylem sap from field-grown cultivated soybean plants. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis of xylem sap from determinate, indeterminate, nodulating and non-nodulating soybean cultivars revealed similar protein profiles consisting of about 8-10 prominent polypeptides. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of soybean xylem sap resulted in the visualization of about 60 distinct protein spots. A total of 38 protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF MS and LC-MS/MS. The most abundant proteins present in the xylem sap were identified as 31 and 28 kDa vegetative storage proteins. In addition, several proteins that are conserved among different plant species were also identified. Diurnal changes in the metabolite profile of xylem sap collected during a 24-h cycle revealed that asparagine and aspartate were the two predominant amino acids irrespective of the time collected. Pinitol (D-3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) was the most abundant carbohydrate present. The possible roles of xylem sap proteins and metabolites as nutrient reserves for sink tissue and as an indicator of biotic stress are also discussed.

  7. [Application of three heat pulse technique-based methods to determine the stem sap flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Fan, Jun

    2015-08-01

    It is of critical importance to acquire tree transpiration characters through sap flow methodology to understand tree water physiology, forest ecology and ecosystem water exchange. Tri-probe heat pulse sensors, which are widely utilized in soil thermal parameters and soil evaporation measurement, were applied to implement Salix matsudana sap flow density (Vs) measurements via heat-ratio method (HRM), T-Max method (T-Max) and single-probe heat pulse probe (SHPP) method, and comparative analysis was conducted with additional Grainer's thermal diffusion probes (TDP) measured results. The results showed that, it took about five weeks to reach a stable measurement stage after TPHP installation, Vs measured with three methods in the early stage after installation was 135%-220% higher than Vs in the stable measurement stage, and Vs estimated via HRM, T-Max and SHPP methods were significantly linearly correlated with Vs estimated via TDP method, with R2 of 0.93, 0.73 and 0.91, respectively, and R2 for Vs measured by SHPP and HRM reached 0.94. HRM had relatively higher precision in measuring low rates and reverse sap flow. SHPP method seemed to be very promising to measure sap flow for configuration simplicity and high measuring accuracy, whereas it couldn' t distinguish directions of flow. T-Max method had relatively higher error in sap flow measurement, and it couldn' t measure sap flow below 5 cm3 · cm(-2) · h(-1), thus this method could not be used alone, however it could measure thermal diffusivity for calculating sap flow when other methods were imposed. It was recommended to choose a proper method or a combination of several methods to measure stem sap flow, based on specific research purpose.

  8. Circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and their covariation with plant hydraulic traits in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitern, Annika; Õunapuu-Pikas, Eele; Sellin, Arne

    2017-06-01

    Physiological processes taking place in plants are subject to diverse circadian patterns but some of them are poorly documented in natural conditions. The daily dynamics of physico-chemical properties of xylem sap and their covariation with tree hydraulic traits were investigated in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx) in field conditions in order to clarify which environmental drivers govern the daily variation in these parameters. K + concentration ([K + ]), electrical conductivity (σ sap ), osmolality (Osm) and pH of the xylem sap, as well as branch hydraulic traits, were measured in the field over 24-h cycles. All studied xylem sap properties and hydraulic characteristics including whole-branch (K wb ), leaf blade (K lb ) and petiole hydraulic conductances (K P ) showed clear daily dynamics. Air temperature (T A ) and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), but also water vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and relative humidity (RH), had significant impacts on K wb K lb , K P , [K + ] and σ sap . Osm varied only with light intensity, while K B varied depending on atmospheric evaporative demand expressed as T A , VPD or RH. Xylem sap pH depended inversely on soil water potential (Ψ S ) and during daylight also on VPD. Although soil water content was close to saturation during the study period, Ψ S influenced also [K + ] and σ sap . The present study presents evidence of coupling between circadian patterns of xylem sap properties and plant hydraulic conductance providing adequate water supply to foliage under environmental conditions characterised by diurnal variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Large-Scale Structure and Dynamics of the Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. B. H.; Nishitani, N.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Sazykin, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) is a narrow channel of high-speed westward ionospheric convection which appears equatorward of the duskside auroral oval during geomagnetically active periods. SAPS is generally thought to occur when the partial ring current intensifies and enhanced region-2 field-aligned currents (FACs) are forced to close across the low conductance region of the mid-latitude ionospheric trough. However, recent studies have suggested SAPS can also occur during non-storm periods, perhaps associated with substorm activity. In this study, we used measurements from mid-latitude SuperDARN radars to examine the large-scale structure and dynamics of SAPS during several geomagnetically active days. Linear correlation analysis applied across all events suggests intensifications of the partial ring current (ASYM-H index) and auroral activity (AL index) are both important driving influences for controlling the SAPS speed. Specifically, SAPS flows increase, on average, by 20-40 m/s per 10 nT of ASYM-H and 10-30 m/s per 100 nT of AL. These dependencies tend to be stronger during the storm recovery phase. There is also a strong local time dependence such that the strength of SAPS flows decrease by 70-80 m/s for each hour of local time moving from dusk to midnight. By contrast, the evidence for direct solar wind control of SAPS speed is much less consistent, with some storms showing strong correlations with the interplanetary electric field components and/or solar wind dynamic pressure, while others do not. These results are discussed in the context of recent simulation results from the Rice Convection Model (RCM).

  10. Water Use Patterns of Four Tropical Bamboo Species Assessed with Sap Flux Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Tingting; Fang, Dongming; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; Hendrayanto; Hölscher, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Bamboos are grasses (Poaceae) that are widespread in tropical and subtropical regions. We aimed at exploring water use patterns of four tropical bamboo species (Bambusa vulgaris, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atroviolacea, and G. apus) with sap flux measurement techniques. Our approach included three experimental steps: (1) a pot experiment with a comparison of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs), the stem heat balance (SHB) method and gravimetric readings using potted B. vulgaris culms, (2) an in situ calibration of TDPs with the SHB method for the four bamboo species, and (3) field monitoring of sap flux of the four bamboo species along with three tropical tree species (Gmelina arborea, Shorea leprosula, and Hevea brasiliensis) during a dry and a wet period. In the pot experiment, it was confirmed that the SHB method is well suited for bamboos but that TDPs need to be calibrated. In situ, species-specific parameters for such calibration formulas were derived. During field monitoring we found that some bamboo species reached high maximum sap flux densities. Across bamboo species, maximal sap flux density increased with decreasing culm diameter. In the diurnal course, sap flux densities in bamboos peaked much earlier than radiation and vapor pressure deficit (VPD), and also much earlier than sap flux densities in trees. There was a pronounced hysteresis between sap flux density and VPD in bamboos, which was less pronounced in trees. Three of the four bamboo species showed reduced sap flux densities at high VPD values during the dry period, which was associated with a decrease in soil moisture content. Possible roles of internal water storage, root pressure and stomatal sensitivity are discussed.

  11. Characterization and localization of saposin-like protein-2 (SAP-2) in Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueakhai, Pornanan; Meemon, Krai; Changklungmoa, Narin; Chaithirayanon, Kulathida; Riengrojpitak, Suda; Sobhon, Prasert

    2011-06-01

    Fasciola gigantica saposin-like protein-2 (FgSAP-2) belongs to a family of lipid-interacting proteins that are involved in the cytolysis of target cells. In this study, we have cloned and expressed FgSAP-2 and produced the antibody against this recombinant protein. Rabbit antiserum against rFgSAP-2 reacted with a similar native protein in the whole body extracts of the 4-week-old juvenile and adult stage, as well as a protein in their excretion-secretion, but not in the tegument. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence detection revealed the presence of SAP-2 mRNA transcripts and proteins in the cecal epithelial cells of 4-week-old juvenile and adult parasites, but not in the metacercariae and newly excysted juveniles. Moreover, SAP-2 is present only in the cecal epithelial cells lining the distal part of the digestive tract, but not in the tegumental-type epithelium lining the proximal part of the digestive tract. The rFgSAP-2 reacted with antisera from rabbits infected with F. gigantica metacercariae collected at 5 weeks, but not at 2 weeks after infection. Anti-rFgSAP-2 did not exhibit any cross-reactivity with the other parasites' antigens, including Opisthorchis viverrini, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Fischoederius cobboldi, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Paramphistomum cervi, Setaria labiato-papillosa, and Haemonchus placei. This finding indicated that SAP-2 is a unique protein that is expressed only in late juvenile and adult F. gigantica, and it could be considered for immunodiagnostic and as a vaccine candidate for fasciolosis.

  12. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The new hybrid method for measuring transpiration sap flows in trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tikhova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow measurements have become relevant in many physiological and ecological investigations. A variety of methods are used to estimate sap flow in trees in modern studies. However the determination of accuracy of commonly used techniques often presents a challenge. We analyzed advantages, pitfalls and restrictions of up-to-date methods that were implemented in commercially available devices. We proposed a new hybrid method for measuring linear sap flow velocity, which was designed on the base of different variants of heat-pulse velocity (HPV technique and thermal dissipation (TD technique developed by Granier. The method was created in order to increase accuracy and precision of sap flow velocity measurements. The mathematical model of the proposed method was developed. It allows to determine accuracy of measurements and potential limits of applying the new technique in the field studies. The model is based on the description of heat process dynamics in the volume of 1 cubic decimeter of sap tissue. The obtained relationships were used in developed software that allows to model reverse heat pulses distribution under the condition of shortened interval between their generations. The proposed algorithm enables verification of zero sap flow velocity measurement in tree trunk with given accuracy. The computer program was developed. It allows to define maximum acceptable time interval for a given accuracy of determined values when the velocity is close to zero as well as to demonstrate the shape of the heat signal depending of time in the given point of trunk. The model calculations showed that the new method improves the accuracy of sap flow velocity measurements at low and high flow rates when conventional techniques suffer from significant errors. The applying of the new method allows to detect zero sap flow without using any additional measuring procedures and devices.

  14. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  15. Affinity purification mass spectrometry analysis of PD-1 uncovers SAP as a new checkpoint inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Michael; Tocheva, Anna S; Sandigursky, Sabina; Nayak, Shruti; Philips, Elliot A; Nichols, Kim E; Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Askenazi, Manor; Neel, Benjamin G; Pelzek, Adam J; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Mor, Adam

    2018-01-16

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) is an essential inhibitory receptor in T cells. Antibodies targeting PD-1 elicit durable clinical responses in patients with multiple tumor indications. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of patients do not respond to anti-PD-1 treatment, and a better understanding of the signaling pathways downstream of PD-1 could provide biomarkers for those whose tumors respond and new therapeutic approaches for those whose tumors do not. We used affinity purification mass spectrometry to uncover multiple proteins associated with PD-1. Among these proteins, signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) was functionally and mechanistically analyzed for its contribution to PD-1 inhibitory responses. Silencing of SAP augmented and overexpression blocked PD-1 function. T cells from patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), who lack functional SAP, were hyperresponsive to PD-1 signaling, confirming its inhibitory role downstream of PD-1. Strikingly, signaling downstream of PD-1 in purified T cell subsets did not correlate with PD-1 surface expression but was inversely correlated with intracellular SAP levels. Mechanistically, SAP opposed PD-1 function by acting as a molecular shield of key tyrosine residues that are targets for the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, which mediates PD-1 inhibitory properties. Our results identify SAP as an inhibitor of PD-1 function and SHP2 as a potential therapeutic target in patients with XLP.

  16. Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream (SAPS) Events Under Non-storm Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S. Y.; Coster, A. J.; Huba, J.; Spiro, R. W.; Baker, J. B.; Kunduri, B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Erickson, P. J.; Wolf, R.

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of Sub-Auroral Polarization Stream, or SAPS, structures, defined here as latitudinally narrow channels of enhanced westward plasma convection in the evening ionosphere equatorward of the auroral electron precipitation boundary, is most dramatic during geomagnetic storms. However, SAPS-like structures known as Polarization Jets or SAIDs (Sub-Auroral Ion Drift events) are also frequently observed during non-storm conditions, typically during periods of isolated substorm activity or during bursts of enhanced convection associated with southward IMF Bz component. This paper presents results from data analysis and numerical simulations of several SAPS/SAID events observed during non-storm conditions. We use convection velocity measurements from the mid-latitude chain of SuperDARN radars and cross-track drift meter data from DMSP spacecraft to identify SAPS/SAID and to characterize their structure and temporal evolution. DMSP topside ion density data and high-resolution ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) maps are used to determine the ionospheric and plasmaspheric morphology of SAPS regions. DMSP electron precipitation data are used to determine auroral boundaries. We also present simulation results of the chosen event intervals obtained with the SAMI3-RCM ionosphere-magnetosphere coupled model. Observational results are analyzed to identify systematic differences between non-storm SAPS/SAID and the picture that has emerged based on previous storm time studies. Simulation results are used to provide physical interpretation of these differences.

  17. SAPS and SAID: Differences and implications on modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P. C.; Landry, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Large subauroral electric fields/ion drifts associated with geomagnetic activity and known as Polarization Jets [Galperin et al., 1973] or subauroral ion drifts (SAID) [Spiro et al., 1978] have been reported by a number of researchers over the years starting in the early 1970s. They are latitudinally narrow ( 1 - 3°), are primarily located between the late afternoon and early morning sectors, are extended several hours in magnetic local time, and have westward drifts that can exceed 5000 m/s. Foster et al., [2002] used Millstone Hill radar data to derive a statistical model of the subauroral ion drifts and coined the term SAPS (Subauroral Polarization Streams) to identify the sometimes broad region of subauroral drifts that the SAID are embedded within. While both are located in the subauroral region and closely associated with ionospheric conductivity and the region 2 field-aligned currents, they are in reality separate phenomena. We investigate this difference, their production mechanisms, and the implications for modeling them.

  18. Change readiness for SAP in the Canadian healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mary Lou; Downer, Pauline

    2004-01-01

    The study described in this article was designed to assess the change readiness for e-business cost management systems (particularly SAP) within the Canadian healthcare system. Previous studies and experts suggest that change readiness is an important variable in the application of e-business cost management system implementation. One hundred and fifty-four chief executive officers within the Canadian healthcare system were surveyed. The response rate was 25.9 percent. The survey included a demographic sheet, which supported a better understanding of the profile of Canadian healthcare CEOs, their operational budget responsibilities, and their feelings toward e-business cost management systems. A change readiness instrument reviewed CEOs' change readiness scores in relation to four independent variables (implementation of an e-business cost management system, healthcare restructuring, budget size and tenure of the CEO). There was a significant difference between change readiness scores and the implementation of an e-business cost management system. Given the small sample size (n = 40), findings are limited. However the study offers more information on this issue than is found in the Canadian healthcare literature to date.

  19. DLG1/SAP97 modulates transforming growth factor alpha bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surena, Anne-Laure; de Faria, Giselle P; Studler, Jeanne-Marie; Peiretti, Franck; Pidoux, Morgane; Camonis, Jacques; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Formstecher, Etienne; Junier, Marie-Pierre

    2009-02-01

    TGFalpha and its receptor EGFR participate in the development of a wide range of tumors including gliomas, the main adult primary brain tumors. TGFalpha soluble form results from the cleavage by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 of the extracellular part of its transmembrane precursor, pro-TGFalpha. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying TGFalpha bioavailability, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed to identify proteins interacting with pro-TGFalpha intracellular domain (ICD). DLG1/SAP97 (Discs Large Gene 1 or Synapse Associated Protein 97) was found to interact with both pro-TGFalpha and TACE ICDs through distinct PDZ domains. An in vivo pro-TGFalpha-DLG1-TACE complex was detected in U251 glioma cells and in gliomas-derived tumor initiating cells. Interaction between DLG1 and TACE diminished in response to stimulations promoting pro-TGFalpha shedding. Manipulation of DLG1 levels revealed dual actions of DLG1 on pro-TGFalpha shedding, favoring approximation of pro-TGFalpha and TACE, while limiting TACE full shedding activity. These results show that DLG1 participates in the control of TGFalpha bioavailability through its dynamic interaction with the growth factor precursor and TACE.

  20. Energy diagnosis in industry: case of SAP Olympic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandouidi, Ziwendtaore Frederic

    2007-01-01

    The control of the energy consumption became a crucial problem in the production facilities in Burkina Faso. Energy efficiency is a fact that cannot be ignored in the industrial sector because of the rise unceasingly in the prices of the petroleum. Current reality makes it possible to note the extent of the cost of electricity in our country. The economic pressures in all the sectors of the economic activity, unrestrained competitiveness, the removal of the tariff barriers in the UEMAO member countries caused many difficulties for several companies. SAP Olympic, potential consumer of electrical energy, has difficulties in control and optimize its energy consumption. The importance of this consumption of energy is the subject of great debates at this African Company of Tire. The performances of the old installations of energy are often distant from those obtained with the new installations. If it is relatively easy to carry out new powerful installations, the improvement of the energy consumption of the existing installations requires a study on a case-by-case basis, and it is not always possible to find a solution ensuring the same performances as a new installation. It is necessary to set up rigorous methods of follow-up of the calorific and electric consumption of the equipment in order to have a sufficiently precise energy assessment. The energy diagnosis indeed carries out the most relevant choices for our actions of energy saving [fr

  1. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dong; Wu, Jing; Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan; Xiao, Jian; Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo; Zhang, Rongbo

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  2. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  3. Critical role of SAP in progression and reactivation but not maintenance of T cell-dependent humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming-Chao; Veillette, André

    2013-03-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) is a small adaptor molecule mutated in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease, a human immunodeficiency. SAP plays a critical role in the initiation of T cell-dependent B cell responses leading to germinal center reaction, the production of high-affinity antibodies, and B cell memory. However, whether SAP has a role in these responses beyond their initiation is not known. It is important to address this matter not only for mechanistic reasons but also because blockade of the SAP pathway is being contemplated as a means to treat autoimmune diseases in humans. Using an inducibly SAP deficient mouse, we found that SAP was required not only for the initiation but also for the progression of primary T cell-driven B cell responses to haptens. It was also necessary for the reactivation of T cell-dependent B cell immunity during secondary immune responses. These activities consistently correlated with the requirement of SAP for full expression of the lineage commitment factor Bcl-6 in follicular T helper (T(FH)) cells. However, once memory B cells and long-lived antibody-secreting cells were established, SAP became dispensable for maintaining T cell-dependent B cell responses. Thus, SAP is pivotal for nearly all phases, but not for maintenance, of T cell-driven B cell humoral immunity. These findings may have implications for the treatment of immune disorders by targeting the SAP pathway.

  4. Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Paul, Repon C; Sultana, Rebeca; Gurley, Emily S; Garcia, Fernando; Abedin, Jaynal; Sumon, Shariful Amin; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection in Bangladesh is a fatal disease that can be transmitted from bats to humans who drink contaminated raw date palm sap collected overnight during the cold season. Our study aimed to understand date palm sap consumption habits of rural residents and factors associated with consumption. In November-December 2012 the field team interviewed adult respondents from randomly selected villages from Rajbari and Kushtia Districts in Bangladesh. We calculated the proportion of people who consumed raw sap and had heard about a disease from raw sap consumption. We assessed the factors associated with raw sap consumption by calculating prevalence ratios (PR) adjusted for village level clustering effects. Among the 1,777 respondents interviewed, half (50%) reported drinking raw sap during the previous sap collection season and 37% consumed raw sap at least once per month. Few respondents (5%) heard about NiV. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported hearing about a disease transmitted through raw sap consumption, inclusive of a 10% who related it with milder illness like diarrhea, vomiting or indigestion rather than NiV. Respondents who harvested date palm trees in their household were more likely to drink sap than those who did not own date palm trees (79% vs. 65% PR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3, psap was available, respondents who heard about a disease from raw sap consumption were just as likely to drink it as those who did not hear about a disease (69% vs. 67%, PR 1.0, 95% CI 0.9-1.1, p = 0.512). Respondents' knowledge of NiV was low. They might not have properly understood the risk of NiV, and were likely to drink sap when it was available. Implementing strategies to increase awareness about the risks of NiV and protect sap from bats might reduce the risk of NiV transmission.

  5. Molecular pathogenesis of EBV susceptibility in XLP as revealed by analysis of female carriers with heterozygous expression of SAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaimainthan Palendira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP(+ and SAP(- cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8(+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP(+ and SAP(- populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP(+. The preferential recruitment of SAP(+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8(+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP(- clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP(- CD8(+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited.

  6. [Factors associated with non-institutional abuse in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, Carmelo; Hernández Morante, Juan José; Carrasco Martínez, Elena; García Belzunce, Agustín; Nicolás Alarcón, Virginia

    Abuse in elderly has dimensions not yet sufficiently explored. Particularly, little is known about the abuse or mistreatment suffered by old people in nursing homes, but where the origin is not, at least initially, institutional, since is perpetrated by external social agents not related to the nursing home. The lack of data in this area has led us to conduct this exploratory study, with the aim of assessing the prevalence of this non-institutional abuse. The Elder Abuse Suspicion Index was administered to a total of 286 subjects belonging to the nursing homes from the «Mensajeros de la Paz» Association of Murcia. Cases of suspected abuse were referred to the social workers to confirm the diagnosis. Initially, 53 subjects (18.5%) suffered any kind of abuse, which was reduced to only 26 cases after one year. On the other hand, abuse appeared after admission in 20 subjects (7%). Precisely, this 7% might present what we called non-institutional abuse. Economic abuse was the most prevalent, followed by psychological, neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. The data showed a significant interaction between the different types of abuse. Our data provides evidence of a new scenario that must be addressed in a professional and social context, considering the environment where this mistreatment takes place. Health and social professionals must be sensitive to this reality, and should be informed and trained about the different ways to dignify the care of the elderly. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Workplace abuse narratives from dentistry, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students: a multi-school qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, C E; Monrouxe, L V; Ternan, E; Endacott, R

    2015-05-01

    Previous healthcare student abuse research typically employs quantitative surveys that fail to explore contributory factors for abuse and students' action in the face of abuse. Following a recent qualitative study of medical students' abuse narratives, the current study explores dental, nursing, pharmacy and physiotherapy students' abuse narratives to better understand healthcare workplace abuse. We conducted three individual and 11 group interviews with 69 healthcare students in three Universities to elicit professionalism dilemma narratives. Of 226 professionalism dilemmas elicited, 79 were coded as student abuse. Secondary-level thematic analysis of the abuse narratives addressed the following questions: What types of abuse experiences do healthcare students narrate? What factors do they cite as contributing to abuse and their responses to abuse? Healthcare students reported mostly covert abuse in their narratives. Although narrators described individual, relational, work and organisational factors contributing to abuse, they mostly cited factors relating to perpetrators. Most participants stated that they acted in the face of their abuse, and they mostly cited factors relating to themselves for acting. Students who did nothing in the face of abuse typically cited the perpetrator-recipient relationship as the main contributory factor. There are many similarities across the narratives of the five healthcare student groups, suggesting that complex interactional/organisational factors are all-important when considering how abuse is perpetuated within the healthcare workplace. Although some organisational factors may be difficult to change, we recommend that educational initiatives are a key starting point to tackle healthcare workplace abuse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Do general practitioners record alcohol abuse in the electronic medical records? : A comparison of survey and medical record data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abidi, L.; Oenema, A.; van den Akker, M.; van de Mheen, D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Primary care professionals are encouraged to screen patients for alcohol abuse. However, patients with alcohol abuse are often under-diagnosed as well as under-registered in medical records in general practices. This study aims to report on the registration rates of alcohol abuse

  9. Support and monitoring of families after child abuse detection based on parental characteristics at the Emergency Department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diderich, H.M.; Pannebakker, F.D.; Dexhesne, M.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Oudesluys-Murphy, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The ‘Hague Protocol’ enables professionals at the adult Emergency Department (ED) to detect child abuse based on three parental characteristics: (i) suicide attempt or self-harm, (ii) domestic violence or (iii) substance abuse, and to refer them to the Reporting Centre for Child Abuse and

  10. Sexual harassment and abuse in sport: the role of the team doctor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn

    2012-10-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.

  11. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  12. Sexual abuse of boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sharon M

    2005-01-01

    Sexual abuse in childhood can disable self-esteem, self-concept, relationships, and ability to trust. It can also leave psychological trauma that compromises a boy's confidence in adults. While some boys who willingly participate may adjust to sexual abuse, many others face complications, such as reduced quality of life, impaired social relationships, less than optimal daily functioning, and self-destructive behavior. These problems can respond to treatment if detected. In this paper, we examine the prevalence, characteristics, psychological consequences, treatment, and coping patterns of boys who have been sexually abused and their failure to disclose abuse unless asked during a therapeutic encounter. Nurses have a responsibility to detect the clues to sexual abuse, diagnose the psychological consequences, and advocate for protection and treatment. Computerized literature search of the Medline and PsychInfo literature and books on sexual abuse of boys. Psychological responses to abuse such as anxiety, denial, self-hypnosis, dissociation, and self-mutilation are common. Coping strategies may include being the angry avenger, the passive victim, rescuer, daredevil, or conformist. Sexual abuse may precipitate runaway behavior, chronic use of sick days, poor school or job performance, costly medical, emergency and or mental health visits. In worst cases, the boy may decide that life is not worth living and plan suicide. The nurse has a key role to play in screening, assessing, and treating sexual abuse children.

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  15. Phrenic long-term facilitation following intrapleural CTB-SAP-induced respiratory motor neuron death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Craig, Taylor A; Tanner, Miles A

    2017-08-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1 G93A ), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1 G93A rats. This CTB-SAP model allows us to study the impact of respiratory motor neuron death on breathing without many complications attendant to ALS. Here, we tested the hypothesis that phrenic motor neuron death is sufficient to enhance pLTF. pLTF was assessed in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated Sprague Dawley rats 7 and 28days following bilateral intrapleural injections of: 1) CTB-SAP (25μg), or 2) un-conjugated CTB and SAP (control). CTB-SAP enhanced pLTF at 7 (CTB-SAP: 162±18%, n=8 vs. 63±3%; n=8; p0.05). Thus, pLTF at 7 (not 28) days post-CTB-SAP closely resembles pLTF in end-stage ALS rats, suggesting that processes unique to the early period of motor neuron death enhance pLTF. This project increases our understanding of respiratory plasticity and its implications for breathing in motor neuron disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf temperature and stomatal influences on sap velocity diurnal hysteresis in the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, K.; Gimenez, B.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Koven, C.; Powell, T.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J.; Varadharajan, C.

    2016-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, but remains poorly characterized, especially in tropical ecosystems. In this study we show a tight positive correlation between sap velocity (at 1 m of height) and leaf surface temperature (LST, 20-30 m of height) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As leaf temperatures varied throughout the day, sap velocity responded with little delay (<15 min). Positive sap velocity was often observed at night, but also closely followed night time LSTs. When plotted versus LST, sap velocity showed an exponential increase before reaching a reflection point and a plateau and is characterized as a sigmoidal curve, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity was evident with morning periods showing higher temperature sensitivities than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf observations showed a morning peak in stomatal conductance ( 10:00-10:30), but a mid-day to afternoon peak in transpiration and leaf temperature (12:00-14:00). Our observations suggest the sap velocity-LST hysteresis pattern arises due to the temporal offset between stomatal conductance and vapor pressure deficits (VPD) and demonstrates the dominating effect of VPD over stomatal conductance in maintaining high transpiration/sap flow rates under elevated temperatures. Our results have important implications for modeling tropical forest transpiration and suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes at the ecosystem to regional scales based on remote sensed vegetation temperature.

  17. Targeting and cytotoxicity of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtao Chu

    Full Text Available Only a small number of promising drugs target pancreatic cancer, which is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths with a 5-year survival of less than 5%. Our goal is to develop a new biotherapeutic agent in which a lysosomal protein (saposin C, SapC and a phospholipid (dioleoylphosphatidylserine, DOPS are assembled into nanovesicles (SapC-DOPS for treating pancreatic cancer. A distinguishing feature of SapC-DOPS nanovesicles is their high affinity for phosphatidylserine (PS rich microdomains, which are abnormally exposed on the membrane surface of human pancreatic tumor cells. To evaluate the role of external cell PS, in vitro assays were used to correlate PS exposure and the cytotoxic effect of SapC-DOPS in human tumor and nontumorigenic pancreatic cells. Next, pancreatic tumor xenografts (orthotopic and subcutaneous models were used for tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy studies with systemic SapC-DOPS treatment. We observed that the nanovesicles selectively killed human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro by inducing apoptotic death, whereas untransformed cells remained unaffected. This in vitro cytotoxic effect correlated to the surface exposure level of PS on the tumor cells. Using xenografts, animals treated with SapC-DOPS showed clear survival benefits and their tumors shrank or disappeared. Furthermore, using a double-tracking method in live mice, we showed that the nanovesicles were specifically targeted to orthotopically-implanted, bioluminescent pancreatic tumors. These data suggest that the acidic phospholipid PS is a biomarker for pancreatic cancer that can be effectively targeted for therapy utilizing cancer-selective SapC-DOPS nanovesicles. This study provides convincing evidence in support of developing a new therapeutic approach to pancreatic cancer.

  18. Sports and Drug Abuse. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (September 25, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing examined the impact of illegal drugs on both professional and amateur sports and the national effort of sports figures to help fight drug abuse. Witnesses included individuals currently involved in programs designed to prevent drug abuse, members of groups formed to rehabilitate drug users, and former professional athletes who…

  19. Recognition of bite marks in child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, S A

    1994-01-01

    Health professionals must be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. Bite marks are one of several visual expressions of active child abuse. The efforts of forensic odontologists, in conjunction with recent technical advancements in bite mark analysis, support the uniqueness of the human dentition and have contributed to the conviction of numerous child abusers. Through recognition, proper documentation, and reporting dentists can help the forensic community use bite marks to solve cases of child maltreatment.

  20. Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the body. ... Abstract. This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. ... It discusses how the perception of the body has an impact on dealing with the body and potential sexual abuse.

  1. Public attitudes toward child sexual abuse in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petković Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bringing public attention to the topic of sexual harrassment of children in Serbia during 2010 as well as the series of arrests of persons suspected of “peadophilia“, encouraged authors to conduct a study which will analyze the public opinion about sexual child abuse. The study is conducted using a sample of 804 people in three comparative categories, laymans, professionals who work with potential victims and sexual abusers, and students of the Belgrade university. Besides assessing how well the persons in question are informed and assessing their concrete knowledge, the authors will evaluate standpoints in five dimensions questioning the perception of the term child, the term abuser and cause often abusing, stands regarding punative measures for sexual delinquents, stands regarding victimization of children with developmental disorders and finally the perception of the child regarding the abuse.

  2. Preferred communication methods of abused women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Heidi; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    To determine preferred communication methods of abused women. A naturalistic study utilizing principles of Community Based Participatory Research. A total of 300 first time users of criminal justice or safe shelter for abused women were interviewed in person. The Preferred Communication Questionnaire was used to determine preference. Given the choice of phone voice, face to face, phone text, e-mail, or Facebook, traditional methods of communication (face-to-face communication and phone voice) were the primary (80% combined) and secondary (58.6% combined) preferred sources among abused women. A total of 292 women (97.3%) gave at least two preferred methods of communication, 255 (85%) gave three preferred methods, 190 (63%) gave four, and 132 (44%) used all five methods. Public health nurses and other professionals who serve abused women should be aware of their preferred method of communication for contact. The women in the sample preferred face-to-face and phone-voice communication; however, many were open to newer forms of communication such as texting and Facebook. Caution should be used to protect the safety of abused women when using any kind of communication. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Microvillus-Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase SAP-1 Plays a Role in Regulating the Intestinal Paracellular Transport of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shingo; Kamei, Noriyasu; Murata, Yoji; Takayama, Kozo; Matozaki, Takashi; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2017-09-01

    The stomach cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is specifically expressed on the apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium. SAP-1 is known to maintain the balance of phosphorylation of proteins together with protein kinases; however, its biological function and impact on pharmacokinetics in the intestine remain unclear. The present study, therefore, aimed at clarifying the relationship between SAP-1 and the intestinal absorption behaviors of typical transporter substrates and macromolecules. The endogenous levels of glucose and total cholesterol in the blood were similar between wild-type and SAP-1-deficient mice (Sap1 -/- ), suggesting no contribution of SAP-1 to biogenic influx. Moreover, in vitro transport study with everted ileal sacs demonstrated that there was no difference in the absorption of breast cancer resistance protein, P-glycoprotein, and peptide transporter substrates between both mice. However, absorptive clearance of macromolecular model dextrans (FD-4 and FD-10) in Sap1 -/- mice was significantly higher than that in wild-type mice, and this was confirmed by the trend of increased FD-4 absorption from colonic loops of Sap1 -/- mice. Therefore, the results of this study suggest the partial contribution of SAP-1 to the regulated transport of hydrophilic macromolecules through paracellular tight junctions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Harvey C.; Burr, Thomas J.; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce’s disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility. PMID:27508296

  5. [Dynamics of sap flow density in stems of typical desert shrub Calligonum mongolicum and its responses to environmental variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-qin; Ji, Xi-bin; Jin, Bo-wen

    2016-02-01

    Independent measurements of stem sap flow in stems of Calligonum mongolicum and environmental variables using commercial sap flow gauges and a micrometeorological monitoring system, respectively, were made to simulate the variation of sap flow density in the middle range of Hexi Corridor, Northwest China during June to September, 2014. The results showed that the diurnal process of sap flow density in C. mongolicum showed a broad unimodal change, and the maximum sap flow density reached about 30 minutes after the maximum of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) , while about 120 minutes before the maximum of temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). During the studying period, sap flow density closely related with atmosphere evapor-transpiration demand, and mainly affected by PAR, temperature and VPD. The model was developed which directly linked the sap flow density with climatic variables, and good correlation between measured and simulated sap flow density was observed in different climate conditions. The accuracy of simulation was significantly improved if the time-lag effect was taken into consideration, while this model underestimated low and nighttime sap flow densities, which was probably caused by plant physiological characteristics.

  6. Arsenate Impact on the Metabolite Profile, Production, and Arsenic Loading of Xylem Sap in Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroic, M Kalle; Salaün, Pascal; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic uptake and translocation studies on xylem sap focus generally on the concentration and speciation of arsenic in the xylem. Arsenic impact on the xylem sap metabolite profile and its production during short term exposure has not been reported in detail. To investigate this, cucumbers were grown hydroponically and arsenate (As(V)) and DMA were used for plant treatment for 24 h. Total arsenic and arsenic speciation in xylem sap was analyzed including a metabolite profiling under As(V) stress. Produced xylem sap was quantified and absolute arsenic transported was determined. As(V) exposure had a significant impact on the metabolite profile of xylem sap. Four m/z values corresponding to four compounds were up-regulated, one compound down-regulated by As(V) exposure. The compound down-regulated was identified to be isoleucine. Furthermore, As(V) exposure had a significant influence on sap production, leading to a reduction of up to 96% sap production when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) As(V). No difference to control plants was observed when plants were exposed to 1000 μg kg(-1) DMA. Absolute arsenic amount in xylem sap was the lowest at high As(V) exposure. These results show that As(V) has a significant impact on the production and metabolite profile of xylem sap. The physiological importance of isoleucine needs further attention.

  7. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M

    2017-09-01

    To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was performed approximately yearly; FDT every other year. First and last visit had to contain both tests. Using linear regression, progression velocities were calculated for SAP (Humphrey Field Analyzer) mean deviation (MD) and FDT MD and the number of test locations with a total deviation probability below p glaucoma progression in patients who cannot perform SAP reliably. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Hao

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.. In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  9. SAP expression in invariant NKT cells is required for cognate help to support B-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detre, Cynthia; Keszei, Marton; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Castro, Wilson; Agyemang, Amma F; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Carroll, Michael C; Tsokos, George C; Wang, Ninghai; Leadbetter, Elizabeth A; Terhorst, Cox

    2012-07-05

    One of the manifestations of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is progressive agammaglobulinemia, caused by the absence of a functional signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) in T, invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells and NK cells. Here we report that α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) activated NKT cells positively regulate antibody responses to haptenated protein antigens at multiple checkpoints, including germinal center formation and affinity maturation. Whereas NKT cell-dependent B cell responses were absent in SAP(-/-).B6 mice that completely lack NKT cells, the small number of SAP-deficient NKT cells in SAP(-/-).BALB/c mice adjuvated antibody production, but not the germinal center reaction. To test the hypothesis that SAP-deficient NKT cells can facilitate humoral immunity, SAP was deleted after development in SAP(fl/fl).tgCreERT2.B6 mice. We find that NKT cell intrinsic expression of SAP is dispensable for noncognate helper functions, but is critical for providing cognate help to antigen-specific B cells. These results demonstrate that SLAM-family receptor-regulated cell-cell interactions are not limited to T-B cell conjugates. We conclude that in the absence of SAP, several routes of NKT cell-mediated antibody production are still accessible. The latter suggests that residual NKT cells in XLP patients might contribute to variations in dysgammaglobulinemia.

  10. Grape Cultivar and Sap Culture Conditions Affect the Development of Xylella fastidiosa Phenotypes Associated with Pierce's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingyun; Zaini, Paulo A; Hoch, Harvey C; Burr, Thomas J; Mowery, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium in plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines, which differ in susceptibility according to the Vitis species (spp.). In this work we compared X. fastidiosa biofilm formation and population dynamics when cultured in xylem saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant Vitis spp. under different conditions. Behaviors in a closed-culture system were compared to those in different sap-renewal cultures that would more closely mimic the physicochemical environment encountered in planta. Significant differences in biofilm formation and growth in saps from PD-susceptible and -resistant spp. were only observed using sap renewal culture. Compared to saps from susceptible V. vinifera, those from PD-resistant V. aestivalis supported lower titers of X. fastidiosa and less biofilm and V. champinii suppressed both growth and biofilm formation, behaviors which are correlated with disease susceptibility. Furthermore, in microfluidic chambers X. fastidiosa formed thick mature biofilm with three-dimensional (3-D) structures, such as pillars and mounds, in saps from all susceptible spp. In contrast, only small aggregates of various shapes were formed in saps from four out of five of the resistant spp.; sap from the resistant spp. V. mustangensis was an exception in that it also supported thick lawns of biofilm but not the above described 3-D structures typically seen in a mature biofilm from the susceptible saps. Our findings provide not only critical technical information for future bioassays, but also suggest further understanding of PD susceptibility.

  11. Elder abuse in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas; Beach, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Assisted Living (AL) currently represents one of the most numerous institutional care settings for elders. Very little information exists on abuse in AL. Descriptive information on elder abuse reported by nurse aides working in AL is presented from a survey sent to nurse aides. The questionnaire had items addressing verbal, physical, psychological, caregiving, medication, material, and sexual abuse. The responses to the questions included in the verbal abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, caregiving abuse, medication abuse, and material exploitation abuse sections (28 questions) show that suspected abuse is not uncommon. We could not objectively verify the cases of abuse described in the survey, still, they give a first indication that staff abuse may occur in AL. This may be significant given the large number of ALs in the United States and may influence the health, quality of life, and safety of many residents.

  12. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ... Physical abuse is not the only kind of child abuse. Many children are also victims of neglect, or ...

  13. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts ... the following language: Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse; National Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health ...

  14. Can Sap Flow Help Us to Better Understand Transpiration Patterns in Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassler, S. K.; Weiler, M.; Blume, T.

    2017-12-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions and for improving the parameterisation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. At the tree scale, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status, stand-specific characteristics such as basal area or stand density and site-specific characteristics such as geology, slope position or aspect control sap flow of individual trees. However, little is known about the relative importance or the dynamic interplay of these controls. We studied these influences with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites spread over a 290 km²-catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we applied linear models to the daily spatial pattern of sap velocity and determined the importance of the different predictors. By upscaling sap velocities to the tree level with the help of species-dependent empirical estimates for sapwood area we also examined patterns of sap flow as a more direct representation of transpiration. Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in this landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow, the site-specific predictors provided the largest contribution to the explained variance, however, in contrast to the sap velocity analysis, geology was more important than aspect. Spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explained only a small fraction of the variance. However, the temporal dynamics of the explanatory power of the tree-specific characteristics, especially species, were

  15. Sap flow is Underestimated by Thermal Dissipation Sensors due to Alterations of Wood Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Wiedemann, A.; van den Bulcke, J.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.; Steppe, K.

    2014-12-01

    The thermal dissipation technique (TD) is one of the most commonly adopted methods for sap flow measurements. However, underestimations of up to 60% of the tree transpiration have been reported with this technique, although the causes are not certainly known. The insertion of TD sensors within the stems causes damage of the wood tissue and subsequent healing reactions, changing wood anatomy and likely the sap flow path. However, the anatomical changes in response to the insertion of sap flow sensors and the effects on the measured flow have not been assessed yet. In this study, we investigate the alteration of vessel anatomy on wounds formed around TD sensors. Our main objectives were to elucidate the anatomical causes of sap flow underestimation for ring-porous and diffuse-porous species, and relate these changes to sap flow underestimations. Successive sets of TD probes were installed in early, mid and end of the growing season in Fagus sylvatica (diffuse-porous) and Quercus petraea (ring-porous) trees. They were logged after the growing season and additional sets of sensors were installed in the logged stems with presumably no healing reaction. The wood tissue surrounding each sensor was then excised and analysed by X-ray computed microtomography (X-ray micro CT). This technique allowed the quantification of vessel anatomical characteristics and the reconstruction of the 3-D internal microstructure of the xylem vessels so that extension and shape of the altered area could be determined. Gels and tyloses clogged the conductive vessels around the sensors in both beech and oak. The extension of the affected area was larger for beech although these anatomical changes led to similar sap flow underestimations in both species. The higher vessel size in oak may explain this result and, therefore, larger sap flow underestimation per area of affected conductive tissue. The wound healing reaction likely occurred within the first weeks after sensor installation, which

  16. Environmental controls on sap flow in black locust forest in Loess Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changkun; Luo, Yi; Shao, Mingan; Li, Xiangdong; Sun, Lin; Jia, Xiaoxu

    2017-10-13

    Black locust accounts for over 90% of artificial forests in China's Loess Plateau region. However, water use of black locust is an uphill challenge for this semi-arid region. To accurately quantify tree water use and to explain the related hydrological processes, it is important to collect reliable data for application in the estimation of sap flow and its response to environmental factors. This study measured sap flow in black locust in the 2015 and 2016 growth seasons using the thermal dissipation probes technique and laboratory-calibrated Granier's equation. The study showed that the laboratory calibrated coefficient α was much larger than the original value presented by Granier, while the coefficient β was similar to the original one. The average daily transpiration was 2.1 mm day -1 for 2015 and 1.6 mm day -1 for 2016. Net solar radiation (Rn) was the key meteorological factor controlling sap flow, followed by vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and then temperature (T). VPD had a threshold control on sap flow at threshold values of 1.9 kPa for 2015 and 1.6 kPa for 2016. The effects of diurnal hysteresis of Rn, VPD and T on sap flow were evident, indicating that black locust water use was conservative.

  17. SCF(SAP) controls organ size by targeting PPD proteins for degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhibiao; Li, Na; Jiang, Shan; Gonzalez, Nathalie; Huang, Xiahe; Wang, Yingchun; Inzé, Dirk; Li, Yunhai

    2016-04-06

    Control of organ size by cell proliferation and growth is a fundamental process, but the mechanisms that determine the final size of organs are largely elusive in plants. We have previously revealed that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 regulates organ size by repressing cell proliferation in Arabidopsis. Here we report that a mutant allele of STERILE APETALA (SAP) suppresses the da1-1 mutant phenotype. We show that SAP is an F-box protein that forms part of a SKP1/Cullin/F-box E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and controls organ size by promoting the proliferation of meristemoid cells. Genetic analyses suggest that SAP may act in the same pathway with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, which are negative regulators of meristemoid proliferation, to control organ size, but does so independently of DA1. Further results reveal that SAP physically associates with PEAPOD1 and PEAPOD2, and targets them for degradation. These findings define a molecular mechanism by which SAP and PEAPOD control organ size.

  18. Human SAP is a novel peptidoglycan recognition protein that induces complement- independent phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jang-Hyun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Jung, Dong-Jun; Kim, Min-Jung; Kim, Chan-Hee; Fujimoto, Yukari; Fukase, Koichi; Coggeshall, K. Mark; Lee, Bok Luel

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for many community-acquired and hospital-associated infections and is associated with high mortality. Concern over the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains has renewed interest in the elucidation of host mechanisms that defend against S. aureus infection. We recently demonstrated that human serum mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to S. aureus wall teichoic acid (WTA), a cell wall glycopolymer, a discovery that prompted further screening to identify additional serum proteins that recognize S. aureus cell wall components. In this report, we incubated human serum with 10 different S. aureus mutants and determined that serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound specifically to a WTA-deficient S. aureus ΔtagO mutant, but not to tagO-complemented, WTA-expressing cells. Biochemical characterization revealed that SAP recognizes bacterial peptidoglycan as a ligand and that WTA inhibits this interaction. Although SAP binding to peptidoglycan was not observed to induce complement activation, SAP-bound ΔtagO cells were phagocytosed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an Fcγ receptor-dependent manner. These results indicate that SAP functions as a host defense factor, similar to other peptidoglycan recognition proteins and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors. PMID:23966633

  19. Spatial sap flow and xylem anatomical characteristics in olive trees under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Alcántara, Esteban; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2010-12-01

    The compensation heat pulse (CHP) method is widely used to estimate sap flow and transpiration in conducting organs of woody plants. Previous studies have reported a natural azimuthal variability in sap flow, which could have practical implications in locating the CHP probes and integrating their output. Sap flow of several olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Arbequina') previously grown under different irrigation treatments were monitored by the CHP method, and their xylem anatomical characteristics were analyzed from wood samples taken at the same location in which the probes were installed. A significant azimuthal variability in the sap flow was found in a well-irrigated olive tree monitored by eight CHP probes. The azimuthal variability was well related to crown architecture, but poorly to azimuthal differences in the xylem anatomical characteristics. Well-irrigated and deficit-irrigated olive trees showed similar xylem anatomical characteristics, but they differed in xylem growth and in the ratio of nocturnal-to-diurnal sap flow (N/D index). The results of this work indicate that transpiration cannot be accurately estimated by the CHP method in olive trees if a small number of sensors are employed and that the N/D index could be used as a sensitive water status indicator.

  20. Dieldrin-dissolving abilities of the xylem saps of several plant families, particularly Cucurbita pepo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi; Seike, Nobuyasu

    2010-10-01

    The uptake ability of hydrophobic organic chemicals by plants and the nature of xylem sap of the plants were studied. The plants were grown in soil contaminated with dieldrin. High amounts of dieldrin were detected in the shoots of Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus, but little was seen in the shoots of Brassica oleracea var. italica, Solanum lycopersicum, Glycine max, Zea mays, and Helianthus annuus. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus leached dieldrin adsorbed on C8 granules, but those of the other plants did not. The xylem saps of C. pepo and C. sativus eluted high amounts of dieldrin from the size-exclusion chromatography column near the fractions of RNase A (13.7 kDa) after Aprotinin (6.5 kDa), which has a larger molecular weight than dieldrin (381). The enhancement of dieldrin solubility by xylem sap was reduced by proteinase and heating. It was suspected that the protein-like materials in the xylem sap delivered dieldrin from the roots to the shoots. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2269-2277. © 2010 SETAC.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. Such treatment can help reduce the risk that the child will develop serious problems ... you find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make ...

  2. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  3. Battling Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2010-01-01

    From costly lawsuits on behalf of victims to negative media coverage, districts can face potentially devastating consequences as a result of sexual abuse of their students by district employees. This article offers a few tips on how to battle sexual abuse particularly in school districts. The author stresses that by adopting strong policies that…

  4. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  5. Antitussives and substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs. PMID:23092228

  7. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  8. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  9. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  10. SAPS-Associated Explosive Brightening on the Duskside: A New Type of Onset-Like Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, M. G.; Morley, S. K.; Kepko, L. E.

    2018-01-01

    Quasiperiodic energetic particle injections have been observed at geosynchronous orbit on the duskside during a steady magnetospheric convection event. We examine high-resolution auroral imager data and ground magnetometer data associated with the first of these injections and conclude that it was not associated with classical substorm signatures. It is proposed that these injections are caused by the explosive nonlinear growth of a shear flow-ballooning instability in the region where subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) also occur. It is suggested that interchange will occur preferentially in the low-conductivity SAPS region since the magnetic Richardson number is lowest there and the "line-tying" effect will also be least stabilizing there. We propose that the observed particle injection signatures and auroral morphology constitute a new type of SAPS-associated explosive "onset-like" disturbance that can occur during intervals of strong convection.

  11. Occurrence of free fatty acids in the phloem sap of different citrus varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valim, Maria Filomena; Killiny, Nabil

    2017-06-03

    Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a phloem restricted bacterium that causes citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), a major treat to commercial citrus production in Florida. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, a phloem sap-feeding insect. Studies conducted on the composition of citrus phloem sap revealed the presence amino acids, organic acids and sugars and of low amounts of free fatty acids. In the present study, the phloem sap of 12 citrus varieties with different degrees of tolerance to HLB were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed by GC-MS after derivatization with boron trifluoride, a fatty acid-specific reagent. Nine free fatty acids were detected in all varieties. Of the 9 fatty acids detected, only capric acid was significantly different among varieties.

  12. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses, but decrea......Bleeding sap composition, dry matter production and N distribution in pea (P. sativum L. cv. Bodil) grown with and without nitrate and nodulated with either R. leguminosarum strain 128c53 or strain 1044 were compared. Nitrate increased the total dry matter production of both symbioses...... relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...

  13. Immunotoxicity activity of natural furocoumarins from milky sap of Ficus carica L. against Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Iii-Min; Kim, Sun-Jin; Yeo, Min-A; Park, Se-Won; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-09-01

    Ficus carica L., its fruits are delicious and can be eaten by human. Its leaves are commonly used to cure hemorrhoid and clear away heart ache. The milky sap of F. carica have a significant toxic effect against early fourth-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti L with an lethal concentration (LC(50)) value of 10.2 μg/ml and an LC(90) value of 42.3 μg/ml. Two natural furocoumarins, 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were isolated from the milky sap of F. carica. The LC(50) value of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen were 9.4 and 56.3 μg/ml, respectively. The above indicates that major compounds may play a more important role in the toxicity of the milky sap of F. carica.

  14. Mechanical properties of concrete with SAP. Part II: Modulus of elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jespersen, Morten H. Seneka; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2010-01-01

    of air voids. Second, SAP addition may at the same time lead to increased compressive strength (as shown in [5]) and reduced E-modulus. A prediction based solely on compressive strength therefore overrates the modulus of elasticity, so the empirical models are unsafe to use for concrete with SAP......, and air with volume fractions of the three phases as well as elastic properties of paste and aggregates as input parameters. Addition of SAP changes the E-modulus, because it both has an influence on properties of the cement paste and on the volume of air voids. Here, the E-modulus is an example...... of a mechanical property, and the same methodology can probably be applied to other mechanical properties. It is often assumed that a range of mechanical properties of concrete can be derived if the compressive strength is known. The link between the compressive strength and other mechanical properties is often...

  15. Logistic Core Operations with SAP Inventory Management, Warehousing, Transportation, and Compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Kappauf, Jens; Koch, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    “Logistic Core Operations with SAP” not only provides an overview of core logistics processes and functionality—it also shows how SAP’s Business Suite covers logistic core operations, what features are supported, and which systems can be used to implement end-to-end processes in the following logistic core disciplines: Procurement, Distribution, Transportation, Warehouse Logistics and Inventory Management, and Compliance and Reporting. In this context the authors not only explain their integration, the organizational set-up, and master data, but also which solution fits best for a particular business need.   This book serves as a solid foundation for understanding SAP software. No matter whether you are a student or a manager involved in an SAP implementation, the authors go far beyond traditional function and feature descriptions, helping you ask the right questions, providing answers, and making recommendations. The book assists you in understanding SAP terminology, concepts and technological compo...

  16. Field Note: Threatening Tonle Sap: Challenges for Southeast-Asia’s largest Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuenzer, Claudia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Tonle Sap ecosystem in Cambodia is Southeast Asia’s largest freshwater lake; strongly impacted by the Mekong river flood pulse. The lake is home to exceptional biodiversity, and rural communities living in free floating villages on the lake and on its shores. The fragile niche ecosystems as well as the rural livelihoods of Tonle Sap are under severe threat. Overfishing, illegal wood harvesting, further resource exploitation, and water quality deterioration all impact the stability of the socio-ecological system of Tonle Sap. At the same time, expected flood pulse changes due to regulatory measures in the context of hydropower development upstream on the Mekong are a severe threat for Tonle Sap’s ecosystem stability. The area needs to shift into the focus of attention of national and international re-searchers, stakeholders, and decision makers, to find suitable pathways for a future sustainable development of this unique and pristine region.

  17. Welcome to professional courtesy discounts: the medical community's pandora's box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A D

    1998-01-01

    Recent government regulations on fraud and abuse have transformed the tradition of professional courtesy discounts into a legal minefield threatening to explode on the uninformed medical provider. This paper offers an understanding of the issues involved and provider options.

  18. Changes in the proteome of xylem sap in Brassica oleracea in response to Fusarium oxysporum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijing ePu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conlutinans (Foc is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change >=2 fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and ten of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  19. Changes in the Proteome of Xylem Sap in Brassica oleracea in Response to Fusarium oxysporum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zijing; Ino, Yoko; Kimura, Yayoi; Tago, Asumi; Shimizu, Motoki; Natsume, Satoshi; Sano, Yoshitaka; Fujimoto, Ryo; Kaneko, Kentaro; Shea, Daniel J; Fukai, Eigo; Fuji, Shin-Ichi; Hirano, Hisashi; Okazaki, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conlutinans (Foc) is a serious root-invading and xylem-colonizing fungus that causes yellowing in Brassica oleracea. To comprehensively understand the interaction between F. oxysporum and B. oleracea, composition of the xylem sap proteome of the non-infected and Foc-infected plants was investigated in both resistant and susceptible cultivars using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after in-solution digestion of xylem sap proteins. Whole genome sequencing of Foc was carried out and generated a predicted Foc protein database. The predicted Foc protein database was then combined with the public B. oleracea and B. rapa protein databases downloaded from Uniprot and used for protein identification. About 200 plant proteins were identified in the xylem sap of susceptible and resistant plants. Comparison between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples revealed that Foc infection causes changes to the protein composition in B. oleracea xylem sap where repressed proteins accounted for a greater proportion than those of induced in both the susceptible and resistant reactions. The analysis on the proteins with concentration change > = 2-fold indicated a large portion of up- and down-regulated proteins were those acting on carbohydrates. Proteins with leucine-rich repeats and legume lectin domains were mainly induced in both resistant and susceptible system, so was the case of thaumatins. Twenty-five Foc proteins were identified in the infected xylem sap and 10 of them were cysteine-containing secreted small proteins that are good candidates for virulence and/or avirulence effectors. The findings of differential response of protein contents in the xylem sap between the non-infected and Foc-infected samples as well as the Foc candidate effectors secreted in xylem provide valuable insights into B. oleracea-Foc interactions.

  20. Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Bleeding Sap from Various Xinjiang Grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Lv; Umar, Anwar; Iburaim, Arkin; Moore, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Wine grape sap or bleeding sap of grapes (GBS) is commonly used in Xinjiang (China) for therapeutic aims. Do variations in composition related to region and variety affect its properties? GBS samples originating in various parts of Xinjiang (Turpan, Hotan, Kashgar, and Atush) were tested for phenols and polyphenols, polysaccharides, saponin, proteins, individual amino acids, and minerals. Their antioxidant activity was measured using ascorbic acid as reference. Polyphenol content varied from 2.6 to 6.6 mg/L, polysaccharides 18.3-816 mg/L, saponin 6.25-106 mg/L, and protein 3.0-22.4 mg/L. Mineral elements and amino acids ranged from 6.20 to 201.2 mg/L and 0.06-118.7 mg/L, respectively. ·OH scavenging ability varied from 70% to over 90%, higher than Vitamin C. Grapes from Turpan had lower antioxidant activity than other grapes even though the polyphenol content was generally higher. Bleeding sap of Xinjiang grape is rich in amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and protein. The contents are different according to the origin, related possibly to species, climate, and environment. Antioxidant effects were not correlated with polyphenol content. Antioxidant activity of plants or plant extracts is often associated with polyphenolsBleeding sap of grapes has strong antioxidant propertiesBleeding sap from different grape varieties from different parts of Xinjiang (China) had different polyphenol concentrationsThere was no correlation of polyphenol concentrations with antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: GBS: Bleeding sap of grapes; PITC: phenyl isothiocyanate.

  1. Sap flow characteristics of neotropical mangroves in flooded and drained soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Young, P. Joy; Chambers, Jim L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of flooding on water transport in mangroves have previously been investigated in a few studies, most of which were conducted on seedlings in controlled settings. In this study, we used heat-dissipation sap probes to determine if sap flow (Js) attenuates with radial depth into the xylem of mature trees of three south Florida mangrove species growing in Rookery Bay. This was accomplished by inserting sap probes at multiple depths and monitoring diurnal flow. For most species and diameter size class combinations tested, Js decreased dramatically beyond a radial depth of 2 or 4 cm, with little sap flow beyond a depth of 6 cm. Mean Js was reduced on average by 20% in Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f. and Rhizophora mangle L. trees when soils were flooded. Species differences were highly significant, with L. racemosahaving the greatest midday Js of about 26g H2O H2O m−2s−1 at a radial depth of 2 cm compared with a mean for the other two species of about 15 g H2O m−2s−1. Sap flow at a depth of 2 cm in mangroves was commensurate with rates reported for other forested wetland tree species. We conclude that: (1) early spring flooding of basin mangrove forests causes reductions in sap flow in mature mangrove trees; (2) the sharp attenuations in Js along the radial profile have implications for understanding whole-tree water use strategies by mangrove forests; and (3) regardless of flood state, individual mangrove tree water use follows leaf-level mechanisms in being conservative.

  2. Comparison of APACHE II and SAPS II Scoring Systems in Prediction of Critically ill Patients’ Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Aminiahidashti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using physiologic scoring systems for identifying high-risk patients for mortality has been considered recently. This study was designed to evaluate the values of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II and Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II models in prediction of 1-month mortality of critically ill patients.Methods: The present prospective cross sectional study was performed on critically ill patients presented to emergency department during 6 months. Data required for calculation of the scores were gathered and performance of the models in prediction of 1-month mortality were assessed using STATA software 11.0.Results: 82 critically ill patients with the mean age of 53.45 ± 20.37 years were included (65.9% male. Their mortality rate was 48%. Mean SAPS II (p < 0.0001 and APACHE II (p = 0.0007 scores were significantly higher in dead patients. Area under the ROC curve of SAPS II and APACHE II for prediction of mortality were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.64 - 0.86 and 0.72 (95% CI: 0.60 - 0.83, respectively (p = 0.24. The slope and intercept of SAPS II were 1.02 and 0.04, respectively. In addition, these values were 0.92 and 0.09 for APACHE II, respectively.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that APACHE II and SAPS II had similar value in predicting 1-month mortality of patients. Discriminatory powers of the mentioned models were acceptable but their calibration had some amount of lack of fit, which reveals that APACHE II and SAPS II are partially perfect.

  3. Implementation of SAP-IV on a minicomputer disc operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.B.; Howard, G.E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the described effort was the implementation of a linear elastic finite element structural analysis program version on a minicomputer operating system while maintaining (as much as possible) the general features of the original program. SAP-IV has been successfully implemented on a minicomputer operating system as one component in a portable vibration testing, data acquisition and processing, parameter identification and design optimization system for field work. The primary features in SAP-IV facilitating conversion and implementation on a minicomputer are: (1) the calculational procedures of SAP-IV are well documented and the subroutine structure easy to follow; (2) SAP-IV is organized in a highly modular fashion; (3) it is versatile with respect to its calculational options; and (4) the element library can be readily expanded. SAP-IV was installed on a Data General NOVA 32K memory disc operating system which utilizes various input-output peripherals and a single 1.2 megaword disc. The entire theoretical analysis-vibration test-data analysis-parameter identification-model modification system required such additional components as analog/digital converters, computer-driven electro-mechanical vibrators, a maximum of 512 transducers, and special-purpose software for test planning, execution, data processing, and matrix manipulation. The software system capabilities which allowed implementation of SAP-IV on the minicomputer were: (1) the availability of double precision; (2) the ability to use multiple OVERLAYs; (3) the ability to read and write programs from the disc to memory without destroying the programs (SWAP); (4) the ability to CHAIN a series of connected programs into the memory and execute them sequentially; and (5) the ability to utilize random access disc files

  4. Childhood Abuse and Current Family Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research examining the relationship of shame to interpersonal conflict is lacking. Method Participants were 129 mothers of children enrolled in a summer camp program for at-risk children from financially disadvantaged families. Data were collected on women's childhood abuse histories, shame in daily life, and current interpersonal conflict involving family conflict, intimate partner conflict (verbal and physical aggression), and child maltreatment. Results Consistent with our hypothesis, the results of hierarchical regressions and logistic regression indicated that shame significantly mediated the association between childhood sexual abuse and interpersonal conflict. Women with sexual abuse histories reported more shame in their daily lives, which in turn was associated with higher levels of conflicts with intimate partners (self-verbal aggression and partner-physical aggression) and in the family. Shame did not mediate the relationship between mothers' histories of sexual abuse and child maltreatment. Conclusion The role of shame in the intimate partner and family conflicts of women with sexual abuse histories has not been examined. The current findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse was related to interpersonal conflicts indirectly through the emotion of shame. Practical Implications These findings highlight the importance of investigating the role of shame in the interpersonal conflicts of women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Healthcare professionals in medical and mental health settings frequently treat women with abuse histories who are involved in family and partner conflicts. Assessing and addressing the links of

  5. The cost of dividing the commons: Overlapping property systems in Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Thol Dina; Jin Sato

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the political implications of dividing the commons through the case study of private fishing lots in the Tonle Sap Great Lake of Cambodia. The de facto private property in Tonle Sap lasted for over 100 years until the government abolished the system completely in March 2012. Unlike conventional studies of the commons which assume away the question of divisibility as too costly to be realistic, we argue that divided management occurs even when the cost is very high. This “c...

  6. The density of the cell sap and endoplasm of Nitellopsis and Chara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, R.; Staves, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    We measured the densities of the cell sap, endoplasm and cell wall of Nitellopsis obtusa and Chara corallina using interference microscopy, refractometry, immersion refractometry, equilibrium sedimentation and chemical microanalysis techniques. These values are important for the determination of many rheological properties of the cytoplasm as well as for understanding buoyancy regulation, dispersal mechanisms and how cells respond to gravity. The average densities of the cell sap, endoplasm and cell wall are 1,006.9, 1,016.7 and 1,371 kg m-3 for Nitellopsis and 1,005.0, 1,013.9, and 1,355.3 kg m-3 for Chara.

  7. Effect of strain rate and temperature at high strains on fatigue behavior of SAP alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blucher, J.T.; Knudsen, Per; Grant, N.J.

    1968-01-01

    Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased with decre......Fatigue behavior of three SAP alloys of two nominal compositions (7 and 13% Al2O3) was studied in terms of strain rate and temperature at high strains; strain rate had no effect on life at 80 F, but had increasingly greater effect with increasing temperature above 500 F; life decreased...

  8. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...

  9. Desenvolupament d'un SI vertical mitjantçant SAP Bussiness One

    OpenAIRE

    Matas Figueras, Toni

    2008-01-01

    El projecte es centra en el treball realitzat a MSS (Midmarket Software Solutions), empresa de Grupo Seidor, partner de la multinacional SAP, durant el desenvolupament d'un dels seus projectes de SAP Business One. La idea de realitzar el vertical neix fruit de la necessitat d'oferir una solució a diverses empreses demandants d'un producte específic per a cadascuna d'elles, però tenint totes en comú la seva situació en un sector concret del mercat, la gestió de vehicles. Es busca crear un p...

  10. Phloem sap collection from lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.): Methodology and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, M; Tjallingii, W F; van Beek, T A

    1994-12-01

    Three methods to collect phloem sap on different lettuce lines were optimized and are described in detail. The success ratio for stylectomy of aphids was over 80% through the combination of a specially designed setup and electrical penetration graphs to monitor phloem sap ingestion. For unknown reasons on some lettuce lines stylets never showed sustained exudation. There were clear differences in stylet exudation between two aphid species on the same lettuce line. Honeydew collection in hexadecane made accurate quantitative analysis possible; samples were large and clean, but biotransformed. The EDTA chelation method produced large samples, but dilution, oxidation, and impurities from the wound surface reduced the reliability.

  11. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  12. Glaucoma progression detection with frequency doubling technology (FDT) compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP) in the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, Christiaan; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    Purpose: To determine the usefulness of frequency doubling perimetry (FDT) for progression detection in glaucoma, compared to standard automated perimetry (SAP). Methods: Data were used from 150 eyes of 150 glaucoma patients from the Groningen Longitudinal Glaucoma Study. After baseline, SAP was

  13. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  14. Opioid Abuse after TBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0373 TITLE: “Opioid Abuse after TBI” PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Candace L. Floyd, Ph.D., and Katherine L. Nicholson...30Jun2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE “Opioid Abuse after TBI” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0373 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...secondly tested the hypothesis that moderate TBI increases the susceptibility for opioid abuse as measured by an alteration in the rewarding properties of

  15. Elder Abuse: Systematic Review and Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin Qi

    2015-06-01

    This article is based on the lecture for the 2014 American Geriatrics Society Outstanding Scientific Achievement for Clinical Investigation Award. Elder abuse is a global public health and human rights problem. Evidence suggests that elder abuse is prevalent, predictable, costly, and sometimes fatal. This review will highlight the global epidemiology of elder abuse in terms of its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences in community populations. The global literature in PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, BIOSIS, Science Direct, and Cochrane Central was searched. Search terms included elder abuse, elder mistreatment, elder maltreatment, prevalence, incidence, risk factors, protective factors, outcomes, and consequences. Studies that existed only as abstracts, case series, or case reports or recruited individuals younger than 60; qualitative studies; and non-English publications were excluded. Tables and figures were created to highlight the findings: the most-detailed analyses to date of the prevalence of elder abuse according to continent, risk and protective factors, graphic presentation of odds ratios and confidence intervals for major risk factors, consequences, and practical suggestions for health professionals in addressing elder abuse. Elder abuse is common in community-dwelling older adults, especially minority older adults. This review identifies important knowledge gaps, such as a lack of consistency in definitions of elder abuse; insufficient research with regard to screening; and etiological, intervention, and prevention research. Concerted efforts from researchers, community organizations, healthcare and legal professionals, social service providers, and policy-makers should be promoted to address the global problem of elder abuse. © 2015, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  17. Sexual Abuse in a Classroom of Ten Male Students: A Group Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Gonca Gul; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Avci, Ayse; Cekin, Necmi; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan; Yoruldu, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The term "professional perpetrator" is used to describe individuals who commit sexual abuse in the capacity of a position of trust such as a teacher, household member, or employer. There is an increasing body of evidence focusing on educator sexual abuse in the school environment. However, data are limited about this topic. The aim of…

  18. A Study of Clinical Supervision Techniques and Training in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul L.; Hamm, Terri

    2012-01-01

    Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substance abuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substance abuse counselors. (Contains 3…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  20. Drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly: is being alone the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B B; Chiang, C P

    Despite the rising incidence of drug and alcohol abuse among the elderly, information concerning the social and psychological factors fostering such abuse is scanty and potentially biased toward the limited number of older abusers who obtain professional help. Using a brief interview with carefully selected samples, the present study compares characteristics of social background and social support among 21 older clients (age 55 and over) of drug treatment facilities, 30 older abusers not in treatment, and 155 elderly nonabusers. Analyses suggest that age and gender affect the likelihood of receiving treatment for substance abuse more than the likelihood of being an abuser. Controlling for age and gender effects, substance abuse appeared more prevalent among single and divorced elderly and among respondents who lived alone; presence or absence of living companions was more influential than relationships with nearby social supports. Implications for health and social service programs as well as for further research are discussed.

  1. Phylogeny and expression analysis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-P (SAP) like genes reveal two distinct groups in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P T; Bird, S; Zou, J; Martin, S A M

    2017-06-01

    The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II). Salmon CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b and CRP/SAP-1c and CRP/SAP-2 belong to the group I family whilst salmon CRP/SAP-3 is a member of group II. Gene expression analysis showed that the salmon CRP/SAP-1a as well as serum amyloid A-5 (SAA-5), one of the major acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated by recombinant cytokines (rIL-1β and rIFNγ) in primary head kidney cells whilst the other four CRP/SAPs remained refractory. Furthermore, SAA-5 was produced as the main acute phase protein (APP) in Atlantic salmon challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida (aroA(-) strain) whilst salmon CRP/SAPs remained unaltered. Overall, these data illustrate the potential different functions of expanded salmon CRP/SAPs to their mammalian homologues. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Domestic violence and abuse: an exploration and evaluation of a domestic abuse nurse specialist role in acute health care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Julie

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of clinical staff in responding to disclosure of domestic violence and abuse, and to evaluate the effectiveness of training and support provided by a dedicated Domestic Abuse Nurse Specialist across one acute National Health Service Trust in the UK. The impact of domestic violence and abuse is well documented and is far reaching. Health care professionals have a key role to play in the effective identification and management of abuse across a range of settings. However, there is a paucity of evidence regarding the constituents of effective support for practitioners within wider nonemergency hospital-based services. A qualitative approach semi-structured interviews (n = 11) with clinical staff based in one acute care Trust in the UK. Interviews were informed by an interview guide and analysed using the Framework approach. The organisation of the nurse specialist role facilitated a more cohesive approach to management at an organisational level with training and ongoing support identified as key facets of the role by practitioners. Time constraints were apparent in terms of staff training and this raises questions with regard to the status continuing professional development around domestic violence and abuse. Domestic violence and abuse continues to exert a significant and detrimental impact on the lives and health of those who encounter abuse. Health care services in the UK and globally are increasingly on the frontline in terms of identification and management of domestic violence and abuse. This is coupled with the growing recognition of the need for adequate support structures to be in place to facilitate practitioners in providing effective care for survivors of domestic violence and abuse. This study provides an approach to the expansion of existing models and one which has the potential for further exploration and application in similar settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mapping of protein phosphatase-6 association with its SAPS domain regulatory subunit using a model of helical repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelson Jessica R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helical repeat motifs are common among regulatory subunits for type-1 and type-2A protein Ser/Thr phosphatases. Yeast Sit4 is a distinctive type-2A phosphatase that has dedicated regulatory subunits named Sit4-Associated Proteins (SAPS. These subunits are conserved, and three human SAPS-related proteins are known to associate with PP6 phosphatase, the Sit4 human homologue. Results Here we show that endogenous SAPS subunit PP6R3 co-precipitates half of PP6 in cell extracts, and the SAPS region of PP6R3 is sufficient for binding PP6. The SAPS domain of recombinant GST-PP6R3 is relatively resistant to trypsin despite having many K and R residues, and the purified SAPS domain (residues 1-513 has a circular dichroic spectrum indicative of mostly alpha helical structure. We used sequence alignments and 3D-jury methods to develop alternative models for the SAPS domain, based on available structures of other helical repeat proteins. The models were used to select sites for charge-reversal substitutions in the SAPS domain of PP6R3 that were tested by co-precipitation of endogenous PP6c with FLAG-tagged PP6R3 from mammalian cells. Mutations that reduced binding with PP6 suggest that SAPS adopts a helical repeat similar to the structure of p115 golgin, but distinct from the PP2A-A subunit. These mutations did not cause perturbations in overall PP6R3 conformation, evidenced by no change in kinetics or preferential cleavage by chymotrypsin. Conclusion The conserved SAPS domain in PP6R3 forms helical repeats similar to those in golgin p115 and negatively charged residues in interhelical loops are used to associate specifically with PP6. The results advance understanding of how distinctive helical repeat subunits uniquely distribute and differentially regulate closely related Ser/Thr phosphatases.

  4. Drug Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Substance Abuse or Dependence - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Substance ...

  5. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  6. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agree on a secret location where they can pick you up. Keep an alternate cellphone nearby. Try ... 2017 by: Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) Staff Kathleen C. Basile, Ph.D., Lead Behavioral Scientist, ...

  7. Child abuse: underlying mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Gladys S.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stress during childhood, in the form of abuse or neglect, is related to an increased vulnerability resulting in the development of several pathologies, this relation has been confi rmed by epidemiological studies; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such abnormalities are still unknown. Most of the research done has focused on the effects in the infant, and only recently it has begun to focus on the neurobiological changes in the abusive parents. In this article, I...

  8. The Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein abbasnezhadriyabi; Mozhganjalali

    2016-01-01

    While a large number of children are losing their lives due to poverty, malnutrition, contagious diseases and war, we are witnessing hundreds of children death by reason of misbehaving. Today, "child abuse" as a social-cultural phenomenon which shows crisis in a society, has a growing process in our country. The goal of this research was to investigate the base factors of child abuse that according to the results are consist as follows, poverty, unemployment, addiction, large families, single...

  9. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  10. Vaccines for Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Current medications for drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines to elicit antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status for two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (cocaine and nicotine) and two that are still in pre-clinical development (methamphetamine and heroin). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns for anti-addiction vaccine development and their use as future...

  11. New centre treats MDs whose careers are in shambles because of sex abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L S

    1995-01-01

    A new treatment centre in North Dakota specializes in treating professionals whose careers are in tatters because they have sexually abused patients or clients. The program was founded by a doctor whose own licence was revoked because of sexual abuse, and its clinical program director is a Canadian. It is designed to help professionals come to terms with sexual addictions in whatever form they occur. Dr. Larry Ohlhauser, registrar of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Alberta, says the...

  12. Health professionals responding to men for safety (HERMES): feasibility of a general practice training intervention to improve the response to male patients who have experienced or perpetrated domestic violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Emma; Jones, Sue K; Ferrari, Giulia; Debbonaire, Thangam; Feder, Gene; Hester, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate a training intervention for general practice-based doctors and nurses in terms of the identification, documentation, and referral of male patients experiencing or perpetrating domestic violence and abuse (DVA) in four general practices in the south west of England. Research suggests that male victims and perpetrators of DVA present to primary care clinicians to seek support for their experiences. We know that the response of primary care clinicians to women patients experiencing DVA improves from training and the establishment of referral pathways to specialist DVA services. The intervention consisted of a 2-h practice-based training. Outcome measures included: a pre-post, self-reported survey of staff practice; disclosures of DVA as documented in medical records pre-post (six months) intervention; semi-structured interviews with clinicians; and practice-level contact data collected by DVA specialist agencies. Results show a significant increase in clinicians' self-reported preparedness to meet the needs of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA. There was a small increase in male patients identified within the medical records (6 pre- to 17 post-intervention) but only five of those patients made contact with a specialist DVA agency identified within the referral pathway. The training increased clinicians' confidence in responding to male patients affected by DVA. The increase in recorded identification of DVA male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA was small and contact of those patients with a specialist DVA support service was negligible. We need to better understand male help seeking in relation to DVA, further develop interventions to increase identification of male patients experiencing or perpetrating DVA behaviours, and facilitate access to support services.

  13. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  14. Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats' access to date palm sap in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Sultana, Rebeca; Hossain, M Jahangir; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S; Oliveras, Elizabeth; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

  15. 30 CFR 285.700 - What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... installing facilities described in my approved SAP, COP, or GAP? 285.700 Section 285.700 Mineral Resources... § 285.700 What reports must I submit to MMS before installing facilities described in my approved SAP... in your approved COP (§ 285.632(a)) and, when required by this part, your SAP (§ 285.614(b)) or GAP...

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Gurley, Emily S.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm’s sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap. Methods During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap. Results During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [psap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, psap in trees with bamboo (psap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (psap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human. PMID:22905160

  17. 30 CFR 285.611 - What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must I submit with my SAP to... Assessment Plan § 285.611 What information must I submit with my SAP to assist MMS in complying with NEPA and other relevant laws? (a) You must submit with your SAP detailed information to assist MMS in complying...

  18. Binding of complement proteins C1q and C4bp to serum amyloid P component (SAP) in solid contra liquid phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Inge Juul; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    Serum amyloid P component (SAP), a member of the conserved pentraxin family of plasma proteins, binds calcium dependently to its ligands. The authors investigated SAPs interaction with the complement proteins C4b binding protein (C4bp) and C1q by ELISA, immunoelectrophoresis and electron microscopy....... Binding of these proteins to SAP was demonstrated when SAP was immobilized using F(ab')2 anti-SAP, but not when SAP reacted with these proteins in liquid phase; thus the binding to human SAP was markedly phase state dependent. Presaturation of solid phase SAP with heparin, which binds SAP with high...... affinity, did not interfere with the subsequent binding of C4bp or C1q to SAP. In contrast, collagen I and IV showed partial competition with the binding of C1q to SAP. Using fresh serum, immobilized native SAP bound C4bp whereas binding of C1q/C1 could not be demonstrated. Altogether the results indicate...

  19. Inflammasome in drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enquan; Liu, Jianuo; Wang, Xiaobei; Xiong, Huangui

    2017-01-01

    Drug abuse disorders refer to a set of related negative health implications associated with compulsive drug seeking and use. Because almost all addictive drugs act on the brain, many of them cause neurological impairments after long-term abuse. Neuropathological studies have revealed a widespread impairment of the cellular elements. As the key components to limit the damage of neural cells, CNS immune system is also found affected by these drugs, directly or indirectly. It has been shown that drugs of abuse alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling. Growing studies on neuroimmune factors further demonstrate their indispensable role in drugs-induced neurotoxicity. As an important proinflammatory intracellular receptor, inflammasome is activated in many neurodegenerative diseases in response to a broad range of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals. In the cases of drug abuse, especially in those with comorbid of HIV infection and sustained pain, inflammasome activation significantly promotes the neuroinflammation-associated toxicities. To understand inflammasome in drug-associated neurotoxic activity, we reviewed the role played by inflammasome in drug abuse-induced microglial neurotoxicity and evaluated the potential of imflammasone as a therapeutic target for drug abuse disorders based on recent development of various selective small-molecular inflammasome inhibitors.

  20. Whole body amyloid deposition imaging by 123I-SAP scintigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rheenen, Ronald; Glaudemans, Andor; Hazenberg, Bouke

    2011-01-01

    Amyloidosis is the name of a group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Deposition of amyloid can be localized or systemic. The 123I-SAP-scan can be used to image extent and distribution of amyloid deposition in patients with systemic AA, AL and ATTR amyloidosis.

  1. TRACC: an open source software for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Ward; Jean-Christophe Domec; John King; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Asko Noormets

    2017-01-01

    Key message TRACC is an open-source software for standardizing the cleaning, conversion, and calibration of sap flux density data from thermal dissipation probes, which addresses issues of nighttime transpiration and water storage. Abstract Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) have become a widely used method of monitoring plant water use in recent years. The use of TDPs...

  2. Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

  3. Activity of Zymomonas species in palm-sap obtained from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was isolated from fresh palm-sap samples from three different locations as to determine the contribution of the bacterial isolate to alcohol production in palm-wine. Carbohydrate (sugar) fermentation, alcohol tolerance, and growth of the bacterium at different pH and temperature values ...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 40 - SAP Equivalency Requirements for Certification Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. E Appendix E to Part 40—SAP Equivalency... requirement. The test must accurately measure the application of the knowledge, skills, and abilities... (examination reliability and relationship to the knowledge, skills, and abilities required by the counseling...

  5. Critical Care Nurses Inadequately Assess SAPS II Scores of Very Ill Patients in Real Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Perren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Reliable ICU severity scores have been achieved by various healthcare workers but nothing is known regarding the accuracy in real life of severity scores registered by untrained nurses. Methods. In this retrospective multicentre audit, three reviewers independently reassessed 120 SAPS II scores. Correlation and agreement of the sum-scores/variables among reviewers and between nurses and the reviewers’ gold standard were assessed globally and for tertiles. Bland and Altman (gold standard—nurses of sum scores and regression of the difference were determined. A logistic regression model identifying risk factors for erroneous assessments was calculated. Results. Correlation for sum scores among reviewers was almost perfect (mean ICC = 0.985. The mean (±SD nurse-registered SAPS II sum score was 40.3±20.2 versus 44.2±24.9 of the gold standard (32 points scores. The lowest agreement was found in high SAPS II tertiles for haemodynamics (k = 0.45–0.51. Conclusions. In real life, nurse-registered SAPS II scores of very ill patients are inaccurate. Accuracy of scores was not associated with nurses’ characteristics.

  6. Leading a horse to water … Assessing review mechanisms of SAPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have been no shortage of reviews, evaluations and audits of police performance in South Africa over the past decade. This article provides a detailed description of the key findings of a number of reviews relating to the role and function of the SAPS. A closer reading of these reviews points to considerable agreement ...

  7. Application of and experience with the SAPs on fault analysis and PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, I.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents some of the important experiences that NII has gained in its use of the fault analysis SAPs since their introduction in 1992. In particular it addresses the principles and techniques which lie behind the application of PSA, and emphasizes the role of ALARP. (author)

  8. Estimation of whole-plant transpiration of bananas using sap flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Woo, Kam-Chau; Liu, Zhu-Tian

    2002-08-01

    Banana, one of the largest rhizomatous herbs in the world, is the fourth most important global food crop. It has a high water requirement, but the whole-plant water use in the field has not been determined satisfactorily. In this study, whole-plant water use in potted and field-grown banana plants (Musa 'Cavendish' cv. Williams) was successfully determined using a xylem sap flow method. This was achieved using Granier sensor probes implanted into the central cylinder of the banana corm. The whole-plant water use in field-grown bananas was 9-10 l plant(-1) d(-1). The values of daily total sap flow in potted plants correlated closely with gravimetric measurements (r(2)=0.92) and with changes in soil water status (r(2)=0.77). In well-watered, mature, field-grown plants, hourly sap flow also closely correlated with changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and evapotranspiration. The study indicates that sap flow measurement is a sensitive and accurate method for determining whole-plant water use in bananas under potted as well as field conditions.

  9. Sugars of the unfermented sap and the wine from the oil palm, Elaeis guinensis, tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, M O; Ogan, U

    1988-01-01

    The sugar composition of the unfermented sap from oil palm (Elaeis guinensis) trees growing in the plantations of the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, Benin City, has been determined. While sucrose concentration ranges from 9.59 to 10.59% (w/v) in the pure unfermented sap, that of either glucose or fructose is much less than 1% (w/v) (0.13-0.73% w/v). Raffinose occurs in traces only (0.13-0.35 w/v). These results were derived from our improved methods which eliminate completely, or reduce to a bare minimum, fermentation of the sap during collection. The variation with time of storage of the individual sugars in the sap during fermentation to form palm wine reveals that, as sucrose steadily decreases, fructose reaches a peak at 1.51% (w/v) at the 9th hour, and thereafter declines, while glucose and raffinose remain continuously low; all sugars disappear beyond the 33rd hour. Concomittantly, pH decreases from pH 6.60 at zero time and stabilizes at pH 3.30 after 48 h, while titrable acidity increases continuously up until the 96th hour. These changes account for the variations in the quality of palm wine during storages.

  10. Exploring the Potential of Banana SAP as Dye for the Adinkra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to explore the potential of banana sap as a dye for the Adinkra industry in Ghana. Pseudostem extract of banana and stem bark extract of Bridelia micratha were compared as dyeing stuff. A consumer preference study was also conducted to assess the acceptability of the products developed.

  11. Automatic measurement of water uptake and weeping sap excretion by root system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Czerski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus is described which allows continuous recording of water uptake by a plant. The elements of this apparatus serve at the same time for measurement of root pressure. The size of the recorded portion of uptaken water and of weeping sap excreted by the plant root can be regulated.

  12. Sap volume flow as influenced by tubing diameter and slope percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Clay Smith

    1971-01-01

    The amount of sugar maple sap that can move through plastic tubing is controlled by several factors. The most important are tubing diameter and slope percent. Estimates are given of the number of tapholes that can be used with combinations of these variables.

  13. Enhancement of crack healing efficiency and performance of SAP in biocrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giriselvam, M. G.; Poornima, V.; Venkatasubramani, R.; Sreevidya, V.

    2018-02-01

    Concrete usage in Construction becomes more common in this speedy world. Despite its benefits, concrete often exhibits crack which appear due to stresses. Larger cracks cause Structural integrity problems and smaller cracks may result in durability issues. A novel environmental friendly strategy to restore or remediate cracks formed in the structures is bio-mineralization of calcium carbonate using microbes such as Bacillus Subtilis (used in this study), as manual repair and maintenance is costly. In this Paper, an idea of using Super Absorbent Polymer in Bacterial Concrete was analysed which increases the strength and durability properties of concrete and also which acts as a protection to bacteria, where Self-Healing nature is viewed. In the span of 90 days, the results of Bacterial concrete cured under normal water providing nutrients inside with SAP shows healing up to 74 % and without SAP displays 49 % and when it is cured under nutrient medium, Bacterial Concrete having SAP displays healing up to 66 %, whereas without SAP it displays 57.4% of healing. During the observation it is discernible that the crack width ranging from 0.10 mm near 0.45 mm show better self-healing capacity. XRD analysis displays the presence of Calcium carbonate precipitation in cracks.

  14. Integrating Enterprise Resource Planning (SAP) in the Accounting Curriculum: A Systematic Literature Review and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Yvette; Abedin, Babak; Vatanasakdakul, Savanid; Erfani, Seyedezahra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software package SAP was integrated into the curriculum of an accounting information systems (AIS) course in an Australian university. Furthermore, the paper provides a systematic literature review of articles published between 1990 and 2013 to understand how ERP systems were…

  15. Rhizobium Strain Effects on Yield and Bleeding Sap Amino Compounds in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lis

    1984-01-01

    relative to the total N-accumulation was greater with strain 128c53 due to a higher production of nodule tissue. The root bleeding sap of the symbiosis with the greater yield (strain 1044) contained high levels of asparagine and aspartic acid. In the 128c53 symbiosis, glutamine plus homoserine accounted...

  16. Evapotranspiration components determined by stable isotope, sap flow and eddy covariance techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D.G.; Cable, W.; Hultine, K.; Hoedjes, J.C.B.; Yepez, E.A.; Simonneaux, V.; Er-Raki, S.; Boulet, G.; Debruin, H.A.R.; Chehbouni, A.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Timouk, F.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding and modeling water exchange in and and semiarid ecosystems is complicated by the very heterogeneous distribution of vegetation and moisture inputs, and the difficulty of measuring and validating component fluxes at a common scale. We combined eddy covariance (EC), sap flow, and stable

  17. Interventions for preventing abuse in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Hairi, Noran N; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Choo, Wan Yuen

    2016-08-16

    , although there were few details on the components and analysis of the costing.We are uncertain whether these interventions reduce the occurrence or recurrence of elder abuse due to variation in settings, measures and effects reported in the included studies, some of which were very small and at a high risk of bias (low- and very low-quality evidence).Two studies measured the occurrence of elder abuse. A high risk of bias study found a difference in the post-test scores (P value 0.048 and 0.18). In a low risk of bias study there was no difference found (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% 0.18 to 1.27) (n = 214). For interventions measuring abuse recurrence, one small study (n = 16) reported no difference in post-test means, whilst another found higher levels of abuse reported for the intervention arms (Cox regression, combined intervention hazard ratio (HR) = 1.78, alpha level = 0.01).It is uncertain whether targeted educational interventions improve the relevant knowledge of health professionals and caregivers (very low-quality evidence), although they may improve detection of resident-to-resident abuse. The concept of measuring improvement in detection or reporting as opposed to measuring the occurrence or recurrence of abuse is complicated. An intervention of public education and support services aimed at victims may also improve rates of reporting, however it is unclear whether this was due to an increase in abuse recurrence or better reporting of abuse.The effectiveness of service planning interventions at improving the assessment and documentation of related domains is uncertain. Unintended outcomes were not reported in the studies. There is inadequate trustworthy evidence to assess the effects of elder abuse interventions on occurrence or recurrence of abuse, although there is some evidence to suggest it may change the combined measure of anxiety and depression of caregivers. There is a need for high-quality trials, including from low- or middle-income countries

  18. Abused women's vulnerability in daily life and in contact with psychiatric care: In the light of a caring science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen the understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with health care professionals affect life. A further aim is to highlight abused women's vulnerability with a caring science perspective. Experience of abuse has consequences for the mental health of women and girls. Abused women may experience health care as unsupportive, and as a result, often chose not to disclose their experiences of abuse. The results of two qualitative empirical studies were analysed along with a phenomenological meaning analysis in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. Living one's life with experiences of abuse implies vulnerability, which can prevent abused women from achieving good health. This vulnerability results from insecurity regarding identity, along with the sense that one could have been a different individual if it were not for the abuse and thereby have a more fair chance in life. Being cared for within general psychiatric care could further increase this vulnerability. The healthcare professional's ability to care for the women who have experienced abuse leads to either an encounter of trust or else further suffering for the women. A lifeworld-oriented caring science perspective as a foundation for care can contribute to care for abused women which reaches the existential dimensions of their vulnerability and vulnerable life situation. It is evident that healthcare professionals should deepen their understanding of how abused women live, within a general psychiatric context. This study enables a deeper understanding of abused women's vulnerability in relation to how the abuse and encounters with healthcare professionals affect life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Utilization of chitosan as an antimicrobial agent for pasteurized palm sap (Borassus flabellifer Linn.) during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naknean, Phisut; Jutasukosol, Keawta; Mankit, Theerarat

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the potential of chitosan for improvement the quality of pasteurized palm sap during storage. First, the effect of chitosan content on sensory attributes was investigated to select suitable concentration of chitosan for further study. Fresh palm sap was enriched with chitosan at various concentrations (0-2 g/L) and pasteurized at 80 °C for 10 min, consequently evaluated by consumers. It was found that samples added chitosan in the range of 0-1.00 g/L were considered acceptable. Thus, the addition chitosan in the concentration of 0-1.00 g/L was chosen for further study. The sample without chitosan addition was used as a control sample. Each selected sample was determined for their qualities during storage at 1 week interval. It was found that lightness and transmittance values of all samples tended to increase during storage. Lower PPO and invertase activity were observed in all chitosan-treated samples compared to control sample. Chitosan could minimize the loss of sucrose and the increase in glucose and fructose content during storage. In addition, an increase in chitosan concentration resulted in the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, the addition of chitosan could retard the development of microorganism during storage as demonstrated by lower microbial loads compared to control sample. It can be concluded that a combination of pasteurization with chitosan addition (0.50 g/L) and low temperature storage could preserve palm sap for approximately 6 weeks. Thus, the incorporation of chitosan in palm sap could be used as an alternative way to extend shelf life of pasteurized palm sap.

  20. Responses of Sap Flow of Deciduous and Conifer Trees to Soil Drying in a Subalpine Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurring species may adopt different water-use strategies to adapt to limited soil water. In Jiuzhaigou Valley, a continuous decline in soil water after an initial recharge from the thawing of snow and frozen soil in early spring was observed, but its effects on the sap flow dynamics of co-occurring species are not well understood. To clarify the species-specific water-use strategy, variations in sap flow and environmental conditions were investigated for two co-occurring species (Betula albosinensis Burk. and Pinus tabuliaeformis Carr. in a mixed forest during a transition from the wet to dry period in 2014. Sap flow was measured using Granier-type thermal dissipation probes, and the soil-water content was measured using time-domain reflectometry probes for a successive period. Our study showed that B. albosinensis maintained relatively high transpiration until late into the season regardless of soil moisture, while the transpiration of P. tabuliformis showed a continuous decrease in response to seasonal soil drying. Sap flow for both species exhibited a marked hysteresis in response to meteorological factors and it was conditioned by the soil-water status, especially in the afternoon. We found that P. tabuliformis was sensitive to soil-water conditions, while for B. albosinensis, the sap flow was not very sensitive to changes in soil-water conditions. These results indicate that B. albosinensis could manage the water consumption conservatively under both dry and wet conditions. These results may have implications for evaluating the species-specific water-use strategy and carrying out proper reforestation practices.

  1. SAP(E) - A cell-penetrating polyproline helix at lipid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Johannes; Lelle, Marco; Peneva, Kalina; Bonn, Mischa; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short membrane-permeating amino acid sequences that can be used to deliver cargoes, e.g. drugs, into cells. The mechanism for CPP internalization is still subject of ongoing research. An interesting family of CPPs is the sweet arrow peptides - SAP(E) - which are known to adopt a polyproline II helical secondary structure. SAP(E) peptides stand out among CPPs because they carry a net negative charge while most CPPs are positively charged, the latter being conducive to electrostatic interaction with generally negatively charged membranes. For SAP(E)s, an internalization mechanism has been proposed, based on polypeptide aggregation on the cell surface, followed by an endocytic uptake. However, this process has not yet been observed directly - since peptide-membrane interactions are inherently difficult to monitor on a molecular scale. Here, we use sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy to investigate molecular interactions of SAP(E) with differently charged model membranes, in both mono- and bi-layer configurations. The data suggest that the initial binding mechanism is accompanied by structural changes of the peptide. Also, the peptide-model membrane interaction depends on the charge of the lipid headgroup with phosphocholine being a favorable binding site. Moreover, while direct penetration has also been observed for some CPPs, the spectroscopy reveals that for SAP(E), its interaction with model membranes remains limited to the headgroup region, and insertion into the hydrophobic core of the lipid layer does not occur. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Cannabis use and abuse correlates in a homogenous South African schizophrenia population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezl Koen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and it has been identified as a correlate in schizophrenia samples for poorer symptomatic and functional outcomes in many international studies. The object of this retrospective study was to identify the prevalence of cannabis use/abuse and the demographic and clinical correlates therefor in a large homogeneous South African schizophrenia population. Methods. As part of a large genetic study, 547 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected and each participant underwent a urinary drug screen. Use/abuse of cannabis was defined as using cannabis more than 21 times in a single year. Subjects with and without cannabis use/abuse were statistically compared. Results. Significant differences between the two groups were found in terms of gender, marital status, age of onset of schizophrenia, number of hospitalisations and relapses, alcohol abuse, smoking, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS scores for hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behaviour and formal thought disorder, and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS score for avolition/apathy. Conclusion. The prevalence of cannabis use/abuse in this study was high, and our findings were comparable with those of previous international studies. Abuse/use started mainly in the teenage years, was more prevalent among males than females, and was associated with negative overall outcomes. There was also a positive correlation between cannabis and nicotine and alcohol use/abuse. Determination of cannabis abuse based solely on history was found to be reliable, and urine cannabis testing appeared to be of limited value in routine management of this group of schizophrenic patients.

  3. Toxicological Analysis of Some Drugs of Abuse in Biological Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Ciobanu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of drugs of abuse is a scourge of modern world. Abuse, drug addiction and their consequences are one of the major current problems of European society because of the significant repercussions in individual, family, social and economic level. In this context, toxicological analysis of the drugs of abuse in biological samples is a useful tool for: diagnosis of drug addiction, checking an auto-response, mandatory screening in some treatment programs, identification of a substance in the case of an overdose, determining compliance of the treatment. The present paper aims to address the needs of healthcare professionals involved in drugs addiction treatment through systematic presentation of information regarding their toxicological analysis. Basically, it is a tool that help you to select the suitable biological sample and the right collecting time, as well as the proper analysis technique, depending on the purpose of analysis, pharmacokinetic characteristics of the drugs of abuse, available equipment and staff expertise.

  4. Elder abuse and neglect vs. parricide: a letter from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In Russia, elder abuse is rarely discussed in the professional literature and the media. However, it is posited that parricide can be considered a form of elder abuse in Russia, as the line between elder abuse and parricide can be vague. Instances of parricide can appear trivial, hardly realized as such by victims and the social environment. Borderline cases can include involving older people in binge drinking, denying them help, and manipulating them to commit suicide. The perpetrators are often nonpsychotic, although sometimes exhibiting abnormal personality traits. Anger toward the victim can be absent on the part of the perpetrator, with their actions often driven by economic desires. A concluding point is that for better prevention of parricide and, therefore, elder abuse, it should not be considered only an unusual horrific crime committed by the mentally ill.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  6. Handbook of the medical consequences of alcohol and drug abuse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brick, John

    2008-01-01

    ... consequences and effects of drug abuse. An asset for health care professionals and the general public because of its easy-to-follow structure, index, and extensively researched com- prehensive sections. . . . A very useful guide for medical and other health professions students who need to have this type of information at their fingertips as...

  7. Substance Abuse by Elders and Self-Enhancement Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael N.; Green, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Human service professionals regularly do not recognize the symptoms of substance abuse in older populations and are unlikely to provide intervention. In this study, human service students (N = 242) were given one of three vignettes in which the main character was an 80-year-old man, an 80-year-old woman, or they were asked to imagine themselves at…

  8. Prevalence And Determinants Of Drug Abuse Among Youths In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug abuse is a global public health problem that impacts negatively on health, family, society, educational and professional life. Majority of youths ignorantly depend on one form of substance or the other for various daily activities such as social, educational, political and moral. The objective of this study was to assess the ...

  9. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T R; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50-75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized.

  10. [Disciplinary verdicts in cases of child abuse; lessons for paediatricians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkers, Gitte; Biesaart, Monique C I H; Leeuwenburgh-Pronk, Wendela G

    2015-01-01

    To give an overview of disciplinary cases regarding action taken by paediatricians and paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse and to discuss the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. Retrospective, descriptive study. We considered all disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013 against paediatricians or paediatric residents and selected complaints regarding action taken in cases of (suspected) child abuse. We divided these complaints into six categories and studied the considerations of the disciplinary board in these cases. From 33 disciplinary cases instigated from 2001 to 2013, we selected 76 complaints regarding action taken by paediatricians or paediatric residents in cases of (suspected) child abuse. The majority of these complaints concerned the reporting or requesting of information in the context of (suspected) child abuse. All of the complaints in the category 'unwarranted reporting of child abuse' were declared unfounded by the disciplinary judge. The disciplinary board declared all complaints unfounded in cases where the paediatrician or paediatric resident had followed the Dutch national protocol regarding reporting of child abuse and domestic violence. The disciplinary board examines whether action was taken in accordance with reasonable standards of professional competence and considers that paediatricians have an important role in identifying child abuse.

  11. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  12. Intimate partner violence: psychological and verbal abuse during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debono, Christie; Borg Xuereb, Rita; Scerri, Josianne; Camilleri, Liberato

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse, as well as to determine which of these variables are predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. Intimate partner violence is a significant health issue, with severe implications to both mother and foetus. However, much of the research to date focuses on the outcomes of physical abuse. This article addresses the dearth in the literature by examining the association between sociodemographic, pregnancy-related variables and psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy. A survey research design was used. Three hundred postnatal women were recruited by convenience, nonproportional quota sampling technique. The WHO Violence Against Women Instrument was self-administered by participants. The association between categorical variables was assessed using Pearson's chi-square test, the strength of association using Cramer's V and the phi coefficient, and the identification of predictor variables for psychological and verbal abuse using logistic regression analysis. Four predictors were identified for psychological abuse, namely low education level in women, an unplanned pregnancy, experiencing two or more pregnancy-related health problems and living with an unemployed partner. However, unemployment in women, an unplanned pregnancy, fear of partner and a low education level of partner were identified as the predictors of verbal abuse. This study identified a number of variables that strongly predict psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse during pregnancy; however, it extends the available literature by identifying a low standard of education in males, unemployment and fear of the intimate partner as the significant predictors of psychological and verbal intimate partner abuse. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the predictors predisposing pregnant women to abuse. This

  13. La proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP regula la expresión de IFN-g en lepra The SLAM-associated protein (SAP regulates IFN-g expression in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F. Quiroga

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available La inmunidad protectora contra Mycobacterium leprae requiere IFN-g. Los pacientes con lepra tuberculoide producen localmente citoquinas Th1, mientras que los pacientes lepromatosos producen citoquinas Th2. La molécula linfocitaria activadora de señales (SLAM y la proteína asociada a SLAM (SAP participan en la diferenciación celular que conduce a producción de patrones específicos de citoquinas. A fin de investigar la vía SLAM/SAP en la infección por M. leprae, determinamos expresión de ARN mensajero (ARNm de SAP, IFN-g y SLAM en pacientes con lepra. Observamos que la expresión de SLAM correlacionó en forma directa con la expresión de IFN-g, mientras que la expresión de SAP correlacionó inversamente con la expresión de ambas proteínas. Así, nuestros resultados indican que SAP interferiría con las respuestas de citoquinas Th1 mientras que SLAM contribuiría con la respuesta Th1 en lepra, señalando a la vía SLAM/SAP como potencial blanco modulador de citoquinas en enfermedades con respuestas Th2 disfuncionales.Tuberculoid leprosy patients locally produce Th1 cytokines, while lepromatous patients produce Th2 cytokines. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM and the SLAM-associated protein (SAP participate in the differentiation process that leads to the production of specific patterns of cytokines by activated T cells. To investigate the SLAM/SAP pathway in M. leprae infection, we determined the expression of SAP, IFN-g and SLAM RNA messenger in leprosy patients. We found a direct correlation of SLAM expression with IFN-g expression, whereas the expression of SAP was inversely correlated with the expression of both SLAM and IFN-g. Therefore, our data indicate that SAP might interfere with Th1 cytokine responses while SLAM expression may contribute to Th1 responses in leprosy. This study further suggests that the SLAM/SAP pathway might be a focal point for therapeutic modulation of T cell cytokine responses in diseases

  14. Measurement of respirable superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) dust by ethanol derivatization using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Paul; Lemmo, John S; Macomber, Margaret; Holcomb, Mark L; Lieckfield, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP) is an important industrial chemical manufactured primarily as sodium polyacrylate but occasionally as potassium salt. It has many applications owing to its intrinsic physical property of very high water absorption, which can be more than 100 times it own weight. SAP is commonly used in disposable diapers and feminine hygiene products and is known by a number of synonyms-sodium polyacrylate, superabsorbent polyacrylate (SAP), polyacrylate absorbent (PA), and superabsorbent material (SAM). Germany and The Netherlands have adopted a nonbinding scientific guideline value 0.05 mg/m³ (8-hr time-weighted average, TWA) as the maximum allowable workplace concentration for the respirable dust of SAP (SAP present in reference samples. The accuracy of the method, as determined by comparison with sodium analysis of known reference samples, was greater than 80% over the study range of 5-50 μg of SAP dust. The lower reporting limit of the method is 3.0 μg of SAP per sample, which is equivalent to 3 (μg/m³) for an 8-hr sampling period at the recommended flow rate of 2.2 L/min.

  15. Decreased SAP expression in T cells from patients with SLE contributes to early signaling abnormalities and reduced IL-2 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampetsou, Maria P.; Comte, Denis; Kis-Toth, Katalin; Terhorst, Cox; Kyttaris, Vasileios C.; Tsokos, George C.

    2016-01-01

    T cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) display a number of functions including increased early signaling events following engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR). Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) cell surface receptors and the X-chromosome-defined signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) adaptor are important in the development of several immunocyte lineages and modulating immune response. Here we present evidence that SAP protein levels are decreased in T cells and in their main subsets isolated from 32 women and 3 men with SLE independently of disease activity. In SLE T cells the SAP protein is also subject to increased degradation by a caspase-3. Forced expression of SAP in SLE T cells simultaneously heightened IL-2 production, calcium (Ca2+) responses and tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Exposure of normal T cells to SLE serum IgG, known to contain anti-CD3/TCR antibodies, resulted in SAP downregulation. We conclude that SLE T cells display reduced levels of the adaptor protein SAP probably as a result of continuous T cell activation and degradation by caspase-3. Restoration of SAP levels in SLE T cells corrects the overexcitable lupus T cell phenotype. PMID:27183584

  16. Metabolomics of tomato xylem sap during bacterial wilt reveals Ralstonia solanacearum produces abundant putrescine, a metabolite that accelerates wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M; Hendrich, Connor G; von Roepenack-Lahaye, Edda; Li, Bin; Wu, Dousheng; Mitra, Raka; Dalsing, Beth L; Ricca, Patrizia; Naidoo, Jacinth; Cook, David; Jancewicz, Amy; Masson, Patrick; Thomma, Bart; Lahaye, Thomas; Michael, Anthony J; Allen, Caitilyn

    2017-12-07

    Ralstonia solanacearum thrives in plant xylem vessels and causes bacterial wilt disease despite the low nutrient content of xylem sap. We found that R. solanacearum manipulates its host to increase nutrients in tomato xylem sap, enabling it to grow better in sap from infected plants than in sap from healthy plants. Untargeted GC/MS metabolomics identified 22 metabolites enriched in R. solanacearum-infected sap. Eight of these could serve as sole carbon or nitrogen sources for R. solanacearum. Putrescine, a polyamine that is not a sole carbon or nitrogen source for R. solanacearum, was enriched 76-fold to 37 µM in R. solanacearum-infected sap. R. solanacearum synthesized putrescine via a SpeC ornithine decarboxylase. A ΔspeC mutant required ≥ 15 µM exogenous putrescine to grow and could not grow alone in xylem even when plants were treated with putrescine. However, co-inoculation with wildtype rescued ΔspeC growth, indicating R. solanacearum produced and exported putrescine to xylem sap. Intriguingly, treating plants with putrescine before inoculation accelerated wilt symptom development and R. solanacearum growth and systemic spread. Xylem putrescine concentration was unchanged in putrescine-treated plants, so the exogenous putrescine likely accelerated disease indirectly by affecting host physiology. These results indicate that putrescine is a pathogen-produced virulence metabolite. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [Time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors in agroforestry system in West Liaoning Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Sun; Guan, De-xin; Yuan, Feng-hui; Wang, An-zhi; Wu, Jia-bing

    2010-11-01

    By using Granier's thermal dissipation probe, the sap flow velocity of the poplars in agroforestry system in west Liaoning was continuously measured, and the microclimate factors were measured synchronously. Dislocation contrast method was applied to analyze the sap flow velocity and corresponding air temperature, air humidity, net radiation, and vapor pressure deficit to discuss the time lag effect between poplar' s sap flow velocity and microclimate factors on sunny days. It was found that the poplar's sap flow velocity advanced of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure deficit, and lagged behind net radiation. The sap flow velocity in June, July, August, and September was advanced of 70, 30, 50, and 90 min to air temperature, of 80, 30, 40, and 90 min to air humidity, and of 90, 50, 70, and 120 min to vapor pressure deficit, but lagged behind 10, 10, 40, and 40 min to net radiation, respectively. The time lag time of net radiation was shorter than that of air temperature, air humidity, and vapor pressure. The regression analysis showed that in the cases the time lag effect was contained and not, the determination coefficients between comprehensive microclimate factor and poplar's sap flow velocity were 0.903 and 0.855, respectively, indicating that when the time lag effect was contained, the determination coefficient was ascended by 2.04%, and thus, the simulation accuracy of poplar's sap flow velocity was improved.

  18. Pattern of buprenorphine abuse among opioid abusers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar; Dhungana, Manoj; Khanal, Roshija

    2010-07-01

    Although buprenorphine abusers are a common clinical entity, literature on them is rare in Nepal. To assess whether injectable opioid abusers are any different a subgroup vis-a-vis brown sugar abusers in relation to their demographic and clinical profiles. Seventy-six opioid abusers, who were admitted over a period of one year, in our de-addiction center, were included in the present study. They were divided into two groups based on the history of the presence or absence of buprenorphine injection abuse in them. The demographic and clinical profiles of these two groups were studied and compared. The most characteristic opioid abuse pattern was the abuse of brown sugar through inhalation (chasing). A total of 32 (42.1%) among them had a history of injectable drug abuse (IDU). Most characteristic buprenorphine abuse pattern seen was an evolution from injectable buprenorphine to triple injection to brown sugar abuse (Reverse Transition). Injection buprenorphine abusers, who attended our clinic, were older in age and had a history of a longer duration of abuse than their counterparts who abused opioid drugs through the inhalational route only. Their lifetime diagnosis revealed a polysubstance abuse pattern. They were more unstable, impulsive, and disorganized in their behavior pattern, suggestive of the presence of inadequate personality traits. There were high instances of injection-related side effects in the form of the presence of thrombophlebitis, HIV positivity, and clinical AIDS in them. Findings of the current research indicate the presence of a subgroup of patient population among opioid abusers with a history of injectable buprenorphine abuse, with characteristic personality traits, pattern of drug abuse, and associated physical complications resulting from it.

  19. Molecular Pathogenesis of EBV Susceptibility in XLP as Revealed by Analysis of Female Carriers with Heterozygous Expression of SAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palendira, Umaimainthan; Low, Carol; Chan, Anna; Hislop, Andrew D.; Ho, Edwin; Phan, Tri Giang; Deenick, Elissa; Cook, Matthew C.; Riminton, D. Sean; Choo, Sharon; Loh, Richard; Alvaro, Frank; Booth, Claire; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Moretta, Alessandro; Khanna, Rajiv; Rickinson, Alan B.; Tangye, Stuart G.

    2011-01-01

    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in SH2D1A which encodes SAP. SAP functions in signalling pathways elicited by the SLAM family of leukocyte receptors. A defining feature of XLP is exquisite sensitivity to infection with EBV, a B-lymphotropic virus, but not other viruses. Although previous studies have identified defects in lymphocytes from XLP patients, the unique role of SAP in controlling EBV infection remains unresolved. We describe a novel approach to this question using female XLP carriers who, due to random X-inactivation, contain both SAP+ and SAP− cells. This represents the human equivalent of a mixed bone marrow chimera in mice. While memory CD8+ T cells specific for CMV and influenza were distributed across SAP+ and SAP− populations, EBV-specific cells were exclusively SAP+. The preferential recruitment of SAP+ cells by EBV reflected the tropism of EBV for B cells, and the requirement for SAP expression in CD8+ T cells for them to respond to Ag-presentation by B cells, but not other cell types. The inability of SAP− clones to respond to Ag-presenting B cells was overcome by blocking the SLAM receptors NTB-A and 2B4, while ectopic expression of NTB-A on fibroblasts inhibited cytotoxicity of SAP− CD8+ T cells, thereby demonstrating that SLAM receptors acquire inhibitory function in the absence of SAP. The innovative XLP carrier model allowed us to unravel the mechanisms underlying the unique susceptibility of XLP patients to EBV infection in the absence of a relevant animal model. We found that this reflected the nature of the Ag-presenting cell, rather than EBV itself. Our data also identified a pathological signalling pathway that could be targeted to treat patients with severe EBV infection. This system may allow the study of other human diseases where heterozygous gene expression from random X-chromosome inactivation can be exploited. PMID:22069374

  20. Predictive value of SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems for patient outcome in a medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Godinjak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim is to determine SAPS II and APACHE II scores in medical intensive care unit (MICU patients, to compare them for prediction of patient outcome, and to compare with actual hospital mortality rates for different subgroups of patients. Methods. One hundred and seventy-four patients were included in this analysis over a oneyear period in the MICU, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The following patient data were obtained: demographics, admission diagnosis, SAPS II, APACHE II scores and final outcome. Results. Out of 174 patients, 70 patients (40.2% died. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores in all patients were 48.4±17.0 and 21.6±10.3 respectively, and they were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. SAPS II >50.5 and APACHE II >27.5 can predict the risk of mortality in these patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II vs APACHE II (p=0.501. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the values of SAPS II and APACHE II (r=0.708; p=0.001. Patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock had the highest values of both SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and also the highest hospital mortality rate of 55.1%. Conclusion. Both APACHE II and SAPS II had an excellent ability to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II and APACHE II. A positive correlation was established between them. Sepsis/septic shock patients had the highest predicted and observed hospital mortality rate.

  1. [Sap flow characteristics of Quercus liaotungensis in response to sapwood area and soil moisture in the loess hilly region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jin Lin; He, Qiu Yue; Yan, Mei Jie; Li, Guo Qing; Du, Sheng

    2018-03-01

    To examine the characteristics of sap flow in Quercus liaotungensis and their response to environmental factors under different soil moisture conditions, Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were used to measure xylem sap flow of trees with different sapwood area in a natural Q. liaotungensis forest in the loess hilly region. Solar radiation, air temperature, relative air humidity, precipitation, and soil moisture were monitored during the study period. The results showed that sap flux of Q. liaotungensis reached daily peaks earlier than solar radiation and vapor pressure deficit. The diurnal dynamics of sap flux showed a similar pattern to those of the environmental factors. Trees had larger sap flux during the period with higher soil moisture. Under the same soil moisture conditions, trees with larger diameter and sapwood areas had significantly higher sap flux than those with smaller diameter and sapwood areas. Sap flux could be fitted with vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation, and the integrated index of the two factors using exponential saturation function. Differences in the fitted curves and parameters suggested that sap flux tended to reach saturation faster under higher soil moisture. Furthermore, trees in the smaller diameter class were more sensitive to the changes of soil moisture. The ratio of daily sap flux per unit vapor pressure deficit under lower soil moisture condition to that under higher soil moisture condition was linearly correlated to sapwood area. The regressive slope in smaller diameter class was larger than that in bigger diameter class, which further indicated the higher sensitivity of trees with smaller diameter class to soil moisture. These results indicated that wider sapwood of larger diameter class provided a buffer against drought stress.

  2. Exploring definitions of financial abuse in elderly Korean immigrants: the contribution of traditional cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Sang E; Eaton, Charissa K

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the cultural definitions of financial abuse from the perspective of 124 elderly Korean immigrants and to examine the role of traditional cultural values in their definitions by using a mixed methods approach. The qualitative analysis generated four themes relevant to definition of financial abuse. A binary logistic regression indicated that those with stronger cultural adherence to traditional values had higher odds of providing culture-based definitions of financial abuse. Education is needed for health professionals, social service providers, and adult protective workers to increase their understanding of culture-specific experiences of financial abuse among ethnic minority elders.

  3. Primary identification of an abused child in dental office: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the injuries of child abuse are many and varied, several types of injuries are common to abuse. Many of these injuries are within the scope of dentistry or easily observed by the dental professional in the course of routine dental treatment. The authors present a case of child abuse with multiple bruises. The child had been spanked in the previous night and the morning of the attendance by his mother. This case emphasized that all practitioners should be vigilant when patients present with abnormal injuries which may be the result of abuse and further investigation should be instigated.

  4. Drug abuse identification and pain management in dental patients: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahmida; Frare, Robert W; Py Berrios, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Properly identifying patients with a history of drug abuse is the first step in providing effective dental care. Dental professionals need to be fully aware of the challenges associated with treating this population. In the current study, the authors analyzed the physical and oral manifestations of illicit drug abuse to aid in the identification of patients who abuse drugs and the pain management strategies needed to treat them. The authors also present a clinical case of a patient with unique skin lesions and discuss the typical clinical findings of drug abuse based on a literature review.

  5. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sibling sexual abuse: why don't we talk about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Peter

    2017-08-01

    To explore two hypotheses for explaining why there is little written about sibling sexual abuse and to raise awareness of the subject in order better to protect children and to facilitate sensitive patient care. While there is no universal agreement over its definition, sibling sexual abuse is acknowledged internationally as a prevalent form of child sexual abuse but tends not to be recognised by health professionals. It is also under-represented within the literature in comparison with other forms of intrafamilial sexual abuse. Understanding why this is may help to illuminate the potential barriers to effective professional responses. Two explanations which emerge strongly are the existence of a sibling incest taboo and a prevailing belief that sibling sexual behaviour is largely harmless. Discursive position paper. The paper examines the two hypotheses through exploration of the extant literature on sibling incest and sibling sexual abuse. Sibling sexual abuse accounts for a significant minority of child sexual abuse and has the potential to be as harmful as sexual abuse by a parent. An abhorrence at the thought of sibling sexual activity and a prevailing view of its harmlessness may hinder nurses' detection of and appropriate responses to sibling sexual abuse, but do not provide convincing explanations for the dearth of literature. Instead, a deeply held perspective of sibling relationships as non-abusive offers a more profound explanation. A knowledge of sibling sexual abuse and its consequences are important both for the effective protection of children and the sensitive and appropriate treatment of patients who present with a variety of physical and mental health concerns. A perspective that sibling relationships are non-abusive provides a deeper level of understanding of the powerful obstacles to raising awareness of and responding appropriately to this form of abuse. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Professionals vs. role-professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Skrypnyk, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    This contribution revisits traditional models of professionalism through the glasses of a 'role-professionalism' perspective. In doing so, the authors' main argument is that it is not appropriate to conceptualise adult education as one profession or as one professional field tout court. There exist...... epistemology that guides their behaviour and the degree of trust by the adult learners, rather than a restrictive view on the specific occupation they hold....

  9. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  10. Determining Accuracy of Thermal Dissipation Methods-based Sap Flux in Japanese Cedar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Man-Ping; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Laplace, Sophie; Lin, Song-Jin; Kume, Tomonori

    2017-04-01

    Thermal dissipation method, one kind of sap flux measurement method that can estimate individual tree transpiration, have been widely used because of its low cost and uncomplicated operation. Although thermal dissipation method is widespread, the accuracy of this method is doubted recently because some tree species materials in previous studies were not suitable for its empirical formula from Granier due to difference of wood characteristics. In Taiwan, Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) is one of the dominant species in mountainous area, quantifying the transpiration of Japanese cedar trees is indispensable to understand water cycling there. However, no one have tested the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux for Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. Thus, in this study we conducted calibration experiment using twelve Japanese cedar stem segments from six trees to investigate the accuracy of thermal dissipation methods-based sap flux in Japanese cedar trees in Taiwan. By pumping water from segment bottom to top and inserting probes into segments to collect data simultaneously, we compared sap flux densities calculated from real water uptakes (Fd_actual) and empirical formula (Fd_Granier). Exact sapwood area and sapwood depth of each sample were obtained from dying segment with safranin stain solution. Our results showed that Fd_Granier underestimated 39 % of Fd_actual across sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 150 (cm3m-2s-1); while applying sapwood depth corrected formula from Clearwater, Fd_Granier became accurately that only underestimated 0.01 % of Fd_actual. However, when sap flux densities ranging from 10 to 50 (cm3m-2s-1)which is similar with the field data of Japanese cedar trees in a mountainous area of Taiwan, Fd_Granier underestimated 51 % of Fd_actual, and underestimated 26 % with applying Clearwater sapwood depth corrected formula. These results suggested sapwood depth significantly impacted on the accuracy of thermal dissipation

  11. Analyses of the xylem sap proteomes identified candidate Fusarium virguliforme proteinacious toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilwala S Abeysekara

    Full Text Available Sudden death syndrome (SDS caused by the ascomycete fungus, Fusarium virguliforme, exhibits root necrosis and leaf scorch or foliar SDS. The pathogen has never been identified from the above ground diseased foliar tissues. Foliar SDS is believed to be caused by host selective toxins, including FvTox1, secreted by the fungus. This study investigated if the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants contains secreted F. virguliforme-proteins, some of which could cause foliar SDS development.Xylem sap samples were collected from five biological replications of F. virguliforme-infected and uninfected soybean plants under controlled conditions. We identified five F. virguliforme proteins from the xylem sap of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants by conducting LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. These five proteins were also present in the excreted proteome of the pathogen in culture filtrates. One of these proteins showed high sequence identity to cerato-platanin, a phytotoxin produced by Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani to cause canker stain disease in the plane tree. Of over 500 soybean proteins identified in this study, 112 were present in at least 80% of the sap samples collected from F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected control plants. We have identified four soybean defense proteins from the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000873.This study confirms that a few F. virguliforme proteins travel through the xylem, some of which could be involved in foliar SDS development. We have identified five candidate proteinaceous toxins, one of which showed high similarity to a previously characterized phytotoxin. We have also shown the presence of four soybean defense proteins in the xylem sap of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants. This study laid the foundation for studying the molecular basis of foliar SDS development in soybean and possible

  12. A global database of sap flow measurements (SAPFLUXNET) to link plant and ecosystem physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Granda, Víctor; Flo, Víctor; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Oren, Ram; Katul, Gabriel; Mahecha, Miguel; Steppe, Kathy; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Regional and global networks of ecosystem CO2 and water flux monitoring have dramatically increased our understanding of ecosystem functioning in the last 20 years. More recently, analyses of ecosystem-level fluxes have successfully incorporated data streams at coarser (remote sensing) and finer (plant traits) organisational scales. However, there are few data sources that capture the diel to seasonal dynamics of whole-plant physiology and that can provide a link between organism- and ecosystem-level function. Sap flow measured in plant stems reveals the temporal patterns in plant water transport, as mediated by stomatal regulation and hydraulic architecture. The widespread use of thermometric methods of sap flow measurement since the 1990s has resulted in numerous data sets for hundreds of species and sites worldwide, but these data have remained fragmentary and generally unavailable for syntheses of regional to global scope. We are compiling the first global database of sub-daily sap flow measurements in individual plants (SAPFLUXNET), aimed at unravelling the environmental and biotic drivers of plant transpiration regulation globally. I will present the SAPFLUXNET data infrastructure and workflow, which is built upon flexible, open-source computing tools within the R environment (dedicated R packages and classes, interactive documents and apps with Rmarkdown and Shiny). Data collection started in mid-2016, we have already incorporated > 50 datasets representing > 40 species and > 350 individual plants, globally distributed, and the number of contributed data sets is increasing rapidly. I will provide a general overview of the distribution of available data sets according to climate, measurement method, species, functional groups and plant size attributes. In parallel to the sap flow data compilation, we have also collated published results from calibrations of sap flow methods, to provide a first quantification on the variability associated with different sap

  13. An Empirical Study of the Wound Effects on Sap Flow Measured with Thermal Dissipation Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, A.; Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Herbst, M.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.

    2014-12-01

    Sap flow sensors are common to assess the contribution of tree transpiration to ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). Thermal dissipation (TD) is one of the most popular methods for sap measurements but the insertion of TD probes in the tree stems imply wounding of the wood tissue and a consequent alteration of the sap flow. But the determination of sap flux density (SFD) is based on an empirical function developed for freshly drilled holes and it does hence not account for the wound effect. Here we investigate the effect of wound healing on sap flow measurements with TD probes. Our objectives were (1) the establishment of correction factors to account for the wound effect and (2) the determination of the point in time after installation when the correction factors become applicable. For that we performed an experiment in which TD probes were installed successively in diffuse- and ring-porous trees (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, resp.) during the growing season. The trees were logged in fall and additional sensors were installed afterwards in the logged stems. SFDs measured by the different TD sensors were compared with gravimetric estimates in the laboratory. Gravimetric flow compared well with SFD estimates from freshly installed sensors without wound formation, with only a slight underestimation by the TDs. In contrast, older sensors, submitted to wound reactions, underestimated SFD by up to 40%. However, sensors with 5, 11 and 22 week old wounds showed no significant differences, which implies that wound healing occurs in the first weeks after scission. Similar sap flow underestimations due to wound effects were observed in both species, oak and beech. This study highlights the relevance of accounting for tree wound reactions for accurate estimation of tree transpiration based on thermal dissipation sensors. We provide a correction factor for the classical Granier TD sensors that can be used from the first weeks after installation in similar species. This

  14. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  15. Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Abuse or Osteogenesis Imperfecta? A child is brought into the emergency room with a fractured leg. The ... welfare services to report a suspected case of child abuse. The child is taken away from the parents ...

  16. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  17. METHYLPHENIDATE (RITALIN) USE AND ABUSE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A K Aucamp, Ciba (Pty) Ltd - person:aI communication, 1997). (See Table I.) .... literature documenting abuse and its inherent dangers. In other words, patients are not going to acknowledge willingly that they are abusing methylphenidate.

  18. National Center on Elder Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us Contact Us Newsroom FAQ Suspect Abuse? Get Help What We Do Research Synthesize and disseminate high quality research on elder abuse to encourage the translation of research into practice. ...

  19. An agenda to combat substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2005-01-01

    Despite their huge health toll, substance abuse disorders remain underappreciated and underfunded. Reasons include stigma, tolerance of personal choices, acceptance of youthful experimentation, pessimism about treatment efficacy, fragmented and weak leadership, powerful tobacco and alcohol industries, underinvestment in research, and difficult patients. Positive signs include declining prevalence rates, successful counter-marketing campaigns, changing public attitudes, new scientific discoveries that could yield new treatments, and effective new organizations. Further progress will require better treatment, more research, better education of health professionals, more nongovernmental support, and stronger leadership. Policy changes regarding each of the three substance groups are indicated, as are reforms in the criminal justice and educational systems.

  20. Prior opportunities to identify abuse in children with abusive head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, Megan M; Cooper, Jennifer N; Deans, Katherine J; Scribano, Philip V; Makoroff, Kathi L; Feldman, Kenneth W; Berger, Rachel P

    2016-10-01

    Infants with minor abusive injuries are at risk for more serious abusive injury, including abusive head trauma (AHT). Our study objective was to determine if children with AHT had prior opportunities to detect abuse and to describe the opportunities. All AHT cases from 7/1/2009 to 12/31/2011 at four tertiary care children's hospitals were included. A prior opportunity was defined as prior evaluation by either a medical or child protective services (CPS) professional when the symptoms and/or referral could be consistent with abuse but the diagnosis was not made and/or an alternate explanation was given and accepted. Two-hundred-thirty-two children with AHT were identified; median age (IQR) was 5.40 (3.30, 14.60) months. Ten percent (22/232) died. Of the 232 patients diagnosed with AHT, 31% (n=73) had a total of 120 prior opportunities. Fifty-nine children (25%) had at least one prior opportunity to identify abuse in a medical setting, representing 98 prior opportunities. An additional 14 (6%) children had 22 prior opportunities through previous CPS involvement. There were no differences between those with and without a prior opportunity based on age, gender, race, insurance, mortality, or institution. Children with prior opportunities in a medical setting were more likely to have chronic subdural hemorrhage (48 vs. 17%, p<0.01) and healing fractures (31 vs. 19%, p=0.05). The most common prior opportunities included vomiting 31.6% (38/120), prior CPS contact 20% (24/120), and bruising 11.7% (14/120). Improvements in earlier recognition of AHT and subsequent intervention might prevent additional injuries and reduce mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the APACHE IV model and its comparison with the APACHE II, SAPS 3, and Korean SAPS 3 models for the prediction of hospital mortality in a Korean surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hannah; Shon, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Hyerim; Paik, Hyesun; Park, Hee-Pyoung

    2014-08-01

    The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) IV model has not yet been validated in Korea. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of the APACHE IV with those of APACHE II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) 3, and Korean SAPS 3 in predicting hospital mortality in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) population. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records for patients admitted to the SICU from March 2011 to February 2012 in a university hospital. Measurements of discrimination and calibration were performed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test, respectively. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR, actual mortality predicted mortality) for the four models. The study included 1,314 patients. The hospital mortality rate was 3.3%. The discriminative powers of all models were similar and very reliable. The AUCs were 0.80 for APACHE IV, 0.85 for APACHE II, 0.86 for SAPS 3, and 0.86 for Korean SAPS 3. Hosmer and Lemeshow C and H statistics showed poor calibration for all of the models (P < 0.05). The SMRs of APACHE IV, APACHE II, SAPS 3, and Korean SAPS 3 were 0.21, 0.11 0.23, 0.34, and 0.25, respectively. The APACHE IV revealed good discrimination but poor calibration. The overall discrimination and calibration of APACHE IV were similar to those of APACHE II, SAPS 3, and Korean SAPS 3 in this study. A high level of customization is required to improve calibration in this study setting.

  2. Workplace Abuse: Problems And Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Ebeid; Tej Kaul; Kathleen Neumann; Hugh Shane

    2011-01-01

    Workplace abuse is a relatively recent phenomenon that affects millions of employee in all types of organizations and occupations. Most of the literature on workplace management deals with employment discrimination and due process. Workplace issues of emotional abuse inflicted on employees by supervisors or managers are seldom addressed. An organization becomes abusive when it permits or tolerates abusive employee treatment by supervisors or managers. In the news each day, the media regularly...

  3. Sex Differences in Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; Hu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences are present for all of the phases of drug abuse (initiation, escalation of use, addiction, and relapse following abstinence). While there are some differences among specific classes of abused drugs, the general pattern of sex differences is the same for all drugs of abuse. Females begin regularly self-administering licit and illicit drugs of abuse at lower doses than do males, use escalates more rapidly to addiction, and females are at greater risk for relapse following abstin...

  4. The Satanic Ritual Abuse Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1991-01-01

    The issues raised by Jonker and Jonker-Bakker and Young et al (EC 601 187-188) illustrate a major controversy dividing the child abuse community, the alleged existence of a conspiracy of satanic, ritual, sexual abuse of children. No evidence is found to support claims that large numbers of babies and children are being sacrificed or abused in…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... incidence of both forcible and non-forcible sexual abuse. 3 “Sexual abuse is associated with changes in the metabolism of ... Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links to subsequent ...

  6. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  7. Child Abuse Potential: How Persistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Jaana; Aaltonen, Terhi

    1999-01-01

    Compares mothers whose children had been under supervision of Child Protective Services (CPS) with comparison mothers for child abuse potential using Millner's Child Abuse Potential Inventory. CPS mothers scored significantly higher than the comparison mothers, indicating their persistent elevated child abuse potential; there was no significant…

  8. SAP aitas Politsei- ja Piirivalveameti finantstöötajate arvu vähendada ligi kolm korda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet võttis kasutusele SAP tarkvara, mis on võimeline muutma asutuse finantsjuhtimise, personali-, palgaarvestuse ja logistika valdkondade tööprotsessid efektiivsemaks ja automatiseeritumaks

  9. Assessing Leading ERP-SAP Implementation in Leading Firms in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaiful, B.; Gunawan, W.

    2017-01-01

    Enterprise resource planning (ERP) enables to bring critical capabilities to an organisation, however, the implementation of such capabilities is often surrounded with problems. The implementing ERP-SAP in Indonesian enterprises are still facing tremendous challenges with the failure rate can reach more than 80% of the cases. The article examines the common problems faced by the consultants whenever they deal with their clients, from the practical perspectives. The article takes the multiple case studies of the leading enterprises in Indonesia, such as: KS (largest steel producer), GEM (large mining producer), and HS (large retailer), with the aim to identify the root of problems of SAP implementation. The outcome of the study is expected to provide the consultants with the guideline to understand the ERP implementation process in their clients and effective solutions to cope with it.

  10. Analysis of piping systems by finite element method using code SAP-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Ogrizek, D.

    1987-01-01

    Due to extensive and multiple use of the computer code SAP-IV we have decided to install it on VAX 11/750 machine. Installation required a large quantity of programming due to great discrepancies between the CDC (the original program version) and the VAX. Testing was performed basically in the field of pipe elements, based on a comparison between results obtained with the codes PSAFE2, DOCIJEV, PIPESD and SAP -V. Besides, the model of reactor pressure vessel with 3-D thick shell elements was done. The capabilities show good agreement with the results of other programs mentioned above. Along with the package installation, the graphical postprocessors being developed for mesh plotting. (author)

  11. Start-to-end global imaging as a sunward propagating, SAPS-associated giant undulation event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Donovan, Eric F [U OF CALGARY; Foster, John C [MIT; Mann, Ian R [UNIV OF ALBERTA; Immel, Thomas J [UC/BERKELEY; Mende, Stephen B [UN/BERKELEY; Sigwarth, John B [NASA/GSFC

    2009-01-01

    We present high-time resolution global imaging of a sunward propagating giant undulation event from start to finish. The event occurred on November 24, 2001 during a very disturbed storm interval. The giant undulations began to develop at around 13UT and persisted for approximately 2 hours. The sunward propagation speed was on the order of 0.6 km/s (relative to SM coordinate system). The undulations had a wavelength of {approx} 750 km, amplitudes of {approx} 890 km and produced ULF pulsations on the ground with a period of {approx} 1108s. We show that the undulations were associated with SAPs flows that were caused by the proton plasma sheet penetrating substantially farther Earthward than the electron plasma sheet on the duskside. The observations appear to be consistent with the development of a shear flow and/or ballooning type of instability at the plasmapause driven by intense SAPS-associated shear flows.

  12. Strategi Perencanaan Pengembangan Sistem Sap pada Human Capital and Legal di Institusi Pendidikan Xyz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Ekawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing complexity of processes and operational functions cause arises the need for an integrated information system across all functional areas to reach the highest point of effectiveness and efficiency, and relying on the information in making decisions, ie ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning. The objective of writing this journal is to analyze and determine a SAP system development strategy planning at Human Capital and Legal of Education Institution XYZ. In collecting data, the author collected the datas by making an interview with the sources, data observation, and SAP system exploration. Current architecture datas that were collected and anylized to design the planning strategy in developing system architecture. The conclusion of this journal writing is that planning with some methodologies could maximize the using of IS or IT in an organization and can achieve its goals.

  13. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Wal, M.F.V.D.; Brugman, E.; Sing, R.A.H.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5·6% (95% CI 4·2-7·0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  14. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  15. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic Facts & Information What does “Drug and Substance Abuse” mean? Most drugs and other chemical substances are helpful when used ... medications, and pain medications. Some older adults also abuse illegal drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and injected narcotics. Some ...

  16. sexually abused children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sexually abused children are anxiety disorders, depression, increased aggression and disturbance in sexual behaviour and gender roles. An American study found significantly higher rates .... counterparts with post-admission disclosure, this difference was not ... sense of psychic loneliness and internal crisis which follows.

  17. Mania following ketamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu YY

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yuan-Yuan Lu,1 Chieh-Hsin Lin,2,3 Hsien-Yuan Lane1,2,4 1Department of Psychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, 2Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 3Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 4Center for Drug Abuse and Addiction, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan Abstract: Ketamine, a noncompetitive antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor, has multiple clinical uses. On the other hand, ketamine abuse or recreational use has been gaining increasing attention. Induction of mania and psychotic symptoms has been reported in a patient receiving IV ketamine therapy for reflex sympathetic dystrophy. We here report a 26 year-old man who abused ketamine by inhalation for 12 months and developed manic-like symptoms after ketamine use. This case suggests a possible relationship between manic symptoms and ketamine abuse. To the best of our knowledge, this may be the first report regarding mania after recreational use of ketamine. Keywords: ketamine, mania, antidepressant, bipolar

  18. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  19. Drug abuse in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reardon CL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudia L Reardon, Shane Creado Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA Abstract: Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. Keywords: doping, athletes, steroids, drug abuse, mental illness

  20. Fast susceptibility-weighted imaging with three-dimensional short-axis propeller (SAP)-echo-planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Moseley, Michael E; Skare, S

    2015-05-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of three-dimensional (3D) gradient recalled echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D short-axis propeller echo-planar imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. The 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. The 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. The 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2 mm, scan time = 5 min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2 mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52 min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Characteristic Profiles of an Original Drink Sap from Male and Female Deglet Nour Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during Collection Period

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi; Abir Mokni-Ghribi; Hamadi Attia; Christophe Blecker; Souhail Besbes

    2016-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of a typical natural drink from male and female Deglet Nour (DN) date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. Dry matter, protein, amino acids, and sugar profiles were determined using AFNOR norm, Kjeldahl method, HPLC, and HPAEC-PAD, respectively. The male sap dry matter content was higher than that of the female. It decreased significantly through the tapping period. During the harvest, the male sap protein content decr...

  2. SERALARIN SAP2000 PROGRAMI İLE ANALİZ VE TASARIMI

    OpenAIRE

    KARAMAN, Sedat; SÖZEN, Şahin; ŞAHİN, Sırrı

    2013-01-01

    The safe design of greenhouses is of great importance and requires special attention. Computer-aided design and information technologies allow faster, easier and more reliable designs. Such designs were taking long hours when performed with classical methods by hand. Today, there are numerous computer softwares being able to perform calculations and dimensioning of greenhouse systems reliably and practically. This study was mainly focused on analysis and design of greenhouses by using SAP2000...

  3. Metabolic Coevolution in the Bacterial Symbiosis of Whiteflies and Related Plant Sap-Feeding Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Jun-Bo; Chen, Wenbo; Hasegawa, Daniel K; Simmons, Alvin M; Wintermantel, William M; Ling, Kai-Shu; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Douglas, Angela E

    2015-09-15

    Genomic decay is a common feature of intracellular bacteria that have entered into symbiosis with plant sap-feeding insects. This study of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci and two bacteria (Portiera aleyrodidarum and Hamiltonella defensa) cohoused in each host cell investigated whether the decay of Portiera metabolism genes is complemented by host and Hamiltonella genes, and compared the metabolic traits of the whitefly symbiosis with other sap-feeding insects (aphids, psyllids, and mealybugs). Parallel genomic and transcriptomic analysis revealed that the host genome contributes multiple metabolic reactions that complement or duplicate Portiera function, and that Hamiltonella may contribute multiple cofactors and one essential amino acid, lysine. Homologs of the Bemisia metabolism genes of insect origin have also been implicated in essential amino acid synthesis in other sap-feeding insect hosts, indicative of parallel coevolution of shared metabolic pathways across multiple symbioses. Further metabolism genes coded in the Bemisia genome are of bacterial origin, but phylogenetically distinct from Portiera, Hamiltonella and horizontally transferred genes identified in other sap-feeding insects. Overall, 75% of the metabolism genes of bacterial origin are functionally unique to one symbiosis, indicating that the evolutionary history of metabolic integration in these symbioses is strongly contingent on the pattern of horizontally acquired genes. Our analysis, further, shows that bacteria with genomic decay enable host acquisition of complex metabolic pathways by multiple independent horizontal gene transfers from exogenous bacteria. Specifically, each horizontally acquired gene can function with other genes in the pathway coded by the symbiont, while facilitating the decay of the symbiont gene coding the same reaction. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. SAP R/3 plant maintenance making it work for your business

    CERN Document Server

    Stengl, Britta

    2001-01-01

    SAP R/3 Plant Maintenance offers a clear introduction to this small but sophisticated component and provides a highly practical guide to implementing PM. Beginning with a examination of the key business processes underlying PM functionality, the book goes on to cover all the crucial aspects of maintenance planning and execution in R/3. Particular attention is given to integrating plant maintenance with a company's natural process flow.

  5. Shelf life extension and sensory evaluation of birch tree sap using chemical preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Bilek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the stability of the birch tree sap, depending on the addition and concentration of two chemical factors, ie. potassium sorbate and acids: malic, citric or lactic. As in our previous studies we found that the optimal physical parameter to assess the stability of birch sap is turbidity measurement, we used turbidimeter for estimate the effectiveness of shelf life extending. Sensory evaluation was carried out by university sensory panel with 8 skilled people (students and teachers with pre-selection and basic training of sensory methodology. On the other hand artificial perception measurements were realized by electronic nose. Birch tree sap stability without addition of preservatives, both room temperature and refrigerated, is less than three days. The effectiveness of preservation of birch tree sap depends on the concentration of acids. Independently of storage temperature, samples that received stability during the whole one-month storage period, were those with potassium sorbate and three acids in the highest concentrations, ie. malic acid at 0.3%, citric acid at 0.5% and lactic acid at 0.5%. Unfortunately, concentrations of acids, which allow extension of shelf life at least for one month in a room temperature, are characterized by the worst sensory evaluation rating. Thus, they should be corrected by the use of additives for improving the flavor, such as fruit syrups or herbal extracts. On the other hand, additionally storage in a refrigerated conditions allows one-month-stability for the sample with the highest sensory evaluation rating, ie. with the addition of lactic acid at 0.1% and potassium sorbate, which taste not need to be corrected.

  6. Snake prices and crocodile appetites: Aquatic wildlife supply and demand on Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, SE; Allison, EH; Gill, JA; Reynolds, JD

    2010-01-01

    Commercial trade is a major driver of over-exploitation of wild species, but the pattern of demand and how it responds to changes in supply is poorly understood. Here we explore the markets for snakes from Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia to evaluate future exploitation scenarios, identify entry points for conservation and, more generally, to illustrate the value of multi-scale analysis of markets to traded wildlife conservation. In Cambodia, the largest driver of snake exploitation is the domestic...

  7. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  8. Groundwater discharge and phosphorus dynamics in a flood-pulse system: Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, William C.; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Supcharoen, Ratsirin; Sioudom, Khamfeuane; Kum, Veasna; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Kritsananuwat, Rawiwan

    2017-06-01

    Tonle Sap Lake (Cambodia), a classic example of a "flood pulse" system, is the largest freshwater lake in SE Asia, and is reported to have one of the highest freshwater fish productions anywhere. During the dry season (November-April) the lake drains through a tributary to the Mekong River. The flow in the connecting tributary completely reverses during the wet monsoon (May-October), adding huge volumes of water back to the lake, increasing its area about six fold. The lake is likely phosphorus limited and we hypothesized that groundwater discharge, including recirculated lake water, may represent an important source of P and other nutrients. To address this question, we surveyed hundreds of kilometers of the lake for natural 222Rn (radon), temperature, conductivity, GPS coordinates and water depth. All major inorganic nutrients and phosphorus species were evaluated by systematic sampling throughout the lake. Results showed that there were radon hotspots, all at the boundaries between the permanent lake and the floodplain, indicating likely groundwater inputs. A radon mass balance model indicates that the groundwater flow to Tonle Sap Lake is approximately 10 km3/yr, about 25% as large as the floodwaters entering from the Mekong River during the wet monsoon. Our results suggest that the groundwater-derived dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) contribution to Tonle Sap is more than 30% of the average inflows from all natural sources. Since the productivity of the lake appears to be phosphorus limited, this finding suggests that the role of groundwater is significant for Tonle Sap Lake and perhaps for other flood pulse systems worldwide.

  9. Vapor Pressure Deficit and Sap Velocity Dynamic Coupling in Canopy Dominant Trees in the Amazon basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. Q.; Gimenez, B.; Jardine, K.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Cobello, L. O.; Fontes, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Higuchi, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve our ability to predict terrestrial water fluxes, an understanding of the interactions between plant physiology and environmental conditions is necessary, especially in tropical forests which recycle large fluxes of water to the atmosphere. This need has become more relevant due to observed records in global temperature. In this study we show a strong temporal correlation between sap velocity and leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in canopy dominant trees in two primary rainforest sites in the Amazon basin (Santarém and Manaus, Brazil). As VPDs in the upper canopy (20-30 m) varied throughout the day and night, basal sap velocity (1.5 m) responded rapidly without an observable delay (< 15 min). Sap velocity showed a sigmoidal dependence on VPDs including an exponential increase, an inflection point, and a plateau, in all observed trees. Moreover, a clear diurnal hysteresis in sap velocity, stomatal conductance, and leaf water potential was evident with morning periods showing higher sensitivities to VPD than afternoon and night periods. Diurnal leaf gas exchange observations revealed a morning to midday peak in stomatal conductance, but midday to afternoon peak in transpiration and VPD. Thus, our study confirms that the temporal lag between the Gs peak and VPD peak are the major regulators of the hysteresis phenomenon as previously described by other studies. Moreover, out study provide direct evidence for the role of decreased stomatal conductance in the warm afternoon periods to reduce transpiration and allow for the partial recovery of leaf water potential to less negative values. Our results suggests the possibility of predicting evapotranspiration fluxes from ecosystem to regional scales using remote sensing of vegetation temperature from, for example, thermal images of satellites and drones.

  10. Professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAndrew-Benavidas, E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation outlines the functions of the North American Young Generation in Nuclear. Activities of the organization include professional development, recruiting, retention, public outreach, leadership, networking, workforce issues, mentoring and communications

  11. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (V h ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. SAID/SAPS Revisited: A Causal Relation to the Substorm Current Wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    We present multi-spacecraft observations of enhanced flow/electric field channels in the inner magnetosphere and conjugate subauroral ionosphere, i.e., subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) near dusk and subauroral ion drifts (SAID) near midnight. The channels collocate with ring current (RC) injections lagging the onset of substorms by a few to ˜20 minutes, i.e., significantly shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of tens of keV ions. The time lag is of the order of the propagation time of reconnection-injected hot plasma jets to the premidnight plasmasphere and the substorm current wedge (SCW) to dusk. The observations confirm and expand on the previous results on the SAID features that negate the paradigm of voltage and current generators. Fast-time duskside SAPS/RC injections appear intimately related to a two-loop circuit of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L). We suggest that the poleward electric field inherent in the SCW2L circuit, which demands closure of the Region 1- and Region 2-sense field-aligned currents via meridional currents, is the ultimate cause of fast RC injections and SAPS on the duskside.

  13. SAPS/SAID revisited: A causal relation to the substorm current wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, Evgeny; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Foster, John

    2017-08-01

    We present multispacecraft observations of enhanced flow/electric field channels in the inner magnetosphere and conjugate subauroral ionosphere, i.e., subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) near dusk and subauroral ion drifts (SAID) near midnight. The channels collocate with ring current (RC) injections lagging the onset of substorms by a few to ˜20 min, i.e., significantly shorter than the gradient-curvature drift time of tens of keV ions. The time lag is of the order of the propagation time of reconnection-injected hot plasma jets to the premidnight plasmasphere and the substorm current wedge (SCW) to dusk. The observations confirm and expand on the previous results on the SAID features that negate the paradigm of voltage and current generators. Fast-time duskside SAPS/RC injections appear intimately related to a two-loop circuit of the substorm current wedge (SCW2L). We suggest that the poleward electric field inherent in the SCW2L circuit, which demands closure of the Region 1 and Region 2 sense field-aligned currents via meridional currents, is the ultimate cause of fast RC injections and SAPS on the duskside.

  14. Antioxidant activity test on ambonese banana stem sap (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Setia Budi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polymorphonuclear cells (PMN release oxygen free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS during inflammation. As a result, ROS level is higher than antioxidant level in our body during oxidative stress leading to prolong inflammation or continuous tissue damage. Indonesia, on the other hand, is a country with various herbal medicines. For instance, ambonese banana (Musa parasidiaca var. sapientum is often used as herbal medicine. Ambonese banana, moreover, has flavonoid, polyphenol, tannin, and saponin as antioxidants to reduce free radicals by transferring their hydrogen atom. Medicine used to reduce the impact of free radicals is known as antioxidant. Antioxidant is proved to accelerate wound healing. Purpose: This research aims to analyze the effects of the antioxidant activity of Ambonese banana stem sap extract. Method: Antioxidant activities in this research were examined with 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hidrazyl (DPPH method by reacting with stable radical compounds. Spectrophotometry with a wavelength of 517 nm was used to measure absorption results shown in purple. The absorption results then were calculated by IC50 reduction activity. Result: There were significant differences of Ambonese banana stem sap antioxidant activity (p50%. Conclusion: Ambonese banana stem sap extract has antioxidant activities.

  15. Non-destructive estimation of root pressure using sap flow, stem diameter measurements and mechanistic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Swaef, Tom; Hanssens, Jochen; Cornelis, Annelies; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-02-01

    Upward water movement in plants via the xylem is generally attributed to the cohesion-tension theory, as a response to transpiration. Under certain environmental conditions, root pressure can also contribute to upward xylem water flow. Although the occurrence of root pressure is widely recognized, ambiguity exists about the exact mechanism behind root pressure, the main influencing factors and the consequences of root pressure. In horticultural crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), root pressure is thought to cause cells to burst, and to have an important impact on the marketable yield. Despite the challenges of root pressure research, progress in this area is limited, probably because of difficulties with direct measurement of root pressure, prompting the need for indirect and non-destructive measurement techniques. A new approach to allow non-destructive and non-invasive estimation of root pressure is presented, using continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter variation in tomato combined with a mechanistic flow and storage model, based on cohesion-tension principles. Transpiration-driven sap flow rates are typically inversely related to stem diameter changes; however, this inverse relationship was no longer valid under conditions of low transpiration. This decoupling between sap flow rates and stem diameter variations was mathematically related to root pressure. Root pressure can be estimated in a non-destructive, repeatable manner, using only external plant sensors and a mechanistic model.

  16. [A new embolic material: super absorbent polymer (SAP) microsphere and its embolic effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaqi, Y; Hori, S; Minamitani, K; Hashimoto, T; Yoshimura, H; Nomura, N; Ishida, T; Fukuda, H; Tomoda, K; Nakamura, H

    1996-01-01

    SAP-Microsphere (sodium acrylic acid-vinyl alcohol copolymer) has the ability to absorb fluids within a few minutes and increase its diameter. Its diameter can also be calibrated. The diameters in ionic contrast material and human serum are 2.1 and 3.5 times larger, respectively, than the original size. It can pass through a microcatheter with an ionic contrast material, and swells at the occluding point into the desired size. It can be recognized under fluoroscopy due to its absorption of contrast material. A total of 10 rabbit kidney embolizations were done followed by resection in 1-14 weeks. Recanalization was absent in all cases. No adhesion to the perirenal tissue was found. Limited reactive change in endothelial cells was found at one week. No changes in the smooth muscle layer were found at any time during the study. Limited infiltration of neutrophil cells was found in perivascular tissue within a period of one week. SAP-Microspheres maintained their spherical shape during a 14-week period. Extensive fibrosis and calcification were found after 4 weeks. SAP-Microspheres are promising as an embolic agent to obtain satisfactory results of embolization therapy.

  17. An experimental study on Sodalite and SAP matrices for immobilization of spent chloride salt waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobbo, Francesca; Da Ros, Mirko; Macerata, Elena; Mariani, Mario; Giola, Marco; De Angelis, Giorgio; Capone, Mauro; Fedeli, Carlo

    2018-02-01

    In the frame of Generation IV reactors a renewed interest in pyro-processing of spent nuclear fuel is underway. Molten chloride salt waste arising from the recovering of uranium and plutonium through pyro-processing is one of the problematic wastes for direct application of vitrification or ceramization. In this work, Sodalite and SAP have been evaluated and compared as potential matrices for confinement of spent chloride salt waste coming from pyro-processing. To this aim Sodalite and SAP were synthesized both in pure form and mixed with different glass matrices, i.e. commercially available glass frit and borosilicate glass. The confining matrices were loaded with mixed chloride salts to study their retention capacities with respect to the elements of interest. The matrices were characterized and leached for contact times up to 150 days at room temperature and at 90 °C. SEM analyses were also performed in order to compare the matrix surface before and after leaching. Leaching results are discussed and compared in terms of normalized releases with similar results reported in literature. According to this comparative study the SAP matrix with glass frit binder resulted in the best matrix among the ones studied, with respect to retention capacities for both matrix and spent fuel elements.

  18. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, N.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  19. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (psap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (psap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SAP-1 protects against colitis through regulation of CEACAM20 in the intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yoji; Kotani, Takenori; Supriatna, Yana; Kitamura, Yasuaki; Imada, Shinya; Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishio, Miki; Daniwijaya, Edwin Widyanto; Sadakata, Hisanobu; Kusakari, Shinya; Mori, Munemasa; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Saito, Yasuyuki; Okawa, Katsuya; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko; Okazawa, Hideki; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Azuma, Takeshi; Suzuki, Akira; Matozaki, Takashi

    2015-08-04

    Intestinal epithelial cells contribute to regulation of intestinal immunity in mammals, but the detailed molecular mechanisms of such regulation have remained largely unknown. Stomach-cancer-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SAP-1, also known as PTPRH) is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase that is localized specifically at microvilli of the brush border in gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Here we show that SAP-1 ablation in interleukin (IL)-10-deficient mice, a model of inflammatory bowel disease, resulted in a marked increase in the severity of colitis in association with up-regulation of mRNAs for various cytokines and chemokines in the colon. Tyrosine phosphorylation of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) 20, an intestinal microvillus-specific transmembrane protein of the Ig superfamily, was greatly increased in the intestinal epithelium of the SAP-1-deficient animals, suggesting that this protein is a substrate for SAP-1. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM20 by the protein tyrosine kinase c-Src and the consequent association of CEACAM20 with spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) promoted the production of IL-8 in cultured cells through the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, SAP-1 and CEACAM20 were found to form a complex through interaction of their ectodomains. SAP-1 and CEACAM20 thus constitute a regulatory system through which the intestinal epithelium contributes to intestinal immunity.